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definitional ::: a. --> Relating to definition; of the nature of a definition; employed in defining.

definitional constraint programming ::: (language) (DCP) A declarative, programming paradigm which integrates concurrent constraint programming, constraint logic programming and functional abstractions are reused to define new constraints, as the means of programming logical variables for parallel coordination.Goffin is a DCP language. (1995-03-28)

definitional constraint programming "language" (DCP) A declarative, programming paradigm which integrates {concurrent constraint programming}, {constraint logic programming} and {functional programming}. In this setting a concurrent constraint language becomes a coordination system that organises the concurrent interaction of parallel functional computations. The language is also a generalisation of parallel {functional programming} languages, such as {Id}, where {constraints} and constraint abstractions are reused to define new constraints, as the means of programming logical variables for parallel coordination. {Goffin} is a DCP language. (1995-03-28)

definition ::: n. --> The act of defining; determination of the limits; as, a telescope accurate in definition.
Act of ascertaining and explaining the signification; a description of a thing by its properties; an explanation of the meaning of a word or term; as, the definition of "circle;" the definition of "wit;" an exact definition; a loose definition.
Description; sort.
An exact enunciation of the constituents which make up

Definition: In the development of a logistic system (q. v.) it is usually desirable to introduce new notations, beyond what is afforded by the primitive symbols alone, by means of syntactical definitions or nominal definitions, i.e., conventions which provide that certain symbols or expressions shall stand (as substitutes or abbreviations) for particular formulas of the system. This may be done either by particular definitions, each introducing a symbol or expression to stand for some one formula, or by schemata of definition, providing that any expression of a certain form shall stand for a certain corresponding formula (so condensing many -- often infinitely many -- particular definitions into a single schema). Such definitions, whether particular definitions or schemata, are indicated, in articles herein by the present writer, by an arrow →, the new notation introduced (the definiendum) being placed at the left, or base of the arrow, and the formula for which it shall stand (the definiens) being placed at the right, or head, of the arrow. Another sign commonly employed for the same purpose (instead of the arrow) is the equality sign = with the letters Df, or df, appearing either as a subscript or separately after the definiens.

Definition of a term: (in Scholasticism)

Definitions by Disciples

Definitions by Sri Aurobindo and Mother


1. A critical study of the method or methods of the sciences, of the nature of scientific symbols and of the logical structure of scientific symbolic svstems. Presumably such a study should include both the empirical and the rational sciences. Whether it should also include the methods of the valuational studies (e.g., ethics, esthetics) and of the historical studies, will depend upon the working definition or science accepted by the investigator. Valuational studies are frequently characterized as "normative" or "axiological" sciences. Many of the recognized sciences (e.g., anthropology, geology) contain important historical aspects, hence there is some justification for the inclusion of the historical method in this aspect of the philosophy of science. As a study of method, the philosophy of science includes much of the traditional logic and theory of knowledge. The attempt is made to define and further clarify such terms as induction, deduction, hypothesis, data, discovery and verification. In addition, the more detailed and specialized methods of science (e.g., experimentation, measurement, classification and idealization) (q.v.) are subjected to examination. Since science is a symbolic system, the general theory of signs plays an important role in the philosophy of science.

2. In psychology, the act or process of exercising the mind, the faculty of connecting judgments; the power and fact of using reason; the thought-processes of discussion, debate, argumentation or inference; the manifestation of the discursive property of the mind; the actual use of arguments with a view to convince or persuade; the art and method or proving or demonstrating; the orderly development of thought with a view to, or the attainment of a conclusion believed to be valid. -- The origin, nature and value of reasoning are debated questions, with their answers ranging from spiritualism (reasoning as the exercise of a faculty of the soul) to materialism (reasoning as an epiphenomenon depending on the brain), with all the modern schools of psychology ordering themselves between them. A few points of agreement might be mentioned here: reasoning follows judgment and apprehension, whichever of the last two thought-processes comes first in our psychological development; reasoning proceeds according to four main types, namely deductive, inductive, presumptive and deceptive; reasoning assumes a belief in its own validity undisturbed by doubt, and implies various logical habits and methods which may be organized into a logical doctrine; reasoning requires a reference to some ultimate principles to justify its progress 3. In logic, Reasoning is the process of inference, it is the process of passing from certain propositions already known or assumed to be true, to another truth distinct from them but following from them; it is a discourse or argument which infers one proposition from another, or from a group of others having some common elements between them. The inference is necessary in the case of deductive reasoning; and contingent, probable or wrong, in the case of inductive, presumptive or deceptive reasoning respectively. -- There are various types of reasoning, and proper methods for each type. The definition, discussion, development and evaluation of these types and methods form an important branch of logic and its subdivisions. The details of the application of reasoning to the various sciences, form the subject of methodology. All these types are reducible to one or the other of the two fundamental processes or reasoning, namely deduction and induction. It must be added that the logical study of reasoning is normative logic does not analyze it simply in its natural development, but with a view to guide it towards coherence, validity or truth. -- T.G.

2. Semantics. Theory of the relations between signs and what they refer to (their "designata" or "denotata"). This theory contains also the theory of truth (q.v., semantical definition) and the theory of logical deduction.

abduction "logic" The process of {inference} to the best explanation. "Abduction" is sometimes used to mean just the generation of hypotheses to explain observations or conclusionsm, but the former definition is more common both in philosophy and computing. The {semantics} and the implementation of abduction cannot be reduced to those for {deduction}, as explanation cannot be reduced to implication. Applications include fault diagnosis, plan formation and {default reasoning}. {Negation as failure} in {logic programming} can both be given an abductive interpretation and also can be used to implement abduction. The abductive semantics of negation as failure leads naturally to an {argumentation}-theoretic interpretation of default reasoning in general. [Better explanation? Example?] ["Abductive Inference", John R. Josephson ""]. (2000-12-07)

Abstract-Type and Scheme-Definition Language "language" (ASDL) A language developed as part of {Esprit} project {GRASPIN}, as a basis for generating {language-based editors} and environments. It combines an {object-oriented} type system, syntax-directed translation schemes and a target-language interface. ["ASDL - An Object-Oriented Specification Language for Syntax-Directed Environments", M.L. Christ-Neumann et al, European Software Eng Conf, Strasbourg, Sept 1987, pp.77-85]. (1996-02-19)

According to another interpretation of the notion of whole and of the part-whole principle, a whole is an object whose parts are mutually interdependent in the sense that a change affecting one of its parts will bring about changes in all of the other parts, and because of this interdependence the whole is said to be "more" than the sum of its parts. The part-whole principle then obviously is true simply by definition, and again, lacks explanatory value. Besides, if the above interdependence criterion for wholes is taken literally, then any object turns out to be a whole. What the concept of whole is actually meant to refer to, are specific types of interdependence as found in living organisms, etc., but then, again, an adequate description and explanation of those phenomena can be attained only by a study of their special regularities, not by a sweeping use of the vague concept of whole and of the unclear part-whole principle. (For the points referred to in the preceding remarks, see also Emergent Evolution, Gestalt, Holism, Mechanism, Vitalism.)

Ada/Ed "language, education" An {interpreter}, editor, and {run-time environment} for {Ada}, intended as a teaching tool. Ada/Ed does not have the capacity, performance, or robustness of commercial Ada compilers. Ada/Ed was developed at {New York University} as part of a project in language definition and software prototyping. AdaEd runs on {Unix}, {MS-DOS}, {Atari ST}, and {Amiga}. It handles nearly all of {Ada 83} and was last validated with version 1.7 of the {ACVC} tests. Being an interpreter, it does not implement most {representation clauses} and thus does not support systems programming close to the machine level. A later version was known as {GW-Ada}. E-mail: Michael Feldman "". {(}, {(}. {For Amiga (}. {RISC OS port (}. (1999-11-04)

ADELE "language" A language for specification of {attribute grammars}, used by the {MUG2} {compiler compiler}. ["An Overview of the Attribute Definition Language ADELE", H. Ganziger in GI3, Fachesprach "Compiler-Compiler", W. Henhapl ed, Munchen Mar 1982, pp.22-53]. (1995-01-23)

adequate ::: a. --> Equal to some requirement; proportionate, or correspondent; fully sufficient; as, powers adequate to a great work; an adequate definition.
To equalize; to make adequate.
To equal.

ADL 1. "games" {Adventure Definition Language}. 2. "language" {Ada} Development Language. R.A. Lees, 1989. 3. "programming" {API} Definition Language. A project for Automatic Interface Test Generation. (1995-11-17)

Adventure Definition Language "language, games" (ADL) An {adventure} game language {interpreter} designed by Ross Cunniff "" and Tim Brengle in 1987. ADL is semi-{object-oriented} with {Lisp}-like {syntax} and is a superset of {DDL}. It is available for {Unix}, {MS-DOS}, {Amiga} and {Acorn} {Archimedes}. {(}, {(}. (1995-03-20)

A formula of the pure functional calculus of first order which contains no free individual variables is said to be satisfiable if it is possible to determine the underlying non-empty domain of individuals and to give meanings to the propositional and functional variables contained -- namely to each propositional variable a meaning as a particular proposition and to each n-adic functional variable a meaning as an n-adic propositional function of individuals (of the domain in question) -- in such a way that (under the accepted meanings of the sentential connectives, the quantifiers, and application of function to argument) the formula becomes true. The meaning of the last word, even for abstract, not excluding infinite, domains, must be presupposed -- a respect in which this definition differs sharply from most others made in this article.

A function from non-negative integers to non-negative integers is said to be primitive recursive if it can be obtained by a succession of definitions by primitive recursion and composition frorn the following list of initial functions: the successor function S, the function C such that C(x) = 0 for every non-negative integer x, and the functions Uin (i ≤ n, n = 1, 2, 3, . . . ) such that Uin(x1, x2, . . . , xn) = xi. Each successive definition by primitive recursion or composition may employ not only the initial functions but also any of the functions which were introduced by previous definitions.

Again, some further definitions:

Akasa-tattva (Sanskrit) Ākāśa-tattva [from ākāśa ether, space + tattva thatness, reality from tat that] The brilliant, shining, spiritually luminous, evolving substratum of nature; the third in the descending scale of the seven tattvas. According to one manner of enumerating the cosmic procession of consciousnesses, this tattva corresponds to the feminine aspect of the creative or Third Logos; but as nature repeats itself constantly in its processes of evolutionary unfolding, it is likewise proper to derive the subordinate First Logos from akasa when it is considered as virtually identical with mulaprakriti. In view of this repetitive functioning in nature, it is important not to allow the mind to crystallize around any one definition of a stage in any series of “descents” as being the only stage properly so described. This is seen with the First Logos: adi-tattva, first of the five or seven tattvas, may be called the First Logos; from another aspect the First Logos is born from akasa-tattva as the formative or creative mental impulse.

ALADIN 1. "language" {A Language for Attributed Definitions}. 2. "tool" An interactive mathematics system for the {IBM 360}. ["A Conversational System for Engineering Assistance: ALADIN", Y. Siret, Proc Second Symp Symb Algebraic Math, ACM Mar 1971]. (1995-04-13)

A Language for Attributed Definitions "language" (ALADIN) A language for formal specification of {attributed grammars}. ALADIN is the input language for the {GAG} compiler generator. It is {applicative} and {strongly typed}. ["GAG: A Practical Compiler Generator", Uwe Kastens "" et al, LNCS 141, Springer 1982]. (1995-04-14)

A lengthy and overly detailed definition from Wikipedia:

ALGOL 68 "language" An extensive revision of {ALGOL 60} by Adriaan van Wijngaarden et al. ALGOL 68 was discussed from 1963 by Working Group 2.1 of {IFIP}. Its definition was accepted in December 1968. ALGOL 68 was the first, and still one of very few, programming languages for which a complete formal specification was created before its implementation. However, this specification was hard to understand due to its formality, the fact that it used an unfamiliar {metasyntax} notation (not {BNF}) and its unconventional terminology. One of the singular features of ALGOL 68 was its {orthogonal} design, making for freedom from arbitrary rules (such as restrictions in other languages that arrays could only be used as parameters but not as results). It also allowed {user defined data types}, then an unheard-of feature. It featured {structural equivalence}; automatic type conversion ("{coercion}") including {dereferencing}; {flexible arrays}; generalised loops (for-from-by-to-while-do-od), if-then-else-elif-fi, an integer case statement with an 'out' clause (case-in-out-esac); {skip} and {goto} statements; {blocks}; {procedures}; user-defined {operators}; {procedure parameters}; {concurrent} execution (par-begin-end); {semaphores}; generators "heap" and "loc" for {dynamic allocation}. It had no {abstract data types} or {separate compilation}. {(}. (2007-04-24)

ALGOL D "language" ["A Proposal for Definitions in ALGOL", B.A. Galler et al, CACM 10:204-219, 1967].

ALTER "database" An {SQL} {Data Definition Language} command that adds or removes {columns} or {indexes} to/from a {table} or modifies the table definition in some other way. This differs from the INSERT, UPDATE and DELETE ({Data Modification Language}) commands in that those change the data stored in the table but not its definition. {MySQL ALTER TABLE command (}. (2009-11-10)

Although the noun when capitalized refers to an officer of the British judiciary or one of several officials of the Exchequer, formally titled the Queen’s or the King’s Remembrancer, who has the responsibility of collecting debts that are owed to the Crown or an official representing the City of London, especially on various ceremonial occasions, or to represents the inters of Parliament, when defined in lower case the first definition given is person who reminds.

An exact definition is of some importance in view of the tendency of some contemporary logicians to replace the use of the term proposition by that of sentence.

An expression A introduced by contextual definition -- i.e., by a definition which construes particular kinds of expressions containing A, as abbreviations or substitutes for certain expressions not containing A, but provides no such construction for A itself -- is an incomplete symbol in this sense. In Principia Mathematica, notations for classes, and descriptions (more correctly, notations which serve some of the purposes that would be served by notations for classes and by descriptions) are introduced in this way by contextual definition. -- A. C.

Animated GIF "graphics, file format" (GIF89a) A variant of the {GIF} {image} format, often used on {web} pages to provide moving {icons} and banners. The GIF89a format supports multiple "frames" that give the impression of motion when displayed in sequence, much like a flip book. The animation may repeat continuously or play once. Animated GIFs aren't supported by earlier {web browsers}, however the first frame of the image is still shown. There are many utilities to create animated GIFs from a sequence of individual GIF files. There are also utilities that will produce animated GIFs automatically from a piece of text or a single image. One problem with this format is the size of the files produced, as they are by definition a sequence of individual images. Apart from minimising the number of frames, the best way to decrease file size is to assist the {LZW} compression by using blocks of solid colour, avoid {dithering}, and use fewer colours. If areas of an image don't change from one frame to another, they don't need to be redrawn so make the area a transparent block in the second frame. (1999-08-01)

ANSI Z39.50 "networking, standard" Information Retrieval Service Definition and Protocol Specification for Library Applications, officially known as ANSI/NISO Z39.50-1992, and ANSI/NISO Z39.50-1995. This {standard}, used by {WAIS}, specifies an {OSI} {application layer} service to allow an application on one computer to query a {database} on another. Z39.50 is used in libraries and for searching some databases on the {Internet}. The US {Library of Congress (} is the official maintanence agency for Z39.50. {Index Data}, a Danish company, have released a lot of Z39.50 code. Their {website} explains the relevant {ISO} {standards} and how they are amicably converging in Z39.50 version 4.0. {Overview (}. {Z39.50 resources (

Antaskarana(Sanskrit) ::: Perhaps better spelled as antahkarana. A compound word: antar, "interior," "within"; karana,sense organ. Occultists explain this word as the bridge between the higher and lower manas or betweenthe spiritual ego and personal soul of man. Such is H. P. Blavatsky's definition. As a matter of fact thereare several antahkaranas in the human septenary constitution -- one for every path or bridge between anytwo of the several monadic centers in man. Man is a microcosm, therefore a unified composite, a unity indiversity; and the antahkaranas are the links of vibrating consciousness-substance uniting these variouscenters.

antepredicament ::: n. --> A prerequisite to a clear understanding of the predicaments and categories, such as definitions of common terms.

anthorism ::: n. --> A description or definition contrary to that which is given by the adverse party.

apas ::: 1. work, activity. ::: 2. the Waters. ::: 3. [one of the five bhutas]: water [see the following, definition 2].

a posteriori ::: --> Characterizing that kind of reasoning which derives propositions from the observation of facts, or by generalizations from facts arrives at principles and definitions, or infers causes from effects. This is the reverse of a priori reasoning.
Applied to knowledge which is based upon or derived from facts through induction or experiment; inductive or empirical.

applet "web" A {Java} program which can be distributed as an attachment in a {web} document and executed by a Java-enabled {web browser} such as Sun's {HotJava}, {Netscape Navigator} version 2.0, or {Internet Explorer}. Navigator severely restricts the applet's file system and network access in order to prevent accidental or deliberate security violations. Full Java applications, which run outside of the browser, do not have these restrictions. Web browsers can also be extended with {plug-ins} though these differ from applets in that they usually require manual installation and are {platform}-specific. Various other languages can now be embedded within {HTML} documents, the most common being {JavaScript}. Despite Java's aim to be a "write once, run anywhere" language, the difficulty of accomodating the variety of browsers in use on the Internet has led many to abandon client-side processing in favour of {server}-side Java programs for which the term {servlet} was coined. Merriam Webster "Collegiate Edition" gives a 1990 definition: a short application program especially for performing a simple specific task. (2002-07-12)

a priori ::: --> Characterizing that kind of reasoning which deduces consequences from definitions formed, or principles assumed, or which infers effects from causes previously known; deductive or deductively. The reverse of a posteriori.
Applied to knowledge and conceptions assumed, or presupposed, as prior to experience, in order to make experience rational or possible.

A related but different paradox is Grelling's (1908). Let us distinguish adjectives -- ie, words denoting properties -- as autological or i according as they do or do not have the property which they denote (in particular, adjectives denoting properties which cannot belong to words at all will be heterological). Then, e.g., the words polysyllabic, common, significant, prosaic are autological, while new, alive, useless, ambiguous, long are heterological. On their face, these definitions of autological and heterological are unobjectionable (compare the definition of onomatopoetic as similar in sound to that which it denotes). But paradox arises when we ask whether the word heterological is autological or heterological.

argument "programming" (Or "arg") A value or reference passed to a {function}, {procedure}, {subroutine}, command or program, by the caller. For example, in the function definition square(x) = x * x x is the {formal argument} or "parameter", and in the call y = square(3+4) 3+4 is the {actual argument}. This will execute the function square with x having the value 7 and return the result 49. There are many different conventions for passing arguments to functions and procedures including {call-by-value}, {call-by-name}, {call-by-reference}, {call-by-need}. These affect whether the value of the argument is computed by the caller or the callee (the function) and whether the callee can modify the value of the argument as seen by the caller (if it is a variable). Arguments to functions are usually, following mathematical notation, written in parentheses after the function name, separated by commas (but see {curried function}). Arguments to a program are usually given after the command name, separated by spaces, e.g.: cat myfile yourfile hisfile Here "cat" is the command and "myfile", "yourfile", and "hisfile" are the arguments. (2006-05-27)

Arhat is both the way and the waygoer; and while the term is close philosophically to anagamin, the distinction between the two lies in their mystical connotations rather than in their etymological definitions. Arhat has a wider significance inasmuch as it applies to those noblest of the Buddha’s disciples who were “worthy” of receiving, because comprehending, the Tathagata’s heart doctrine, the more esoteric and mystical portions of his message.

Arhat (Sanskrit) Arhat [from the verbal root arh to be worthy, merit, be able] Worthy, deserving; also enemy slayer [from ari enemy + the verbal root han to slay, smite], an arhat being a slayer of the foe of craving, the entire range of passions and desires, mental, emotional, and physical. Buddhists in the Orient generally define arhat in this manner, while modern scholars derive the word from the verbal root arh. Both definitions are equally appropriate (Buddhist Catechism 93).

’Arikh ’Anpin (Aramaic) ’Arīkh ’Anpīn [’arīkh long, great + ’anpīn face, countenance] Long Face or the Great Visage; Qabbalistic term applied to Kether, the first emanation of the Sephirothal Tree, equivalent to the Greco-Latin Macroprosopus. Also called ’Arich ’Appayim, the latter word in the dual, so that the phrase means “long of faces” or “long of countenances”: duality or the upper and the lower being referred to. This first Sephirah is called by at least seven names, among them being Crown, Primordial, White Head, and Long Face. From Kether emanate the remaining nine Sephiroth. “The first emanation is the Ancient, beheld Face to Face, it is the Supreme Head, the Source of all Light, the Principle of all Wisdom, whose definition is, Unity” (Zohar iii, 292b).

Aristocracy: 1. In its original and etymological meaning (Greek: aristos-best, kratos-power), the government by the best; and by extension, the class of the chief persons in a country. As the standards by which the best can be determined and selected may vary, it is difficult to give a general definition of this term (Cf. C. Lewis, Political Terms, X. 73). But in particular, the implications of aristocracy may be rational, historical, political, pragmatic or analogical.

Art, to dialectical materialism, is an activity of human beings which embodies a reflection of the reality surrounding them, a reflection which may be conscious, unconscious, reconstructive or deliberately fantastic, and which possesses positive aesthetic value in terms of rhythm, figure, color, image and the like. Art is good to the extent that it is a faithful and aesthetic reflection of the reality dealt with. Accordingly, proletarian or socialist realism (q.v.) is not photographic, static, but dialectical, conscious that any given period or subject is moving into its future, that class society is becoming classless society. This realism is optimistic, involving a "revolutionary romanticism". Marx, Engels, Lenin, Soviet philosophy, also, separate entries for detailed definitions of specific terms.

ASDL {Abstract-Type and Scheme-Definition Language}

(A situation often arising in practice is that a word -- or symbol or notation -- which already has a vague meaning is to be given a new exact meaning, which is vaguely, or as nearly as possible, the same as the old. This is done by a nominal or semantical definition rather than a real definition; nevertheless it is usual in such a case to speak either of defining the word or of defining the associated notion.)

A somewhat different definition is, “Mind is a name given to the sum of the states of Consciousness grouped under Thought, Will, and Feeling. During deep sleep, ideation ceases on the physical plane, and memory is in abeyance; thus for the time being ‘Mind is not,’ because the organ, through which the ego manifests ideation and memory on the material plane, has temporarily ceased to function. A noumenon can become a phenomenon on any plane of existence only by manifesting on that plane through an appropriate basis or vehicle; and during the long night of rest called Pralaya, when all existences are dissolved, the ‘Universal Mind’ remains as a permanent possibility of mental action, or as that abstract absolute thought, of which mind is the concrete manifestation” (SD 1:38). Here mind is consciousness in action, the phenomenon corresponding to a noumenon which, in the absence of vehicles for its expression, can only be described as mind in latency, or a possibility of mental action. The dhyani-chohans are the expressers of latent cosmic mind, who bring it into various degrees of manifestation. They are vehicles for the expression of divine thought and will, intelligent forces which give to nature its laws.

ASPLE "language" A {toy language}. ["A Sampler of Formal Definitions", M. Marcotty et al, Computing Surveys 8(2):191-276 (Feb 1976)]. (1995-02-08)

Aufklärung: In general, this German word and its English equivalent Enlightenment denote the self-emancipation of man from mere authority, prejudice, convention and tradition, with an insistence on freer thinking about problems uncritically referred to these other agencies. According to Kant's famous definition "Enlightenment is the liberation of man from his self-caused state of minority, which is the incapacity of using one's understanding without the direction of another. This state of minority is caused when its source lies not in the lack of understanding, but in the lack of determination and courage to use it without the assistance of another" (Was ist Aufklärung? 1784). In its historical perspective, the Aufklärung refers to the cultural atmosphere and contrlbutions of the 18th century, especially in Germany, France and England [which affected also American thought with B. Franklin, T. Paine and the leaders of the Revolution]. It crystallized tendencies emphasized by the Renaissance, and quickened by modern scepticism and empiricism, and by the great scientific discoveries of the 17th century. This movement, which was represented by men of varying tendencies, gave an impetus to general learning, a more popular philosophy, empirical science, scriptural criticism, social and political thought. More especially, the word Aufklärung is applied to the German contributions to 18th century culture. In philosophy, its principal representatives are G. E. Lessing (1729-81) who believed in free speech and in a methodical criticism of religion, without being a free-thinker; H. S. Reimarus (1694-1768) who expounded a naturalistic philosophy and denied the supernatural origin of Christianity; Moses Mendelssohn (1729-86) who endeavoured to mitigate prejudices and developed a popular common-sense philosophy; Chr. Wolff (1679-1754), J. A. Eberhard (1739-1809) who followed the Leibnizian rationalism and criticized unsuccessfully Kant and Fichte; and J. G. Herder (1744-1803) who was best as an interpreter of others, but whose intuitional suggestions have borne fruit in the organic correlation of the sciences, and in questions of language in relation to human nature and to national character. The works of Kant and Goethe mark the culmination of the German Enlightenment. Cf. J. G. Hibben, Philosophy of the Enlightenment, 1910. --T.G. Augustinianism: The thought of St. Augustine of Hippo, and of his followers. Born in 354 at Tagaste in N. Africa, A. studied rhetoric in Carthage, taught that subject there and in Rome and Milan. Attracted successively to Manicheanism, Scepticism, and Neo-Platontsm, A. eventually found intellectual and moral peace with his conversion to Christianity in his thirty-fourth year. Returning to Africa, he established numerous monasteries, became a priest in 391, Bishop of Hippo in 395. Augustine wrote much: On Free Choice, Confessions, Literal Commentary on Genesis, On the Trinity, and City of God, are his most noted works. He died in 430.   St. Augustine's characteristic method, an inward empiricism which has little in common with later variants, starts from things without, proceeds within to the self, and moves upwards to God. These three poles of the Augustinian dialectic are polarized by his doctrine of moderate illuminism. An ontological illumination is required to explain the metaphysical structure of things. The truth of judgment demands a noetic illumination. A moral illumination is necessary in the order of willing; and so, too, an lllumination of art in the aesthetic order. Other illuminations which transcend the natural order do not come within the scope of philosophy; they provide the wisdoms of theology and mysticism. Every being is illuminated ontologically by number, form, unity and its derivatives, and order. A thing is what it is, in so far as it is more or less flooded by the light of these ontological constituents.   Sensation is necessary in order to know material substances. There is certainly an action of the external object on the body and a corresponding passion of the body, but, as the soul is superior to the body and can suffer nothing from its inferior, sensation must be an action, not a passion, of the soul. Sensation takes place only when the observing soul, dynamically on guard throughout the body, is vitally attentive to the changes suffered by the body. However, an adequate basis for the knowledge of intellectual truth is not found in sensation alone. In order to know, for example, that a body is multiple, the idea of unity must be present already, otherwise its multiplicity could not be recognized. If numbers are not drawn in by the bodily senses which perceive only the contingent and passing, is the mind the source of the unchanging and necessary truth of numbers? The mind of man is also contingent and mutable, and cannot give what it does not possess. As ideas are not innate, nor remembered from a previous existence of the soul, they can be accounted for only by an immutable source higher than the soul. In so far as man is endowed with an intellect, he is a being naturally illuminated by God, Who may be compared to an intelligible sun. The human intellect does not create the laws of thought; it finds them and submits to them. The immediate intuition of these normative rules does not carry any content, thus any trace of ontologism is avoided.   Things have forms because they have numbers, and they have being in so far as they possess form. The sufficient explanation of all formable, and hence changeable, things is an immutable and eternal form which is unrestricted in time and space. The forms or ideas of all things actually existing in the world are in the things themselves (as rationes seminales) and in the Divine Mind (as rationes aeternae). Nothing could exist without unity, for to be is no other than to be one. There is a unity proper to each level of being, a unity of the material individual and species, of the soul, and of that union of souls in the love of the same good, which union constitutes the city. Order, also, is ontologically imbibed by all beings. To tend to being is to tend to order; order secures being, disorder leads to non-being. Order is the distribution which allots things equal and unequal each to its own place and integrates an ensemble of parts in accordance with an end. Hence, peace is defined as the tranquillity of order. Just as things have their being from their forms, the order of parts, and their numerical relations, so too their beauty is not something superadded, but the shining out of all their intelligible co-ingredients.   S. Aurelii Augustini, Opera Omnia, Migne, PL 32-47; (a critical edition of some works will be found in the Corpus Scriptorum Ecclesiasticorum Latinorum, Vienna). Gilson, E., Introd. a l'etude de s. Augustin, (Paris, 1931) contains very good bibliography up to 1927, pp. 309-331. Pope, H., St. Augustine of Hippo, (London, 1937). Chapman, E., St. Augustine's Philos. of Beauty, (N. Y., 1939). Figgis, J. N., The Political Aspects of St. Augustine's "City of God", (London, 1921). --E.C. Authenticity: In a general sense, genuineness, truth according to its title. It involves sometimes a direct and personal characteristic (Whitehead speaks of "authentic feelings").   This word also refers to problems of fundamental criticism involving title, tradition, authorship and evidence. These problems are vital in theology, and basic in scholarship with regard to the interpretation of texts and doctrines. --T.G. Authoritarianism: That theory of knowledge which maintains that the truth of any proposition is determined by the fact of its having been asserted by a certain esteemed individual or group of individuals. Cf. H. Newman, Grammar of Assent; C. S. Peirce, "Fixation of Belief," in Chance, Love and Logic, ed. M. R. Cohen. --A.C.B. Autistic thinking: Absorption in fanciful or wishful thinking without proper control by objective or factual material; day dreaming; undisciplined imagination. --A.C.B. Automaton Theory: Theory that a living organism may be considered a mere machine. See Automatism. Automatism: (Gr. automatos, self-moving) (a) In metaphysics: Theory that animal and human organisms are automata, that is to say, are machines governed by the laws of physics and mechanics. Automatism, as propounded by Descartes, considered the lower animals to be pure automata (Letter to Henry More, 1649) and man a machine controlled by a rational soul (Treatise on Man). Pure automatism for man as well as animals is advocated by La Mettrie (Man, a Machine, 1748). During the Nineteenth century, automatism, combined with epiphenomenalism, was advanced by Hodgson, Huxley and Clifford. (Cf. W. James, The Principles of Psychology, Vol. I, ch. V.) Behaviorism, of the extreme sort, is the most recent version of automatism (See Behaviorism).   (b) In psychology: Psychological automatism is the performance of apparently purposeful actions, like automatic writing without the superintendence of the conscious mind. L. C. Rosenfield, From Beast Machine to Man Machine, N. Y., 1941. --L.W. Automatism, Conscious: The automatism of Hodgson, Huxley, and Clifford which considers man a machine to which mind or consciousness is superadded; the mind of man is, however, causally ineffectual. See Automatism; Epiphenomenalism. --L.W. Autonomy: (Gr. autonomia, independence) Freedom consisting in self-determination and independence of all external constraint. See Freedom. Kant defines autonomy of the will as subjection of the will to its own law, the categorical imperative, in contrast to heteronomy, its subjection to a law or end outside the rational will. (Fundamental Principles of the Metaphysics of Morals, § 2.) --L.W. Autonomy of ethics: A doctrine, usually propounded by intuitionists, that ethics is not a part of, and cannot be derived from, either metaphysics or any of the natural or social sciences. See Intuitionism, Metaphysical ethics, Naturalistic ethics. --W.K.F. Autonomy of the will: (in Kant's ethics) The freedom of the rational will to legislate to itself, which constitutes the basis for the autonomy of the moral law. --P.A.S. Autonymy: In the terminology introduced by Carnap, a word (phrase, symbol, expression) is autonymous if it is used as a name for itself --for the geometric shape, sound, etc. which it exemplifies, or for the word as a historical and grammatical unit. Autonymy is thus the same as the Scholastic suppositio matertalis (q. v.), although the viewpoint is different. --A.C. Autotelic: (from Gr. autos, self, and telos, end) Said of any absorbing activity engaged in for its own sake (cf. German Selbstzweck), such as higher mathematics, chess, etc. In aesthetics, applied to creative art and play which lack any conscious reference to the accomplishment of something useful. In the view of some, it may constitute something beneficent in itself of which the person following his art impulse (q.v.) or playing is unaware, thus approaching a heterotelic (q.v.) conception. --K.F.L. Avenarius, Richard: (1843-1896) German philosopher who expressed his thought in an elaborate and novel terminology in the hope of constructing a symbolic language for philosophy, like that of mathematics --the consequence of his Spinoza studies. As the most influential apostle of pure experience, the posltivistic motive reaches in him an extreme position. Insisting on the biologic and economic function of thought, he thought the true method of science is to cure speculative excesses by a return to pure experience devoid of all assumptions. Philosophy is the scientific effort to exclude from knowledge all ideas not included in the given. Its task is to expel all extraneous elements in the given. His uncritical use of the category of the given and the nominalistic view that logical relations are created rather than discovered by thought, leads him to banish not only animism but also all of the categories, substance, causality, etc., as inventions of the mind. Explaining the evolution and devolution of the problematization and deproblematization of numerous ideas, and aiming to give the natural history of problems, Avenarius sought to show physiologically, psychologically and historically under what conditions they emerge, are challenged and are solved. He hypothesized a System C, a bodily and central nervous system upon which consciousness depends. R-values are the stimuli received from the world of objects. E-values are the statements of experience. The brain changes that continually oscillate about an ideal point of balance are termed Vitalerhaltungsmaximum. The E-values are differentiated into elements, to which the sense-perceptions or the content of experience belong, and characters, to which belongs everything which psychology describes as feelings and attitudes. Avenarius describes in symbolic form a series of states from balance to balance, termed vital series, all describing a series of changes in System C. Inequalities in the vital balance give rise to vital differences. According to his theory there are two vital series. It assumes a series of brain changes because parallel series of conscious states can be observed. The independent vital series are physical, and the dependent vital series are psychological. The two together are practically covariants. In the case of a process as a dependent vital series three stages can be noted: first, the appearance of the problem, expressed as strain, restlessness, desire, fear, doubt, pain, repentance, delusion; the second, the continued effort and struggle to solve the problem; and finally, the appearance of the solution, characterized by abating anxiety, a feeling of triumph and enjoyment.   Corresponding to these three stages of the dependent series are three stages of the independent series: the appearance of the vital difference and a departure from balance in the System C, the continuance with an approximate vital difference, and lastly, the reduction of the vital difference to zero, the return to stability. By making room for dependent and independent experiences, he showed that physics regards experience as independent of the experiencing indlvidual, and psychology views experience as dependent upon the individual. He greatly influenced Mach and James (q.v.). See Avenarius, Empirio-criticism, Experience, pure. Main works: Kritik der reinen Erfahrung; Der menschliche Weltbegriff. --H.H. Averroes: (Mohammed ibn Roshd) Known to the Scholastics as The Commentator, and mentioned as the author of il gran commento by Dante (Inf. IV. 68) he was born 1126 at Cordova (Spain), studied theology, law, medicine, mathematics, and philosophy, became after having been judge in Sevilla and Cordova, physician to the khalifah Jaqub Jusuf, and charged with writing a commentary on the works of Aristotle. Al-mansur, Jusuf's successor, deprived him of his place because of accusations of unorthodoxy. He died 1198 in Morocco. Averroes is not so much an original philosopher as the author of a minute commentary on the whole works of Aristotle. His procedure was imitated later by Aquinas. In his interpretation of Aristotelian metaphysics Averroes teaches the coeternity of a universe created ex nihilo. This doctrine formed together with the notion of a numerical unity of the active intellect became one of the controversial points in the discussions between the followers of Albert-Thomas and the Latin Averroists. Averroes assumed that man possesses only a disposition for receiving the intellect coming from without; he identifies this disposition with the possible intellect which thus is not truly intellectual by nature. The notion of one intellect common to all men does away with the doctrine of personal immortality. Another doctrine which probably was emphasized more by the Latin Averroists (and by the adversaries among Averroes' contemporaries) is the famous statement about "two-fold truth", viz. that a proposition may be theologically true and philosophically false and vice versa. Averroes taught that religion expresses the (higher) philosophical truth by means of religious imagery; the "two-truth notion" came apparently into the Latin text through a misinterpretation on the part of the translators. The works of Averroes were one of the main sources of medieval Aristotelianlsm, before and even after the original texts had been translated. The interpretation the Latin Averroists found in their texts of the "Commentator" spread in spite of opposition and condemnation. See Averroism, Latin. Averroes, Opera, Venetiis, 1553. M. Horten, Die Metaphysik des Averroes, 1912. P. Mandonnet, Siger de Brabant et l'Averroisme Latin, 2d ed., Louvain, 1911. --R.A. Averroism, Latin: The commentaries on Aristotle written by Averroes (Ibn Roshd) in the 12th century became known to the Western scholars in translations by Michael Scottus, Hermannus Alemannus, and others at the beginning of the 13th century. Many works of Aristotle were also known first by such translations from Arabian texts, though there existed translations from the Greek originals at the same time (Grabmann). The Averroistic interpretation of Aristotle was held to be the true one by many; but already Albert the Great pointed out several notions which he felt to be incompatible with the principles of Christian philosophy, although he relied for the rest on the "Commentator" and apparently hardly used any other text. Aquinas, basing his studies mostly on a translation from the Greek texts, procured for him by William of Moerbecke, criticized the Averroistic interpretation in many points. But the teachings of the Commentator became the foundation for a whole school of philosophers, represented first by the Faculty of Arts at Paris. The most prominent of these scholars was Siger of Brabant. The philosophy of these men was condemned on March 7th, 1277 by Stephen Tempier, Bishop of Paris, after a first condemnation of Aristotelianism in 1210 had gradually come to be neglected. The 219 theses condemned in 1277, however, contain also some of Aquinas which later were generally recognized an orthodox. The Averroistic propositions which aroused the criticism of the ecclesiastic authorities and which had been opposed with great energy by Albert and Thomas refer mostly to the following points: The co-eternity of the created word; the numerical identity of the intellect in all men, the so-called two-fold-truth theory stating that a proposition may be philosophically true although theologically false. Regarding the first point Thomas argued that there is no philosophical proof, either for the co-eternity or against it; creation is an article of faith. The unity of intellect was rejected as incompatible with the true notion of person and with personal immortality. It is doubtful whether Averroes himself held the two-truths theory; it was, however, taught by the Latin Averroists who, notwithstanding the opposition of the Church and the Thomistic philosophers, gained a great influence and soon dominated many universities, especially in Italy. Thomas and his followers were convinced that they interpreted Aristotle correctly and that the Averroists were wrong; one has, however, to admit that certain passages in Aristotle allow for the Averroistic interpretation, especially in regard to the theory of intellect.   Lit.: P. Mandonnet, Siger de Brabant et l'Averroisme Latin au XIIIe Siecle, 2d. ed. Louvain, 1911; M. Grabmann, Forschungen über die lateinischen Aristotelesübersetzungen des XIII. Jahrhunderts, Münster 1916 (Beitr. z. Gesch. Phil. d. MA. Vol. 17, H. 5-6). --R.A. Avesta: See Zendavesta. Avicehron: (or Avencebrol, Salomon ibn Gabirol) The first Jewish philosopher in Spain, born in Malaga 1020, died about 1070, poet, philosopher, and moralist. His main work, Fons vitae, became influential and was much quoted by the Scholastics. It has been preserved only in the Latin translation by Gundissalinus. His doctrine of a spiritual substance individualizing also the pure spirits or separate forms was opposed by Aquinas already in his first treatise De ente, but found favor with the medieval Augustinians also later in the 13th century. He also teaches the necessity of a mediator between God and the created world; such a mediator he finds in the Divine Will proceeding from God and creating, conserving, and moving the world. His cosmogony shows a definitely Neo-Platonic shade and assumes a series of emanations. Cl. Baeumker, Avencebrolis Fons vitae. Beitr. z. Gesch. d. Philos. d. MA. 1892-1895, Vol. I. Joh. Wittman, Die Stellung des hl. Thomas von Aquino zu Avencebrol, ibid. 1900. Vol. III. --R.A. Avicenna: (Abu Ali al Hosain ibn Abdallah ibn Sina) Born 980 in the country of Bocchara, began to write in young years, left more than 100 works, taught in Ispahan, was physician to several Persian princes, and died at Hamadan in 1037. His fame as physician survived his influence as philosopher in the Occident. His medical works were printed still in the 17th century. His philosophy is contained in 18 vols. of a comprehensive encyclopedia, following the tradition of Al Kindi and Al Farabi. Logic, Physics, Mathematics and Metaphysics form the parts of this work. His philosophy is Aristotelian with noticeable Neo-Platonic influences. His doctrine of the universal existing ante res in God, in rebus as the universal nature of the particulars, and post res in the human mind by way of abstraction became a fundamental thesis of medieval Aristotelianism. He sharply distinguished between the logical and the ontological universal, denying to the latter the true nature of form in the composite. The principle of individuation is matter, eternally existent. Latin translations attributed to Avicenna the notion that existence is an accident to essence (see e.g. Guilelmus Parisiensis, De Universo). The process adopted by Avicenna was one of paraphrasis of the Aristotelian texts with many original thoughts interspersed. His works were translated into Latin by Dominicus Gundissalinus (Gondisalvi) with the assistance of Avendeath ibn Daud. This translation started, when it became more generally known, the "revival of Aristotle" at the end of the 12th and the beginning of the 13th century. Albert the Great and Aquinas professed, notwithstanding their critical attitude, a great admiration for Avicenna whom the Arabs used to call the "third Aristotle". But in the Orient, Avicenna's influence declined soon, overcome by the opposition of the orthodox theologians. Avicenna, Opera, Venetiis, 1495; l508; 1546. M. Horten, Das Buch der Genesung der Seele, eine philosophische Enzyklopaedie Avicenna's; XIII. Teil: Die Metaphysik. Halle a. S. 1907-1909. R. de Vaux, Notes et textes sur l'Avicennisme Latin, Bibl. Thomiste XX, Paris, 1934. --R.A. Avidya: (Skr.) Nescience; ignorance; the state of mind unaware of true reality; an equivalent of maya (q.v.); also a condition of pure awareness prior to the universal process of evolution through gradual differentiation into the elements and factors of knowledge. --K.F.L. Avyakta: (Skr.) "Unmanifest", descriptive of or standing for brahman (q.v.) in one of its or "his" aspects, symbolizing the superabundance of the creative principle, or designating the condition of the universe not yet become phenomenal (aja, unborn). --K.F.L. Awareness: Consciousness considered in its aspect of act; an act of attentive awareness such as the sensing of a color patch or the feeling of pain is distinguished from the content attended to, the sensed color patch, the felt pain. The psychologlcal theory of intentional act was advanced by F. Brentano (Psychologie vom empirischen Standpunkte) and received its epistemological development by Meinong, Husserl, Moore, Laird and Broad. See Intentionalism. --L.W. Axiological: (Ger. axiologisch) In Husserl: Of or pertaining to value or theory of value (the latter term understood as including disvalue and value-indifference). --D.C. Axiological ethics: Any ethics which makes the theory of obligation entirely dependent on the theory of value, by making the determination of the rightness of an action wholly dependent on a consideration of the value or goodness of something, e.g. the action itself, its motive, or its consequences, actual or probable. Opposed to deontological ethics. See also teleological ethics. --W.K.F. Axiologic Realism: In metaphysics, theory that value as well as logic, qualities as well as relations, have their being and exist external to the mind and independently of it. Applicable to the philosophy of many though not all realists in the history of philosophy, from Plato to G. E. Moore, A. N. Whitehead, and N, Hartmann. --J.K.F. Axiology: (Gr. axios, of like value, worthy, and logos, account, reason, theory). Modern term for theory of value (the desired, preferred, good), investigation of its nature, criteria, and metaphysical status. Had its rise in Plato's theory of Forms or Ideas (Idea of the Good); was developed in Aristotle's Organon, Ethics, Poetics, and Metaphysics (Book Lambda). Stoics and Epicureans investigated the summum bonum. Christian philosophy (St. Thomas) built on Aristotle's identification of highest value with final cause in God as "a living being, eternal, most good."   In modern thought, apart from scholasticism and the system of Spinoza (Ethica, 1677), in which values are metaphysically grounded, the various values were investigated in separate sciences, until Kant's Critiques, in which the relations of knowledge to moral, aesthetic, and religious values were examined. In Hegel's idealism, morality, art, religion, and philosophy were made the capstone of his dialectic. R. H. Lotze "sought in that which should be the ground of that which is" (Metaphysik, 1879). Nineteenth century evolutionary theory, anthropology, sociology, psychology, and economics subjected value experience to empirical analysis, and stress was again laid on the diversity and relativity of value phenomena rather than on their unity and metaphysical nature. F. Nietzsche's Also Sprach Zarathustra (1883-1885) and Zur Genealogie der Moral (1887) aroused new interest in the nature of value. F. Brentano, Vom Ursprung sittlicher Erkenntnis (1889), identified value with love.   In the twentieth century the term axiology was apparently first applied by Paul Lapie (Logique de la volonte, 1902) and E. von Hartmann (Grundriss der Axiologie, 1908). Stimulated by Ehrenfels (System der Werttheorie, 1897), Meinong (Psychologisch-ethische Untersuchungen zur Werttheorie, 1894-1899), and Simmel (Philosophie des Geldes, 1900). W. M. Urban wrote the first systematic treatment of axiology in English (Valuation, 1909), phenomenological in method under J. M. Baldwin's influence. Meanwhile H. Münsterberg wrote a neo-Fichtean system of values (The Eternal Values, 1909).   Among important recent contributions are: B. Bosanquet, The Principle of Individuality and Value (1912), a free reinterpretation of Hegelianism; W. R. Sorley, Moral Values and the Idea of God (1918, 1921), defending a metaphysical theism; S. Alexander, Space, Time, and Deity (1920), realistic and naturalistic; N. Hartmann, Ethik (1926), detailed analysis of types and laws of value; R. B. Perry's magnum opus, General Theory of Value (1926), "its meaning and basic principles construed in terms of interest"; and J. Laird, The Idea of Value (1929), noteworthy for historical exposition. A naturalistic theory has been developed by J. Dewey (Theory of Valuation, 1939), for which "not only is science itself a value . . . but it is the supreme means of the valid determination of all valuations." A. J. Ayer, Language, Truth and Logic (1936) expounds the view of logical positivism that value is "nonsense." J. Hessen, Wertphilosophie (1937), provides an account of recent German axiology from a neo-scholastic standpoint.   The problems of axiology fall into four main groups, namely, those concerning (1) the nature of value, (2) the types of value, (3) the criterion of value, and (4) the metaphysical status of value.   (1) The nature of value experience. Is valuation fulfillment of desire (voluntarism: Spinoza, Ehrenfels), pleasure (hedonism: Epicurus, Bentham, Meinong), interest (Perry), preference (Martineau), pure rational will (formalism: Stoics, Kant, Royce), apprehension of tertiary qualities (Santayana), synoptic experience of the unity of personality (personalism: T. H. Green, Bowne), any experience that contributes to enhanced life (evolutionism: Nietzsche), or "the relation of things as means to the end or consequence actually reached" (pragmatism, instrumentalism: Dewey).   (2) The types of value. Most axiologists distinguish between intrinsic (consummatory) values (ends), prized for their own sake, and instrumental (contributory) values (means), which are causes (whether as economic goods or as natural events) of intrinsic values. Most intrinsic values are also instrumental to further value experience; some instrumental values are neutral or even disvaluable intrinsically. Commonly recognized as intrinsic values are the (morally) good, the true, the beautiful, and the holy. Values of play, of work, of association, and of bodily well-being are also acknowledged. Some (with Montague) question whether the true is properly to be regarded as a value, since some truth is disvaluable, some neutral; but love of truth, regardless of consequences, seems to establish the value of truth. There is disagreement about whether the holy (religious value) is a unique type (Schleiermacher, Otto), or an attitude toward other values (Kant, Höffding), or a combination of the two (Hocking). There is also disagreement about whether the variety of values is irreducible (pluralism) or whether all values are rationally related in a hierarchy or system (Plato, Hegel, Sorley), in which values interpenetrate or coalesce into a total experience.   (3) The criterion of value. The standard for testing values is influenced by both psychological and logical theory. Hedonists find the standard in the quantity of pleasure derived by the individual (Aristippus) or society (Bentham). Intuitionists appeal to an ultimate insight into preference (Martineau, Brentano). Some idealists recognize an objective system of rational norms or ideals as criterion (Plato, Windelband), while others lay more stress on rational wholeness and coherence (Hegel, Bosanquet, Paton) or inclusiveness (T. H. Green). Naturalists find biological survival or adjustment (Dewey) to be the standard. Despite differences, there is much in common in the results of the application of these criteria.   (4) The metaphysical status of value. What is the relation of values to the facts investigated by natural science (Koehler), of Sein to Sollen (Lotze, Rickert), of human experience of value to reality independent of man (Hegel, Pringle-Pattlson, Spaulding)? There are three main answers:   subjectivism (value is entirely dependent on and relative to human experience of it: so most hedonists, naturalists, positivists);   logical objectivism (values are logical essences or subsistences, independent of their being known, yet with no existential status or action in reality);   metaphysical objectivism (values   --or norms or ideals   --are integral, objective, and active constituents of the metaphysically real: so theists, absolutists, and certain realists and naturalists like S. Alexander and Wieman). --E.S.B. Axiom: See Mathematics. Axiomatic method: That method of constructing a deductive system consisting of deducing by specified rules all statements of the system save a given few from those given few, which are regarded as axioms or postulates of the system. See Mathematics. --C.A.B. Ayam atma brahma: (Skr.) "This self is brahman", famous quotation from Brhadaranyaka Upanishad 2.5.19, one of many alluding to the central theme of the Upanishads, i.e., the identity of the human and divine or cosmic. --K.F.L.

A vicious circle in definition (circulus in definiendo) occurs if A1 is used in defining A2, A2 in defining A3, . . . , An-1 in defining An, and finally An in defining A1. (The simplest case is that in which n = l, A1 being defined in terms of itself.) There is, of course, a fallacy if A1, A2, . . . , An are then used as defined absolutely. Apparent exceptions, such as definition by recursion (q.v.), require special justification, e.g., by finding an equivalent form of definition which is not circular.

Backus-Naur Form "language, grammar" (BNF, originally "Backus Normal Form") A formal {metasyntax} used to express {context-free grammars}. Backus Normal Form was renamed Backus-Naur Form at the suggestion of {Donald Knuth}. BNF is one of the most commonly used metasyntactic notations for specifying the {syntax} of programming languages, command sets, and the like. It is widely used for language descriptions but seldom documented anywhere (how do you document a {metasyntax}?), so that it must usually be learned by osmosis (but see {RFC 2234}). Consider this BNF for a US postal address: "postal-address" ::= "name-part" "street-address" "zip-part" "personal-part" ::= "name" | "initial" "." "name-part" ::= "personal-part" "last-name" ["jr-part"] "EOL"     | "personal-part" "name-part" "street-address" ::= ["apt"] "house-num" "street-name" "EOL" "zip-part" ::= "town-name" "," "state-code" "ZIP-code" "EOL" This translates into English as: "A postal-address consists of a name-part, followed by a street-address part, followed by a zip-code part. A personal-part consists of either a first name or an initial followed by a dot. A name-part consists of either: a personal-part followed by a last name followed by an optional "jr-part" (Jr., Sr., or dynastic number) and end-of-line, or a personal part followed by a name part (this rule illustrates the use of recursion in BNFs, covering the case of people who use multiple first and middle names and/or initials). A street address consists of an optional apartment specifier, followed by a street number, followed by a street name. A zip-part consists of a town-name, followed by a comma, followed by a state code, followed by a ZIP-code followed by an end-of-line." Note that many things (such as the format of a personal-part, apartment specifier, or ZIP-code) are left unspecified. These lexical details are presumed to be obvious from context or specified somewhere nearby. There are many variants and extensions of BNF, possibly containing some or all of the {regexp} {wild cards} such as "*" or "+". {EBNF} is a common one. In fact the example above isn't the pure form invented for the {ALGOL 60} report. "[]" was introduced a few years later in {IBM}'s {PL/I} definition but is now universally recognised. {ABNF} is another extension. (1997-11-23)

definitional ::: a. --> Relating to definition; of the nature of a definition; employed in defining.

definitional constraint programming "language" (DCP) A declarative, programming paradigm which integrates {concurrent constraint programming}, {constraint logic programming} and {functional programming}. In this setting a concurrent constraint language becomes a coordination system that organises the concurrent interaction of parallel functional computations. The language is also a generalisation of parallel {functional programming} languages, such as {Id}, where {constraints} and constraint abstractions are reused to define new constraints, as the means of programming logical variables for parallel coordination. {Goffin} is a DCP language. (1995-03-28)

definition ::: n. --> The act of defining; determination of the limits; as, a telescope accurate in definition.
Act of ascertaining and explaining the signification; a description of a thing by its properties; an explanation of the meaning of a word or term; as, the definition of "circle;" the definition of "wit;" an exact definition; a loose definition.
Description; sort.
An exact enunciation of the constituents which make up

belief revision "artificial intelligence" The area of {theory change} in which preservation of the information in the theory to be changed plays a key role. A fundamental issue in belief revision is how to decide what information to retract in order to maintain consistency, when the addition of a new belief to a theory would make it inconsistent. Usually, an ordering on the sentences of the theory is used to determine priorities among sentences, so that those with lower priority can be retracted. This ordering can be difficult to generate and maintain. The postulates of the {AGM Theory for Belief Revision} describe minimal properties a revision process should have. [Better definition?] (1995-03-20)

Bennett and Baylis, Formal Logic, New York. 1937: 6. THEORY OF TYPES. In the functional calculus of first order, variables which appear as arguments of propositional functions or which are bound by quantifiers must be variables which are restricted to a certain limited range, the kinds of propositions about propositional functions which cannot be expressed in the calculus. The uncritical attempt to remove this restriction, by introducing variables of unlimited range (the range covering both non-functions and functions of whatever kind) and modifying accordingly the definition of a formula and the lists of primitive formulas and primitive rules of inference, leads to a system which is formally inconsistent through the possibility of deriving in it certain of the logical paradoxes (q. v.). The functional calculus of first order may, however, be extended in another way, which involves separating propositional functions into a certain array of categories (the hierarchy of types), excluding. propositional functions which do not fall into one of these categories, and -- besides propositional and individual variables -- admitting only variables having a particular one of these categories as range.

Besides the universal intelligible being of things, Aristotle was also primarily concerned with an investigation of the being of things from the standpoint of their generation and existence. But only individual things are generated and exist. Hence, for him, substance was primarily the individual: a "this" which, in contrast with the universal or secondary substance, is not communicable to many. The Aristotelian meaning of substance may be developed from four points of view: Grammar: The nature of substance as the ultimate subject of predication is expressed by common usage in its employment of the noun (or substantive) as the subject of a sentence to signify an individual thing which "is neither present in nor predicable of a subject." Thus substance is grammatically distinguished from its (adjectival) properties and modifications which "are present in and predicable of a subject."   Secondary substance is expressed by the universal term, and by its definition which are "not present in a subject but predicable of it." See Categoriae,) ch. 5. Physics: Independence of being emerges as a fundamental characteristic of substance in the analysis of change. Thus we have:   Substantial change: Socrates comes to be. (Change simply).   Accidental change; in a certain respect only: Socrates comes to be 6 feet tall. (Quantitative). Socrates comes to be musical (Qualitative). Socrates comes to be in Corinth (Local).     As substantial change is prior to the others and may occur independently of them, so the individual substance is prior in being to the accidents; i.e., the accidents cannot exist independently of their subject (Socrates), but can be only in him or in another primary substance, while the reverse is not necessarily the case. Logic: Out of this analysis of change there also emerges a division of being into the schema of categories, with the distinction between the category of substance and the several accidental categories, such as quantity, quality, place, relation, etc. In a corresponding manner, the category of substance is first; i.e., prior to the others in being, and independent of them. Metaphysics: The character of substance as that which is present in an individual as the cause of its being and unity is developed in Aristotle's metaphysical writings, see especiallv Bk. Z, ch. 17, 1041b. Primary substnnce is not the matter alone, nor the universal form common to many, but the individual unity of matter and form. For example, each thing is composed of parts or elements, as an organism is composed of cells, yet it is not merely its elements, but has a being and unity over and above the sum of its parts. This something more which causes the cells to be this organism rather than a malignant growth, is an example of what is meant by substance in its proper sense of first substance (substantia prima). Substance in its secondary sense (substantia secunda) is the universal form (idea or species) which is individuated in each thing.

beta testing "programming" Evaluation of a pre-release (potentially unreliable) version of a piece of {software} (or possibly {hardware}) by making it available to selected users ("beta testers") before it goes on general distribution. Beta testign aims to discover {bugs} that only occur in certain environments or under certain patterns of use, while reducing the volume of feedback to a manageable level. The testers benefit by having earlier access to new products, features and fixes. Beta testing may be preceded by "alpha testing", performed in-house by a handful of users (e.g. other developers or friends), who can be expected to give rapid, high quality feedback on design and {usability}. Once the product is considered to be usable for its intended purpose it then moves on to "beta testing" by a larger, but typically still limited, number of ordinary users, who may include external customers. Some companies such as {Google} or {Degree Jungle (} stretch the definition, claiming their products are "in beta" for many months by millions of users. The term derives from early 1960s terminology for {product cycle} checkpoints, first used at {IBM} but later standard throughout the industry. "{Alpha test}" was the {unit test}, {module test} or {component test} phase; "Beta Test" was initial {system test}. These themselves came from earlier A- and B-tests for hardware. The A-test was a feasibility and manufacturability evaluation done before any commitment to design and development. The B-test was a demonstration that the engineering model functioned as specified. The C-test (corresponding to today's beta) was the B-test performed on early samples of the production design. (2013-06-09)

Bibliography. The various theories outlined in this article do not exhaust the possible definitions and problems concerning probability, but they give an idea of the trend of the discussions. The following works are selected from a considerable literature of the subject. Laplace, Essai sur les Probabilites. Keynes, A Treatise on Probability. Jeffreys, Theory of Probability. Uspensky, Introduction to Mathematical Probability. Borel, Traite de Calcul des Probabilites (especially the last volume dealing with its philosophical aspects). Mises, Probability, Statistics and Truth. Reichenbach, Les Fondements Logiques du Calcul dcs Probabilites. Frechet, Recherches sur le Calcul des Probabilites. Ville, Essai sur la Theorie des Collectifs. Kolmogoroff, Grundbegriffe der Wahrscheinhchkeitsrechnung. Wald, Die Widerspruchsfreiheit des Kollektivbegriffes. Nagel, The Theory of Probability.

bindery "networking" A {Novell Netware} database that contains definitions for entities such as users, groups, and {workgroups}. The bindery allows the network supervisor to design an organised and secure operating environment based on the individual requirements of each of these entities. The bindery has three components: objects, properties, and property data sets. Objects represent any physical or logical entity, including users, user groups, file servers. Properties are characteristics of each object (e.g. passwords, account restrictions, {internetwork addresses}). Property data sets are the values assigned to an entity's bindery properties. [Netware Version 3.11 "Concepts" documentation (a glossary of Netware-related terms)]. (1996-03-07)

bliss ::: perfect happiness; serene joy or ecstasy. (See delight for Sri Aurobindo"s definitions.) **self-bliss, World-Bliss.

Boolean algebra "logic" (After the logician {George Boole}) 1. Commonly, and especially in computer science and digital electronics, this term is used to mean {two-valued logic}. 2. This is in stark contrast with the definition used by pure mathematicians who in the 1960s introduced "Boolean-valued {models}" into logic precisely because a "Boolean-valued model" is an interpretation of a {theory} that allows more than two possible truth values! Strangely, a Boolean algebra (in the mathematical sense) is not strictly an {algebra}, but is in fact a {lattice}. A Boolean algebra is sometimes defined as a "complemented {distributive lattice}". Boole's work which inspired the mathematical definition concerned {algebras} of {sets}, involving the operations of intersection, union and complement on sets. Such algebras obey the following identities where the operators ^, V, - and constants 1 and 0 can be thought of either as set intersection, union, complement, universal, empty; or as two-valued logic AND, OR, NOT, TRUE, FALSE; or any other conforming system. a ^ b = b ^ a  a V b = b V a   (commutative laws) (a ^ b) ^ c = a ^ (b ^ c) (a V b) V c = a V (b V c)     (associative laws) a ^ (b V c) = (a ^ b) V (a ^ c) a V (b ^ c) = (a V b) ^ (a V c)  (distributive laws) a ^ a = a  a V a = a     (idempotence laws) --a = a -(a ^ b) = (-a) V (-b) -(a V b) = (-a) ^ (-b)       (de Morgan's laws) a ^ -a = 0  a V -a = 1 a ^ 1 = a  a V 0 = a a ^ 0 = 0  a V 1 = 1 -1 = 0  -0 = 1 There are several common alternative notations for the "-" or {logical complement} operator. If a and b are elements of a Boolean algebra, we define a "= b to mean that a ^ b = a, or equivalently a V b = b. Thus, for example, if ^, V and - denote set intersection, union and complement then "= is the inclusive subset relation. The relation "= is a {partial ordering}, though it is not necessarily a {linear ordering} since some Boolean algebras contain incomparable values. Note that these laws only refer explicitly to the two distinguished constants 1 and 0 (sometimes written as {LaTeX} \top and \bot), and in {two-valued logic} there are no others, but according to the more general mathematical definition, in some systems variables a, b and c may take on other values as well. (1997-02-27)

bound variable 1. A bound variable or {formal argument} in a function definition is replaced by the {actual argument} when the function is applied. In the {lambda abstraction} \ x . M x is the bound variable. However, x is a {free variable} of the term M when M is considered on its own. M is the {scope} of the binding of x. 2. In logic a bound variable is a quantified variable. See {quantifier}.

Brentano (Psychologie, 1874) takes an existential proposition (Existentialsatz) to be one that directly affirms or denies existence, and shows that each of the four traditional kinds of categorical propositions is reducible (i.e., equivalent) to an existential proposition in this sense; thus, e.g., "all men are mortal" becomes "immortal men do not exist." This definition of an existential proposition and the reduction of categorical propositions to existential appears also in Keynes's Formal Logic, 4th edn. (1906). -- A.C.

broadcast quality video "communications, multimedia" Roughly, {video} with more than 30 frames per second at a {resolution} of 800 x 640 {pixels}. The quality of moving pictures and sound is determined by the complete chain from camera to receiver. Relevant factors are the colour temperature of the lighting, the balance of the red, green and blue vision pick-up tubes to produce the correct display colour temperature (which will be different) and the {gamma} pre-correction to cancel the non-linear characteristic of {cathode-ray tubes} in television receivers. The {resolution} of the camera tube and video coding system will determine the maximum number of {pixels} in the picture. Different colour coding systems have different defects. The NTSC system (National Television Systems Committee) can produce {hue} errors. The PAL system (Phase Alternation by Line) can produce {saturation} errors. Television modulation systems are specified by ITU CCIR Report 624. Low-resolution systems have {bandwidths} of 4.2 MHz with 525 to 625 lines per frame as used in the Americas and Japan. Medium resolution of 5 to 6.5 MHz with 625 lines is used in Europe, Asia, Africa and Australasia. {High-Definition Television} (HDTV) will require 8 MHz or more of bandwidth. A medium resolution (5.5 MHz in UK) picture can be represented by 572 lines of 402 pixels. Note the ratio of pixels to lines is not the same as the {aspect ratio}. A {VGA} display (480n lines of 640 pixels) could thus display 84% of the height of one picture frame. Most compression techniques reduce quality as they assume a restricted range of detail and motion and discard details to which the human eye is not sensitive. Broadcast quality implies something better than amateur or domestic video and therefore can't be retained on a domestic video recorder. Broadcasts use quadriplex or U-matic recorders. The lowest frame rate used for commercial entertainment is the 24Hz of the 35mm cinema camera. When broadcast on a 50Hz television system, the pictures are screened at 25Hz reducing the running times by 4%. On a 60Hz system every five movie frames are screened as six TV frames, still at the 4% increased rate. The six frames are made by mixing adjacent frames, with some degradation of the picture. A computer system to meet international standard reproduction would at least VGA resolution, an interlaced frame rate of 24Hz and 8 bits to represent the luminance (Y) component. For a component display system using red, green and blue (RGB) electron guns and phosphor dots each will require 7 bits. Transmission and recording is different as various coding schemes need less bits if other representations are used instead of RGB. Broadcasts use YUV and compression can reduce this to about 3.5 bits per pixel without perceptible degradation. High-quality video and sound can be carried on a 34 Mbaud channel after being compressed with {ADPCM} and {variable length coding}, potentially in real time. (1997-07-04)

B. The Probability-Relation. Considering the general grounds of probability, it is pertinent to analyze the proper characteristics of this concept and the valid conditions of its use in inferential processes. Probability presents itself as a special relation between the premisses and the conclusion of an argument, namely when the premisses are true but not completely sufficient to condition the truth of the conclusion. A probable inference must however be logical, even though its result is not certain, for its premisses must be a true sign of its conclusion. The probability-relation may take three aspects: it is inductive, probable or presumptive. In strict induction, there is an essential connection between the facts expressed in the premisses and in the conclusion, which almost forces a factual result from the circumstances of the predication. This type of probability-relation is prominent in induction proper and in statistics. In strict probability, there is a logical connection between the premisses and the conclusion which does not entail a definite factual value for the latter. This type of probability-relation is prominent in mathematical probability and circumstantial evidence. In strict presumption, there is a similarity of characteristics between the fact expressed in the conclusion and the real event if it does or did exist. This type of probability-relation is prominent in analogy and testimony. A presumptive conclusion should be accepted provisionally, and it should have definite consequences capable of being tested. The results of an inductive inference and of a probable inference may often be brought closer together when covering the same field, as the relations involved are fundamental enough for the purpose. This may be done by a qualitative analysis of their implications, or by a quantitative comparison of their elements, as it is done for example in the methods of correlation. But a presumptive inference cannot be reduced to either of the other two forms without losing its identity, because the connection between its elements is of an indefinite character. It may be said that inductive and probable inferences have an intrinsic reasonableness, while presumptive inferences have an extrinsic reasonableness. The former involve determinism within certain limits, while the latter display indeterminacy more prominently. That is why very poor, misleading or wrong conclusions are obtained when mathematical methods are applied to moral acts, judiciary decisions or indirect testimony The activity of the human will has an intricate complexity and variability not easily subjected to calculation. Hence the degree of probability of a presumptive inference can be estimated only by the character and circumstances of its suggested explanation. In moral cases, the discussion and application of the probability-relation leads to the consideration of the doctrines of Probabilism and Probabiliorism which are qualitative. The probability-relation as such has the following general implications which are compatible with its three different aspects, and which may serve as general inferential principle: Any generalization must be probable upon propositions entailing its exemplification in particular cases; Any generalization or system of generalizations forming a theory, must be probable upon propositions following from it by implication; The probability of a given proposition on the basis of other propositions constituting its evidence, is the degree of logical conclusiveness of this evidence with respect to the given proposition; The empirical probability (p = S/E) of a statement S increases as verifications accrue to the evidence E, provided the evidence is taken as a whole; and Numerical probabilities may be assigned to facts or statements only when the evidence includes statistical data or other numerical information which can be treated by the methods of mathematical probability. C. Mathematical Probability. The mathematical theory of probability, which is also called the theory of chances or the theory of relative possibilities, is concerned with the application of mathematical methods to the determination of the likelihood of any event, when there are not sufficient data to determine with certainty its occurrence or failure. As Laplace remarked, it is nothing more than common sense reduced to calculation. But its range goes far beyond that of common sense for it has not only conditioned the growth of various branches of mathematics, such as the theory of errors, the calculus of variations and mathematical statistics, but it has also made possible the establishment of a number of theories in the natural and social sciences, by its actual applications to concrete problems. A distinction is usually made between direct and inverse probability. The determination of a direct or a priori probability involves an inference from given situations or sets of possibilities numerically characterized, to future events related with them. By definition, the direct probability of the occurrence of any particular form of an event, is the ratio of the number of ways in which that form might occur, to the whole number of ways in which the event may occur, all these forms being equiprobable or equally likely. The basic principles referring to a priori probabilities are derived from the analysis of the various logical alternatives involved in any hypothetical questions such as the following: (a) To determine whether a cause, whose exact nature is or is not known, will prove operative or not in certain circumstances; (b) To determine how often an event happens or fails. The comparison of the number of occurrences with that of the failures of an event, considered in simple or complex circumstances, affords a baisis for several cases of probable inference. Thus, theorems may be established to deal with the probability of success and the probability of failure of an event, with the probability of the joint occurrence of several events, with the probability of the alternative occurrence of several events, with the different conditions of frequency of occurrence of an event; with mathematical expectation, and with similar questions. The determination of an a posteriori or inverse probability involves an inference from given situations or events, to past conditions or causes which rnay have contributed to their occurrence. By definition, an inverse probability is the numerical value assigned to each one of a number of possible causes of an actual event that has already occurred; or more generally, it is the numerical value assigned to hypotheses which attempt to explain actual events or circumstances. If an event has occurred as a result of any one of n several causes, the probability that C was the actual cause is Pp/E (Pnpn), when P is the probability that the event could be produced by C if present, and p the probability that C was present before the occurrence of that event. Inverse probability is based on general and special assumptions which cannot always be properly stated, and as there are many different sets of such assumptions, there cannot be a coercive reason for making a definite choice. In particular, the condition of the equiprobability of causes is seldom if ever fulfilled. The distinction between the two kinds of probability, which has led to some confusion in interpreting their grounds and their relations, can be technically ignored now as a result of the adoption of a statistical basis for measuring probabilities. In particular, it is the statistical treatment of correlation which led to the study of probabilities of concurrent phenomena irrespective of their direction in time. This distinction may be retained, howe\er, for the purpose of a general exposition of the subject. Thus, a number of probability theorems are obtained by using various cases of direct and inverse probability involving permutations and combinations, the binomial theorem, the theory of series, and the methods of integration. In turn, these theurems can be applied to concrete cases of the various sciences.

Business Application Programming Interface "business, application, programming" (BAPI) /bap'ee/ A set of {methods} provided by an {SAP} business {object}. Release 4.0 of {SAP AG}'s {R/3} system supports {object-oriented programming} via an interface defined in terms of {objects} and {methods} called BAPIs. For example if a material object provides a function to check availability, the corresponding SAP business object type "Material" might provide a BAPI called "Material.CheckAvailability". The definitions of SAP business objects and their BAPIs are kept in an SAP business object repository. SAP provide {classes} and {libraries} to enable a programming team to build SAP applications that use business objects and BAPIs. Supported environments include {COM} and {Java}. The {Open BAPI Network (}. gives background information and lists objects and BAPIs. (2002-08-30)

Calculus: The name calculus may be applied to any organized method of solving problems or drawing inferences by manipulation of symbols according to formal rules. Or an exact definition of a calculus may be provided by identifying it with a logistic system, (q.v.) satisfying the requirement of effectiveness.

Capability Maturity Model "software" (CMM) The {Software Engineering Institute}'s model of {software engineering} that specifies five levels of maturity of the processes of a software organisation. CMM offers a framework for evolutionary process improvement. Originally applied to software development (SE-CMM), it has been expanded to cover other areas including Human Resources and Software Acquitition. The levels - focii - and key process areas are: Level 1 Initial - Heroes - None. Level 2 Repeatable - Project Management - Software Project Planning, Software Project Tracking and Oversight, Software Subcontract Management, Software Quality Assurance, Software Configuration Management, Requirements Management. Level 3 Defined - Engineering Process - Organisation Process Focus, Organisation Process Definition, Peer Reviews, Training Program, Inter-group Coordination, Software Product Engineering, Integrated Software Management. Level 4 Managed - Product and Process Quality - Software Quality Management, Quantitative Process Management. Level 5 Optimising - Continuous Improvement - Process Change Management, Technology Change Management, Defect Prevention. {(}. (2001-04-28)

Carnap proposes a purely syntactical definition of equipollence by defining two sentences (or two classes of sentences) to be equipollent if they have the same class of non-valid consequences. See the article Valid. -- A.C.

CDL 1. Computer Definition [Design?] Language. A hardware description language. "Computer Organisation and Microprogramming", Yaohan Chu, P-H 1970. 2. Command Definition Language. Portion of ICES used to implement commands. Sammet 1969, p.618-620. 3. Compiler Description Language. C.H.A. Koster, 1969. Intended for implementation of the rules of an affix grammar by recursive procedures. A procedure may be a set of tree-structured alternatives, each alternative is executed until one successfully exits. Used in a portable COBOL-74 compiler from MPB, mprolog system from SzKI, and the Mephisto chess computer. "CDL: A Compiler Implementation Language", in Methods of Algorithmic Language Implementation, C.H.A. Koster, LNCS 47, Springer 1977, pp.341-351. "Using the CDL Compiler Compiler", C.H.A. Koster, 1974. Versions: CDL2, CDLM used at Manchester. 4. Common Design Language. "Common Design Language", IBM, Software Engineering Inst, Sept 1983. 5. Control Definition Language. Ideas which contributed to Smalltalk. ["Control Structures for Programming Languges", David A. Fisher, PhD Thesis, CMU 1970].

Characterology: This name originally was used for types; thus in Aristotle and Theophrastus, and even much later, e.g. in La Bruyere. Gradually it came to signify something individual; a development paralleled by the replacement of "typical" figures on the stage by individualities. There is no agreement, even today, on the definition; confusion reigns especially because of an insufficient distinction between character, personality, and person. But all agree that character manifests itself in the behavior of a person. One can distinguish a merely descriptive approach, one of classification, and one of interpretation. The general viewpoints of interpretation influence also description and classification, since they determine what is considered "important" and lay down the rules by which to distinguish and to classify. One narrow interpretation looks at character mainly as the result of inborn properties, rooted in organic constitution; character is considered, therefore, as essentially unchangeable and predetermined. The attempts at establishing correlations between character and body-build (Kretschmer a.o.) are a special form of such narrow interpretation. It makes but little difference if, besides inborn properties, the influence of environmental factors is acknowledged. The rationalistic interpretation looks at character mainly as the result of convictions. These convictions are seen as purely intellectual in extreme rationalism (virtue is knowledge, Socrates), or as referring to the value-aspect of reality which is conceived as apprehended by other than merely intellectual operations. Thus, Spranger gives a classification according to the "central values" dominating a man's behavior. (Allport has devised practical methods of character study on this basis.) Since the idea a person has of values and their order may change, character is conceived as essentially mutable, even if far going changes may be unfrequent. Character-education is the practical application of the principles of characterology and thus depends on the general idea an author holds in regard to human nature. Character is probably best defined as the individual's way of preferring or rejecting values. It depends on the innate capacities of value-apprehension and on the way these values are presented to the individual. Therefore the enormous influence of social factors. -- R.A.

Church-Rosser Theorem "theory" A property of a {reduction} system that states that if an expression can be reduced by zero or more reduction steps to either expression M or expression N then there exists some other expression to which both M and N can be reduced. This implies that there is a unique {normal form} for any expression since M and N cannot be different normal forms because the theorem says they can be reduced to some other expression and normal forms are irreducible by definition. It does not imply that a normal form is reachable, only that if reduction terminates it will reach a unique normal form. (1995-01-25)

cognitive architecture "architecture" A computer architecure involving {non-deterministic}, multiple {inference} processes, as found in {neural networks}. Cognitive architectures model the human brain and contrast with single processor computers. The term might also refer to software architectures, e.g. {fuzzy logic}. [Origin? Better definition? Reference?] (1995-11-29)

colorless ::: a. --> Without color; not distinguished by any hue; transparent; as, colorless water.
Free from any manifestation of partial or peculiar sentiment or feeling; not disclosing likes, dislikes, prejudice, etc.; as, colorless music; a colorless style; definitions should be colorless.

Common Object Request Broker Architecture "standard, programming" (CORBA) An {Object Management Group} specification which provides a standard messaging interface between distributed {objects}. The original CORBA specification (1.1) has been revised through version 2 (CORBA 2) with the latest specification being version 3 (CORBA 3). In its most basic form CORBA consists of the {Interface Definition Language} (IDL) and the Dynamic Invocation Interface (DII). The IDL definition is complied into a Stub (client) and Skeleton (server) component that communicate through an {Object Request Broker} (ORB). When an ORB determines that a request is to a remote object, it may execute the request by communicating with the remote ORB. The Corba IDL can be mapped to a number of languages including {C}, {C++}, {Java}, {COBOL}, {Smalltalk}, {Ada}, {Lisp}, {Python}, and {IDLscript}. CORBA ORBs are widely available for a number of platforms. The OMG standard for inter-ORB communication is {IIOP}, this ensures that all CORBA 2 compliant ORBS are able to interoperate. See also {COSS}, {Component Object Model}, {RMI}. {OMG CORBA specs (}. (2007-09-04)

Commonwealth Hackish "jargon" Hacker jargon as spoken outside the US, especially in the British Commonwealth. It is reported that Commonwealth speakers are more likely to pronounce truncations like "char" and "soc", etc., as spelled (/char/, /sok/), as opposed to American /keir/ and /sohsh/. Dots in {newsgroup} names (especially two-component names) tend to be pronounced more often (so soc.wibble is /sok dot wib'l/ rather than /sohsh wib'l/). The prefix {meta} may be pronounced /mee't*/; similarly, Greek letter beta is usually /bee't*/, zeta is usually /zee't*/, and so forth. Preferred {metasyntactic variables} include {blurgle}, "eek", "ook", "frodo", and "bilbo"; "wibble", "wobble", and in emergencies "wubble"; "banana", "tom", "dick", "harry", "wombat", "frog", {fish}, and so on and on (see {foo}). Alternatives to verb doubling include suffixes "-o-rama", "frenzy" (as in feeding frenzy), and "city" (examples: "barf city!" "hack-o-rama!" "core dump frenzy!"). Finally, note that the American terms "parens", "brackets", and "braces" for (), [], and {} are uncommon; Commonwealth hackish prefers "brackets", "square brackets", and "curly brackets". Also, the use of "pling" for {bang} is common outside the United States. See also {attoparsec}, {calculator}, {chemist}, {console jockey}, {fish}, {go-faster stripes}, {grunge}, {hakspek}, {heavy metal}, {leaky heap}, {lord high fixer}, {loose bytes}, {muddie}, {nadger}, {noddy}, {psychedelicware}, {plingnet}, {raster blaster}, {RTBM}, {seggie}, {spod}, {sun lounge}, {terminal junkie}, {tick-list features}, {weeble}, {weasel}, {YABA}, and notes or definitions under {Bad Thing}, {barf}, {bum}, {chase pointers}, {cosmic rays}, {crippleware}, {crunch}, {dodgy}, {gonk}, {hamster}, {hardwarily}, {mess-dos}, {nibble}, {proglet}, {root}, {SEX}, {tweak} and {xyzzy}. [{Jargon File}] (1995-01-18)

Composite idea: Any idea that consists of a fusion of sentient elements, which together are presumed to pass the threshold of consciousness. In logic, a compound of undefined ideas by way of definition. -- C.K.D.

computability theory "mathematics" The area of theoretical computer science concerning what problems can be solved by any computer. A function is computable if an {algorithm} can be implemented which will give the correct output for any valid input. Since computer programs are {countable} but {real numbers} are not, it follows that there must exist real numbers that cannot be calculated by any program. Unfortunately, by definition, there isn't an easy way of describing any of them! In fact, there are many tasks (not just calculating real numbers) that computers cannot perform. The most well-known is the {halting problem}, the {busy beaver} problem is less famous but just as fascinating. ["Computability", N.J. Cutland. (A well written undergraduate-level introduction to the subject)]. ["The Turing Omnibus", A.K. Dewdeney]. (1995-01-13)

computer literacy "education" Basic skill in use of computers, from the perspective of such skill being a necessary societal skill. The term was coined by Andrew Molnar, while director of the Office of Computing Activities at the {National Science Foundation}. "We started computer literacy in '72 [...] We coined that phrase. It's sort of ironic. Nobody knows what computer literacy is. Nobody can define it. And the reason we selected [it] was because nobody could define it, and [...] it was a broad enough term that you could get all of these programs together under one roof" (cited in Aspray, W., (September 25, 1991) "Interview with Andrew Molnar," OH 234. Center for the History of Information Processing, Charles Babbage Institute, University of Minnesota). The term, as a coinage, is similar to earlier coinages, such as "visual literacy", which {Merriam-Webster (} dates to 1971, and the more recent "media literacy". A more useful definition from {(} is: Computer literacy is an understanding of the concepts, terminology and operations that relate to general computer use. It is the essential knowledge needed to function independently with a computer. This functionality includes being able to solve and avoid problems, adapt to new situations, keep information organized and communicate effectively with other computer literate people. (2007-03-23)

condela {Connection Definition Language}

Conference On DAta SYstems Languages "body, data processing" (CODASYL) A consortium that developed {database models} and standard {database} extensions for {COBOL}. CODASYL was formed in 1959 to guide the development of a {standard} {programming language} that could be used on many computers. Members came from industry and government {data processing} departments. Its goal was to promote more effective data {systems analysis}, design and implementation. It published specifications for various languages over the years, handing these over to official standards bodies ({ISO}, {ANSI} or their predecessors) for formal standardisation. The 1965 List Processing Task Force worked on the {IDS/I} database extension. It later renamed itself to the Data Base Task Group (DBTG) and publishing the Codasyl Data Model, the first to allow one-to-many {relations}. This work also introduced {data definition languages} (DDLs) to define the {database schema} and a {data manipulation language} (DML) to be embedded in COBOL programs to request and update data in the database. Interest in CODASYL declined with the rise of {relational databases} beginning in the early 1980s. (2013-12-29)

Connection Definition Language "language" (condela) A {procedural}, parallel language for defining {neural networks}. {(}. (1994-11-30)

Consciousness: (Lat. conscire, to know, to be cognizant of) A designation applied to conscious mind as opposed to a supposedly unconscious or subconscious mind (See Subconscious Mind; Unconscious Mind), and to the whole domain of the physical and non-mental. Consciousness is generally considered an indefinable term or rather a term definable only by direct introspective appeal to conscious experiences. The indefinability of consciousness is expressed by Sir William Hamilton: "Consciousness cannot be defined: we may be ourselves fully aware what consciousness is, but we cannot without confusion convey to others a definition of what we ourselves clearly apprehend. The reason is plain: consciousness lies at the root of all knowledge." (Lectures on Metaphysics, I, 191.) Ladd's frequently quoted definition of consciousness succeeds only in indicating the circumstances under which it is directly observable: "Whatever we are when we are awake, as contrasted with what we are when we sink into a profound and dreamless sleep, that is to be conscious."

Contextual definition: See incomplete symbol. Contiguity, Association by: A type of association, recognized by Aristotle, whereby one of two states of mind, which have been coexistent or successive, tends to recall the other. This type of association has sometimes been considered the basic type to which all others are reducible. See Association, laws of. -- L.W.

continuous function "mathematics" A {function} f : D -" E, where D and E are {cpos}, is continuous if it is {monotonic} and f (lub Z) = lub { f z | z in Z } for all {directed} sets Z in D. In other words, the image of the lub is the lub of any directed image. All {additive} functions (functions which preserve all lubs) are continuous. A continuous function has a {least fixed point} if its {domain} has a least element, {bottom} (i.e. it is a cpo or a "pointed cpo" depending on your definition of a cpo). The {least fixed point} is fix f = lub {f^n bottom | n = 0..infinity} (1994-11-30)

Coordinated Universal Time "time, standard" (UTC, World Time) The standard time common to every place in the world. UTC is derived from {International Atomic Time} (TAI) by the addition of a whole number of "leap seconds" to synchronise it with {Universal Time} 1 (UT1), thus allowing for the eccentricity of the Earth's orbit, the rotational axis tilt (23.5 degrees), but still showing the Earth's irregular rotation, on which UT1 is based. Coordinated Universal Time is expressed using a 24-hour clock and uses the {Gregorian calendar}. It is used in aeroplane and ship navigation, where it also sometimes known by the military name, "Zulu time". "Zulu" in the phonetic alphabet stands for "Z" which stands for longitude zero. UTC was defined by the International Radio Consultative Committee ({CCIR}), a predecessor of the {ITU-T}. CCIR Recommendation 460-4, or ITU-T Recommendation X.680 (7/94), contains the full definition. The language-independent international abbreviation, UTC, is neither English nor French. It means both "Coordinated Universal Time" and "Temps Universel Coordonné". {BIPM (}. {The Royal Observatory Greenwich (}. {History of UTC and GMT (}. {U.S. National Institute of Standards & Technology (}. {UK National Physical Laboratory (}. {US Naval Observatory (}. {International Telecommunications Union (}. {Earth's irregular rotation (/pub/misc/earth_rotation)}. (2001-08-30)

copyright "legal" The exclusive rights of the owner of the copyright on a work to make and distribute copies, prepare derivative works, and perform and display the work in public (these last two mainly apply to plays, films, dances and the like, but could also apply to software). A work, including a piece of software, is under copyright by default in most coutries, whether of not it displays a copyright notice. However, a copyright notice may make it easier to assert ownership. The copyright owner is the person or company whose name appears in the copyright notice on the box, or the disk or the screen or wherever. Most countries have agreed to uphold each others' copyrights. A copyright notice has three parts. The first can be either the {copyright symbol} (a letter C in a circle), the word "Copyright" or the abbreviation "Copr". Only the first of these is recognised internationally and the common {ASCII} rendering "(C)" is not valid anywhere. This is followed by the name of the copyright holder and the year of publication. The year should be the year of _first_ publication, it is not necessary as some believe to update this every year to the current year. Copyright protection in most countries extends for 50 years after the author's death. Originally, most of the computer industry assumed that only the program's underlying instructions were protected under copyright law but, beginning in the early 1980s, a series of lawsuits involving the video screens of game programs extended protections to the appearance of programs. Use of copyright to restrict redistribution is immoral, unethical and illegitimate. It is a result of brainwashing by monopolists and corporate interests and it violates everyone's rights. Such use of copyrights and patents hamper technological progress by making a naturally abundant resource scarce. Many, from communists to right wing libertarians, are trying to abolish intellectual property myths. See also {public domain}, {copyleft}, {software law}. {Universal Copyright Convention (}. {US Copyright Office (}. {Usenet} newsgroup: {}. [Is this definition correct in the UK? In the US? Anywhere?] (2014-01-08)

CORAL 66 A real-time system programming language derived from {JOVIAL} and {ALGOL 60}. It was adopted as the British military standard from 1970 until the arrival of {Ada}. ["Official Definition of CORAL 66", P.M. Woodward et al, HMSO, London, 1970].

CP A concurrent Prolog. "The Concurrent Logic Programming Language CP": Definition and Operational Semantics", V. Saraswat, 14th POPL, ACM 1987, pp.49-62.

CPL Combined Programming Language. U Cambridge and U London. A very complex language, syntactically based on ALGOL 60, with a pure functional subset. Provides the ..where.. form of local definitions. Strongly typed but has a "general" type enabling a weak form of polymorphism. Functions may be defined as either normal or applicative order. Typed array and polymorphic list structures. List selection is through structure matching. Partially implemented on the Titan (Atlas 2) computer at Cambridge. Led to the much simpler BCPL. "The Main Features of CPL", D.W. Barron et al, Computer J 6(2):134-143 (Jul 1963).

C preprocessor "tool, programming" (cpp) The standard {Unix} {macro}-expansion utility run as the first phase of the {C} compiler, {cc}. Cpp interprets lines beginning with "

cproto "programming, tool" A translator , written by Chin Huang at, that generates {ANSI C} {function prototypes} from {K&R} {C} function definitions. It can also translate function definition heads between {K&R} style and {ANSI C} style. Posted to {comp.sources}.misc, volume 29. Runs under {Unix}, {MS-DOS}. (1992-07-18)

Criterion ethical: In ethics the main problem is often said to be the finding of a criterion of virtue, or of rightness, or of goodness, depending on which of these concepts is taken as basic; and the quest for a moral standard, or for an ethical first principle, or for a summum bonum may generally be construed as a quest for such a criterion (e.g., Kant's first form of the categorical imperative may be interpreted as a criterion of rightness). Hence to find a criterion of, say, goodness is to find a characteristic whose presence, absence, or degree may be taken as a mark of the presence, absence, or degree of goodness. Thus hedonists hold pleasantness to be such a characteristic. Often, finding a criterion of a characteristic is taken as equivalent to finding a definition of that characteristic. Strictly, this is not the case, for a characteristic may serve as a criterion of another with which it is not identical. Pleasantness might be a criterion of goodness without being identical with it, if only the above relation held between pleasantness and goodness. However, the discovery of a definition of a characteristic does normally furnish a criterion of that characteristic. Vide the definition of a right act as an act conducive to the greatest happiness.

cybernetics "robotics" /si:`b*-net'iks/ The study of control and communication in living and man-made systems. The term was first proposed by {Norbert Wiener} in the book referenced below. Originally, cybernetics drew upon electrical engineering, mathematics, biology, neurophysiology, anthropology, and psychology to study and describe actions, feedback, and response in systems of all kinds. It aims to understand the similarities and differences in internal workings of organic and machine processes and, by formulating abstract concepts common to all systems, to understand their behaviour. Modern "second-order cybernetics" places emphasis on how the process of constructing models of the systems is influenced by those very systems, hence an elegant definition - "applied epistemology". Related recent developments (often referred to as {sciences of complexity}) that are distinguished as separate disciplines are {artificial intelligence}, {neural networks}, {systems theory}, and {chaos theory}, but the boundaries between those and cybernetics proper are not precise. See also {robot}. {The Cybernetics Society (} of the UK. {American Society for Cybernetics (}. {IEEE Systems, Man and Cybernetics Society (}. {International project "Principia Cybernetica" (}. ["Cybernetics, or control and communication in the animal and the machine", N. Wiener, New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 1948] (2002-01-01)

database 1. "database" One or more large structured sets of persistent data, usually associated with software to update and {query} the data. A simple database might be a single file containing many {records}, each of which contains the same set of {fields} where each field is a certain fixed width. A database is one component of a {database management system}. See also {ANSI/SPARC Architecture}, {atomic}, {blob}, {data definition language}, {deductive database}, {distributed database}, {fourth generation language}, {functional database}, {object-oriented database}, {relational database}. {Carol E. Brown's tutorial (}. 2. "hypertext" A collection of {nodes} managed and stored in one place and all accessible via the same {server}. {Links} outside this are "external", and those inside are "internal". On the {World-Wide Web} this is called a {website}. 3. All the facts and rules comprising a {logic programming} program. (2005-11-17)

Data definition language "language, database" (DDL) 1. A language enabling the structure and instances of a {database} to be defined in a human-, and machine-readable form. {SQL} contains DDL commands that can be used either interactively, or within programming language {source code}, to define databases and their components, e.g. CREATE and DROP. See also {Data manipulation language} (DML). 2. A specification language for databases, based on the {entity-relationship model}. It is used in the {Eli} {compiler-compiler} to manage type definitions. ["DDL Reference Manual", ECE Dept U Colorado, 1991]. (1999-04-26)

Data Manipulation Language "language, database" (DML, or {Data Management Language}) A language for the manipulation of data in a {database} by applications and/or directly by end-users. {SQL} contains DML commands such as INSERT, UPDATE, and DELETE. See also {Data Definition Language} (DDL). (1999-04-26)

DCP {definitional constraint programming}

dd A {Unix} copy command with special options suitable for block-oriented devices; it was often used in heavy-handed system maintenance, as in "Let's "dd" the {root partition} onto a tape, then use the {boot PROM} to load it back on to a new disk". dd had a distinctly non-Unixy keyword option syntax reminiscent of {IBM} {System/360} JCL (which had an elaborate DD "Dataset Definition" specification for I/O devices). Though the command filled a need, the interface design was clearly a prank. [{Jargon File}] (2005-08-08)

DDL 1. ["A Digital System Design Language (DDL)", J.R. Duley, IEEE Trans on Computers c-17(9), pp. 850-861, Sep 1968]. 2. "language, games" An {adventure} language developed by M. Urban, C. Kostanick et al of the {UCLA} Computer Club. DDL was the forerunner of {ADL}. 3. {Data Definition Language}. 4. {Document Description Language}. 5. {Dynamic Data Exchange}. (Originally "Linking"). (1997-06-05)

debugging an empty file "programming, humour" A humourous definition of {programming} that considers a complete absence of any code as a {bug} to be fixed. {test-driven development} proceeds by the programmer writing tests for code that doesn't exist yet, which could be described as testing an empty file. (2012-05-01)

Deduction: (Lat. deductio, a leading down) Necessary analytical inference. (a) In logic: inference in which a conclusion follows necessarily from one or more given premisses. Definitions given have usually required that the conclusion be of lesser generality than one of the premisses, and have sometimes explicitly excluded immediate inference; but neither restriction fits very well with the ordinary actual use of the word. (b) In psychology, analytical reasoning from general to particular or less general. The mental drawing of conclusions from given postulates. Deduction of the Categories: (In Kant: Deduktion der Kategorien) Transcendental deduction: An exposition of the nature and possibility of a priori forms and the explanation and justification of their use as necessary conditions of experience. Empirical deduction: Factual explanation of how concepts arise in experience and reflection. See Kantianism. -- O.F.K.

definable ::: a. --> Capable of being defined, limited, or explained; determinable; describable by definition; ascertainable; as, definable limits; definable distinctions or regulations; definable words.

definement ::: n. --> The act of defining; definition; description.

Definition: In the development of a logistic system (q. v.) it is usually desirable to introduce new notations, beyond what is afforded by the primitive symbols alone, by means of syntactical definitions or nominal definitions, i.e., conventions which provide that certain symbols or expressions shall stand (as substitutes or abbreviations) for particular formulas of the system. This may be done either by particular definitions, each introducing a symbol or expression to stand for some one formula, or by schemata of definition, providing that any expression of a certain form shall stand for a certain corresponding formula (so condensing many -- often infinitely many -- particular definitions into a single schema). Such definitions, whether particular definitions or schemata, are indicated, in articles herein by the present writer, by an arrow →, the new notation introduced (the definiendum) being placed at the left, or base of the arrow, and the formula for which it shall stand (the definiens) being placed at the right, or head, of the arrow. Another sign commonly employed for the same purpose (instead of the arrow) is the equality sign = with the letters Df, or df, appearing either as a subscript or separately after the definiens.

Definition of a term: (in Scholasticism)

Definitions by Disciples

Definitions by Sri Aurobindo and Mother

Delta-4 Definition and Design of an open Dependable Distributed system architecture. An Esprit project investigating the achievement of dependability in open distributed systems, including real-time systems.

Descartes, Rene: See Cartesianism. Description, Knowledge by: (Lat. de + scribere, to write) Knowledge about things in contrast to direct acquaintance with things. See Acquaintance, Knowledge by. Description is opposed to exact definition in the Port Royal Logic (Part II, ch. XVI). Among the first to contrast description and acquaintance was G. Grote (Exploratio Philosophica, p. 60. See also W. James, Principles of Psychology, Vol. I, pp. 221 ff. and B. Russell, Problems of Philosophy, ch. V.) -- L.W.

Diallelon: A vicious circle (q. v.) in definition. -- A. C. gives us these definitions.

dictionary flame [{Usenet}] An attempt to sidetrack a debate away from issues by insisting on meanings for key terms that presuppose a desired conclusion or smuggle in an implicit premise. A common tactic of people who prefer argument over definitions to disputes about reality. Compare {spelling flame}. [{Jargon File}]

Dictionary of Algorithms and Data Structures "algorithm" (DADS) A dictionary of {algorithms}, algorithmic techniques, {data structures}, archetypal problems and related definitions started by Paul Black in 1998. {(}. (2019-04-26)

differentiation ::: n. --> The act of differentiating.
The act of distinguishing or describing a thing, by giving its different, or specific difference; exact definition or determination.
The gradual formation or production of organs or parts by a process of evolution or development, as when the seed develops the root and the stem, the initial stem develops the leaf, branches, and flower buds; or in animal life, when the germ evolves the

D. Interpretations of Probability. The methods and results of mathematical probability (and of probability in general) are the subject of much controversy as regards their interpretation and value. Among the various theories proposed, we shall consider the following Probability as a measure of belief, probability as the relative frequency of events, probability as the truth-frequency of types of argument, probability as a primitive notion, probability as an operational concept, probability as a limit of frequencies, and probability as a physical magnitude determined by axioms. I. Probability as a Measure of Belief: According to this theory, probability is the measure or relative degree of rational credence to be attached to facts or statements on the strength of valid motives. This type of probability is sometimes difficult to estimate, as it may be qualitative as well as quantitative. When considered in its mathematical aspects, the measure of probable inference depends on the preponderance or failure of operative causes or observed occurrences of the case under investigation. This conception involves axioms leading to the classic rule of Laplace, namely: The measure of probability of any one of mutually exclusive and apriori equiprobable possibilities, is the ratio of the number of favorable possibilities to the total number of possibilities. In probability operations, this rule is taken as the definition of direct probability for those cases where it is applicable. The main objections against this interpretation are: that probability is largely subjective, or at least independent of direct experience; that equiprobability is taken as an apriori notion, although the ways of asserting it are empirical; that the conditions of valid equiprobability are not stated definitely; that equiprobability is difficult to determine actually in all cases; that it is difficult to attach an adequate probability to a complex event from the mere knowledge of the probabilities of its component parts, and that the notion of probability is not general, as it does not cover such cases as the inductive derivation of probabilities from statistical data. II. Probability as a Relative Frequency. This interpretation is based on the nature of events, and not on any subjective considerations. It deals with the rate with which an event will occur in a class of events. Hence, it considers probability as the ratio of frequency of true results to true conditions, and it gives as its measure the relative frequency leading from true conditions to true results. What is meant when a set of calculations predict that an experiment will yield a result A with probability P, is that the relative frequency of A is expected to approximate the number P in a long series of such experiments. This conception seems to be more concerned with empirical probabilities, because the calculations assumed are mostly based on statistical data or material assumptions suggested by past experiments. It is valuable in so far as it satisfies the practical necessity of considering probability aggregates in such problems. The main objections against this interpretation are: that it does not seem capable of expressing satisfactorily what is meant by the probability of an event being true; that its conclusions are more or less probable, owing to the difficulty of defining a proper standard for comparing ratios; that neither its rational nor its statistical evidence is made clear; that the degree of relevance of that evidence is not properly determined, on account of the theoretical indefinite ness of both the true numerical value of the probability and of the evidence assumed, and that it is operational in form only, but not in fact, because it involves the infinite without proper limitations. III. Probability as Truth-Frequency of Types of Arguments: In this interpretation, which is due mainly to Peirce and Venn, probability is shifted from the events to the propositions about them; instead of considering types and classes of events, it considers types and classes of propositions. Probability is thus the ability to give an objective reading to the relative tiuth of propositions dealing with singular events. This ability can be used successfully in interpreting definite and indefinite numerical probabilities, by taking statistical evaluations and making appropriate verbal changes in their formulation. Once assessed, the relative truth of the propositions considered can be communicated to facts expressed by these propositions. But neither the propositions nor the facts as such have a probability in themselves. With these assumptions, a proposition has a degree of probability, only if it is considered as a member of a class of propositions; and that degree is expressed by the proportion of true propositions to the total number of propositions in the class. Hence, probability is the ratio of true propositions to all the propositions of the class examined, if the class is finite, or to all the propositions of the same type in the long run, if the class is infinite. In the first case, fair sampling may cover the restrictions of a finite class; in the second case, the use of infinite series offers a practical limitation for the evidence considered. But in both cases, probability varies with the class or type chosen, and probability-inferences are limited by convention to those cases where numerical values can be assigned to the ratios considered. It will be observed that this interpretation of probability is similar to the relative frequency theory. The difference between these two theories is more formal than material in both cases the probability refers ultimately to kinds of evidence based on objective matter of fact. Hence the Truth-Frequency theory is open to the sime objections as the Relative-Frequency theory, with proper adjustments. An additional difficulty of this theory is that the pragmatic interpretation of truth it involves, has yet to be proved, and the situation is anything but improved by assimilating truth with probability.

diorism ::: n. --> Definition; logical direction.

Diorism: The Greek term in Plato's usage signifies division, distinction; in that of Aristotle, distinction, definition, which is also the meaning today. In mathematics, a statement of the conditions needed in order to solve a problem. -- J.J.R.

distinguish ::: v. t. --> Not set apart from others by visible marks; to make distinctive or discernible by exhibiting differences; to mark off by some characteristic.
To separate by definition of terms or logical division of a subject with regard to difference; as, to distinguish sounds into high and low.
To recognize or discern by marks, signs, or characteristic quality or qualities; to know and discriminate

distributed data warehouse "database" (DDW) Data shared across multiple data repositories, for the purpose of {OLAP}. Each data warehouse may belong to one or many organisations. The sharing im;plies a common format or definition of data elements (e.g. using XML). (2008-03-15)

Divisibility: The property in virtue of which a whole (whether physical, psychical or mathematical) may be divided into parts which do not thereby necessarily sever their relation with the whole. Divisibility usually implies not merely analysis or distinction of parts, but actual or potential resolution into parts. From the beginning philosophers have raised the question whether substances are infinitely or finitely divisible. Ancient materialism conceived of the physical atom as an indivisible substance. Descartes, however, and after him Leibniz, maintained the infinite divisibility of substance. The issue became the basis of Kant's cosmological antinomy (Crit. of pure Reason), from which he concluded that the issue was insoluble in metaphysical terms. In recent decades the question has had to take account of (1) researches in the physical atom, before which the older conception of physical substance has steadily retreated; and (2) the attempt to formulate a satisfactory definition of infinity (q.v.). -- O.F.K.

Document Type Definition "text, standard" (DTD) The definition of a document type in {SGML} or {XML}, consisting of a set of {mark-up} tags and their interpretation. {Docbook DTD home (}. {XML DTD Tutorial (}. (2001-04-30)

Dogma: The Greek term signified a public ordinance of decree, also an opinion. A present meaning: an established, or generally admitted, philosophic opinion explicitly formulated, in a depreciative sense; one accepted on authority without the support of demonstration or experience. Kant calls a directly synthetical proposition grounded on concepts a dogma which he distinguishes from a mathema, which is a similar proposition effected by a construction of concepts. In the history of Christianity dogmas have come to mean definition of revealed truths proposed by the supreme authority of the Church as articles of faith which must be accepted by all its members. -- J.J.R.

Domain Analysis "systems analysis" 1. Determining the operations, data objects, properties and {abstractions} appropriate for designing solutions to problems in a given {domain}. 2. The {domain engineering} activity in which domain knowledge is studied and formalised as a domain definition and a domain specification. A {software reuse} approach that involves combining software components, subsystems, etc., into a single application system. 3. The process of identifying, collecting organising, analysing and representing a {domain model} and software architecture from the study of existing systems, underlying theory, emerging technology and development histories within the domain of interest. 4. The analysis of systems within a domain to discover commonalities and differences among them. (1997-12-26)

domain engineering "systems analysis" 1. The development and evolution of {domain} specific knowledge and artifacts to support the development and evolution of systems in the domain. Domain engineering includes engineering of {domain models}, components, methods and tools and may also include {asset management}. 2. The engineering process of analysing and modelling a domain, designing and modelling a generic solution architecture for a product line within that domain, implementing and using reusable components of that architecture and maintaining and evolving the domain, architecture and implementation models. 3. A reuse-based approach to defining the scope ({domain definition}), specifying the structure ({domain architecture}) and building the Assets (requirements, designs, software code, documentation) for a class of systems, subsystems or applications. Domain engineering can include domain definition, domain analysis, developing the domain architecture domain implementation.

domain model "systems analysis" 1. A definition of the functions, objects, data, requirements, relationships and variations in a particular {domain}. 2. A product of {domain analysis} which provides a representation of the requirements of the domain. The domain model identifies and describes the structure of data, flow of information, functions, constraints and controls within the Domain that are included in software systems in the domain. The Domain Model describes commonalities and variabilities among requirements for software systems in the domain. (1997-12-26)

domain-specific language "language" A machine-processable language whose terms are derived from a {domain model} and that is used for the definition of components or software architectures supporting that domain. A domain-specific language is often used as input to an application generator. (1997-12-26)

domain theory "theory" A branch of mathematics introduced by Dana Scott in 1970 as a mathematical theory of programming languages, and for nearly a quarter of a century developed almost exclusively in connection with {denotational semantics} in computer science. In {denotational semantics} of programming languages, the meaning of a program is taken to be an element of a domain. A domain is a mathematical structure consisting of a set of values (or "points") and an ordering relation, "= on those values. Domain theory is the study of such structures. (""=" is written in {LaTeX} as {\subseteq}) Different domains correspond to the different types of object with which a program deals. In a language containing functions, we might have a domain X -" Y which is the set of functions from domain X to domain Y with the ordering f "= g iff for all x in X, f x "= g x. In the {pure lambda-calculus} all objects are functions or {applications} of functions to other functions. To represent the meaning of such programs, we must solve the {recursive} equation over domains, D = D -" D which states that domain D is ({isomorphic} to) some {function space} from D to itself. I.e. it is a {fixed point} D = F(D) for some operator F that takes a domain D to D -" D. The equivalent equation has no non-trivial solution in {set theory}. There are many definitions of domains, with different properties and suitable for different purposes. One commonly used definition is that of Scott domains, often simply called domains, which are {omega-algebraic}, {consistently complete} {CPOs}. There are domain-theoretic computational models in other branches of mathematics including {dynamical systems}, {fractals}, {measure theory}, {integration theory}, {probability theory}, and {stochastic processes}. See also {abstract interpretation}, {bottom}, {pointed domain}. (1999-12-09)

double-ended queue "algorithm" /dek/ (deque) A {queue} which can have items added or removed from either end[?]. The Knuth reference below reports that the name was coined by E. J. Schweppe. [D. E. Knuth, "The Art of Computer Programming. Volume 1: Fundamental Algorithms", second edition, Sections 2.2.1, 2.6, Addison-Wesley, 1973]. {Silicon Graphics (}. [Correct definition? Example use?] (2003-12-17)

DTD {Document Type Definition}

Ease General purpose parallel programming language, combining the process constructs of CSP and the distributed data structures of Linda. "Programming with Ease: Semiotic Definition of the Language", S.E. Zenith, "" Yale U TR-809, Jul 1990.

ECIP2 An {Esprit} project on the definition of a specification language at the requirement level.

effective number of bits "hardware" (ENOB) An indication of the quality of an {analog to digital converter}. The measurement is related to the test frequency and the {signal-to-noise ratio}. [Better definition?] (1998-06-15)

Eiffel "language" An {object-oriented} language produced by {Bertrand Meyer} in 1985. Eiffel has {classes} with {multiple inheritance} and {repeated inheritance}, {deferred class}es (like {Smalltalk}'s {abstract class}), and {clusters} of classes. Objects can have both {static types} and {dynamic types}. The dynamic type must be a descendant of the static (declared) type. {Dynamic binding} resolves {multiple inheritance} clashes. It has flattened forms of classes, in which all of the inherited features are added at the same level and {generic class}es parametrised by type. Other features are {persistent objects}, {garbage collection}, {exception} handling, {foreign language interface}. Classes may be equipped with {assertions} (routine preconditions and postconditions, class {invariants}) implementing the theory of "{Design by Contract}" and helping produce more reliable software. Eiffel is compiled to {C}. It comes with libraries containing several hundred classes: data structures and {algorithms} (EiffelBase), graphics and user interfaces (EiffelVision) and language analysis (EiffelLex, EiffelParse). The first release of Eiffel was release 1.4, introduced at the first {OOPSLA} in October 1986. The language proper was first described in a University of California, Santa Barbara report dated September 1985. Eiffel is available, with different libraries, from several sources including {Interactive Software Engineering}, USA (ISE Eiffel version 3.3); Sig Computer GmbH, Germany (Eiffel/S); and {Tower, Inc.}, Austin (Tower Eiffel). The language definition is administered by an open organisation, the Nonprofit International Consortium for Eiffel (NICE). There is a standard kernel library. An {Eiffel source checker} and compiler {front-end} is available. See also {Sather}, {Distributed Eiffel}, {Lace}, {shelf}. E-mail: "". ["Eiffel: The Language", Bertrand Meyer, P-H 1992]. (1998-11-15)

Eiffel source checker A compiler {front-end} for {Eiffel} 3 by Olaf Langmack "" and Burghardt Groeber. It was generated automatically with the {Karlsruhe toolbox} for compiler construction according to the most recent public language definition. The {parser} derives an easy-to-use {abstract syntax tree}, supports elementary error recovery and provides a precise source code indication of errors. It performs a strict syntax check and analyses 4000 lines of source code per second on a {Sun} {SPARC} {workstation}. {(}. (1992-12-14)

Ekam adwaitam: Sanskrit for the One without a second; the famous definition of God in the Chandogya Upanishad.

elegant (From Mathematics) Combining simplicity, power, and a certain ineffable grace of design. Higher praise than "clever", "winning" or even {cuspy}. The French aviator, adventurer, and author Antoine de Saint-Exup'ery, probably best known for his classic children's book "The Little Prince", was also an aircraft designer. He gave us perhaps the best definition of engineering elegance when he said "A designer knows he has achieved perfection not when there is nothing left to add, but when there is nothing left to take away." [{Jargon File}] (1994-11-29)

Ellie "language" An {object-oriented} language with {fine-grained parallelism} for {distributed computing}. Ellie is based on {BETA}, {Smalltalk}, and others. Parallelism is supported by {unbounded RPC} and "{future}" {objects}. Synchronisation is by {dynamic interfaces}. {Classes}, {methods}, {blocks}, and {objects} are all modelled by {first-class} "Ellie objects". It supports {genericity}, {polymorphism}, and {delegation}/{inheritance}. {(}? ["Ellie Language Definition Report", Birger Andersen "", SIGPLAN Notices 25(11):45-65, Nov 1990]. (2000-04-02)

Empiricism: (1) A proposition about the sources of knowledge: that the sole source of knowledge is experience, or that either no knowledge at all or no knowledge with existential reference is possible independently of experience. Experience (q.v.) may be understood as either all conscious content, data of the senses only, or other designated content. Such empiricism may take the form of denial that any knowledge or at least knowledge about existents can be obtained a priori (q.v.), that is, denial that there are universal and necessary truths, denial that there is knowledge which holds regardless of past, present, or future experience; denial that there is instinctive, innate, or inborn knowledge; denial that the test of truth is clarity to natural reason or self-evidence, denial that one can gain certain knowledge by finding something the opposite of which is inconceivable; denial thit there are any necessary presuppositions of all knowledge or of anything known certainly, denial that any truths can be established by the fact that to deny them implies their reaffirmation; or denial that conventional or aibitrary definitions or assumptions yield knowledge.

enumerated type "programming" (Or "enumeration") A {type} which includes in its definition an exhaustive list of possible values for variables of that type. Common examples include {Boolean}, which takes values from the list [true, false], and day-of-week which takes values [Sunday, Monday, Tuesday, Wednesday, Thursday, Friday, Saturday]. Enumerated types are a feature of {strongly typed languages}, including {C} and {Ada}. Characters, (fixed-size) integers and even {floating-point} types could be (but are not usually) considered to be (large) enumerated types. (1996-11-28)

equivalence ::: n. --> The condition of being equivalent or equal; equality of worth, value, signification, or force; as, an equivalence of definitions.
Equal power or force; equivalent amount.
The quantity of the combining power of an atom, expressed in hydrogen units; the number of hydrogen atoms can combine with, or be exchanged for; valency. See Valence.
The degree of combining power as determined by

Essence: (Lat. essentia, fr. essens, participle of esse, to be) The being or power of a thing; necessary internal relation or function. The Greek philosophers identified essence and substance in the term, ousia. In classic Latin essence was the idea or law of a thing. But in scholastic philosophy the distinction between essence and substance became important. Essence began to be identified, as in its root meaning, with being, or power. For Locke, the being whereby a thing is what it is. For Kant, the primary internal principle of all that belongs to the being of a thing. For Peirce, the intelligible element of the possibility of being. (a) In logic: definition or the elements of a thing; the genus and differentia. See Definition. (b) In epistemology: that intelligible character which defines what an indefinite predicate asserts. The universal possibility of a thing. Opposite of existence. Syn. with being, possibility. See Santayana's use of the term in Realm of Essence, as a hybrid of intuited datum and scholastic essence (q.v.). See Eternal object. -- J.K.F.

Essence, (Scholastic): The essence of a thing is its nature considered independently of its existence. Also non-existent things and those which cannot exist at all have a proper essence. The definition details all properties making up the essence. It is doubtful whether we can give of a ny thing a truly essential definition with the one exception of man: man is a rational animal. Most of the definitions have to be content with naming accidental features, because we do not attain a direct knowledge of substances. Synonymously the term "quiddity" is used. The essence implies, in the case of corporeal beings, matter, but not as actually contained, since the essence is individualized by prime matter. But it is of the essence of material things to be material. Thus, Essence is not "form" properly speaking. See Distinction, Form, Individuation, Matter. -- R.A.

Eternity [from Latin aeternus, aeviternus from aevum an age] Originally eternity signified time divided into endless cycles stretching from the indefinite past through the present into the indefinite future, comprised within encompassing frontierless duration. Eternity therefore is the abstract sum total of endlessly cyclical time periods. As used in The Secret Doctrine, eternity often means a kosmic mahakalpa or manifestation period; thus the seven eternities means seven kosmic periods equivalent to 100 Years of Brahma or 311,040,000,000,000 human years. Even in the Hindu Vishnu-Purana, immortality, which is given as a definition of eternity, means merely “existence to the end of the Kalpa” (2:8). Occasionally used as a synonym for duration.

EULER [Named after the Swiss mathematician Leonhard Euler (1707-1783)] A revision of {ALGOL} by {Niklaus Wirth}. A small predecessor of {Pascal}. ["EULER: A Generalisation of ALGOL and Its Formal Definition", N. Wirth, CACM 9(1) (Jan 1966) and 9(2) (Feb 1966)].

European Computer-Industry Research Centre GmbH "body" (ECRC) A joint research organisation founded in 1984 on the initiative of three major European manufacturers: {Bull} (France), {ICL} (UK) and {Siemens} (Germany). Its activities were intended to enhance the future competitive ability of the European {Information Technology} industry and thus complement the work of national and international bodies. The Centre is intended to be the breeding ground for those ideas, techniques and products which are essential for the future use of electronic information processing. The work of the Centre will focus on advanced information processing technology for the next generation of computers. ECRC is an independent company, owned equally by its shareholders. The formal interface between ECRC and its shareholders consists of two bodies: The Shareholders' Council, which approves the Centre's programmes and budgets and supervises their execution and the Scientific Advisory Board, which advises the Shareholders' Council in determining future research directions. There are many collaborations between ECRC and its shareholders' companies on specific projects (Technology Transfer, prospective studies etc). The Centre is staffed by highly qualified scientists drawn from different countries. Research staff are hired directly by ECRC, as well as some who come on assignment from the member companies, and others seconded from public research agencies and universities. Seminars are held which bring together specialists from the Centre and the member companies. ECRC's mission is to pursue research in fundamental areas of computer science. The aim is to develop the theory, methodologies and tools needed to build innovative computer applications. ECRC contributes actively to the international effort that is expanding the frontiers of knowledge in computer science. It plays an important role in bridging the gap between research and industry by striving to work at the highest academic level with a strong industrial focus. ECRC constitutes an opportunity in Europe for the best scientists and offers young researchers the possibility to mature in an environment which exposes them to both fundamental research and the process of delivering the results to industry. ECRC plays an important role in Europe and is involved in several European Community initiatives. It is regularly consulted by the Commission of the European Communities on strategic issues, such as the definition of future research plans, international co-operation and relationships between academia and industry. Address: ECRC GmbH, Arabellastrasse 17, D-81925 Munich, Germany. {(}. Telephone: +49 (89) 926 99 0. Fax: +49 (89) 926 99 170. (1994-12-01)

exabyte "unit, data" (EB) A unit of {data} equal to 10^18 {bytes} but see {binary prefix} for other definitions. An exabyte is exactly 1000^6 bytes or 1000 {petabytes}. 1000 exabytes are one {zettabyte}. See {prefix}. (2013-11-04)

Experience: (Lat. Experientia, from experiri: to test) The condition or state of subjectivity or awareness. (The term differs from Consciousness by emphasizing the temporal or passing character of affective undergoing. Usage, however, is not uniform, since its definition involves a theoretical standpoint. Thus Bradley identified it with Consciousness, while W. James used it to mean neutral phenomenon, a That or Given, without implications of either subjectivity or objectivity.) -- W.L.

explanation ::: n. --> The act of explaining, expounding, or interpreting; the act of clearing from obscurity and making intelligible; as, the explanation of a passage in Scripture, or of a contract or treaty.
That which explains or makes clear; as, a satisfactory explanation.
The meaning attributed to anything by one who explains it; definition; interpretation; sense.
A mutual exposition of terms, meaning, or motives,

Express 1. A language supporting {concurrency} through {message passing} to named message queues from {ParaSoft} Corporation {(}. 2. Data definition language, meant to become an ISO standard for product data representation and exchange. TC 184/SC4 N83, ISO, 1991-05-31. E-mail: "". 3. A data modelling language adopted by the {ISO} working group on {STEP}.

Extended Self-containing Prolog "language" (ESP) An {object-oriented} extension of {KL0} by Chikayama. ESP has {backtracking}-based control, {unification}-based parameter passing and {object-oriented} calling. An {object} in ESP is an {axiom} set. A {class} definition consists of nature definitions ({inheritance}), slot definitions ({class variables}) and {clause} definitions. ESP has {multiple inheritance} similar to {Flavors}. It has been implemented for {ICOT}'s {PSI} Sequential Inference machine. See also {CESP}. E-mail: "". ["Unique Features of ESP", T. Chikayama, Proc Intl Conf 5th Gen Comp Sys, ICOT 1984]. (1994-12-08)

F. B. Fitch, The consistency of the ramified Principia, The Journal of Symbolic Logic, vol. 3 (1938), pp. 140-149. Ramsey, Frank Plumpton: (1903-1930) In the light of Wittgenstein's work, he proposed several modifications in the Principia Mathematica treatment of functions. These, he urged, made possible the omission of the Axiom of Reducibility, a simplification of the Theory of Types and an improved definition of identity. In stimulating philosophical papers he denied any ultimate distinction between particulars and universals, defended a Wittgensteinian interpretation of general propositions, proposed a subjective theory of probability and a pragmatic view of induction, and offered a theory of theories and a theory of the nature of causal propositions. Most of his work is included in The Foundations of Mathematics, London, Kegan Paul, 1931. -- C.A.B.

FEL Function Equation Language. Programs are sets of definitions. Sequences are lists stored in consecutive memory. "FEL Programmer's Guide", R. M. Keller, AMPS TR 7, U Utah, March 1982.

Figure (syllogistic): The moods of the categorical syllogism (see Logic, formal, § 5) are divided into four figures, according as the middle term is subject in the major premiss and predicate in the minor premiss (first figure), or predicate in both premisses (second figure), or subject in both premisses (third figure), or predicate in the major premiss and subject in the minor premiss (fourth figure). Aristotle recognized only three figures, including the moods of the fourth figure among those of the first. The separation of the fourth figure from the first (ascribed to Galen) is accompanied by a redefinition of "major" and "minor" -- so that the major premiss is that involving the predicate of the conclusion, and the minor premiss is that involving the subject of the conclusion. -- A.C.

F+L "language" Functions plus Logic. Equational clauses within function definitions to solve for {logic variable} bindings. ["Functions plus Logic in Theory and Practice", R.B. Kieburtz, Feb 1987, unpublished]. (1994-10-20)

F. Logos: (Gr. logos) A term denoting either reason or one of the expressions of reason or order in words or things; such as word, discourse, definition, formula, principle, mathematical ratio. In its most important sense in philosophy it refers to a cosmic reason which gives order and intelligibility to the world. In this sense the doctrine first appears in Heraclitus, who affirms the reality of a Logos analogous to the reason in man that regulates all physical processes and is the source of all human law. The conception is developed more fully by the Stoics, who conceive of the world as a living unity, perfect in the adaptation of its parts to one another and to the whole, and animated by an immanent and purposive reason. As the creative source of this cosmic unity and perfection the world-reason is called the seminal reason (logos spermatikos), and is conceived as containing within itself a multitude of logoi spermatikoi, or intelligible and purposive forms operating in the world. As regulating all things, the Logos is identified with Fate (heimarmene); as directing all things toward the good, with Providence (pronoia); and as the ordered course of events, with Nature (physis). In Philo of Alexandria, in whom Hebrew modes of thought mingle with Greek concepts, the Logos becomes the immaterial instrument, and even at times the personal agency, through which the creative activity of the transcendent God is exerted upon the world. In Christian philosophy the Logos becomes the second person of the Trinity and its functions are identified with the creative, illuminating and redemptive work of Jesus Christ. Finally the Logos plays an important role in the system of Plotinus, where it appears as the creative and form-giving aspect of Intelligence (Nous), the second of the three Hypostases. -- G. R.

Fohat ::: An extremely mystical term used in the occultism of Tibet for what in Sanskrit is called daiviprakriti,which means "divine nature" or "primordial nature," and which also can be called "primordial light." Inone sense of the word fohat may be considered as almost identical with the old mystical Greek eros, butfohat as a technical term contains within itself a far wider range of ideas than does the Greek term.Fohat may be considered as the essence of kosmic electricity, provided, however, that in this definitionwe endow the term electricity with the attribute of consciousness; or, to put it more accurately, providedthat we understand that the essence of electricity is indeed consciousness. It is ever-present and activefrom the primordial beginnings of a manvantara to its last end, nor does it then actually pass out ofexistence, but becomes quiescent or latent as it were, sleeping or dormant during the kosmic pralaya. Inone sense of the word it may be called kosmic will, for the analogy with the conscious will in humanbeings is exceedingly close. It is the incessantly active, ever-moving, impelling or urging force in nature,from the beginning of the evolution of a universe or of a solar system to its end.H. P. Blavatsky, quoting one of the ancient mystically occult works, says in substance: "Fohat is thesteed and thought is the rider." If, however, we liken fohat to what the conscious will is in the humanbeing, we must then think only of the lower or substantial parts -- the pranic activities -- of the humanwill, for behind the substantial parts stands always the directing and guiding consciousness. Fohat beingincessantly active is therefore both formative and destructive, because it is through the ceaseless workingof fohat that unending change continues -- the passing of one phase of manifested existence to anotherphase, whether this manifested existence be a solar system or a planetary chain or a globe or humanbeing or, indeed, any entity.Fohat is as active among the electrons of an atom and among the atoms themselves as it is among thesuns. In one sense it may be called the vital force of the universe, corresponding from this viewpoint tothe pranic activity on all the seven planes of the human constitution.

font "text" A set of {glyphs} ({images}) representing the {characters} from some particular {character set} in a particular size and {typeface}. The image of each character may be encoded either as a {bitmap} (in a {bitmap font}) or by a higher-level description in terms of lines and areas (an {outline font}). There are several different computer representations for fonts, the most widely known are {Adobe Systems, Inc.}'s {PostScript} font definitions and {Apple}'s {TrueType}. {Window systems} can display different fonts on the screen and print them. [Other types of font?] (2001-04-27)

For convenience of statement, we confine attention to the pure functional calculus of first order. The first step in the extension consists in introducing quantifiers such as (F1), (EF1), (F2), (EF3), etc., binding n-adic functional variables. Corresponding changes are made in the definition of a formula and in the lists of primitive formulas and primitive rules of inference, allowing for these new kinds of bound variables. The resulting system is the functional calculus of second order. Then the next step consists in introducing new kinds of functional variables; namely for every finite ordered set k, l, m, . . . , p of i non-negative integers (i = 1, 2, 3, . . .) an infinite list of functional variables Fklm . . .p, Gklm . . .p, . . . , each of which denotes ambiguously any i-adic propositional function for which the first argument may be any (k-1)-adic propositional function of individuals, the second argument any (l-1)-adic propositional function of individuals, etc. (if one of the integers k, l, m, . . . , p is 1 the corresponding argument is a proposition -- if 0, an individual). Then quantifiers are introduced binding these new kinds of functional variables; and so on. The process of alternately introducing new kinds of functional variables (denoting propositional functions which take as arguments propositional functions of kinds for which variables have already been introduced) and quantifiers binding the new kinds of functional variables, with appropriate extension at each stage of the definition of a formula and the lists of primitive formulas and primitive rules of inference, may be continued to infinity. This leads to what we may call the functional calculus of order omega, embodying the (so-called simple) theory of types.

formal argument "programming" (Or "parameter") A name in a {function} or {subroutine} definition that is replaced by, or bound to, the corresponding {actual argument} when the function or subroutine is called. In many languages formal arguments behave like {local variables} which get initialised on entry. See: {argument}. (2002-07-02)

FORTH 1. "language" An interactive extensible language using {postfix syntax} and a data stack, developed by Charles H. Moore in the 1960s. FORTH is highly user-configurable and there are many different implementations, the following description is of a typical default configuration. Forth programs are structured as lists of "words" - FORTH's term which encompasses language keywords, primitives and user-defined {subroutines}. Forth takes the idea of subroutines to an extreme - nearly everything is a subroutine. A word is any string of characters except the separator which defaults to space. Numbers are treated specially. Words are read one at a time from the input stream and either executed immediately ("interpretive execution") or compiled as part of the definition of a new word. The sequential nature of list execution and the implicit use of the data stack (numbers appearing in the lists are pushed to the stack as they are encountered) imply postfix syntax. Although postfix notation is initially difficult, experienced users find it simple and efficient. Words appearing in executable lists may be "{primitives}" (simple {assembly language} operations), names of previously compiled procedures or other special words. A procedure definition is introduced by ":" and ended with ";" and is compiled as it is read. Most Forth dialects include the source language structures BEGIN-AGAIN, BEGIN-WHILE-REPEAT, BEGIN-UNTIL, DO-LOOP, and IF-ELSE-THEN, and others can be added by the user. These are "compiling structures" which may only occur in a procedure definition. FORTH can include in-line {assembly language} between "CODE" and "ENDCODE" or similar constructs. Forth primitives are written entirely in {assembly language}, secondaries contain a mixture. In fact code in-lining is the basis of compilation in some implementations. Once assembled, primitives are used exactly like other words. A significant difference in behaviour can arise, however, from the fact that primitives end with a jump to "NEXT", the entry point of some code called the sequencer, whereas non-primitives end with the address of the "EXIT" primitive. The EXIT code includes the scheduler in some {multi-tasking} systems so a process can be {deschedule}d after executing a non-primitive, but not after a primitive. Forth implementations differ widely. Implementation techniques include {threaded code}, dedicated Forth processors, {macros} at various levels, or interpreters written in another language such as {C}. Some implementations provide {real-time} response, user-defined data structures, {multitasking}, {floating-point} arithmetic, and/or {virtual memory}. Some Forth systems support virtual memory without specific hardware support like {MMUs}. However, Forth virtual memory is usually only a sort of extended data space and does not usually support executable code. FORTH does not distinguish between {operating system} calls and the language. Commands relating to I/O, {file systems} and {virtual memory} are part of the same language as the words for arithmetic, memory access, loops, IF statements, and the user's application. Many Forth systems provide user-declared "vocabularies" which allow the same word to have different meanings in different contexts. Within one vocabulary, re-defining a word causes the previous definition to be hidden from the interpreter (and therefore the compiler), but not from previous definitions. FORTH was first used to guide the telescope at NRAO, Kitt Peak. Moore considered it to be a {fourth-generation language} but his {operating system} wouldn't let him use six letters in a program name, so FOURTH became FORTH. Versions include fig-FORTH, FORTH 79 and FORTH 83. {FAQs (}. {ANS Forth standard, dpANS6 (}. FORTH Interest Group, Box 1105, San Carlos CA 94070. See also {51forth}, {F68K}, {cforth}, {E-Forth}, {FORML}, {TILE Forth}. [Leo Brodie, "Starting Forth"]. [Leo Brodie, "Thinking Forth"]. [Jack Woehr, "Forth, the New Model"]. [R.G. Loeliger, "Threaded Interpretive Languages"]. 2. {FOundation for Research and Technology - Hellas}. (1997-04-16)

:::   "For the impersonal Divine is not ultimately an abstraction or a mere principle or a mere state or power and degree of being any more than we ourselves are really such abstractions. The intellect first approaches it through such conceptions, but realisation ends by exceeding them. Through the realisation of higher and higher principles of being and states of conscious existence we arrive not at the annullation of all in a sort of positive zero or even an inexpressible state of existence, but at the transcendent Existence itself which is also the Existent who transcends all definition by personality and yet is always that which is the essence of personality.” *The Synthesis of Yoga

“For the impersonal Divine is not ultimately an abstraction or a mere principle or a mere state or power and degree of being any more than we ourselves are really such abstractions. The intellect first approaches it through such conceptions, but realisation ends by exceeding them. Through the realisation of higher and higher principles of being and states of conscious existence we arrive not at the annullation of all in a sort of positive zero or even an inexpressible state of existence, but at the transcendent Existence itself which is also the Existent who transcends all definition by personality and yet is always that which is the essence of personality.” The Synthesis of Yoga

Fortran IV IBM 1962. For the IBM 7090/94. Many implementations went well beyond the original definition.

fractal "mathematics, graphics" A fractal is a rough or fragmented geometric shape that can be subdivided in parts, each of which is (at least approximately) a smaller copy of the whole. Fractals are generally self-similar (bits look like the whole) and independent of scale (they look similar, no matter how close you zoom in). Many mathematical structures are fractals; e.g. {Sierpinski triangle}, {Koch snowflake}, {Peano curve}, {Mandelbrot set} and {Lorenz attractor}. Fractals also describe many real-world objects that do not have simple geometric shapes, such as clouds, mountains, turbulence, and coastlines. {Benoit Mandelbrot}, the discoverer of the {Mandelbrot set}, coined the term "fractal" in 1975 from the Latin fractus or "to break". He defines a fractal as a set for which the {Hausdorff Besicovich dimension} strictly exceeds the {topological dimension}. However, he is not satisfied with this definition as it excludes sets one would consider fractals. {sci.fractals FAQ (}. See also {fractal compression}, {fractal dimension}, {Iterated Function System}. {Usenet} newsgroups: {news:sci.fractals}, {}, {}. ["The Fractal Geometry of Nature", Benoit Mandelbrot]. [Are there non-self-similar fractals?] (1997-07-02)

free software "software" Software that everyone is free to copy, redistribute and modify. That implies free software must be available as {source code}, hence "free open source software" - "FOSS". It is usually also free of charge, though anyone can sell free software so long as they don't impose any new restrictions on its redistribution or use. The widespread acceptance of this definition and free software itself owes a great deal to {Richard Stallman} and the {Free Software Foundation}. There are many other kinds of "free software" in the sense of "free of charge". See "{-ware}". {This dictionary} is free in both senses, though since it is documentation not {software} it is distributed under the {GFDL}. (2007-02-09)

Frege, (Friedrich Ludwig) Gottlob, 1848-1925, German mathematician and logician. Professor of mathematics at the University of Jena, 1879-1918. Largely unknown to, or misunderstood by, his contemporaries, he is now regarded by many as "beyond question the greatest logician of the Nineteenth Century" (quotation from Tarski). He must be regarded -- after Boole (q. v.) -- as the second founder of symbolic logic, the essential steps in the passage from the algebra of logic to the logistic method (see the article Logistic system) having been taken in his Begriffsschrift of 1879. In this work there appear tor the first time the propositional calculus in substantially its modern form, the notion of propositional function, the use of quantifiers, the explicit statement of primitive rules of inference, the notion of an hereditary property and the logical analysis of proof by mathematical induction or recursion (q. v.). This last is perhaps the most important element in the definition of an inductive cardinal number (q.v.) and provided the basis for Frege's derivation of arithmetic from logic in his Grundlagen der Anthmetik (1884) and Grundgesetze der Arithmetik, vol. 1 (1893), and vol. 2 (1903). The first volume of Grundgesetze der Arithmetik is the culmination of Frege's work, and we find here many important further ideas. In particular, there is a careful distinction between using a formula to express something else and naming a formula in order to make a syntactical statement about it, quotation marks being used in order to distinguish the name of a formula from the formula itself. In an appendix to the second volume of Grundgesetze , Frege acknowledges the presence of an inconsistency in his system through what is now known as the Russel paradox (see Paradoxes , logical), as had been called to his attention by Russell when the book was nearly through the press. -- A.C.

frob /frob/ 1. [MIT] The {TMRC} definition was "FROB = a protruding arm or trunnion"; by metaphoric extension, a "frob" is any random small thing; an object that you can comfortably hold in one hand; something you can frob (sense 2). See {frobnitz}. 2. Abbreviated form of {frobnicate}. 3. [{MUD}] A command on some {MUDs} that changes a player's experience level (this can be used to make wizards); also, to request {wizard} privileges on the "professional courtesy" grounds that one is a wizard elsewhere. The command is actually "frobnicate" but is universally abbreviated to the shorter form. [{Jargon File}]

functional programming "programming" (FP) A program in a functional language consists of a set of (possibly {recursive}) {function} definitions and an expression whose value is output as the program's result. Functional languages are one kind of {declarative language}. They are mostly based on the {typed lambda-calculus} with constants. There are no {side-effects} to expression evaluation so an expression, e.g. a function applied to certain arguments, will always evaluate to the same value (if its evaluation terminates). Furthermore, an expression can always be replaced by its value without changing the overall result ({referential transparency}). The order of evaluation of subexpressions is determined by the language's {evaluation strategy}. In a {strict} ({call-by-value}) language this will specify that arguments are evaluated before applying a function whereas in a non-strict ({call-by-name}) language arguments are passed unevaluated. Programs written in a functional language are generally compact and elegant, but have tended, until recently, to run slowly and require a lot of memory. Examples of purely functional languages are {Clean}, {FP}, {Haskell}, {Hope}, {Joy}, {LML}, {Miranda}, and {SML}. Many other languages such as {Lisp} have a subset which is purely functional but also contain non-functional constructs. See also {lazy evaluation}, {reduction}. {Lecture notes (}. or the same {in dvi-format (}. {FAQ (}. {SEL-HPC Article Archive (}. (2003-03-25)

Functional variables and functional constants are together called functional symbols (the adjective functional being here understood to refer to propositional functions). Functional symbols are called n-adic if they are either functional variables with subscript n or functional constants denoting n-adic propositional functions of individuals. The formulas of the functional calculus of first order (relative to the given lists of symbols (1), (2), (3), (4)) are all the expressions determined by the eight following rules: all the propositional variables are formulas; if F is a monadic functional symbol and X is an individual variable, [F](X) is a formula; if F is an n-adic functional symbol and X1, X2, . . . , Xn are individual variables (which may or may not be all different), [F](X1, X2, . . . , Xn) is a formula; if A is a formula, ∼[A] is a formula; if A nnd B are formulas, [A][B] is a formula; if A and B are formulas, [A] ∨ [B] is a formula; if A is a formula and X is an individual variable, (X)[A] is a formula; if A is a formula and X is an individual variable, (EX)[A] is a formula. In practice, we omit superfluous brackets and braces (but not parentheses) in writing formulas, nnd we omit subscripts on functional variables in cases where the subscript is sufficiently indicated by the form of the formula in which the functional variable appears. The sentential connectives |, ⊃, ≡, +, are introduced as abbreviations in the same way as in § 1 for the propositional calculus. We make further the following definitions, which are also to be construed as abbreviations, the arrow being read "stands for": [A] ⊃x [B] → (X)[[A] ⊃ [B]]. [A] ≡x [B] → (X)[[A] ≡ [B]]. [A] ∧x [B] → (EX)[[A][B]]. (Here A and B are any formulas, and X is any individual variable. Brackets may be omitted when superfluous.) If F and G denote monadic propositional functions, we say that F(X) ⊃x G(X) expresses formal implication of the function G by the function F, and F(X) ≡x G(X) expresses formal equivalence of the two functions (the adjective formal is perhaps not well chosen here but has become established in use).

fuzzy logic A superset of {Boolean logic} dealing with the concept of partial truth -- {truth values} between "completely true" and "completely false". It was introduced by Dr. Lotfi Zadeh of {UCB} in the 1960's as a means to model the uncertainty of {natural language}. Any specific theory may be generalised from a discrete (or "crisp") form to a continuous (fuzzy) form, e.g. "fuzzy calculus", "fuzzy differential equations" etc. Fuzzy logic replaces Boolean truth values with degrees of truth which are very similar to probabilities except that they need not sum to one. Instead of an assertion pred(X), meaning that X definitely has the property associated with {predicate} "pred", we have a truth function truth(pred(X)) which gives the degree of truth that X has that property. We can combine such values using the standard definitions of fuzzy logic: truth(not x) = 1.0 - truth(x) truth(x and y) = minimum (truth(x), truth(y)) truth(x or y) = maximum (truth(x), truth(y)) (There are other possible definitions for "and" and "or", e.g. using sum and product). If truth values are restricted to 0 and 1 then these functions behave just like their Boolean counterparts. This is known as the "extension principle". Just as a Boolean predicate asserts that its argument definitely belongs to some subset of all objects, a fuzzy predicate gives the degree of truth with which its argument belongs to a {fuzzy subset}. {Usenet} newsgroup: {}. E-mail servers: "", "", "". {(}, {(}. {FAQ (}. {James Brule, "Fuzzy systems - a tutorial", 1985 (}. {STB Software Catalog (}, includes a few fuzzy tools. [H.J. Zimmerman, "Fuzzy Sets, Decision Making and Expert Systems", Kluwer, Dordrecht, 1987]. ["Fuzzy Logic, State of the Art", Ed. R. Lowen, Marc Roubens, Theory and Decision Library, D: System theory, Knowledge Engineering and Problem Solving 12, Kluwer, Dordrecht, 1993, ISBN 0-7923-2324-6]. (1995-02-21)

GDMO Guidelines for the Definition of Managed Objects. A standard (ISO/IEC 10165-4) for defining data models on ASN.1

gigabyte "unit, data" (GB or colloquially "gig") A unit of {data} equal to one billion {bytes} but see {binary prefix} for other definitions. A gigabyte is 1000^3 {bytes} or 1000 {megabytes}. A human gene sequence (including all the redundant codons) contains about 1.5 gigabytes of data. 1000 gigabytes are one {terabyte}. See {prefix}. {Human genome data content (}. (2013-11-03)

Given the relation (dyadic propositional function) ε, the relations of equality and class inclusion may be introduced by the following definitions: ZεY → ε(Z, Y). Z=Y → ZεX ⊃x YεX. Z⊂Y → XεZ ⊃x XεY. Here X, Y, and Z are to be taken as individual variables ("individual" in the technical sense of § 3), and X is to be determined according to an explicit rule so as to be different from Y and Z.

glossary ::: a list of terms in a special subject, field, or area of usage, with accompanying definitions; a partial dictionary.

glossology ::: n. --> The definition and explanation of terms; a glossary.
The science of language; comparative philology; linguistics; glottology.

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TERMINATION You may not copy, modify, sublicense, or distribute the Document except as expressly provided for under this License. Any other attempt to copy, modify, sublicense or distribute the Document is void, and will automatically terminate your rights under this License. However, parties who have received copies, or rights, from you under this License will not have their licenses terminated so long as such parties remain in full compliance. 10. FUTURE REVISIONS OF THIS LICENSE The Free Software Foundation may publish new, revised versions of the GNU Free Documentation License from time to time. Such new versions will be similar in spirit to the present version, but may differ in detail to address new problems or concerns. See {here (}. Each version of the License is given a distinguishing version number. If the Document specifies that a particular numbered version of this License "or any later version" applies to it, you have the option of following the terms and conditions either of that specified version or of any later version that has been published (not as a draft) by the Free Software Foundation. If the Document does not specify a version number of this License, you may choose any version ever published (not as a draft) by the Free Software Foundation. End of full text of GFDL. (2002-03-09)

Gofer "language" A {lazy} {functional language} designed by Mark Jones "" at the {Programming Research Group}, Oxford, UK in 1991. It is very similar to {Haskell} 1.2. It has {lazy evaluation}, {higher order functions}, {pattern matching}, and {type class}es, lambda, case, conditional and let expressions, and wild card, "as" and {irrefutable patterns}. It lacks {modules}, {arrays} and standard {classes}. Gofer comes with an {interpreter} (in C), a {compiler} which compiles to {C}, documentation and examples. Unix Version 2.30 (1994-06-10) Mac_Gofer version 0.16 beta. Ported to {Sun}, {Acorn} {Archimedes}, {IBM PC}, {Macintosh}, {Atari}, {Amiga}. Version 2.30 added support for contexts in datatype and member function definitions, Haskell style {arrays}, an external function calling mechanism for gofc, an experimental implementation of Launchbury/Peyton Jones style lazy functional state threads, an experimental implementation of "do" notation for {monad comprehensions}. ["Introduction to Gofer 2.20", M.P. Jones.] [The implementation of the Gofer functional programming system, Mark P. Jones, Research Report YALEU/DCS/RR-1030, Yale University, Department of Computer Science, May 1994. FTP:]. {(}. {FTP Yale (}, {FTP Glasgow (}, {FTP Chalmers (}. (1995-02-14)

Goffin "language" A {definitional constraint language} for {declarative} parallel programming. Goffin systematically integrates {equational constraints} and functions within a uniform framework of {concurrent} programming. Goffin is an embedding of a functional language kernel ({Haskell}) into a layer of constraint logic, which allows {logical variables} inside functional expressions. In order to preserve {referential transparency}, functional {reduction} suspends until logical variables become bound. Logical variables are bound by equational constraints, which impose relations over expressions. Hence, constraints are the means to structure the concurrent reduction of functional expressions. (1995-02-21)

Good, Highest: (sometimes the greatest, or supreme, good. Lat. summum bonum) That good which transcends yet includes all the others. According to Augustine, Varro was able to enumerate 288 definitions. For Plato, the supreme Idea, the totality of being. For Aristotle, eudemonism (q.v.), which consists in the harmonious satisfaction of all rational powers. For the Epicureans, pleasure. For Aquinas, obedience to and oneness with God. The all-inclusive object of desire. -- J.K.F.

gorets /gor'ets/ The unknown ur-noun, fill in your own meaning. Found especially on the {Usenet} newsgroup alt.gorets, which seems to be a running contest to redefine the word by implication in the funniest and most peculiar way, with the understanding that no definition is ever final. [A correspondent from the Former Soviet Union informs me that "gorets" is Russian for "mountain dweller" - ESR] Compare {frink}. [{Jargon File}]

grammar "language" A formal definition of the syntactic structure (the {syntax}) of a language. A grammar is normally represented as a set of {production rules} which specify the order of constituents and their sub-constituents in a {sentence} (a well-formed string in the language). Each rule has a left-hand side symbol naming a syntactic category (e.g. "noun-phrase" for a {natural language} grammar) and a right-hand side which is a sequence of zero or more symbols. Each symbol may be either a {terminal symbol} or a non-terminal symbol. A terminal symbol corresponds to one "{lexeme}" - a part of the sentence with no internal syntactic structure (e.g. an identifier or an operator in a computer language). A non-terminal symbol is the left-hand side of some rule. One rule is normally designated as the top-level rule which gives the structure for a whole sentence. A {parser} (a kind of {recogniser}) uses a grammar to parse a sentence, assigning a terminal syntactic category to each input token and a non-terminal category to each appropriate group of tokens, up to the level of the whole sentence. Parsing is usually preceded by {lexical analysis}. The opposite, generation, starts from the top-level rule and chooses one alternative production wherever there is a choice. In computing, a formal grammar, e.g. in {BNF}, can be used to {parse} a linear input stream, such as the {source code} of a program, into a data structure that expresses the (or a) meaning of the input in a form that is easier for the computer to work with. A {compiler compiler} like {yacc} might be used to convert a grammar into code for the parser of a {compiler}. A grammar might also be used by a {transducer}, a {translator} or a {syntax directed editor}. See also {attribute grammar}. (2009-02-06)

(g) The problem of the structure of the knowledge-situation is to determine with respect to each of the major kinds of knowledge just enumerated -- but particularly with respect to perception -- the constituents of the knowledge-situation in their relation to one another. The structural problem stated in general but rather vague terms is: What is the relation between the subjective and objective components of the knowledge-situation? In contemporary epistemology, the structural problem has assumed a position of such preeminence as frequently to eclipse other issues of epistemology. The problem has even been incorporated by some into the definition of philosophy. (See A. Lalande, Vocabulaire de la Philosophie, art. Theorie de la Connaissance. I. and G.D. Hicks, Encycl. Brit. 5th ed. art. Theory of Knowledge.) The principal cleavage in epistemology, according to this formulation of its problem, is between a subjectivism which telescopes the object of knowledge into the knowing subject (see Subjectivism; Idealism, Epistemological) and pan-objectivism which ascribes to the object all qualities perceived or otherwise cognized. See Pan-obiectivism. A compromise between the extrernes of subjectivism and objectivism is achieved by the theory of representative perception, which, distinguishing between primary and secondary qualities, considers the former objective, the latter subjective. See Representative Perception, Theory of; Primary Qualities; Secondary Qualities.

guard "programming" 1. In {functional programming}, a {Boolean} expression attached to a function definition specifying when (for what arguments) that definition is appropriate. 2. In (parallel) {logic programming}, a Boolean expression which is used to select a {clause} from several alternative matching clauses. See {Guarded Horn Clauses}. 3. In {parallel} languages, a {Boolean} expression which specifies when an message may be sent or received. (1995-05-09)

Gypsy Specification and verification of {concurrent} systems software. {Message} passing using named {mailbox}es. Separately compilable units: routine (procedure, function, or process), type and constant definition, each with a list of access rights. ["Report on the Language Gypsy", A.L. Ambler et al, UT Austin ICSCS-CMP-1976-08-1].

hacker "person, jargon" (Originally, someone who makes furniture with an axe) 1. A person who enjoys exploring the details of programmable systems and how to stretch their capabilities, as opposed to most users, who prefer to learn only the minimum necessary. 2. One who programs enthusiastically (even obsessively) or who enjoys programming rather than just theorizing about programming. 3. A person capable of appreciating {hack value}. 4. A person who is good at programming quickly. 5. An expert at a particular program, or one who frequently does work using it or on it; as in "a {Unix} hacker". (Definitions 1 through 5 are correlated, and people who fit them congregate.) 6. An expert or enthusiast of any kind. One might be an astronomy hacker, for example. 7. One who enjoys the intellectual challenge of creatively overcoming or circumventing limitations. 8. (Deprecated) A malicious meddler who tries to discover sensitive information by poking around. Hence "password hacker", "network hacker". The correct term is {cracker}. The term "hacker" also tends to connote membership in the global community defined by the net (see {The Network} and {Internet address}). It also implies that the person described is seen to subscribe to some version of the {hacker ethic}. It is better to be described as a hacker by others than to describe oneself that way. Hackers consider themselves something of an elite (a meritocracy based on ability), though one to which new members are gladly welcome. Thus while it is gratifying to be called a hacker, false claimants to the title are quickly labelled as "bogus" or a "{wannabee}". 9. (University of Maryland, rare) A programmer who does not understand proper programming techniques and principles and doesn't have a Computer Science degree. Someone who just bangs on the keyboard until something happens. For example, "This program is nothing but {spaghetti code}. It must have been written by a hacker". [{Jargon File}] (1996-08-26)

HASL "language" {SASL} plus {conditional unification}. ["A Prological Definition of HASL, A Purely Functional Language with Unification Based Conditional Binding Expressions", H. Abramson in Logic Programming: Functions, Relations and Equations, D. DeGroot et al eds, P-H 1986]. (1996-08-21)

HDMI {High-Definition Multimedia Interface}

HDTV {High Definition Television}

HERAKLIT "language" A distributed {object-oriented} language. ["Definition einer objektorientierten Programmiersprache mit hierarchischem Typkonzept", B. Hindel, diss U Erlangen-Nuernberg, Dec 1987]. (1995-03-16)

Here is a formal definition:

High-Definition Multimedia Interface "video, standard" (HDMI) an industry standard for connecting digital audio and video devices via a single cable. HDMI can connect any audio/video source, such as a {set-top box}, {DVD player}, or {A/V receiver} to an audio and/or video {output device} such as a digital television (DTV). HDMI supports standard, enhanced, or high-definition video, plus multi-channel digital audio. It transmits all {ATSC} HDTV standards and supports 8-channel, 192kHz, uncompressed digital audio and all currently-available compressed formats (such as {Dolby Digital} and {DTS}), HDMI 1.3 adds additional support for new lossless digital audio formats {Dolby TrueHD} and {DTS-HD Master Audio} with {bandwidth} to spare to accommodate future enhancements. HDMI 1.4 incorporates connection via {Ethernet}. HDMI was created by {Hitachi}, {Panasonic Corporation}, {Philips}, {Sony}, {Thomson} (RCA), {Toshiba} and {Silicon Image} and has the support of several major motion picture producers and distributors. { (}. (2009-06-29)

higher-order macro "functional programming" A means of expressing certain {higher-order functions} in a {first-order language}, proposed by {Phil Wadler}. Higher-order macros cannot be {recursive} at the top level but they may contain recursive definitions. For example, the normal, definition of the {map} function, map f []   = [] map f (x:xs) = f x : map f xs is higher-order because its argument, f, is a function. The alternative formulation map f l = map_f l where map_f []   = [] map_f (x:xs) = f x : m xs defines a first-order function, map_f, that is a specialisation of map in its first argument. This can be considered a {macro} because it works purely by textual substitution, requiring no knowledge about f for its validity. This is an example of {partial evaluation} - the call, map f l, has been partially evaluated to yeild an intermediate result. This may be useful in optimising compilation or execution, e.g. if the call to f can be subject to {in-lining} or when executing map_f on a long list. (2018-05-25)

highest representative ideality ::: in October 1920, equivalent to logos vijñana in the sense of full revelatory ideality; also called representative vijñana, which is said to have three elements: representative, interpretative and imperative. The meaning of "representative" earlier . 68 in 1920, when it referred to the highest intuitive revelatory logistis, was preserved at this time in the definition of logos reason as the "lower representative idea".

homaloidal ::: a. --> Flat; even; -- a term applied to surfaces and to spaces, whether real or imagined, in which the definitions, axioms, and postulates of Euclid respecting parallel straight lines are assumed to hold true.

HP-UX "operating system" The version of {Unix} running on {Hewlett-Packard} {workstations}. HP-UX conforms to {X/Open}'s Portability Guide Issue 4 ({XPG4}), Federal Information Processing Specification (FIPS) 151.1, {POSIX} 1003.1, POSIX 1003.2, {AT&T}'s System V Interface Definition 2 ({SVID} 2). HP-UX incorporates selected features from the University of California at Berkeley Software Distribution 4.3 ({4.3BSD}). It is known by some as "{HP-SUX}". [Features?] (1997-05-12)

href "web" ({hypertext} reference) The attribute of an {HTML} "a" (anchor or link) tag, whose value gives the {URL} of the {web page} or other resource that the link points to. For example, "a href="""FOLDOC href definition"/a" would display an anchor pointing to this dictionary. (2008-02-22)

hue "graphics" (Or "tint") The coordinate in the {HSB} {colour model} that determines the frequency of light or the position in the spectrum or the relative amounts of red, green and blue. Hue corresponds to the common definition of colour, e.g. "red", "orange", "violet" etc. The other coordinates are {saturation} and {brightness}. (1999-07-05)

humma "chat" A filler word used on various "chat" and "talk" programs when you had nothing to say but felt that it was important to say something. The word apparently originated (at least with this definition) on the MECC Timeshare System (MTS, a now-defunct educational {time-sharing} system running in Minnesota during the 1970s and the early 1980s) but was later sighted on early Unix systems. [{Jargon File}] (1999-02-27)

Hypothesis: In general, an assumption, a supposition, a conjecture, a postulate, a condition, an antecedent, a contingency, a possibility, a probability, a principle, a premiss, a ground or foundation, a tentative explanation, a probable cause, a theoretical situation, an academic question, a specific consideration, a conceded statement, a theory or view for debate or action, a likely relation, the conditioning of one thing by another. In logic, the conditional clause or antecedent in a hypothetical proposition. Also a thesis subordinate to a more general one. In methodology, a principle offered as a conditional explanation of a fact or a group of facts; or again, a provisional assumption about the ground of certain phenomena, used as a guiding norm in making observations and experiments until verified or disproved by subsequent evidence. A hypothesis is conditional or provisional, because it is based on probable and insufficient arguments or elements; yet, it is not an arbitrary opinion, but a justifiable assumption with some foundation in fact, this accounts for the expectation of some measure of agreement between the logical conclusion or implications drawn from a hypothesis, and the phenomena which are known or which may be determined by further tests. A scientific hypothesis must be   proposed after the observations it must explain (a posteriori),   compatible with established theories,   reasonable and relevant,   fruitful in its applications and controllable,   general in terms and more fundamental than the statements it has to explain. A hypothesis is descriptive (forecasting the external circumstances of the event) or explanatory (offering causal accounts of the event). There are two kinds of explanatory hypotheses   the hypothesis of law (or genetic hypothesis) which attempts to determine the manner in which the causes or conditions of a phenomenon operate and   the hypothesis of cause (or causal hypothesis) which attempt to determine the causes or conditions for the production of the phenomenon. A working hypothesis is a preliminary assumption based on few, uncertain or obscure elements, which is used provisionally as a guiding norm in the investigation of certain phenomena. Often, the difference between a working hypothesis and a scientific hypothesis is one of degree; and in any case, a hypothesis is seldom verified completely with all its detailed implications. The Socratic Method of Hypothesis, as developed by Plato in the Phaedo particularly, consists in positing an assumption without questioning its value, for the purpose of determining and analyzing its consequences only when these are clearly debated and judged, the assumption itself is considered for justification or rejection. Usually, a real condition is taken as a ground for inferences, as the aim of the method is to attain knowledge or to favor action. Plato used more specially the word "hypothesis" for the assumptions of geometry (postulates and nominal definitions) Anstotle extended this use to cover the immediate principles of mathematics. It may be observed that the modern hypothetico-deductive method in logical and mathematical theories, is a development of the Socratic method stripped of its ontological implications and purposes.

Ich: (Ger. I, myself, me, the ego (q.v.)) In the German idealistic movement from Kant through Schopenhauer, the Ich, the final, ultimate conscious subject, plays a central and dynamic role. Kant discredited the traditional Cartesian conception of a simple, undecomposable, substantial I, intuitively known. On his view, the Ich is not a substance, but the functional, dynamic unity of consciousness -- a necessary condition of all experience and the ultimate subject for which all else is object. This "transcendental unity of apperception," bare consciousness as such, is by its very nature empty, it is neither a thing nor a concept. For the pute transcendental I, my empirical self is but one experience among others in the realm of phenomena, and one of which Kant does not seek an adequate definition. The stress on the pure I as opposed to the empirical self is carried over into his practical philosophy, where the moral agent becomes, not the concrete personality, but a pure rational will, i.e., a will seeking to act in accordance with an absolute universal law of duty, the categorical imperative (q.v.).

IDEAL 1. Ideal DEductive Applicative Language. A language by Pier Bosco and Elio Giovannetti combining {Miranda} and {Prolog}. Function definitions can have a {guard} condition (introduced by ":-") which is a conjunction of equalities between arbitrary terms, including functions. These guards are solved by normal {Prolog} {resolution} and {unification}. It was originally compiled into {C-Prolog} but was eventually to be compiled to {K-leaf}. 2. A numerical {constraint} language written by Van Wyk of {Stanford} in 1980 for {typesetting} graphics in documents. It was inspired partly by {Metafont} and is distributed as part of {Troff}. ["A High-Level Language for Specifying Pictures", C.J. Van Wyk, ACM Trans Graphics 1(2):163-182 (Apr 1982)]. (1994-12-15)

IDEF {ICAM} Definition.

idempotent 1. A function f : D -" D is idempotent if f (f x) = f x for all x in D. I.e. repeated applications have the same effect as one. This can be extended to functions of more than one argument, e.g. Boolean & has x & x = x. Any value in the {image} of an idempotent function is a {fixed point} of the function. 2. This term can be used to describe {C} header files, which contain common definitions and declarations to be included by several source files. If a header file is ever included twice during the same compilation (perhaps due to nested

IDL "language" 1. {Interactive Data analysis Language} ({Xerox}). 2. {Interface Description Language} (Snodgrass, UNC, Arizona). 3. {Interface Definition Language} ({SunSoft}, {OMG}). 4. {Interactive Data Language} ({Research Systems}). (2004-05-07)

If the Peano postulates are formulated on the basis of an interpretation according to which the domain of individuals coincides with that of the non-negative integers, the undefined term N may be dropped and the postulates reduced to the three following: (x)(y)[[S(x) = S(y)] ⊃[x = y]]. (x) ∼[S(x) = 0]. F(0)[F(x) ⊃x F(S(x))] ⊃F (x)F(y). It is possible further to drop the undefined term 0 and to replace the successor function S by a dyadic propositional function S (the contemplated interpretation being that S(x,y) is the proposition y = x+l). The Peano postulates may then be given the following form: (x)(Ey)S(x, y). (x)[S(x,y) ⊃y [S(x,z) ⊃x [y = z]]]. (x)[S(y,x) ⊃y [S(z,x) ⊃x [y = z]]]. (Ex)[[(x) ∼S(x,y)] ≡y [y = z]]. [(x) ∼S(x,z)] ⊃x [F(z)[F(x) ⊃x [S(x, y) ⊃y F(y)]] ⊃F (x)F(x)]. For this form of the Peano postulates the underlying logic may be taken to be simply the functional calculus of second order without additions. In this formulation, numerical functions can be introduced only by contextual definition as incomplete symbols.

  “If we bear in mind the definition of the chief Egyptian gods by Plutarch, these myths will become more comprehensible; as he well says: ‘Osiris represents the beginning and principle; Isis, that which receives; and Horus, the compound of both. Horus engendered between them, is not eternal nor incorruptible, but, being always in generation, he endeavours by vicissitudes of imitations, and by periodical passion [suffering] (yearly re-awakening to life) to continue always young, as if he should never die.’ Thus, since Horus is the personified physical world, Aroueris, or the ‘elder Horus’ is the ideal Universe; and this accounts for the saying that ‘he was begotten by Osiris and Isis when these were still in the bosom of their mother’ — Space” (TG 31).

“If we bear in mind the definition of the chief Egyptian gods by Plutarch, these myths will become more comprehensible; as he well says: ‘Osiris represents the beginning and principle; Isis, that which receives; and Horus, the compound of both. Horus engendered between them, is not eternal nor incorruptible, but, being always in generation, he endeavours by vicissitudes of imitations, and by periodical passion (yearly re-awakening to life) to continue always young, as if he should never die.’ Thus, since Horus is the personified physical world, Aroueris, or the ‘elder Horus,’ is the ideal Universe; and this accounts for the saying that ‘he was begotten by Osiris and Isis when these were still in the bosom of their mother’ — Space” (TG 31). See also HORUS

Impredicative definition: Poincare in a proposed resolution (1906) of the paradoxes of Burali-Forti and Richard (see Paradoxes, logical), introduced the principle thnt, in making a definition of a particular member of any class, no reference should be allowed to the totality of members of that class. Definitions in violation of this principle were called impredicative (non predicatives) and were held to involve a vicious circle.

In addition to syntactical or nominal definition we may distinguish another kind of definition, which is applicable only in connection with interpreted logistic systems, and which we shall call semantical definition. This consists in introducing a new symbol or notation by assigning a meaning to it. In an interpreted logistic system, a nominal definition carries with it implicitly a semantical definition, in that it is intended to give to the definiendum the meaning expressed by the definiens; but two different nominal definitions may correspond to the same semantical definition. Consider, for example, the two following schemata of nominal definition in the propositional calculus (Logic, formal, § 1): [A] ⊃ [B] → ∼A ∨ B. [A] ⊃ [B] → ∼[A ∼B]. As nominal definitions these are inconsistent, since they represent [A] ⊃ [B] as standing for different formulas: either one, but not both, could be used in a development of the propositional calculus. But the corresponding semantical definitions would be identical if -- as would be possible -- our interpretation of the propositional calculus were such that the two definientia had the same meaning for any particular A and B.

Indeterminacy Used in science to mean that the investigation of intra-atomic phenomena has (for the time being) reached the limits of human power to determine the behavior of a particle. The Heisenberg principle of uncertainty states that it is impossible to increase the accuracy of measurement of the velocity of a particle without by this very observational act introducing an uncertainty into the determination of its position. The attempt to represent phenomena as a chain of cause and effect must lead sooner or later to a point where we can no longer trace the cause — not because causes vanish, but because of the imperfection of our observation and of our instruments, so that the chain of causation continues until we lose track of it because of incapacity. Hence we are unable to predict the behavior of a particle. Subsequent investigation may enable us to carry the chain of causation farther, but the process cannot go on indefinitely without carrying us beyond the physical plane. The standards of measurement successfully adopted for molar physics and for phenomena within terrestrial limits have proved inadequate for the definition of phenomena outside those limits; and both theory and experiment show that these standards are largely conceptual and must be changed to suit new conditions.

infinite "mathematics" 1. Bigger than any {natural number}. There are various formal set definitions in {set theory}: a set X is infinite if (i) There is a {bijection} between X and a {proper subset} of X. (ii) There is an {injection} from the set N of natural numbers to X. (iii) There is an injection from each natural number n to X. These definitions are not necessarily equivalent unless we accept the {Axiom of Choice}. 2. The length of a line extended indefinitely. See also {infinite loop}, {infinite set}. [{Jargon File}] (1995-03-29)

infinite set "mathematics" A set with an infinite number of elements. There are several possible definitions, e.g. (i) ("Dedekind infinite") A set X is infinite if there exists a {bijection} (one-to-one mapping) between X and some proper subset of X. (ii) A set X is infinite if there exists an {injection} from N (the set of {natural numbers}) to X. In the presence of the {Axiom of Choice} all such definitions are equivalent. (1995-03-27)

In formulating the pure propositional calculus the primitive formulas may (if desired) be reduced to a finite number, e.g., to the seven listed above with A, B, C taken to be the particular variables p, q, r. A second primitive rule of inference, the rule of substitution is then required, allowing the inference from a formula A to the formula obtained from A by substituting a formula B for a particular variable in A (the same formula B must be substituted for all occurrences of that variable in A). The definition of a theorem is then given in the same way as before, allowing for the additional primitive rule, the definition of a valid inference must, however, be modified.

In geometry, a figure is said to be symmetric with respect to a point P if the points of the figure can be grouped in pairs in such a way that the straight-line segment joining any pair has P as its midpoint. A figure is symmetric with respect to a straight line l if the points can be grouped in pairs in such way that the straight-line segment joining any pair has l as a perpendicular bisector. These definitions apply in geometry of any number of dimensions. Similar definitions may be given of symmetry with respect to a plane, etc. -- A.C.

In his chief work, the Ethica, Spinoza's teaching is expressed in a manner for which geometry supplies the model. This expository device served various purposes. It may be interpreted as a clue to Spinoza's ideal of knowledge. So understood, it represents the condensed and ordered expression, not of 'philosophy' alone, but rather of all knowledge, 'philosophy' and 'science', as an integrated system. In such an ideal ordering of ideas, (rational) theology and metaphysics provide the anchorage for the system. On the one hand, the theology-metaphysics displays the fundamental principles (definitions, postulates, axioms) upon which the anchorage depends, and further displays in deductive fashion the primary fund of ideas upon which the inquiries of science, both 'descriptive' and 'normative' must proceed. On the other hand, the results of scientific inquiry are anchored at the other end, by a complementary metaphysico-theological development of their significance. Ideally, there obtains, for Spinoza, both an initial theology and metaphysics -- a necessary preparation for science -- and a culminating theology and metaphysics, an interpretative absorption of the conclusions of science.

initialise "programming" To give a {variable} its first value. This may be done automatically by some languages or it may require explicit code by the programmer. Some languages allow initialisation to be combined with variable definition, e.g. in {C}: int i = 0; Failing to initialise a variable before using it is a common programming error, but one which compilers and automatic checkers like {lint} can easily detect. (1997-06-08)

In logic: Given a relation R which is transitive, symmetric, and reflexive, we may introduce or postulate "new elements corresponding to the members of the field of R, in such a way that the same new element corresponds to two members x and y of the field of R if and only if xRy (see the article relation). These new elements are then said to be obtained by abstraction with respect to R. Peano calls this a method or kind of definition, and speaks, e.g., of cardinal numbers (q.v.) as obtained from classes by abstraction with respect to the relation of equivalence -- two classes having the same cardinal number if and only if they are equivalent.

In Peano's postulates for arithmetic (see Arithmetic, foundations of) the possibility of proof by recursion is secured by the last postulate, which, indeed, merely states the leading principle of the simplest form of proof by recursion. In the Frege-Russell derivation of arithmetic from logic, the non-negative integers are identified with the inductive cardinal numbers (q.v.), the possibility of proof by recursion being implicit in the definition of inductive. -- A.C.

In Reconstruction in Philosophy (New York, 1920, p. 156), Dewey states "When the claim or pretension or plan is acted upon it guides us truly or falsely; it leads us to our end or away from it. Its active, dynamic function is the all-important thing about it, and in the quality of activity induced by it lies all its truth and falsity. The hypothesis that works is the true one, and truth is an abstract noun applied to the collection of cases, actual, foreseen and desired, that receive confirmation in their work and consequences". The needs and desires which truth must satisfy, however, are not conceived as personal and emotional (as with James) but rather as "public" in some not altogether explicit sense. Although Dewey emphasizes the functional role of propositions and laws (and even of sensations, facts and objects), and describes these materials of knowledge as means, tools, instruments or operations for the transformation of an indeterminate situation into a determinate one in the process of inquiry (Logic, The Theory of Inquiry, N. Y., 1938), he does not clearly deny that they have a strictly cognitive role as well, and he once states that "the essence of pragmatic instrumentalism is to conceive of both knowledge and practice as means of making goods -- excellencies of all kinds -- secure in experienced existence". (The Quest for Certainty, N. Y., 1929, p. 37.) Indeed, in his Logic (p. 345), he quotes with approval Peirce's definition "truth is that concordance of an abstract statement with the ideal limit towards which endless inquiry would tend to bring scientific belief, . . ." Here truth seems to be represented as progressive approximation to reality, but usually it is interpreted as efficacy, verification or practical expediency.

In scholasticism: The classic definition is given by Boethius: person is an individual substance of rational nature. As individual it is material, since matter supplies the principle of individuation. The soul is not person, only the composite is. Man alone is among the material beings person, he alone having a rational nature. He is the highest of the material beings, endowed with particular dignity and rights. -- R.A.

In Scholasticism: Until the revival of Aristotelianism in the 13th century, universals were considered by most of the Schoolmen as real "second substances." This medieval Realism (see Realism), of those who legebant in re, found but little opposition from early Nominalists, legentes in voce, like Roscellin. The latter went to the othei extreme by declaring universal names to be nothing but the breath of the voice -- flatus vocis. Extreme realism as represented by William of Champeaux, crumbled under the attacks of Abelard who taught a modified nominalism, distinguishing, howevei, sharply between the mere word, vox, as a physical phenomenon, and the meaningful word, sermo.. His interests being much more in logic than in ontology, he did not arrive at a definite solution of the problem. Aquinas summarized and synthetisized the ideas of his predecessors by stating that the universal had real existence only as creative idea in God, ante rem, whereas it existed within experienced reality only in the individual things, in re, and as a mental fact when abstracted from the particulars in the human mind, post rem. A view much like this had been proposed previously by Avicenna to whom Aquinas seems to be indebted. Later Middle-Ages saw a rebirth of nominalistic conceptions. The new school of Terminists, as they called themselves, less crude in its ideas than Roscellin, asserted that universals are only class names. Occam is usually considered as the most prominent of the Terminists. To Aquinas, the universal was still more than a mere name; it corresponded to an ontologicil fact; the definition of the universal reproduces the essence of the things. The universals are with Occam indeed natural signs which the mind cannot help forming, whereas the terms are arbitiary, signa ad placitum. But the universal is only a sign and does not correspond to anything ontological. -- R.A.

In Spinoza's sense, that which "is", preeminently and without qualification -- the source and ultimate subject of all distinctions. Being is thus divided into that which is "in itself" and "in another" (Ethica, I, Ax. 4; see also "substance" and "mode", Defs. 3 and 5). Being is likewise distinguished with respect to "finite" and "infinite", under the qualifications of absolute and relative, thus God is defined (Ibid, I, Def. 6) as "Being absolutely infinite". Spinoza seems to suggest that the term, Being, has, in the strict sense, no proper definition (Cog. Met., I, 1). The main characteristics of Spinoza's treatment of this notion are (i) his clear-headed separation of the problems of existence and Being, and (ii) his carefully worked out distinction between ens reale and ens rationis by means of which Spinoza endeavors to justify the ontological argument (q.v.) in the face of criticism by the later Scholastics. -- W.S.W.

instance "programming" An individual {object} of a certain {class}. While a class is just the type definition, an actual usage of a class is called "instance". Each instance of a class can have different values for its {instance variables}, i.e. its {state}. (1998-03-06)

Instinct The vegetative, passive, or automatic side of intuition, which expresses itself all through natural existences. The atoms move and sing by instinct, and by the instinctual faculty the animal guides its life. In human beings are the divine instincts of love, forgiveness, and pity. “Instinct, as a divine spark, lurks in the unconscious nerve-centre of the ascidian mollusk, and manifests itself at the first stage of action of its nervous system as what the physiologist terms the reflex action. It exists in the lowest classes of the acephalous animals as well as in those that have distinct heads; it grows and develops according to the law of the double evolution, physically and spiritually; and entering upon its conscious stage of development and progress in the cephalous species already endowed with a sensorium and symmetrically-arranged ganglia, this reflex action, whether men of science term it automatic, as in the lowest species, or instinctive, as in the more complex organisms which act under the guidance of the sensorium and the stimulus originating in distinct sensation, is still one and the same thing. It is the divine instinct in its ceaseless progress of development. This instinct of the animals, which act from the moment of their birth each in the confines prescribed to them by nature, and which know how, save in accident proceeding from a higher instinct than their own, to take care of themselves unerringly — this instinct may, for the sake of exact definition, be termed automatic; but it must have either within the animal which possesses it or without, something’s or some one’s intelligence to guide it” (IU 1:425).

instructional technology "education" Design, development, use, management and evaluation of process and resources for learning. Instructional technology aims to promote the application of validated, practical procedures in the design and delivery of instruction. It is often defined either in terms of media and other technology used (e.g. {audiovisual media} and equipment and computers), or in terms of a systematic process which encompasses instructional design, development, delivery and evaluation. ["Instructional Technology: The Definition and Domains of the Field", 1994, Barbara Seels and Rita Richey, Washington, D.C., Association for Educational Communications and Technology]. (2010-01-29)

instruction set architecture "architecture" (ISA) The parts of a {processor}'s design that need to be understood in order to write {assembly language}, such as the {machine language} instructions and {registers}. Parts of the architecture that are left to the implementation, such as number of {superscalar} {functional units}, {cache} size and {cycle} speed, are not part of the ISA. The definition of {SPARC}, for example, carefully distinguishes between an implementation and a specification. (1999-01-16)

integer "mathematics" (Or "whole number") One of the numbers in the set ..., -3, -2, -1, 0, 1, 2, 3, ... There are an {infinite} number of integers, though each one is {finite}. An {inductive definition} of an integer is a number that is either zero or an integer plus or minus one. An integer has no {fractional} part. If written as a {real} number, e.g. 42.0, the part after the decimal point will be zero. A {natural number} is a non-negative integer. Computers usually store integers in {binary}. Natural numbers can be stored as {unsigned integers} and integers that may be negative require a {sign bit} and typically use {twos complement} representation. Other representations have been used, such as {binary-coded decimal}. Computers are particularly fast when operating on integers as the operations are built into the {central processing unit}, in contrast to {floating point} numbers, which typically require the use of a separate {floating-point unit}. (2019-08-31)

Intelligible: Understandable; comprehensible; knowable; meaningful; Orderly; logical; coherent; rational; Communicable; expressible; Having unity of principle; capable of complete rational explanation or understanding; capable of causal explanation; Clear to natural or pure reason; apprehensible by the intellect (q.v.) only as against apprehensible through the senses; conceptual as against perceptual; conceptually describable or explainable; Capable of being known synoptically or as it is in itself or in essence; capable of being known through itself as against by agency of something else; graspable by in tuition, self-explanatory; Capable of being appreciated or sympathized with; Super-sensible; of the nature of mind, reason, or their higher powers. . -- M.T.K Intension and extension: The intension of a concept consists of the qualities or properties which go to make up the concept. The extension of a concept consists of the things which fall under the concept; or, according to another definition, the extension of a concept consists of the concepts which are subsumed under it (determine subclasses). This is the old distinction between intension and extension, and coincides approximately with the distinction between a monadic proposittonal function (q. v.) in intension and a class (q. v.). The words intension and extension are also used in connection with a number of distinctions related or analogous to this one, the adjective extensional being applied to notions or points of view which in some respect confine attention to truth-values of propositions as opposed to meanings constituting propositions. In the case of (interpreted) calculi of propositions or propositional functions, the adjective intensional may mean that account is taken of modality, extensional that all functions of propositions which appear are truth-functions. The extreme of the extensional point of view does away with propositions altogether and retains only truth-values in their place. -- A.C.

Intentional Theory of Mind: The definition of mind in terms of intentionality (See Intentionality) which originated in the Scholastic doctrine of intentio, was revived by F. Brentano (Psychologie vom empirischen standpunkte, 1874) though his influence has become a characteristic theory of German phenomenology. See Phenomenology. -- L.W.

Interface Definition Language (IDL) 1. An {OSF} standard for defining {RPC} stubs. [Details?] 2. Part of an effort by {Project DOE} at {SunSoft, Inc.} to integrate distributed {object} technology into the {Solaris} {operating system}. IDL provides the standard interface between objects, and is the base mechanism for object interaction. The {Object Management Group}'s {CORBA} 1.1 (Common Object Request Broker Architecture) specifies the interface between objects. IDL (Interface Definition Language) is the base mechanism for object interaction. The SunSoft OMG IDL CFE (Compiler Front End) version 1.2 provides a complete framework for building CORBA 1.1-compliant preprocessors for OMG IDL. To use it you write a back-end. A complete compiler of IDL would translate IDL into {client} side and {server} side routines for remote communication in the same manner as {Sun}'s current {RPCL} compiler. The IDL compiler front end allows integration of new back ends which can translate IDL to various programming languages. Several companies including Sunsoft are building back ends to the CFE which translate IDL into target languages, e.g. {Pascal} or {C++}, in the context of planned CORBA-compliant products. IDL requires C++ 2.1. Not to be confused with any of the other {IDLs}. E-mail: "". {(}, {(}. Telephone: Mache Creeger, SunSoft, Inc. +1 (415) 336 5884. (1993-05-04)

Interface Description Language (IDL) A language designed by Nestor, Lamb and Wulf of {CMU} in 1981 for describing the data structures passed between parts of an application, to provide a language-independent intermediate representation. It forms part of Richard Snodgrass ""'s {Scorpion} environment development system. Not to be confused with any of the other {IDLs}. Mailing list: ["The Interface Description Language: Definition and Use," by Richard Snodgrass, Computer Science Press, 1989, ISBN 0-7167-8198-0]. [SIGPLAN Notices 22(11) (Nov 1987) special issue]. (1994-11-11)

Internet Security Association and Key Management Protocol "networking, protocol" (ISAKMP) The definitions and procedures for {authenticating} communication between 2 {peers}. This includes the creation and management of {Security Associations}, {key} generation techniques, and {threat mitigation}. ISAKMP is proposed in {RFC 2408}. (2000-02-08)

In the formal development of a logistic system, since no reference may be made to an intended interpretation, semantical definitions are precluded, and must be replaced by corresponding nominal definitions.

In the functional calculi of second and higher orders, we may introduce the definitions: X = Y → (F)[F(X) ⊃ F(Y)], where X and Y are any two variables of the same type and F is a monadic functional variable of appropriate type. The notation X = Y may then be interpreted as denoting equality or identity.

In theosophical philosophy, the cosmic divine in the hierarchical sense is both transcendent and immanent, during manifestation breaking as it were into innumerable rays which produce the various deific powers in inner and outer nature; each such immanent divinity, however, itself emanating from the all-encompassing and forever unmanifest Rootless Root or parabrahman. The various universes, sometimes referred to as sparks of eternity, spring from parabrahman at periodic intervals called manvantaras, and then resolve back into the pre-manvantaric condition or pralaya, only to issue forth again when the pralaya of whatever magnitude has run its course. Therefore, at one and the same time divinity is transcendent and immanent, eternal and unmanifest, while its rays or cosmic sparks of whatever magnitude are periodic and manifested. Hence from each such manifested One or cosmic hierarch proceed the multiple rays, to which in various theogonies are given names and attributes of superior deities. Thus the words god and deity become generic, and the general definition may be applied to the core of the core of any being, great or small, cosmic or human, for all are sparks of the cosmic flame of life.

In the theory of obligation we find on the question of the meaning and status of right and wrong the same variety of views as obtain in the theory of value: "right," e.g., has only an emotive meaning (Ayer); or it denotes an intuited indefinable objective quality or relation of an act (Price, Reid, Clarke, Sidgwick, Ross, possibly Kant); or it stands for the attitude of some mind or group of minds towards an act (the Sophists, Hume, Westermarck). But it is also often defined as meaning that the act is conducive to the welfare of some individual or group -- the agent himself, or his group, or society as a whole. Many of the teleological and utilitarian views mentioned below include such a definition.

In the theory of value the first question concerns the meaning of value-terms and the status of goodness. As to meaning the main point is whether goodness is definable or not, and if so, how. As to status the main point is whether goodness is subjective or objective, relative or absolute. Various positions are possible. Recent emotive meaning theories e.g. that of A. J. Ayer, hold that "good" and other value-terms have only an emotive meaning, Intuitionists and non-naturalists often hold that goodness is an indefinable intrinsic (and therefore objective or absolute) property, e.g., Plato, G. E. Moore, W. D. Ross, J. Laird, Meinong, N. Hartman. Metaphysical and naturalistic moralists usually hold that goodness can be defined in metaphysical or in psychological terms, generally interpreting "x is good" to mean that a certain attitude is taken toward x by some mind or group of minds. For some of them value is objective or absolute in the sense of having the same locus for everyone, e.g., Aristotle in his definition of the good as that at which all things aim, (Ethics, bk. I). For others the locus of value varies from individual to individual or from group to group, i.e. different things will be good for different individuals or groups, e.g., Hobbes, Westermarck, William James, R. B. Perry.

In this article we explore definitions of the words ‘artifice’ and ‘artificer’ from various dictionary sources, their use in two poems, one by Marge Percy, The Bonsai Tree and the other, Sailing to Byzantium by William Butler Yeats, followed by all the brilliant uses by Sri Aurobindo in his magnum opus, Savitri.

In this series we explore the words of other languages and list their definitions given by major dictionaries as well as by other disciples and Sri Aurobindo in his letters on Savitri.

introspection "programming, philosophy" A feature of some {programming languages} that allows a running {program} to obtain information about its own implementation. For example, the {Lisp} function, "symbol-function" takes a Lisp symbol and returns the function definition associated with that symbol. Lisp is particularly suited to introspection because its {source code} uses the same underlying representation as its data. Another example is {Perl}'s "can" {method} which returns true if a given {object}'s {class} provides a given method. (2010-01-19)

I. Period of Preparation (9-12 cent.). Though he does not belong in time to this period, the most dominant figure in Christian thought was St. Augustine (+430), who constructed the general framework within which all subsequent Scholastic speculation operated. Another influential figure was Boethius (+525) whose opuscula sacra established the Scholastic method and who furnished many of the classical definitions and axioms. The first great figure of this period was John Scottus Erigena (+c. 877) who introduced to Latin thought the works of Denis the Pseudo-Areopagite, broadened the Scholastic method by his glossary on Boethius' opuscule sacra and made an unfruitful attempt to interest his contemporaries in natural philosophy by his semi-pantheistic De Divisione Naturae. Other figures of note: Gerbert (+1003) important in the realm of mathematics and natural philosophy; Fulbert of Chartres (+1028) influential in the movement to apply dialectics to theology; Berengar of Tours (+1088) Fulbert's disciple, who, together with Anselm the Peripatetic, was a leader in the movement to rationalize theology. Peter Damiani (+1072), preached strongly against this rationalistic spirit. More moderate and more efficacious in his reaction to the dialectical spirit of his age was Lawfranc (+1089), who strove to define the true boundaries of faith and reason.

IRDS Information Resource Dictionary System. A set of ISO standards for CASE repositories. It governs the definition of data dictionaries to be implemented on top of relational databases (see repository, data dictionary).

→ is used to express definitions, the definiendum being placed to the left and the definiens to the right. An alternative notation is the sign = (or, in connection with the propositional calculus, ≡) with the letters Df, or df, written above it, or as a subscript, or separately after the definiens.

ISWIM "language" (If You See What I Mean) An influential but unimplemented computer programming language described in the article by {Peter J. Landin} cited below. Landin attempted to capture all known programming language concepts, including {assignment} and control operators such as {goto} and {coroutines}, within a single {lambda calculus} based framework. ISWIM is an {imperative language} with a functional core, consisting of {sugared} {lambda calculus} plus {mutable variables} and {assignment}. A powerful control mechanism, Landin's {J operator}, enables capture of the current {continuation} (the {call/cc} operator of {Scheme} is a simplified version). Being based on lambda calculus ISWIM had {higher order functions} and {lexically scoped} variables. The {operational semantics} of ISWIM are defined using Landin's {SECD machine} and use {call-by-value} ({eager evaluation}). To make ISWIM look more like mathematical notation, Landin replaced {ALGOL}'s semicolons and begin end blocks with the {off-side rule} and scoping based on indentation. An ISWIM program is a single {expression} qualified by "where" clauses (auxiliary definitions including equations among variables), conditional expressions and function definitions. With {CPL}, ISWIM was one of the first programming languages to use "where" clauses. New {data types} could be defined as a (possibly recursive) {sum of products} like the {algebraic data types} found in modern functional languages. ISWIM variables were probably {dynamically typed} but Landin may have planned some form of {type inference}. Concepts from ISWIM appear in Art Evan's {PAL} and John Reynold's {Gedanken}, Milner's {ML} and purely functional languages with lazy evaluation like {SASL}, {Miranda} and {Haskell}. [{"The Next 700 Programming Languages" (}, P.J. Landin, CACM 9(3):157-166, Mar 1966]. (2007-03-20)

jala ::: water; [as one of the five bhutas. see apas, definition 2]

James' definition of pragmatism, written for Baldwin's Dictionary of Philosophy, is simply a restatement, or "exegesis", of Peirce's definition (see first definition listed above) appearing in the same place. The resemblance between their positions is illustrated by their common insistence upon the feasibility and desirability of resolving metaphysical problems by practical distinctions, unprejudiced by dogmatic presuppositions, their willingness to put every question to the test. "The pragmatic method", says James, "tries to interpret each notion by tracing its respective practical consequences. . . . If no practical difference whatever can be traced", between two alternatives, they "mean practically the same thing, and all dispute is idle". (Pragmatism, p. 45. See also Chapters III and IV.)

Jargon File "jargon, publication, humour" The on-line hacker Jargon File maintained by {Eric S. Raymond}. A large collection of definitions of computing terms, including much wit, wisdom, and history. {Many definitions (/contents/jargon.html)} in {this dictionary} are from v3.0.0 of 1993-07-27. {Jargon File Home (}. See also {Yellow Book, Jargon}. (2014-08-14)

Jivatman(Sanskrit) ::: An expressive word having much the same significance as jiva, but with emphasis laid uponthe last element of the compound, atman, "self." Jivatman is perhaps a better term for monad even thanjiva is, because it carries the clear idea of the monad in which the individual self is predominant over allother monadic attributes. One may perhaps describe it by a paraphrase as "the essential self orindividuality of the monad."Jivatman is also a term sometimes used for the universal life; but this definition, while correct in a way,is rather confusing because suggesting similarity if not identity with paramatman. Paramatman is theBrahman or universal spirit of a solar system, for instance; and paramatman is therefore the convergingpoint of a kosmic consciousness in which all the hosts of jivatmans unite as in their hierarchical head.The jivatmans of any hierarchy are like the rays from the paramatman, their divine-spiritual sun. Thejivatman, therefore, in the case of the human being, or indeed of any other evolving entity, is the spiritualmonad, or better perhaps the spiritual ego of that monad.

Karanopadhi(Sanskrit) ::: A compound meaning the "causal instrument" or "instrumental cause" in the long series ofreimbodiments to which human and other reimbodying entities are subject. Upadhi, the second elementof this compound, is often translated as "vehicle"; but while this definition is accurate enough for popularpurposes, it fails to set forth the essential meaning of the word which is rather "disguise," or certainnatural properties or constitutional characteristics supposed to be the disguises or clothings or masks inand through which the spiritual monad of man works, bringing about the repetitive manifestations uponearth of certain functions and powers of this monad, and, indeed, upon the other globes of the planetarychain; and, furthermore, intimately connected with the peregrinations of the monad through the variousspheres and realms of the solar kosmos. In one sense of the word, therefore, karanopadhi is almostinterchangeable with the thoughts set forth under the term maya, or the illusory disguises through whichspirit works, or rather through which spiritual monadic entities work and manifest themselves.Karanopadhi, as briefly explained under the term "causal body," is dual in meaning. The first and moreeasily understood meaning of this term shows that the cause bringing about reimbodiment is avidya,nescience rather than ignorance; because when a reimbodying entity through repeated reimbodiments inthe spheres of matter has freed itself from the entangling chains of the latter, and has risen intoself-conscious recognition of its own divine powers, it thereby shakes off the chains or disguises of mayaand becomes what is called a jivanmukta. It is only imperfect souls, or rather monadic souls, speaking ina general way, which are obliged by nature's cyclic operations and laws to undergo the repetitivereimbodiments on earth and elsewhere in order that the lessons of self-conquest and mastery over all theplanes of nature may be achieved. As the entity advances in wisdom and knowledge, and in the acquiringof self-conscious sympathy for all that is, in other words, as it grows more and more like unto itsdivine-spiritual counterpart, the less is it subject to avidya. It is, in a sense, the seeds of kama-manas leftin the fabric or being of the reincarnating entity, which act as the karana or reproducing cause, orinstrumental cause, of such entity's reincarnations on earth.The higher karanopadhi, however, although in operation similar to the lower karanopadhi, orkarana-sarira just described, nevertheless belongs to the spiritual-intellectual part of man's constitution,and is the reproductive energy inherent in the spiritual monad bringing about its re-emergence after thesolar pralaya into the new activities and new series of imbodiments which open with the dawn of thesolar manvantara following upon the solar pralaya just ended. This latter karanopadhi or karana-sarira,therefore, is directly related to the element-principle in man's constitution called buddhi -- a veil, as itwere, drawn over the face or around the being of the monadic essence, much as prakriti surroundsPurusha, or pradhana surrounds Brahman, or mulaprakriti surrounds and is the veil or disguise or sakti ofparabrahman. Hence, in the case of man, this karanopadhi or causal disguise or vehicle corresponds in ageneral way to the buddhi-manas, or spiritual soul, in which the spiritual monad works and manifestsitself.It should be said in passing that the doctrine concerning the functions and operations of buddhi in thehuman constitution is extremely recondite, because in buddhi lie the causal impulses or urges bringingabout the building of the constitution of man, and which, when the latter is completed, and when formingman as a septenary entity, express themselves as the various strata or qualities of the auric egg.Finally, the karana-sarira, the karanopadhi or causal body, is the vehicular instrumental form orinstrumental body-form, produced by the working of what is perhaps the most mysterious principle orelement, mystically speaking, in the constitution not only of man, but of the universe -- the verymysterious spiritual bija.The karanopadhi, the karana-sarira or causal body, is explained with minor differences of meaning invarious works of Hindu philosophy; but all such works must be studied with the light thrown upon themby the great wisdom-teaching of the archaic ages, esoteric theosophy. The student otherwise runs everyrisk of being led astray.I might add that the sushupti state or condition, which is that of deep dreamless sleep, involving entireinsensibility of the human consciousness to all exterior impressions, is a phase of consciousness throughwhich the adept must pass, although consciously pass in his case, before reaching the highest state ofsamadhi, which is the turiya state. According to the Vedanta philosophy, the turiya (meaning "fourth") isthe fourth state of consciousness into which the full adept can self-consciously enter and wherein hebecomes one with the kosmic Brahman. The Vedantists likewise speak of the anandamaya-kosa, whichthey describe as being the innermost disguise or frame or vehicle surrounding the atmic consciousness.Thus we see that the anandamaya-kosa and the karana-sarira, or karanopadhi, and the buddhi inconjunction with the manasic ego, are virtually identical.The author has been at some pains to set forth and briefly to develop the various phases of occult andesoteric theosophical thought given in this article, because of the many and various misunderstandingsand misconceptions concerning the nature, characteristics, and functions of the karana-sarira or causalbody.

kilobyte "unit, data" (KB) A unit of {data} equal to 1000 {bytes} (but see {binary prefix} for other definitions). One kilobyte is the amount of data in 1000 {ASCII} (or {UTF-8}) characters or about 250 English words (whose average length is about four characters). 1000 kilobytes are one {megabyte}. (2014-07-21)

lattice "theory" A {partially ordered set} in which all finite subsets have a {least upper bound} and {greatest lower bound}. This definition has been standard at least since the 1930s and probably since Dedekind worked on lattice theory in the 19th century; though he may not have used that name. See also {complete lattice}, {domain theory}. (1999-12-09)

Lazy Standard ML "language" (LSML) A {lazy} varient of {SML}, allowing cyclic val definitions, by Prateek Mishra "". Not to be confused with {LML}. {(}. (1999-08-30)

Legal Philosophy: Deals with the philosophic principles of law and justice. The origin is to be found in ancient philosophy. The Greek Sophists criticized existing laws and customs by questioning their validity: All human rules are artificial, created by enactment or convention, as opposed to natural law, based on nature. The theory of a law of nature was further developed by Aristotle and the Stoics. According to the Stoics the natural law is based upon the eternal law of the universe; this itself is an outgrowth of universal reason, as man's mind is an offshoot of the latter. The idea of a law of nature as being innate in man was particularly stressed and popularized by Cicero who identified it with "right reason" and already contrasted it with written law that might be unjust or even tyrannical. Through Saint Augustine these ideas were transmitted to medieval philosophy and by Thomas Aquinas built into his philosophical system. Thomas considers the eternal law the reason existing in the divine mind and controlling the universe. Natural law, innate in man participates in that eternal law. A new impetus was given to Legal Philosophy by the Renaissance. Natural Jurisprudence, properly so-called, originated in the XVII. century. Hugo Grotius, Thomas Hobbes, Benedictus Spinoza, John Locke, Samuel Pufendorf were the most important representatives of that line of thought. Grotius, continuing the Scholastic tradition, particularly stressed the absoluteness of natural hw (it would exist even if God did not exist) and, following Jean Bodin, the sovereignty of the people. The idea of the social contract traced all political bodies back to a voluntary compact by which every individual gave up his right to self-government, or rather transferred it to the government, abandoning a state of nature which according to Hobbes must have been a state of perpetual war. The theory of the social compact more and more accepts the character of a "fiction" or of a regulative idea (Kant). In this sense the theory means that we ought to judge acts of government by their correspondence to the general will (Rousseau) and to the interests of the individuals who by transferring their rights to the commonwealth intended to establish their real liberty. Natural law by putting the emphasis on natural rights, takes on a revolutionary character. It played a part in shaping the bills of rights, the constitutions of the American colonies and of the Union, as well as of the French declaration of the rights of men and of citizens. Natural jurisprudence in the teachings of Christian Wolff and Thomasius undergoes a kind of petrification in the vain attempt to outline an elaborate system of natural law not only in the field of international or public law, but also in the detailed regulations of the law of property, of contract, etc. This sort of dogmatic approach towards the problems of law evoked the opposition of the Historic School (Gustav Hugo and Savigny) which stressed the natural growth of laws ind customs, originating from the mysterious "spirit of the people". On the other hand Immanuel Kant tried to overcome the old natural law by the idea of a "law of reason", meaning an a priori element in all existing or positive law. In his definition of law ("the ensemble of conditions according to which everyone's will may coexist with the will of every other in accordance with a general rule of liberty"), however, as in his legal philosophy in general, he still shares the attitude of the natural law doctrine, confusing positive law with the idea of just law. This is also true of Hegel whose panlogism seemed to lead in this very direction. Under the influence of epistemological positivism (Comte, Mill) in the later half of the nineteenth century, legal philosophy, especially in Germany, confined itself to a "general theory of law". Similarily John Austin in England considered philosophy of law concerned only with positive law, "as it necessarily is", not as it ought to be. Its main task was to analyze certain notions which pervade the science of law (Analytical Jurisprudence). In recent times the same tendency to reduce legal philosophy to logical or at least methodological tasks was further developed in attempting a pure science of law (Kelsen, Roguin). Owing to the influence of Darwinism and natural science in general the evolutionist and biological viewpoint was accepted in legal philosophy: comparative jurisprudence, sociology of law, the Freirecht movement in Germany, the study of the living law, "Realism" in American legal philosophy, all represent a tendency against rationalism. On the other hand there is a revival of older tendencies: Hegelianism, natural law -- especially in Catholic philosophy -- and Kantianism (beginning with Rudolf Stammler). From here other trends arose: the critical attitude leads to relativism (f.i. Gustav Radbruch); the antimetaphysical tendency towards positivism -- though different from epistemological positivism -- and to a pure theory of law. Different schools of recent philosophy have found their applications or repercussions in legal philosophy: Phenomenology, for example, tried to intuit the essences of legal institutions, thus coming back to a formalist position, not too far from the real meaning of analytical jurisprudence. Neo-positivism, though so far not yet explicitly applied to legal philosophy, seems to lead in the same direction. -- W.E.

lexicon ::: n. --> A vocabulary, or book containing an alphabetical arrangement of the words in a language or of a considerable number of them, with the definition of each; a dictionary; especially, a dictionary of the Greek, Hebrew, or Latin language.

lexigraphy ::: n. --> The art or practice of defining words; definition of words.

L. Kalmar, On the possibility of definition by recursion, Acta Scientiarum Mathematicarum (Szeged), vol. 9 (1940), pp. 227-232.

locust ::: n. --> Any one of numerous species of long-winged, migratory, orthopterous insects, of the family Acrididae, allied to the grasshoppers; esp., (Edipoda, / Pachytylus, migratoria, and Acridium perigrinum, of Southern Europe, Asia, and Africa. In the United States the related species with similar habits are usually called grasshoppers. See Grasshopper.
The locust tree. See Locust Tree (definition, note, and phrases).

logical (From the technical term "logical device", wherein a physical device is referred to by an arbitrary "logical" name) Having the role of. If a person (say, Les Earnest at SAIL) who had long held a certain post left and were replaced, the replacement would for a while be known as the "logical" Les Earnest. (This does not imply any judgment on the replacement). Compare {virtual}. At Stanford, "logical" compass directions denote a coordinate system in which "logical north" is toward San Francisco, "logical west" is toward the ocean, etc., even though logical north varies between physical (true) north near San Francisco and physical west near San Jose. (The best rule of thumb here is that, by definition, El Camino Real always runs logical north-and-south.) In giving directions, one might say: "To get to Rincon Tarasco restaurant, get onto {El Camino Bignum} going logical north." Using the word "logical" helps to prevent the recipient from worrying about that the fact that the sun is setting almost directly in front of him. The concept is reinforced by North American highways which are almost, but not quite, consistently labelled with logical rather than physical directions. A similar situation exists at MIT: Route 128 (famous for the electronics industry that has grown up along it) is a 3-quarters circle surrounding Boston at a radius of 10 miles, terminating near the coastline at each end. It would be most precise to describe the two directions along this highway as "clockwise" and "counterclockwise", but the road signs all say "north" and "south", respectively. A hacker might describe these directions as "logical north" and "logical south", to indicate that they are conventional directions not corresponding to the usual denotation for those words. (If you went logical south along the entire length of route 128, you would start out going northwest, curve around to the south, and finish headed due east, passing along one infamous stretch of pavement that is simultaneously route 128 south and Interstate 93 north, and is signed as such!) [{Jargon File}] (1995-01-24)

logical relation A {relation} R satisfying f R g "=" For all a, b, a R b =" f a R g b This definition, by Plotkin, can be used to extend the definition of a relation on the types of a and b to a relation on functions.

Lout Lout is a batch text formatting system and an embedded language by Jeffrey H. Kingston "". The language is procedural, with {Scribe}-like {syntax}. Lout features equation formatting, tables, diagrams, rotation and scaling, sorted indexes, bibliographic databases, running headers and odd-even pages and automatic cross-referencing. Lout is easily extended with definitions which are very much easier to write than {troff} of {TeX} {macros} because Lout is a {high-level language}, the outcome of an eight-year research project that went back to the beginning. Version 2.05 includes a translator from Lout to {PostScript} and documentation. and runs under {Unix} and on the {Amiga}. {Author's site (}, {(}. {Amiga (}. (1993-07-30)

maieutical ::: a. --> Serving to assist childbirth.
Fig. : Aiding, or tending to, the definition and interpretation of thoughts or language.

Materialism In the rigid philosophical sense, any theory which considers the facts of the universe to be sufficiently explained by the existence and nature of matter. A familiar form of this is what has been called the atomo-mechanical theory, which derives all phenomena from the movements of material atoms in space. The philosophical definition of materialism differs according to the meaning of the word matter; as for instance, when we limit matter by no physical attributes or implications alone, but see in it the sevenfold prakritis or pradhanas of Hindu philosophers and mystics, matter is then seen to be but a name for the veil or shadow of spirit — the other side of spirit as it were. This distinction makes materialism but a synonym for spiritualism — i.e., the profound philosophic theory that the universe is built throughout, from and of the substances and attributes of spirit, which become matter in its innumerable and manifold forms and phases on the lower cosmic planes. What physicists have been calling matter is a percept derived from the interaction of the physical senses with the physical plane of prakriti or nature.

Mathematics: The traditional definition of mathematics as "the science of quantity" or "the science of discrete and continuous magnitude" is today inadequate, in that modern mathematics, while clearly in some sense a single connected whole, includes many branches which do not come under this head. Contemporary accounts of the nature of mathematics tend to characterize it rather by its method than by its subject matter.

Meaning: A highly ambiguous term, with at least four pivotal senses, involving intention or purpose, designation or reference, definition or translation, causal antecedents or consequences. Each of these provides overlapping families of cases generated by some or all of the following types of systematic ambiguity: -- Arising from a contrast between the standpoints of speaker and interpreter. arising from contrast between the meaning of specific utterances (tokens) and that of the general (type) symbol. arising from attention to one rather than another use of language (e.g., to the expressive rather than the evocative or referential uses). Some of these ambiguities are normally eliminated by attention to the context in which the term 'meaning' occurs. Adequate definition, would, accordingly, involve a detailed analysis of the types of context which are most common. The following is a preliminary outline. "What does X {some event, not necessarily linguistic) mean?" =   "Of what is X an index?"   "Of what is X a sign?" "What does S (a speaker) mean by X (an utterance)?" =   "What are S's interests, intentions, purposes in uttering X?"   "To whom (what) is he referring?"   "What effect does he wish to produce in the hearer?"   "What other utterance could he have used to express the same interest, make the same reference, or produce the same effect?" "What does X (an utterance of a speaker) mean to an interpreter?" =   "What does I take S to have meant by X (in any of the senses listed under B)?" "What does X (a type symbol) mean in language L?"   "What symbols (in L) can be substituted for X (in specified contexts) without appreciable loss of expressive, evocative or referential function?"   In a translation from L into another language M, either of X or of a more complex symbol containing X as part, what portion of the end-product corresponds to X?"   In addition to the above, relatively nontechnical senses, many writers use the word in divergent special ways based upon and implying favored theories about meaning.

Meaning the same as essentially, so that the predicate which is said to belong the subject formally, enters into the essence and definition of the subject. Thus man is formally animal. Formally, so understood has various correlatives, according to the various aspects under which the essence of a thing can be considered:

megabyte "unit, data" (MB, colloquially "meg") A Unit of {data} equal to one million {bytes} but see {binary prefix} for other definitions. A megabyte is 1000^2 bytes or 1000 {kilobytes}. The text of a six hundred page paperback book stored as {ASCII} {characters} contains about one megabyte of data. The complete King James bible is 5.2 megabytes. 1000 megabytes are one {gigabyte}. See {prefix}. (2013-11-04)

Mesa Xerox PARC, 1977. System and application programming for proprietary hardware: Alto, Dolphin, Dorado and Dandelion. Pascal-like syntax, ALGOL68-like semantics. An early version was weakly typed. Mesa's modules with separately compilable definition and implementation parts directly led to Wirth's design for Modula. Threads, coroutines (fork/join), exceptions, and monitors. Type checking may be disabled. Mesa was used internally by Xerox to develop ViewPoint, the Xerox Star, MDE, and the controller of a high-end copier. It was released to a few universitites in 1985. Succeeded by Cedar. ["Mesa Language Manual", J.G. Mitchell et al, Xerox PARC, CSL-79-3 (Apr 1979)]. ["Early Experience with Mesa", Geschke et al, CACM 20(8):540-552 (Aug 1977)].

metadata "data, data processing" /me't*-day`t*/, or combinations of /may'-/ or (Commonwealth) /mee'-/; /-dah`t*/ (Or "meta-data") Data about {data}. In {data processing}, metadata is definitional data that provides information about or documentation of other data managed within an application or environment. For example, metadata would document data about {data elements} or {attributes}, (name, size, data type, etc) and data about {records} or {data structures} (length, fields, columns, etc) and data about data (where it is located, how it is associated, ownership, etc.). Metadata may include descriptive information about the context, quality and condition, or characteristics of the data. A collection of metadata, e.g. in a {database}, is called a {data dictionary}. Myers of {The Metadata Company} claims to have coined the term in 1969 though it appears in the book, "Extension of programming language concepts" published in 1968, by {Philip R. Bagley}. Bagley was a pioneer of computer document retrieval. "A survey of extensible programming languages" by Solntsseff and Yezerski (Annual Review in Automatic Programming, 1974, pp267-307) cites "the notion of 'metadata' introduced by Bagley". (2010-05-15)

METAL 1. Mega-Extensive Telecommunications Applications Language. BBS language for PRODOS 8 on Apple II. 2. The syntax-definition formalism of the Mentor system. Metal specifications are compiled to specifications for a scanner/parser generator such as Lex/Yacc. "Metal: A Formalism to Specify Formalisms", G. Kahn et al, Sci Comp Prog 3:151-188 (1983).

Methodology: The systematic analysis and organization of the rational and experimental principles and processes which must guide a scientific inquiry, or which constitute the structure of the special sciences more particularly. Methodology, which is also called scientific method, and more seldom methodeutic, refers not only to the whole of a constituted science, but also to individual problems or groups of problems within a science. As such it is usually considered as a branch of logic; in fact, it is the application of the principles and processes of logic to the special objects of the various sciences; while science in general is accounted for by the combination of deduction and induction as such. Thus, methodology is a generic term exemplified in the specific method of each science. Hence its full significance can be understood only by analyzing the structure of the special sciences. In determining that structure, one must consider the proper object of the special science, the manner in which it develops, the type of statements or generalizations it involves, its philosophical foundations or assumptions, and its relation with the other sciences, and eventually its applications. The last two points mentioned are particularly important: methods of education, for example, will vary considerably according to their inspiration and aim. Because of the differences between the objects of the various sciences, they reveal the following principal methodological patterns, which are not necessarily exclusive of one another, and which are used sometimes in partial combination. It may be added that their choice and combination depend also in a large degree on psychological motives. In the last resort, methodology results from the adjustment of our mental powers to the love and pursuit of truth. There are various rational methods used by the speculative sciences, including theology which adds certain qualifications to their use. More especially, philosophy has inspired the following procedures:   The Soctattc method of analysis by questioning and dividing until the essences are reached;   the synthetic method developed by Plato, Aristotle and the Medieval thinkers, which involves a demonstrative exposition of the causal relation between thought and being;   the ascetic method of intellectual and moral purification leading to an illumination of the mind, as proposed by Plotinus, Augustine and the mystics;   the psychological method of inquiry into the origin of ideas, which was used by Descartes and his followers, and also by the British empiricists;   the critical or transcendental method, as used by Kant, and involving an analysis of the conditions and limits of knowledge;   the dialectical method proceeding by thesis, antithesis and synthesis, which is promoted by Hegelianlsm and Dialectical Materialism;   the intuitive method, as used by Bergson, which involves the immediate perception of reality, by a blending of consciousness with the process of change;   the reflexive method of metaphysical introspection aiming at the development of the immanent realities and values leading man to God;   the eclectic method (historical-critical) of purposive and effective selection as proposed by Cicero, Suarez and Cousin; and   the positivistic method of Comte, Spencer and the logical empiricists, which attempts to apply to philosophy the strict procedures of the positive sciences. The axiomatic or hypothetico-deductive method as used by the theoretical and especially the mathematical sciences. It involves such problems as the selection, independence and simplification of primitive terms and axioms, the formalization of definitions and proofs, the consistency and completeness of the constructed theory, and the final interpretation. The nomological or inductive method as used by the experimental sciences, aims at the discovery of regularities between phenomena and their relevant laws. It involves the critical and careful application of the various steps of induction: observation and analytical classification; selection of similarities; hypothesis of cause or law; verification by the experimental canons; deduction, demonstration and explanation; systematic organization of results; statement of laws and construction of the relevant theory. The descriptive method as used by the natural and social sciences, involves observational, classificatory and statistical procedures (see art. on statistics) and their interpretation. The historical method as used by the sciences dealing with the past, involves the collation, selection, classification and interpretation of archeological facts and exhibits, records, documents, archives, reports and testimonies. The psychological method, as used by all the sciences dealing with human behaviour and development. It involves not only introspective analysis, but also experimental procedures, such as those referring to the relations between stimuli and sensations, to the accuracy of perceptions (specific measurements of intensity), to gradation (least noticeable differences), to error methods (average error in right and wrong cases), and to physiological and educational processes.

metre "unit" (US "meter") The fundamental {SI} unit of length. From 1889 to 1960, the metre was defined to be the distance between two scratches in a platinum-iridium bar kept in the vault beside the Standard Kilogram at the International Bureau of Weights and Measures near Paris. This replaced an earlier definition as 10^-7 times the distance between the North Pole and the Equator along a meridian through Paris; unfortunately, this had been based on an inexact value of the circumference of the Earth. From 1960 to 1984 it was defined to be 1650763.73 wavelengths of the orange-red line of krypton-86 propagating in a vacuum. It is now defined as the length of the path traveled by light in a vacuum in the time interval of 1/299,792,458 of a second. (1998-02-07)

Missing definition "introduction" First, this is an (English language) __computing__ dictionary. It includes lots of terms from related fields such as mathematics and electronics, but if you're looking for (or want to submit) words from other subjects or general English words or other languages, try {(}, {(}, {(}, {(} or {(}. If you've already searched the dictionary for a computing term and it's not here then please __don't tell me__. There are, and always will be, a great many missing terms, no dictionary is ever complete. I use my limited time to process the corrections and definitions people have submitted and to add the {most frequently requested missing terms (missing.html)}. Try one of the sources mentioned above or {(}, {(} or {(}. See {the Help page (help.html)} for more about missing definitions and bad cross-references. (2014-09-20)! {exclamation mark}!!!Batch "language, humour" A daft way of obfuscating text strings by encoding each character as a different number of {exclamation marks} surrounded by {question marks}, e.g. "d" is encoded as "?!!!!?". The language is named after the {MSDOS} {batch file} in which the first converter was written. {esoteric programming languages} {wiki entry (!!!Batch)}. (2014-10-25)" {double quote}

missing {Missing definition}

ML Kit The ML Kit is a straight translation of the Definition of Standard ML into a collection of Standard ML modules. For example, every inference rule in the Definition is translated into a small piece of Standard ML code which implements it. The translation has been done with as little originality as possible - even variable conventions from the Definition are carried straight over to the Kit. The Kit is intended as a tool box for those people in the programming language community who may want a self-contained parser or type checker for full Standard ML but do not want to understand the clever bits of a high-performance compiler. We have tried to write simple code and modular interfaces. Version 1 interpreter, documentation Nick Rothwell, David N. Turner, Mads Tofte "", and Lars Birkedal at Edinburgh and Copenhagen Universities. {(}. UK: ftp export/ml/mlkit/ from (1993-03-12)

Modality: (Kant. Ger. Modalität) Concerning the mode -- actuality, possibility or necessity -- in which anything exists. Kant treated these as a priori categories or necessary conditions of experience, though in his formulation they are little more than definitions. See Kantianism. -- O.F.K.

MODEF Pascal-like language with polymorphism and data abstraction. "Definition of the Programming Language MODEF", J. Steensgard-Madsen et al, SIGPLAN Notices 19(2):92-110 (Feb 1984).

Mode "language" An {object-oriented language}. ["The Programming Language Mode: Language Definition and User Guide", J. Vihavainen, C-1987-50, U Helsinki, 1987]. [{Jargon File}] (1994-10-21)

Modula-2 "language" A high-level programming language designed by {Niklaus Wirth} at {ETH} in 1978. It is a derivative of {Pascal} with well-defined interfaces between {modules}, and facilities for parallel computation. Modula-2 was developed as the system language for the {Lilith} {workstation}. The central concept is the {module} which may be used to encapsulate a set of related subprograms and data structures, and restrict their visibility from other portions of the program. Each module has a definition part giving the interface, and an implementation part. The language provides limited single-processor {concurrency} ({monitors}, {coroutines} and explicit transfer of control) and hardware access ({absolute address}es and {interrupts}). It uses {name equivalence}. {DEC FTP archive (}. ["Programming in Modula-2", N. Wirth, Springer 1985]. (1995-10-25)

Modula-3pi Machine-independent intermediate language for compilation of Modula-3*. "Modula-3pi Language Definition", E.A. Heinz, TR, U Karlsruhe 1993.

Modula-P "Modula-P: A Language for Parallel Programming Definition and Implementation on a Transputer Network", R. Hoffart et al, IEEE Conf Comp Langs 1992.

More general kinds of definition by recursion allow sets of recursion equations of various forms, the essential requirement being that the equations specify the value of the function being introduced (or the values of the functions being introduced), for any given set of arguments, either absolutely, or in terms of the value (values) for preceding sets of arguments. The word preceding here may refer to the natural order or order of magnitude of the non-negative integers, or it may refer to some other method of ordering arguments or sets of arguments, but the method of ordering shall be such that infinite descending sequences ot sets of arguments (in which each set of arguments is preceded by the next set) are impossible.

More general notions of recursiveness result from admitting in addition to primitive recursion, also more general kinds of definition by recursion, including those in which several functions are introduced simultaneously by a single set of recursion equations. The most general such notion is that of general recursiveness -- see the first paper of Kleene cited below. Notions of recursiveness may also be introduced for a function whose range consists of only a portion of the non-negative integers (in the case of a monadic function) or of only a portion of the ordered sets of n non-negative integers (in the case of an n-adic function) -- see the second paper of Kleene cited.

Ṁ tat sat ::: a mantra said to be "the triple definition" of the brahman: OM, also spelled AUM, is the "Word of Manifestation", symbolising "the outward-looking, the inward or subtle and the superconscient causal Purusha", indicated respectively by the letters A, U and M, while "the syllable as a whole brings out the fourth state, Turiya, which rises to the Absolute"; tat, That, "indicates the Absolute"; sat "indicates the supreme and universal existence in its principle". [cf.Gita 17.23]

multi-user "operating system" A term describing an {operating system} or {application program} that can be used by several people concurrently; opposite of {single-user}. {Unix} is an example of a multi-user operating system, whereas most (but not all) versions of {Microsoft Windows} are intended to support only one user at a time. A multi-user system, by definition, supports {concurrent processing} of multiple tasks (once known as "{time-sharing}") or true {parallel processing} if it has multiple {CPUs}. While {batch processing} systems often ran jobs for serveral users concurrently, the term "multi-user" typically implies {interactive} access. Before {Ethernet} networks were commonplace, multi-user systems were accessed from a {terminal} (e.g. a {vt100}) connected via a {serial line} (typically {RS-232}). This arrangement was eventually superseded by networked {personal computers}, perhaps sharing files on a {file server}. With the wide-spread availability of Internet connections, the idea of sharing centralised resources is becoming trendy again with {cloud computing} and {managed applications}, though this time it is the overhead of administering the system that is being shared rather than the cost of the hardware. In gaming, both on PCs and {games consoles}, the equivalent term is {multi-player}, though the first multi-player games (e.g. {ADVENT}) were on multi-user computers. (2009-11-23)

Mysticism ::: A word originally derived from the Greek and having a wide range of meaning in modern Occidentalreligious and philosophical literature. A mystic may be said to be one who has intuitions or intimations ofthe existence of inner and superior worlds, and who attempts to ally himself or to come intoself-conscious communion with them and the beings inhabiting these inner and invisible worlds.The word mysticism, of course, has various shades of significance, and a large number of definitionscould easily be written following the views of different mystical writers on this theme. From thetheosophical or occult point of view, however, a mystic is one who has inner convictions often based oninner vision and knowledge of the existence of spiritual and ethereal universes of which our outerphysical universe is but the shell; and who has some inner knowledge that these universes or worlds orplanes or spheres, with their hosts of inhabitants, are intimately connected with the origin, destiny, andeven present nature of the world which surrounds us.Genuine mysticism is an ennobling study. The average mystic, however, is one who lacks the directguidance derived from personal teaching received from a master or spiritual superior.

namespace "systems" The {set} of all possible identifiers for some kind of object. From the definition of a set, all names in a namespace are unique and there is some rule to determine whether a potential name is an element of the set. For example, the {Domain Name System} includes rules for determining what constitutes a valid host name. (2008-12-09)

Napier Atkinson & Morrison, St Andrews U; design began ca. 1985, first implementation Napier88, 1988. Based on {orthogonal persistence}, permits definition and manipulation of namespaces. ["The Napier88 Reference Manual", R. Morrison et al, CS Depts St Andrews U and U Glasgow, Persistent Programming Research Report PPRR-77-89, 1989].

National Database Language "database, standard" (NDL) A US {standard} for portability of {database} definitions and {application programs}. (1996-06-24)

NDL 1. {National Database Language}. 2. {Network Definition Language}.

negation ::: adv. --> The act of denying; assertion of the nonreality or untruthfulness of anything; declaration that something is not, or has not been, or will not be; denial; -- the opposite of affirmation.
Description or definition by denial, exclusion, or exception; statement of what a thing is not, or has not, from which may be inferred what it is or has.

nested class "Java" In {Java}, a {class} defined within an enclosing class definition. A {static} nested class has no direct access to the members of its enclosing class whereas a non-static nested class, known as an "inner class", is associated with an instance of the enclosing class and an instance of the inner class has direct access to the members of its enclosing instance. {Java Tutorial (}. [Other languages?] (2006-11-19)

Network Definition Language (NDL) The language used to program the DCP (Data Communications Processor) on {Burroughs Large System}. Version: NDL II. (1994-12-12)

Nihil (Sri Aurobindo’s Definitions)

No hard and fast enumeration can be made as to the number of planes in the kosmos. The number assigned depends on the particular purpose for which the definition is made. The septenary classification is often used, as in the seven planes of prakriti or the seven states of consciousness pertaining to each. But other enumerations may equally be made, and any plane is subdivided into subplanes.

nominal ::: a. --> Of or pertaining to a name or names; having to do with the literal meaning of a word; verbal; as, a nominal definition.
Existing in name only; not real; as, a nominal difference. ::: n. --> A nominalist.
A verb formed from a noun.

Note that all definitions are taken from the Lexicon of an Infinite Mind, published by the Savitri Foundation and available through Amazon and Create Space. Words that have gravitated in the English language and are well used, such as those from classical mythology, Dionysian, Circean, etc. are not included.

No very precise definition of the term is possible since the discipline shades imperceptibly into science, on the one hand, and into philosophy in genetal, on the other. A working division of its subject-matter into three fields is helpful in specifying its problems, though the three fields should not be too sharply differentiated or separated.

NPL 1. New Programming Language. IBM's original (temporary) name for PL/I, changed due to conflict with England's "National Physical Laboratory." MPL and MPPL were considered before settling on PL/I. Sammet 1969, p.542. 2. A {functional language} with {pattern matching} designed by Rod Burstall and John Darlington in 1977. The language allowed certain sets and logic constructs to appear on the right hand side of definitions, E.g. setofeven(X) "= ":x: x in X & even(x) :" The NPL {interpreter} evaluates the list of {generators} from left to right so conditions can mention any bound variables that occur to their left. These were known as {set comprehensions}. NPL eventually evolved into {Hope} but lost set comprehensions which were called {list comprehensions} in later functional languages. [John Darlington, "Program Transformation and Synthesis: Present Capabilities", Research Report No. 77/43, Dept. of Computing and Control, Imperial College of Science and Technology, London September 1977.] 3. NonProcedural Language. A {relational database} language developed by T.D. Truitt et al in 1980 for {Apple II} and {MS-DOS}. ["An Introduction to Nonprocedural Languages Using NPL", T.D. Truitt et al, McGraw-Hill 1983].

Nuprl /nyu p*rl/ Nearly Ultimate PRL. A system for interactive creation of formal mathematics, including definitions and proofs. It has an extremely rich type system, including dependent functions, products, sets, quotients and universes. Types are first-class citizens. It is built on {Franz Lisp} and {Edinburgh ML}. ["Implementing Mathematics in the Nuprl Proof Development System", R.L. Constable et al, P-H 1986]. (1994-12-13)

Object Constraint Language "language" (OCL) A formal specification language extension to {UML}. The Object Constraint Language is a precise text language that provides {constraint} and {object query} expressions on an {object-oriented} model that cannot otherwise be expressed by diagrammatic notation. OCL supplements UML by providing expressions that have neither the ambiguities of {natural language} nor the inherent difficulty of using complex mathematics. OCL is a descendent of {Syntropy}, a second-generation object-oriented analysis and design method. The OCL 1.4 definition specified a constraint language. In OCL 2.0, the definition has been extended to include general object query language definitions. {OMG UML Home (}. {Rational UML Resource Center (}. {OCL 2.0 Submission to UML (}. (2003-11-15)

object-oriented database "database" (OODB) A system offering {DBMS} facilities in an {object-oriented programming} environment. Data is stored as {objects} and can be interpreted only using the {methods} specified by its {class}. The relationship between similar objects is preserved ({inheritance}) as are references between objects. Queries can be faster because {joins} are often not needed (as in a {relational database}). This is because an object can be retrieved directly without a search, by following its object id. The same programming language can be used for both data definition and data manipulation. The full power of the database programming language's {type system} can be used to model {data structures} and the relationship between the different data items. {Multimedia} {applications} are facilitated because the {class} {methods} associated with the data are responsible for its correct interpretation. OODBs typically provide better support for {versioning}. An object can be viewed as the set of all its versions. Also, object versions can be treated as full fledged objects. OODBs also provide systematic support for {triggers} and {constraints} which are the basis of {active databases}. Most, if not all, object-oriented {application programs} that have database needs will benefit from using an OODB. {Ode} is an example of an OODB built on {C++}. (1997-12-07)

Of quite a different kind are so-called real definitions, which are not conventions for introducing new symbols or notations -- as syntactical and semantical definitions are -- but are propositions of equivalence (material, formal, etc.) between two abstract entities (propositions, concepts, etc.) of which one is called the definiendum and the other the definiens. Not all such propositions of equivalence, however, are real definitions, but only those in which the definiens embodies the "essential nature" (essentia, ουσια) of the definiendum. The notion of a real definition thus has all the vagueness of the quoted phrase, but the following may be given as an example. If all the notations appearing, including ⊃x, have their usual meanings (regarded as given in advance), the proposition expressed by (F)(G)[[F(x) ⊃x G(x)] ≡ (x)[∼F(x) ∨ G(x)]] is a real definition of formal implication -- to be contrasted with the nominal definition of the ¦notation for formal implication which is given in the article Logic, formal, § 3. This formula, expressing a real definition of formal implication, might appear, e.g., as a primitive formula in a logistic system.

Often, however, the assumption is made that two propositional functions are identical if corresponding values are materially equivalent, and in this case we speak of propositional functions in extension (the definition in the preceding paragraph applying rather to propositional functions in intension). The values of a propositional function in extension are truth-values (q.v.) rather than propositions. A monadic propositional function in extension is not essentially different from a class (q. v.)

On-Line Analytical Processing "database" (OLAP) A category of {database} software which provides an interface such that users can transform or limit raw data according to user-defined or pre-defined functions, and quickly and interactively examine the results in various dimensions of the data. OLAP primarily involves aggregating large amounts of diverse data. OLAP can involve millions of data items with complex relationships. Its objective is to analyze these relationships and look for patterns, trends, and exceptions. The term was originally coined by {Dr. Codd} in 1993 with 12 "rules". Since then, the {OLAP Council}, many vendors, and Dr. Codd himself have added new requirements and confusion. Richard Creeth and Nigel Pendse define OLAP as fast analysis of shared multidimensional information. Their definition requires the system to respond to users within about five seconds. It should support logical and statistical processing of results without the user having to program in a {4GL}. It should implement all the security requirements for confidentiality and concurrent update locking. The system must provide a multidimensional conceptual view of the data, including full support for multiple hierarchies. Other aspects to consider include data duplication, {RAM} and disk space requirements, performance, and integration with {data warehouses}. Various bodies have attempted to come up with standards for OLAP, including The {OLAP Council} and the {Analytical Solutions Forum} (ASF), however, the {Microsoft OLE DB for OLAP API} is the most widely adopted and has become the {de facto standard}. {(}. {Usenet} newsgroup: {news:comp.databases.olap}. {(}. [What's a "multidimensional conceptual view"?] (1996-09-24)

ontology 1. "philosophy" A systematic account of Existence. 2. "artificial intelligence" (From philosophy) An explicit formal specification of how to represent the objects, concepts and other entities that are assumed to exist in some area of interest and the relationships that hold among them. For {AI} systems, what "exists" is that which can be represented. When the {knowledge} about a {domain} is represented in a {declarative language}, the set of objects that can be represented is called the {universe of discourse}. We can describe the ontology of a program by defining a set of representational terms. Definitions associate the names of entities in the {universe of discourse} (e.g. classes, relations, functions or other objects) with human-readable text describing what the names mean, and formal {axioms} that constrain the interpretation and well-formed use of these terms. Formally, an ontology is the statement of a {logical theory}. A set of {agents} that share the same ontology will be able to communicate about a domain of discourse without necessarily operating on a globally shared theory. We say that an agent commits to an ontology if its observable actions are consistent with the definitions in the ontology. The idea of ontological commitment is based on the {Knowledge-Level} perspective. 3. "information science" The hierarchical structuring of knowledge about things by subcategorising them according to their essential (or at least relevant and/or cognitive) qualities. See {subject index}. This is an extension of the previous senses of "ontology" (above) which has become common in discussions about the difficulty of maintaining {subject indices}. (1997-04-09)

Opal 1. A {DSP} language. ["OPAL: A High Level Language and Environment for DSP boards on PC", J.P. Schwartz et al, Proc ICASSP-89, 1989]. 2. The language of the {object-oriented database} {GemStone}. ["Making Smalltalk a Database System", G. Copeland et al, Proc SIGMOD'84, ACM 1984, pp.316- 325]. 3. A {simulation} language with provision for {stochastic variables}. An extension of {Autostat}. ["C-E-I-R OPAL", D. Pilling, Internal Report, C.E.I.R. Ltd. (1963)]. 4. A language for compiler testing said to be used internally by {DEC}. 5. A {functional programming} language designed at the {Technische Universitaet Berlin} as a testbed for the development of {functional programs}. OPAL integrates concepts from Algebraic Specification and Functional Programming, which favour the (formal) development of (large) production-quality software written in a {purely functional} style. The core of OPAL is a {strongly typed}, {higher-order}, {strict} applicative language which belongs to the tradition of {Hope} and {ML}. The algebraic flavour of OPAL is visible in the syntactical appearance and in the preference of {parameterisation} to {polymorphism}. OPAL supports: {information hiding} - each language unit is divided into an interface (signature) and an implementation part; selective import; {parameterised modules}; free constructor {views} on {sorts}, which allow pattern-based function definitions despite quite different implementations; full {overloading} of names; puristic scheme language with no {built-in} data types (except {Booleans} and denotations). OPAL and its predecessor OPAL-0 have been used for some time at the Technische Universitaet Berlin in CS courses and for research into optimising compilers for applicative languages. The OPAL compiler itself is writte entirely in OPAL. An overview is given in "OPAL: Design And Implementation of an Algebraic Programming Language". {(}. {(}. (1995-02-16)

Open Source Definition "standard" (OSD) Definition of distribution terms for {open source} software, promoted by the {Open Source Initiative}. {(}. (1999-11-28)

Open Source Initiative "body" (OSI) An organisation dedicated to managing and promoting the {Open Source Definition} for the good of the community. {(}. (1999-11-28)

open source "philosophy, legal" A method and philosophy for software licensing and distribution designed to encourage use and improvement of software written by volunteers by ensuring that anyone can copy the {source code} and modify it freely. The term "open source" is now more widely used than the earlier term "{free software}" (promoted by the {Free Software Foundation}) but has broadly the same meaning - free of distribution restrictions, not necessarily free of charge. There are various {open source licenses} available. Programmers can choose an appropriate license to use when distributing their programs. The {Open Source Initiative} promotes the {Open Source Definition}. {The Cathedral and the Bazaar (}. was a seminal paper describing the open source phenomenon. {Open Sources - O'Reilly book with full text online (}. {Articles from ZDNet (}. (1999-12-29)

ORKID {Open Real-time Kernel Interface Definition}

OSD {Open Source Definition}

Ox "language, tool" A {preprocessor}, written by Kurt Bischoff of {Iowa State University}, that extends and generalises the {syntax} and {semantics} of {Yacc}, {Lex}, and {C}. Ox's support of {LALR1 grammars} generalises {yacc} in the way that {attribute grammars} generalise {context-free grammars}. It augments Yacc and {Lex} specifications with definitions of synthesised and inherited attributes written in {C} {syntax}. Ox checks these specifications for consistency and completeness, and generates a program that builds and decorates {attributed parse trees}. Ox accepts a most general class of attribute grammars. The user may specify postdecoration traversals for easy ordering of {side effects} such as {code generation}. {(}. Info: "". ["User Manual for Ox: An Attribute-Grammar Compiling System based on Yacc, Lex and C", K.M. Bischoff, TR92-30, Iowa State U, Dec 1992]. (2000-04-03)

partial evaluation "compiler, algorithm" (Or "specialisation") An {optimisation} technique where the {compiler} evaluates some subexpressions at {compile-time}. For example, pow x 0 = 1 pow x n = if even n then pxn2 * pxn2 else x * pow x (n-1) where pxn2 = pow x (n/2) f x = pow x 5 Since n is known we can specialise pow in its second argument and unfold the recursive calls: pow5 x = x * x4 where x4 = x2 * x2    x2 = x * x f x = pow5 x pow5 is known as the residual. We could now also unfold pow5 giving: f x = x * x4 where x4 = x2 * x2   x2 = x * x It is important that the partial evaluation algorithm should terminate. This is not guaranteed in the presence of recursive function definitions. For example, if partial evaluation were applied to the right hand side of the second clause for pow above, it would never terminate because the value of n is not known. Partial evaluation might change the termination properties of the program if, for example, the expression (x * 0) was reduced to 0 it would terminate even if x (and thus x * 0) did not. It may be necessary to reorder an expression to partially evaluate it, e.g. f x y = (x + y) + 1 g z = f 3 z If we rewrite f: f x y = (x + 1) + y then the expression x+1 becomes a constant for the function g and we can say g z = f 3 z = (3 + 1) + z = 4 + z Partial evaluation of {built-in functions} applied to constant arguments is known as {constant folding}. See also {full laziness}. (1999-05-25)

Part of the purpose of the definition of analyticity is to secure that every logical sentence is either analytic or contradictory. (The corresponding situation with demonstrability and refutability is impossible in many significant cases in consequence of Gödel's theorem -- see logic, formal, § 6.)

passion-play ::: a dramatic performance, of medieval origin, that represents the events associated with the Passion of Jesus; also transf. See also passion, definition 7.

pattern matching 1. A function is defined to take arguments of a particular type, form or value. When applying the function to its actual arguments it is necessary to match the type, form or value of the actual arguments against the formal arguments in some definition. For example, the function length []   = 0 length (x:xs) = 1 + length xs uses pattern matching in its argument to distinguish a null list from a non-null one. There are well known {algorithm} for translating pattern matching into conditional expressions such as "if" or "case". E.g. the above function could be transformed to length l = case l of [] -" 0 x:xs -" 1 : length xs Pattern matching is usually performed in textual order though there are languages which match more specific patterns before less specific ones. 2. Descriptive of a type of language or utility such as {awk} or {Perl} which is suited to searching for strings or patterns in input data, usually using some kind of {regular expression}. (1994-11-28)

Peano arithmetic "mathematics" {Giuseppe Peano}'s system for representing {natural numbers} {inductively (induction)} using only two symbols, "0" (zero) and "S" (successor). This system could be expressed as a {recursive} data type with the following {Haskell} definition: data Peano = Zero | Succ Peano The number three, usually written "SSS0", would be Succ (Succ (Succ Zero)). Addition of Peano numbers can be expressed as a simple syntactic transformation: plus Zero   n = n plus (Succ m) n = Succ (plus m n) (1995-03-28)

petabyte "unit, data" (PB) A unit of data equal to one quadrillion {bytes} but see {binary prefix} for other definitions. A petabyte is 10^15 bytes or 1000^5 bytes or 1000 {terabytes}. As of 2013-11-05, the {Internet Archive} {Wayback Machine} contains almost two petabytes of data. A petabyte is the amount of data that would be required to store a 2000 by 1600 pixel image of every one of the 314 million people living in the USA in 2012. 1000 petabytes are one {exabyte}. See {prefix}. (2007-09-13)

Philosophers have in the past been concerned with two questions covered by our definition, though attempts to organize the subject as an autonomous department of philosophy are of recent date. Enquiries into the origin of language (e.g. in Plato's Kratylos) once a favorite subject for speculation, are now out of fashion, both with philosophers and linguists. Enquiries as to the nature of language (as in Descartes, Leibniz, and many others) are, however, still central to all philosophical interest in language. Such questions as "What are the most general characters of symbolism?", "How is 'Language' to be defined?", "What is the essence of language?", "How is communication possible?", "What would be the nature of a perfect language?", are indicative of the varying modulations which this theme receives in the works of contemporaries.   Current studies in the philosophy of language can be classified under five hends:   Questions of method, relation to other disciplines, etc. Much discussion turns here upon the proposal to establish a science and art of symbolism, variously styled semiotic, semantics or logical syntax,   The analysis of meaning. Problems arising here involve attention to those under the next heading.   The formulation of general descriptive schemata. Topics of importance here include the identification and analysis of different ways in which language is used, and the definition of men crucial notions as "symbol'', "grammar", "form", "convention", "metaphor", etc.   The study of fully formalized language systems or "calculi". An increasingly important and highly technical division which seeks to extend and adapt to all languages the methods first developed in "metamathematics" for the study of mathematical symbolism.   Applications to problems in general philosophy. Notably the attempt made to show that necessary propositions are really verbal; or again, the study of the nature of the religious symbol. Advance here awaits more generally acceptable doctrine in the other divisions.   References:

pinkroot ::: n. --> The root of Spigelia Marilandica, used as a powerful vermifuge; also, that of S. Anthelmia. See definition 2 (below).
A perennial North American herb (Spigelia Marilandica), sometimes cultivated for its showy red blossoms. Called also Carolina pink, Maryland pinkroot, and worm grass.
An annual South American and West Indian plant (Spigelia Anthelmia).

Plato: (428-7 - 348-7 B.C.) Was one of the greatest of the Greek philosophers. He was born either in Athens or on the island of Aegina, and was originally known as Aristocles. Ariston, his father, traced his ancestry to the last kings of Athens. His mother, Perictione, was a descendant of the family of Solon. Plato was given the best elementary education possible and he spent eight years, from his own twentieth year to the death of Socrates, as a member of the Socratic circle. Various stories are told about his supposed masters in philosophy, and his travels in Greece, Italy, Sicily and Egypt, but all that we know for certain is that he somehow acquired a knowledge of Pythagoreanisrn, Heracleitanism, Eleaticism and othei Pre-Socratic philosophies. He founded his school of mathematics and philosophy in Athens in 387 B.C. It became known as the Academy. Here he taught with great success until his death at the age of eighty. His career as a teacher was interrupted on two occasions by trips to Sicily, where Plato tried without much success to educate and advise Dionysius the Younger. His works have been very well preserved; we have more than twenty-five authentic dialogues, certain letters, and some definitions which are probably spurious. For a list of works, bibliography and an outline of his thought, see Platonism. -- V.J.B.

PL/I "language" Programming Language One. An attempt to combine the best features of {Fortran}, {COBOL} and {ALGOL 60}. Developed by George Radin of {IBM} in 1964. Originally named NPL and Fortran VI. The result is large but elegant. PL/I was one of the first languages to have a formal {semantic} definition, using the {Vienna Definition Language}. {EPL}, a dialect of PL/I, was used to write almost all of the {Multics} {operating system}. PL/I is still widely used internally at {IBM}. The PL/I standard is ANS X3.53-1976. PL/I has no {reserved words}. Types are fixed, float, complex, character strings with maximum length, bit strings, and label variables. {Arrays} have lower bounds and may be dynamic. It also has summation, multi-level structures, {structure assignment}, untyped pointers, {side effects} and {aliasing}. {Control flow} constructs include goto; do-end groups; do-to-by-while-end loops; external procedures; internal nested procedures and blocks; {generic procedures} and {exception handling}. Procedures may be declared {recursive}. Many implementations support {concurrency} ('call task' and 'wait(event)' are equivalent to {fork}/join) and compile-time statements. {LPI} is a PL/I {interpreter}. ["A Structural View of PL/I", D. Beech, Computing Surveys, 2,1 33-64 (1970)]. (1994-10-25)

Poincare, Henri: (1854-1912) French mathematician and mathematical physicist to whom many important technical contributions are due. His thought was occupied by problems on the borderline of physics and philosophy. His views reflect the influence of positivism and seem to be closely related to pngmatism. Poincare is known also for his opposition to the logistic method in the foundations of mathematics, especially as it was advocated by Bertrand i (q.v.) and Louis Couturat, and for his proposed resolution of the logical paradoxes (q.v.) by the prohibition of impredicattve definition (q.v.). Among his books, the more influential are Science and Hypothesis, Science and Method, and Dernieres Pensees. -- R.B.W.

point 1. "unit, text" (Sometimes abbreviated "pt") The unit of length used in {typography} to specify text character height, {rule} width, and other small measurements. There are six slightly different definitions: {Truchet point}, {Didot point}, {ATA point}, {TeX point}, {Postscript point}, and {IN point}. In Europe, the most commonly used is Didot and in the US, the formerly standard ATA point has essentially been replaced by the PostScript point due to the demise of traditional typesetting systems and rise of desktop computer based systems running software such as {QuarkXPress}, {Adobe InDesign} and {Adobe Pagemaker}. There are 20 {twips} in a point and 12 points in a {pica} (known as a "Cicero" in the Didot system). {Different point systems (}. (2004-12-23) 2. "hardware" To move a {pointing device} so that the on-screen pointer is positioned over a certain object on the screen such as a {button} in a {graphical user interface}. In most {window systems} it is then necessary to {click} a (physical) button on the pointing device to activate or select the object. In some systems, just pointing to an object is known as "mouse-over" {event} which may cause some help text (called a "tool tip" in {Windows}) to be displayed. (2001-05-21)

POOL-T Object-oriented, concurrent, synchronous. Predecessor of POOL2. ["Definition of the Programming Language POOL-T", Esprit Project 415, Doc. 0091, Philips Research Labs, Eindhoven, Netherlands, June 1985]. (1995-02-07)

powerdomain "theory" The powerdomain of a {domain} D is a domain containing some of the {subsets} of D. Due to the asymmetry condition in the definition of a {partial order} (and therefore of a domain) the powerdomain cannot contain all the subsets of D. This is because there may be different sets X and Y such that X "= Y and Y "= X which, by the asymmetry condition would have to be considered equal. There are at least three possible orderings of the subsets of a powerdomain: Egli-Milner: X "= Y iff for all x in X, exists y in Y: x "= y     and for all y in Y, exists x in X: x "= y ("The other domain always contains a related element"). Hoare or Partial Correctness or Safety: X "= Y iff for all x in X, exists y in Y: x "= y ("The bigger domain always contains a bigger element"). Smyth or Total Correctness or Liveness: X "= Y iff for all y in Y, exists x in X: x "= y ("The smaller domain always contains a smaller element"). If a powerdomain represents the result of an {abstract interpretation} in which a bigger value is a safe approximation to a smaller value then the Hoare powerdomain is appropriate because the safe approximation Y to the powerdomain X contains a safe approximation to each point in X. (""=" is written in {LaTeX} as {\sqsubseteq}). (1995-02-03)

PowerOpen Environment "operating system" (POE) A definition containing {API} and {ABI} specifications based on the {PowerPC} architecture. It is not an {operating system}. The presence of the ABI specification in the POE distinguishes it from other open systems (POSIX, XPG4, etc.) since it allows {platform} independent binary compatibility which is otherwise typically limited to particular hardware. The POE is an {open standard}, derived from {AIX} and conforming to industry open standards including {POSIX}, {XPG4} and {Motif}. The POE specification will be publicly available to anyone wishing to produce either {application programs} or hardware {platforms}. The {PowerOpen Association} will provide the necessary {conformance test}ing and POE branding. The POE is hardware {bus} independent. System implementations can range from {laptop computers} to {supercomputers}. It requires a multi-user, {multitasking} {operating system}. It provides networking support, an {X Window System} extension, a {Macintosh} Application Services extension and {Motif}. It is {conformance test}ed and certified by an independent party (the {PowerOpen Association}). The POE specification is targeted for availability in the first quarter of 1994. The {PowerOpen Association} will soon have some of the information material available on-line. (1994-11-08)

Pragmaticism: Pragmatism in Peirce's sense. The name adopted in 1905 by Charles S. Peirce (1893-1914) for the doctrine of pragmatism (q.v.) which had been enunciated by him in 1878. Peirce's definition was as follows: "In order to ascertain the meaning of an intellectual conception one should consider what practical consequences might conceivably result by necessity from the truth of that conception, and the sum of these consequences will constitute the entire meaning of the conception". According to Peirce, W. James had interpreted pragmatism to mean "that the end of man is action", whereas Peirce intended his doctrine as "a theory of logical analysis, or true definition," and held that "its merits are greatest in its application to the highest metaphysical conceptions". "If one can define accurately all the conceivable experimental phenomena which the affirmation or denial of a concept could imply, one will have therein a complete definition of the concept, and there is absolutely nothing more in it". Peirce hoped that the suffix, -icism, might mark his more strictly defined acception of the doctrine of pragmatism, and thus help to distinguish it from the extremes to which it had been pushed by the efforts of James, Schiller, Papini, and others. -- J.K.F.

Pragmatism is first and always a doctrine of meaning, and often a definition of truth as well, but as to the latter, not all pragmatists are in complete agreement. Neither Peirce nor Dewey, for example, would accept James' view that if the hypothesis of God works satisfactorily for the individual, it is true. Pragmatism is also a method of interpreting ideas in terms of their consequences. James, however, apparently does not believe that this method entails his specific philosophical doctrines -- his pluralism, individualism, neutralism, indeterminism, meliorism, pragmatic theism, "crass" supernaturalism, etc. In fact, he states that pragmatism is independent of his new philosophy of "radical empiricism" and agrees with the anti-intellectualist bent of the Italian pragmatist, Papini, who sees the pragmatic method available to the atheist, the praying penitent, the investigating chemist, the metaphysician and the anti-metaphysician ("What Pragmatism Means".) On the other hand, insofar as pragmatism is practically identified with the scientific method (as is allegedly the case with Dewey) it appears that the pragmatic method might be expected to yield much the same conclusions for one philosopher as for another. In general, pragmatism as a method, does not seem to imply any final philosophical conclusions. It may imply a general direction of thought, such as empiricism. Although pragmatists (Peirce, James, Dewey) frequently attack older forms of empiricism, or crude empiricism, and necessarily reject truth as a simple or static correspondence of propositions with sense data, they nevertheless continue to describe themselves as empiricists, so that today pragmatism (especially in Dewey's case) is often regarded as synonymous with empiricism. See Empiricism.

prana ::: 1. Life-energy; life; the breath of life. ::: 2. the five pranas: the five workings of the life-force: [prana (see definition 3 below), apana, vydna, samana, udana]. ::: 3. [one of the five pranas]: it moves in the upper part of the body and is pre-eminently the breath of life, because it brings the universal force into the physical system and gives it there to be distributed.

Predicables: (Lat. praedicabilia) In Aristotle's logic the five types of predicates that may be affirmed or denied of a subject in a logical proposition, viz. definition, genus, differentia, property, and accident. The list of predicables as formulated by Porphyry and later logicians omits definition and includes species. See Definition: Genus; Species; Differentia; Property; Accident. -- G.R.M.

programming language "language" A {formal language} in which {computer programs} are written. The definition of a particular language consists of both {syntax} (how the various symbols of the language may be combined) and {semantics} (the meaning of the language constructs). Languages are classified as low level if they are close to {machine code} and high level if each language statement corresponds to many machine code instructions (though this could also apply to a low level language with extensive use of {macros}, in which case it would be debatable whether it still counted as low level). A roughly parallel classification is the description as {first generation language} through to {fifth generation language}. The other major classification of languages distinguishes between {imperative languages}, {procedural language} and {declarative languages}. {Programming languages in this dictionary (/contents/language.html)}. {Programming languages time-line/family tree (}. (2004-05-17)

Protocol Sentences: See Basic Sentences. Proximum genus: (Lat. nearest kind) In Aristotelian theory of definition (q.v.), must be used with differentia. -- R.B.W.

Purple Book 1. "publication" The "System V Interface Definition". The covers of the first editions were an amazingly nauseating shade of off-lavender. 2. "publication" The {Wizard Book}. See also {book titles}. [{Jargon File}]

purus.a (purusha) ::: man; person; soul; spirit; the Self (atman) "as purusa originator, witness, support and lord and enjoyer of the forms and works of Nature" (prakr.ti); the conscious being, universal or individual, observing and upholding the activity of Nature on any plane of existence; the infinite divine Person (purus.ottama), "the Existent who .. transcends all definition by personality and yet is always that which is the essence of personality"; any of the ten types of consciousness (dasa-gavas) in the evolutionary scale. purusa purus

quality The totality of features and characteristics of a product or service that bear on its ability to satisfy stated or implied needs. Not to be mistaken for "degree of excellence" or "fitness for use" which meet only part of the definition. [{ISO8402}]. (1995-11-10)

Quidditative: In the strict sense, is that which arises from the proper image of an object, like intuitive knowledge, and besides, penetrates distinctly, with a clear, proper, and positive concept, the essential predicates of a thing even to the last difference. The knowledge which God has of Himself is of this kind. But quidditative knowledge in the wide sense is any knowledge of the quiddity or essence of an object, or any definition explaining what a thing is. -- H.G.

Quiddity: Essence; that property, quality, etc., which is described in a definition.

Quiddity: (Lat quidditas, whatness) Essence; that which is described in a definition. -- V.J.B.

Ramified theory of types: See impredicative definition, and paradoxes, logical.

random 1. Unpredictable (closest to mathematical definition); weird. "The system's been behaving pretty randomly." 2. Assorted; undistinguished. "Who was at the conference?" "Just a bunch of random business types." 3. (pejorative) Frivolous; unproductive; undirected. "He's just a random loser." 4. Incoherent or inelegant; poorly chosen; not well organised. "The program has a random set of misfeatures." "That's a random name for that function." "Well, all the names were chosen pretty randomly." 5. In no particular order, though {deterministic}. "The I/O channels are in a pool, and when a file is opened one is chosen randomly." 6. Arbitrary. "It generates a random name for the scratch file." 7. Gratuitously wrong, i.e. poorly done and for no good apparent reason. For example, a program that handles file name defaulting in a particularly useless way, or an assembler routine that could easily have been coded using only three registers, but redundantly uses seven for values with non-overlapping lifetimes, so that no one else can invoke it without first saving four extra registers. What {randomness}! 8. A random hacker; used particularly of high-school students who soak up computer time and generally get in the way. 9. Anyone who is not a hacker (or, sometimes, anyone not known to the hacker speaking). "I went to the talk, but the audience was full of randoms asking bogus questions". 10. (occasional MIT usage) One who lives at Random Hall. See also {J. Random}, {some random X}. [{Jargon File}] (1995-12-05)

Rebirth ::: One of the several aspects or branches of the general doctrine of reimbodiment. A word of large andgeneralized significance. Signifying merely a succession of rebirths, the definition becomes generalized,excluding specific explanations as to the type or kind of reimbodiment. The likeness between the ideacomprised in this word and that belonging to the term reincarnation is very close, yet the two ideas arequite distinct. (For this difference see Reincarnation; also Preexistence, Metempsychosis,Transmigration, etc.)

Recursion, definition by: A method of introducing, or "defining," functions from non-negative integers to non-negative integers, which, in its simplest form, consists in giving a pair of equations which specify the value of the function when the argument (or a particular one of the arguments) is 0, and supply a method of calculating the value of the function when the argument (that particular one of the arguments) is x+l, from the value of the function when the argument (that particular one of the arguments) is x. Thus a monadic function f is said to be defined by primitive recursion in terms of a dyadic function g -- the function g being previously known or given -- by the pair of equations, f(0) = A, f(S(x)) = g(x, f(x)), where A denotes some particular non-negative integer, and S denotes the successor function (so that S(x) is the same as x+l), and x is a variable (the second equation being intended to hold for all non-negative integers x). Similarly the dyadic function f is said to be defined by primitive recursion in terms of a triadic function g and a monadic function h by the pair of equations, f(a, 0) = h(a), f(a, S(x)) = g(a, x, f(a,x)), the equations being intended to hold for all non-negative integers a and x. Likewise for functions f of more than two variables. -- As an example of definition by primitive recursion we may take the "definition" of addition (i.e., of the dyadic function plus) employed by Peano in the development of arithmetic from his postulates (see the article Arithmetic, foundations of): a+0 = a, a+S(x) = S(a+x). This comes under the general form of definition by primitive recursion, just given, with h and g taken to be such functions that h(a) = a and g(a, x, y) = S(y). Another example is Peano's introduction of multiplication by the pair of equations aX0 = 0, aXS(x) = (aXx)+a. Here addition is taken as previously defined, and h(a) = 0, g(a, x, y) = y + a.

recursion "mathematics, programming" When a {function} (or {procedure}) calls itself. Such a function is called "recursive". If the call is via one or more other functions then this group of functions are called "mutually recursive". If a function will always call itself, however it is called, then it will never terminate. Usually however, it first performs some test on its arguments to check for a "base case" - a condition under which it can return a value without calling itself. The {canonical} example of a recursive function is {factorial}: factorial 0 = 1 factorial n = n * factorial (n-1) {Functional programming languages} rely heavily on recursion, using it where a {procedural language} would use {iteration}. See also {recursion}, {recursive definition}, {tail recursion}. [{Jargon File}] (1996-05-11)

recursion theory "theory" The study of problems that, in principle, cannot be solved by either computers or humans. [Proper definition?] (1999-03-01)

recursive definition See {recursive definition}.

Recursiveness: The notion of definition by recursion, and in particular of definition by primitive recursion, is explained in the article recursion, definition by. An n-adic function f (from non-negative integers to non-negative integers) is said to be defined by composition in terms of the m-adic function g and the n-adic functions h1, h2, . . . , hm by the equation: f(x1, x2, . . . , xn) = g(h1((x1, x2, . . . , xn), h2(x1, x2, . . . , xn) = hm (x1, x2, . . . , xn)). (The case is not excluded that m = 1, or n = 1, or both.)

redex Reducible Expression. An expression matching the left hand side of a {reduction rule} or definition.

Reducibility, axiom of: An axiom which (or some substitute) is necessary in connection with the ramified theory of types (q.v.) if that theory is to be adequate for classical mathematics, but the admissibility of which has been much disputed (see Paradoxes, logical). An exact statement of the axiom can be made only in the context of a detailed formulation of the ramified theory of types -- which will not here be undertaken. As an indication or rough description of the axiom of reducibility, it may be said that it cancels a large part of ihe restrictive consequences of the prohibition against impredicative definition (q.v.) and, in approximate effect, reduces the ramified theory of types to the simple theory of types (for the latter see Logic, formal, § 6). -- A.C.

References: J. Ries, Was ist ein Satz? 208, ff. (for quoted definitions). R. Carnap, Logical Syntax of language, 26. -- M.B.

referential transparency "programming" An expression E is referentially transparent if any subexpression and its value (the result of evaluating it) can be interchanged without changing the value of E. This is not the case if the value of an expression depends on global state which can change value. The most common example of changing global state is assignment to a global variable. For example, if y is a global variable in: f(x) { return x+y; } g(z) {  a = f(1);  y = y + z;  return a + f(1); } function g has the "{side-effect}" that it alters the value of y. Since f's result depends on y, the two calls to f(1) will return different results even though the argument is the same. Thus f is not referentially transparent. Changing the order of evaluation of the statements in g will change its result. {Pure functional languages} achieve referential transparency by forbidding {assignment} to global variables. Each expression is a constant or a function application whose evaluation has no side-effect, it only returns a value and that value depends only on the definition of the function and the values of its arguments. We could make f above referentially transparent by passing in y as an argument: f(x, y) = x+y Similarly, g would need to take y as an argument and return its new value as part of the result: g(z, y) {  a = f(1, y);  y' = y+z;  return (a + f(1, y'), y'); } Referentially transparent programs are more amenable to {formal methods} and easier to reason about because the meaning of an expression depends only on the meaning of its subexpressions and not on the order of evaluation or side-effects of other expressions. We can stretch the concept of referential transparency to include input and output if we consider the whole program to be a function from its input to its output. The program as a whole is referentially transparent because it will always produce the same output when given the same input. This is stretching the concept because the program's input may include what the user types, the content of certain files or even the time of day. If we do not consider global state like the contents of files as input, then writing to a file and reading what was written behaves just like assignment to a global variable. However, if we must consider the state of the universe as an input rather than global state then any {deterministic} system would be referentially transparent! See also {extensional equality}, {observational equivalence}. (1997-03-25)

refutable "programming" In {lazy functional languages}, a refutable pattern is one which may fail to match. An expression being matched against a refutable pattern is first evaluated to {head normal form} (which may fail to terminate) and then the top-level constructor of the result is compared with that of the pattern. If they are the same then any arguments are matched against the pattern's arguments otherwise the match fails. An irrefutable pattern is one which always matches. An attempt to evaluate any {variable} in the pattern forces the pattern to be matched as though it were refutable which may fail to match (resulting in an error) or fail to terminate. Patterns in {Haskell} are normally refutable but may be made irrefutable by prefixing them with a tilde (~). For example, (\ (x,y) -" 1) undefined ==" undefined (\ ~(x,y) -" 1) undefined ==" 1 Patterns in {Miranda} are refutable, except for {tuples} which are irrefutable. Thus g [x] = 2 g undefined ==" undefined f (x,y) = 1 f undefined ==" 1 Pattern bindings in local definitions are irrefutable in both languages: h = 1 where [x] = undefined ==" 1 Irrefutable patterns can be used to simulate {unlifted products} because they effectively ignore the top-level constructor of the expression being matched and consider only its components. (2013-11-03)

Reichenbach's work has been devoted mainly to the philosophy of empirical science; for a brief general survey of the problems which have particularly attracted his attention, and of his conception of an adequate method for their solution, cf. his Raum. Zeit Lehre. His contributions center around (I) the problems of space and time, and (II) those of causality, induction and probability. His studies of the first group of problems include thorough analyses of the nature of geometry and of the logical structure of relativistic physics, these researches led Reichenbach to a rejection of the aprioristic theory of space and time. Reichenbach's contributions to the second group of problems pivot around his general theory of probability which is based on a statistical definition of the probability concept. In terms of this probabilistic approach, Relchenbach has carried out comprehensive analyses of methodological and epistemological problems such as those of causality and induction. He has also extended his formal probability theory into a probability logic in which probabilities play the part of truth values. -- C.G.H.

Reincarnation ::: An anglicized word of Latin derivation, meaning "reinfleshment," the coming again into a human bodyof an excarnate human soul. The repetitive reimbodiment of the reincarnating human ego in vehicles ofhuman flesh -- this being a special case of the general doctrine of reimbodiment. This general doctrine ofreimbodiment applies not solely to man, but to all centers of consciousness whatsoever, or to all monadswhatsoever -- wheresoever they may be on the evolutionary ladder of life, and whatsoever may be theirparticular developmental grade thereon.The meaning of this general doctrine is very simple indeed. It is as follows: everylife-consciousness-center, in other words, every monad or monadic essence, reincorporates itselfrepeatedly in various vehicles or bodies, to use the popular word. These bodies may be spiritual, or theymay be physical, or they may be of a nature intermediate between these two, i.e., ethereal. This rule ofnature, which applies to all monads without exception, takes place in all the different realms of thevisible and invisible universe, and on all its different planes, and in all its different worlds.There are eight words used in the theosophical philosophy in connection with reimbodiment, which arenot all synonymous, although some of these eight words have almost the same specific meaning. Theyare: preexistence, rebirth, reimbodiment, palingenesis, metensomatosis, metempsychosis, transmigration,reincarnation (see under each word for definition). Of these eight words, four only may be said to containthe four different basic ideas of the general doctrine of reimbodiment, and these four are preexistence,reimbodiment, metempsychosis, and transmigration.In no case is the word reincarnation identical with any of the other seven words, though of course it hasgrounds of strong similarity with them all, as for instance with preexistence, because obviously the entitypreexists before it reincarnates; and on the same grounds it is similar to rebirth, reimbodiment, andmetensomatosis.The meaning of the word reincarnation differs specifically from rebirth in this, that the latter word simplymeans rebirth in human bodies of flesh on this earth; while the former term also contains the implication,tacit if not expressed, of possible incarnations in flesh by entities which have finished their earthlypilgrimage or evolution, but who can and sometimes do return to this earth in order to incarnate for thepurpose of aiding their less evolved brothers.

Rejected in particular by intuitionism are the use of impredicative definition (q. v.); the assumption that all things satisfying a given condition can be united into a set and this set then treated as an individual thing --or even the weakened form of this assumption which is found in Zermelo's Aussonderungsaxiom or axiom of subset formation (see logic, formal, § 9); the law of excluded middle as applied to propositions whose expression lequires a quantifier for which the variable involved has an infinite range. As an example of the rejection of the law of excluded middle, consider the proposition, "Either every even number greater than 2 can be expressed as the sum of two prime numbers or else not every even number greater than 2 can be expressed as the sum of two prime numbers." This proposition is intuitionistically unacceptable, because there are infinitely many even numbers greater than 2 and it is impossible to try them all one by one and decide of each whether or not it is the sum of two prime numbers. An intuitionist would accept the disjunction only after a proof had been given of one or other of the two disjoined propositions -- and in the present state of mathematical knowledge it is not certain that this can be done (it is not certain that the mathematical problem involved is solvable). If, however, we replace "greater than 2" by "greater than 2 and less than 1,000,000,000," the resulting disjunction becomes intuitionistically acceptable, since the number of numbers involved is then finite. The intuitionistic rejection of the law of excluded middle is not to be understood as an assertion of the negation of the law of excluded middle; on the contrary, Brouwer asserts the negation of the negation of the law of excluded middle, i.e., ∼∼[p ∨ ∼p]. Still less is the intuitionistic rejection of the law of excluded middle to be understood as the assertion of the existence of a third truth-value intermediate between truth and falsehood.

relational database "database" (RDBMS - relational database management system) A {database} based on the {relational model} developed by {E.F. Codd}. A relational database allows the definition of data structures, storage and retrieval operations and {integrity constraints}. In such a database the data and relations between them are organised in {tables}. A table is a collection of rows or {records} and each row in a table contains the same {fields}. Certain fields may be designated as {keys}, which means that searches for specific values of that field will use indexing to speed them up. Where fields in two different tables take values from the same set, a {join} operation can be performed to select related records in the two tables by matching values in those fields. Often, but not always, the fields will have the same name in both tables. For example, an "orders" table might contain (customer_id, product_code) pairs and a "products" table might contain (product_code, price) pairs so to calculate a given customer's bill you would sum the prices of all products ordered by that customer by joining on the product-code fields of the two tables. This can be extended to joining multiple tables on multiple fields. Because these relationships are only specified at retreival time, relational databases are classed as {dynamic database management system}. The first commercial RDBMS was the {Multics Relational Data Store}, first sold in 1978. {INGRES}, {Oracle}, {Sybase, Inc.}, {Microsoft Access}, and {Microsoft SQL Server} are well-known database products and companies. Others include {PostgreSQL}, {SQL/DS}, and {RDB}. ["Managing Data Bases, Four Critical Factors" Michael M. Gorman, QED Information Sciences, Inc.]. ["An Introduction To Database Systems" (6th ed) C. J. Date, Addison Wesley (an excellent source of detailed info)]. ["An End-User's Guide to Data Base" James Martin, Prentice Hall (excellent place to begin learning about DBMS)]. (2002-06-10)

Relative inclusion, ⊂, may be introduced by the definition: R ⊂ S → R ∩ −S = ∧. When R ⊂ S, we say that R is contained in S, or that S contains R.

Renaissance: (Lat. re + nasci, to be born) Is a term used by historians to characterize various periods of intellectual revival, and especially that which took place in Italy and Europe during the 15th and 16th centuries. The term was coined by Michelet and developed into a historical concept by J. Burckhardt (1860) who considered individualism, the revival of classical antiquity, the "discovery" of the world and of man as the main characters of that period as opposed to the Middle Ages. The meaning, the temporal limits, and even the usefulness of the concept have been disputed ever since. For the emphasis placed by various historians on the different fields of culture and on the contribution of different countries must lead to different interpretations of the whole period, and attempts to express a complicated historical phenomenon in a simple, abstract definition are apt to fail. Historians are now inclined to admit a very considerable continuity between the "Renaissance" and the Middle Ages. Yet a sweeping rejection of the whole concept is excluded, for it expresses the view of the writers of the period itself, who considered their century a revival of ancient civilization after a penod of decay. While Burckhardt had paid no attention to philosophy, others began to speak of a "philosophy of the renaissance," regarding thought of those centuries not as an accidental accompaniment of renaissance culture, but as its characteristic philosophical manifestation. As yet this view has served as a fruitful guiding principle rather than as a verified hypothesis. Renaissance thought can be defined in a negative way as the period of transition from the medieval, theological to the modern, scientific interpretation of reality. It also displays a few common features, such as an emphasis on man and on his place in the universe, the rejection of certain medieval standards and methods of science, the increased influence of some newly discovered ancient sources, and a new style and literary form in the presentation of philosophical ideas. More obvious are the differences between the various schools and traditions which cannot easily be brought to a common denominator Humimsm, Platonism, Aristotelianism, scepticism and natural philosophy, to which may be added the group of the founders of modern science (Copernicus, Kepler, Galileo). -- P.O.K.

Resource Description Framework "web, specification, data" (RDF) A specification being developed in 2000 by the {W3C} as a foundation for processing {metadata} regarding resources on the {Internet}, including the {web}. Resource Description Framework data consists of resources ({nodes}), and property/value pairs describing the resource. A node is any object which can be pointed to by a {URI}, properties are attributes of the node, and values can be either atomic values for the attribute, or other nodes. For example, information about a particular {web page} (a node), might include the property "Author". The value for the Author property could be either a string giving the name of the author, or a {link} to a resource describing the author. Resource Description Framework only specifies a mechanism for encoding and transferring metadata. It does not specify what that metadata should, or can be. RDF does not, for example, define an "Author" attribute. Sets of properties are defined within RDF Vocabularies (or Schemas). Anynone can create an RDF schema, describing a specialized set of properties, by creating a resource, referenced by the Schema URI, which provides a human- and machine-understandable definition of the schema's properties. The description of a node may include properties defined in different schemas. The properties within a resource description are associated with a certain schema definition using the {XML} {namespace} mechanism. Schemas currently being developed include a content screening system modeled after {PICS}, and a bibliographic vocabulary, such as the {Dublin Core Initiative}. {(}. {W3C Resource Description Framework-RDF Model and Syntax Specification (}. (2000-03-25)

RFC 1123 "networking, standard" The {RFC} "Requirements for Internet Hosts Application and Support" which clarifies or changes the specification of protocols given in earlier RFCs. RFC 1123 defines the terms "MUST", "SHOULD", "MAY", "unconditionally compliant", "conditionally compliant". Capitals are used to emphasise that the official definition of the word is being used. MUST or REQUIRED means an absolute requirement for conformance. SHOULD or RECOMMENDED means the item can be ignored under certain circumstances, although the full implications should be understood. MAY or OPTIONAL means the implementor can choose, usually depending on whether it is needed or not. Something "unconditionally compliant" meets all the MUST and SHOULD requirements, "conditionally compliant" meets all the MUST requirements and "not compliant" - does not meet some MUST requirement. For example, RFC 1123 amends RFC952 to say software MUST handle either a letter or a digit as the first character of a {hostname}. {(rfc:1123)}. (1996-01-13)

rigorous ::: a. --> Manifesting, exercising, or favoring rigor; allowing no abatement or mitigation; scrupulously accurate; exact; strict; severe; relentless; as, a rigorous officer of justice; a rigorous execution of law; a rigorous definition or demonstration.
Severe; intense; inclement; as, a rigorous winter.

rl Kent Wittenburg "". The RL files contain code for defining {relational grammars} and using them in a bottom-up parser to recognise and/or parse expressions in Relational Languages. The approach is a simplification of that described in Wittenburg, Weitzman, and Talley (1991), Unification-Based Grammars and Tabular Parsing for Graphical Languages, Journal of Visual Languages and Computing 2:347-370. This code is designed to support the definition and parsing of Relational Languages, which are characterised as sets of objects standing in user-defined relations. Correctness and completeness is independent of the order in which the input is given to the parser. Data to be {parsed} can be in many forms as long as an interface is supported for queries and predicates for the relations used in grammar productions. To date, this software has been used to parse recursive pen-based input such as math expressions and {flow charts}; to check for {data integrity} and design conformance in databases; to automatically generate constraints in drag-and-drop style graphical interfaces; and to generate graphical displays by parsing relational data and generating output code. requires: Common Lisp ports: Allegro Common Lisp 4.1, Macintosh Common Lisp 2.0 {(}. (1992-10-31)

RRS An early definition of {Scheme}. Revised in {R2RS}. ["The Revised Report on Scheme", G.L. Steele et al, AI Memo 452, MIT, Jan 1978]. (1994-10-28) [Was the original "Report on Scheme" published?]

RULES. ::: In the things of the subtle kind having to do with the working of consciousness in the sadhana. one has to Icam to feel and observe and sec with the inner consciousness and to decide by the intuition with a plastic look on things which docs not make set definitions and rules as one has to do in ouUvard life.

SAD {Systems Analysis Definition}

Sakti(Sanskrit) ::: A term which may be briefly defined to mean one of what in modern Occultism are called theseven forces of nature, of which six are manifest and the seventh unmanifest, or only partly manifest.Sakti in general may be described as universal energy, and is, as it were, the feminine aspect of fohat. Inpopular Hinduism the various saktis are the wives or consorts of the gods, in other words, the energies oractive powers of the deities represented as feminine influences or energies.These anthropomorphic definitions are unfortunate, because misleading. The saktis of nature are reallythe veils, or sheaths, or vehicular carriers, through which work the inner and ever-active energies. Assubstance and energy, or force and matter, are fundamentally one, as modern science in its researches hasbegun to discover, it becomes apparent that even these saktis or sheaths or veils are themselves energic tolower spheres or realms through which they themselves work.The crown of the astral light, as H. P. Blavatsky puts it, is the generalized sakti of universal nature in so far as our solar system is concerned.

Sat-cit-ananda, saccidananda: (Skr.) "Being-awareness-bliss", a Vedantic (s.v.) definition of the highest, all-inclusive reality, also of the atman (q.v.) insofar as it has attained its full realization. -- K.F.L.

saturation 1. "graphics" In colour theory, the "colourfulness" of a stimulus relative to its {brightness}, the amount of the dominant wavelength relative to other wavelengths in the colour, one of the three coordinates in the {hue, saturation, value} (HSV) and {hue, saturation, brightness} (HSB) {colour models}. White, black and grey contain equal amounts of red, green and blue light and are completely unsaturated. A pure colour with very little gray in it is highly saturated. The amount of saturation does not affect the {hue} of a colour and is unrelated to the {value} (total amount of light in a colour). There are several competing mathematical definitions of saturation. {(

Scheler, Max (1874-1928) was originally a disciple of Rudolf Eucken, but joined early -- at the University of Munich -- the Husserl circle of phenomenologists, of which school he became one of the leading exponents. Moving from Kantianism and Eucken-personalism into phenomenology, he later espoused successively positions which may be called a synthesis between phenomenology and Catholic philosophy, sociological dynamism, and ideo-realistic humanism. He was the psychologist, ethicist, and religious and social philosopher of the phenomenological movement. In common with other phenomenologists, Scheler's doctrine begins with the assertion of an inherent correlation of the essences of objects with the essences of intentional experience. His unique contributions lie in the comprehensiveness of his vision, in his interpretation of the value-qualities of being; of emotional experience, especially love, as the key for the disclosure of being; of a hierarchy of concrete ("material" as against formal) values; of an analysis of "resentment" as a thorough grudge (rancour) perverted emotional attitude towards the values of life; of his definition of "person" as the concrete unity of acts; of his acknowledgment of total personality beyond individual persons; of his definition of "ethos" as a preferential system of values determinative for the validity of any specific thought-form; of his development of the sociology of knowledge as a distinct discipline within cultural sociology; and of his working out of a philosophical anthropology showing man's position in and towards the whole of being. His most important works include: Die transzendentale und die psychologische Methode (1900); Der Formalismus in der Ethik und die materiale Wertethik (1916); Vom Ewigen in Menschen (1921); Wesen und Formen der Sympathie (1923); Schriften zur Soziologie und Weltanschauungslehre (3 vols., 1923-1924); Die Wissensformen und dte Gesellschaft (1926); Die Stellung des Menschen in Kosmos (1928); Philosophische Weltanschauung (1929); Zur Ethik und Erkenntnislehre (1933).

Schema Definition Set (SDS) Something in {Portable Common Tool Environment}. [What?] (2001-03-03)

Schlick, Moritz: (1882-1936) Taught at Rostock, Kiel, Vienna, also visit, prof.; Stanford, Berkeley. Founder of the Vienna Circle (see Scientific empiricism.) Called his own view "Consistent Empiricism." Main contributions: A logically revised correspondence view of the nature of truth. A systematic epistemology based on the distinction of (immediate) experience and (relational) knowledge. Clarified the analytic -- a priori character of logic and mathematics (by disclosing the "implicit definitions" in postulate systems). Repudiation of Kantian and phenomenological (synthetic) apriorism. Physicalistic, epistemological solution of the psycho-physical problem in terms of a double language theory. Earlier critical-realistic views were later modified and formulated as Empirical Realism. Greatly influenced in this final phase by Carnap and especially Wittgenstein, he considered the logical clarification of meanings the only legitimate task of a philosophy destined to terminate the strife of systems. Important special applications of this general outlook to logic and methodology of science (space, time, substance, causality, probability, organic life) and to problems of ethics (meaning of value judgments, hedonism, free-will, moral motivation). An optimistic, poetic view of the meaning of life is expressed in only partly published writings on a "Philosophy of Youth."

Scholz and Schweitzer, Die sogenannten Definitionen durch Abstraktion, Leipzig, 1935.

Screamer An extension of {Common Lisp} providing {nondeterministic} {backtracking} and {constraint} programming. {(}. [Isn't all backtracking nondeterministic by definition?]

SCSI-2 "hardware" A version of the {SCSI} command specification. SCSI-2 shares the original SCSI's {asynchronous} and {synchronous} modes and adds a "{Fast SCSI}" mode ("10MB/s) and "{Wide SCSI}" (16 bit, "20MB/s or rarely 32 bit). Another major enhancement was the definition of command sets for different device classes. SCSI-1 was rather minimalistic in this respect which led to various incompatibilities especially for devices other than {hard-disks}. SCSI-2 addresses that problem. allowing {scanners}, {hard disk drives}, {CD-ROM} drives, tapes and many other devices to be connected. Normal SCSI-2 equipment (not wide or {differential}) can be connected to a SCSI-1 bus and vice versa. (1995-04-19)

SCSI-3 "hardware" An ongoing standardisation effort to extend the capabilities of {SCSI-2}. SCSI-3's goals are more devices on a bus (up to 32); faster data transfer; greater distances between devices (longer cables); more device classes and command sets; structured documentation; and a structured {protocol} model. In SCSI-2, data transmission is parallel (8, 16 or 32 bit wide). This gets increasingly difficult with higher data rates and longer cables because of varying signal delays on different wires. Furthermore, wiring cost and drive power increases with wider data words and higher speed. This has triggered the move to serial interfacing in SCSI-3. By embedding clock information into a serial data stream signal delay problems are eliminated. Driving a single signal also consumes less driving power and reduces connector cost and size. To allow for backward compatibility and for added flexibility SCSI-3 allows the use of several different transport mechanisms, some serial and some parallel. The software {protocol} and command set is the same for each transport. This leads to a layered protocol definition similar to definitions found in networking. SCSI-3 is therefore in fact the sum of a number of separate standards which are defined by separate groups. These standards and groups are currently: X3T9.2/91-13R2 SCSI-3 Generic Packetized Protocol X3T9.2/92-141  SCSI-3 Queuing Model X3T9.2/92-079  SCSI-3 Architecture Model IEEE P1394   High Performance Serial Bus X3T9.2/92-106  SCSI-3 Block Commands X3T9.2/91-189  SCSI-3 Serial Bus Protocol X3T9.2/92-105  SCSI-3 SCSI-3 Core Commands SCSI-3 Common Command Set X3T9.2/92-108  SCSI-3 Graphic Commands X3T9.2/92-109  SCSI-3 Medium Changer Commands X3T9.2/91-11   SCSI-3 Interlocked Protocol X3T9.2/91-10   SCSI-3 Parallel Interface X3T9.2/92-107  SCSI-3 Stream Commands SCSI-3 Scanner Commands Additional Documents for the Fibre Channel are also meant to be included in the SCSI-3 framework, i.e.: Fibre Channel SCSI Mapping Fibre Channel Fabric Requirements Fibre Channel Low Cost Topologies X3T9.3/92-007  Fibre Channel Physical and Signalling Interface Fibre Channel Single Byte Commands Fibre Channel Cross Point Switch Topology X3T9.2/92-103  SCSI-3 Fibre Channel Protocol (GPP & SBP) As all of this is an ongoing effort of considerable complexity, document structure and workgroups may change. No final standard is issued yet. In the meantime a group of manufacturers have proposed an extension of {SCSI-2} called {Ultra-SCSI} which doubles the transfer speed of {Fast-SCSI} to give 20MByte/s on an 8 bit connection and 40MByte/s on a 16-bit connection. [Hermann Strass: "SCSI-Bus erfolgreich anwenden", Franzis-Verlag Muenchen 1993]. (1995-04-19)

SDF Syntax Definition Formalism. A language for lexical and syntactic specification. ["The Syntax Definition Formalism SDF - Reference Manual", J. Heering et al, Centre for Math & CS, Amsterdam]. ["Algebraic Specification", J.A. Bergstra et al eds, ACM Press 1989, Chap 6. To appear]. (1994-10-27)

SDL Specification and Design Language. Defined by the {ITU-T} (recommendation Z100) to provide a tool for unambiguous specification and description of the behaviour of telecommunications systems. The area of application also includes process control and real-time applications. SDL provides a Graphic Representation (SDL/GR) and a textual Phrase Representation (SDL/PR), which are equivalent representations of the same semantics. A system is specified as a set of interconnected {abstract machines} which are extensions of the {Finite State Machine} (FSM). 1. System Software Development Language. System software for the B1700. "System Software Development Language Reference Manual", 1081346, Burroughs Corp (Dec 1974). 2. Specification and Description Language. {ITU-T}. Specification language with both graphical and character-based syntaxes for defining interacting extended finite state machines. Used to specify discrete interactive systems such as industrial process control, traffic control, and telecommunication systems. Proc Plenary Assembly, Melbourne 14-1988-11-25, Fasc X.1, CCITT. "Telecommunications Systems Engineering Using SDL", R. Saracco et al, N-H 1989. Available from Verilog, MD. (See XDL). 3. Shared Dataspace Language. "A Shared Dataspace Language Supporting Large-Scale Concurrency", G. Roman et al, Proc 8th Intl Conf Distrib Comp Sys, IEEE 1988, pp.265-272. 4. Structure Definition Language. Used internally by DEC to define and generate the symbols used for VAX/VMS internal data structures in various languages. 5. System Description Language. language used by the Eiffel/S implementation of Eiffel to assemble clusters into a system. (see Lace).

SDS 1. "company" {Scientific Data Systems}. 2. "tool" {Schema Definition Set}. (2001-03-03)

Secondary Qualities: Those sensible qualities which are "nothing in the objects themselves, but powers to produce various sensations in us by their primary qualities." This is the definition of John Locke. Such qualities (colors, sounds, tastes, smells) are distinguishable from primary in that they are highly variable, less constant. They appear in human consciousness in various forms, whereas the primary ones remain the same. See Primary Qualities. -- V.F.

See further the articles Recursion, definition by, and Recursion, proof by. -- A.C.

self-seeking ::: [Ed. note: In this instance the meaning of the word is seeking for itself, rather than the usual definition which is the seeking of one"s own interest or selfish ends.]

SFL System Function Language. Assembly language for the ICL2900. "SFL Language Definition Manual", TR 6413, Intl Computers Ltd.

Simple Network Management Protocol version 2 "protocol" (SNMP v2) A revision of {Simple Network Management Protocol} (not just a new {MIB}) which includes improvements in the areas of performance, security, confidentiality, and manager-to-manager communications. The major components of SNMPv2 are defined in the following {RFCs}: {RFC 1089} - SNMP over Ethernet {RFC 1140} - IAB Official Protocol Standards {RFC 1155} - Structure and Identification of Management    Information for TCP/IP based internets {RFC 1156} (H) - Management Information Base Network Management of TCP/IP based internets {RFC 1157} - A Simple Network Management Protocol {RFC 1158} - Management Information Base Network    Management of TCP/IP based internets: MIB-II {RFC 1161} (H) - SNMP over OSI {RFC 1187} - Bulk Table Retrieval with the SNMP {RFC 1212} - Concise MIB Definitions {RFC 1213} - Management Information Base for Network    Management of TCP/IP-based internets: MIB-II {RFC 1215} (I) - A Convention for Defining Traps for use with the SNMP {RFC 1224} - Techniques for Managing    Asynchronously Generated Alerts {RFC 1270} (I) - SNMP Communication Services {RFC 1303} (I) - A Convention for Describing SNMP-based Agents {RFC 1470} (I) - A Network Management Tool Catalog {RFC 1298} - SNMP over IPX {RFC 1418} - SNMP over OSI {RFC 1419} - SNMP over IPX {RFC 1441} - Introduction to SNMP v2 {RFC 1442} - SMI For SNMP v2 {RFC 1443} - Textual Conventions for SNMP v2 {RFC 1444} - Conformance Statements for SNMP v2 {RFC 1445} - Administrative Model for SNMP v2 {RFC 1446} - Security Protocols for SNMP v2 {RFC 1447} - Party MIB for SNMP v2 {RFC 1448} - Protocol Operations for SNMP v2 {RFC 1449} - Transport Mappings for SNMP v2 {RFC 1450} - {MIB} for SNMP v2 {RFC 1451} - Manager to Manger MIB {RFC 1452} - Coexistance between SNMP v1 and SNMP v2 {FAQ (}. {Introduction (}. {Cisco (}. (1997-12-02)

Since this definition of consistency is relative to the choice if a particular notation as representing negation, the following definition is sometimes used instead: (2) A logistic system is consistent if not every formula (not every sentence) is a theorem. In the case of many familiar systems, under the usual choice as to which notation represents negation, the equivalence of this sense of consistency to the previous one is immediate.

single static assignment "compiler" (Also known as SSA form) A special form of code where each variable has only one single definition in the program code. "Static" comes from the fact that the definition site may be in a loop, thus dynamically executed several times. SSA form is used for program optimization or {static analysis} and {optimisation}. (2003-04-12)

Skandha(s)(Sanskrit) ::: Literally "bundles," or groups of attributes, to use H. P. Blavatsky's definition. When deathcomes to a man in any one life, the seeds of those causes previously sown by him and which have not yetcome forth into blossom and full-blown flower and fruit, remain in his interior and invisible parts asimpulses lying latent and sleeping: lying latent like sleeping seeds for future flowerings into action in thenext and succeeding lives. They are psychological impulse-seeds lying asleep until their appropriatestage for awakening into action arrives at some time in the future.In the case of the cosmic bodies, every solar or planetary body upon entering into its pralaya, itsprakritika-pralaya -- the dissolution of its lower principles -- at the end of its long life cycle, exists inspace in the higher activity of its spiritual principles, and in the dispersion of its lowest principles, whichlatter latently exist in space as skandhas in a laya-condition.When a laya-center is fired into action by the touch of wills and consciousnesses on their downward way,becoming the imbodying life of a solar system, or of a planet of a solar system, the center manifests firston its highest plane, and later on its lower plane. The skandhas are awakened into life one after another:first the highest ones, next the intermediate ones, and lastly the inferior ones, cosmically and qualitativelyspeaking.The term skandhas in theosophical philosophy has the general significance of bundles or groups ofattributes, which together form or compose the entire set of material and also mental, emotional, andmoral qualities. Exoterically the skandhas are "bundles" of attributes five in number, but esoterically theyare seven. These unite at the birth of man and constitute his personality. After the death of the body theskandhas are separated and so remain until the reincarnating ego on its downward path into physicalincarnation gathers them together again around itself, and thus reforms the human constitutionconsidered as a unity.In brief, the skandhas can be said to be the aggregate of the groups of attributes or qualities which makeeach individual man the personality that he is; but this must be sharply distinguished from theindividuality.

SMoLCS Specification metalanguage used for a formal definition of Ada. "An Introduction to the SMoLCS Methodology", E. Astesiano, U Genova 1986.

smrtikara (Smritikara) ::: [the maker or author of a smrti (definition 2) ].

Socrates: (c. 470-399 B.C.) Was one of the most influential teachers of philosophy. The son of an Athenian stone cutter, named Sophroniscus, and of a mid-wife, Socrates learned his father's trade, but, in a sense, practised his mother's. Plato makes him describe himself as one who assists at the birth of ideas. With the exception of two periods of military service, he remained in Athens all his life. He claimed to be guided by a daimon which warned him against what was wrong, and Plato suggests that Socrates enjoyed mystic experiences. Much of his tirne was spent in high-minded philosophic discussion with those he chanced to meet in the public places of Athens. The young men enjoyed his easy methods of discussion and delighted in his frequent quizzing of the Sophists. He was eventually charged in the Athenian citizen court with being irreligious and corrupting the young. Found guilty, he submitted to the court and drank the poison which ended the life of one of the greatest of Athenians. He wrote nothing and is known through three widely divergent contemporary accounts. Aristophanes has caricatured him in the Clouds, Xenophon has described him, with personal respect but little understanding of his philosophical profundity; Plato's dialogues idealize him and probably develop the Socratic philosophy far beyond the original thought of his master. Socrates personifies the Athenian love of reason and of moderation; he probably taught that virtue is knowledge and that knowledge is only true when it reaches the stage of definition. See Socratic method. -- V.J.B.

Sometimes, however, the distinction between nominal definitions and real definitions is made on the basis that the latter convey an assertion of existence, of the defimendum, or rather, where the definiendum is a concept, of things falling thereunder (Saccheri, 1697); or the distinction may be made on the basis that real definitions involve the possibility of what is defined (Leibniz, 1684). Ockham makes the distinction rather on the basis that real definitions state the whole nature of a thing and nominal definitions state the meaning of a word or phrase, but adds that non-existents (as chimaera) and such parts of speech as verbs, adverbs, and conjunctions may therefore have only nominal definition. -- A.C.

Sometimes referred to as generalizations or analogues of De Morgan's laws are the two dually related theorems of the functional calculus of first order, ∼(Ex)F(x) ≡ (x)∼F(x), ∼(x)F(x) ≡ (Ex)∼F(x), and similar theorems in higher functional calculi. These make possible the definition of the existential quantifier in terms of the universal quantifier (or inversely). -- A.C.

SPIRITUAL LIFE. ::: The spiritual life is not a thing that can be formulated in a rigid definition or bound by a fixed mental rule ; it is a vast field of evolution, an immense kingdom poten- tially larger than the other kuigdoms below it, with a hundred

SQL "language, database, standard" /S Q L/ An industry-standard language for creating, updating and, querying {relational database management systems}. SQL was developed by {IBM} in the 1970s for use in {System R}. It is the {de facto standard} as well as being an {ISO} and {ANSI} {standard}. It is often embedded in general purpose programming languages. The first SQL standard, in 1986, provided basic language constructs for defining and manipulating {tables} of data; a revision in 1989 added language extensions for {referential integrity} and generalised {integrity} {constraints}. Another revision in 1992 provided facilities for {schema} manipulation and {data administration}, as well as substantial enhancements for data definition and data manipulation. Development is currently underway to enhance SQL into a computationally complete language for the definition and management of {persistent}, complex objects. This includes: generalisation and specialisation hierarchies, {multiple inheritance}, user defined {data types}, {triggers} and {assertions}, support for {knowledge based systems}, {recursive query expressions}, and additional data administration tools. It also includes the specification of {abstract data types} (ADTs), object identifiers, {methods}, {inheritance}, {polymorphism}, {encapsulation}, and all of the other facilities normally associated with object data management. The emerging {SQL3} standard is expected to be complete in 1998. According to Allen G. Taylor, SQL does __not__ stand for "Structured Query Language". That, like "SEQUEL" (and its pronunciation /see'kw*l/), was just another unofficial name for a precursor of SQL. However, the IBM SQL Reference manual for DB2 and Craig Mullins's "DB2 Developer's Guide" say SQL __does__ stand for "Structured Query Language". {SQL Standards (}. {An SQL parser (} is described in "Lex & Yacc", by Levine, Mason & Brown published by O'Reilly. {The 1995 SQL Reunion: People, Projects, and Politics (}. ["A Guide to the SQL Standard", C.J. Date, A-W 1987]. ["SQL for Dummies", Allen G. Taylor, IDG Books Worldwide]. (2005-11-17)

Sri Aurobindo uses the word in the sense of the definition for imager.

Standard Generalized Markup Language "language, text" (SGML) A generic {markup} language for representing documents. SGML is an International Standard that describes the relationship between a document's content and its structure. SGML allows document-based information to be shared and re-used across applications and computer {platforms} in an open, vendor-neutral format. SGML is sometimes compared to {SQL}, in that it enables companies to structure information in documents in an open fashion, so that it can be accessed or re-used by any SGML-aware application across multiple platforms. SGML is defined in "ISO 8879:1986 Information processing -- Text and office systems -- Standard Generalized Markup Language (SGML)", an {ISO} standard produced by {JTC} 1/SC 18 and amended by "Amendment 1:1988". Unlike other common document file formats that represent both content and presentation, SGML represents a document's content {data} and structure (interrelationships among the data). Removing the presentation from content establishes a neutral format. SGML documents and the information in them can easily be re-used by publishing and non-publishing {applications}. SGML identifies document elements such as titles, paragraphs, tables, and chapters as distinct objects, allowing users to define the relationships between the objects for structuring data in documents. The relationships between document elements are defined in a {Document Type Definition} (DTD). This is roughly analogous to a collection of {field} definitions in a {database}. Once a document is converted into SGML and the information has been 'tagged', it becomes a database-like document. It can be searched, printed or even programmatically manipulated by SGML-aware applications. Companies are moving their documents into SGML for several reasons: Reuse - separation of content from presentation facilitates multiple delivery formats like {CD-ROM} and {electronic publishing}. Portability - SGML is an international, platform-independent, standard based on {ASCII} text, so companies can safely store their documents in SGML without being tied to any one vendor. Interchange - SGML is a core data standard that enables SGML-aware applications to inter-operate and share data seamlessly. A central SGML document store can feed multiple processes in a company, so managing and updating information is greatly simplified. For example, when an aeroplane is delivered to a customer, it comes with thousands of pages of documentation. Distributing these on paper is expensive, so companies are investigating publishing on CD-ROM. If a maintenance person needs a guide for adjusting a plane's flight surfaces, a viewing tool automatically assembles the relevant information from the document {repository} as a complete document. SGML can be used to define attributes to information stored in documents such as security levels. There are few clear leaders in the SGML industry which, in 1993, was estimated to be worth US $520 million and is projected to grow to over US $1.46 billion by 1998. A wide variety tools can be used to create SGML systems. The SGML industry can be separated into the following categories: Mainstream Authoring consists of the key {word processing} vendors like {Lotus}, {WordPerfect} and {Microsoft}. SGML Editing and Publishing includes traditional SGML authoring tools like {ArborText}, {Interleaf}, {FrameBuilder} and {SoftQuad Author}/Editor. SGML Conversions is one of the largest sectors in the market today because many companies are converting legacy data from mainframes, or documents created with mainstream word processors, into SGML. Electronic Delivery is widely regarded as the most compelling reason companies are moving to SGML. Electronic delivery enables users to retrieve information on-line using an intelligent document viewer. Document Management may one day drive a major part of the overall SGML industry. SGML Document Repositories is one of the cornerstone technologies that will affect the progress of SGML as a data standard. Since 1998, almost all development in SGML has been focussed on {XML} - a simple (and therefore easier to understand and implement) subset of SGML. {"ISO 8879:1986//ENTITIES Added Latin 1//EN" (} defines some characters. [How are these related to {ISO 8859}-1?]. {ISO catalogue entry (}. SGML parsers are available from {VU, NL (}, {FSU (}, {UIO, Norway (}. See also {sgmls}. {Usenet} newsgroup: {news:comp.text.sgml}. ["The SGML Handbook", Charles F. Goldfarb, Clarendon Press, 1991, ISBN 0198537379. (Full text of the ISO standard plus extensive commentary and cross-referencing. Somewhat cheaper than the ISO document)]. ["SGML - The User's Guide to ISO 8879", J.M. Smith et al, Ellis Harwood, 1988]. [Example of some SGML?] (2000-05-31)

String PRocessING language "language" (SPRING) ["From SPRING to SUMMER: Design, Definition and Implementation of Programming Languages for String Manipulation and Pattern Matching", Paul Klint, Math Centre, Amsterdam 1982]. (1996-02-06)

sublanguage "database, language" One of the languages associated with a {DBMS}, for example a {data-definition language} or {query language}. (1999-10-18)

Such methods of introducing new concepts, functions, etc. as definition by abstraction (q. v.), definition by recursion (q. v.), definition by composition (see Recursiveness) may be dealt with by reducing them to nominal definitions; i.e., by finding a nominal definition such that the definiens (and therefore also the definiendum) turns out, under an intended interpretation of the logistic system, to mean the concept, function, etc. which is to be introduced.

supercomputer "computer" A broad term for one of the fastest computers currently available. Such computers are typically used for {number crunching} including scientific {simulations}, (animated) {graphics}, analysis of geological data (e.g. in petrochemical prospecting), structural analysis, computational fluid dynamics, physics, chemistry, electronic design, nuclear energy research and meteorology. Perhaps the best known supercomputer manufacturer is {Cray Research}. A less serious definition, reported from about 1990 at The {University Of New South Wales} states that a supercomputer is any computer that can outperform {IBM}'s current fastest, thus making it impossible for IBM to ever produce a supercomputer. (1996-12-13)

superscalar "architecture" A superscalar architecture is a {uniprocessor} that can execute two or more {scalar} operations in parallel. Some definitions include {superpipelined} and {VLIW} architectures; others do not. Superscalar architectures (apart from superpipelined architectures) require multiple {functional units}, which may or may not be identical to each other. In some superscalar processors the order of instruction execution is determined statically (purely at compile-time), in others it is determined dynamically (partly at run time).

supramental gnosis ::: (in April 1927) a term comprising the planes called (gnostic) intuition, supermind and gnostic supermind as defined before the introduction of the term overmind and the redefinition of these planes as parts of the overmind system.

SVID {System V Interface Definition}

Syntax language: See Object language. Syntax, logical: "By the logical syntax of a language," according to Carnap, "we mean the formal theory of the linguistic forms of that language -- the systematic statement of the formal rules which govern it together with the development of the consequences which follow from these rules. A theory, a rule, a definition, or the like is to be called formal when no reference is made in it either to the meaning of the symbols or to the sense of the expressions, but simply and solely to the kinds and order of the symbols from which the expressions are constructed."

Systems Analysis Definition "programming" (SAD) The analysis of the role of a proposed system and the identification of the requirements that it should meet. SAD is the starting point for system design. The term is most commonly used in the context of commercial programming, where software developers are often classed as either {systems analysts} or programmers. The systems analysts are responsible for identifying requirements (i.e. systems analysis) and producing a design. The programmers are then responsible for implementing it. (1996-03-07)

Systems Network Architecture "networking" (SNA) {IBM}'s proprietary high level networking {protocol} {standard}, used by IBM and IBM compatible {mainframes}. Also referred to as "Blue Glue", SNA is a bletcherous protocol once widely favoured at commercial shops. The official IBM definition is "that which binds blue boxes together." It may be relevant that {Blue Glue} is also a 3M product commonly used to hold down carpets in {dinosaur pens}. [{Jargon File}] (1994-11-23)

System V 1. The other major versions of the {Unix} {operating system} apart from {BSD}. Developed by {AT&T}. Later versions of Unix such as {SunOS} combined the best features of {System V} and {BSD} Unix. (1994-10-31) [Differences?] 2. A supplier of {Unix} {open systems} for {Intel x86} processors. They supply products from {SCO} and {Solaris} and offer general support for {Unix}, {TCP/IP}, and {Internet}. They serve and create third-party {WWW} pages and provide on-line support for commercial and non-commercial applications. {(}. See also {System V Interface Definition}. (1994-12-12)

System V Interface Definition (SVID) A standard allowing source code portability between different {platforms} running Unix System V. (1995-03-28)

Tarski's concept of truth, obtained thus by a syntactical definition, is closely related to Carnap's concept of analyticity. According to Tarski, they are the same in the case that L is a "logical language." See further semiotic 2. -- A.C.

tat ::: that; "That which escapes definition or description and is yet not only real but attainable", a word used to indicate parabrahman as "something utterly Transcendent, something that is unnameable and mentally unknowable, a sheer Absolute". Since this Absolute "is in itself indefinable by reason, ineffable to the speech", it can only "be approached through experience", either "through an absolute negation of existence, as if it were itself a supreme Non-Existence, a mysterious infinite Nihil" (asat) or else "through an absolute affirmation of all the fundamentals of our own existence, . . . through an inexpressible absolute of being" (sat).

tejas, tejah ::: light of energy; force; puissance; energy and soul-force; [as one of the five bhutas: light and heat energy, see agni, definition 2].

Temple, William: For many years Archbishop of York, Temple (born 1881) has written extensively on the philosophy of religion. In Mens Creatrix and most recently in Nature Man and God, he has argued for a universe of levels, culminating in value, and pointing to God as Supreme Value and hence Ultimate Reality. Recent work on the nature of revelation has given him the definition of revelation as "coincidence of divinely guided event and divinely guided apprehension", in this setting he places (see Christ the Truth) the Incarnation as central and most significant event apprehended by the Christian community. He is a Platonist in tendency, although within recent years this has been modified by scholasticism, and a study of Marxian philosophy. -- W.N.P.

test-driven development "programming, testing" (TDD) An iterative {software development} process where each iteration consists of the developer writing an automated {test case} for an unimplemented improvement or function, then producing code to pass that test and finally {refactoring} the code to acceptable standards. {Kent Beck}, who is credited with having developed or "rediscovered" the technique, stated in 2003 that TDD encourages simple designs and inspires confidence. TDD is related to the humourous definition of programming as the process of {debugging an empty file}. (2012-05-01)

Text Encoding Initiative "text, project, standard" (TEI) A project working to establish a standard for interchanging {electronic text} for scholarly research. The TEI has adopted {SGML} and implemented the TEI standard as an SGML {Document Type Definition}. The TEI was incorporated as a not-for-profit consortium in December 2000, with host sites in Bergen, Oxford, Virginia, and Providence RI, USA. {(}. See also {Corpus Processing}. [Any connection with {Computational Linguistics} or {Natural Language Processing}?] (2001-03-23)

The addition to the functional calculus of first order of individual constants (denoting particular individuals) is not often made -- unless symbols for functions from individuals to individuals (so-called "mathematical" or "descriptive" functions) are to be added at the same time. Such an addition is, however, employed in the two following sections as a means of representing certain forms of inference of traditional logic. The addition is really non-essential, and requires only minor changes in the definition of a formula and the list of primitive formulas (allowing the alternative of individual constants at certain places where the above given formulation calls for free individual variables).

The analysis of conscioisness proceeds in two principal directions: a distinction may be drawn between the act of consciousness and the content of consciousness and the two may even be considered as separable ingredients of consciousness, and consciousness is analyzed into its three principal functions: cognition, affection and conation. Locke, Reid and others restricted consciousness to the reflective apprehension of the mind of its own processes but this usage has been abandoned in favor of the wider definition indicated above and the term introspection is used to designate this special kind of consciousness. See Behaviorism. -- L.W.

The definition is intended to cover the communication of attitudes, evaluations, desires, etc., as well as of judgments or assertions. See Functions of Language, Speech Situation. -- M.B.

The definition is suggested by that of Jeremy Bentham. Reference: C. K. Ogden, Bentham's Theory of Fictions, 12. See also Incomplete Symbol, Construction. -- M.B.

The capital roman letters here denote arbitrary formulas of the propositional calculus (in the technical sense defined below) and the arrow is to be read "stands for" or "is an abbreviation for." Suppose that we have given some specific list of propositional symbols, which may be infinite in number, and to which we shall refer as the fundamental propositional symbols. These are not necessarily single letters or characters, but may be expressions taken from any language or system of notation; they may denote particular propositions, or they may contain variables and denote ambiguously any proposition of a certain form or class. Certain restrictions are also necessary upon the way in which the fundamental propositional symbols can contain square brackets [ ]; for the present purpose it will suffice to suppose that they do not contain square brackets at all, although they may contain parentheses or other kinds of brackets. We call formulas of the propositional calculus (relative to the given list of fundamental propositional symbols) all the expressions determined by the four following rules: all the fundamental propositional symbols are formulas if A is a formula, ∼[A] is a formula; if A and B are formulas [A][B] is a formula; if A and B are formulas [A] ∨ [B] is a formula. The formulas of the propositional calculus as thus defined will in general contain more brackets than are necessary for clarity or freedom from ambiguity; in practice we omit superfluous brackets and regard the shortened expressions as abbreviations for the full formulas. It will be noted also that, if A and B are formulas, we regard [A] | [B], [A] ⊃ [B], [A] ≡ [B], and [A] + [B], not as formulas, but as abbreviations for certain formulas in accordance with the above given definitions.

"The Divine Force concealed in the subconscient is that which has originated and built up the worlds. At the other end in the superconscient it reveals itself as the Divine Being, Lord and Knower who has manifested Himself out of the Brahman.” The Upanishads ::: See also divine Force for additional definitions.

The employment of definition by recursion in the development of arithmetic from Peano's postulates, or in the Frege-Russell derivation of arithmetic from logic, requires justification, which most naturallv takes the form of finding a method of replacing a definition by recursion by a nominal definition, or a contextual definition, serving the same purpose. In particular it is possible, by a method due to Dedekind or by any one of a number of modifications of it, to prove the existence of a function f satisfying the conditions expressed by an admissible set of recursion equations, and f may then be given a definition employing descriptions as the function f such that the recursion equations, with suitable quantifiers prefixed, hold. See the paper of Kalmar cited below.

The explicit definition of analyticity (etc.) for a particular language of course requires statement of the c-rules. Actually, in the case of his "Language II," Carnap prefers to define analytic and contradictory first, and consequence in terms of these.

The first paper of Tarski cited below is devoted to the problem of finding a definition of semantical truth for a logistic system L, not in L itself but in another system (metasystem) containing notations for the formulas of L and for syntactical relations between them. This is attractive as an alternative to the method of introducing the concept of truth by arbitrarily adding a notation for it, with appropriate new primitive formulas, to the metasystem, but in many important cases it is possible only if the metasystcm is in some essential respect logically stronger than L.

The important matter is not the definition of number (or of particular numbers), which may be made in various ways more or less indifferently, but the internal structure of the number system.

The Method of Statistics. The basic principle of statistical method is that of simplification, which makes possible a concise and comprehensive knowledge of a mass of isolated facts by correlating them along definite lines. The various stages of this method are:   precise definition of the problem or field of inquiry;   collection of material required by the problem;   tabulation and measurement of material in a manner satisfying the purpose of the problem;   clear presentation of the significant features of tabulated material (by means of charts, diagrams, symbols, graphs, equations and the like),   selection of mathematical methods for application to the material obtained;   necessary conclusion from the facts and figures obtained;   general interpretation within the limits of the problem and the procedure used. The special methods of treating statistical data are: collecting, sampling, selecting, tabulating, classifying, totaling or aggregating, measuring, averaging, relating and correlating, presenting symbolically. Each one of these methods uses specialized experimental or mathematical means in its actual application. The special methods of interpreting statistical data already treated are: analyzing, estimiting, describing, comparing, explaining, applying and predicting. In order to be conclusive, the various stages and types of the statistical method must avoid   loose definitions,   cross divisions resulting ftom conflicting interpretations of the problem,   data which are not simultaneous or subject to similar conditions,   conclusions from poor oi incomplete data,   prejudices in judging, even when there is no conuption of evidence. The philosophy of statistics is concerned in general with the discussion and evaluation of the mathematical principles, methods and results of this science; and in particular with a critical analysis of the fitness of biological, psychological, educational, economic and sociological materials, for various types of statistical treatment. The purpose of such an inquiry is to integrate its results into the general problems and schemes of philosophy proper. Cf.. Richard von Mises, Statistics, Probability, and Truth.

"The mind is ignorance seeking for the Truth, the supramental by its very definition is the Truth-Consciousness, Truth in possession of itself and fulfilling itself by its own power.” Letters on Yoga

“The mind is ignorance seeking for the Truth, the supramental by its very definition is the Truth-Consciousness, Truth in possession of itself and fulfilling itself by its own power.” Letters on Yoga

The notion of an ordered pair can be introduced into the theory by definition, in a way which amounts to identifying the ordered pair (x, y) with the set a which has two and only two members, x' and y', x' being the set which has x as its only member, and y' being the set which has x and y as its only two members. (This is one of various similar possible methods.) Relations in extension may then be treated as sets of ordered pairs.

The notion of definition by recursion may be extended to functions whose ranges consist of only a portion of the non-negative integers (in the case of monadic functions) or of only a portion of the ordered sets of n non-negative integers (in the case of n-adic functions); also to functions for which the range of the dependent variable may consist wholly or partly of other things than non-negative integers (in particular, propositional functions -- properties, relations -- of integers may receive definition by recursion).

Theory: (Gr. theoria, viewing) The hypothetical universal aspect of anything. For Plato, a contemplated truth. For Aristotle, pure knowledge as opposed to the practical. An abstraction from practice. The principle from which practice proceeds. Opposite of practice. -- J.K.F. Hypothesis. More loosely: supposition, whatever is problematic, verifiable but not verified. (As opposed to practice) systematically organized knowledge of relatively high generality. (See "the theory of light"). (As opposed to laws and observations): explanation. The deduction of the axioms and theorems of one system from assertions (not necessarily verified) from another system and of a relatively less problematic and more intelligible nature. (Note: Since criteria of what is 'intelligible' and 'problematic' are subjective and liable to fluctuation, any definition of the term is bound to be provisional. It might be advisable to distinguish between laws (general statements in a system), principles (axioms), and theories (methods for deriving the axioms by means of appropriate definitions employing terms from other systems). -- M.B.

Theosophy ::: A compound Greek word: theos, a "divine being," a "god"; sophia, "wisdom"; hence divine wisdom.Theosophy is the majestic wisdom-religion of the archaic ages and is as old as thinking man. It wasdelivered to the first human protoplasts, the first thinking human beings on this earth, by highlyintelligent spiritual entities from superior spheres. This ancient doctrine, this esoteric system, has beenpassed down from guardians to guardians to guardians through innumerable generations until our owntime. Furthermore, portions of this original and majestic system have been given out at various periods oftime to various races in various parts of the world by those guardians when humanity stood in need ofsuch extension and elaboration of spiritual and intellectual thought.Theosophy is not a syncretistic philosophy-religion-science, a system of thought or belief which has beenput together piecemeal and consisting of parts or portions taken by some great mind from other variousreligions or philosophies. This idea is false. On the contrary, theosophy is that single system orsystematic formulation of the facts of visible and invisible nature which, as expressed through theilluminated human mind, takes the apparently separate forms of science and of philosophy and ofreligion. We may likewise describe theosophy to be the formulation in human language of the nature,structure, origin, destiny, and operations of the kosmical universe and of the multitudes of beings whichinfill it.It might be added that theosophy, in the language of H. P. Blavatsky (Theosophical Glossary, p. 328), is"the sub-stratum and basis of all the world-religions and philosophies, taught and practiced by a few electever since man became a thinking being. In its practical bearing, Theosophy is purely divine ethics; thedefinitions in dictionaries are pure nonsense, based on religious prejudice and ignorance." (See alsoUniversal Brotherhood)

The precipitates of the propaedeutical effort are to be found, for Spinoza, in the definitions, axioms, postulates, and within the structural plan expressed in the geometrical ordering. It is highly probable that Spinoza would have admitted the tentative character of at least some of the definitions, axioms, and postulates formulated by him. He doubtless saw the possibility that the process of inquiry, revising, augmenting, and re-coordinating the fund of knowledge, might demand alteration in the structural bases of systematic expression as well as in the knowledge to be ordered. Such changes, however, would occur within limits set by the propaedeutical disclosures and the general framework. Advance might require the abandonment of an older metaphysical element, and the substitution of a new one. But with equal likelihood, the advance of knowledge would make possible a richer and deeper apprehension of the content of fixed principles. To illustrate: The first definition of the Ethica, that of Causa sui, might well be for Spinoza a principle that awakened reason must accept, a truth whose priority and validity could not be undermined. He might regard it as a minimal definition of reality, of the nature of the ultimate object of inquiry. On the other hand, Spinoza, it may be conjectured, would not claim for every element of his system a similar finality. Just as he recognizes the role of hypothesis in science, in a similar way, he would recognize the tentative character of some metaphysical and theological elements.

The prohibition against impredicative definition was incorporated by Russell into his ramified theory of types (1908) and is now usually identified with the restriction to the ramified theorv of types without the axiom of reducibility. (Poincare, however, never made his principle exact and may have intended, vaguely, a less severe restriction than this -- as indeed some passages in later writings would indicate.) -- A. C.

There is also another sense in which it has been held that mathematics is reducible to logic, namely that in the expressions for the postulates of a mathematical discipline the undefined terms are to be given definitions which involve logical terms only, in such a way that postulates and theorems of the discipline thereby become propositions of pure logic, demonstrable on the basis of logical principles only. This view was first taken, as regards arithmetic and analysis, by Frege, and was afterwards adopted by Russell, who extended it to all mathematics.

There is little agreement as to the correct analytical definition. To define a sentence as a complete utterance (Bloomfield, Language, 27) merely shifts the difficulty to that of deciding when symbols are not incomplete. A similar objection applies to Gardiner's definition (Speech and Language, 182) "those single words or combinations of words which taken as complete in themselves give satisfaction by shadowing forth the intelligible purpose of a speaker."

The relation of class inclusion, ⊂, may be introduced by the definition: A ⊂ B → A ? −B = A. Instead of algebra of classes, the term Boolean algebra is used primarily when it is intended that the formal system shall remain uninterpreted or that interpretations other than that described above shall be admitted. For the related idea of a Boolean ring see the paper of Stone cited below.

These are perhaps the most salient definitions along with relevant poems by two great poets, Walt Whitman and William Wordsworth.

The term continuity is also employed in mathematics in connection with functions of various kinds. We shall state the definition for the case of a monadic function f for which the range of the independent variable and the range of the dependent variable both consist of real numbers (see the article Function).

The term "empiricism" has been used with extreme looseness and confused with numerous related propositions, practices, and attitudes. Many definitions here listed are themselves ambiguous, but to remove their ambiguity would require misrepresentation of usage of the term. See also Scepticism, Sensationalism, Pluralism, Phenomenalism, Pragmatism, Positivism, Intuitionalism, Nativism, Rationalism, A Priorism, Intellectualism, Idealism, Transcendentalism, Scientific Empiricism. -- M.T.K.

The term vicious circle fallacy is used by Whitehead and Russell (1910) for arguments violating their ramified theory of types (q.v.). Similarly, the name circulus vitiosus is applied by Hermann Weyl (1918) to an argument involving impredicative definition (q.v). -- A.C.

The Unmanifested Supreme is beyond all definition and description by mind or speech; no definition the mind can make, affirmative or negative, can be at all expressive of it or adequate.

This definition would make logical syntax coincide with Hilbertian proof theory (q.v.), and in fact the adjectives syntactical, metalogical, metamathematical are used nearly interchangeably. Carnap, however, introduces many topics not considered by Hilbert, and further treats not only the syntax of particular languages but also general syntax, i.e., syntax relating to all languages in general or to all languages of a given kind.

This use of nominal definition (including contextual definition -- see the article Incomplete symbol) in connection with a logistic system is extraneous to the system in the sense that it may theoretically be dispensed with, and all formulas written in full. Practically, however, it may be necessary for the sake of brevity or perspicuity, or for facility in formal work.

Three senses of "Ockhamism" may be distinguished: Logical, indicating usage of the terminology and technique of logical analysis developed by Ockham in his Summa totius logicae; in particular, use of the concept of supposition (suppositio) in the significative analysis of terms. Epistemological, indicating the thesis that universality is attributable only to terms and propositions, and not to things as existing apart from discourse. Theological, indicating the thesis that no tneological doctrines, such as those of God's existence or of the immortality of the soul, are evident or demonstrable philosophically, so that religious doctrine rests solely on faith, without metaphysical or scientific support. It is in this sense that Luther is often called an Ockhamist.   Bibliography:   B. Geyer,   Ueberwegs Grundriss d. Gesch. d. Phil., Bd. II (11th ed., Berlin 1928), pp. 571-612 and 781-786; N. Abbagnano,   Guglielmo di Ockham (Lanciano, Italy, 1931); E. A. Moody,   The Logic of William of Ockham (N. Y. & London, 1935); F. Ehrle,   Peter von Candia (Muenster, 1925); G. Ritter,   Studien zur Spaetscholastik, I-II (Heidelberg, 1921-1922).     --E.A.M. Om, aum: (Skr.) Mystic, holy syllable as a symbol for the indefinable Absolute. See Aksara, Vac, Sabda. --K.F.L. Omniscience: In philosophy and theology it means the complete and perfect knowledge of God, of Himself and of all other beings, past, present, and future, or merely possible, as well as all their activities, real or possible, including the future free actions of human beings. --J.J.R. One: Philosophically, not a number but equivalent to unit, unity, individuality, in contradistinction from multiplicity and the mani-foldness of sensory experience. In metaphysics, the Supreme Idea (Plato), the absolute first principle (Neo-platonism), the universe (Parmenides), Being as such and divine in nature (Plotinus), God (Nicolaus Cusanus), the soul (Lotze). Religious philosophy and mysticism, beginning with Indian philosophy (s.v.), has favored the designation of the One for the metaphysical world-ground, the ultimate icility, the world-soul, the principle of the world conceived as reason, nous, or more personally. The One may be conceived as an independent whole or as a sum, as analytic or synthetic, as principle or ontologically. Except by mysticism, it is rarely declared a fact of sensory experience, while its transcendent or transcendental, abstract nature is stressed, e.g., in epistemology where the "I" or self is considered the unitary background of personal experience, the identity of self-consciousness, or the unity of consciousness in the synthesis of the manifoldness of ideas (Kant). --K.F.L. One-one: A relation R is one-many if for every y in the converse domain there is a unique x such that xRy. A relation R is many-one if for every x in the domain there is a unique y such that xRy. (See the article relation.) A relation is one-one, or one-to-one, if it is at the same time one-many and many-one. A one-one relation is said to be, or to determine, a one-to-one correspondence between its domain and its converse domain. --A.C. On-handedness: (Ger. Vorhandenheit) Things exist in the mode of thereness, lying- passively in a neutral space. A "deficient" form of a more basic relationship, termed at-handedness (Zuhandenheit). (Heidegger.) --H.H. Ontological argument: Name by which later authors, especially Kant, designate the alleged proof for God's existence devised by Anselm of Canterbury. Under the name of God, so the argument runs, everyone understands that greater than which nothing can be thought. Since anything being the greatest and lacking existence is less then the greatest having also existence, the former is not really the greater. The greatest, therefore, has to exist. Anselm has been reproached, already by his contemporary Gaunilo, for unduly passing from the field of logical to the field of ontological or existential reasoning. This criticism has been repeated by many authors, among them Aquinas. The argument has, however, been used, if in a somewhat modified form, by Duns Scotus, Descartes, and Leibniz. --R.A. Ontological Object: (Gr. onta, existing things + logos, science) The real or existing object of an act of knowledge as distinguished from the epistemological object. See Epistemological Object. --L.W. Ontologism: (Gr. on, being) In contrast to psychologism, is called any speculative system which starts philosophizing by positing absolute being, or deriving the existence of entities independently of experience merely on the basis of their being thought, or assuming that we have immediate and certain knowledge of the ground of being or God. Generally speaking any rationalistic, a priori metaphysical doctrine, specifically the philosophies of Rosmini-Serbati and Vincenzo Gioberti. As a philosophic method censored by skeptics and criticists alike, as a scholastic doctrine formerly strongly supported, revived in Italy and Belgium in the 19th century, but no longer countenanced. --K.F.L. Ontology: (Gr. on, being + logos, logic) The theory of being qua being. For Aristotle, the First Philosophy, the science of the essence of things. Introduced as a term into philosophy by Wolff. The science of fundamental principles, the doctrine of the categories. Ultimate philosophy; rational cosmology. Syn. with metaphysics. See Cosmology, First Principles, Metaphysics, Theology. --J.K.F. Operation: "(Lit. operari, to work) Any act, mental or physical, constituting a phase of the reflective process, and performed with a view to acquiring1 knowledge or information about a certain subject-nntter. --A.C.B.   In logic, see Operationism.   In philosophy of science, see Pragmatism, Scientific Empiricism. Operationism: The doctrine that the meaning of a concept is given by a set of operations.   1. The operational meaning of a term (word or symbol) is given by a semantical rule relating the term to some concrete process, object or event, or to a class of such processes, objectj or events.   2. Sentences formed by combining operationally defined terms into propositions are operationally meaningful when the assertions are testable by means of performable operations. Thus, under operational rules, terms have semantical significance, propositions have empirical significance.   Operationism makes explicit the distinction between formal (q.v.) and empirical sentences. Formal propositions are signs arranged according to syntactical rules but lacking operational reference. Such propositions, common in mathematics, logic and syntax, derive their sanction from convention, whereas an empirical proposition is acceptable (1) when its structure obeys syntactical rules and (2) when there exists a concrete procedure (a set of operations) for determining its truth or falsity (cf. Verification). Propositions purporting to be empirical are sometimes amenable to no operational test because they contain terms obeying no definite semantical rules. These sentences are sometimes called pseudo-propositions and are said to be operationally meaningless. They may, however, be 'meaningful" in other ways, e.g. emotionally or aesthetically (cf. Meaning).   Unlike a formal statement, the "truth" of an empirical sentence is never absolute and its operational confirmation serves only to increase the degree of its validity. Similarly, the semantical rule comprising the operational definition of a term has never absolute precision. Ordinarily a term denotes a class of operations and the precision of its definition depends upon how definite are the rules governing inclusion in the class.   The difference between Operationism and Logical Positivism (q.v.) is one of emphasis. Operationism's stress of empirical matters derives from the fact that it was first employed to purge physics of such concepts as absolute space and absolute time, when the theory of relativity had forced upon physicists the view that space and time are most profitably defined in terms of the operations by which they are measured. Although different methods of measuring length at first give rise to different concepts of length, wherever the equivalence of certain of these measures can be established by other operations, the concepts may legitimately be combined.   In psychology the operational criterion of meaningfulness is commonly associated with a behavioristic point of view. See Behaviorism. Since only those propositions which are testable by public and repeatable operations are admissible in science, the definition of such concepti as mind and sensation must rest upon observable aspects of the organism or its behavior. Operational psychology deals with experience only as it is indicated by the operation of differential behavior, including verbal report. Discriminations, or the concrete differential reactions of organisms to internal or external environmental states, are by some authors regarded as the most basic of all operations.   For a discussion of the role of operational definition in phvsics. see P. W. Bridgman, The Logic of Modern Physics, (New York, 1928) and The Nature of Physical Theory (Princeton, 1936). "The extension of operationism to psychology is discussed by C. C. Pratt in The Logic of Modem Psychology (New York. 1939.)   For a discussion and annotated bibliography relating to Operationism and Logical Positivism, see S. S. Stevens, Psychology and the Science of Science, Psychol. Bull., 36, 1939, 221-263. --S.S.S. Ophelimity: Noun derived from the Greek, ophelimos useful, employed by Vilfredo Pareto (1848-1923) in economics as the equivalent of utility, or the capacity to provide satisfaction. --J.J.R. Opinion: (Lat. opinio, from opinor, to think) An hypothesis or proposition entertained on rational grounds but concerning which doubt can reasonably exist. A belief. See Hypothesis, Certainty, Knowledge. --J.K.F- Opposition: (Lat. oppositus, pp. of oppono, to oppose) Positive actual contradiction. One of Aristotle's Post-predicaments. In logic any contrariety or contradiction, illustrated by the "Square of Opposition". Syn. with: conflict. See Logic, formal, § 4. --J.K.F. Optimism: (Lat. optimus, the best) The view inspired by wishful thinking, success, faith, or philosophic reflection, that the world as it exists is not so bad or even the best possible, life is good, and man's destiny is bright. Philosophically most persuasively propounded by Leibniz in his Theodicee, according to which God in his wisdom would have created a better world had he known or willed such a one to exist. Not even he could remove moral wrong and evil unless he destroyed the power of self-determination and hence the basis of morality. All systems of ethics that recognize a supreme good (Plato and many idealists), subscribe to the doctrines of progressivism (Turgot, Herder, Comte, and others), regard evil as a fragmentary view (Josiah Royce et al.) or illusory, or believe in indemnification (Henry David Thoreau) or melioration (Emerson), are inclined optimistically. Practically all theologies advocating a plan of creation and salvation, are optimistic though they make the good or the better dependent on moral effort, right thinking, or belief, promising it in a future existence. Metaphysical speculation is optimistic if it provides for perfection, evolution to something higher, more valuable, or makes room for harmonies or a teleology. See Pessimism. --K.F.L. Order: A class is said to be partially ordered by a dyadic relation R if it coincides with the field of R, and R is transitive and reflexive, and xRy and yRx never both hold when x and y are different. If in addition R is connected, the class is said to be ordered (or simply ordered) by R, and R is called an ordering relation.   Whitehcid and Russell apply the term serial relation to relations which are transitive, irreflexive, and connected (and, in consequence, also asymmetric). However, the use of serial relations in this sense, instead ordering relations as just defined, is awkward in connection with the notion of order for unit classes.   Examples: The relation not greater than among leal numbers is an ordering relation. The relation less than among real numbers is a serial relation. The real numbers are simply ordered by the former relation. In the algebra of classes (logic formal, § 7), the classes are partially ordered by the relation of class inclusion.   For explanation of the terminology used in making the above definitions, see the articles connexity, reflexivity, relation, symmetry, transitivity. --A.C. Order type: See relation-number. Ordinal number: A class b is well-ordered by a dyadic relation R if it is ordered by R (see order) and, for every class a such that a ⊂ b, there is a member x of a, such that xRy holds for every member y of a; and R is then called a well-ordering relation. The ordinal number of a class b well-ordered by a relation R, or of a well-ordering relation R, is defined to be the relation-number (q. v.) of R.   The ordinal numbers of finite classes (well-ordered by appropriate relations) are called finite ordinal numbers. These are 0, 1, 2, ... (to be distinguished, of course, from the finite cardinal numbers 0, 1, 2, . . .).   The first non-finite (transfinite or infinite) ordinal number is the ordinal number of the class of finite ordinal numbers, well-ordered in their natural order, 0, 1, 2, . . .; it is usually denoted by the small Greek letter omega. --A.C.   G. Cantor, Contributions to the Founding of the Theory of Transfinite Numbers, translated and with an introduction by P. E. B. Jourdain, Chicago and London, 1915. (new ed. 1941); Whitehead and Russell, Princtpia Mathematica. vol. 3. Orexis: (Gr. orexis) Striving; desire; the conative aspect of mind, as distinguished from the cognitive and emotional (Aristotle). --G.R.M.. Organicism: A theory of biology that life consists in the organization or dynamic system of the organism. Opposed to mechanism and vitalism. --J.K.F. Organism: An individual animal or plant, biologically interpreted. A. N. Whitehead uses the term to include also physical bodies and to signify anything material spreading through space and enduring in time. --R.B.W. Organismic Psychology: (Lat. organum, from Gr. organon, an instrument) A system of theoretical psychology which construes the structure of the mind in organic rather than atomistic terms. See Gestalt Psychology; Psychological Atomism. --L.W. Organization: (Lat. organum, from Gr. organon, work) A structured whole. The systematic unity of parts in a purposive whole. A dynamic system. Order in something actual. --J.K.F. Organon: (Gr. organon) The title traditionally given to the body of Aristotle's logical treatises. The designation appears to have originated among the Peripatetics after Aristotle's time, and expresses their view that logic is not a part of philosophy (as the Stoics maintained) but rather the instrument (organon) of philosophical inquiry. See Aristotelianism. --G.R.M.   In Kant. A system of principles by which pure knowledge may be acquired and established.   Cf. Fr. Bacon's Novum Organum. --O.F.K. Oriental Philosophy: A general designation used loosely to cover philosophic tradition exclusive of that grown on Greek soil and including the beginnings of philosophical speculation in Egypt, Arabia, Iran, India, and China, the elaborate systems of India, Greater India, China, and Japan, and sometimes also the religion-bound thought of all these countries with that of the complex cultures of Asia Minor, extending far into antiquity. Oriental philosophy, though by no means presenting a homogeneous picture, nevertheless shares one characteristic, i.e., the practical outlook on life (ethics linked with metaphysics) and the absence of clear-cut distinctions between pure speculation and religious motivation, and on lower levels between folklore, folk-etymology, practical wisdom, pre-scientiiic speculation, even magic, and flashes of philosophic insight. Bonds with Western, particularly Greek philosophy have no doubt existed even in ancient times. Mutual influences have often been conjectured on the basis of striking similarities, but their scientific establishment is often difficult or even impossible. Comparative philosophy (see especially the work of Masson-Oursel) provides a useful method. Yet a thorough treatment of Oriental Philosophy is possible only when the many languages in which it is deposited have been more thoroughly studied, the psychological and historical elements involved in the various cultures better investigated, and translations of the relevant documents prepared not merely from a philological point of view or out of missionary zeal, but by competent philosophers who also have some linguistic training. Much has been accomplished in this direction in Indian and Chinese Philosophy (q.v.). A great deal remains to be done however before a definitive history of Oriental Philosophy may be written. See also Arabian, and Persian Philosophy. --K.F.L. Origen: (185-254) The principal founder of Christian theology who tried to enrich the ecclesiastic thought of his day by reconciling it with the treasures of Greek philosophy. Cf. Migne PL. --R.B.W. Ormazd: (New Persian) Same as Ahura Mazdah (q.v.), the good principle in Zoroastrianism, and opposed to Ahriman (q.v.). --K.F.L. Orphic Literature: The mystic writings, extant only in fragments, of a Greek religious-philosophical movement of the 6th century B.C., allegedly started by the mythical Orpheus. In their mysteries, in which mythology and rational thinking mingled, the Orphics concerned themselves with cosmogony, theogony, man's original creation and his destiny after death which they sought to influence to the better by pure living and austerity. They taught a symbolism in which, e.g., the relationship of the One to the many was clearly enunciated, and believed in the soul as involved in reincarnation. Pythagoras, Empedocles, and Plato were influenced by them. --K.F.L. Ortega y Gasset, Jose: Born in Madrid, May 9, 1883. At present in Buenos Aires, Argentine. Son of Ortega y Munillo, the famous Spanish journalist. Studied at the College of Jesuits in Miraflores and at the Central University of Madrid. In the latter he presented his Doctor's dissertation, El Milenario, in 1904, thereby obtaining his Ph.D. degree. After studies in Leipzig, Berlin, Marburg, under the special influence of Hermann Cohen, the great exponent of Kant, who taught him the love for the scientific method and awoke in him the interest in educational philosophy, Ortega came to Spain where, after the death of Nicolas Salmeron, he occupied the professorship of metaphysics at the Central University of Madrid. The following may be considered the most important works of Ortega y Gasset:     Meditaciones del Quijote, 1914;   El Espectador, I-VIII, 1916-1935;   El Tema de Nuestro Tiempo, 1921;   España Invertebrada, 1922;   Kant, 1924;   La Deshumanizacion del Arte, 1925;   Espiritu de la Letra, 1927;   La Rebelion de las Masas, 1929;   Goethe desde Adentio, 1934;   Estudios sobre el Amor, 1939;   Ensimismamiento y Alteracion, 1939;   El Libro de las Misiones, 1940;   Ideas y Creencias, 1940;     and others.   Although brought up in the Marburg school of thought, Ortega is not exactly a neo-Kantian. At the basis of his Weltanschauung one finds a denial of the fundamental presuppositions which characterized European Rationalism. It is life and not thought which is primary. Things have a sense and a value which must be affirmed independently. Things, however, are to be conceived as the totality of situations which constitute the circumstances of a man's life. Hence, Ortega's first philosophical principle: "I am myself plus my circumstances". Life as a problem, however, is but one of the poles of his formula. Reason is the other. The two together function, not by dialectical opposition, but by necessary coexistence. Life, according to Ortega, does not consist in being, but rather, in coming to be, and as such it is of the nature of direction, program building, purpose to be achieved, value to be realized. In this sense the future as a time dimension acquires new dignity, and even the present and the past become articulate and meaning-full only in relation to the future. Even History demands a new point of departure and becomes militant with new visions. --J.A.F. Orthodoxy: Beliefs which are declared by a group to be true and normative. Heresy is a departure from and relative to a given orthodoxy. --V.S. Orthos Logos: See Right Reason. Ostensible Object: (Lat. ostendere, to show) The object envisaged by cognitive act irrespective of its actual existence. See Epistemological Object. --L.W. Ostensive: (Lat. ostendere, to show) Property of a concept or predicate by virtue of which it refers to and is clarified by reference to its instances. --A.C.B. Ostwald, Wilhelm: (1853-1932) German chemist. Winner of the Nobel prize for chemistry in 1909. In Die Uberwindung des wissenschaftlichen Materialistmus and in Naturphilosophie, his two best known works in the field of philosophy, he advocates a dynamic theory in opposition to materialism and mechanism. All properties of matter, and the psychic as well, are special forms of energy. --L.E.D. Oupnekhat: Anquetil Duperron's Latin translation of the Persian translation of 50 Upanishads (q.v.), a work praised by Schopenhauer as giving him complete consolation. --K.F.L. Outness: A term employed by Berkeley to express the experience of externality, that is the ideas of space and things placed at a distance. Hume used it in the sense of distance Hamilton understood it as the state of being outside of consciousness in a really existing world of material things. --J.J.R. Overindividual: Term used by H. Münsterberg to translate the German überindividuell. The term is applied to any cognitive or value object which transcends the individual subject. --L.W. P

thunk "programming" /thuhnk/ 1. "A piece of coding which provides an address", according to P. Z. Ingerman, who invented thunks in 1961 as a way of binding {actual parameters} to their formal definitions in {ALGOL 60} {procedure} calls. If a procedure is called with an expression in the place of a {formal parameter}, the compiler generates a thunk which computes the expression and leaves the address of the result in some standard location. 2. The term was later generalised to mean an expression, frozen together with its {environment} (variable values), for later evaluation if and when needed (similar to a "{closure}"). The process of unfreezing these thunks is called "forcing". 3. A {stubroutine}, in an {overlay} programming environment, that loads and jumps to the correct overlay. Compare {trampoline}. There are a couple of onomatopoeic myths circulating about the origin of this term. The most common is that it is the sound made by data hitting the {stack}; another holds that the sound is that of the data hitting an {accumulator}. Yet another suggests that it is the sound of the expression being unfrozen at argument-evaluation time. In fact, according to the inventors, it was coined after they realised (in the wee hours after hours of discussion) that the type of an argument in {ALGOL 60} could be figured out in advance with a little {compile-time} thought, simplifying the evaluation machinery. In other words, it had "already been thought of"; thus it was christened a "thunk", which is "the past tense of "think" at two in the morning". 4. ({Microsoft Windows} programming) {universal thunk}, {generic thunk}, {flat thunk}. [{Jargon File}] (1997-10-11)

tn3270 A program, similar to {telnet}, used to connect to remote {IBM} {mainframe} {hosts}, many of which do not understand telnet. The program emulates a {3270}-type terminal. For many tn3270 versions, the "clear screen" function is activated by typing Control-Z. When logged on to an IBM host and "HOLDING" or "MORE..." appears at the lower right corner of the screen, the "clear screen" function must be entered to display the next screen. tn3270 emulations usually include {function key} definitions. (1994-11-03)

To Boethius (475-525) it was given to furnish the philosophy and definition of the person that held for the Middle Ages: "A person is the individual substance of a rational nature."

tree "mathematics, data" A {directed acyclic graph}; i.e. a {graph} wherein there is only one route between any pair of {nodes}, and there is a notion of "toward top of the tree" (i.e. the {root node}), and its opposite direction, toward the {leaves}. A tree with n nodes has n-1 edges. Although maybe not part of the widest definition of a tree, a common constraint is that no node can have more than one parent. Moreover, for some applications, it is necessary to consider a node's {daughter} nodes to be an ordered {list}, instead of merely a {set}. As a data structure in computer programs, trees are used in everything from {B-trees} in {databases} and {file systems}, to {game trees} in {game theory}, to {syntax trees} in a human or computer {languages}. (1998-11-12)

Turing Machine "computability" A hypothetical machine defined in 1935-6 by {Alan Turing} and used for {computability theory} proofs. It consists of an infinitely long "tape" with symbols (chosen from some {finite set}) written at regular intervals. A pointer marks the current position and the machine is in one of a finite set of "internal states". At each step the machine reads the symbol at the current position on the tape. For each combination of current state and symbol read, a program specifies the new state and either a symbol to write to the tape or a direction to move the pointer (left or right) or to halt. In an alternative scheme, the machine writes a symbol to the tape *and* moves at each step. This can be encoded as a write state followed by a move state for the write-or-move machine. If the write-and-move machine is also given a distance to move then it can emulate an write-or-move program by using states with a distance of zero. A further variation is whether halting is an action like writing or moving or whether it is a special state. [What was Turing's original definition?] Without loss of generality, the symbol set can be limited to just "0" and "1" and the machine can be restricted to start on the leftmost 1 of the leftmost string of 1s with strings of 1s being separated by a single 0. The tape may be infinite in one direction only, with the understanding that the machine will halt if it tries to move off the other end. All computer {instruction sets}, {high level languages} and computer architectures, including {parallel processors}, can be shown to be equivalent to a Turing Machine and thus equivalent to each other in the sense that any problem that one can solve, any other can solve given sufficient time and memory. Turing generalised the idea of the Turing Machine to a "Universal Turing Machine" which was programmed to read instructions, as well as data, off the tape, thus giving rise to the idea of a general-purpose programmable computing device. This idea still exists in modern computer design with low level {microcode} which directs the reading and decoding of higher level {machine code} instructions. A {busy beaver} is one kind of Turing Machine program. Dr. Hava Siegelmann of {Technion} reported in Science of 28 Apr 1995 that she has found a mathematically rigorous class of machines, based on ideas from {chaos} theory and {neural networks}, that are more powerful than Turing Machines. Sir Roger Penrose of {Oxford University} has argued that the brain can compute things that a Turing Machine cannot, which would mean that it would be impossible to create {artificial intelligence}. Dr. Siegelmann's work suggests that this is true only for conventional computers and may not cover {neural networks}. See also {Turing tar-pit}, {finite state machine}. (1995-05-10)

twip "unit, graphics" (TWentIeth of a Point) 1/20 of a {Postscript point}, or 1/1440th of an inch. There are thus 1440 twips to an inch or about 567 twips to a centimeter. Twips are used in {Microsoft} formats and products, notably {Rich Text Format}, {Visual BASIC}, {Visual C++}, and {printer drivers}; and in {IBM} {AFP} products. Twips were devised in the olden days to describe the sizes of characters produced by {dot matrix printers} that were constrained to multiples of either 12 or 10 dots per inch. [Is it definitely relative to a __Postscript__ point, as opposed to one of the other definitions of {point}?] (2002-03-11)

undefined "programming" The value of a {variable} that has not been set or a function that does not return anything. In some programming languages, e.g. {Perl}, {JavaScript}, undefined is a named constant that can be used to explicitly set a variable or return undefined or can be passed as an {actual argument}. Other languages, e.g. {Java}, call it "{null}", but note that the null in relational database programming is subtly different. Many languages provide a {built-in function} to test whether an expression is undefined, e.g. Perl's defined() function. Attempting to operate on an undefined value, e.g. add it to a number or append it to a string, may either raise an error or result in the undefined value being converted ({cast}) to some appropriate value, e.g. {false}, zero or {empty string}, according to the {type} of expression. This definition is an example of a {paradox}. (2012-12-02)

undefine ::: v. t. --> To make indefinite; to obliterate or confuse the definition or limitations of.

Unit class: A class having one and only one member. Or, to give a definition which does not employ the word one, a class a is a unit class if there is an x such that x∈a and, for all y, y∈a implies y = x. -- A.C.

Universal Time "time, standard" (UT) The mean solar time along the prime meridian (0 longitude) that runs through the Greenwich Observatory outside of London, UK, where the current system originated. UT is tied to the rotation of the Earth in respect to the fictitious "mean Sun". {Greenwich Mean Time} (GMT) was measured from Greenwich mean midday until 1925 when the reference point was changed from noon to midnight and the name changed to "Universal Time". There are three separate definitions, UT0, UT1, and UT2, depending on which corrections have been applied to the Earth's motion. {Coordinated Universal Time} is kept within 0.9 seconds of UT1, by addition of leap seconds to {International Atomic Time}. (2001-08-02)

vase ::: n. --> A vessel adapted for various domestic purposes, and anciently for sacrificial uses; especially, a vessel of antique or elegant pattern used for ornament; as, a porcelain vase; a gold vase; a Grecian vase. See Illust. of Portland vase, under Portland.
A vessel similar to that described in the first definition above, or the representation of one in a solid block of stone, or the like, used for an ornament, as on a terrace or in a garden. See Illust. of Niche.

VDL {Vienna Definition Language}

VDM 1. Vienna Definition Method 2. {Virtual Device Metafile}.

Vienna Definition Language (VDL) IBM Vienna Labs. A language for formal, algebraic definition via operational semantics. Used to specify the semantics of PL/I. See also {VDM}. ["The Vienna Definition Language", P. Wegner, ACM Comp Surveys 4(1):5-63 (Mar 1972)].

Vienna Definition Method {Vienna Development Method}

Vienna Development Method "programming, specification" (VDM) A program development method based on formal specification using the {Vienna Development Method Specification Language} (VDM-SL). [Details?] [Is there such a thing as "Vienna Definition Method"?] (2000-11-02)

VII. Probability as a Physical Magnitude determined by Axioms.. This theory, which is favoured mainly by the Intuitionist school of mathematics, considers probability as a physical constant of which frequencies are measures. Thus, any frequency is an approximate measure of one physical constant attached to an event and to a set of trials: this constant is the probability of that event over the set of trials. As the observed frequencies differ little for large numbers of trials from their corresponding probabilities, some obvious properties of frequencies may be extended to probabilities. This is done without proceeding to the limit, but through general approximation as in the case of physical magnitudes. These properties are not constructed (as in the axiomatization of Mises), but simply described as such, they form a set of axioms defining probability. The classical postulates involved in the treatises of Laplace, Bertrand or Poincare have been modified in this case, under the joint influence of the discovery of measure by Borei, and of the use of abstract sets. Their new form has been fully stated by Kolmogoroff and interpreted by Frechet who proposes to call this latest theory the 'modernized axiomatic definition' of probability. Its interpretation requires that it should be preceded by an inductive synthesis, and followed by numerical verifications.

Vlisp "language" 1. A {Lisp} dialect developed by Patrick Greussay "" in about 1973 with a fast {interpreter} and a portable {virtual machine}. Vlisp introduced the "{chronology}", a dynamic environment for implementing {interrupts}. It led to {Le_Lisp}. See also {ObjVlisp}. ["Contribution a la Definition Interpretive et a l'Implementation des Lambda-Langages", P. Greussay, These d'Etat, U Paris VI, Nov 1977]. [Relationship to {Vincennes LISP}?] 2. {Vincennes LISP}. (2008-03-16)

Web Service Definition Language "architecture" (WSDL) An {XML} format for describing network {services} as a set of endpoints operating on messages containing either "document oriented" or "procedure oriented" information. The operations and messages are described abstractly, and then bound to a concrete network protocol and message format to define an endpoint. Related concrete endpoints are combined into abstract endpoints (services). WSDL is typically used with {SOAP} over {HTTP} but it is extensible to allow description of endpoints and their messages independent of what message formats or network protocols. [Reference?] (2004-06-21)

Wide SCSI "hardware, standard" A variant on the {SCSI-2} interface. It uses a 16-bit bus - double the width of the original {SCSI}-1 - and therefore cannot be connected to a SCSI-1 bus. It supports transfer rates up to 20 MB/s, like {Fast SCSI}. There is also a SCSI-2 definition of Wide-SCSI with a 32 bit data bus. This allows up to 40 megabytes per second but is very rarely used because it requires a large number of wires (118 wires on two connectors). Thus Wide SCSI usually means 16 bit-wide SCSI. (1995-04-21)

With the aid of Gödel's device of representing sequences of primitive symbols and sequences of formulas by means of numbers, it is possible to give a more exact definition of the notion of effectiveness by making it correspond to that of recursiveness (q. v.) of numerical functions. E.g., a criterion for recognizing primitive formulas is effective if it determines a general recursive monadic function of natural numbers whose value is 0 when the argument is the number of a primitive formula, 1 for any other natural number as argument. The adequacy of this technical definition to represent the intuitive notion of effectiveness as described above is not immediately clear, but is placed beyond any real doubt by developments for details of which the reader is referred to Hilbert-Bernays and Turing (see references below).

WSDL {Web Service Definition Language}

X.409 "standard, messaging" Part of the {X.400} {electronic mail} specification which included the original definition of {Abstract Syntax Notation 1}. [What was it about?] (1998-08-06)

≡x, formal equivalence with respect to x. See definition in logic, formal, § 3.

⊃x, formal implication with respect to x. See definition in the article logic, formal, § 3.

XSD {XML Schema Definition}

∧x. See definition in logic, formal, § 3.

Yale Haskell "language" A fully integrated {Haskell} programming environment. It provides tightly coupled interactive editing, {incremental compilation} and dynamic execution of Haskell programs. Two major modes of compilation, correspond to {Lisp}'s traditional "interpreted" and "compiled" modes. Compiled and interpreted modules may be freely mixed in any combination. Yale Haskell is run using either a command-line interface or as an {inferior process} running under the {Emacs} editor. Using the Emacs interface, simple two-keystroke commands evaluate expressions, run dialogues, compile {modules}, turn specific compiler diagnostics on and off and enable and disable various {optimisers}. Commands may be queued up arbitrarily, thus allowing, for example, a compilation to be running in the background as the editing of a source file continues in Emacs in the foreground. A "scratch pad" may be automatically created for any module. Such a pad is a logical extension of the module, in which additional function and value definitions may be added, but whose evaluation does not result in recompilation of the module. A tutorial on Haskell is also provided in the Emacs environment. A {Macintosh} version of Yale Haskell includes its own integrated programming environment, complete with an Emacs-like editor and {pull-down menus}. Yale Haskell is a complete implementation of the Haskell language, but also contains a number of extensions, including: (1) Instead of stream based I/O, a {monadic I/O} system is used. Although similar to what will be part of the new {Haskell 1.3} report, the I/O system will change yet again when 1.3 becomes official. (2) Haskell programs can call both {Lisp} and {C} functions using a flexible foreign function interface. (3) Yale Haskell includes a {dynamic typing} system. Dynamic typing has been used to implement {derived instances} in a user extensible manner. (4) A number of small Haskell 1.3 changes have been added, including {polymorphic recursion} and the use of @_@ in an expression to denote {bottom}. Although the 1.3 report is not yet complete, these changes will almost certainly be part of the new report. (5) A complete Haskell level {X Window System} interface, based on {CLX}. (6) A number of {annotations} are available for controlling the optimiser, including those for specifying both function and data constructor {strict}ness properties, "{inlining}" functions, and specialising {over-loaded} functions. Many standard {prelude} functions have been specialised for better performance using these annotations. (7) {Separate compilation} (including {mutually recursive} {modules}) is supported using a notion of a UNIT file, which is a kind of localised {makefile} that tells the compiler about compiler options and logical dependencies amongst program files. (8) Yale Haskell supports both standard and "{literate}" Haskell syntax. Performance of Yale Haskell's compiled code has been improved considerably over previous releases. Although still not as good as the Glasgow ({GHC}) and Chalmers ({HBC}) compilers, the flexibility afforded by the features described earlier makes Yale Haskell a good choice for large systems development. For some idea of performance, Hartel's latest "Nuc" benchmark runs at about the same speed under both Yale Haskell and hbc. (Our experiments suggest, however, that Yale Haskell's compiled code is on average about 3 times slower than hbc.) Binaries are provided for {Sun}/{SPARC} and {Macintosh}, but it is possible to build the system on virtually any system that runs one of a number of {Common Lisp} implementations: {CMU Common Lisp}, {Lucid Common Lisp}, {Allegro Common Lisp} or {Harlequin LispWorks}. {akcl}, {gcl} and {CLisp} do not have adaquate performance for our compiler. The current version is 2.1. {Yale (}. ( {UK (}. {Sweden (}. E-mail: "", "". (1993-07-14)

yama-niyama ::: see yama (definition 2) and niyama

yottabyte "unit, data" (YB) A unit of {data} equal to 10^24 {bytes} but see {binary prefix} for other definitions. A yottabyte is 1000^8 bytes or 1000 {zettabytes}. It is estimated that the {web} contains about one yottabyte of data (2013). 1000 yottabytes has been called one {brontobyte}. See {prefix}. (2013-11-04)

zettabyte "unit, data" (ZB) A unit of {data} equal to 10^21 {bytes} but see {binary prefix} for other definitions. A zetabyte is 1000^7 bytes or 1000 {exabytes}. 1000 zettabytes are one {yottabyte}. See {prefix}. (2013-11-04)

QUOTES [21 / 21 - 1500 / 3980]

KEYS (10k)

   4 Sri Aurobindo
   3 Jordan Peterson
   1 Sri Ramama Maharshi
   1 Socrates
   1 Russell Kirk
   1 Rosch
   1 Ralph Waldo Emerson
   1 Omar Khayyam
   1 Nolini Kanta Gupta
   1 Jalaluddin Rumi
   1 C S Lewis
   1 Claudio Naranjo
   1 Alfred Korzybski
   1 Albert Einstein
   1 Saint Thomas Aquinas
   1 Aleister Crowley


   22 Anonymous
   18 Idries Shah
   12 Stephen King
   11 Fyodor Dostoyevsky
   7 G K Chesterton
   7 Frederick Lenz
   6 Seth Godin
   6 Peter Drucker
   6 Jodi Picoult
   6 Harvey Fierstein
   6 David Levithan
   6 Aristotle
   5 Toni Morrison
   5 Terry Pratchett
   5 Richard Dawkins
   5 Noam Chomsky
   5 Neale Donald Walsch
   5 Nassim Nicholas Taleb
   5 Markus Zusak
   5 John Fowles

1:The beginning of wisdom is the definition of terms. ~ Socrates,
2:What is your definition of Greatness? JP: The capacity to utter and abide by beautiful truths. ~ Jordan Peterson,
3:The definition of insanity is doing the same thing over and over again and expecting different results.
   ~ Albert Einstein,
4:Do not interrupt life's natural flow by damming its river at every bend with sticks of analysis and definition. ~ Omar Khayyam,
5:Know the true definition of yourself. That is essential. Then, when you know your own definition, flee from it. ~ Jalaluddin Rumi,
6:Find out who you are, but don't cling to any definition. Mutate as many times as necessary to live in the totality of your being. ~ Claudio Naranjo,
7:The Supreme is infinite, therefore He is also finite.
To be finite is one of the infinite aspects of the Infinite.
Creation is the definition of the Infinite. ~ Nolini Kanta Gupta,
8:Animal is not properly and per se divided by white and black, which lie completely outside of the definition of animal ~ Saint Thomas Aquinas, (ST 1-2.95.4).,
9:You want to have a meaningful life? Everything you do matters. That's the definition of a meaningful life. But everything you do matters. You're going to have to carry that with you." ~ Jordan Peterson,
10:There is a single main definition of the object of all magical Ritual. It is the uniting of the Microcosm with the Macrocosm. The Supreme and Complete Ritual is therefore the Invocation of the Holy Guardian Angel; or, in the language of Mysticism, Union with God. ~ Aleister Crowley,
11:If God is Love, He is, by definition, something more than mere kindness. And it appears, from all the records, that though He has often rebuked us and condemned us, He has never regarded us with contempt. He has paid us the intolerable compliment of loving us, in the deepest, most tragic, most inexorable sense. ~ C S Lewis,
12:For the World-Transcendent embraces the universe, is one with it and does not exclude it, even as the universe embraces the individual, is one with him and does not exclude him.
   The individual is a centre of the whole universal consciousness; the universe is a form and definition which is occupied by the entire immanence of the Formless and Indefinable. ~ Sri Aurobindo, The Life Divine, 1.5-11,
13:Two general and basic principles are proposed for the formation of categories: The first has to do with the function of category systems and asserts that the task of category systems is to provide maximum information with the least cognitive effort [("cognitive economy")]; the second has to do with the structure of the information so provided and asserts that the perceived world comes as structured information rather than than arbitrary or unpredictable attributes [("perceived world structure")]. Thus maximum information with least cognitive effort is achieved if categories map the perceived world structure as closely as possible. This condition can be achieved either by the mapping of categories to given attribute structures or by the definition or redefinition of attributes to render a given set of categories appropriately structured.
   ~ Rosch, 1978, p. 28,
14:In medieval times, the learned man, the teacher was a servant of God wholly, and of God only. His freedom was sanctioned by an authority more than human...The academy was regarded almost as a part of the natural and unalterable order of things. ... They were Guardians of the Word, fulfilling a sacred function and so secure in their right. Far from repressing free discussion, this "framework of certain key assumptions of Christian doctrine" encouraged disputation of a heat and intensity almost unknown in universities nowadays. ...They were free from external interference and free from a stifling internal conformity because the whole purpose of the universities was the search after an enduring truth, besides which worldly aggrandizement was as nothing. They were free because they agreed on this one thing if, on nothing else, fear of God is the beginning of wisdom. ~ Russell Kirk, Academic Freedom: An Essay in Definition,
15:To see, know, become and fulfil this One in our inner selves and in all our outer nature, was always the secret goal and becomes now the conscious purpose of our embodied existence. To be conscious of him in all parts of our being and equally in all that the dividing mind sees as outside our being, is the consummation of the individual consciousness. To be possessed by him and possess him in ourselves and in all things is the term of all empire and mastery. To enjoy him in all experience of passivity and activity, of peace and of power, of unity and of difference is the happiness which the Jiva, the individual soul manifested in the world, is obscurely seeking. This is the entire definition of the aim of integral Yoga; it is the rendering in personal experience of the truth which universal Nature has hidden in herself and which she travails to discover. It is the conversion of the human soul into the divine soul and of natural life into divine living.
   ~ Sri Aurobindo, The Synthesis Of Yoga,
16:The matter of definition, I have said, is very important. I am not now speaking of nominal definitions, which for convenience merely give names to known objects. I am speaking of such definitions of phenomena as result from correct analysis of the phenomena. Nominal definitions are mere conveniences and are neither true nor false; but analytic definitions are definitive propositions and are true or else false. Let us dwell upon the matter a little more.
   In the illustration of the definitions of lightning, there were three; the first was the most mistaken and its application brought the most harm; the second was less incorrect and the practical results less bad; the third under the present conditions of our knowledge, was the "true one" and it brought the maximum benefit. This lightning illustration suggests the important idea of relative truth and relative falsehood-the idea, that is, of degrees of truth and degrees of falsehood. A definition may be neither absolutely true nor absolutely false; but of two definitions of the same thing' one of them may be truer or falser than the other. ~ Alfred Korzybski, Manhood of Humanity, 49,
17:Humanity is a peculiar class of life which, in some degree, determines its own destinies; therefore in practical life words and ideas become facts-facts, moreover, which bring about important practical consequences. For instance, many millions of human beings have defined a stroke of lightning as being the "punishment of God" of evil men; other millions have defined it as a "natural, casual, periodical phenomenon"; yet other millions have defined it as an "electric spark." What has been the result of these "non-important" definitions in practical life? In the case of the first definition, when lightning struck a house, the population naturally made no attempt to save the house or anything in it, because to do so would be against the "definition" which proclaims the phenomenon to be a "punishment for evil," any attempt to prevent or check the destruction would be an impious act; the sinner would be guilty of "resisting the supreme law" and would deserve to be punished by death.
   Now in the second instance, a stricken building is treated just as any tree overturned by storm; the people save what they can and try to extinguish the fire. In both instances, the behavior of the populace is the same in one respect; if caught in the open by a storm they take refuge under a tree-a means of safety involving maximum danger but the people do not know it.
   Now in the third instance, in which the population have a scientifically correct definition of lightning, they provide their houses with lightning rods; and if they are caught by a storm in the open they neither run nor hide under a tree; but when the storm is directly over their heads, they put themselves in a position of minimum exposure by lying flat on the ground until the storm has passed. ~ Alfred Korzybski, Manhood of Humanity,
18:If we analyse the classes of life, we readily find that there are three cardinal classes which are radically distinct in function. A short analysis will disclose to us that, though minerals have various activities, they are not "living." The plants have a very definite and well known function-the transformation of solar energy into organic chemical energy. They are a class of life which appropriates one kind of energy, converts it into another kind and stores it up; in that sense they are a kind of storage battery for the solar energy; and so I define THE PLANTS AS THE CHEMISTRY-BINDING class of life.
   The animals use the highly dynamic products of the chemistry-binding class-the plants-as food, and those products-the results of plant-transformation-undergo in animals a further transformation into yet higher forms; and the animals are correspondingly a more dynamic class of life; their energy is kinetic; they have a remarkable freedom and power which the plants do not possess-I mean the freedom and faculty to move about in space; and so I define ANIMALS AS THE SPACE-BINDING CLASS OF LIFE.
   And now what shall we say of human beings? What is to be our definition of Man? Like the animals, human beings do indeed possess the space-binding capacity but, over and above that, human beings possess a most remarkable capacity which is entirely peculiar to them-I mean the capacity to summarise, digest and appropriate the labors and experiences of the past; I mean the capacity to use the fruits of past labors and experiences as intellectual or spiritual capital for developments in the present; I mean the capacity to employ as instruments of increasing power the accumulated achievements of the all-precious lives of the past generations spent in trial and error, trial and success; I mean the capacity of human beings to conduct their lives in the ever increasing light of inherited wisdom; I mean the capacity in virtue of which man is at once the heritor of the by-gone ages and the trustee of posterity. And because humanity is just this magnificent natural agency by which the past lives in the present and the present for the future, I define HUMANITY, in the universal tongue of mathematics and mechanics, to be the TIME-BINDING CLASS OF LIFE. ~ Alfred Korzybski, Manhood of Humanity,
   "Without conscious occult powers, is it possible to help or protect from a distance somebody in difficulty or danger? If so, what is the practical procedure?"

Then a sub-question:

   "What can thought do?"

We are not going to speak of occult processes at all; although, to tell the truth, everything that happens in the invisible world is occult, by definition. But still, practically, there are two processes which do not exclude but complete each other, but which may be used separately according to one's preference.

   It is obvious that thought forms a part of one of the methods, quite an important part. I have already told you several times that if one thinks clearly and powerfully, one makes a mental formation, and that every mental formation is an entity independent of its fashioner, having its own life and tending to realise itself in the mental world - I don't mean that you see your formation with your physical eyes, but it exists in the mental world, it has its own particular independent existence. If you have made a formation with a definite aim, its whole life will tend to the realisation of this aim. Therefore, if you want to help someone at a distance, you have only to formulate very clearly, very precisely and strongly the kind of help you want to give and the result you wish to obtain. That will have its effect. I cannot say that it will be all-powerful, for the mental world is full of innumerable formations of this kind and naturally they clash and contradict one another; hence the strongest and the most persistent will have the best of it.

   Now, what is it that gives strength and persistence to mental formations? - It is emotion and will. If you know how to add to your mental formation an emotion, affection, tenderness, love, and an intensity of will, a dynamism, it will have a much greater chance of success. That is the first method. It is within the scope of all those who know how to think, and even more of those who know how to love. But as I said, the power is limited and there is great competition in that world.

   Therefore, even if one has no knowledge at all but has trust in the divine Grace, if one has the faith that there is something in the world like the divine Grace, and that this something can answer a prayer, an aspiration, an invocation, then, after making one's mental formation, if one offers it to the Grace and puts one's trust in it, asks it to intervene and has the faith that it will intervene, then indeed one has a chance of success.

   Try, and you will surely see the result.

   ~ The Mother, Questions And Answers 1956, 253,
20:In our world error is continually the handmaid and pathfinder of Truth; for error is really a half-truth that stumbles because of its limitations; often it is Truth that wears a disguise in order to arrive unobserved near to its goal. Well, if it could always be, as it has been in the great period we are leaving, the faithful handmaid, severe, conscientious, clean-handed, luminous within its limits, a half-truth and not a reckless and presumptuous aberration.
   A certain kind of Agnosticism is the final truth of all knowledge. For when we come to the end of whatever path, the universe appears as only a symbol or an appearance of an unknowable Reality which translates itself here into different systems of values, physical values, vital and sensational values, intellectual, ideal and spiritual values. The more That becomes real to us, the more it is seen to be always beyond defining thought and beyond formulating expression. "Mind attains not there, nor speech."3 And yet as it is possible to exaggerate, with the Illusionists, the unreality of the appearance, so it is possible to exaggerate the unknowableness of the Unknowable. When we speak of It as unknowable, we mean, really, that It escapes the grasp of our thought and speech, instruments which proceed always by the sense of difference and express by the way of definition; but if not knowable by thought, It is attainable by a supreme effort of consciousness. There is even a kind of Knowledge which is one with Identity and by which, in a sense, It can be known. Certainly, that Knowledge cannot be reproduced successfully in the terms of thought and speech, but when we have attained to it, the result is a revaluation of That in the symbols of our cosmic consciousness, not only in one but in all the ranges of symbols, which results in a revolution of our internal being and, through the internal, of our external life. Moreover, there is also a kind of Knowledge through which That does reveal itself by all these names and forms of phenomenal existence which to the ordinary intelligence only conceal It. It is this higher but not highest process of Knowledge to which we can attain by passing the limits of the materialistic formula and scrutinising Life, Mind and Supermind in the phenomena that are characteristic of them and not merely in those subordinate movements by which they link themselves to Matter.
   The Unknown is not the Unknowable; it need not remain the unknown for us, unless we choose ignorance or persist in our first limitations. For to all things that are not unknowable, all things in the universe, there correspond in that universe faculties which can take cognisance of them, and in man, the microcosm, these faculties are always existent and at a certain stage capable of development. We may choose not to develop them; where they are partially developed, we may discourage and impose on them a kind of atrophy. But, fundamentally, all possible knowledge is knowledge within the power of humanity. And since in man there is the inalienable impulse of Nature towards self-realisation, no struggle of the intellect to limit the action of our capacities within a determined area can for ever prevail. When we have proved Matter and realised its secret capacities, the very knowledge which has found its convenience in that temporary limitation, must cry to us, like the Vedic Restrainers, 'Forth now and push forward also in other fields.'
   ~ Sri Aurobindo, The Life Divine,
21:There is a true movement of the intellect and there is a wrong movement: one helps, the other hinders." Questions and Answers 1929 - 1931 (5 May 1929)

   What is the true movement of the intellect?

What exactly do you understand by intellect? Is it a function of the mind or is it a part of the human being? How do you understand it?

   A function of the mind.

A function of the mind? Then it is that part of the mind which deals with ideas; is that what you mean?

Not ideas, Mother.

Not ideas? What else, then?

Ideas, but...

There is a part of the mind which receives ideas, ideas that are formed in a higher mind. Still, I don't know, it is a question of definition and one must know what exactly you mean to say.

It is intellect that puts ideas in the form of thoughts, gathering and organising the thoughts at the same time. There are great ideas which lie beyond the ordinary human mentality, which can put on all possible forms. These great ideas tend to descend, they want to manifest themselves in precise forms. These precise forms are the thoughts; and generally it is this, I believe, that is meant by intellect: it is this that gives thought-form to the ideas.

And then, there is also the organisation of the thoughts among themselves. All that has to be put in a certain order, otherwise one becomes incoherent. And after that, there is the putting of these thoughts to use for action; that is still another movement.

To be able to say what the true movement is, one must know first of all which movement is being spoken about. You have a body, well, you don't expect your body to walk on its head or its hands nor to crawl flat on its belly nor indeed that the head should be down and the legs up in the air. You give to each limb a particular occupation which is its own. This appears to you quite natural because that is the habit; otherwise, the very little ones do not know what to do, neither with their legs nor with their hands nor with their heads; it is only little by little that they learn that. Well, it is the same thing with the mind's functions. You must know which part of the mind you are speaking about, what its own function is, and then only can you say what its true movement is and what is not its true movement. For example, for the part which has to receive the master ideas and change them into thought, its true movement is to be open to the master ideas, receive them and change them into as exact, as precise, as expressive a thought as possible. For the part of the mind which has the charge of organising all these thoughts among themselves so that they might form a coherent and classified whole, not a chaos, the true movement is just to make the classification according to a higher logic and in a thoroughly clear, precise and expressive order which may be serviceable each time a thought is referred to, so that one may know where to look for it and not put quite contradictory things together. There are people whose mind does not work like that; all the ideas that come into it, without their being even aware of what the idea is, are translated into confused thoughts which remain in a kind of inner chaos. I have known people who, from the philosophical point of view - although there is nothing philosophical in it - could put side by side the most contradictory things, like ideas of hierarchic order and at the same time ideas of the absolute independence of the individual and of anarchism, and both were accepted with equal sympathy, knocked against each other in the head in the midst of a wild disorder, and these people were not even aware of it!... You know the saying: "A question well put is three-fourths solved." So now, put your question. What do you want to speak about? I am stretching out a helping hand, you have only to catch it. What is it you are speaking about, what is it that you call intellect? Do you know the difference between an idea and a thought?
   ~ The Mother, Questions And Answers 1953, 107,


1:Home is the definition of God. ~ emily-dickinson, @wisdomtrove
2:... life, by definition, is never still. ~ kurt-vonnegut, @wisdomtrove
3:By definition, remarkable things get remarked upon ~ seth-godin, @wisdomtrove
4:The definition of eternity is two people and a ham. ~ dorothy-parker, @wisdomtrove
5:What is the definition of guts? Grace under pressure. ~ ernest-hemingway, @wisdomtrove
7:Definition of a wanderer: a guy who's always looking beyond. ~ stephen-king, @wisdomtrove
8:Self-denial is the test and definition of self-government. ~ g-k-chesterton, @wisdomtrove
9:The only definition of a leader is someone who has followers. ~ peter-drucker, @wisdomtrove
10:A perpetual holiday is a good working definition of hell. ~ george-bernard-shaw, @wisdomtrove
11:What is my definition of jazz? "Safe sex of the highest order." ~ kurt-vonnegut, @wisdomtrove
12:The proper definition of a man is an animal that writes letters. ~ lewis-carroll, @wisdomtrove
13:I believe the best definition of man is the ungrateful biped. ~ fyodor-dostoevsky, @wisdomtrove
14:If faith were rational , it wouldn't be -by definition- faith. ~ elizabeth-gilbert, @wisdomtrove
15:The definition of hell is a place where nothing connects with nothing. ~ t-s-eliot, @wisdomtrove
16:If God is Love, He is, by definition, something more than mere kindness. ~ c-s-lewis, @wisdomtrove
17:The new definition of a heathen is a man who has never played baseball. ~ elbert-hubbard, @wisdomtrove
18:The definition of an asshole is someone who doesn't believe what he is seeing. ~ stephen-king, @wisdomtrove
19:To be wrong, and to be carefully wrong, that is the definition of decadence. ~ g-k-chesterton, @wisdomtrove
20:Isn't killing people in the name of God a pretty good definition of insanity? ~ arthur-c-carke, @wisdomtrove
21:The Bible is clear - God's definition of marriage is between a man and a woman. ~ billy-graham, @wisdomtrove
22:The definition of a revolution: it destroys the perfect and enables the impossible. ~ seth-godin, @wisdomtrove
23:A disciple having asked for a definition of charity, the Master said LOVE ONE ANOTHER. ~ confucius, @wisdomtrove
24:A one sentence definition of mythology? Mythology is what we call someone else's religion. ~ joseph-campbell, @wisdomtrove
25:It always seems as though the definition of love will remain debatable by an opinionated world. ~ criss-jami, @wisdomtrove
26:My definition of poetry (if I were forced to give one) would be this: words that have become deeds. ~ robert-frost, @wisdomtrove
27:When your only regret is if anyone thinks you regret anything - that is the definition of conviction. ~ criss-jami, @wisdomtrove
28:Too many individuals are like Shakespeare's definition of "echo,"&
29:Meetings are by definition a concession to deficient organization. For one either meets or one works. ~ peter-drucker, @wisdomtrove
30:The ancient Greek definition of happiness was the full use of your powers along lines of excellence. ~ john-f-kennedy, @wisdomtrove
31:The definition of flexibility is being constantly open to the fact that you might be on the wrong track. ~ brian-tracy, @wisdomtrove
32:The definition of success is getting many of the things money can buy and all the things money can't buy. ~ zig-ziglar, @wisdomtrove
33:Allow me to offer a simple definition of wisdom. Wisdom is looking at life from God's point of view. ~ charles-r-swindoll, @wisdomtrove
34:Man is a creature that can get accustomed to anything, and I think that is the best definition of him. ~ fyodor-dostoevsky, @wisdomtrove
35:No, everything is not going to be okay. It never is. It isn't okay now. Change, by definition, changes things ~ seth-godin, @wisdomtrove
36:No, everything is not going to be okay. It never is. It isn’t okay now. Change, by definition, changes things ~ seth-godin, @wisdomtrove
37:The basic definition of the business and of its purpose and mission have to be translated into objectives. ~ peter-drucker, @wisdomtrove
38:Some people say Bowie is all surface style and second-hand ideas, but that sounds like a definition of pop to me. ~ brian-eno, @wisdomtrove
39:My favorite definition of an intellectual: &
40:Great genius you already have. The super conscious mind is invariably triggered by definition, and by decisiveness. ~ brian-tracy, @wisdomtrove
41:My definition of success? The more you are actively and practically engaged, the more successful you will feel. ~ richard-branson, @wisdomtrove
42:I seemed to be leading a very incongruous life from the point of view of the definition of the community I was in. ~ frederick-lenz, @wisdomtrove
43:Retaliation is related to nature and instinct, not to law. Law, by definition, cannot obey the same rules as nature. ~ albert-camus, @wisdomtrove
44:The enterprise, by definition, must be capable of producing more or better than all the resources that comprise it. ~ peter-drucker, @wisdomtrove
45:Bridges would not be safer if only people who knew the proper definition of a real number were allowed to design them. ~ h-l-mencken, @wisdomtrove
46:I heard a definition once: Happiness is health and a short memory! I wish I'd invented it, because it is very true. ~ audrey-hepburn, @wisdomtrove
47:By my definition, most art has nothing to do with oil paint or marble. Art is what we're doing when we do our best work. ~ seth-godin, @wisdomtrove
48:Definition of Love: A score of zero in tennis. I love thee with the breath, Smiles, tears of all my life. ~ elizabeth-barrett-browning, @wisdomtrove
49:A definition may be very exact, and yet go but a very little way towards informing us of the nature of the thing defined. ~ edmund-burke, @wisdomtrove
50:Healing is, by definition, taking a process of disintegration of life and transforming into a process of return to life. ~ caroline-myss, @wisdomtrove
51:Business enterprise is an organ of society. There is only one valid definition of business purpose: to create a customer. ~ peter-drucker, @wisdomtrove
52:Let me give you a definition of ethics: It is good to maintain and further life it is bad to damage and destroy life. ~ albert-schweitzer, @wisdomtrove
53:Healing is, by definition, taking a process of disintegration of life and transforming into a process of return to life. ~ norman-vincent-peale, @wisdomtrove
54:Simplicity is a key to avoiding complication. Part of the definition of simplicity is &
55:When a man no longer confuses himself with the definition of himself that others have given him, he is at once universal and unique. ~ alan-watts, @wisdomtrove
56:When PLO sniper fire is followed by 14 hours of Israeli bombardment, that's stretching the definition of defensive action too far. ~ ronald-reagan, @wisdomtrove
57:To think that realistic fiction is by definition superior to imaginative fiction is to think imitation is superior to invention. ~ ursula-k-le-guin, @wisdomtrove
58:Wherever the relevance of speech is at stake, matters become political by definition, for speech is what makes man a political being. ~ hannah-arendt, @wisdomtrove
59:My nephew has HDADHD. High Definition Attention Deficit Disorder. He can barely pay attention, but when he does it's unbelievably clear. ~ steven-wright, @wisdomtrove
60:Ye cannot know eternal reality by a definition. Time itself, and all the acts and events that fill time are the definition, and it must be lived. ~ c-s-lewis, @wisdomtrove
61:If you don't like your definition of &
62:My favorite definition of the mindful path is the one the reveals itself as you walk down it. You cannot find the path until you step on to it. ~ kelly-mcgonigal, @wisdomtrove
63:All economic activity is by definition "high risk." And defending yesterday&
64:I will give you a definition of a proud man: he is a man who has neither vanity nor wisdom one filled with hatreds cannot be vain, neither can he be wise. ~ john-keats, @wisdomtrove
65:My definition of financial freedom is simple: it is the ability to live the lifestyle you desire without having to work or rely on anyone else for money. ~ t-harv-eker, @wisdomtrove
66:Literature is by definition opinionated. It is bound to provoke the arguments in many quarters, not excluding the hometown or even the family of the author. ~ kurt-vonnegut, @wisdomtrove
67:Any relationships that would reject you for being true to yourself are - by definition - abusive relationships. You'll be much better off when you let them go. ~ steve-pavlina, @wisdomtrove
68:Every activity performed in public can attain an excellence never matched in privacy; for excellence, by definition, the presence of others is always required. ~ hannah-arendt, @wisdomtrove
69:Devotion is diligence without assurance. If faith were rational, it wouldn't be by definition faith. Faith is walking face-first and full speed into the dark. ~ elizabeth-gilbert, @wisdomtrove
70:By unnerving definition, anything that the heart has chosen for its own mysterious reasons it can always unchoose later‚ again, for its own mysterious reasons. ~ elizabeth-gilbert, @wisdomtrove
71:It's not what you do that matters. It's not what you say. There's nothing that is not holy or spiritual. Be beyond definition, beyond categorization, be absorbed. ~ frederick-lenz, @wisdomtrove
72:You will never get to the irreducible definition of anything because you will never be able to explain why you want to explain, and so on. The system will gobble itself up. ~ alan-watts, @wisdomtrove
73:I love my editor, but that would be the definition of hell to me to live with someone and have them go page by page through my manuscript. That I want to avoid at all costs. ~ dean-koontz, @wisdomtrove
74:A nice definition of an awakened person: a person who no longer marches to the drums of society, a person who dances to the tune of the music that springs up from within. ~ anthony-de-mello, @wisdomtrove
75:Man, by definition, is born a stranger: coming from nowhere, he is thrust into an alien world which existed before him-a world which didn't need him. And which will survive him. ~ elie-wiesel, @wisdomtrove
76:Definition of a relationship - an enduring, mutually-agreed upon connection or union, which fulfills certain needs of the individuals involved and the society in which they live. ~ leo-buscaglia, @wisdomtrove
77:Government is frequently and aptly classed under two descriptions-a government of force, and a government of laws; the first is the definition of despotism-the last, of liberty. ~ alexander-hamilton, @wisdomtrove
78:We've been in a recession, by any common sense definition, because if you look at the American public, they've got 20 billion - 20 trillion, I should say, worth of residential homes. ~ warren-buffet, @wisdomtrove
79:Everyone is motivated a little or a lot to do something or nothing. Motivation is the internalized drive toward the dominant thought of the moment. By definition, motivation is "motive in action." ~ denis-waitley, @wisdomtrove
80:In spite the mountains of books written about art, no precise definition of art has been constructed. And the reason for this is that the conception of art has been based on the conception of beauty. ~ leo-tolstoy, @wisdomtrove
81:Finally there are simple ideas of which no definition can be given; there are also axioms or postulates, or in a word primary principles, which cannot be proved and have no need of proof. ~ gottfried-wilhelm-leibniz, @wisdomtrove
82:Most of us would be upset if we were accused of being "silly." But the word "silly" comes from the old English word "selig," and its literal definition is "to be blessed, happy, healthy and prosperous." ~ zig-ziglar, @wisdomtrove
83:To me, a leader is a visionary that energizes others. This definition of leadership has two key dimensions: a) creating the vision of the future, and b) inspiring others to make the vision a reality. ~ vince-lombardi, @wisdomtrove
84:If "socialism" is defined as "ownership of the means of production"&
85:The food crank is by definition a person willing to cut himself off from human society in the hopes of adding five years onto the life of his carcase; that is, a person out of touch with common humanity. ~ george-orwell, @wisdomtrove
86:But whatever can be described cannot be yourself, and what you are cannot be described. You can only know your self by being yourself without any attempt at self-definition and self-description. ~ sri-nisargadatta-maharaj, @wisdomtrove
87:He who is greatest among you shall be a servant. That's the new definition of greatness. ... By giving that definition of greatness, it means that everybody can be great, because everybody can serve. ~ martin-luther-king, @wisdomtrove
88:When all the false self- identifications are thrown away, what remains is all-embracing love. Get rid of all ideas about yourself, even of the idea that you are God. No self-definition is valid. ~ sri-nisargadatta-maharaj, @wisdomtrove
89:Not one of all the purple host Who took the flag to-day Can tell the definition So clear of victory, As he, defeated, dying, On whose forbidden ear The distant strains of triumph Break agonized and clear. ~ emily-dickinson, @wisdomtrove
90:Some people say: "There is no God; because, if there was a God, God would stop all the suffering." Nonsense! God is oblivious to suffering. God is beyond suffering. That's what makes God, God, by definition. ~ frederick-lenz, @wisdomtrove
91:Action painting has to do with self-creation or self-definition or self-transcendence; but this dissociates it from self-expression, which assumes the acceptance of the ego as it is, with its wound and its magic. ~ hannah-arendt, @wisdomtrove
92:If any philosopher had been asked for a definition of infinity, he might have produced some unintelligible rigmarole, but he would certainly not have been able to give a definition that had any meaning at all. ~ bertrand-russell, @wisdomtrove
93:And what gift of America to the rest of the world is actually most appreciated by the rest of the world? It is African American jazz and its offshoots. What is my definition of jazz? Safe sex of the highest order. ~ kurt-vonnegut, @wisdomtrove
94:Values act as our compass to put us back on course every single day, so that day after day, we're moving in the direction that takes us closer and closer to our definition of the "best" life we could possibly live. ~ steve-pavlina, @wisdomtrove
95:Religion is a by-product of fear. For much of human history it may have been a necessary evil, but why was it more evil than necessary? Isn’t killing people in the name of god a pretty good definition of insanity? ~ arthur-c-carke, @wisdomtrove
96:The clash between science and religion has not shown that religion is false and science is true. It has shown that all systems of definition are relative to various purposes, and that none of them actually “grasp” reality. ~ alan-watts, @wisdomtrove
97:Experts on romance say for a happy marriage there has to be more than a passionate love. For a lasting union, they insist, there must be a genuine liking for each other. Which, in my book, is a good definition for friendship. ~ marilyn-monroe, @wisdomtrove
98:To arrive at the definition of the problem he must begin by finding the &
99:If you want to be important-wonderful. If you want to be recognized-wonderful. If you want to be great-wonderful. But recognize that he who is greatest among you shall be your servant. That's a new definition of greatness. ~ martin-luther-king, @wisdomtrove
100:What's my philosophy? In a word, integral. And what on earth — or in heaven — do I mean by integral? The dictionary meaning is fairly simple: comprehensive, balanced, inclusive, essential for completeness. Short definition, tall order. ~ ken-wilber, @wisdomtrove
101:Courage, the original definition of courage, when it first came into the English language - it's from the Latin word "cor," meaning "heart" - and the original definition was to tell the story of who you are with your whole heart. ~ brene-brown, @wisdomtrove
102:A business is not defined by its name, statutes, or articles of incorporation. It is defined by the business mission. Only a clear definition of the mission and purpose of the organization makes possible clear and realistic business objectives. ~ peter-drucker, @wisdomtrove
103:As they say on my own Cape Cod, a rising tide lifts all the boats. And a partnership, by definition, serves both partners, without domination or unfair advantage. Together we have been partners in adversitylet us also be partners in prosperity. ~ john-f-kennedy, @wisdomtrove
104:Lying is, almost by definition, a refusal to cooperate with others. It condenses a lack of trust and trustworthiness into a single act. It is both a failure of understanding and an unwillingness to be understood. To lie is to recoil from relationship. ~ sam-harris, @wisdomtrove
105:There’s this powerful phrase in the legal world, Difficult cases make bad law. The exception is the difficult case. You can’t generalize them by definition. So although they are fascinating, they don’t solve any problem because they’re so one of a kind. ~ malcolm-gladwell, @wisdomtrove
106:I believe psychology has done very well in working out how to understand and treat disease. But I think that is literally half-baked. If all you do is work to fix problems, to alleviate suffering, then by definition you are working to get people to zero, to neutral. ~ martin-seligman, @wisdomtrove
107:As far as the job of President goes, its rewarding and I've given before this group the definition of happiness for the Greeks. I'll define it again: the full use of your powers along lines of excellence. I find, therefore, that the Presidency provides some happiness. ~ john-f-kennedy, @wisdomtrove
108:It is the purpose of your soul to announce and declare, to be and to express, to experience and to fulfil Who You Really Are. And who is that? Whoever you say you are! Your life lived is your declaration. Your choices define you. Every act is an act of self-definition. ~ neale-donald-walsch, @wisdomtrove
109:If there is one thing I learned by reading Epstein's The Sports Gene it is that world-class athletes are, by definition, abnormal: that is, the kind of person capable of competing at that level is necessarily very different from the rest of us physiologically. They are outliers. ~ malcolm-gladwell, @wisdomtrove
110:The only analogy I have before me is Socrates. My task is a Socratic task, to revise the definition of what it is to be a Christian. For my part I do not call myself a "Christian" (thus keeping the ideal free), but I am able to make it evident that the others are still less than I. ~ soren-kierkegaard, @wisdomtrove
111:Now, here is my definition of success: A few simple Disciplines practiced every day. Do you see the distinction? A few disciplines... Here's a little phrase we've all heard, An apple a day keeps the doctor away. And my question to you is, What if that's true? How simple and easy is that plan? ~ jim-rohn, @wisdomtrove
112:I don't need money, or, better, it's not money that I need; it's not even power; I need only what is obtained by power and simply cannot be obtained without power: the solitary and calm awareness of strength! That is the fullest definition of freedom, which the world so struggles over! ~ fyodor-dostoevsky, @wisdomtrove
113:To define is to limit, to set boundaries, to compare and to contrast, and for this reason, the universe, the all, seems to defy definition... .Just as no one in his senses would look for the morning news in a dictionary, no one should use speaking and thinking to find out what cannot be spoken or thought. ~ alan-watts, @wisdomtrove
114:Culture tends to argue that it forbids only that which is unnatural. But from a biological perspective, nothing is unnatural. Whatever is possible is by definition also natural. A truly unnatural behaviour, one that goes against the laws of nature, simply cannot exist, so it would need no prohibition. ~ yuval-noah-harari, @wisdomtrove
115:If God is Love, He is, by definition, something more than mere kindness. And it appears, from all the records, that though He has often rebuked us and condemned us, He has never regarded us with contempt. He has paid us the intolerable compliment of loving us, in the deepest, most tragic, most inexorable sense. ~ c-s-lewis, @wisdomtrove
116:I think the growth industry of the future in this country and the world will soon be the continuing education of adults. ... I think the educated person of the future is somebody who realizes the need to continue to learn. That is the new definition and it is going to change the world we live in and work in. ~ peter-drucker, @wisdomtrove
117:Our easiest approach to a definition of any aspect of fiction is always by considering the sort of demand it makes on the reader. Curiosity for the story, human feelings and a sense of value for the characters, intelligence and memory for the plot. What does fantasy ask of us? It asks us to pay something extra. ~ e-m-forster, @wisdomtrove
118:A man must have a stout digestion to feed upon some men's theology; no sap, no sweetness, no life, but all stern accuracy, and fleshless definition. Proclaimed without tenderness, and argued without affection, the gospel from such men rather resembles a missile from a catapult than bread from a Father's hand. ~ charles-spurgeon, @wisdomtrove
119:The action of the child inventing a new game with his playmates; Einstein formulating a theory of relativity; the housewife devising a new sauce for the meat, a young author writing his first novel; all of these are in terms of definition, Creative, and there is no attempt to set them in some order of more or less Creative. ~ carl-rogers, @wisdomtrove
120:A fan is always an outsider. Most sportswriters are not, by this definition, fans. They capitalize on access to athletes. They spoke to Kobe last night, and Kobe says his finger is going to be fine. They spent three days fly-fishing with Brett Favre in March, and Brett says he's definitely coming back for another season. ~ malcolm-gladwell, @wisdomtrove
121:Much blood has also been spilled on the carpet in attempts to distinguish between science fiction and fantasy. I have suggested an operational definition: science fiction is something that COULD happen - but usually you wouldn't want it to. Fantasy is something that COULDN'T happen - though often you only wish that it could. ~ arthur-c-carke, @wisdomtrove
122:Gentlemen, let us suppose that man is not stupid. (Indeed one cannot refuse to suppose that, if only from the one consideration, that, if man is stupid, then who is wise?) But if he is not stupid, he is monstrously ungrateful! Phenomenally ungrateful. In fact, I believe that the best definition of man is the ungrateful biped. ~ fyodor-dostoevsky, @wisdomtrove
123:Healing requires far more of us than just the participation of our intellectual and even our emotional resources. And it certainly demands that we do more than look backwards at the dead-end archives of our past. Healing is, by definition, taking a process of disintegration of life and transforming into a process of return to life. ~ caroline-myss, @wisdomtrove
124:This perpetual longing for happiness—which can, by definition, never be fulfilled because that very search itself denies the happiness that is present in our own being now—condemns us to an endless search in the future and thus perpetuates unhappiness. It is for this reason that the poet said, Most men lead lives of quiet desperation. ~ rupert-spira, @wisdomtrove
125:God is beyond definition. But according to one's own vision or receptivity, one will define God in one's own way. Some will say that God is all Love. Others will say that God is all Power. Each one will see God according to his own necessity, his own receptivity and, finally, according to the way God wants him to see the ultimate Truth. ~ sri-chinmoy, @wisdomtrove
126:We feel something, and reach out for the nearest phrase or hum with which to communicate, but which fails to do justice to what has induced us to do so... .We stay on the outside of our impressions, as if staring at them through a frosted window, superficially related to them, yet estranged from whatever has eluded casual definition. ~ alain-de-botton, @wisdomtrove
127:Healing requires far more of us than just the participation of our intellectual and even our emotional resources. And it certainly demands that we do more than look backwards at the dead-end archives of our past. Healing is, by definition, taking a process of disintegration of life and transforming into a process of return to life. ~ norman-vincent-peale, @wisdomtrove
128:Some guys-a lot of guys-don't believe what they are seeing, especially if it gets in the way of what they want to eat or drink or believe. Me, I don't believe in God. But if i saw him, I would. I wouldn't just go around saying, "Jesus, that was a great special effect." The definition of an asshole is a guy who doesn't believe what he's seeing. ~ stephen-king, @wisdomtrove
129:By "essence" I understand a universal, of any degree of complexity and definition, which may be given immediately, whether to sense or to thought... . This object of pure sense or pure thought, with no belief superadded, an object inwardly complete and individual, but without external relations or physical status, is what I call an essence. ~ george-santayana, @wisdomtrove
130:I don't have a definition of God, because I've never really understood that word. People have different understandings of it and it's caused a great deal of conflict. If I had to say what would my definition of God be, if I were going to use that word, I would say that this universe has layers upon layers upon layers of compassion and wisdom beyond ours. ~ gary-zukav, @wisdomtrove
131:When a man no longer confuses himself with the definition of himself that others have given him, he is at once universal and unique. He is universal by virtue of the inseparability of his organism from the cosmos. He is unique in that he is just this organism and not any stereotype of role, class, or identity assumed for the convenience of social communication. ~ alan-watts, @wisdomtrove
132:No one can give a definition of the soul. But we know what it feels like. The soul is the sense of something higher than ourselves, something that stirs in us thoughts, hopes, and aspirations which go out to the world of goodness, truth and beauty. The soul is a burning desire to breathe in this world of light and never to lose it&
133:And what about ‘happiness’? So far biological research has failed to come up with a clear definition of happiness or a way to measure it objectively. Most biological studies acknowledge only the existence of pleasure, which is more easily defined and measured. So ‘life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness’ should be translated into ‘life and the pursuit of pleasure’. ~ yuval-noah-harari, @wisdomtrove
134:I think the difference between a lie and a story is that a story utilizes the trappings and appearance of truth for the interest of the listener as well as of the teller. A story has in it neither gain nor loss. But a lie is a device for profit or escape. I suppose if that definition is strictly held to, then a writer of stories is a liar - if he is financially fortunate. ~ john-steinbeck, @wisdomtrove
135:I tell this story to illustrate the truth of the statement I heard long ago in the Army: Plans are worthless, but planning is everything. There is a very great distinction because when you are planning for an emergency you must start with this one thing: the very definition of 'emergency' is that it is unexpected, therefore it is not going to happen the way you are planning. ~ dwight-eisenhower, @wisdomtrove
136:Richard and I both believe that something transcendental is involved with the mind, consciousness, and the path of awakening—call it God, Spirit, Buddha-nature, the Ground, or by no name at all. Whatever it is, by definition it’s beyond the physical universe. Since it cannot be proven one way or another, it is important—and consistent with the spirit of science—to respect it as a possibility. ~ rick-hanson, @wisdomtrove
137:To the Christian, love is the works of love. To say that love is a feeling or anything of the kind is an unchristian conception of love. That is the aesthetic definition and therefore fits the erotic and everything of that nature. But to the Christian love is the works of love. Christ's love was not an inner feeling, a full heart and what not, it was the work of love which was his life. ~ soren-kierkegaard, @wisdomtrove
138:Life seems to be a process of replacing one anxiety with another and substituting one desire for another&
139:Intrinsic value can be defined simply: It is the discounted value of the cash that can be taken out of a business during its remaining life. The calculation of intrinsic value, though, is not so simple. As our definition suggests, intrinsic value is an estimate rather than a precise figure, and it is additionally an estimate that must be changed if interest rates move or forecasts of future cash flows are revised. ~ warren-buffet, @wisdomtrove
140:When all mental activity around who you think you are is stopped, there is a crack in the authority of perception, in the structure of the mind. I invite you to enter through that crack. Come in through that opening. When you do, the mind is no longer filled with its latest self-definition. In that moment, there is only silence. And in that silence, it is possible to recognize absolute fulfilment: the truth of who you are. ~ gangaji, @wisdomtrove
141:This acquisition of a new viewpoint in Zen is called ‘Satori’ (‘Wu’ in Chinese) and its verb form is ‘Satoru’. Without it there is no Zen, for the life of Zen begins with the ‘opening of Satori’; ‘Satori’ may be defined as intuitive looking-in, in contradistinction to intellectual and logical understanding. Whatever the definition, ‘Satori’ means the unfolding of a new world hitherto unperceived in the confusion of the dualistic mind. ~ d-t-suzuki, @wisdomtrove
142:Out in Hollywood, where the streets are paved with Goldwyn, the word "sophisticate" means, very simply, "obscene." A sophisticatedstory is a dirty story. Some of that meaning was wafted eastward and got itself mixed up into the present definition. So that a "sophisticate" means: one who dwells in a tower made of a DuPont substitute for ivory and holds a glass of flat champagne in one hand and an album of dirty post cards in the other. ~ dorothy-parker, @wisdomtrove
143:The Hitch Hiker's Guide to the Galaxy offers this definition of the word "Infinite". Infinite: Bigger than the biggest thing ever and then some. Much bigger than that in fact, really amazingly immense, a totally stunning size, "wow, that's big", time. Infinity is just so big that by comparison, bigness itself looks really titchy. Gigantic multiplied by colossal multiplied by staggeringly huge is the sort of concept we're trying to get across here. ~ douglas-adams, @wisdomtrove
144:When all mental activity around who you think you are or what you need for happiness is stopped, there is a crack in the authority of perception, in the structure of the mind. I invite you to enter through that crack. Come in through that opening. When you do, the mind is no longer filled with its latest self-definition. In that moment, there is only silence. And in that silence, it is possible to recognize absolute fulfilment: the truth of who you are. ~ gangaji, @wisdomtrove
145:I love moving water, I love ships, I love the sharp definition, the concentrated humanity, the sublime solitude of life at sea. The dangers of it only make present to us the peril inherent in all existence, which the stupid, ignorant, un-travelled land-worm never discovers; and the art of it, so mathematical, so exact, so rewarding to intelligence, appeals to courage and clears the mind of superstition, while filling it with humility and true religion. ~ george-santayana, @wisdomtrove
146:When you are dealing with a serious compulsion or addictive pattern, then by definition self-will, self-discipline, and any other machinations of the conscious mind are not enough by themselves to handle the problem. It is like a breaker switch in your brain is simply flipped. Anybody who has had this kind of a problem knows that it doesn't matter how intelligent you are. Sigmund Freud said, "Intelligence will be used in the service of the neurosis." ~ marianne-williamson, @wisdomtrove
147:The third level of wanting is "I commit to being rich." The definition of the word commit is to "devote oneself unreservedly." This means holding absolutely nothing back; giving 100 percent of everything you've got to achieving wealth. It means being willing to do whatever it takes for as long as it takes. This is the warrior's way. No excuses, no ifs, no butts, no maybes-and failure isn't an option. The warrior's way is simple: "I will be rich or I will die trying." ~ t-harv-eker, @wisdomtrove
148:To be happy one must be (a) well fed, unhounded by sordid cares, at ease in Zion, (b) full of a comfortable feeling of superiority to the masses of one's fellow men, and (c) delicately and unceasingly amused according to one's taste. It is my contention that, if this definition be accepted, there is no country in the world wherein a man constituted as I am - a man of my peculiar weakness, vanities, appetites, and aversions - can be so happy as he can be in the United States. ~ h-l-mencken, @wisdomtrove
149:As many critics of religion have pointed out, the notion of a creator poses an immediate problem of an infinite regress. If God created the universe, what created God? To say that God, by definition, is uncreated simply begs the question. Any being capable of creating a complex world promises to be very complex himself. As the biologist Richard Dawkins has observed repeatedly, the only natural process we know of that could produce a being capable of designing things is evolution. ~ sam-harris, @wisdomtrove
150:How can we appraise a proposal if the terms hurled at our ears can mean anything or nothing, and change their significance with the inflection of the voice? Welfare state, national socialism, radical, liberal, conservative, reactionary and a regiment of others ... these terms in today's usage, are generally compounds of confusion and prejudice. If our attitudes are muddled, our language is often to blame. A good tonic for clearer thinking is a dose of precise, legal definition. ~ dwight-eisenhower, @wisdomtrove
151:We accepted a definition of ourselves which confined the self to the source and to the limitations of conscious attention. This definition is miserably insufficient, for in fact we know how to grow brains and eyes, ears and fingers, hearts and bones, in just the same way that we know how to walk and breathe, talk and think - only we can't put it into words. Words are too slow and too clumsy for describing such things, and conscious attention is too narrow for keeping track of all their details. ~ alan-watts, @wisdomtrove
152:On Nov. 6, the day before my 94th birthday, our nation will hold one of the most critical elections in my lifetime. We are at a crossroads and there are profound moral issues at stake. I strongly urge you to vote for candidates who support the biblical definition of marriage between a man and a woman, protect the sanctity of life and defend our religious freedoms. The Bible speaks clearly on these crucial issues. Please join me in praying for America, that we will turn our hearts back toward God. ~ billy-graham, @wisdomtrove
153:[The Head of Radio Three] had been ensnared by the Music Director of the college and a Professor of Philosophy. These two were busy explaining to the harassed man that the phrase "too much Mozart" was, given any reasonable definition of those three words, an inherently self-contradictory expression, and that any sentence which contained such a phrase would be thereby rendered meaningless and could not, consequently, be advanced as part of an argument in favour of any given programme-scheduling strategy. ~ douglas-adams, @wisdomtrove
154:The term revolution means: a sudden, radical, and complete change from the way things are normally done. I love that definition because I really feel that in order for us to start walking in the kind of love that Christ commanded us to - the "love your neighbor as yourself" kind - it's going to take a radical change in our current behavior. The church has become passive and selfish and it's going to take a revolution to get us back to the place where we are not just talking the talk, but walking in a love that shows the world Christ's love. ~ joyce-meyer, @wisdomtrove
155:The good, say the mystics of spirit, is God, a being whose only definition is that he is beyond man's power to conceive ‚ a definition that invalidates man's consciousness and nullifies his concepts of existence. The good, say the mystics of muscle, is Society ‚  a thing which they define as an organism that possesses no physical form, a super-being embodied in no one in particular and everyone in general except yourself... . The purpose of man's life, say both, is to become an abject zombie who serves a purpose he does not know, for reasons he is not to question. ~ ayn-rand, @wisdomtrove
156:God has no needs. Human love, as Plato teaches us, is the child of Poverty – of want or lack; it is caused by a real or supposed goal in its beloved which the lover needs and desires. But God's love, far from being caused by goodness in the object, causes all the goodness which the object has, loving it first into existence, and then into real, though derivative, lovability. God is Goodness. He can give good, but cannot need or get it. In that sense , His love is, as it were, bottomlessly selfless by very definition; it has everything to give, and nothing to receive. ~ c-s-lewis, @wisdomtrove
157:I define vulnerability as uncertainty, risk, and emotional exposure. With that definition in mind, let's think about love. Waking up every day and loving someone who may or may not love us back, whose safety we can't ensure, who may stay in our lives or may leave without a moment's notice, who may be loyal to the day they die or betray us tomorrow- that's vulnerability. Love is uncertain. It's incredibly risky. And loving someone leaves us emotionally exposed. Yes, it's scary, and yes, we're open to being hurt, but can you imagine your life without loving or being loved? ~ brene-brown, @wisdomtrove
158:Courage is a heart word. The root of the word courage is cor - the Latin word for heart. In one of its earliest forms, the word courage meant "To speak one's mind by telling all one's heart." Over time, this definition has changed, and today, we typically associate courage with heroic and brave deeds. But in my opinion, this definition fails to recognize the inner strength and level of commitment required for us to actually speak honestly and openly about who we are and about our experiences - good and bad. Speaking from our hearts is what I think of as "ordinary courage. ~ brene-brown, @wisdomtrove
159:We are afraid that Heaven is a bribe, and that if we make it our goal we shall no longer be disinterested. It is not so. Heaven offers nothing that the mercenary soul can desire. It is safe to tell the pure in heart that they shall see God, for only the pure in heart want to. There are rewards that do not sully motives. A man's love for a woman is not mercenary because he wants to marry her, nor his love for poetry mercenary because he wants to read it, nor his love of exercise less disinterested because he wants to run and leap and walk. Love, by definition, seeks to enjoy its object. ~ c-s-lewis, @wisdomtrove
160:When a distinguished but elderly scientist states that something is possible, he is almost certainly right. When he states that something is impossible, he is very probably wrong. Perhaps the adjective &
161:Goodwill has something in common with each of these categories of love, because goodwill is by definition a love for usefulness of all kinds. Goodwill wants to do what is good for our neighbor, and goodness is the same as usefulness. Each of the categories of love just mentioned have usefulness as their goal: love for heaven has the goal of being useful in spiritual ways; love for the world has the goal of being useful in earthly ways, which could also be called forms of civil service; and love for ourselves has the goal of being useful in physical ways, which could also be labeled benefits at home for ourselves and our loved ones.” ~ emanuel-swedenborg, @wisdomtrove
162:How can we distinguish what is biologically determined from what people merely try to justify through biological myths? A good rule of thumb is ‘Biology enables, Culture forbids.’ Biology is willing to tolerate a very wide spectrum of possibilities. It’s culture that obliges people to realize some possibilities while forbidding others. Biology enables women to have children – some cultures oblige women to realize this possibility. Biology enables men to enjoy sex with one another – some cultures forbid them to realize this possibility. Culture tends to argue that it forbids only that which is unnatural. But from a biological perspective, nothing is unnatural. Whatever is possible is by definition also natural. A truly unnatural behavior, one that goes against the laws of nature, simply cannot exist. ~ yuval-noah-harari, @wisdomtrove

*** NEWFULLDB 2.4M ***

1:The definition of love is giving. ~ Bai Ling,
2:Life is stress by definition. ~ Rebecca McNutt,
3:Truth by definition excludes. ~ Ravi Zacharias,
4:Home is the definition of God. ~ Emily Dickinson,
5:I have a definition of success. ~ Benjamin Zander,
6:Laughter is by definition healthy. ~ Doris Lessing,
7:A horse is wonderful by definition. ~ Piers Anthony,
8:Definition is the death of discovery. ~ Tom Shadyac,
9:A milestone is less date and more definition. ~ Rands,
10:art, n. This word has no definition. ~ Ambrose Bierce,
11:My definition of success is control. ~ Kenneth Branagh,
12:Quietness is my definition of happiness. ~ Hannah More,
13:Dad is our first definition of masculinity. ~ T D Jakes,
14:My definition of evil is unfriendliness. ~ Muhammad Ali,
15:I'm the definition of half man, half drugs. ~ Puff Daddy,
16:I'm the true definition of a workaholic. ~ Kim Kardashian,
17:Sufism, in one definition, "is" human life. ~ Idries Shah,
18:There isn't a formal definition of success. ~ Ernest Sosa,
19:By definition 'winging it' is not a plan. ~ Elizabeth Fama,
20:Love is just a word, but you bring it definition. ~ Eminem,
21:The very definition of 'beauty' is outside. ~ Adam Carolla,
22:Definition of failure - wishful sinking! ~ Stephen Richards,
23:The world has never had a good definition ~ Abraham Lincoln,
24:Ye cannot know eternal reality by a definition. ~ C S Lewis,
25:Any definition which limits us is deplorable. ~ Edward Albee,
26:The beginning of wisdom is a definition of terms. ~ Socrates,
27:The definition of woman's work is shitwork. ~ Gloria Steinem,
28:the word love has no decent definition! ~ Eric Jerome Dickey,
29:Every act is an act of self definition. ~ Neale Donald Walsch,
30:Every act is an act of self-definition. ~ Neale Donald Walsch,
31:Generosity is, by definition, disinterested. ~ Piero Ferrucci,
32:Quit analyzing me. My crazy needs no definition. ~ K F Breene,
33:A friend is by definition an unpaid therapist. ~ Erin McCarthy,
34:Hip-hop is too young to put a definition on it ~ Saul Williams,
35:Resistance by definition is self-sabotage. ~ Steven Pressfield,
36:The beginning of wisdom is the definition of terms. ~ Socrates,
37:The definition of terms is the beginning of wisdom. ~ Socrates,
38:By definition, remarkable things get remarked upon ~ Seth Godin,
39:IT'S a pitfall to have a definition of photography. ~ Jeff Wall,
40:My definition of modernism took a while to develop. ~ Peter Gay,
41:That depends on what your definition of 'is' is. ~ Bill Clinton,
42:The beginning of wisdom is the definition of terms. ~ Socrates,
43:Empathy cannot by definition oppress anyone. ~ Simon Baron Cohen,
44:If killing is your definition of ‘work,’ then yes. ~ Celia Aaron,
45:The monstrous act by definition demands a monster. ~ Rick Yancey,
46:My definition of wealth has varied across the years ~ Mary Pipher,
47:Perhaps time’s definition of coal is the diamond. ~ Khalil Gibran,
48:"A minority of one"... the definition of insanity. ~ George Orwell,
49:I don't think Stoppardian has a precise definition. ~ Tom Stoppard,
50:By definition, fiction writers lie for a living. ~ Janette Rallison,
51:We need a new cultural definition of masculinity. ~ Jaclyn Friedman,
52:Every human being is, by definition, a theologian. ~ Russell D Moore,
53:Protagonists are always loners, almost by definition. ~ Pauline Kael,
54:The definition of eternity is two people and a ham. ~ Dorothy Parker,
55:There's no Biblical definition of contemplative prayer ~ Mike Bickle,
56:Immortals are, by definition, immortal. End of story. ~ Richelle Mead,
57:Truth is truth. By definition. Anything else is a lie. ~ Harlan Coben,
58:We have next to consider the formal definition of virtue. ~ Aristotle,
59:Well, I think, by definition, all power has limits. ~ Hillary Clinton,
60:Faith is, by its very definition, belief without proof. ~ Stephen King,
61:I am the complete and utter definition of a Luddite. ~ Graham McTavish,
62:My definition of a good hotel is a place I'd stay at. ~ Robert De Niro,
63:There is no universally agreed definition of a gene. ~ Richard Dawkins,
64:Well, fluffy shirts are, by definition, very comfortable. ~ Hugh Dancy,
65:By definition startups usually do not turn a profit. ~ Kevin Harrington,
66:In my definition I am a protest writer, with restraint. ~ Chinua Achebe,
67:The definition of wit is a joke that doesn't make you laugh. ~ A A Gill,
68:To be brave, by definition, one has first to be afraid. ~ Robert Harris,
69:You don't have to let his definition of success be yours ~ Jody Hedlund,
70:Her definition of cheating and his was always different. ~ Cecelia Ahern,
71:Love was just a word until someone gave it a definition. ~ Tarryn Fisher,
72:the best definition of man is the ungrateful biped. ~ Fyodor Dostoyevsky,
73:The medical definition of miracle is misdiagnosis. ~ Stephen King,
74:The shortest definition of religion: interruption. ~ Johann Baptist Metz,
75:Thing is, foot-washers think women are a sin in definition. ~ Harper Lee,
76:What is the definition of guts? Grace under pressure. ~ Ernest Hemingway,
77:AB de Villiers is the definition of a Cricketing Genius ~ Michael Vaughan,
78:Definition of a victim: a person to whom life happens. ~ Peter McWilliams,
79:The definition of adulthood is that you want to sleep. ~ Paula Poundstone,
80:By definition, as a Prime Minister I cannot be a liar. ~ Silvio Berlusconi,
81:Definition destroys ... there’s nothing definite in this world ~ Bob Dylan,
82:Definition Of A Wanderer: A guy who's always looking beyond ~ Stephen King,
83:Hang up the phone on a vampire, the definition of carefree. ~ Steve Aylett,
84:Isn't indiscretion the very definition of weakness? ~ Emily St John Mandel,
85:I think writing is, by definition, an optimistic act. ~ Michael Cunningham,
86:My definition of success is not having things thrown at me! ~ Orson Welles,
87:Arms control is by definition a rejection of disarmament. ~ David Dellinger,
89:Definition of a wanderer: a guy who's always looking beyond. ~ Stephen King,
90:Great leadership is by definition relentlessly developmental. ~ Bill Hybels,
91:I understand the very definition of "hate" when I think of you. ~ Anne Rice,
92:I’ve got everything I need. That’s the definition of affluence. ~ Lee Child,
93:Self-denial is the test and definition of self-government. ~ G K Chesterton,
94:The standard definition of AI is that which we don't understand. ~ Bill Joy,
95:Accept no one's definition of your life, define yourself. ~ Harvey Fierstein,
96:Accept no one's definition of your life; define yourself. ~ Harvey Fierstein,
97:A definition is a sack of flour compressed into a thimble ~ Remy de Gourmont,
98:A definition is a sack of flour compressed into a thimble ~ R my de Gourmont,
99:A definition is the start of an argument, not the end of one. ~ Neil Postman,
100:My definition of beauty is strength and personality. ~ Diane Von Furstenberg,
101:Self-deception is a pessimistic definition of optimism. ~ William T Vollmann,
102:Chaos within destiny. It was the definition of our love. ~ Shannon A Thompson,
103:for the definition of a law is: something that can be broken ~ G K Chesterton,
104:I guess the definition of a lunatic is a man surrounded by them. ~ Ezra Pound,
105:The best definition of an immortal is someone who hasn't died yet. ~ Tom Holt,
106:The definition of “success” for me is: “Is today successful? ~ James Altucher,
107:The only definition of a leader is someone who has followers. ~ Peter Drucker,
108:...human intelligence is by definition what humans naturally do... ~ Will Self,
109:It took me twenty years to hone my current definition of Gone. ~ Shinzen Young,
110:My definition of innovative is providing value to the customer. ~ Mary T Barra,
111:My old teacher's definition of poetry is an attempt to understand. ~ Thom Gunn,
112:My shorter definition of SF (is) Hubris clobbered by nemesis. ~ Brian W Aldiss,
113:One definition of hope is “happy anticipation of something good. ~ Joel Osteen,
114:Scientific revolutions, almost by definition, defy common sense. ~ Michio Kaku,
115:What is my definition of jazz? 'Safe sex of the highest order. ~ Kurt Vonnegut,
116:A perpetual holiday is a good working definition of hell. ~ George Bernard Shaw,
117:Being with you is the only definition of happiness I have. ~ Sarah Rees Brennan,
118:Every sound is by definition a stop, which is how we can hear it. ~ Anne Lamott,
119:My definition of God is the ever-present essence of love. ~ Gabrielle Bernstein,
120:One definition of hell is having your own way all the time. ~ Madeleine L Engle,
121:Research performed on animals is, by definition, scientifically unsound. ~ Moby,
122:The definition of being good is being able to make it look easy. ~ Hugh Jackman,
123:The two-word definition of sustainability is 'one planet.' ~ Mathis Wackernagel,
124:True definition of science: the study of the beauty of the world. ~ Simone Weil,
125:truest definition of a man, so stubborn but needy at the same time ~ Jamie Ford,
126:War?' The word held too much definition for three letters. ~ Shannon A Thompson,
127:Art is why I get up in the morning, but my definition ends there. ~ Ani DiFranco,
128:By definition pop is extremely catchy, whether you like it or not. ~ Kurt Cobain,
129:Definition of tragedy: A hero destroyed by the excess of his virtues ~ Aristotle,
130:My definition of a father is someone who empowers their children. ~ Nicolas Cage,
131:One definition of man is an intelligence served by organs. ~ Ralph Waldo Emerson,
132:The majority of a society is the true definition of the public. ~ Samuel Johnson,
133:The power to define the other seals one's definition of oneself. ~ James Baldwin,
134:The proper definition of a man is an animal that writes letters. ~ Lewis Carroll,
135:I believe the best definition of man is the ungrateful biped. ~ Fyodor Dostoevsky,
136:Logical but not reasonable. Wasn't that the definition of a robot? ~ Isaac Asimov,
137:My definition of a character actor is - they never get the girl. ~ James Cromwell,
138:My definition of a redundancy is an air-bag in a politician's car. ~ Larry Hagman,
139:My definition of LUNATIC ASYLUM: A place where lunatics are created. ~ Jim Fergus,
140:My definition of palatable might be slightly different from yours. ~ Alan Rickman,
141:Proper words in proper places make the true definition of style. ~ Jonathan Swift,
142:Self-denial is the test and definition of self-government. ~ Gilbert K Chesterton,
143:The definition of a gaffe is when a politician tells the truth. ~ Michael Kinsley,
144:The definition of art has to shift whenever an innovator appears. ~ Thomas Hoving,
145:I believe that the best definition of man is the ungrateful biped. ~ Anton Chekhov,
146:I believe the best definition of man is the ungrateful biped. ~ Fyodor Dostoyevsky,
147:If faith were rational , it wouldn't be -by definition- faith. ~ Elizabeth Gilbert,
148:The definition of adventure depends upon how boring your life is. ~ Demetri Martin,
149:The definition of hell is a place where nothing connects with nothing. ~ T S Eliot,
150:The definition of the word 'finished' is: 'This word means finished. ~ Idries Shah,
151:Being at sea is like watching the whole world in high-definition. ~ Abby Sunderland,
152:Strangling is the very definition of dominance. Slow-motion murder. ~ Gillian Flynn,
153:There is not one standard definition of beauty or one perfect size. ~ Ashley Graham,
154:Democracy is always harmful to elite interests. Almost by definition. ~ Noam Chomsky,
155:If God is Love, He is, by definition, something more than mere kindness. ~ C S Lewis,
156:It is the definition of the word 'object' which destroys all religions. ~ Bill Gaede,
157:My definition of sexy is someone who is expressing themselves honestly. ~ Alex Meraz,
158:One right and honest definition of business is mutual helpfulness. ~ William Feather,
159:The definition of promiscuity? One more partner than you've ever had. ~ Gloria Feldt,
160:Up against another human being one's own procedures take on definition ~ Anne Carson,
161:Any definition of a successful life must include service to others. ~ George H W Bush,
162:Buddha’s simple definition of enlightenment as “the end of suffering. ~ Eckhart Tolle,
163:My definition of success is "the fulfillment of your soul's purpose." ~ Jack Canfield,
164:The composition of a common world would be the definition of politics. ~ Bruno Latour,
165:The definition of fascism is The marriage of corporation and state ~ Benito Mussolini,
166:The only way to sustain this world economy is by changing its definition. ~ Toba Beta,
167:You guys not closed?' she asked. 'We are the definition of not close. ~ Gillian Flynn,
168:Buying is the foundation of most women’s definition of romantic. ~ Mokokoma Mokhonoana,
169:If a situation requires swearing to God it is — by definition — extreme. ~ Pam Houston,
170:My definition of ‘crazy’ might be a little broader than most people. ~ John G Hartness,
171:The definition of genius is taking the complex and making it simple. ~ Albert Einstein,
172:The most general definition of beauty ... Multeity in Unity. ~ Samuel Taylor Coleridge,
173:There is only one definition of happiness for hungry people: Eat! ~ Mehmet Murat ildan,
174:There’s no other way to look at you. You’re the definition of beauty. ~ Cristin Harber,
175:The true American patriot is by definition skeptical of the government. ~ Sarah Vowell,
176:Adaptation for film is, by definition, a process of editorializing. ~ Anthony Minghella,
177:However one defines man, the same definition applies to us all. ~ Marcus Tullius Cicero,
178:I'm a rich man. To have everything you need is the definition of affluence. ~ Lee Child,
179:Picking the best solution really depended on your definition of best. ~ Victoria Schwab,
180:The definition of an asshole is a guy who doesn’t believe what he’s seeing. ~ Anonymous,
181:...the exceptionally profound is always, by definition, basic and mundane. ~ K J Parker,
182:By definition, it is not possible to everyone to be above the average. ~ James C Collins,
183:definición (High Definition) de la información no deja nada indefinido. ~ Byung Chul Han,
184:Definition is the companion of clarity; clarity is the guide to your goals. ~ Tony Buzan,
185:My favorite definition of fear is: False Expectations Appearing Real ~ Jill Bolte Taylor,
186:One person's definition of evil is another person's different definition. ~ Eric Schmidt,
187:Redundancy—inefficient by definition—serves as the antidote to confusion. ~ James Gleick,
188:souls should, by definition, also teach about “the metaphysical dimensions ~ John Medina,
189:Taking responsibility for oneself is by definition an act of kindness. ~ Sharon Salzberg,
190:The definition of a Racist is anybody winning an argument with a liberal. ~ Bill Whittle,
191:The infinite variety of the human condition precludes arbitrary definition. ~ Ian McEwan,
192:The new definition of a heathen is a man who has never played baseball. ~ Elbert Hubbard,
193:The proper words in the proper places are the true definition of style. ~ Jonathan Swift,
194:The simplest definition of a budget is "telling your money where to go. ~ Tsh Oxenreider,
195:To define a thing is to substitute the definition for the thing itself. ~ Georges Braque,
196:By nature of definition only the coward is capable of the highest heroism ~ David Gemmell,
197:Freedom, by definition, is people realizing that they are their own leaders. ~ Diane Nash,
198:The definition of black irony is Pro-lifers killing Doctors who do abortions ~ Bill Hicks,
199:There should essentially be no limits to the voluntary definition of marriage. ~ Ron Paul,
200:A definition is the enclosing a wilderness of idea within a wall of words. ~ Samuel Butler,
201:Definition of an independent film is torture with less money and time. ~ Joey Lauren Adams,
202:Definition of a wanderer, Eddie thought, a guy who’s always looking beyond. ~ Stephen King,
203:I don’t think success is a place or a definition, I think it’s a direction. ~ Charles Wang,
204:I should know by now that Tremaine’s definition of eccentric is… eccentric. ~ Martha Wells,
205:I've always been clear, I support the traditional definition of marriage. ~ Stephen Harper,
206:Samuel Butler’s definition: “A hen is only an egg’s way of making another egg. ~ Anonymous,
207:"The ultimate definition of bravery is not being afraid of who you are." ~ Chögyam Trungpa,
208:But the truth is that critics are by definition critical. That's their job. ~ Black Francis,
209:By nature of definition only the coward is capable of the highest heroism”. ~ David Gemmell,
210:There can be no true definition of normal because life is ever-changing. ~ Jayne Ann Krentz,
211:To me, the definition of sexy - at any age - is strength and confidence. ~ Mariska Hargitay,
212:By nature of definition only the coward is capable of the highest
heroism ~ David Gemmell,
213:Definition of 'Free': You pay for it whether or not you elect to receive it. ~ Aaron Allston,
214:My definition of literature would be just this: words that have become deeds. ~ Robert Frost,
215:When one person can initiate war, by its definition, a republic no longer exists. ~ Ron Paul,
216:A recursive definition does not necessarily lead to a recursive process. ~ Gerald Jay Sussman,
217:Beauty plus pity -- that is the closest we can get to a definition of art. ~ Vladimir Nabokov,
218:Definition of an alcoholic is an egomaniac with an inferiority complex ~ Alcoholics Anonymous,
219:God... a being whose only definition is that he is beyond man's power to conceive. ~ Ayn Rand,
220:Let him tell us he's never been hurt, but that's the definition of getting hurt. ~ Andre Ward,
221:Recall Sergio Zyman’s definition of marketing (more stuff to more people for ~ Alistair Croll,
222:The deepest definition of youth is life as yet untouched by tragedy. ~ Alfred North Whitehead,
223:The definition of an asshole is a guy who doesn't believe what he's seeing. ~ Richard Bachman,
224:The definition of an asshole is someone who doesn't believe what he is seeing. ~ Stephen King,
225:The definition of courage is going from defeat to defeat with enthusiasm. ~ Winston Churchill,
226:You have to be doing something you enjoy. That is a definition of happiness! ~ Jackie Kennedy,
227:The Bible is clear - God's definition of marriage is between a man and a woman. ~ Billy Graham,
228:The definition of intelligence is the ability to defy your own programming. ~ C Robert Cargill,
229:The fundamental principle of science, the definition almost, is this: the ~ Richard P Feynman,
230:The simple definition of evangelism: Those who know, telling those who don't. ~ Leith Anderson,
231:Ultimately, that is the definition of bravery: not being afraid of yourself. ~ Chogyam Trungpa,
232:Failure will never overtake me if my definition to succeed is strong enough ~ A P J Abdul Kalam,
233:For me, creativity includes problem-solving. That's the broad definition of it. ~ Edwin Catmull,
234:Isn't killing people in the name of God a pretty good definition of insanity? ~ Arthur C Clarke,
235:I understood the meaning of the word swoon — I had become the very definition. ~ Lauren Blakely,
236:Love is a continual interrogation. I don’t know of a better definition of love. ~ Milan Kundera,
237:My briefest ever definition of science fiction is 'Hubris clobbered by Nemesis.' ~ Brian Aldiss,
238:There is only one valid definition of business purpose: to create a customer. ~ Peter F Drucker,
239:The very definition of tyranny is when all powers are gathered under one place. ~ James Madison,
240:What yuh may or may not’ve done is not di definition of who yuh really are. ~ Tiffany D Jackson,
241:A creationist can embarrass an evolutionist by asking for a definition of species. ~ Walter Lang,
242:Any person who wants to govern the world is by definition the wrong person to do it. ~ Greg Iles,
243:Breakthroughs, by definition, are unanticipated surprises that lead to great things. ~ Anonymous,
244:Great effort from great motives is the best definition of a happy life ~ William Ellery Channing,
245:If love was Jesus’ definition of “biblical,” then perhaps it should be mine. ~ Rachel Held Evans,
246:I'm sorry, could you please tell me what the definition of the word "is" is? ~ William J Clinton,
247:In fact, I believe that the best definition of man is the ungrateful biped. ~ Fyodor Dostoyevsky,
248:My definition of what makes a journey wholly or partially horrible is boredom. ~ Martha Gellhorn,
249:Power without the wisdom to use it properly was a very good definition of evil, ~ Jack L Chalker,
250:The definition of a revolution: it destroys the perfect and enables the impossible. ~ Seth Godin,
251:the definition of humanness is the opportunity to marvel at the majesty of creation ~ John Green,
252:The next level, by definition, is something you can't see and you can't understand. ~ Eben Pagan,
253:Wise men don't need concrete answers. By definition, they need wisdom." ~ Geraki ~ Richelle Mead,
254:Artists, by definition innocent, don't steal. But they do borrow without giving back. ~ Ned Rorem,
255:Die Definition eines Arschlochs ist ein Mensch, der nicht glaubt, was er sieht. ~ Richard Bachman,
256:It's amazing what a bit of soot and shaving can do for muscle definition, honestly. ~ Joe Dempsie,
257:It's hard to redefine something that never had a clear definition in the first place. ~ Jenny Han,
258:My best definition of a nerd: someone who asks you to explain an aphorism ~ Nassim Nicholas Taleb,
259:the definition of humanness is the opportunity to marvel at the majesty of creation. ~ John Green,
260:A disciple having asked for a definition of charity, the Master said LOVE ONE ANOTHER. ~ Confucius,
261:If you dont love, youve lost your distinction, definition, uniqueness, and identity. ~ Judah Smith,
262:My best definition of a nerd: someone who asks you to explain an aphorism. ~ Nassim Nicholas Taleb,
263:The definition of a miracle is that which should not be possible but has come to pass. ~ Anonymous,
264:The religious definition of truth is not that it is universal but that it is absolute. ~ W H Auden,
265:you can pick what you want from the definition, like picking flowers from a garden ~ Blue Balliett,
266:...a figure of speech can often get into a crack too small for a definition. ~ Gilbert K Chesterton,
267:A guy that throws what he intends to throw, that's the definition of a good pitcher. ~ Sandy Koufax,
269:That’s the definition of evil right there: not faking it like everybody else. ~ Charlie Jane Anders,
270:The definition of a Dark Age is that we no longer remember what we once could do. ~ Jerry Pournelle,
271:To be wrong, and to be carefully wrong, that is the definition of decadence. ~ Gilbert K Chesterton,
272:Your definition of who you are is your prison. You can set yourself free at any time. ~ Cheri Huber,
273:Apathy is just lack of energy, which to me, is just the literal definition of decadence. ~ Anonymous,
274:A ‘world’ has dimensions. By definition they are not the sole possible ones. ~ Maurice Merleau Ponty,
275:Doubtless, by definition, God was Reason itself. But would he also be "reasonable" [...] ~ C S Lewis,
276:[...] extremes—whether good or bad—don't fit into society's definition of normality ~ Marilyn Manson,
277:Golden ages, almost by definition, are past: gleeful naivety never lasts for ever. ~ Jonathan Wilson,
278:If you look up the definition of news in the dictionary, it isn't what you watch on TV. ~ Val Kilmer,
279:I know that right choices by definition are the means by which life crystallizes loss. ~ Amor Towles,
280:Not a boy or a girl, not any binary, rigid definition of a person. Just my everything. ~ Leah Raeder,
281:Please, a definition: A hibernation is a covert preparation for a more overt action. ~ Ralph Ellison,
282:Serge’s definition of total happiness: Florida, a full tank of gas and no appointments. ~ Tim Dorsey,
283:The best definition of man is: a being that goes on two legs and is ungrateful. ~ Fyodor Dostoyevsky,
284:The more we narrow the definition of beauty, the more beauty we shut out of our lives. ~ Jim C Hines,
285:Families hold each other in an iron grip of definition. One must break the grip, somehow. ~ Paula Fox,
286:Gordian pays you to sleep with unicorn hunters. That's the definition of a whore. ~ Diana Peterfreund,
287:High definition ruined a lot of things that I used to hold sacrosanct in pornography. ~ Doug Stanhope,
288:How come all the harmless people were so lame? Maybe that was the definition of safe. ~ Richelle Mead,
289:My definition of an artist is anyone who's ahead of his time and behind on his rent. ~ Kinky Friedman,
290:My definition of beauty is something between extremely ugly and extremely fantastic. ~ Riccardo Tisci,
291:that the definition of humanness is the oppor-tunity to marvel at the majesty of creation ~ Anonymous,
292:The definition of salesmanship is the gentle art of letting the customer have it your way. ~ Ray Kroc,
293:'What would be better for us to believe!' This sounds very like a definition of truth ~ William James,
294:A classification is a definition comprising a system of definitions. ~ Karl Wilhelm Friedrich Schlegel,
295:Definition of Good and Evil: Good is what you like. Evil is what you don't like. ~ Anton Szandor LaVey,
296:I don't have a definition of Jazz. You're just supposed to know it when you hear it. ~ Thelonious Monk,
297:materialist and a spiritualist accept the same definition of a crystal of sodium chloride. ~ Anonymous,
298:Never believe that the fiction writing life makes sense.... It's insanity by definition. ~ Jo Beverley,
299:The definition of a modern approach to war is the acknowledgement of individual lives lost. ~ Maya Lin,
300:The denial of suffering is, in fact a better definition of illness than its acceptance. ~ M Scott Peck,
301:Truth by definition is exclusive. If truth were all-inclusive, nothing would be false. ~ Walter Martin,
302:A geek by definition is somebody who eats live animals. I?ve never eaten live animals. ~ Crispin Glover,
303:A good manager is now by definition a leader. Equally, a good leader will also be a manger ~ John Adair,
304:A guy’s definition of baseball: you don’t have to buy the other team dinner to get game. ~ Jill Shalvis,
305:Definition of Success: It is being able to go to bed each night with your soul at peace. ~ Paulo Coelho,
306:If something does not exist, then it makes it very difficult to give it a definition. ~ Albert Einstein,
307:I'm a textbook definition of that perfectionist girl who has huge expectations of herself. ~ Rachel Zoe,
308:one person’s idea of live-and-let-live is another person’s definition of betrayal, ~ Mary Higgins Clark,
309:stop heaping your own definition of love on men and recognize that men love differently. ~ Steve Harvey,
310:Wasn't that the definition of home? Not where you are from, but where you are wanted ~ Abraham Verghese,
311:We are all in flight from the real reality. That is the basic definition of Homo Sapiens. ~ John Fowles,
312:Well, you know, the definition of second marriage is the triumph of hope over experience. ~ George Will,
313:and Pixar would by definition be getting less of them than it once had. From the moment the ~ Ed Catmull,
314:But if we've honestly done everything we can, by definition we can't do anything more. ~ Craig Groeschel,
315:Henry James’s definition of the purpose of a novel: “To help the human heart to know itself. ~ P D James,
316:Maybe your definition of hardship is different than mine, but it makes mine no less real. ~ Mysti Parker,
317:Reflection on the infinite seems to call, almost by definition, for infinite reflection. ~ Daniel Taylor,
318:There is only one good definition of God: the freedom that allows other freedoms to exist. ~ John Fowles,
319:Transhumanists have a unique definition: Death is a malfunction of the human experience. ~ Zoltan Istvan,
320:Wasn’t that the definition of home? Not where you are from, but where you are wanted? ~ Abraham Verghese,
321:What is your definition of skank?' I ask.
'A skank fucks skeezas she barely knows. ~ Megan McCafferty,
322:When people get married young, you don't really understand the true definition of marriage. ~ Kevin Hart,
323:a new definition of the nerd: a person who knows his own mind well enough to mistrust it. ~ Michael Lewis,
324:A pretty woman, not a bother? As far as he knew, that was the very definition of the word. ~ Joanna Shupe,
325:Goodness is no part of the definition of the God Hypothesis, merely a desirable add-on. ~ Richard Dawkins,
326:If there's a better definition of love than mutual benevolent insanity, I haven't heard it. ~ Leah Raeder,
327:If there’s a better definition of love than mutual benevolent insanity, I haven’t heard it. ~ Leah Raeder,
328:The definition of insanity is doing what you've always done and expecting different results. ~ Jane Green,
329:The definition of insanity is doing what you’ve always done and expecting different results. ~ Jane Green,
330:The definition of S & M is letting someone hurt you that you know would never hurt you. ~ Madonna Ciccone,
331:The only definition by which Americas best days are behind it is on a purely relative basis. ~ Bill Gates,
332:to paraphrase Thomas à Kempis, "I had rather exercise faith than know the definition thereof. ~ A W Tozer,
333:As suggested by this definition, not all nations are states and not all states are nations. ~ Rodney Stark,
334:By definition, a government has no conscience. Sometimes it has a policy, but nothing more. ~ Albert Camus,
335:I even think that the best definition of a man is an ungrateful creature on two legs. ~ Fyodor Dostoyevsky,
336:Our definition of a weakness is anything that gets in the way of excellent performance. ~ Donald O Clifton,
337:the definition of a machine is simple. It is anything that reduces human effort. Anything. ~ Chetan Bhagat,
338:The definition of the individual was: a multitude of one million divided by one million. ~ Arthur Koestler,
339:There is no final stage in nirvana. Nirvana is beyond definition. It is not quantifiable. ~ Frederick Lenz,
340:von Moltke’s definition of victory: “the highest goal attainable with available means. ~ Lawrence Freedman,
341:Wasn’t that the definition of home? Not where you are from, but where you are wanted? A ~ Abraham Verghese,
342:What is autumn? Here is a very simple definition: Autumn is a Queen, Queen of Beauty! ~ Mehmet Murat ildan,
343:Definition of a classic: a book everyone is assumed to have read and often thinks they have. ~ Alan Bennett,
344:It is almost a definition of a gentleman to say that he is one who never inflicts pain. ~ John Henry Newman,
345:My definition of a liberal is a man who has his ass firmly stuck in clouds of cotton wool. ~ Sidney Sheldon,
346:The definition of obscenity on the newsstands should be extended to many hunting magazines. ~ Wayne Pacelle,
347:The only thing high-definition television will do is provide sharper images of the garbage. ~ George Carlin,
348:The psychologist Philip Zimbardo gave a TED talk last year on this subject. His definition ~ William Wright,
349:What should we gain by a definition, as it can only lead us to other undefined terms? ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein,
350:You will find, as I did, that the definition of marketing is in desperate need of expansion. ~ Ryan Holiday,
351:A one sentence definition of mythology? Mythology is what we call someone else's religion. ~ Joseph Campbell,
352:Archie asked me if I knew Dante's definition of hell..."Proximity without intimacy," he said. ~ Melissa Bank,
353:He did not tolerate fools and had an ever-expanding definition of those who fit that category. ~ James Comey,
354:It always seems as though the definition of love will remain debatable by an opinionated world. ~ Criss Jami,
355:It seems possible to give a preliminary definition of walking as a space of enunciation. ~ Michel de Certeau,
356:My definition of marketing is: “getting someone who has a need, to know, like, and trust you. ~ John Jantsch,
357:The definition of a hero changes depending on the needs of the person with the dictionary. ~ Lindsay Buroker,
358:...the definition of swiftboating is: producing irrefutable evidence that a Democrat is lying. ~ Ann Coulter,
359:By definition, I believe I am unapologetically optimistic and I am unapologetically earnest. ~ Emilio Estevez,
360:Don’t ever say stuff just because you think you should. That’s the definition of an asshole. ~ Justin Halpern,
361:If anyone wants to know what the definition of 'dope' means, it's: 'Definition of Public Enemy. ~ Flavor Flav,
362:if social is supposed to be opposed to individual, then social justice is by definition unjust. ~ Ben Shapiro,
363:Locke’s definition of a madman: someone “reasoning correctly from erroneous premises. ~ Nassim Nicholas Taleb,
364:The definition of rich is when your passive income exceeds your nut (what you need to live). ~ Scott Galloway,
365:There is no definition of a mental disorder. It's bullshit. I mean, you just can't define it. ~ Jon Rappoport,
366:Truth is not a sum of statements, not a definition, not a system of concepts, but a life. ~ S ren Kierkegaard,
367:A totally blind process can by definition lead to anything; it can even lead to vision itself. ~ Jacques Monod,
368:A white person was by definition somebody. Other people needed, across their hearts, one steel rib. ~ Gish Jen,
369:I know you're scared, but doing something even though it scares you is the definition of brave. ~ Sarah Morgan,
370:It is a trite but true definition that examples work more forcibly on the mind than precepts. ~ Henry Fielding,
371:[Marianne Moore's definition of genuine poetry] -- Imaginary gardens with real toads in them. ~ Marianne Moore,
372:My definition of love is: Being willing to die for someone, that you yourself want to kill. ~ Whitney Cummings,
373:That's the definition of popularity. Something that literally resonates with many, many people. ~ Tod Machover,
374:The philistine provides the best definition of art. Anything that makes him rage is first class. ~ Louis Dudek,
375:When you'r no longer identified with roles and labels and conventional definition of person ~ U G Krishnamurti,
376:Wise men don't need concrete answers. By definition, they need wisdom." ~ Richelle Mead Geraki ~ Richelle Mead,
377:You cannot, by definition, offend someone who’s not here. Offence has to be taken, not just given. ~ Ruth Ware,
378:And that is my definition of democracy, the right to be in a minority and not be suppressed ~ Lee Harvey Oswald,
379:A society in stable equilibrium is-by definition-one that has no history and wants no historians. ~ Henry Adams,
380:Diversity is, by definition, discrimination. It leads to things like quotas and racial profiling. ~ Mary Kissel,
381:(My husband’s tongue-in-cheek definition of positive is “being wrong at the top of your voice.”) If ~ Kathy Ide,
382:Name anything - high-definition TV, computer obsolescence - and I'm pretty much annoyed by it. ~ Martin Freeman,
383:Somebody who is unique - and this will get me into trouble - by definition cannot be replaced. ~ Martin Sorrell,
384:The definition of a good story is one that remains with you long after you've turned that last page. ~ T A Uner,
385:The definition of definition is at bottom just what the maxim of pragmatism expresses. ~ Charles Sanders Peirce,
386:The definition of insanity in Texas is so insane that it's impossible to be insane in Texas. ~ Malcolm McDowell,
387:"The ego is, by definition, subordinate to the self and is related to it like a part to the whole." ~ Carl Jung,
388:The presence of a group of African sell-outs is part of the definition of underdevelopment. Any ~ Walter Rodney,
389:Being able to make a living doing something one truly loves to do - is my definition of success. ~ Cindy Sherman,
390:By definition, the big difference between mercy and justice is that mercy is never ever obligatory. ~ R C Sproul,
391:God's definition of what matters is pretty straightforward. He measures our lives by how we love. ~ Francis Chan,
392:I have my own definition of minimalism, which is that which is created with a minimum of means. ~ La Monte Young,
393:It doesn’t take long in Hell before your definition of “good company” reduces to “not dead.” For ~ Mark Lawrence,
394:My definition of patriotism is to defend your country with the truth, no matter the consequences. ~ John F Kerry,
395:Perhaps love could never be captured in a definition; it could only ever be captured in a story. ~ Julian Barnes,
396:The definition of indecent – when it’s in long, and it’s in hard, and it’s in deep – it’s in decent. ~ Redd Foxx,
397:The keys to brand success are self-definition, transparency, authenticity and accountability. ~ Simon Mainwaring,
398:The reality is, saying yes to any opportunity by definition requires saying no to several others. ~ Greg McKeown,
399:Until some gang succeeds in putting the world in a strait jacket, its definition is possibility. ~ Ralph Ellison,
400:Want to know the true definition of the triumph of hope over experience? Plan a fun family day out. ~ Jojo Moyes,
401:An economist's definition of hatred is the willingness to pay a price to inflict harm on others. ~ Edward Glaeser,
402:I can't give any absolute definition of what love is, or even whether it ought to exist. ~ Michelangelo Antonioni,
403:I even think the best definition of man is: a being that goes on two legs and is ungrateful. ~ Fyodor Dostoyevsky,
404:In computing, turning the obvious into the useful is a living definition of the word "frustration". ~ Alan Perlis,
405:It is almost a definition of a gentleman to say that he is one who never inflicts pain. ~ Saint John Henry Newman,
406:It seems thus possible to give a preliminary definition of walking as a space of enunciation. ~ Michel de Certeau,
407:Nancy Clutter is always in a hurry, but she always has time. And that's one definition of a lady. ~ Truman Capote,
408:Sometimes things work just because you think they work. It's as good a definition of faith as any. ~ Stephen King,
409:Surround yourself with people whose definition of you is not based on your history, but your destiny. ~ T D Jakes,
410:We have not yet arrived, but every point at which we stop requires a re-definition of our destination. ~ Ben Okri,
411:what is ubiquitous but not constrained by the brittleness of form, is by definition imperishable. ~ Pavan K Varma,
412:Dante's definition of hell: proximity without intimacy. From the Girls Guide to Hunting and Fishing ~ Melissa Bank,
413:Imagine how much easier it would be for us to learn how to love if we began with a shared definition. ~ Bell Hooks,
414:Imagine how much easier it would be for us to learn how to love if we began with a shared definition. ~ bell hooks,
415:My definition of a "respected" man was one who had succeeded almost completely in hoodwinking people ~ Osamu Dazai,
416:My definition of poetry (if I were forced to give one) would be this: words that have become deeds. ~ Robert Frost,
417:The definition of the problem, rather than its solution, will be the scarce resource in the future. ~ Esther Dyson,
418:The line between courageous faith and foolish idealism is, almost by definition, one angstrom wide. ~ Eric Metaxas,
419:When your only regret is if anyone thinks you regret anything - that is the definition of conviction. ~ Criss Jami,
420:You don't get to Define me, only I can Define me, all I wish from you is to recognize my Definition. ~ Kellan Lutz,
421:After everything I'd lived through, I was not going to be reduced to a one-sentence definition. ~ Maggie Stiefvater,
422:Grace, by definition, is something that God is not required to grant. He owes a fallen world no mercy. ~ R C Sproul,
423:If you carefully consider [how you want to be remembered], you will find your definition of success. ~ Ivanka Trump,
424:I like being very busy. I think that's the definition of stardom, really. It's energy. It really is. ~ Faye Dunaway,
425:I think by definition you need to have lived a little bit to write anything that's humanly true. ~ Richard K Morgan,
426:I think the very definition of a good deed is putting someone else's feelings in front of your own. ~ Jessica Brody,
427:Maybe we don't have the same definition of about what's beautiful. So define it. Define true beauty. ~ Justina Chen,
428:The definition of an asshole is a guy who doesn't believe what he's seeing. And you can quote me. ~ Richard Bachman,
429:The definition of a security state is one that prioritizes security over all other considerations. ~ Edward Snowden,
430:The definition of 'Employment' by an employer, and, that by an employee, are seldom the same. ~ Mokokoma Mokhonoana,
431:Anarcho-capitalism is not by definition libertarian. It is rather a prediction, not a definition. ~ David D Friedman,
432:Pain does not define us, neither does joy; our deepest definition is independent of our experiences. ~ Bryant McGill,
433:The true definition of a perennial: Any plant which, had it lived, would have bloomed year after year. ~ Henry Beard,
434:According to one definition, doctrine is teaching from God about God that directs us to the glory of God. ~ Anonymous,
435:By definition, a right is something that is not only self-evident, but impossible to remove.  ~ Christopher G Nuttall,
436:definition. How can she not see that when you are defined, you lose the ability to define yourself? ~ Neal Shusterman,
437:digging for the truth, by definition, unearths things—and some things were safer left buried. ~ Christine M Whitehead,
438:Faith is belief without evidence and reason; coincidentally that's also the definition of delusion. ~ Richard Dawkins,
439:For in reason, all government without the consent of the governed is the very definition of slavery. ~ Jonathan Swift,
440:Got my shit together” Definition: I’ve learned how to play it cool. I’ve got some ideas worked out. ~ Beatrice Sparks,
441:He was having, under trying circumstances, the best time he could, which is one definition of heroism; ~ Peter Straub,
442:I worry that we don't have a very good definition of consciousness yet which makes it hard to tackle. ~ Edward Boyden,
443:Kitsch and tourism are inseparable partners. Perhaps it is because, by definition, both are inauthentic. ~ Don Watson,
444:Man is a creature who gets used to everything, and that, I think, is the best definition of him. ~ Fyodor Dostoyevsky,
445:Meetings are by definition a concession to deficient organization. For one either meets or one works. ~ Peter Drucker,
446:My definition of poor are those who need too much. Because those who need too much are never satisfied. ~ Jose Mujica,
447:The ancient Greek definition of happiness was the full use of your powers along lines of excellence. ~ John F Kennedy,
448:Having your existence completely erased has to qualify as a life-changing event, by anyone’s definition. ~ Rysa Walker,
449:He suggested a new definition of the nerd: a person who knows his own mind well enough to mistrust it. ~ Michael Lewis,
450:Indeed, today, reliance on broadcasting is the very definition of a technologically backward society. ~ William Gibson,
451:Know the true definition of yourself. That is essential. Then, when you know your own definition, flee from it. ~ Rumi,
452:Life, by definition, is never still. Where is it going? From birth to death, with no stops on the way. ~ Kurt Vonnegut,
453:My definition of divination is to see and know yourself with clarity, not see or know the future. Tarot ~ Benebell Wen,
454:My favorite definition of love is giving someone the power to destroy us and trusting they won’t use it. ~ Simon Sinek,
455:The definition of terrorism is killing civilians with the intent of changing their political affiliation. ~ Caleb Carr,
456:The final definition of perspective is the ability to view things in relation to their true importance. ~ Amy E Herman,
457:The true definition of a snob is one who craves for what separates men rather than for what unites them. ~ John Buchan,
458:When alone I am not aware of my race or my sex, both in need of social contexts for definition. ~ Maxine Hong Kingston,
459:Oh God, Oh God we’re all gonna die doesn’t really fit the definition of banter, now does it? ~ Lilith Saintcrow,
460:That’s the definition of bisexual, Casey—pretty girls and pretty boys, it’s like an all-you-can-fuck buffet! ~ Amy Lane,
461:the definition of stupidity is doing the same thing over and over again and expecting a different result. ~ David Estes,
462:The fatal temptation is to describe your market extremely narrowly so that you dominate it by definition. ~ Peter Thiel,
463:The problem with living in the now is it means, by definition, you’re not making plans for the future. ~ Jill Santopolo,
464:There is an old saying, The harder you try the luckier you get. I kind of like that definition of luck. ~ Gerald R Ford,
465:Wanting someone you knew with absolute certainty you could never have was the very definition of agony. ~ Penelope Ward,
466:We changed it back in 2005. The definition is an offender who kills two or more victims in separate events. ~ Mike Omer,
467:Guilty as charged. We are very much supportive of the family - the biblical definition of the family unit. ~ Dan T Cathy,
468:However, angel investors by definition are not philanthropists or do-gooders in this area of their lives. ~ David S Rose,
469:if everyone were extraordinary, then by definition no one would be extraordinary—is missed by most people. ~ Mark Manson,
470:I suppose, I said, it is one definition of love, the belief in something that only the two of you can see. ~ Rachel Cusk,
471:The author says one character's definition of a classic is any book he'd heard of before he was thirty. ~ Sinclair Lewis,
472:The definition of a gentleman is a man who enters a revolving door in front of you and exits behind you. ~ Chloe Thurlow,
473:But if life has any definition at all, it is the things that happen to us while we are making plans. ~ Breece D J Pancake,
474:But war is no respecter of limits, it is by definition harsh and inhuman, and there is no preparing for it. ~ Herman Wouk,
475:By my definition, prayer is consciously hanging out with God. Being with God in a deliberate way. ~ Reverend Malcolm Boyd,
476:DEFINITION NOT FOUND IN THE DICTIONARY Not leaving: an act of trust and love, often deciphered by children ~ Markus Zusak,
477:Evil, by definition, is that which endangers the good, and the good is that which we perceive as a value. ~ Konrad Lorenz,
478:Have you ever WRITTEN DOWN your definition of success? Prepare to be surprised.” @DarrenHardy #JoinTheRide ~ Darren Hardy,
479:I learned that I must redefine what I believe is valuable and make sure I’m included within that definition. ~ Bren Brown,
480:Know the true definition of yourself. That is essential.
Then, when you know your own definition, flee from it. ~ Rumi,
481:My favorite definition of an intellectual: 'Someone who has been educated beyond his/her intelligence'. ~ Arthur C Clarke,
482:That is the definition of faith - acceptance of that which we imagine to be true, that which we cannot prove. ~ Dan Brown,
483:The deepest definition of youth is life as yet untouched by tragedy. ~ Alfred North Whitehead, Adventures of Ideas (1933),
484:...the definition of crazy is doing something close to the same thing twice and expecting a different end. ~ Cath Crowley,
485:[T]he most difficult part of the fight is not taking aim at the enemy, but rejecting his definition of you. ~ Azar Nafisi,
486:To condescend effectively it is clearly necessary to adhere to a narrow definition of relevant data. ~ Marilynne Robinson,
487:all theology knowingly or not is by definition always engaged for or against the oppressed. ~ Elisabeth Schussler Fiorenza,
488:I suppose the word "unbearable" is a lie by definition. Unless you kill yourself immediately after using it. ~ Glen Duncan,
489:just need defining.—Defining, then, by means of other words! And what about the last definition in this chain? ~ Anonymous,
490:Man is a creature that can get accustomed to anything, and I think that is the best definition of him. ~ Fyodor Dostoevsky,
491:No, everything is not going to be okay. It never is. It isn't okay now. Change, by definition, changes things ~ Seth Godin,
492:Realize that ultimate success comes from opportunistic,bold moves which by definition, cannot be planned. ~ F Ross Johnson,
493:Roger was a skinny kid. His arms were reeds with absolutely no definition. He did not look up as she spoke. ~ Harlan Coben,
494:That seems to be the definition of 'novel' for me: a story that hasn't yet discovered a way to be brief. ~ George Saunders,
495:That was the definition of management—getting others to do your work for you. And we were the others. ~ John Elder Robison,
496:The basic definition of the business and of its purpose and mission have to be translated into objectives. ~ Peter Drucker,
497:The presidency does not yield to definition. Like the glory of a morning sunrise, it can be experienced. ~ Calvin Coolidge,
498:We can keep whatever we like about manhood but adjust the parts of the definition that are keeping men back. ~ Hanna Rosin,
499:Well you can't believe everything you read. After all, by definition, fiction writers lie for a living. ~ Janette Rallison,
500:A centre of excellence is, by definition, a place where second class people may perform first class work. ~ Michael Faraday,
501:A DEFINITION NOT FOUND IN THE DICTIONARY Not leaving: an act of trust and love, often deciphered by children ~ Markus Zusak,
502:Another person's life, observed from the outside, always has a shape and definition that one's own life lacks. ~ Pat Barker,
503:Humanly speaking, let us define truth, while waiting for a better definition as a statement of facts as they are ~ Voltaire,
504:It is the definition of an egoist that whatever occupies his attention is, for that reason, important. ~ William Manchester,
505:Man is a creature that can get accustomed to anything, and I think that is the best definition of him. ~ Fyodor Dostoyevsky,
506:My definition of a decent society is one that first of all takes care of its losers, and protects its weak. ~ John le Carre,
507:One of the definitions of sanity is the ability to tell real from unreal. Soon we'll need a new definition. ~ Alvin Toffler,
508:The Day women were the definition of mob mentality. And here they were on a farm with plenty of pitchforks. ~ Gillian Flynn,
509:TO ME, THE definition of hell is simple: it is a place where there is no understanding and no compassion. ~ Thich Nhat Hanh,
510:With high definition TV, everything looks bigger and wider. Kind of like going to your 25th high school reunion. ~ Jay Leno,
511:A DEFINITION NOT FOUND IN THE DICTIONARY Not-leaving: An act of trust and love, often deciphered by children. ~ Markus Zusak,
512:[Daryl Morey] suggested a new definition of the nerd: a person who knows his mind well enough to mistrust it ~ Michael Lewis,
513:If you plan your whole life, by definition you can’t get lucky. So you have to leave that little slot open. ~ Keith Ferrazzi,
514:Is there anything worse than being called the 'It Girl?' By definition, there will be a new one in two weeks. ~ Brit Marling,
515:My definition of a friend is somebody who adores you even though they know the things you're most ashamed of. ~ Jodie Foster,
516:The definition of a good mathematical problem is the mathematics it generates rather than the problem itself. ~ Andrew Wiles,
517:The definition of insanity is doing the same thing over and over again and expecting different results.
   ~ Albert Einstein,
518:The intellectual’s definition of a hack seems to be “an artist whose work is appreciated by too many people”. ~ Stephen King,
519:The true definition of madness is repeating the same action, over and over, hoping for a different result. ~ Albert Einstein,
520:They say the definition of ambivalence is watching your mother-in-law drive over a cliff in your new Cadillac. ~ David Mamet,
521:You know what the true definition of hell is? It's when you die, you get to meet the person you could have been. ~ Frank Mir,
522:A utopia cannot, by definition, include boredom, but the ‘utopia’ we are living in is boring. ~ Lars Fredrik H ndler Svendsen,
523:By definition, saving - for anything - requires us to not get things now so that we can get bigger ones later. ~ Jean Chatzky,
524:Corruption is power that overflows its bounds. By definition, it rarely stays contained in a single location. ~ Nick Harkaway,
525:*Effective help can only start with mutual agreement on a clear definition of the problem.* Interestingly ~ Gerald M Weinberg,
526:It’s okay, man,” I said, though I realized my definition of okay had become flexible over the last few months. ~ Rick Riordan,
527:My definition of an expert in any field is a person who knows enough about what's really going on to be scared. ~ P J Plauger,
528:Some people say Bowie is all surface style and second-hand ideas, but that sounds like a definition of pop to me. ~ Brian Eno,
529:The high-definition picture is still a perspective picture. That's the real problem, the perspective picture. ~ David Hockney,
530:The present time of believers is no longer determined by the past. It takes its definition from the future. ~ Jurgen Moltmann,
531:Adopting this definition means you can be successful right now, whether or not you’ve achieved your major goals. ~ Russ Harris,
532:And this of course, was the simplest definition of depression that he knew of: strongly disliking yourself. ~ Jonathan Franzen,
533:Fear wearing black.' Definition of cool. Maybe it's also the definition of courage. Would she be courageous?”. ~ Martha Grimes,
534:His definition of friendship had been grounded on the lowest common denominator, an absence of animosity. He ~ Henning Mankell,
535:I would add that I consider myself and how I do things as a kind of system which, by definition, I always follow. ~ Ed Seykota,
536:Recognize that ultimate success comes from opportunistic, bold moves which, by definition, cannot be planned. ~ Bryan Burrough,
537:The dreamer—if you want an exact definition—is not a human being, but a creature of an intermediate sort. ~ Fyodor Dostoyevsky,
538:The rules of parenting have changed. By the modern definition, we were a generation of neglected children. ~ Richard Linklater,
539:The world in my head has been far more real than the one outside—maybe that’s the exact definition of madness, ~ Akwaeke Emezi,
540:What is the definition of a friend? Friends are people who make it easier to live the gospel of Jesus Christ. ~ Robert D Hales,
541:What’s the definition of stupid? Doing the same thing over and over and hoping for different results. That’s me. ~ Marie Force,
542:Armed attack has a definition in international law. It means sudden, overwhelming, instantaneous ongoing attack. ~ Noam Chomsky,
543:At the end of the day, we each have a different definition for beauty, but being yourself is the most important. ~ Maria Borges,
544:Definition: CONNOISSEUR, n. A specialist who knows everything about something and nothing about anything else. ~ Ambrose Bierce,
545:He who meanly admires a mean thing is a snob--perhaps that is a safe definition of the character. ~ William Makepeace Thackeray,
546:The Day women were the definition of mob mentality. And here they were on a farm with plenty of pitchforks. She ~ Gillian Flynn,
547:The definition of genius, really, should be that that person can do what the rest of us have to learn how to do. ~ James Lipton,
548:You are One with everything. When you are clear about this, your definition of self-interest will change. ~ Neale Donald Walsch,
549:You know the definition of a dysfunctional family, don't you? It's any family with more than one member in it. ~ Sarah Pekkanen,
550:Alexander received more bravery of mind by the pattern of Achilles, than by hearing the definition of fortitude. ~ Philip Sidney,
551:By definition, acting is improvisation, even if you follow the lines. You invent what you do, when you do it. ~ Isabelle Huppert,
552:God's definition of success is really one of the significant differences our lives can make in the lives of others. ~ Tony Dungy,
553:In Soviet eyes the definition of ‘fascist’ included anyone who did not follow the orders of the Communist Party. ~ Antony Beevor,
554:Irony, perfect definition: that for which I want to possess it, I would no longer want once I possessed it. ~ Karen Marie Moning,
555:is clear that human knowledge must always be content to accept some terms as intelligible without definition, ~ Bertrand Russell,
556:Once again I come upon his famous definition of love: two solitudes that protect and border and greet each other. ~ Sigrid Nunez,
557:To pursue a goal which is by definition unattainable is to condemn oneself to a state of perpetual unhappiness. ~ Emile Durkheim,
558:Want to know the true definition of the triumph of hope over experience?” he would say. “Plan a fun family day out. ~ Jojo Moyes,
559:What's your definition of dating?
Lengthy social time spent with a woman during which we're not actively fucking ~ Sylvia Day,
560:Ah, well, old girl, remember the definition of an Anglo-Saxon: A German who's forgotten his grandmother was Welsh. ~ S M Stirling,
561:A modern definition of equanimity: cool. This refers to one whose mind remains stable & calm in all situations. ~ Allan Lokos,
562:Any trade that is voluntarily made is mutually beneficial, by definition, and, indeed, is balanced, by definition. ~ P J O Rourke,
563:Coming even fifty miles to force a probe up my butt without my permission is a pretty good definition of a pervert. ~ Dean Koontz,
564:If 'bounded by a surface' is the definition of body there cannot be an infinite body either intelligible or sensible. ~ Aristotle,
565:My definition of success? The more you are actively and practically engaged, the more successful you will feel. ~ Richard Branson,
566:The common moral framework: Do anything as long as it does no harm to others. Problem: Whose definition of harm? ~ Timothy Keller,
567:The definition of prayer is paying careful and concentrated attention to something other than your own constructions. ~ W H Auden,
568:A definition is death. A definition is the answer to which you must look up the question in the back of your book. ~ Peter Hammill,
Not leaving: an act of trust and love, often deciphered by children ~ Markus Zusak,
570:I am a sinner. This is the most accurate definition. It is not a figure of speech, a literary genre. I am a sinner. ~ Pope Francis,
571:I have a very specific definition of censorship. Censorship must be done by the government or it's not censorship. ~ Penn Jillette,
572:It turns out that you don't end up with the people you love; by definition, you end up with the ones who stay. ~ Andrew Sean Greer,
573:My definition of good literature is that which can be read by an educated reader, and reread with increased pleasure. ~ Gene Wolfe,
574:Of course, if 40% of women need oxytocin to progress normally, then something is wrong with the definition of normal. ~ Henci Goer,
575:The definition of hell is two people in a relationship that is starved for love and unable to fulfill that need. ~ Shannon L Alder,
576:The definition of the right of suffrage is very justly regarded as a fundamental article of republican government. ~ James Madison,
577:There is no other definition of socialism valid for us than that of the abolition of the exploitation of man by man. ~ Che Guevara,
578:this question depends upon the definition of the word, Nature, than which there is none more ambiguous and equivocal. ~ David Hume,
579:Those who do not believe do not pray. This is a good functional definition of faith. Faith prays, unbelief does not. ~ John Hardon,
580:To do something you're afraid of, especially for the sake of somebody else, is the very definition of courage. ~ Michelle Harrison,
581:You can always cram the wrong piece into the puzzle hole if you push hard enough and limit your definition of ‘fitting. ~ Amy Reed,
582:A broad definition of crime in England is that it is any lower-class activity that is displeasing to the upper class. ~ David Frost,
583:An education program is, by definition, a societal program. Work should be done at school, rather than at home. ~ Francois Hollande,
584:By definition, a mentor shows you the ropes, offers feedback, and provides strategies for success—all very good stuff. ~ Kate White,
585:Camping, as someone I trust implicitly once told me, is at its best definition an agreement to be uncomfortable. ~ Domingo Martinez,
586:I seemed to be leading a very incongruous life from the point of view of the definition of the community I was in. ~ Frederick Lenz,
587:Is it ignorance if you don’t care to know it?” “Yes. That is almost the definition of ignorance, actually. ~ Robert Jackson Bennett,
588:No good government but what is republican... the very definition of a republic is 'an empire of laws, and not of men.' ~ John Adams,
589:Retaliation is related to nature and instinct, not to law. Law, by definition, cannot obey the same rules as nature. ~ Albert Camus,
590:So I offer my definition of theology: theology is the application of Scripture, by persons, to every area of life.11 ~ John M Frame,
591:That is one definition of the setting-sun mentality: trying to conquer the earth so that you can ward off reality ~ Ch gyam Trungpa,
592:The enterprise, by definition, must be capable of producing more or better than all the resources that comprise it. ~ Peter Drucker,
593:This is the definition of the infinite: it is something that can stay the same size even when you subtract from it. ~ Charles Seife,
Not leaving: an act of trust and love,
often deciphered by children ~ Markus Zusak,
595:A woman with a voice is by definition a strong woman. But the search to find that voice can be remarkably difficult. ~ Melinda Gates,
596:Bridges would not be safer if only people who knew the proper definition of a real number were allowed to design them. ~ H L Mencken,
597:Horror by definition is the emotion of pure revulsion. Terror of the same standard, is that of fearful anticipation. ~ Dario Argento,
598:I heard a definition once: Happiness is health and a short memory! I wish I'd invented it, because it is very true. ~ Audrey Hepburn,
599:In my definition of consciousness, consciousness is the same thing as life. What wisdom traditions also call spirit. ~ Deepak Chopra,
600:I've never used High Definition video, never, ever, ever, ever, ever. And I never will. I can't stand that crap. ~ Quentin Tarantino,
601:Maybe that was the definition of life everlasting: the belief that the next generation would carry your work forward. ~ Ann Patchett,
602:Nobody is more dangerous than he who imagines himself pure in heart; for his purity, by definition, is unassailable. ~ James Baldwin,
603:No one is more dangerous than he who imagines himself pure in heart: for his purity, by definition, is unassailable. ~ James Baldwin,
604:Since the photographic medium has been digitized, a fixed definition of the term photography has become impossible. ~ Andreas Gursky,
605:to get hold of the human condition, we need next a much broader definition of history than is conventionally used. ~ Edward O Wilson,
606:By my definition, most art has nothing to do with oil paint or marble. Art is what we're doing when we do our best work. ~ Seth Godin,
607:For this was a kiss of definition. A kiss of understanding. For a marriage absent pretense. And a love without design. ~ Ren e Ahdieh,
608:Genius is the ability to put into effect what is in your mind. There’s no other definition of it. —F. SCOTT FITZGERALD ~ Ryan Holiday,
609:H.L. Mencken’s definition of a wealthy man: one whose income is $100 a year higher than his wife’s sister’s husband. ~ Dalai Lama XIV,
610:That is almost the definition of any friendship that is worthwhile - that we don't care a damn how you behave yourself. ~ E C Bentley,
611:that’s more or less the textbook definition of an alcoholic. Someone who knows it’s time to cut down but can’t. ~ Catherine Ryan Hyde,
612:There's nothing sad about loving someone so much that nothing makes sense without him. It's the definition of joy. ~ Adriana Trigiani,
613:This should have been a red flag, I realize in retrospect. Working really hard on anything is, by definition, not cool. ~ Leila Sales,
614:Definition of Love: A score of zero in tennis. I love thee with the breath, Smiles, tears of all my life. ~ Elizabeth Barrett Browning,
615:For many readers, writers, editors and agents ... pretty much the working (in)definition: SF is short for So Fuck? ~ Hal Duncan,
616:God’s definition of success is contrary to the world’s. The world looks at what you have, while God sees who you have. ~ Joseph Prince,
617:I think that the definition of autism is too broad. You got to remember, autism definition is a behavioral profiling. ~ Temple Grandin,
618:Maybe it’s about opening up your definition of family to include friends, too. Because friends are the family you choose. ~ Kim Holden,
619:Nobody is more dangerous than he who imagines himself pure in heart; for his purity, by definition, is unassailable. ~ James A Baldwin,
620:Sticking her tongue out at a piece of paper was the definition of useless, but it made Miranda feel better anyway. ~ Kristi Ann Hunter,
621:Whatever our definition of truth may be, we can never renounce Descartes' clare et distincte (clarity and distinctness). ~ Lev Shestov,
622:Any American who is prepared to run for president should automatically, by definition, be disqualified from ever doing so. ~ Gore Vidal,
623:Having what you need as well as what you want, and knowing that you have it, must be the definition of contentment. ~ Billy O Callaghan,
624:It is not worth an intelligent man's time to be in the majority. By definition, there are already enough people to do that. ~ G H Hardy,
625:John F. Kennedy once said: ‘The definition of happiness is the full use of your powers, along the lines of excellence. ~ Robin S Sharma,
626:NASA ‘working definition’ of life, for example: life is ‘a self-sustaining chemical system capable of Darwinian evolution’. ~ Nick Lane,
627:of a sane man there is only one safe definition. He is a man who can have tragedy in his heart and comedy in his head. ~ G K Chesterton,
628:Over time his images of the baby, like photographs handled too often, had worn down and creased, lost their definition. ~ Anthony Doerr,
629:People are pretty much alike. It's only that our differences are more susceptible to definition than our similarities. ~ Linda Ellerbee,
630:Sturgeon’s definition of science fiction—“[a story] which would not have happened at all without its scientific content. ~ Damon Knight,
631:...the best definition that I heard of that is that a bureaucrat is a Democrat who has a job that a Republican wants. ~ Alben W Barkley,
632:The hallmark of an authoritarian idiot is yelling TERRORIST-LOVER! at anyone questioning the definition of Terrorist. ~ Glenn Greenwald,
633:To me the definition of true masculinity - and femininity, too - is being able to lay in your own skin comfortably. ~ Vincent D Onofrio,
634:A company has a monopoly on its own brand by definition, so creating a strong brand is a powerful way to claim a monopoly. ~ Peter Thiel,
635:A definition may be very exact, and yet go but a very little way towards informing us of the nature of the thing defined. ~ Edmund Burke,
636:Definition of responsibility: a commitment of the head, heart, and hands to fix the problem and never again affix blame. ~ John G Miller,
637:Healing is, by definition, taking a process of disintegration of life and transforming into a process of return to life. ~ Caroline Myss,
638:I'd like to expand the definition of the word 'success' to include 'failure' as the one seems inseparable from the other. ~ Dov Davidoff,
639:I know of no better definition of love than the one given by Proust - Love is space and time measured by the heart. ~ Gian Carlo Menotti,
640:Intentions must mature into commitments if we are to become persons with definition, with character, with substance. ~ Eugene H Peterson,
641:It is my opinion that enjoying yourself in the present and loosening your definition of time slows the aging process. ~ Frederick Dodson,
642:Most of us find it difficult to accept a definition of love that says we are never loved in a context where there is abuse. ~ Bell Hooks,
643:Most of us find it difficult to accept a definition of love that says we are never loved in a context where there is abuse. ~ bell hooks,
644:Perhaps the best definition for the inhabitants of an early city is that they are a permanently captive farm population. ~ Lewis Mumford,
645:The definition of marriage? When a woman adopts an overgrown man-child who cannot be handled by his parents any longer. ~ Gena Showalter,
646:The idea that any president represents the world, by definition the United States must be diminished for that to happen. ~ Rush Limbaugh,
647:The twenty first century will require a re-affirmation and re-definition of our alliances and international organisations. ~ Chuck Hagel,
648:The will to grow is, in essence, the same phenomenon as love. Genuinely loving people are, by definition, growing people. ~ M Scott Peck,
649:This is the definition of happiness: a whole day stretching out ahead of me, beautiful in its emptiness and simplicity. ~ Tabitha Suzuma,
650:To test whether you have learned an idea or a definition, rephrase what you just learned without using the new word. ~ Richard P Feynman,
651:Two things mania did were to keep you up all night and to enable nonstop sex: pretty much the definition of college. ~ Jeffrey Eugenides,
652:Business enterprise is an organ of society. There is only one valid definition of business purpose: to create a customer. ~ Peter Drucker,
653:Definition, rationality, and structure are ways of seeing, but they become prisons when they blank out other ways of seeing. ~ A R Ammons,
654:God is by definition the holder of all possible knowledge, it would be impossible for him to have faith in anything. Faith, ~ Steve Allen,
655:Hathos,” I offered finally and then thoughtfully provided the definition. “The pleasure you get from hating something. ~ Karen Joy Fowler,
656:If faith were rational, it wouldn’t be—by definition—faith. Faith is belief in what you cannot see or prove or touch. ~ Elizabeth Gilbert,
657:Let me give you a definition of ethics: It is good to maintain and further life it is bad to damage and destroy life. ~ Albert Schweitzer,
658:Never waste any time disliking the ones you have. The right person will think they are the very definition of beautiful. ~ Rachel Fordham,
659:Of a sane man there is only one safe definition. He is the man who can have tragedy in his heart and comedy in his head. ~ G K Chesterton,
660:Quietly affirm that you will define your own reality from now on and that your definition will be based on your inner wisdom ~ Wayne Dyer,
661:Quite the opposite; my definition is too broad. I think we're all quite mad. Some of us are just more discreet about it. ~ Mindy McGinnis,
662:There was a time when a willingness to criticize one's own government when it was wrong was the very definition of patriotism. ~ Ron Paul,
663:By any sane definition of success, if you wake up in a pool of blood and nobody has shot you, you are not successful. ~ Arianna Huffington,
664:I always go with the dictionary definition of feminism, which is just social, political and economic equality for women. ~ Jessica Valenti,
665:I do not criticize religion as such, but I criticize the concept and the definition of "religion" - as I said in Genealogies. ~ Talal Asad,
666:In a way, this is a definition of shamanism. A shaman is a person who by some means has gotten out of their own culture. ~ Terence McKenna,
667:Maybe this was, in fact, the very definition of intimacy: acting with another person the way you did when you were alone. ~ Kemper Donovan,
668:She’d read somewhere that the definition of crazy was doing the same thing over and over but expecting different results. ~ Laurelin Paige,
669:That, Claire thought, was a pretty good definition of love: needing someone even after you got what you thought you wanted. ~ Rachel Caine,
670:The one thing that the racist can never manage is anything like discrimination: he is indiscriminate by definition. ~ Christopher Hitchens,
671:There is no other definition of socialism valid for us than that of the abolition of the exploitation of man by man. ~ Ernesto Che Guevara,
672:»Weißt du, was Ferd Janklows Definition eines anständigen Burschen ist, Jack?«
»Einer, der sich kaufen lässt« ~ Stephen King,
673:—Did Eve know? About you and Anne, I mean.
He shook his head wanly. The very definition of wanly. The apotheosis of wanly. ~ Amor Towles,
674:Heard someone say children are god's gift to the world. What world are you referring to? And what's your definition of gift? ~ Dov Davidoff,
675:If I had to give a definition of capitalism I would say: the process whereby American girls turn into American women. ~ Christopher Hampton,
676:I'm a thug. And my thug comes from... my definition of thug comes from half of the street element. Straight street hustling. ~ Tupac Shakur,
677:I take the definition and title of my job - Representative - seriously. Thats what I will be above and beyond everything else. ~ Grace Meng,
678:Maybe no great man is virtuous. Or good. Perhaps a man rich in those qualities by definition is barred from greatness. ~ Colleen McCullough,
679:My definition of happiness is having something to do what you love to do, someone to love, and something to look forward to. ~ Mary Kay Ash,
680:my definition of the ideal man is 'that particular man with whom a woman happens to be in love at that particular time. ~ Clare Boothe Luce,
681:Over time, I have come to this simple definition of leadership: Leadership is getting results in a way that inspires trust. ~ Stephen Covey,
682:They said that the definition of insanity was doing the same thing over and over again and expecting a different result. ~ Jayne Ann Krentz,
683:What's wrong with hip-hop is the system that controls the definition of it. There needs to be more balance on the airwaves. ~ Saul Williams,
684:You know what FINE means, right?
Dr. Head's definition of FINE scribbles across my brain. "Feelings Inside Not Expresses? ~ S R Johannes,
685:And as for social justice, if social is supposed to be opposed to individual, then social justice is by definition unjust. The ~ Ben Shapiro,
686:if our definition of happiness is “experiencing that which is pleasurable,” we are going to be disappointed a lot of the time. ~ Noah Levine,
687:I guess I'm attracted to more archaic words because they can be imbued with more meaning, because their definition is elusive. ~ Andrew Bird,
688:I minded how they thought I expected too much from them where the definition of “too much” was to have any expectations at all. ~ Roxane Gay,
689:Luis comes along and decides that his definition of a man is someone who is not afraid to be kind. That takes courage. ~ Catherine Ryan Hyde,
690:My definition of an adventure game is an interactive story set with puzzles and obstacles to solve and worlds to explore. ~ Roberta Williams,
691:People of dua are optimistic by definition. They know that dua and thoughts like 'unlikely' or 'impossible' don't coexist. ~ Nouman Ali Khan,
692:#Suffering is at the heart of the human experience. The definition of suffering is whenever you are not perfectly in control. ~ Richard Rohr,
693:whence the insistence that racism have the structural-oppression definition rather than the original and more commonly used one? ~ Anonymous,
694:Look up the definition of rejection in the dictionary, get really comfortable with it, and then maybe you can go into acting. ~ Loni Anderson,
695:My definition of an intellectual is someone who can listen to the William Tell Overture without thinking of the Lone Ranger. ~ Billy Connolly,
696:Myths, by their definition, involve transformations, struggles through various worlds or layers of reality and of obscuration. ~ Anne Waldman,
697:Scientific answers are not definitive: they are, almost by definition, the best ones that we have at any given time. Consider ~ Carlo Rovelli,
698:...the definition of agape is loving a person for exactly who they are - not who we hope they'll become with enough fixing. ~ Hannah Brencher,
699:This, then, is the Anarchistic definition of government: the subjection of the non-invasive individual to an external will. ~ Benjamin Tucker,
700:But we all know the wag’s definition of a philanthropist: a man whose charity increases directly as the square of the distance. ~ George Eliot,
701:constraints.” I wrote this definition in my notes, but I didn’t understand it. The lecturer tried to clarify. He said positive ~ Tara Westover,
702:Dictionary Definition of Delicacy 1. The quality or condition of being delicate, fragile, or sensitive. 2. Discretion, tact. ~ David Foenkinos,
703:Everything about the enterprise, and then by definition the software the enterprise uses has changed - just in the last 5 years. ~ Aaron Levie,
704:If it is the definition of insanity to repeat the same process and expect a different outcome, most of humanity must be insane. ~ Amie Kaufman,
705:If you carefully consider what you want to be said of you in the funeral experience, you will find your definition of success. ~ Stephen Covey,
706:One doesn't bother to believe the credible: the credible is believed already, by definition. There's no adventure of the mind. ~ Northrop Frye,
707:The point,' Ms. Conyers continued, "is that no word had one specific definition. Maybe in the dictionary, but not in real life. ~ Sarah Dessen,
708:... we all know the wag's definition of a philanthropist: a man whose charity increases directly as the square of the distance. ~ George Eliot,
709:Any American who is prepared to run for president should automatically, by definition, be disqualified from ever doing so. ~ Douglas E Richards,
710:By definition, love made you better than good enough; it redefined perfection to include your traits, instead of excluding them. ~ Jodi Picoult,
711:Caesar gave the ultimate definition of ambition when he said: ‘Better to be the chief of a village than a subaltern in Rome’. ~ Fernando Pessoa,
712:Every election is about the future, which by definition means it's more about the future of young people than it is about me. ~ Hillary Clinton,
713:In Buddhism, since the definition of “living” refers to sentient beings, consciousness is the primary characteristic of “life. ~ Dalai Lama XIV,
714:No word has one specific definition.Maybe in the dictionary, but not in real life"
-Ms.Conyers of Sarah Dessen's Lock and Key ~ Sarah Dessen,
715:Our lifestyle, our wildlife, our land and our water remain critical to our definition of Wyoming and to our economic future. ~ Dave Freudenthal,
716:The exact ratio of irony to matter in the universe is known as Nove’s Constant, and by definition it’s more than you’d expect. ~ J Zachary Pike,
717:The harmony of the part with the whole may be the best definition of health, beauty, truth, wisdom, morality, and happiness. This ~ Will Durant,
718:The term ‘Hindu’ was coined in opposition to other religions, but this self-definition through otherness began centuries before ~ Wendy Doniger,
719:With each change of definition in art, something considered non-art or bad art by a previous generation is suddenly acceptable. ~ Thomas Hoving,
720:I don't have a mentor in the strict definition. I take as much advice and inspiration as I can from the people I am close to. ~ Natalie Massenet,
721:If I had to give a definition of happiness, it would be this: happiness needs nothing but itself, it doesn’t have to be validated. ~ Herman Koch,
722:If I had to give a definition of happiness, it would be this: happiness needs nothing but itself; it doesn’t have to be validated. ~ Herman Koch,
723:I love the Buddha’s simple definition of enlightenment as “the end of suffering.” There is nothing superhuman in that, is there? ~ Eckhart Tolle,
724:In the theater, everything is ephemeral. Everything is almost weightless and without a very clear definition of how you made it. ~ Rafael Vinoly,
725:It was a dramatization of total chaos, a functional definition of confusion, an unchoreographed dance of sad violence. It was war. ~ Dan Simmons,
726:Life is life! The real meaning and definition of life is not wealth, though wealth can define and give meaning to life. ~ Ernest Agyemang Yeboah,
727:Meeting your obligations is the definition of adulthood, kid. If you're going to make mistakes and break promises, now's the time. ~ Nicola Yoon,
728:My definition of elegance is the achievement of a given functionality with a minimum of mechanism and a maximum of clarity. ~ Fernando J Corbato,
729:please tell me your definition of ahimsa.” “The avoidance of harm to any living creature in thought or deed.” “Beautiful ~ Paramahansa Yogananda,
730:Style, like taste, is resistant to lucid definition; however, both, as living things should be, are subject to constant change. ~ Harlan Ellison,
731:They had truly sacrificed for each other, laid it all on the line when the stakes were highest. That was the definition of love. At ~ A G Riddle,
732:We all know how stupid the average person is. Now realize that, by definition, fifty percent of the population is dumber than that. ~ Ivan Stang,
733:although myth may be romanticized and woefully short of fact, it must, by definition, have some foundation in lost happenings. ~ Clifford D Simak,
734:Everyone I meet is in my sangha. I don't know if that's the proper definition, but that's the way I'm going to hold it in my mind. ~ Jeff Bridges,
735:If I had to embrace a definition of success, it would be that success is making the best choices we can ... and accepting them. ~ Sheryl Sandberg,
736:If you're a Republican who's a threat to the Democrats, of course you are a racist. That's the definition of a racist, nowadays. ~ Glenn Reynolds,
737:If you want to live within the definition of your own truth, you have to choose to go through the painful process of finding it. ~ David Levithan,
738:I guess everyone has their own definition of what folk is or pop or whatever. I find it incredibly hard to describe music these days. ~ Ed Droste,
739:My definition of a great manager is someone with whom you can make a connection no matter where you sit in the organization chart. ~ Michael Lopp,
740:Never be bullied into silence. Never allow yourself to be made a victim. Accept no one’s definition of your life; define yourself. ~ Robert Frost,
741:She imagined kisses on her neck and shoulder. Soft, light kisses; sharp, playful nips. Damn. Her imagination came in high-definition. ~ Mina Khan,
742:Something is born, comes into being, something that did not exist before - which is as good a definition of creativity as we can get. ~ Rollo May,
743:The beauty of Goodreads is that you know you’re sowing in a field where everyone, by definition and self-selection, loves to read. ~ Guy Kawasaki,
744:There is no need to waste words showing that not everything is useless which cannot be brought under the definition of the useful. ~ Josef Pieper,
745:This one, like the last, is a definition of haunt as a noun, and it’s the one that really scares me: “A feeding place for animals. ~ Stephen King,
746:When a man no longer confuses himself with the definition of himself that others have given him, he is at once universal and unique. ~ Alan Watts,
747:A real definition of life lies in our daily thoughts and the steps we take to or away from what is distinctive and noble. ~ Ernest Agyemang Yeboah,
748:Google is not a media company by any traditional definition of the word, but it makes its billions from the media business model. ~ Chris Anderson,
749:I don't know how one actually would define obscenity. I'm sure the definition is different according to the age one is living in. ~ Jane Alexander,
750:If you carefully consider what you wanted to be said of you in the funeral experience, you will find your definition of success. ~ Stephen R Covey,
751:I needed someone to talk to, but there was no one in particular I wanted to talk to. That's the best definition of loneliness I know. ~ Nick Dybek,
752:Liberals subscribe to the new flexible, pluralistic definition of the family; their defense of families carries no conviction. ~ Christopher Lasch,
753:My definition of love is being full. Complete. It makes everything lighter. Beauty is something you see. Love is something you feel. ~ Sharon Tate,
754:My definition of secularism is very clear. The sole religion of the Government is Nation First, the holy book is the Constitution. ~ Narendra Modi,
755:The classic definition of slapstick runs along the line of, "Funny is someone else ramming his face repeatedly into a brick wall. ~ Katherine Dunn,
756:The definition of cool: popularity without achievement. It’s how President Obama got the youth vote. Ask any kid who voted for him, ~ Greg Gutfeld,
757:The way towards 'wisdom' or towards 'freedom' is the way towards your inner being. This is the simplest definition of metaphysics. ~ Mircea Eliade,
758:The world out there is not waiting for a new definition of Christianity; it's waiting for a new demonstration of Christianity. ~ Leonard Ravenhill,
759:When PLO sniper fire is followed by 14 hours of Israeli bombardment, that's stretching the definition of defensive action too far. ~ Ronald Reagan,
760:By definition, love made you better than good enough; it redefined perfection to include your traits, instead of excluding them. All ~ Jodi Picoult,
761:Do you know what the definition of insane is? Yes. It’s the inability to relate to another human being. It’s the inability to love. ~ Richard Yates,
762:I can't remember ever having a conversation about the definition of consent when I was a kid. I knew that no meant no, but that's it. ~ Nate Parker,
763:If being crazy means having a hard time adapting to the world as it is (a definition that I agree with), then society is crazy.”1 ~ Alexander Lowen,
764:I'm not sure I'll ever be famous by anyone's definition. I can only hope to be allowed by the audience to continue my life's work. ~ Brandi Carlile,
765:Success is about creating benefit for all and enjoying the process. If you focus on this & adopt this definition, success is yours. ~ Anonymous,
766:The definition of art has changed almost every day since the first artist created the first work at least fifty thousand years ago. ~ Thomas Hoving,
767:The world in my head has been far more real than the one outside—maybe that’s the exact definition of madness, come to think of it. ~ Akwaeke Emezi,
768:To think that realistic fiction is by definition superior to imaginative fiction is to think imitation is superior to invention. ~ Ursula K Le Guin,
769:When you shoot on high-definition, everything is very sharp and clear, sometimes at the cost of losing dimension and depth of field. ~ Gina Bellman,
770:Find out who you are, but don't cling to any definition. Mutate as many times as necessary to live in the totality of your being. ~ Claudio Naranjo,
771:... I suddenly woke up to the fact that if I accepted anybody's definition of what there was in the world, I would be limited. ~ Shirley Brice Heath,
772:Restricting our definition of culture to information does not mean to say that culturally acquired information does not affect behavior. ~ Anonymous,
773:That is, by the way, an introductory definition of a parable: a story that never happened but always does—or at least should. ~ John Dominic Crossan,
774:The conscious mind is easily overwhelmed. The unconscious mind is vast and far more powerful, but by definition we're not aware of it. ~ Nick Morgan,
775:There is no definition of beauty, but when you can see someone's spirit coming through, something unexplainable, that's beautiful to me. ~ Liv Tyler,
776:To have to fight the instincts - that is the definition of decadence: as long as life is ascending, happiness equals instinct. ~ Friedrich Nietzsche,
777:What you think about expands. If your thoughts are centered on what's missing, then what's missing, by definition, will have to expand. ~ Wayne Dyer,
778:Art isn't life, you know. It if were, the world would go up in flames. It's artifice. By definition.

("Talking In The Dark") ~ Dennis Etchison,
779:If you carefully consider what you wanted to be said of you in the funeral experience, you will find your definition of success. It ~ Stephen R Covey,
780:If you want a definition of what a coward is, it’s needing to push a whole class of people down so that you can walk on top of them. ~ Andrea Dworkin,
781:It is said that life begins when the fetus can exist apart from its mother. By this definition, many people in Hollywood are legally dead. ~ Jay Leno,
782:Never be bullied into silence. Never allow yourself to be made a victim. Accept no one's definition of your life; define yourself. ~ Harvey Fierstein,
783:Someone once told me the definition of hell; on your last day on earth, the person you could have become will meet the person you became. ~ Anonymous,
784:There are, almost by definition, an unlimited number of Hells - potentially at least a personal one for every living sapient being. ~ Terry Pratchett,
785:Wherever the relevance of speech is at stake, matters become political by definition, for speech is what makes man a political being. ~ Hannah Arendt,
786:You know the critical thing with the Communist countries is Communism, which by definition consists of control by the government. ~ Margaret Thatcher,
787:Be still, and know that I am God” (Ps. 46:10). I like this definition of stillness: silence on the outside and surrender on the inside. ~ Kyle Idleman,
788:By definition, though, we are family. And in difficult times-- times like these-- despite our differences, we stand together as family. ~ Stephen King,
789:Entrepreneurs, by definition, shift resources from areas of low productivity and yield to areas of higher productivity and yield. Of ~ Peter F Drucker,
790:[My poetry is] a way of coming to grips with reality . . . a way of discovery and definition. It is a way of solving for the unknowns. ~ Robert Hayden,
791:One must be careful with words. Words turn probabilities into facts and by sheer force of
definition translate tendencies into habits. ~ Fay Weldon,
792:That's the definition of 'success' for the modern Democrat Party. As many people dependent on government as possible is the objective. ~ Rush Limbaugh,
793:The fancy that extraterrestrial life is by definition of a higher order than our own is one that soothes all children, and many writers. ~ Joan Didion,
794:There is only one definition of science fiction that seems to make sense: 'Science fiction is anything published as science fiction.' ~ Norman Spinrad,
795:The working definition of mindfulness that my colleagues and I find most helpful is awareness of present experience with acceptance. ~ Ronald D Siegel,
796:and then she asks me how many sexual partners I've had and I say one or two depending on your definition of what I did to Custer . . . ~ Sherman Alexie,
797:I'm very competitive. I just go with what engages or fascinates me in my work and that's it. I have no definition; I just love to do it. ~ Ridley Scott,
798:My definition of bad-ass is that I'm a force of nature and true spirit. I'm self-admitting that, and it sounds vain to say that, but I am. ~ Idris Elba,
799:The definition of a great picture is one that stays with you, one that you can't forget. It doesn't have to be technically good at all. ~ Steve McCurry,
800:The definition of freedom is the infinite value of the human being. Everything that is evil teaches people that they have limited value. ~ Jeremy Locke,
801:The definition of the word nerd has changed. It's now any attractive person with a hobby. The loneliness component is no longer included. ~ Gary Gulman,
802:The prototypical definition of fascism is: It is not enough that I do (or not do) a certain thing; everyone must do (or not do) that thing. ~ S T Joshi,
803:A definition of loneliness surfaced in his mind: when you suddenly understand that the story of your life isn’t what you thought it was. ~ Rachel Kadish,
804:All exceptional people are, by definition, exceptions to the norm. If we insist on being ordinary, we can never be truly extraordinary. ~ William Ritter,
805:he had an ego so large that only by contemplating the mathematical definition of infinity could anything so limitless be imagined. ~ Robert Anton Wilson,
806:...I often wondered about the definition of home. Is it the place where you live, or is it the place where the people you love reside?... ~ Becky Aikman,
807:Looks like a sand pile my kids have been playing in for a long time - it's all beat up - no definition - just a lot of bumps and holes. ~ William Anders,
808:My definition of genius is not being that person the actual human is a genius, but it's a person that just allows God to work through them. ~ Kanye West,
809:My nephew has HDADHD. High Definition Attention Deficit Disorder. He can barely pay attention, but when he does it's unbelievably clear. ~ Steven Wright,
810:Never be bullied into silence, never be allow yourself to be made a victim. Accept no one's definition of your life; define yourself. ~ Harvey Fierstein,
811:No limit, no definition, may restrict the range or depth of the human spirit's passage into its own secrets or the world's. ~ Johann Wolfgang von Goethe,
812:One woman's definition of success may not be another's. Is success, as the world defines it, an accomplishment in a society this sick? ~ Donna Lynn Hope,
813:(The fancy that extraterrestrial life is by definition of a higher order than our own is one that soothes all children, and many writers.) ~ Joan Didion,
814:The power of verse is derived from an indefinable harmony between what it says and what it is. Indefinable is essential to the definition. ~ Paul Val ry,
815:What happens when you narrow your definition to what is convenient, or what is fashionable, or what is expected, is dishonesty by silence. ~ Audre Lorde,
816:Your bosses simply hate you. You created more and more value. They paid you less and less. That's the definition of disdain in my book. ~ James Altucher,
817:Your whole life is a message. Every act is an act of self-definition . Everything you think, say and do sends a message about you. ~ Neale Donald Walsch,
818:Can you remember when you didn't want to sleep? Isn't it inconceivable? I guess the definition of adulthood is that you want to sleep. ~ Paula Poundstone,
819:Everything that I do has a certain mechanical logic to it, and follows my definition of design--which is function with cultural content. ~ Carl Magnusson,
820:How can someone say I love you if they never defined the first word in the sentence—their definition of self, their values, their ethos? ~ Shayne Silvers,
821:If you don't like your definition of 'good enough', then feel free to change that, but the goal before shipping is merely that. Not perfect. ~ Seth Godin,
822:If you hug someone goodbye and their response is what the hell are you doing? - you may want to examine you're definition of close friend. ~ Dov Davidoff,
823:My definition of ‘love’ is being willing to die for someone who you yourself want to kill. That, in my experience, is kind of the deal. ~ Timothy Ferriss,
824:Never be bullied into silence. Never allow yourself to be made a victim. Accept no one's definition of your life, but define yourself. ~ Harvey Fierstein,
825:Plainly elites in America don't want democracy. And why should they? Democracy is always harmful to elite interests. Almost by definition. ~ Noam Chomsky,
826:Some things cannot be explained. This is part of the magic of life. There cannot be a word or an idea or a definition attached to everything. ~ Jim James,
827:This is the diagnostic feature of modern life, the very definition of a high standard of living: diverse consumption, simplified production ~ Matt Ridley,
828:FDI is a responsibility for Indians & an opportunity for the World. My definition of FDI for the people of India is 'First Develop India'. ~ Narendra Modi,
829:If the definition of insanity is doing the same thing over and over again expecting different results, then liberalism is a form of insanity. ~ James Cook,
830:No man has come so near our definition of a constitutional statesman - the powers of a first-rate man and the creed of a second-rate man. ~ Walter Bagehot,
831:Obedience is the basic definition of worship. Like obedience, worship is to be a way of life rather than just an exercise on Sunday. ~ John F MacArthur Jr,
832:Schooling, by definition, must be conservative. It is naturally dependent on an older generation’s level of knowledge and sense of values. ~ Leon Botstein,
833:she’d looked it up and read the definition (“deprived of the possession or use of something; lacking something needed, wanted, or expected”) ~ Luanne Rice,
834:That is the true definition of sin; when knowing right you do the lower, ah, then you sin. Where there is no knowledge, sin is not present. ~ Annie Besant,
835:The definition of a stupid thing is something that if you do everything right, you still get hurt. Fire-eating and love are stupid things. ~ Penn Jillette,
836:This is the diagnostic feature of modern life, the very definition of a high standard of living: diverse consumption, simplified production. ~ Matt Ridley,
837:When people access the use of force for the threat of violence they have, by definition, a new political power. An unwanted political power. ~ Cody Wilson,
838:While an artist can choose whether or not to be responsive and responsible towards other human beings, by definition a designer must be. ~ Paola Antonelli,
839:Aggressive activities against crayfish might be, by definition, excluded from an afternoon's programme devoted to Harmony. Who could tell? ~ Anthony Powell,
840:Any system described by a power law [...] has several curious effects. The first is that, by definition, most participants are below average. ~ Clay Shirky,
841:A skeptic is one who is willing to question any truth claim, asking for clarity in definition, consistency in logic, and adequacy of evidence. ~ Paul Kurtz,
842:By definition he [the writer] cannot put himself today in the service of those who make history; he is at the service of those who suffer it ~ Albert Camus,
843:I am told that the clinical definition of insanity is the tendency to do the same thing over and over again and expect different results. ~ Stephen F Lynch,
844:I'm not too embarrassed to say I'm the definition of the target audience. This is my generation, the one of exalting music in album form. ~ Jonathan Lethem,
845:is not to be expected that there should be agreement about the definition of any thing, until there is agreement about the thing itself. ~ John Stuart Mill,
846:Meetings are by definition a concession to deficient organization For one either meets or one works. One cannot do both at the same time. ~ Peter F Drucker,
847:My definition of self-published:
A printed work distributed by someone who believes more in sharing their story than making a fortune. ~ Giuseppe Bianco,
848:The accumulation of all powers, legislative, executive, and judiciary, in the same hands . . . is the definition of tyranny. —James Madison ~ Cintra Wilson,
849:The earliest and most basic definition of community—of tribe—would be the group of people that you would both help feed and help defend. ~ Sebastian Junger,
850:The most important definition of an actor, the job of the actor, is to serve the writer, not yourself. Way too many actors serve themselves. ~ Kevin Spacey,
851:What's the best way to get a good spouse? The best single way is to deserve a good spouse because a good spouse is by definition not nuts. ~ Charlie Munger,
852:A good piece of technology dreams of the day when it will be replaced by a newer piece of technology. This is one definition of progress. ~ Douglas Coupland,
853:...all concepts in which an entire process is semiotically concentrated elude definition; only that which has no history is definable. ~ Friedrich Nietzsche,
854:All life is a series of seemingly insignificant tasks and decisions, culminating in the definition of an individual and her purpose in life. ~ Brian Herbert,
855:Every economist knows that minimum wages either do nothing or cause inflation and unemployment. That's not a statement, it's a definition. ~ Milton Friedman,
856:I don't need the definition of society, I'll just do my little thing in my corner and I'll be satisfied. I think that's important nowadays. ~ Jean Marc Barr,
857:All economic activity is by definition "high risk." And defending yesterday--that is, not innovating--is far more risky than making tomorrow. ~ Peter Drucker,
858:British rule meant not democracy -colonialism is almost by definition underdemocratic - but limited constitutional liberalism and capitalism ~ Fareed Zakaria,
859:Either well succeed, or we wont succeed. And the definition of success as I described is sectarian violence down. Success is not no violence. ~ George W Bush,
860:In neither his definition nor the examples illustrating what memes are does Dawkins mention anything that would distinguish memes from concepts. ~ Ernst Mayr,
861:Love can't be pinned down by a definition, and it certainly can't be proved, any more than anything else important in life can be proved. ~ Madeleine L Engle,
862:My working definition of a successful novel is this: the emotionally satisfying account of how a character deals with imminent death. Once ~ James Scott Bell,
863:The definition of genius is that it acts unconsciously, and those who have produced immortal works have done so without knowing how or why. ~ William Hazlitt,
864:The formal definition of impact is a forcible contact between two things, and God has designed our lives for a collision course with the world. ~ David Platt,
865:The very idea of "managing" a forest in the first place is oxymoronic, because a forest is an ecosystem that is by definition self-managing. ~ Bernd Heinrich,
866:Ye cannot know eternal reality by a definition. Time itself, and all the acts and events that fill time are the definition, and it must be lived. ~ C S Lewis,
867:Are you experiencing success right now? If you are not, take some time to re-examine your concept of success. Where does your definition come ~ Tommy Newberry,
868:As long as imperialism exists it will, by definition, exert its domination over other countries. Today that domination is called neocolonialism. ~ Che Guevara,
869:Every attempt through history to limit the definition of humanity has been a prelude to the subjugation, degradation, and slaughter of innocents. ~ Ramez Naam,
870:I don't expect to seem cool to everyone; nor do I want to be. I think that's the opposite of the definition of cool. So I don't care at all. ~ Kristen Stewart,
871:My definition of likeable may be different from other people's. That's not traditional likeable. Sympathy is a different thing [to define it]. ~ Paul Giamatti,
872:The definition of marriage cannot be disputed. It's right there in black and white and it's been the same since the start of Wikipedia. ~ Jesse Tyler Ferguson,
873:The definition of swagger, in my opinion, is you have to have that arrogance, that confidence that you are the best out there at all times. ~ Keyshawn Johnson,
874:You always say oh, that’s so unprofessional as though there’s some definition of professional that’s also a moral imperative for how to behave. ~ Miriam Toews,
875:You want to know my definition of gun control? Being able to stand there at 25 meters and put two rounds in the same hole. That's gun control. ~ Jesse Ventura,
876:All life is a series of seemingly insignificant tasks and decisions, culminating in the definition of an individual and her purpose in life. ~ Kevin J Anderson,
877:And then come September, they fell back in step as if they'd never missed a beat. That, Peter figured, was the very definition of a best friend. ~ Jodi Picoult,
878:I still feel at home in Baltimore in a way I will never feel anywhere else—part of the definition of home being a place you don’t belong anymore. ~ Tim Kreider,
879:I think that one possible definition of our modern culture is that it is one in which nine-tenths of our intellectuals can't read any poetry. ~ Randall Jarrell,
880:I wish people wouldn't think of me as a saint - unless they agree with the definition of a saint that a saint's a sinner who goes on trying. ~ Aung San Suu Kyi,
881:Political decisions are by definition monopolistic, disenfranchising and despotically majoritarian; markets are good at supplying minority needs. ~ Matt Ridley,
882:When confronted with a clear definition of what it is to be Mexican, we encounter ourselves in a never ending allegory of mixes and chaos. ~ Gael Garcia Bernal,
883:When we identify something our customer wants and communicate it simply, the story we are inviting them into is given definition and direction. ~ Donald Miller,
884:Whereas sympathy is by definition positive, empathy doesn’t need to be, especially if the capacity to understand others is turned against them. ~ Frans de Waal,
885:Among other things Jonestown was an example of a definition well known to sociologists of religion: a cult is a religion with no political power. ~ Thomas Wolfe,
886:Art is the reason I get up in the morning, but the definition ends there. It doesn't seem fair that I'm living for something I can't even define. ~ Ani DiFranco,
887:Do not ask the definition of a friend. He/She is that one without whose company death and dying set in earlier and living is made more pleasurable. ~ Rod McKuen,
888:I wonder who it was defined man as a rational animal. It was the most premature definition ever given. Man is many things, but he is not rational. ~ Oscar Wilde,
889:learning, by definition, starts with unnatural and often superficial behaviors that can make us feel calculating instead of genuine and spontaneous. ~ Anonymous,
890:Meetings were, almost by definition, the product of the indecisive mind, and so they were usually run, and often populated, by indecisive people. ~ Stephen Moss,
891:Suicide bombers are easy to spot. They give out all kinds of telltale signs. Mostly because they’re nervous. By definition they’re all first-timers. ~ Lee Child,
892:The world would be a paradise of peace and justice if global citizens shared a common definition of love which would guide our thoughts and action. ~ Bell Hooks,
893:Your current knowledge has neither made you perfect nor kept you safe. So, it is insufficient, by definition--radically, fatally insufficient. ~ Jordan Peterson,
894:Apathy is just a lack of energy, which to me, is just the literal definition of decadence. So the energy gives out in a society - that is decadence. ~ Gore Vidal,
895:At twenty-two, I had the callowest possible definition of interesting and, by the measure of my own calipers, was far from interesting myself. ~ Karen Joy Fowler,
896:definition of remorse: a mourning that is out of control and never ends, that can strike out of the bluest of skies, across the softest of snows. ~ Frank Delaney,
897:I am bound by my own definition of criticism : a disinterested endeavour to learn and propagate the best that is known and thought in the world. ~ Matthew Arnold,
898:I'm unclear on the definition of person the courts have been using. Something that sieves out dolphins but lets corporations slide on through. ~ Karen Joy Fowler,
899:In the classical spiritual definition, a soul mate is someone that you have reincarnated with many times. You find each other in many lifetimes. ~ Frederick Lenz,
900:I still feel at home in Baltimore in a way I will never feel anywhere else – part of the definition of home being a place you don’t belong anymore. ~ Tim Kreider,
901:Let her know that there are many individuals and many cultures that do not find the narrow mainstream definition of beauty attractive. ~ Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie,
902:My favorite definition of the mindful path is the one the reveals itself as you walk down it. You cannot find the path until you step on to it. ~ Kelly McGonigal,
903:So here is the greatest irony of all: that the self that almost by definition is entirely private is to significant extent a social construct. ~ V S Ramachandran,
904:Someone who knows the price of everything and the value of nothing. Oscar Wilde’s definition of a cynic, now commonly applied to economists Imagine ~ Tim Harford,
905:Vilification, by its definition, creates an antagonistic struggle, an us-versus-them mentality, that throws us all into a senseless battle-royale ~ Miguel Syjuco,
906:What is the definition of procrastination? It means: I can feel within my Energy sensor that this action is not in perfect alignment at this time. ~ Esther Hicks,
907:A rapist, by definition, is only interested in gratifying his own desires. A rapist doesn’t care what a woman wants. If he did, he wouldn’t rape. — ~ Jon Krakauer,
908:Art is why I get up in the morning but my definition ends there. You know I don't think its fair that I'm living for something I can't even define. ~ Ani DiFranco,
909:But if you seek forgiveness, doesn't that automatically mean you cannot be a monster? By definition, doesn't that desperation make you human again? ~ Jodi Picoult,
910:I don't think that minor children are required to get gifts for their parents. I'm a dependent. That's the definition of dependent, is it not? ~ Maggie Stiefvater,
911:Mediocrist (n.) A person of mediocre talents. Nobody wants to be mediocre, but someone has to be. In fact, by definition, most people are. Microphily ~ Ammon Shea,
912:PiYo gives you hardcore definition, intense calorie burn, and allover strength—without weights, without jumps, and without destroying your body. ~ Chalene Johnson,
913:Supperational thinkers, by recursive definition, include in their calculations the fact that they are in a group of superrational thinkers. ~ Douglas R Hofstadter,
914:The corporeal vampire, if he existed, would be by definition the greatest of all predators, living as he would off the top of the food chain. ~ Suzy McKee Charnas,
915:The ego we see most commonly goes by a more casual definition: an unhealthy belief in our own importance. Arrogance. Self-centered ambition. That’s ~ Ryan Holiday,
916:The true definition of mental illness is when the majority of your time is spent in the past or future, but rarely living in the realism of NOW. ~ Shannon L Alder,
"Whatever you call people who are made to suffer without being given the choice."
"That sounds like an excellent definition of man. ~ John Fowles,
918:When the desire for definition, self or otherwise, comes out of a desire for limitation rather than a desire for expansion, no true face can emerge. ~ Audre Lorde,
919:You cannot be who and what you are unless you have a lifestyle, both internally and externally, that is designed to support that definition of self. ~ Phil McGraw,
920:Your current knowledge has neither made you perfect nor kept you safe. So, it is insufficient, by definition--radically, fatally insufficient. ~ Jordan B Peterson,
921:Cooking is an art; it has in it personality, and even perversity, for the definition of an art is that which must be personal and may be perverse. ~ G K Chesterton,
922:For me the definition of a patriot is someone who is willing to constantly question the government; that’s what separates us from other countries. ~ George Clooney,
923:I’m unclear on the definition of person the courts have been using. Something that sieves out dolphins but lets corporations slide on through. A ~ Karen Joy Fowler,
924:Profound theology doesn’t make anyone righteous; what pleases me is an exemplary life. Regret for wrongdoing is better than knowing its definition. ~ Thomas Kempis,
925:That Hegel is a metaphysician, and that he thinks metaphysics is fundamental to philosophy, is plain enough from his definition of philosophy. ~ Frederick C Beiser,
926:The Christmas season reminds us that a demonstration of religion is always much better than a definition of it...especially in front of the kids. ~ Charles Dickens,
927:The technical definition of heuristic is a simple procedure that helps find adequate, though often imperfect, answers to difficult questions. The ~ Daniel Kahneman,
928:We don't consider black, urban films as 'indies,' though many of them are shot for under $10 million which is kind of the definition of an indie. ~ Gabrielle Union,
929:When a leader has deployed a private army, that is one definition of a police state. Another is when the president, or a leader, has his own treasury. ~ Naomi Wolf,
930:Asking my father to ask the waitress the definition of “sloppy Joe” or “Tater Tots” was no problem. His translations, however, were highly suspect. ~ Firoozeh Dumas,
931:But who could teach daughters how to fly? Parents were by definition earthbound, grub eaters, feet in their own coffins, by dint of being parents. ~ Gregory Maguire,
932:I have a suspicion that the definition of "crazy" in show business is a woman who keeps talking even after no one wants to f*** [sleep with her] anymore. ~ Tina Fey,
933:Never be bullied into silence. Never allow yourself to be made a victim. Accept no one’s definition of your life. Define yourself. —Harvey Fierstein ~ Aleatha Romig,
934:Tate remembered his dad’s definition of a man: one who can cry freely, feel poetry and opera in his heart, and do whatever it takes to defend a woman. ~ Delia Owens,
935:The definition of insanity, Fox, Wesley used to remind me, paraphrasing Einstein, is doing the same thing again and again and expecting different result. ~ A J Finn,
936:The definition of what it means to be dying has changed radically. We are able to extend people's lives considerably, including sometimes, good days. ~ Atul Gawande,
937:The smell of subjectivity clings to the mechanical definition of complexity as stubbornly as it sticks to the definition of information. ~ Hans Christian von Baeyer,
938:What’s the fundamental physics breakthrough you’d most like to see? Breakthroughs, by definition, are unanticipated surprises that lead to great things. ~ Anonymous,
939:You cannot define electricity. The same can be said of art. It is a kind of inner current in a human being, or something which needs no definition. ~ Marcel Duchamp,
940:Evil has no meaning. That is the very definition of evil. But just because something hurts doesn’t mean that the reason for the pain is evil. ~ Malin Persson Giolito,
941:Experts are by definition the servants of those in power: they don't really THINK, they just apply their knowledge to problems defined by the powerful. ~ Slavoj i ek,
942:I turned to the Times crossword puzzle and asked Kate, “What’s the definition of a moderate Arab?” “I don’t know.” “A guy who ran out of ammunition. ~ Nelson DeMille,
943:The poet reminds men of their uniqueness and it is not necessary to possess the ultimate definition of this uniqueness. Even to speculate is a gain. ~ Norman Cousins,
944:The things that I've seen where people are trying to change the definition of what a band has to be, those are the things that end up being inspiring. ~ Emily Haines,
945:This tendency seems to support H. L. Mencken’s definition of a wealthy man: one whose income is $100 a year higher than his wife’s sister’s husband. ~ Dalai Lama XIV,
946:In him, she saw the definition of strength. It didn't mean never showing a crack, it didn't mean not feeling fear or despair. It meant going on anyway. ~ Maisey Yates,
947:I should have listened to my father. "Want to know the true definition of the triumph of hope over experience?" he would say. "Plan a fun family day out. ~ Jojo Moyes,
948:Poets, most of whom live with their parents, like to think that mysterious people elude description, defying definition. They don't. Poets are just lazy. ~ Sam Hooker,
949:Raising a child is the very definition of ambivalence. I am overwhelmed at times by how something can simultaneously be so awful and so rewarding. ~ Elizabeth Gilbert,
950:There are problems that just end up being really hard and by definition the only problems that come to my desk are the ones that nobody else can solve. ~ Barack Obama,
951:Do you know what Albert Einstein's definition of insanity was?"
"Doing the same thing over and over and expecting different results. ~ Christian Cantrell,
952:For me, there has never been one definition of beauty. I think we all have something to offer and when beauty shines from within, there can be no denying it ~ Alek Wek,
953:I have a definition of success. For me it's very simple. It's not about wealth and fame and power. It's about how many shining eyes I have around me. ~ Benjamin Zander,
954:I leave it to the philosophers to discuss these faculties in their subtle way. For the upbuilding of godliness a simple definition will be enough for us. ~ John Calvin,
955:I think all good writing is a struggle. To write as well as you feel you can has to be a struggle, almost by definition, because you could always improve. ~ Jane Asher,
956:I will give you a definition of a proud man: he is a man who has neither vanity nor wisdom one filled with hatreds cannot be vain, neither can he be wise. ~ John Keats,
957:My definition of financial freedom is simple: it is the ability to live the lifestyle you desire without having to work or rely on anyone else for money. ~ T Harv Eker,
958:My definition of love is being robbed in an alley eight times in a row and hoping that there’s something about today that makes all of this different. ~ Rudy Francisco,
959:Somebody once told me the definition of hell:
“On your last day on earth, the person you became will meet the person you could have become.” — Anonymous ~ Anonymous,
960:That is the definition of a true murderer. One that considers his actions, has the mental capacity to understand the consequences, and chooses to kill. ~ Destiny Booze,
961:Throw in “never read books” and you have the dictionary definition of a liberal. Being completely uninformed is precisely how most liberals stay liberal. ~ Ann Coulter,
962:To totalitarianism, an opponent is by definition subversive; democracy treats subversives as mere opponents for fear of betraying its principles. ~ Jean Francois Revel,
963:You say that, but a giant purple dildo just fell out of my closet and hit you on the head. That is the definition of a reason to be embarrassed. ~ Aurora Rose Reynolds,
964:Although I cannot prove this scenario, I know it—and isn’t that the ultimate definition of faith? Knowing what we can’t know. Seeing what isn’t there. ~ David Ebershoff,
965:De Tocqueville says it comes from taking some “incomplete joy of this world” and building your entire life on it. That is the definition of idolatry. ~ Timothy J Keller,
966:From last night's All Together Now, a Celebration of Service: There can be no definition of a successful life that does not include service to others. ~ George H W Bush,
967:I'll give you an exact definition. When the happiness of another person becomes as essential to yourself as your own, then the state of love exists. ~ Robert A Heinlein,
968:Lucky fools do not bear the slightest suspicion that they may be lucky fools—by definition, they do not know that they belong to such a category ~ Nassim Nicholas Taleb,
969:My definition of love is still forming, but I am certain it includes transparency and honesty, and I can’t give either without shedding all my secrets. ~ Laurelin Paige,
970:On Facebook, the definition of great content is not the content that makes the most sales, but the content that people most want to share with others. ~ Gary Vaynerchuk,
971:People don't want the truth,' he says, waving a hand at the streets around us. 'They want better-quality lies. High definition lies on fifty-inch screens. ~ Paul Murray,
972:Start living today with that picture of your own 80th birthday clearly in mind. In that picture, you will find your definition of true success.” This ~ Benjamin P Hardy,
973:An Anarchist is anyone who denies the necessity and legitimacy of government; the question of his methods of attacking it is foreign to the definition. ~ Benjamin Tucker,
974:By definition, gay is smart. I see plenty of macho heterosexual idiots, but nine times out of 10 you can have a great conversation if you find a gay guy. ~ Jason Bateman,
975:definition of a real man is one who cries without shame, reads poetry with his heart, feels opera in his soul, and does what’s necessary to defend a woman. ~ Delia Owens,
976:I am free when I am functioning here in time and space as the creative will. ... freedom by our definition is obedience to the law of one's nature. ~ Mary Parker Follett,
977:I don't believe there is any such definition, there is no such thing as evil, only moral judgments based on what society believes to be wrong behavior. ~ Nikolas Schreck,
978:If a thousand men were not to pay their tax-bills this year, that would ... [be] the definition of a peaceable revolution, if any such is possible. ~ Henry David Thoreau,
979:If you're brilliant and undiscovered and underappreciated (in whatever field you choose), then you're being too generous about your definition of brilliant. ~ Seth Godin,
980:Movie SF is, by definition, dumbed down - there have only been three or four SF movies in the history of film that aspire to the complexity of literary SF. ~ Dan Simmons,
981:My definition of an educated man is the fellow who knows the right thing to do at the time it has to be done. You can be sincere and still be stupid. ~ Charles Kettering,
982:Religion is, by definition, interpretation; and by definition, all interpretations are valid. However, some interpretations are more reasonable than others. ~ Reza Aslan,
983:Sustainable Development is more than meeting the needs of today and the future generations; to my understanding this definition better fits sex industry. ~ M F Moonzajer,
984:When people talk about “a principle without which life wouldn’t be worth living” (which is our definition of a core value), they become excited and vibrant. ~ Dave Logan,
985:AIDS is a plague - numerically, statistically and by any definition known to modern public health - though no one in authority has the guts to call it one. ~ Larry Kramer,
986:Definition of rock journalism: People who can't write, doing interviews with people who can't think, in order to prepare articles for people who can't read. ~ Frank Zappa,
987:How can something that doesn't have a form, doesn'r have a definition, doesn't have words-how can it have such weight? And yet, there's the need to swim. ~ David Levithan,
988:If it were necessary to give the briefest possible definition of imperialism, we should have to say that imperialism is the monopoly stage of capitalism. ~ Vladimir Lenin,
989:I'm very proud of my pro-life record, and I've always adopted the idea that, the position that the method of conception doesn't change the definition of life. ~ Paul Ryan,
990:It’s almost like that’s the definition of being American: You love becoming Irish for a day, or becoming Italian… Or becoming a Negro for four years. ~ Josh Alan Friedman,
991:My definition of a green-collar job is this: a family-supporting, career-track job that directly contributes to preserving or enhancing environmental quality. ~ Van Jones,
992:Obscenity’ is not a term capable of exact legal definition; in the practice of the Courts, it means ‘anything that shocks the magistrate’. BERTRAND RUSSELL ~ A C Grayling,
993:Susannah erkannte mit aufkommender Verbitterung, dass sie jetzt die perfekte Definition einer Ka-Mai kannte: jemand mit Hoffnungen, aber ohne Alternativen. ~ Stephen King,
994:The world of fundamental religion does not recognize even the slightest variation in meaning should this meaning fall outside its own definition of truth. ~ Susan Griffin,
995:We have a definition in our heads of what an advantage is—and the definition isn’t right. And what happens as a result? It means that we make mistakes. ~ Malcolm Gladwell,
996:Artistic imagination must remain free. It is by definition free from any fidelity to circumstances, especially to the intoxicating circumstances of history. ~ Andre Breton,
997:But you can’t go around changing your definition of right and wrong (or smart and stupid) just because doing the wrong thing happens to be really convenient. ~ Jim Butcher,
998:My definition of success is doing what you love. I feel many people do things because they feel they have to, and are hesitant to risk following their passion. ~ Tony Hawk,
999:Never be bullied into silence. Never allow yourself to be made a victim. Accept no one’s definition of your life. Define yourself. —Harvey Fierstein   THEY ~ Aleatha Romig,
1000:No one can guarantee any sentient being will only work for good. A sentient being is by definition autonomous, and therefore free to behave as it wishes. ~ Michelle Diener,
1001:That which is original creates a new origin. That which is original, by definition, must stray off the previously worn paths. It must wander; it must err. ~ Blake Charlton,
1002:The psychologist Philip Zimbardo gave a TED talk last year on this subject. His definition of evil is the exercise of power to intentionally harm another. ~ William Wright,
1003:There's the great line: the definition of a liberal is someone who's afraid to take their own side in a fight. And that's my problem with my fellow liberals. ~ Paul Begala,
1004:The second reason rewards pose a danger for habits is that they require a decision. A habit, by my definition, is something we do without decision making. ~ Gretchen Rubin,
1005:We live in a world where there is such a clear definition of what a girl should be that it takes almost no effort at all to completely hate ourselves. ~ Jennifer Elisabeth,
1006:But the best definition of it is to say that heaven is that state where we will always be with Jesus, and where nothing will separate us from Him any more ~ William Barclay,
1007:Compassion comes from a choice and not the liberal definition of a choice - the choice to say I can do with a little less so my brother can have a little more. ~ Allen West,
1008:My students sometimes ask: what is a fundamentalist? I give them a very simple definition. A fundamentalist is no fun, too much damn, and not enough mental. ~ Bart D Ehrman,
1009:The definition of morality: Morality is the idiosyncrasy of decadents having the hidden desire to revenge themselves upon life - and being successful. ~ Friedrich Nietzsche,
1010:There is only one good definition of God: the freedom that allows other freedoms to exist. ~ John Fowles, The French Lieutenant's Woman (London: Jonathan Cape, 1969), p. 99,
1011:This was the definition of eternity; it was the space of time devised by the Great God Om to ensure that everyone got the punishment that was due to them. ~ Terry Pratchett,
1012:Time does not define the act. Time is impartial; it neither condemns nor absolves. The action contains intent, and intent is where the definition lies. ~ Karen Marie Moning,
1013:We must refuse to submit to those institutions which are by definition sexist - marriage, the nuclear family, religions built on the myth of feminine evil. ~ Andrea Dworkin,
1014:By definition, sacred beings are separated beings. That which characterizes them is that there is a break of continuity between them and the profane beings. ~ Emile Durkheim,
1015:Definition of good neighbor: someone to be trusted; a courteous, friendly source of help when help is needed; someone you can count on; someone who cares. ~ Edward B Rust Jr,
1016:Every good historian is almost by definition a revisionist. He looks at the accepted view of a particular historic episode or period with a very critical eye. ~ Paul Johnson,
1017:If we change the definition of marriage to be more inclusive, then it is logical to argue that we should broaden the definition so that won't exclude anyone. ~ Jack Kingston,
1018:Love meant being brave, otherwise you had already lost your own argument: the man who couldn't tell a woman he loved her was, by definition, not worthy of her. ~ Nick Hornby,
1019:Love meant being brave, otherwise you had already lost your own argument: the man who couldn’t tell a woman he loved her was, by definition, not worthy of her. ~ Nick Hornby,
1020:My definition of a leader in a free country is a man who can persuade people to do what they don’t want to do, or do what they’re too lazy to do, and like it. ~ Harry Truman,
1021:Sheriff Joe Arpaio, a great guy.He endorsed me because I'm the best in immigration. And I think by his definition of the best, it's the best and the toughest. ~ Donald Trump,
1022:Simply put, feminism is a movement to end sexism, sexist exploitation and oppression. I liked this definition because it does not imply that men were the enemy. ~ bell hooks,
1023:That’s what Catholics were good at, right? Say the same prayer over and over and expect different results. Yeah. Wasn’t that the very definition of madness? ~ Chris Patchell,
1024:the definition of a real man is one who cries without shame, reads poetry with his heart, feels opera in his soul, and does what’s necessary to defend a woman. ~ Delia Owens,
1025:There can be no stronger proof of the impoverishment of our contemporary culture than the popular - though profoundly mistaken - definition of myth as falsehood. ~ Rollo May,
1026:The seeds of destruction lie in the definition of "chosen-ness" and can easily blossom into bigotry. It's not inevitable but it needs constant care to avoid. ~ Toni Morrison,
1027:1 is not prime, by definition. 2 is an unnatural prime, 4 is an unnatural prime, and 6 is an unnatural prime. All other natural primes cannot be unnatural primes. ~ Aristotle,
1028:Birth and death frame a life, give it shape. Without that border it just becomes a kind of sprawling mess, a thing with no edge, no definition, no centre. ~ Alastair Reynolds,
1029:By definition, intelligence deals with the unclear, the unknown, the deliberately hidden. What the enemies of the United States hope to deny we work to reveal. ~ George Tenet,
1030:God is not a person. God does not have a history. God does not have a future. God is beyond definition. We can say that your perception of this world is God. ~ Frederick Lenz,
1031:Going back is a nice way to give definition to each of the characters because they are so vastly different. I would never want them to get blended together. ~ Tatiana Maslany,
1032:Her personal philosophy was to try not to hurt people, unless they deserved it, which brought her back to that definition problem and a whole lot of gray area. ~ Ingrid Thoft,
1033:If I don't go to the gym and work out, I look like a bag of bones. I go three times a week usually and it's nearly all weights work to help with definition. ~ Jonas Armstrong,
1034:I'm a sociopath, Mom, I don't love anybody. By definition.'

'Is that an implicit threat?'

'Oh, for the-! No, it was not a threat, Okay, I'm leaving. ~ Dan Wells,
1035:In March of 1933 we witnessed a revolution in manner, in mores, in the definition of government. What before had been black or white sprang alive with color. ~ Emanuel Celler,
1036:My life has gotten a little more complicated than my ability to describe it. That used to be the definition of madness, now it's just continuous overload. ~ Bharati Mukherjee,
1037:To acknowledge that which we cannot see, to give definition to that which we don't know, to create divine order out of chaos, is the religious dance. ~ Terry Tempest Williams,
1038:Tragedy has been described as 'the conflict between desire and possibility.' Following this definition, is The Forgotten Garden a tragedy? If so, in what way/s? ~ Kate Morton,
1039:Was it alright?"
"It was fine."
"What aspect of the definition of fine was it?"
"We had a decent time."
I've been to Walgreens and had a decent time. ~ Joan Bauer,
1040:Doing new things invariably means obstacles. A new path is, by definition, uncleared. Only with persistence and time can we cut away debris and remove impediments. ~ Anonymous,
1041:Every activity performed in public can attain an excellence never matched in privacy; for excellence, by definition, the presence of others is always required. ~ Hannah Arendt,
1042:For all my life,” he said, “when someone has said the word ‘beautiful’, it is your face I have seen. You are my own very definition of beautiful, Tessa Gray. ~ Cassandra Clare,
1043:Since the core of the populist appeal is the claim to a “moral monopoly of representation,”16 all opponents of populist leaders are, by definition, unpatriotic. ~ Yascha Mounk,
1044:The natural condition of the modern conservative movement is to always be in a state of revolution. Conservatives are, by definition, uncomfortable with power. ~ Craig Shirley,
1045:The objective of US authorities was to terminate their existence as peoples - not as random individuals. This is the very definition of modern genocide. ~ Roxanne Dunbar Ortiz,
1046:The present moment is the definition of eternity. It has never not been the present moment. This isn't scriptural or unscriptural - it is merely a logical fact. ~ John Kuypers,
1047:We are not all. We are defined within a greater definition, and this greater definition eludes comprehension, because we are lacking. Incapable. Insufficient. ~ Steven Erikson,
1048:All religious belief is a function of nonrational faith. And faith, by its very definition, tends to be impervious to intellectual argument or academic criticism ~ Jon Krakauer,
1049:A story-book hero had by definition no place in life; he battered his way through twenty victorious chapters, faded out on a lustful kiss, and was gone for good. ~ Mary Stewart,
1050:I do know without fear of contradiction what the definition of life is and it is 12 words long. 'Life is defined by how much you improve the lives of others.' ~ Keith Olbermann,
1051:I think that of most leaders in religion as power brokers. They give orders, in a sense, to an audience every week, and that's where the definition of God starts. ~ Norman Lear,
1052:The political process is rough and tumble by definition, and being grounded in faith in a Higher Power has proven helpful in navigating the difficult terrain. ~ Hakeem Jeffries,
1053:The word 'definition' has come to have a dangerously reassuring sound, owing no doubt to its frequent occurrence in logical and mathematical writings. ~ Willard Van Orman Quine,
1054:They say that genius is an infinite capacity for taking pains," he remarked with a smile. "It's a very bad definition, but it does apply to detective work. ~ Arthur Conan Doyle,
1055:You will never understand the real definition of insanity until the day you are told it is unreasonable for you to feel hurt by the very people that hurt you. ~ Shannon L Alder,
1056:A better working definition of the unconscious is mental processes that are inaccessible to consciousness but that influence judgments, feelings, or behavior. ~ Timothy D Wilson,
1057:All religious belief is a function of nonrational faith. And faith, by its very definition, tends to be impervious to intellectual argument or academic criticism. ~ Jon Krakauer,
1058:Architecture is a hazardous mixture of omnipotence and impotence. It is by definition a c h a o t i c a d v e n t u r e... In other words, the utopian enterprise. ~ Rem Koolhaas,
1059:A single sentence will suffice for modern man. He fornicated and read the papers. After that vigorous definition, the subject will be, if I may say so, exhausted. ~ Albert Camus,
1060:Every fucking year I would do it, thinking that this year it would be different. Pretty sure that’s the definition of insanity; good thing I barely know how to read. ~ Mark Tufo,
1061:Feminist, whatever the definition, whatever you call yourself - I am, I'm not - none of us want little girls being forced into early marriage before they're 12. ~ Natalie Dormer,
1062:History was by definition one long chaotic, violent mess sometimes interrupted by magnificent eras of peace that remind everybody life occasionally wasn't awful. ~ Gene Doucette,
1063:In no way be bullied into silence. Hardly ever permit on your own to become made a sufferer. Acknowledge no one's definition of one's lifetime; define oneself ~ Harvey Fierstein,
1064:It's very difficult to be different from the rest of the crowd the majority of the time, which by definition is what you're doing if you're a successful trader. ~ Bill Lipschutz,
1065:Looks are a funny thing, very peculiar. Never waste any time disliking the ones you have. The right person will think they are the very definition of beautiful. ~ Rachel Fordham,
1066:Some women have become far too proscriptive of other women's pleasures and private arrangements, and the definition of feminism has become ideologically overloaded. ~ Naomi Wolf,
1067:The first phase of the domination of the economy over social life brought into the definition of all human realization the obvious degradation of being into having. ~ Guy Debord,
1068:Throw in “never read books” and you have the dictionary definition of a liberal. Being completely uninformed is precisely how most liberals stay liberal. According ~ Ann Coulter,
1069:By unnerving definition, anything that the heart has chosen for its own mysterious reasons it can always unchoose later—again, for its own mysterious reasons. ~ Elizabeth Gilbert,
1070:[Cities] are not like suburbs, only denser. They differ from towns and suburbs in basic ways, and one of these is that cities are, by definition, full of strangers. ~ Jane Jacobs,
1071:Devotion is diligence without assurance. If faith were rational, it wouldn't be by definition faith. Faith is walking face-first and full speed into the dark. ~ Elizabeth Gilbert,
1072:Do you want to know what one definition of bizarre might be? Driving to your closeted boyfriend's pretend-girlfriend's house to watch them prepare for a faux date. ~ Sean Kennedy,
1073:For a truly effective social campaign, a brand needs to embrace the first principles of marketing, which involves brand definition and consistent storytelling. ~ Simon Mainwaring,
1074:I’m arguing that our external physical reality is a mathematical structure, which is by definition an abstract, immutable entity existing outside of space and time. ~ Max Tegmark,
1075:In the class that I teach at one University, I stress that my one-word definition of politics is money. You can't name a subject matter that money doesn't touch. ~ Douglas Wilder,
1076:I put forward as a general definition of civilization, that a civilized society is exhibiting the five qualities of Truth, Beauty, Adventure, Art, Peace. ~ Alfred North Whitehead,
1077:My definition of God: God is not only the alpha, the omega, he is friend, he's a confidant, he is a buddy. He is a lover of my soul. That's my definition of God. ~ DeVon Franklin,
1078:My favourite definition of an intellectual: 'Someone who has been educated beyond his/her intelligence.

[Sources and Acknowledgements: Chapter 19] ~ Arthur C Clarke,
1079:The definition of success to me is not necessarily a price tag, not fame, but having a good life, and being able to say I did the right thing at the end of the day. ~ Jeremy Luke,
1080:We kept each other's stare a long time, for we had each done a startling thing, dodged time for an instant - which is the only definition of happiness I know. ~ Andrew Sean Greer,
1081:Your definition of human is not the same as mine. To you, it means something... negative. To me, it's a compliment - and by my definition - you are and he isn't ~ Stephenie Meyer,
1082:Because it doesn’t stop, it’s impossible for us to ever be passive observers on the sidelines of life … if we’re conscious, by definition, we’re creating. Sometimes ~ Gregg Braden,
1083:I define power as control over ones life. A balanced life is far superior to the male definition of power: earning money someone else spends while he dies sooner. ~ Warren Farrell,
1084:If you're analytical, you have to be blunt. That's by definition. You can't analyze something and not be blunt about it. What would you rather hear if not the truth? ~ Jim Boeheim,
1085:I'm so passionately hopelessly in love with my job! I think the definition of workaholic is that you can't wait till the weekend is over so you can start working again. ~ Ann Shin,
1086:I think the diva is kind of a cliche. My definition of a diva is somebody whose talent does not match what they're trying to play, so all this temperament comes out. ~ Glenn Close,
1087:It's not what you do that matters. It's not what you say. There's nothing that is not holy or spiritual. Be beyond definition, beyond categorization, be absorbed. ~ Frederick Lenz,
1088:It was not puny little David against this awesome giant. No, it was this puny little giant against the God who is the sum and definition of all that is awesome. ~ Paul David Tripp,
1089:Syria is a terrorist state by any definition and is so classified by the State Department. I happen to think Iran is too. Iraq, Iran, Syria, they're all involved. ~ Alexander Haig,
1090:The biggest thing for women to keep in mind is you can't ever let someone define beauty for you. Look in the mirror and say that this is my definition of perfection. ~ Jennie Runk,
1091:The definition of hell in the legal system is: endless due process and no justice; (in the corporate world) it would be: endless due diligence and no horse sense. ~ Charlie Munger,
1092:The fundamental problem with arguing that things are true “by definition” is that you can’t make reality go a different way by choosing a different definition. ~ Eliezer Yudkowsky,
1093:The past is our definition. We may strive with good reason to escape it or to escape what is bad in it but we will escape it only by adding something better to it. ~ Wendell Berry,
1094:There are probably several hundred thousand if we narrow the definition to include only those who in their search for money and power are ruthless and deceitful. ~ Henry A Wallace,
1095:The single definition of government I've ever seen that makes sense is that it's the organization which claims the right to kill people who won't do what it wants. ~ Poul Anderson,
1096:You are so much smarter than me, aren’t you?” “No. I just think things through quicker, that’s all.” “If that’s not a definition of smart, I don’t know what is. ~ Peter F Hamilton,
1097:Being a vanguardist has always meant, and will always mean, to not accept that the good is good and the bad is bad, and invent a new definition of what’s good and bad. ~ C sar Aira,
1098:Do you know what the definition of hell is? Because I do. It’s getting the life you wanted only to fuck it up because you didn’t know how to embrace it and be happy. ~ Kate Stewart,
1099:I've learned, having been on a lot of sets, the good news is that by definition you are surrounded by experts. They get fired if they're not - unlike in the theatre! ~ Alan Rickman,
1100:She belonged to herself only. She had edges, boundaries, tastes, definition down to her eyelashes. And when she walked it was clear she knew where she was going. ~ Stephanie Danler,
1101:This is the diagnostic feature of modern life, the very definition of a high standard of living: diverse consumption, simplified production. Make one thing, use lots. ~ Matt Ridley,
1102:We are what we repeatedly do... excellence, therefore, isn't just an act, but a habit and life isn't just a series of events, but an ongoing process of self-definition. ~ Aristotle,
1103:What is Friendship, Definition of Friend, True Friendship - All about the meaning of true friends, what friendship means, meaning of friendship bracelets, poems, ring ~ Mark Vernon,
1104:All true cultural creativity happens at the edges of the horizons of the possible, so by definition our most culturally creative endeavors have a high risk of failure. ~ Andy Crouch,
1105:Ambrose Bierce’s witty definition of the verb ‘to pray’: ‘to ask that the laws of the universe be annulled in behalf of a single petitioner, confessedly unworthy’. ~ Richard Dawkins,
1106:A plan is only a scenario, and almost by definition, it is optimistic... As a result, scenario planning can lead to a serious underestimate of the risk of failure. ~ Daniel Kahneman,
1107:Change can only exist in time. Without time there is no change. Change can only exist with a background of that which is changeless, otherwise it has no definition. ~ Frederick Lenz,
1108:Content and technology are strange bed fellows. We are joined together. Sometimes we misunderstand each other. But isn't that after all the definition of marriage? ~ Howard Stringer,
1109:Do you know the definition of insanity? Doing the same thing over and over and expecting different results."

"Wrong. That's the definition of determination. ~ Gena Showalter,
1110:Hysteria derives from the Greek word for “uterus,” and the extreme emotional state it denotes was once thought to be due to a wandering womb; men were by definition ~ Rebecca Solnit,
1111:If you want to live within the definition of your own truth, you have to choose to go through the initially painful and ultimately comforting process of finding it. ~ David Levithan,
1112:If you want to live withinthe definition of your own truth, you have to choose to go through the initially painful and ultimately comforting process of finding it". ~ David Levithan,
1113:Maybe the best definition of what a great partnership or great love is when people make each other grow in a better direction than they would have grown on their own. ~ Brit Marling,
1114:My definition of a sin is for humans to allow a species to die out. Animals cannot speak for themselves – it is up to all of us to protect them and their habitats. ~ Richard Branson,
1115:My definition of man is a cooking animal. The beasts have memory, judgement, and the faculties and passions of our minds in a certain degree; but no beast is a cook. ~ James Boswell,
1116:no practical definition of freedom would be completely without the freedom to take the consequences. Indeed, it is the freedom upon which all the others are based. ~ Terry Pratchett,
1117:The past is our definition. We may strive with good reason to escape it, or to escape what is bad in it. But we will escape it only by adding something better to it. ~ Wendell Berry,
1118:The question of the family now divides our society so deeply that the opposing sides cannot even agree on a definition of the institution they are arguing about. ~ Christopher Lasch,
1119:We hate guys who date more than one woman at a time. I've always believed that what's unacceptable in one sex should, by definition, be unacceptable in the other. ~ Candace Bushnell,
1120:We hate guys who date more than one woman at a time. I’ve always believed that what’s unacceptable in one sex should, by definition, be unacceptable in the other. ~ Candace Bushnell,
1121:Whether or not Saddam is implicated directly in the anthrax attacks or the horrors of September 11, he is, by any common definition, a terrorist who must be removed. ~ Joe Lieberman,
1122:Would you like to hear a nice definition of jealousy? It's the feeling that you get when someone you absolutely detest is having a wonderful time without you. ~ William Peter Blatty,
1123:Any transition serious enough to alter your definition of self will require not just small adjustments in your way of living and thinking but a full-on metamorphosis. ~ Martha N Beck,
1124:Maybe the definition of home is the place where you are never forgiven. So you may always belong there, bound by guilt. And maybe the cost of belonging is worth it. ~ Gregory Maguire,
1125:Maybe the definition of home is the place where you are never forgiven, so you may always belong there, bound by guilt. And maybe the cost of belonging is worth it. ~ Gregory Maguire,
1126:My dad used to say the definition of stupidity was doing the same thing over and over again and expecting a different result. Or maybe that was the definition of crazy. ~ David Estes,
1127:On Facebook, the definition of great content is not the content that makes the most sales, but the content that people most want to share with others. Unfortunately ~ Gary Vaynerchuk,
1128:opinion. Love meant being brave, otherwise you had already lost your own argument: the man who couldn’t tell a woman he loved her was, by definition, not worthy of her. ~ Nick Hornby,
1129:Socialism and federalism are necessarily political opposites, because the former demands that centralized concentration of power which the latter by definition denies. ~ Felix Morley,
1130:The past is our definition. We may strive, with good reason, to escape it, or to escape what's bad in it, but we will escape it only by adding something better to it. ~ Wendell Berry,
1131:To me, my grandfather’s urgency to preach the Gospel one more time to a lost and dying world is the definition of 'finishing well,' and it’s such a blessing and lesson. ~ Will Graham,
1132:Under capitalism, we can't have democracy by definition. Capitalism is a system in which the central institutions of society are in principle under autocratic control. ~ Noam Chomsky,
1133:Analytic It is clear that the definition of "logic" or "mathematics" must be sought by trying to give a new definition of the old notion of "analytic" propositions. ~ Bertrand Russell,
1134:And no practical definition of freedom would be complete without the freedom to take the consequences. Indeed, it is the freedom upon which all the others are based. ~ Terry Pratchett,
1135:beautiful definition of leadership: he taught that leadership is communicating others’ worth and potential so clearly that they are inspired to see it in themselves. ~ Stephen R Covey,
1136:He fitted the Vedic definition of a man of God: “Softer than the flower, where kindness is concerned; stronger than the thunder, where principles are at stake. ~ Paramahansa Yogananda,
1137:He makes it his task to be wholly sincere with himself, and he notes this definition of wisdom which he finds in Pindar: “True being is the beginning of a great virtue. ~ Stefan Zweig,
1138:If there is something very slightly wrong in our definition of the theories, then the full mathematical rigor may convert these errors into ridiculous conclusions. ~ Richard P Feynman,
1139:If you wan to live within the definition of your own truth, you have to choose to go through the initially painful and ultimately comforting process of finding it" -A ~ David Levithan,
1140:My definition (of a philosopher) is of a man up in a balloon, with his family and friends holding the ropes which confine him to earth and trying to haul him down. ~ Louisa May Alcott,
1141:On a shrunken planet where nearly every mountain bears bootprints and every mile of river has been run, being 'first' tends to require creative task definition" (111). ~ Jo Deurbrouck,
1142:Remember our definition of management? A manager’s job is to get better outcomes from a group of people working together through influencing purpose, people, and process. ~ Julie Zhuo,
1143:She belonged to herself only. She had edges, boundaries, tastes, definition down to her eyelashes. And when she walked it was clear she knew where she was going. As ~ Stephanie Danler,
1144:The death penalty is used in such a blatantly racist way in the United States. There is no way that can be defended under any kind of definition of justice by anybody. ~ Assata Shakur,
1145:your bosses simply hate you. That’s right, they hate you. You created more and more value. They paid you less and less. That’s the definition of “disdain” in my book. ~ James Altucher,
1146:A general definition of civilization: a civilized society is exhibiting the five qualities of truth, beauty, adventure, art, peace. ~ Alfred North Whitehead, Adventures of Ideas (1933),
1147:Is photography art?... The pure definition of the word 'art' alone is too vague today to break one's brain and soul about it. Let us take a little vacation from this word. ~ Ernst Haas,
1148:Tell me, Tengo, as a novelist, what is your definition of reality?” “When you prick a person with a needle, red blood comes out—that’s the real world,” Tengo replied. ~ Haruki Murakami,
1149:Well, in that case, no. I’m not your father. But if you go with another definition, meaning ‘a man who wants to be in your life and help raise you,’ then yes. I am. ~ Jenna Evans Welch,
1150:You know Chad’s definition of the New Poor? People who are too far behind with time-payments on next year’s model to make the down-payment on the one for the year after? ~ John Brunner,
1151:zygotes by definition are rather limited in number and most scientists working in very early development use cells from a bit later, the famous embryonic stem (ES) cells. ~ Nessa Carey,
1152:A good man, almost by definition, would seriously question any decisions he made that led to such terrible consequences for others. Especially if those others trusted him. ~ Jim Butcher,
1153:Courage originally meant “To speak one’s mind by telling all one’s heart.” Over time, this definition has changed, and, today, courage is more synonymous with being heroic. ~ Bren Brown,
1154:[Identity liberalism] is about recognition and self-definition. It's narcissistic. It's isolating. It looks within. And it also makes two contradictory claims on people. ~ Steve Inskeep,
1155:I prefer to quit while I’m ahead,” Heraldin explained. “Ye’ve a funny definition of ‘ahead,’” said Gorm. “I prefer to define words in ways that suit me,” said Heraldin. ~ J Zachary Pike,
1156:It was leap and die or live and be haunted by the ability to choose. Which when I think about it, might be one definition of consciousness. I pitied just about everybody. ~ Peter Heller,
1157:Laughter in the face of certain death? It is the very definition of the Hero," said the White Queen. "The Jabberwock knew it and therefore could no longer move against you. ~ Jane Yolen,
1158:Self-esteem is the basis for feminism because self-esteem is based on defining yourself and believing in that definition. Self-esteem is regarding yourself as a grown-up. ~ Susan Faludi,
1159:The much vaunted male logic isn't logical, because they display prejudices against half the human race that are considered prejudices according to any dictionary definition. ~ Eva Figes,
1160:The psychologist Philip Zimbardo gave a TED talk last year on this subject. His definition of evil is the exercise of power to intentionally harm another. Works for me. ~ William Wright,
1161:Third, this unitary definition of love includes self-love with love for the other. Since I am human and you are human, to love humans means to love myself as well as you. ~ M Scott Peck,
1162:You will never get to the irreducible definition of anything because you will never be able to explain why you want to explain, and so on. The system will gobble itself up. ~ Alan Watts,
1163:But all organic matter must have cell structure,” Sara said. “Cell structure is virtually a definition of organic matter, a requisite of all living tissue, plant or animal. ~ Dean Koontz,
1164:But in the words of Joichi Ito, director of MIT’s media lab, “If you plan your whole life, by definition you can’t get lucky. So you have to leave that little slot open. ~ Keith Ferrazzi,
1165:By definition, a laser always moves at the speed of light. If you can see the beam, it’s already too late. The only way to dodge is to get out of the way before it’s fired. ~ Elliott Kay,
1166:Furthermore, I preferred to only have cravings I could satisfy without the requirement or assistance of another person. This was, after all, the definition of self-reliance. ~ Penny Reid,
1167:I’d often thought being a Christian meant by definition being a bad one, since nothing is more difficult than Christianity, so I was more or less used to that feeling. ~ Charlaine Harris,
1168:I suppose, I said, it is one definition of love, the belief in something that only the two of you can see, and in this case it proved to be an impermanent basis for living. ~ Rachel Cusk,
1169:I want to hug you. And I want to tear your gods-damned head off. Both at once."

"Ah," said Locke. "Near as I can tell, that’s the definition of 'family' right there. ~ Scott Lynch,
1170:Like me, the great majority of Americans wish both to preserve the traditional definition of marriage and to oppose bias and intolerance directed towards gays and lesbians. ~ Mitt Romney,
1171:My definition of beauty is simplicity, elegance, and sensuality. I think that when a woman is in harmony with herself and remains true to her values, she will glow naturally. ~ Megan Fox,
1172:One definition of eternity is that we are not alone on this planet, that there are those who've gone before and those who will come, and that there is a community of spirits. ~ Rita Dove,
1173:Suicides, almost by definition, are all ghosts - stuck earthbound because they are desperate to apologize to their loved ones or because they are so ashamed of themselves. ~ Jodi Picoult,
1174:The popular definition of tragedy is heavy drama in which everyone is killed in the last act, comedy being light drama in which everyone is married in the last act. ~ George Bernard Shaw,
1175:The Supreme is infinite, therefore He is also finite.
To be finite is one of the infinite aspects of the Infinite.
Creation is the definition of the Infinite. ~ Nolini Kanta Gupta,
1176:I have no difficulty with the recognition of civil unions for non-traditional relationships but I believe in law we should protect the traditional definition of marriage. ~ Stephen Harper,
1177:I love my editor, but that would be the definition of hell to me to live with someone and have them go page by page through my manuscript. That I want to avoid at all costs. ~ Dean Koontz,
1178:It is inherent in any definition of science that statements that cannot be checked by observation are not really saying anything or at least they are not science. ~ George Gaylord Simpson,
1179:My definition of a sport is that it's a physical activity that involves competition. Since bodybuilders certainly train and then compete, we are certainly a sport. ~ Arnold Schwarzenegger,
1180:That’s the definition of evil right there: not faking it like everybody else. Because all of us crazy fuckers can’t stand it when someone else lets their crazy show. ~ Charlie Jane Anders,
1181:The Supreme Court’s working definition of religion, “A sincere and meaningful belief which occupies in the life of its possessor a place parallel to that filled by God, ~ Charles W Colson,
1182:What is a positive attitude? The simple definition is the way you dedicate yourself to the way you think. Interestingly, it's also the definition of a negative attitude. ~ Jeffrey Gitomer,
1183:You will never get to the irreducible definition of anything because you will never be able to explain why you want to explain, and so on. The system will gobble itself up. ~ Alan W Watts,
1184:If I look at the definition of Hinduism, the Supreme Court of India has given a beautiful definition; it says that Hinduism is not a religion, it is actually a way of life. ~ Narendra Modi,
1185:Innovation is applied creativity. By definition, innovation is always about introducing something new, or improved, or both and it is usually assumed to be a positive thing. ~ Ken Robinson,
1186:Is he a psychopath? I don’t know. I don’t know what the definition is. Don’t know how far down the path of eating people you have to go before you officially become a psycho. ~ Sally Green,
1187:I was always interested in language. I thought, why not? If a painting, by the normal definition of the term, is paint on canvas, why can't it be painted words on canvas? ~ John Baldessari,
1188:My definition of success is: 1.) The progressive realization of worthy goals 2.) The ability to love and have compassion 3.) To be in touch with the creative source within. ~ Deepak Chopra,
1189:Sooner or later every writer evolves his own definition of a story.

Mine is: A reflection of life plus beginning and end (life seems not to have either) and a meaning. ~ Mary O Hara,
1190:The definition of mantra is "that which protects the mind." That which protects the mind from negativity, or that which protects you from your own mind, is called mantra. ~ Sogyal Rinpoche,
1191:The fact that this statement is inherently contradictory—after all, if everyone were extraordinary, then by definition no one would be extraordinary—is missed by most people. ~ Mark Manson,
1192:The Lexus LS 460 was designed to expand on the definition of the full-size luxury sedan as well as the level of innovative technology, especially as it relates to safety. ~ Robert M Carter,
1193:There are other, civilised ways of dealing with the matter," Dllenahkh insisted.
Darithiven looked at him with pity. "Then, by your definition, this cannot be civilisation. ~ Karen Lord,
1194:A nice definition of an awakened person: a person who no longer marches to the drums of society, a person who dances to the tune of the music that springs up from within. ~ Anthony de Mello,
1195:...everything defiled and degraded. What cannot man live through! Man is a creature that can get accustomed to anything, and I think that is the best definition of him. ~ Fyodor Dostoyevsky,
1196:If we only have great companies, we will merely have a prosperous society, not a great one. Economic growth and power are the means, not the definition, of a great nation. ~ James C Collins,
1197:It is the business of thought to define things, to find the boundaries; thought, indeed, is a ceaseless process of definition. It is the business of Art to give things shape. ~ Vance Palmer,
1198:The Definition Of Beauty Is
The Definition of Beauty is
That Definition is none—
Of Heaven, easing Analysis,
Since Heaven and He are one.
~ Emily Dickinson,
1199:we need to remember that our definition of what is right is, as often as not, simply the way that people in positions of privilege close the door on those on the outside. ~ Malcolm Gladwell,
1200:If you think that you are an extraordinary person you are definitely right because every existence represents a miracle and every miracle is extraordinary by definition! ~ Mehmet Murat ildan,
1201:Leadership is about making others better as a result of your presence and making sure that impact lasts in your absence." (Harvard Business School definition of leadership) ~ Sheryl Sandberg,
1202:My definition of beauty is without rules. It can be the face of a beautiful 90-year-old woman that is full of stories and emotion. Beauty is what somebody's eyes communicate. ~ Penelope Cruz,
1203:So I arrive at this definition of gratitude. Gratitude is a species of joy which arises in your heart in response to the goodwill of someone who does or tries to do you a favor. ~ John Piper,
1204:That is the definition of faith, hermano," says Figueroa. "Something that we believe in even though it doesn't work."
Eres un cinicio."
If it worked, it would be science. ~ John Sayles,
1205:When Nietszche says, "A new commandment I give to you,
be hard" he is really saying, "A new commandment I give to you, be dead." Sensibility is the definition of
life. ~ G K Chesterton,
1206:You cannot keep your plan and have Obamacare at the same time. Obamacare, by definition, gets rid of your plan and replaces it with health care run by the federal government. ~ Rush Limbaugh,
1207:You’ve been fucked before, huh?” he asked, angling her so that his piercing slid over her G-spot when he entered. “By the time I’m done, you’ll have reassessed your definition ~ Cherrie Lynn,
1208:But in a startup, who the customer is and what the customer might find valuable are unknown, part of the very uncertainty that is an essential part of the definition of a startup. ~ Eric Ries,
1209:By definition, you have to live until you die. Better to make that life as complete and enjoyable an experience as possible, in case death is shite, which I suspect it will be. ~ Irvine Welsh,
1210:If there is a single definition of healing it is to enter with mercy and awareness those pains, mental and physical, from which we have withdrawn in judgment and dismay. (48) ~ Stephen Levine,
1211:I had been looking for outside approval by seeking a relationship, and I had been looking for outside approval by living according to a definition of success created by others. ~ David Kadavy,
1212:I have heard Science Fiction and Fantasy referred to as the fiction of ideas, and I like that definition, but it's the mainstream public that chooses my books for the most part. ~ Jean M Auel,
1213:Like navigation markings in unknown waters, definitions of poverty need to be distinctive and unambiguous. A definition that is not precise is as bad as no definition at all. ~ Muhammad Yunus,
1214:Love is large; love defies limits. People talk about the sanctity of love -- love is by definition sacred. Not some love between some people, but all love between all people. ~ Jennifer Beals,
1215:Man, by definition, is born a stranger: coming from nowhere, he is thrust into an alien world which existed before him-a world which didn't need him. And which will survive him. ~ Elie Wiesel,
1216:There is no such thing as real happiness in life. The justest definition that was ever given of it was "a tranquil acquiescence under an agreeable delusion"--I forget where. ~ Laurence Sterne,
1217:The will to grow is in essence the same phenomenon as love. Love is the will to extend oneself for spiritual growth. Genuinely loving people are, by definition, growing people. ~ M Scott Peck,
1218:What the modern man most suffers from, then, is the wounding without the transformation. He suffers the Saturnian burden of role definition that confines rather than liberates. ~ James Hollis,
1219:A HUMAN BEING survives only with hope, and hope by definition implies the thought of something better. As I see it, our very survival depends on some idea of future happiness. ~ Dalai Lama XIV,
1220:A life free of lies! Ah, but that, too, was, by definition, a lie. Surely a lie already dwelled in the heart of anyone who sought to make such distinctions and stand in judgment. ~ Osamu Dazai,
1221:A son or daughter in any human family is either born to or adopted by the parents. By definition, a child can't be both. But with God we're both born of Him and adopted by Him. ~ Jerry Bridges,
1222:Each generation must assume the responsibility of securing their manhood, their womanhood, the definition of their being on earth that in the final analysis is nationhood. ~ John Henrik Clarke,
1223:I’m so sick of political correctness. I’m suffocated by it. We’re so goddamn politically correct that we lose our individualism, our definition as human beings. Don’t you agree? ~ Ronald Malfi,
1224:In a way, my definition of home has shifted. My soul no longer feels anchored to a piece of land or a body of water. It's now tied to all the people I love, across the Zodiac. ~ Romina Russell,
1225:In the new definition of success, building and looking after our financial capital is not enough. We need to do everything we can to protect and nurture our human capital. ~ Arianna Huffington,
1226:Mental illnesses are so strange. A physical problem we can understand. But when the mind works irrationally, well, by its very definition, the rational mind cannot truly relate. ~ Harlan Coben,
1227:My experience politically has always been that one-word definition of politics: money. Keep your eye on the buck. And that tells you where the American people are going to be. ~ Douglas Wilder,
1228:Once established, a successful style looks like an inevitability - maybe that's the definition of a successful style - but there's often the time when it looks like anything but. ~ David Salle,
1229:Provisional Definition 2: a bullshit job is a form of employment that is so completely pointless, unnecessary, or pernicious that even the employee cannot justify its existence ~ David Graeber,
1230:The chief problem in historical honesty is not outright lying. It is omission or de-emphasis of important data. The definition of 'important', of course, depends on one's values. ~ Howard Zinn,
1231:Art is a reality, not a definition; inasmuch as it approaches a reality, it approaches perfection, and inasmuch as it approaches a mere definition, it is imperfect and untrue. ~ Benjamin Haydon,
1232:But we need to remember that our definition of what is right is, as often as not, simply the way that people in positions of privilege close the door on those on the outside. ~ Malcolm Gladwell,
1233:I have changed my definition of tragedy. I now think tragedy is not foul deeds done to a person (usually noble in some manner) but rather that tragedy is irresolvable conflict. ~ Rita Mae Brown,
1234:Leadership is about making others better as a result of your presence and making sure that impact lasts in your absence."
(Harvard Business School definition of leadership) ~ Sheryl Sandberg,
1235:The conventional definition of management is getting work done through people, but real management is developing people through work. Agha Hasan Abedi, Banker and Philanthropist ~ Carol Sanford,
1236:The definition of a philosopher is a blind man in a dark room looking for a black hat, which isn’t really there. And the definition of a theologian is he’s somebody who finds it. ~ Michael Ruse,
1237:The earliest form of natural selection was simply a selection of stable forms and a rejection of unstable ones. There is no mystery about this. It had to happen by definition. ~ Richard Dawkins,
1238:We must go out to Pure Life, Pure Truth, Pure Love, and that is the definition of God. He is the ultimate goal of life; from Him we came, and in Him alone do we find our peace. ~ Fulton J Sheen,
1239:You can never have 'equality' between two things that are not equal by definition. And so, for example, you can have equality among 'people', but not between 'men' and 'women'. ~ Anthony Browne,
1240:By definition, an actor's life is a recipe for regret. There are always roads you could have taken. But I've lived long enough to realise that each road has its own rewards. ~ Elizabeth McGovern,
1241:Having federal officials, whether judges, bureaucrats, or congressmen, impose a new definition of marriage on the people is an act of social engineering profoundly hostile to liberty. ~ Ron Paul,
1242:In this century, we are about to enter interplanetary civilization.
In order to survive, we need to go beyond neoclassical economics definition.
We define it as interplanomics. ~ Toba Beta,
1243:Libby, you and Paul are happy, functioning people who have lived, and loved, and made the world a little bit better by being in it. That was your mama’s exact definition of okay. ~ Camille Pag n,
1244:Like the word hope, we often think of power as negative. It's not. The best definition of power comes from Martin Luther King Jr. He described power as the ability to effect change. ~ Bren Brown,
1245:My definition of art has always been the same. It is about freedom of expression, a new way of communication. It is never about exhibiting in museums or about hanging it on the wall. ~ Ai Weiwei,
1246:오픈소스라는 말이 주목을 받게 되면서, OSI는 ‘자유로운 재배포의 허가’, ‘파생 소프트웨어 배포의 허가’, ‘개인이나 집단의 차별금지’, ‘적용분야 제한의 금지’ 등 10개의 항목으로 구성된 OSD(Open Source Definition), 즉 오픈소스에 대한 정의를 발표하고 이에 준거한 소프트웨어 라이선스를 발급했다. ~ Anonymous,
1247:Regardless of law, marriage has only one definition, and any government that attempts to change it is my mortal enemy. I will act to destroy that government and bring it down. ~ Orson Scott Card,
1248:What is a bore? Maxwell definition: a vacuum cleaner of society, sucking up everything and giving nothing. How do you spot one? Bores are always anxious to be seen talking to you. ~ Elsa Maxwell,
1249:But then, I said, speaking the truth and paying your debts is not a correct definition of justice. Quite correct, Socrates, if Simonides is to be believed, said Polemarchus interposing. I ~ Plato,
1250:For Builders, the real definition of success is a life and work that brings personal fulfillment and lasting relationships and makes a difference in the world in which they live. ~ Jerry I Porras,
1251:Speech that compliments is, by definition, free from derision, which clouds the mind with enemies and makes it tense. Kind speech makes the mind feel safe and also glad. [p.74] ~ Sylvia Boorstein,
1252:Think different in order to change the rules. By definition, if you don't change the rules you aren't a revolutionary, and if you don't think different, you won't change the rules. ~ Guy Kawasaki,
1253:Ahimsa is the very definition of woman and there is no place for untruth in her heart. If she is true to herself she is no longer Abala--the weak, but she is Sabala--the strong... ~ Mahatma Gandhi,
1254:But admiration and sadness, admiration and worry, is not that almost a definition of love?"
"There are people with whom it is not easy to live, but whom it is impossible to leave. ~ Thomas Mann,
1255:Debugging is twice as hard as writing the code in the first place. Therefore, if you write the code as cleverly as possible, you are, by definition, not smart enough to debug it. ~ Brian Kernighan,
1256:Definition of a relationship - an enduring, mutually-agreed upon connection or union, which fulfills certain needs of the individuals involved and the society in which they live. ~ Leo F Buscaglia,
1257:Good luck trying to force Evie to do anything else once she has made up her mind. She is the definition of a stubborn, headstrong teenager.”
“And you love me for it.”
“I do. ~ Kiersten White,
1258:Imagine! It is the real power of a book--not what is on the page, but what happens when a reader takes the pages in, makes it part of himself. That is the definition of literature. ~ Matthew Pearl,
1259:Soon after I left university, I came up with another definition of a literary critic or would be critic: someoone who uses churlish towards the end of an article or review. ~ Gerald Murnane,
1260:Another definition of modernity: conversations can be more and more completely reconstructed with clips from other conversations taking place at the same time on the planet. ~ Nassim Nicholas Taleb,
1261:civilization able to produce a Mahavira, a Mirabai, a Malik Ambar, a Periyar, a Muhammad Iqbal and a Mohandas Gandhi is a place open to radical experiments with self-definition. It ~ Sunil Khilnani,
1262:However, because our definition understands prayer as a response to the knowledge of God, it means that prayer is profoundly altered by the amount and accuracy of that knowledge. ~ Timothy J Keller,
1263:I'm losing the definition now of politics. I sort of don't know what that is anymore. People say politically correct, I don't know what that means. I know what they think they mean. ~ Toni Morrison,
1264:I take a very simple view that a violent extremist at some point previously been an extremist, and by definition is an extremist, so you do need to look at that non-violent extremism. ~ Theresa May,
1265:Perhaps the best definition of progress would be the continuing efforts of men and women to narrow the gap between the convenience of the powers that be and the unwritten charter. ~ Nadine Gordimer,
1266:The idea of equality is still how I define feminism. I think it's a broad definition that encompasses the variety of experiences women and men have with the word and the movement. ~ Julie Zeilinger,
1267:The key to warriorship and the first principle of Shambhala vision is not being afraid of who you are. Ultimately, that is the definition of bravery: not being afraid of yourself. ~ Ch gyam Trungpa,
1268:We find no sense in talking about something unless we specify how we measure it; a definition by the method of measuring a quantity is the one sure way of avoiding talking nonsense. ~ Hermann Bondi,
1269:Government is frequently and aptly classed under two descriptions-a government of force, and a government of laws; the first is the definition of despotism-the last, of liberty. ~ Alexander Hamilton,
1270:I'm still spending my working life trying to mine people's souls and now they're complimenting me in reviews on the amount of time I spend in the gym. On the definition of my triceps. ~ Jason Isaacs,
1271:The most futile thing in this world is any attempt, perhaps, at exact definition of character. All individuals are a bundle of contradictions - none more so than the most capable. ~ Theodore Dreiser,
1272:This world is better than Utopia because - and follow this point carefully - you can never live in Utopia. Utopia is always somewhere else. That's the very definition of Utopia. ~ Brad Warner,
1273:To take a single step beyond the boundaries specially drawn around the powers of Congress is to take possession of a boundless field of power, no longer susceptible to definition. ~ Thomas Jefferson,
1274:I don't think feminism, as I understand the definition, implies the rejection of maternal values, nurturing children, caring about the men in your life. That is just nonsense to me. ~ Hillary Clinton,
1275:that a child is not an event, alleged or otherwise, a mistake or accident or crime. . . he is by definition more than this, sum rather than division, a living promissory note. ~ John Burnham Schwartz,
1276:We do need to rethink privacy. I think we need to fall back on (former Supreme Court Justice) Felix Frankfurter's definition of privacy which is, "Privacy is the right to be left alone." ~ Paul Saffo,
1277:We've been in a recession, by any common sense definition, because if you look at the American public, they've got 20 billion - 20 trillion, I should say, worth of residential homes. ~ Warren Buffett,
1278:Young people refuse the notion that financialization defines the only acceptable definition of exchange, one that is based exclusively on the reductionist notion of buying and selling. ~ Henry Giroux,
1279:Happiness isn't a one-size-fits-all proposition. You must define what it looks like for you and then make a conscious effort to access whatever gets you to your unique definition of joy. ~ Phil McGraw,
1280:In fact, I believe that the best definition of man is the ungrateful biped. But that is not all, that is not his worst defect; his worst defect is his perpetual moral obliquity... ~ Fyodor Dostoyevsky,
1281:I submit that the traditional definition of psychiatry, which is still vogue, places it alongside such things as alchemy and astrology, and commits it to the category of pseudo-science. ~ Thomas Szasz,
1282:It is Scripture alone, not “conservative evangelical tradition” or any other human authority, that must function as the normative authority for the definition of what we should believe. ~ Wayne Grudem,
1283:"Superhero" is a term that's been borrowed in order to say "big and larger than life and loud and active and dumb." And I don't think that's a useful definition. That's more a dismissal. ~ Kurt Busiek,
1284:That's the definition of a mini-series. A mini-series is a show that has no continuing story or narrative elements between one group of episodes and another, so no, I wasn't surprised. ~ John Landgraf,
1285:The Bible says in Psalms to “Be still.” God says, “Be still and know that I am God” (Ps. 46:10). I like this definition of stillness: silence on the outside and surrender on the inside. ~ Kyle Idleman,
1286:The definition of Ar-Rahman: The fact that we only take from Allah and He only gives; we never thank but He still gives; we rarely remember Him but He still increases in love for us. ~ Nouman Ali Khan,
1287:The only way to make real wealth is to get rid of your salary. In a salary, by definition, you are creating wealth for others, and you are creating a chain and handcuffs for yourself. ~ James Altucher,
1288:Faye laughed as her naive belief that the world ever made sense, but what better definition of a scientist could there be than 'a person looking for a way to make sense of the world'? ~ Mary Anna Evans,
1289:If you think that running your economy into the ground and having to send troops in in order to prop up your only ally is leadership, then we've got a different definition of leadership. ~ Barack Obama,
1290:Imagine that it's sugar," Korbyn said. 'You're riding across candy.'

"Salt can never be sugar," Fennik said.

"We should talk about the definition of the word 'imagine'. ~ Sarah Beth Durst,
1291:Self-esteem can be so exhausting. I want to cut my hair, change my clothes, erase the pimple from the near-tip of my nose, and strengthen my upper-arm definition, all in the next hour. ~ David Levithan,
1292:You’ll come with us,” she said. “Sure,” Gavin said. “It wasn’t a request.” “Yes it was,” Gavin said. “When you don’t have power to compel obedience, by definition you’re making a request. ~ Brent Weeks,
1293:An especially damaging form of contradiction is self-referential absurdity—which means a theory sets up a definition of truth that it itself fails to meet. Therefore it refutes itself. ~ Nancy R Pearcey,
1294:Maleness in America is not absolutely defined; it has to be kept and re-earned every day, and one essential element in the definition is beating women in every game that both sexes play. ~ Margaret Mead,
1295:Many men think they're playboys but they invariably land wide of the mark. Surrounding yourself with champagne, fast friends and paid escorts is the very definition of the word 'loser'. ~ Graydon Carter,
1296:Morally judging cultures (except Christian, Israeli and American cultures) is forbidden by the left. Indeed not judging non-Western cultures is the very definition of ‘multiculturalism’. ~ Dennis Prager,
1297:The simplest definition of spirituality is self-awareness. Inside yourself is the peace, love, and truth that are attributes of God. When you contact this place, you meet your true self. ~ Deepak Chopra,
1298:"You want to have a meaningful life? Everything you do matters. That's the definition of a meaningful life. But everything you do matters. You're going to have to carry that with you." ~ Jordan Peterson,
1299:But you could also argue that there is something tragically heroic about fighting this battle he is doomed to lose.Is Ahab's hope a kind of insanity,or is it the very definition of humaness? ~ John Green,
1300:Every decision you make - every decision that you make every second - is not a decision about what to do, it is a decision about who you are. Every act is an act of self-definition. ~ Neale Donald Walsch,
1301:Happy to me is not what I thought happy was. Happy is actually better, because it includes room for sadness. A definition of success must leave room for failure, because it's part of it. ~ Sara Benincasa,
1302:Historical definition of a country's borders... "'s where my murder geography ends and your murder geography begins, at least until I get more murderers to expand my murder-fest. ~ Stefan Molyneux,
1303:I can stand.”
“It looks to me like you‘re using a wall to prop you up. that’s not my definition of ‘standing.’”
“Its leaning,” Jace told him. “Leaning comes right before standing. ~ Cassandra Clare,
1304:Not according to your definition. It appears Andromeda has taken a vow of celibacy.”

Naasir groaned. “I think I should jump off into traffic. It’d be less painful than such torture. ~ Nalini Singh,
1305:Some pleasures are intrinsically ethical—feelings like love, gratitude, devotion, and compassion. To inhabit these states of mind is, by definition, to be brought into alignment with others. ~ Sam Harris,
1306:The insult, the real reflection on our culture's definition of the role of women, is that as a nation we only noticed something was wrong with women when we saw its effects on their sons. ~ Betty Friedan,
1307:"You want to have a meaningful life? Everything you do matters. That's the definition of a meaningful life. But everything you do matters. You're going to have to carry that with you." ~ Jordan Peterson,
1308:Hence while in respect of its substance and the definition that states what it really is in essence virtue is the observance of the mean, in point of excellence and rightness it is an extreme. ~ Aristotle,
1309:I don't think women are, by definition, toxic to one another. I think women are simultaneously competitive toward and idolatrous of each other. I thrive on that challenge and that desire. ~ Heidi Julavits,
1310:On a related note, you can also code multiple init methods within the same class, but only the last definition will be used; see Chapter 31 for more details on multiple method definitions. ~ Mark Lutz,
1311:On a related note, you can also code multiple __init__ methods within the same class, but only the last definition will be used; see Chapter 31 for more details on multiple method definitions. ~ Mark Lutz,
1312:[Suggesting an additional definition for 'politics':] The art of organizing and handling men in large numbers, manipulating votes, and, in especial, appropriating public wealth. ~ Charlotte Perkins Gilman,
1313:The definition of all right changes with the passing winters, I find. I'm about all right by the standards of the last few days. Twenty years ago I'd have considered this close to death. ~ Joe Abercrombie,
1314:There is nothing worse then being surrounded by a bunch of people telling you to do what is right, when they can't define that definition, without a lot of hatred and judgment behind it. ~ Shannon L Alder,
1315:The technical definition of heuristic is a simple procedure that helps find adequate, though often imperfect, answers to difficult questions. The word comes from the same root as eureka. ~ Daniel Kahneman,
1316:We're gonna keep on doin' what we're doin', and we're gonna get it by all means. That's just what "ruthless" means to me. Everybody's got their own definition, but I'm ruthless with this music. ~ Ace Hood,
1317:"You want to have a meaningful life? Everything you do matters. That's the definition of a meaningful life. But everything you do matters. You're going to have to carry that with you." ~ Jordan B Peterson,
1318:But let me offer you my definition of social justice: I keep what I earn and you keep what you earn. Do you disagree? Well then tell me how much of what I earn belongs to you - and why? ~ Walter E Williams,
1319:If you want a definition of poetry, say: Poetry is what makes me laugh or cry or yawn, what makes my toenails twinkle, what makes me want to do this or that or nothing and let it go at that. ~ Dylan Thomas,
1320:Much of how a person defined himself was through his interactions with the world. When that world was very small, it probably felt as if the opportunities for definition were very limited. ~ Alissa Johnson,
1321:Once you call something a story, it's set in stone. It has a beginning, a middle, and an end that can't be transformed, because by definition, if you do that, it's not the same story anymore ~ Jodi Picoult,
1322:Spare time is like spare change. It's hard to quantify, the definition of that phrase. What do I do when I'm not onstage singing, or sleeping, with or without someone else? I watch movies. ~ Marilyn Manson,
1323:Telling our stories is what saves us. The story is enough... The very act of storytelling, of arranging memory and invention according to the structure of narrative is, by definition, holy. ~ James Carroll,
1324:The definition of a page-turner really aught to be that this page is so good, you can't bear to leave it behind, but then the next page is there and it might be just as amazing as this one. ~ John Burnside,
1325:All education is religious in nature and is never value free. If God is left out of the subject, it is by definition, humanism that governs the education since man alone is the measure of truth. ~ Anonymous,
1326:A novel is in its broadest definition a personal, a direct impression of life: that, to begin with, constitutes its value, which is greater or less according to the intensity of the impression ~ Henry James,
1327:A snob has been defined carelessly as a man who loves a lord; and, more carefully, as a mean lover of mean things—which would be a little unkind to the peerage if the first definition were true. ~ A A Milne,
1328:Claiming a person can't do their job because of their race is sort of like the textbook definition of a racist comment. I think that should be absolutely disavowed. It's absolutely unacceptable. ~ Paul Ryan,
1329:couldn’t call to mind. She belonged to herself only. She had edges, boundaries, tastes, definition down to her eyelashes. And when she walked it was clear she knew where she was going. As ~ Stephanie Danler,
1330:However a man who was honest and clever was always, ALWAYS more difficult to scam than someone who was both dishonest and clever. Sincerity. It was so difficult , by definition, to fake. ~ Brandon Sanderson,
1331:In mathematics and science definition are simple, but bare-bones. Until you get to a problem which you understand it takes hundreds and hundreds of pages and years and years of learning. ~ Benoit Mandelbrot,
1332:My parents wanted to light my artistic candle. But over time, the definition of 'the arts' began to stretch. And as I got older, they suddenly realized, Oh, my God, we're the parents of Iggy Pop. ~ Iggy Pop,
1333:Sometimes, if we can't find another person to dump our anger on, we turn it on ourselves. The textbook definition of depression is anger turned inward instead of being discharged outward. ~ Harold S Kushner,
1334:combines a broad definition of wisdom as excellence in mind and virtue with a specific characterization of wisdom as an expert knowledge system dealing with the conduct and understanding of life. ~ Anonymous,
1335:Definition: Alpinism is the art of going through the mountains confronting the greatest dangers with the biggest of cares. What we call art here, is the application of a knowledge to an action. ~ Rene Daumal,
1336:Im 48 years old, not a kid anymore by any definition, but here is a universal truth that every adult at some point will realize: We are all always 17 years old, waiting for our lives to begin. ~ Harlan Coben,
1337:Innovating economies expand and develop. Economies that do not add new kinds of goods and services, but continue only to repeat old work, do not expand much nor do they, by definition, develop. ~ Jane Jacobs,
1338:I think people who struggle to define themselves might never be satisfied because there is no definition. Living with responsibility is important, but I don't really think you have to grow up. ~ Kristen Bell,
1339:I was involved in the color correction and the digital color correction. In an odd way, you end up making a film many times-the DVD, the archival record of a high-definition master, and so on. ~ John Dykstra,
1340:The incoming messages make up the public interface of the receiving object. The outgoing messages, by definition, are incoming into other objects and so are part of some other object’s interface, ~ Anonymous,
1341:The world does not need a better definition of issues, or better planning or project management. It needs the issues and the plans to have more of an impact, which is the promise of engagement. ~ Peter Block,
1342:Willy, one of the guys at the distillery, comes up with what Oliver and I agree is the best definition of what a 'dram' actually is: 'A measure of whisky that is pleasing to both guest and host. ~ Iain Banks,
1343:But such is the way of family: we are what they tell us we are, and part of life’s great struggle, it’s always seemed to me, is to know oneself despite that imposing collective definition. ~ Elizabeth Poliner,
1344:Documentary is, therefore, an approach, which makes use of the artistic faculties to give vivification to fact - to use Walt Whitman's definition of the place of poetry in the modern world. ~ Beaumont Newhall,
1345:Failing to warn the citizens of a looming weapon of mass destruction- and that's what global warming is- in order to protect oil company profits, well, that fits for me the definition of treason. ~ Bill Maher,
1346:I would define liberty to be a power to do as we would be done by. The definition of liberty to be the power of doing whatever the law permits, meaning the civil laws, does not seem satisfactory. ~ John Adams,
1347:My definition of marketing is simple—it’s all about educating the marketplace that your business can solve problems, fill voids, or achieve opportunities and goals the way no other business can. ~ Jay Abraham,
1348:Proving he's a crazy son of a bitch, Pigpen flashes me that guilty-by-definition-of-insanity grin. "See, was talking so bad? A few weeks with me and you'll be ready for full-on family therapy. ~ Katie McGarry,
1349:There may well be a few extremists out there somewhere calling for a militant, women-only utopia, but why should this be the definition of 'feminist' when it's already the definition of 'silly'? ~ Meghan Daum,
1350:Your fear is the sharpest definition of your self. You should know it. You should feel it virtually constantly. Fear needs to become your friend, so that you are no longer uncomfortable with it. ~ David Deida,
1351:Getting back to the difference between a saver and an investorpi there is one word hat separates them and that word is leveragene definition of leverage is the ability to do more with less. ~ Robert T Kiyosaki,
1352:I don't need to be a radical to think that who a dragon is counts more than birth or wealth," Selendra said, with what dignity she could."Why, that's the very definition of a radical," he retorted. ~ Jo Walton,
1353:I don't think feminism can just be imitative or integrationist. By definition, it must transform. But in the short run, there are goals we agree on. And it's in the short run that we must act. ~ Gloria Steinem,
1354:If "socialism" is defined as "ownership of the means of production"--and this is both the orthodox and the only rigorous definition--then the United States is the first truly Socialist country. ~ Peter Drucker,
1355:My people believe bathing weakens you,” Gerrard said. “But my people are well known to be uncivilized.” “Your people don’t believe in drinking coffee. That’s a fair definition of uncivilized. ~ Melissa McShane,
1356:No practical definition of freedom would be completely without the freedom to take the consequences. Indeed, it is the freedom upon which all the others are based.
-Lord Havelock Vetinari- ~ Terry Pratchett,
1357:One thing's for sure. If we keep doing what we're doing, we're going to keep getting what we're getting. One definition of insanity is to keep doing the same thing and expect different results. ~ Stephen Covey,
1358:such is the way of family: we are what they tell us we are, and part of life’s great struggle, it’s always seemed to me, is to know oneself despite that imposing collective definition. That ~ Elizabeth Poliner,
1359:The ultimate definition of success in life is that your spouse likes and respects you ever more as the years go by. By that measure, more than any other, I hope to be as successful as she is. ~ James C Collins,
1360:When states are absent, rights—by any definition—are impossible to sustain. States are not structures to be taken for granted, exploited, or discarded, but are fruits of long and quiet effort. ~ Timothy Snyder,
1361:A semantic definition of a particular set of command types, then, is a rule for constructing, for any command of one of these types, a verification condition on the antecedents and consequents. ~ Robert W Floyd,
1362:Early withdrawal from Iraq would result in unarguably, defeat and humiliation for the United States. There's no question. We would be defeated by definition. We would be humiliated in that defeat. ~ Howard Dean,
1363:For the record, feminism by definition is: 'The belief that men and women should have equal rights and opportunities. It is the theory of the political, economic and social equality of the sexes.' ~ Emma Watson,
1364:His dad had told him many times that the definition of a real man is one who cries without shame, reads poetry with his heart, feels opera in his soul, and does what's necessary to defend a woman. ~ Delia Owens,
1365:His dad had told him many times that the definition of a real man is one who cries without shame, reads poetry with his heart, feels opera in his soul, and does what’s necessary to defend a woman. ~ Delia Owens,
1366:If you live through defeat, you are not defeated. If you are beaten but acquire wisdom, you have won. Lose yourself to improve yourself. Only when we shed all self-definition do we find who we really are. ~ RZA,
1367:Look, it's her faith, all right? There's no need to be offensive."

"I'm not being offensive. You cannot, by definition, offend someone who's not here. Offense has to be taken, not just given. ~ Ruth Ware,
1368:The concept of entrepreneurship includes anyone who works within my definition of a startup: a human institution designed to create new products and services under conditions of extreme uncertainty. ~ Anonymous,
1369:There is no objective and universally acceptable definition of good and evil. And until we have one, we will go on justifying our own actions, while condemning the actions of the others. ~ Gregory David Roberts,
1370:The world has never had a good definition of the word liberty... We all declare for liberty; but in using the same word we do not all mean the same thing. --April 18, 1864 Address at Baltimore ~ Abraham Lincoln,
1371:To see with the eyes of another, to hear with the ears of another, to feel with the heart of another. For the time being, this seems to me an admissible definition of what we call social feeling. ~ Alfred Adler,
1372:To the Historians, tools existed for only one reason: to force the universe into unnatural shapes. They treated nature as an enemy, they were by definition a rebellion against the way things were. ~ Peter Watts,
1373:Art is why I get up in the morning, but my definition ends there. You know, it doesn't seem fair that I'm living for something I can't even define, but there you are, right there, in the meantime. ~ Ani DiFranco,
1374:I'm not body-shy -- it's hard to grow up in the Summerlands, where clothes are solidly optional, and stay body-shy -- but that doesn't mean I enjoy nudity. Naked people are, by definition, unarmed.​ ~ Mira Grant,
1375:I'm not body-shy--it's hard to grow up in the Summerlands, where clothes are solidly optional, and stay body-shy--but that doesn't mean I enjoy nudity. Naked people are, by definition, unarmed.​ ~ Seanan McGuire,
1376:Schooling is certainly not a great proxy for knowhow and knowledge, since it is by definition a measure of the time spent in an establishment, not of the knowledge embodied in a person’s brain. ~ C sar A Hidalgo,
1377:There are, it is often said by the more ecumenical prophets, many paths up the mountain. So long as it helps a person navigate the world and seek out what is good, a path, by definition, has value. ~ Robert Moor,
1378:The trouble with institutional investors is that their performance is usually measured relative to their peer group and not by an absolute yardstick. This makes them trend followers by definition. ~ George Soros,
1379:This thing with Graeson wasn’t love or simple lust. It was undefinable, and a thing without definition that technically couldn’t exist without such parameters shouldn’t hurt so much. But it did. ~ Hailey Edwards,
1380:What you’re explaining to me is something that some people never find in their lives. You have a connection to him way beyond the definition of time. It transcends that and has a power of its own. ~ Harper Sloan,
1381:I think the first important thing is that usually most textbooks are not written by their authors. And so by author I mean the people who did not write them; so it's a new definition of "author." ~ James W Loewen,
1382:Every act of courage is the work of an unbalanced man. Animals, normal by definition, are always cowardly except when they know themselves know themselves to be stronger, which is cowardice itself. ~ Emil M Cioran,
1383:In spite the mountains of books written about art, no precise definition of art has been constructed. And the reason for this is that the conception of art has been based on the conception of beauty. ~ Leo Tolstoy,
1384:Marriage is between a man and a woman. No group, be they gays, be they NAMBLA, be they people who believe in bestiality, it doesn’t matter what they are - they don’t get to change the definition. ~ Benjamin Carson,
1385:No! Wait! I've got a better idea..."

"Your ideas tend to result in unnecessary violence, Sergeant Schlock."

"And your point is..."

"Let's broaden the definition of 'necessary'. ~ Howard Tayler,
1386:One or two steps alone do not guarantee the evidence of your success unless you have your own peculiar definition for success. And I assure you; that definition is wrong! Do it again and again! ~ Israelmore Ayivor,
1387:The clinical definition of "fascism" is when private concentrated economic power takes government away from the people, turns government into a guarantor, a subsidizer, a covering of corporate power. ~ Ralph Nader,
1388:The definition of an extreme authoritarian is one who is willing blindly to assume that government accusations are true without any evidence presented or opportunity to contest those accusations. ~ Glenn Greenwald,
1389:...the mathematician uses an indirect definition of congruence, making use of the fact that the axiom of parallels together with an additional condition can replace the definition of congruence. ~ Hans Reichenbach,
1390:When it is proclaimed that one must become more “sensitive” to various ethnic, linguistic, sexual, or lifestyle groups, neither a reason nor a definition usually accompanies this opaque imperative. ~ Thomas Sowell,
1391:Yes, Em, your freckles are perfect. Looks are a funny thing, very peculiar. Never waste any time disliking the ones you have. The right person will think they are the very definition of beautiful. ~ Rachel Fordham,
1392:You’ll come with us,” she said.
“Sure,” Gavin said.
“It wasn’t a request.”
“Yes it was,” Gavin said. “When you don’t have power to compel obedience, by definition you’re making a request. ~ Brent Weeks,
1393:and one of our vocabulary words was nonconformist. I just dug that word. I heard the explanation, the definition, and I felt like I had just learned about a new hero in a kick-ass Marvel comic book. ~ Nick Offerman,
1394:Charity is the pure love of Christ. Let's bring it down for us lay folk to understand. Selflessness, patience. . . . a great definition. . . Charity: The ability to love the sinner and hate the sin. ~ Hyrum W Smith,
1395:It would be easy to define terrorism as attacks against human rights and international humanitarian law forbids attacks against innocent non-combatants which is often the definition used for terrorism. ~ Joichi Ito,
1396:Oh, Lord - responsibility. That word worked on me until I worked on it, until I looked at it carefully and broke it down into the two words that make its true definition: the ability to respond. ~ Elizabeth Gilbert,
1397:she realized that some people would do more for others than they would do for themselves. That was perhaps as good a definition of friendship as one could find; and a definition of patriotism as well. ~ David Drake,
1398:When you lower the definition of success to such a level that any person can reach it, you don’t teach people to have big dreams; instead you inspirit mediocrity and nurture people’s inadequacies. ~ Shannon L Alder,
1399:Wikipedia is so dangerous. You go online to look up the definition of eclampsia, and three hours later you find yourself reading this earnest explanation of tentacle porn in [Japanese] anime. ~ Lois McMaster Bujold,
1400:You can see a zoomable sixteen-billion-pixel version on your home computer, an online visualization that its creators, Haltadefinizione, claim to be “the highest definition photograph ever in the world. ~ Ross King,
1401:You know, with me, you never have to be embarrassed, right?” “You say that, but a giant purple dildo just fell out of my closet and hit you on the head. That is the definition of a reason to be embarrassed. ~ Tijan,
1402:A "breakdown" is when you've exhausted every option and have no choice but to accept the fact that you are powerless to create the outcome you want.

A "breakthrough" has the same definition. ~ Paul Colaianni,
1403:Speculative fiction by definition is geared toward an audience that wants strangeness, an audience that wants to spend time in worlds that absolutely are not like the observable world around them. ~ Orson Scott Card,
1404:The more we resist change, the more we are allied against the nature of nature and the developmental agenda of our own psyches. Being aligned against our own nature is the very definition of neurosis. ~ James Hollis,
1405:The social custom of calling on people when they are unwell has always mystified me. By definition, you’re not feeling or looking your best. Why on earth do people assume you might want visitors? ~ Mary Louise Kelly,
1406:Though it is fairly easy to describe what constitutes a bad home, there is no simple definition of a good one. Conformity with the traditional pattern certainly is no guarantee of the happiest results. ~ Alva Myrdal,
1407:To be a prisoner means to be defined as a member of a group for whom the rules of what can be done to you, of what is seen as abuse of you, are reduced as part of the definition of your status. ~ Catharine MacKinnon,
1408:We become slaves the moment we hand the keys to the definition of reality entirely over to someone else, whether it is a business, an economic theory, a political party, the White House, Newsworld or CNN. ~ B W Powe,
1409:About the only valid definition (of science fiction) that I’m willing to accept is this: all of modern, mainstream, and realistic fiction is simply a branch, a category, or a subset of science fiction. ~ Mike Resnick,
1410:Any man in the company of two woman is outnumbered four to one however amiable they may be. By definition."
'So when its just you and me I outnumber you two to one, is that right?'
"Affirmative. ~ Kingsley Amis,
1411:Being an author means, almost by definition, that you make up characters and then complicate their lives. That's it, really. You make up characters and give them problem after problem after problem. ~ Maureen Johnson,
1412:I’m tired of being afraid,” she said, her breath hitching. Shane shook his head. “The definition of courage is action in the face of fear. By that definition, sweetness, you’re the bravest person I know. ~ Laura Kaye,
1413:In contrast, it feels logical to care less about other universes, because my decisions here in our Universe by definition can’t have any effect on them—they’re therefore unaffected by what I care about. ~ Max Tegmark,
1414:I think is sad, how easily we throw around the word without actually understanding the sacrifice behind its meaning. Love in its definition isn't about a strong feeling towards someone, but action. ~ Rachel Van Dyken,
1415:I tried to come up with a definition of this new paradigm in six articles entitled "Russia after Putin." I would consider Russia's integration into Europe the most important element of this strategy. ~ Garry Kasparov,
1416:Just do a Google search on it. The Bible’s definition of marriage. New Testament. When you read it, you’ll see what I mean. God’s the Master of D/s. So how’s married life?” He moved on, oh so confident. ~ Lucian Bane,
1417:No one had ever looked at me before Suzanne, not really, so she became my definition. Her gaze softening my centre so easily that even photographs of her seemed aimed at me, ignited with private meaning. ~ Emma Cline,
1418:Our task, of course, is to transmute the anger that is affliction into the anger that is determination to bring about change. I think, in fact, that one could give that as a definition of revolution. ~ Barbara Deming,
1419:Peace is not the product of a victory or a command. It has no finishing line, no final deadline, no fixed definition of achievement. Peace is a never-ending process, the work of many decisions. ~ Oscar Hammerstein II,
1420:The closed language does not demonstrate and explain it communicates decision, dictum, command. Where it defines, the definition becomes "separation of good from evil;" it establishes unquestionable ~ Herbert Marcuse,
1421:The heart of our karate is real fighting.There can be no proof without real fighting. Without proof there is no trust. Without trust there is no respect. This is a definition in the world of martial arts. ~ Mas Oyama,
1422:To me, a leader is a visionary that energizes others. This definition of leadership has two key dimensions: a) creating the vision of the future, and b) inspiring others to make the vision a reality. ~ Vince Lombardi,
1423:Be pragmatic, then. If you’re not happy with the way your writing has gone, you might give my method a try. If you do, I think you might easily find a new definition for Work. And the word is LOVE. 1973 ~ Ray Bradbury,
1424:Beware of your definition of success: If it has more to do with what other people think of you than it does with what you know of your own abilities, you may be confusing applause with achievement. ~ Joan D Chittister,
1425:People often say to me, "How come you don't want to be CEO of a company?" And I tell them, "I don't want to." I know I can do it, but I don't enjoy it. Why does that have to be the definition of success? ~ Charlene Li,
1426:-That ain't right, Miss Maudie. You're the best lady I know.-
Miss Maudie grinned. "thank you ma'am. Thing is, foot-washers think women are a sin by definition. They take the bible literally, you know. ~ Harper Lee,
1427:We all know the definition of shattered: to break into pieces; to weaken, destroy; to damage, as by breaking or crushing.
But my story isn't about being shattered.
It's about surviving the pieces. ~ Nashoda Rose,
1428:As soon as I saw him again I could forget all this existed; I would be calm. Was that a definition of love: a force that can drug you with calm and help you forget all the sandpaper realities of the world? ~ Alix Ohlin,
1429:His dad had told him many times that the definition of a real man is one who cries without shame, reads poetry with his heart, feels opera in his soul, and does what’s necessary to defend a woman. Scupper ~ Delia Owens,
1430:I feel like the only reason we’re able to find some of these unique ideas, characters, and story twists is through discovery. And, by definition, ‘discovery’ means you don’t know the answer when you start. ~ Ed Catmull,
1431:It reminded him of that definition of his father's. A weapon is a device for making your enemy change his mind. The mind was the first and final battleground; the stuff in between was just noise. ~ Lois McMaster Bujold,
1432:My definition of art is whatever an artist calls art. Us speaking could be an artwork, us sitting in the near-dark in your kitchen beside the dirty dishes and smoking, me thinking of what to say next. ~ Matthew Brannon,
1433:Oh, Lord—responsibility. That word
worked on me until I worked on it, until I looked at it carefully and broke it down into the two
words that make its true definition: the ability to respond. ~ Elizabeth Gilbert,
1434:Ray Bradbury’s definition of a book is at the end, when he points out that we should not judge our books by their covers, and that some books exist between covers that are perfectly people-shaped.) —Neil ~ Ray Bradbury,
1435:Thwart," I said. "To prevent someone from accomplishing something by means of visiting gratuitous violence upon his smarmy person." "I'm pretty sure that isn't the definition." Sarissa said. "It is today. ~ Jim Butcher,
1436:You know the definition of the perfectly designed machine.... The perfectly designed machine is one in which all its working parts wear out simultaneously. I am that machine. ~ Frederick Lindemann 1st Viscount Cherwell,
1437:99 per cent of your life recognises things without definition, a baby recognises its mother's face without having it defined. It's just an arbitrary rule this rule of definition that Socrates set down. ~ Robert M Pirsig,
1438:Intellectuals are judged not by their morals, but by the quality of their ideas, which are rarely reducible to simple verdicts of truth or falsity, if only because banalities are by definition accurate. ~ Perry Anderson,
1439:My definition of survivor encompasses people going through difficult times and also the friends and family who stand beside them. In the cancer community, they’re called cosurvivors or secondary patients. ~ Ben Sherwood,
1440:My own definition is a feminist is a man or a woman who says, yes, there’s a problem with gender as it is today and we must fix it, we must do better. All of us, women and men, must do better. ~ Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie,
1441:One definition of the wicked is that they will resort to whatever means are necessary to achieve their ends. Therefore, if those who oppose wickedness don't learn the art of war, they will be helpless. ~ George Friedman,
1442:The food crank is by definition a person willing to cut himself off from human society in the hopes of adding five years onto the life of his carcase; that is, a person out of touch with common humanity. ~ George Orwell,
1443:We simply weren’t constructed to live only for ourselves. We were placed on earth to be part of something bigger than the narrow borders of our own survival and our own little definition of happiness. ~ Paul David Tripp,
1444:For we have been socialized to respect fear more than our own needs for language and definition, and while we wait in silence for that final luxury of fearlessness, the weight of that silence will choke us. ~ Audre Lorde,
1445:I mean, the first “Back to the Future” is kind of a perfect script, I think. In terms of handling time travel the best, it depends on your definition. To me, that means it effectively uses it in the story. ~ Rian Johnson,
1446:Many now veer away from the time-honored use of the term Father as applied to the Christian God ... This difficulty rests mainly, I believe, on failure to distinguish between a symbol and a definition. ~ Georgia Harkness,
1447:My definition of a 'friend' is, coming from Chicago, someone who says, 'Yeah, sure. You know what? Let's talk about what we can talk about. Let's help each other out. Your politics are none of my business.' ~ David Mamet,
1448:No-one had ever looked at me before Suzanne, not really, so she had become my definition. Her gaze softening my centre so easily that even photographs of her seemed aimed at me, ignited with private meaning. ~ Emma Cline,
1449:So if I asked you for your definition of success, what would it be? Would it only be worldly things, carnal things, and things that will one day pass away? Maybe that’s why so many people quit along the way. ~ Paul Tsika,
1450:Some of these persistent people suffer from delusions, the very definition of which explains why they don’t let go: a false belief that cannot be shaken even in the face of compelling contrary evidence. ~ Gavin de Becker,
1451:Somewhere along the line people reduce themselves to numbers in a ledger, and at that point you’re truly damned. It’s a rather concise definition of power – when you no longer need to look at the names. ~ Daniel Polansky,
1452:I don’t hoard, exactly, but I get it. It’s a response to our need and desire for purpose, order, definition, and a fortress. It’s a calling that requires constant management, control, and obsessive attention. ~ Marc Maron,
1453:I'm sometimes called a 'documentary photographer' but... a man operating under that definition could take a sly pleasure in the disguise. Very often I'm doing one thing when I'm thought to be doing another. ~ Walker Evans,
1454:My definition of art has always been the same. It is about freedom of expression. I don’t think anybody can separate art from politics. The intention to separate [the two] is itself a very political intention. ~ Ai Weiwei,
1455:My own definition of a feminist is a man or a woman who says, ‘Yes, there’s a problem with gender as it is today and we must fix it, we must do better.’ All of us, women and men, must do better. ~ Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie,
1456:Now, a corpse, poor thing, is an untouchable and the process of decay is, of all pieces of bad manners, the vulgarest imaginable. For a corpse is, by definition, a person absolutely devoid of savoir vivre. ~ Aldous Huxley,
1457:Senator John McCain called Charlottesville “a confrontation between our better angels and our worst demons. White supremacists and neo-Nazis are, by definition, opposed to American patriotism and the ideals ~ Bob Woodward,
1458:The question is not whether two people who love each other should be given state sanction – even the left recognizes that such a definition is too broad, given that it would include incestuous relationships. ~ Ben Shapiro,
1459:For thousands of years, most marriages were in Stage I--survival-focused. After World War II, marriages increasingly flirted with Stage II--a self-fulfillment focus... Love's definition is in a transition. ~ Warren Farrell,
1460:It is not the government's purpose to make a profit the way a company does, because a company doesn't have to give a damn about the unemployed poor or provide services that are non-commercial by definition. ~ Jean Chretien,
1461:It seems to us that in its most basic definition, existential despair is the painful discrepancy between what is and what should be, between one's perceptions ans one's third-order premises. ~ Paul Watzlawick,
1462:Not one of all the purple host Who took the flag to-day Can tell the definition So clear of victory, As he, defeated, dying, On whose forbidden ear The distant strains of triumph Break agonized and clear. ~ Emily Dickinson,
1463:Now let us agree on a simple and down-to-earth definition of “debt”: a debt is a claim on future wealth. Now, all wealth is the fruit of human labor. A debt, therefore, is a claim on future human labor. ~ Piero San Giorgio,
1464:The chair wasn’t helping. You were supposed to stay awake, yet they put you in a nice recliner for the duration. Sam couldn’t decide if it fit the definition of irony, but he doubted it was far off. Thinking ~ Randall Wood,
1465:The essence of man is imperfection. Failure is simply a price we pay to achieve success. If we learn to embrace that new definition of failure, then we are free to start moving ahead - and failing forward. ~ Norman Cousins,
1466:When you dance, you measure distance as if it’s a solid thing; you make precise judgments every time two bodies exist in relation to each other. So I knew right away the definition of the space between us. ~ David Levithan,
1467:Every sane person has to find every day some manner of accommodating the impossible, some way of covering up for the failures of the rational world. This might actually be a reasonable definition of sanity. ~ Robert Boswell,
1468:He who is greatest among you shall be a servant. That's the new definition of greatness. ... By giving that definition of greatness, it means that everybody can be great, because everybody can serve. ~ Martin Luther King Jr,
1469:If the definition of insanity is trying the same thing over and over and expecting different results, then passion is a form of mental retardation- deliberately blunting our most critical cognitive functions. ~ Ryan Holiday,
1470:If we take the generally accepted definition of bravery as a quality which knows no fear, I have never seen a brave man. All men are frightened. The more intelligent they are, the more they are frightened. ~ George S Patton,
1471:I love Val. I love my job and my New York. I have no doubts that they were the right choices for me. And at the same time, I know that right choices by definition are the means by which life crystallizes loss. ~ Amor Towles,
1472:I think an artist, in my definition of that word, would not be someone who takes sides with the emperor against his powerless subjects. That's different from prescribing a way in which a writer should write. ~ Chinua Achebe,
1473:My characters have nothing. I'm working with impotence, ignorance... that whole zone of being that has always been set aside by artists as something unusable - something by definition incompatible with art. ~ Samuel Beckett,
1474:My definition of fake news is a content-like object that is a story, an article, a video, a tweet that has been fabricated, completely invented out of thin air, intentionally for the purpose of misleading. ~ Vivian Schiller,
1475:Susannah realized, with dawning bitterness, that she could now give the perfect definition of a ka-mai: one who has been given hope but no choices. Like giving a motorcycle to a blindman, she thought. Richard ~ Stephen King,
1476:The whole way to Tijuana, I’d wanted to fuck her, to see what was different, to touch this definition at the center and unearth its meaning. To dig through our separateness and feel what it meant to own someone. ~ C D Reiss,
1477:We simply weren’t constructed to live only for ourselves. We were placed on earth to be part of something bigger than the narrow borders of our own survival and our own little definition of happiness. The ~ Paul David Tripp,
1478:A loose definition of the Tea Party might be fifteen million pissed-off white people sent chasing after Mexicans on Medicaid by the small handful of banks and investment companies who advertise on Fox and CNBC. ~ Matt Taibbi,
1479:In terms of an identity, an identity reflects an individuality, by definition. And, if there is a quality present, it is recognizable and it can be named. If you can't name it, it means you don't recognize it. ~ Robert Fripp,
1480:it’s okay to go slow. That everybody else’s pace and definition of success isn’t mine. What is easy for other people isn’t necessarily so for me. Though some things are easy for me and hard for other people. ~ Heidi Cullinan,
1481:Marco lives in a fantasy world, one that’s more interesting and more fun than reality. That’s the definition of being insane, surely?” said my son, Raul

“I suppose so,” I said. “It’s like Don Quixote. ~ Javier Cercas,
1482:Some people say: "There is no God; because, if there was a God, God would stop all the suffering." Nonsense! God is oblivious to suffering. God is beyond suffering. That's what makes God, God, by definition. ~ Frederick Lenz,
1483:The moral tragedy that has befallen Americans is our belief that it is okay for government to forcibly use one American to serve the purposes of another—that in my book is a working definition of slavery. ~ Walter E Williams,
1484:The opposite of play isn’t work. It’s depression.”6 When we’re depressed, according to the clinical definition, we suffer from two things: a pessimistic sense of inadequacy and a despondent lack of activity. ~ Jane McGonigal,
1485:We’re doing all of these things because we live in a world that has dropped a metric ton of pressure on us to be beautiful and made the definition of that beauty incredibly narrow and impressively unreachable. ~ Luvvie Ajayi,
1486:We’ve scaled Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs, reaching self-actualization. We build behaviors and personality into products, testing prototypes on users, while broadening our definition of validated design solutions. ~ Anonymous,
1487:But when you have to deal with notes, and to be able to make a full definition of what a sound is - if you are not around that environment, then you'll find you lose that feel, that momentum, you lose all that. ~ Dennis Brown,
1488:I don't think there's any one definition, but to do effective political work you have to have vision and practicality, and learn how to persuade people that what you feel needs to be done does need to be done. ~ Alan Cranston,
1489:I had been told from school onwards that the best definition of a human being was man the tool-maker - yet I had just watched a chimp tool-maker in action. I remember that day as vividly as if it was yesterday. ~ Jane Goodall,
1490:The Liberals may blather about protecting cultural minorities, but the fact is that undermining the traditional definition of marriage is an assault on multiculturalism and the practices in those communities. ~ Stephen Harper,
1491:Vigorous enforcement of copyrights themselves is an important part of the picture. But I don't think that expanding the legal definition of copyright outside of actual copyright infringement is the right move. ~ Edward Felten,
1492:I can't recall any difficulty in making the C language definition completely open - any discussion on the matter tended to mention languages whose inventors tried to keep tight control, and consequent ill fate ~ Dennis Ritchie,
1493:If The Beatles represent the most successful version you can be of a thing, then by that definition The Rolling Stones are The Beatles of music, not counting The Beatles. John Lennon is The Beatles of The Beatles. ~ Dana Gould,
1494:I have finally accepted that there are consequences to every action. I earned them and they are rightfully mine. There is no time to make bad decisions. Every step is precious. The definition of living is mine. ~ Tarryn Fisher,
1495:the following criteria are pertinent to a definition of insight: 1. Experience. A problem situation in which the crucial ex- perience must be acquired with the solution probably provides most favorable controls for ~ Anonymous,
1496:These numbers gave Virginia’s population about six times as large a proportion of gentlemen as England had. Gentlemen, by definition, had no manual skill, nor could they be expected to work at ordinary labor. ~ Edmund S Morgan,
1497:Values act as our compass to put us back on course every single day, so that day after day, we’re moving in the direction that takes us closer and closer to our definition of the “best” life we could possibly live. ~ S J Scott,
1498:What the pragmatist has his pragmatism for is to be able to say, Here is a definition and it does not differ at all from your confusedly apprehended conception because there is no practical difference. ~ Charles Sanders Peirce,
1499:Anything that grows is, by definition, alive. Washington, D.C. was no exception. As a living organism, the Federal Government’s number one job was self-preservation. Any threat to its existence had to be dealt with. ~ Brad Thor,
1500:Definition of bestie: person who loves nothing more than to watch you make a complete fool of yourself and then remind you of it at every opportunity for the rest of your life what a fool you made of yourself. ~ Kay Springsteen,

IN CHAPTERS [300/353]

   89 Integral Yoga
   52 Christianity
   48 Occultism
   39 Philosophy
   27 Psychology
   18 Yoga
   14 Science
   7 Poetry
   5 Integral Theory
   4 Fiction
   2 Hinduism
   2 Cybernetics
   2 Buddhism
   1 Theosophy
   1 Thelema
   1 Mysticism
   1 Education
   1 Baha i Faith
   1 Alchemy

   62 Sri Aurobindo
   38 The Mother
   29 Carl Jung
   23 Aleister Crowley
   21 Satprem
   21 Pierre Teilhard de Chardin
   20 Plotinus
   19 Nolini Kanta Gupta
   11 Saint Augustine of Hippo
   10 Swami Krishnananda
   8 Swami Vivekananda
   6 Aristotle
   6 A B Purani
   5 Plato
   5 Jorge Luis Borges
   4 Jordan Peterson
   4 George Van Vrekhem
   3 Patanjali
   3 H P Lovecraft
   3 Friedrich Nietzsche
   2 Saint John of Climacus
   2 R Buckminster Fuller
   2 Paul Richard
   2 Norbert Wiener
   2 Jean Gebser
   2 James George Frazer
   2 Baha u llah
   2 Aldous Huxley

   13 The Life Divine
   13 Mysterium Coniunctionis
   12 Liber ABA
   11 Magick Without Tears
   11 City of God
   10 The Synthesis Of Yoga
   10 The Study and Practice of Yoga
   8 Plotinus - Complete Works Vol 03
   8 Collected Works of Nolini Kanta Gupta - Vol 01
   7 The Future of Man
   7 The Archetypes and the Collective Unconscious
   7 Let Me Explain
   7 Essays In Philosophy And Yoga
   6 Poetics
   6 Evening Talks With Sri Aurobindo
   6 Aion
   6 A Garden of Pomegranates - An Outline of the Qabalah
   5 The Secret Doctrine
   5 The Phenomenon of Man
   5 Questions And Answers 1950-1951
   5 Plotinus - Complete Works Vol 01
   5 Letters On Yoga I
   5 Essays On The Gita
   4 The Problems of Philosophy
   4 Sri Aurobindo or the Adventure of Consciousness
   4 Record of Yoga
   4 Questions And Answers 1953
   4 Preparing for the Miraculous
   4 Plotinus - Complete Works Vol 02
   4 On Thoughts And Aphorisms
   4 Maps of Meaning
   4 Essays Divine And Human
   4 Agenda Vol 08
   3 Twilight of the Idols
   3 The Practice of Psycho therapy
   3 The 7 Habits of Highly Effective People
   3 Questions And Answers 1956
   3 Plotinus - Complete Works Vol 04
   3 Patanjali Yoga Sutras
   3 Lovecraft - Poems
   3 Letters On Yoga IV
   3 Labyrinths
   3 Collected Works of Nolini Kanta Gupta - Vol 07
   3 Collected Works of Nolini Kanta Gupta - Vol 02
   3 Bhakti-Yoga
   3 Agenda Vol 04
   2 The Perennial Philosophy
   2 The Ladder of Divine Ascent
   2 The Human Cycle
   2 The Golden Bough
   2 The Ever-Present Origin
   2 Talks
   2 Synergetics - Explorations in the Geometry of Thinking
   2 Raja-Yoga
   2 Questions And Answers 1954
   2 Prayers And Meditations
   2 On the Way to Supermanhood
   2 Notes On The Way
   2 Isha Upanishad
   2 Hymn of the Universe
   2 Cybernetics
   2 Agenda Vol 12
   2 Agenda Vol 09
   2 Agenda Vol 07

0.00a - Introduction, #A Garden of Pomegranates - An Outline of the Qabalah, #Israel Regardie, #Occultism
  Those who, armed with the tools provided by the Qabalah, have made the journey within and crossed beyond the barriers of illusion, have returned with an impressive quantity of knowledge which conforms strictly to the definition of "science" in Winston's College Dictionary: "Science: a body of knowledge, general truths of particular facts, obtained and shown to be correct by accurate observation and thinking; knowledge condensed, arranged and systematized with reference to general truths and laws."
  Over and over their findings have been confirmed, proving the Qabalah contains within it not only the elements of the science itself but the method with which to pursue it.
  All sorts of books have been written on the Qabalah, some poor, some few others extremely good. But I came to feel the need for what might be called a sort of Berlitz handbook, a concise but comprehensive introduction, studded with diagrams and tables of easily understood definitions and correspondences to simplify the student's grasp of so complicated and abstruse a subject.
  During a short retirement in North Devon in 1931, I began to amalgamate my notes. It was out of these that A Garden of Pomegranates gradually emerged. I unashamedly admit that my book contains many direct plagiarisms from Crowley, Waite, Eliphas Levi, and D. H. Lawrence. I had incorporated numerous fragments from their works into my notebooks without citing individual references to the various sources from which I condensed my notes.

0.00 - The Book of Lies Text, #The Book of Lies, #Aleister Crowley, #Philosophy
     A clear definition of the Heikle might have been
    obtained from Mr Oscar Eckenstein, 34 Greencroft

0.00 - The Wellspring of Reality, #Synergetics - Explorations in the Geometry of Thinking, #R Buckminster Fuller, #Science
  Holding within their definition, we define Universe as the aggregate of allhumanity's consciously apprehended and communicated, nonsimultaneous, and only partially overlapping experiences. An aggregate of finites is finite. Universe is a finite but nonsimultaneously conceptual scenario.
  The human brain is a physical mechanism for storing, retrieving, and re-storing again, each special-case experience. The experience is often a packaged concept.

0.01 - I - Sri Aurobindos personality, his outer retirement - outside contacts after 1910 - spiritual personalities- Vibhutis and Avatars - transformtion of human personality, #Evening Talks With Sri Aurobindo, #unset, #Zen
   Sri Aurobindo has explained the mystery of personality in some of his writings. Ordinarily by personality we mean something which can be described as "a pattern of being marked out by a settled combination of fixed qualities, a determined character.... In one view personality is regarded as a fixed structure of recognisable qualities expressing a power of being"; another idea regards "personality as a flux of self-expressive or sensitive and responsive being.... But flux of nature and fixity of nature" which some call character "are two aspects of being neither of which, nor indeed both together, can be a definition of personality.... But besides this flux and this fixity there is also a third and occult element, the Person behind of whom the personality is a self-expression; the Person puts forward the personality as his role, character, persona, in the present act of his long drama of manifested existence. But the Person is larger than his personality, and it may happen that this inner largeness overflows into the surface formation; the result is a self-expression of being which can no longer be described by fixed qualities, normalities of mood, exact lineaments, or marked out by structural limits."[4]
   The gospel of the Supermind which Sri Aurobindo brought to man envisages a new level of consciousness beyond Mind. When this level is attained it imposes a complete and radical reintegration of the human personality. Sri Aurobindo was not merely the exponent but the embodiment of the new, dynamic truth of the Supermind. While exploring and sounding the tremendous possibilities of human personality in his intense spiritual Sadhana, he has shown us that practically there are no limits to its expansion and ascent. It can reach in its growth what appears to man at present as a 'divine' status. It goes without saying that this attainment is not an easy task; there are conditions to be fulfilled for the transformation from the human to the divine.

01.02 - Sri Aurobindo - Ahana and Other Poems, #Collected Works of Nolini Kanta Gupta - Vol 02, #Nolini Kanta Gupta, #Integral Yoga
   We have been speaking of philosophy and the philosophic manner. But what are the exact implications of the words, let us ask again. They mean nothing more and nothing lessthan the force of thought and the mass of thought content. After all, that seems to be almost the whole difference between the past and the present human consciousness in so far at least as it has found expression in poetry. That element, we wish to point out, is precisely what the old-world poets lacked or did not care to possess or express or stress. A poet meant above all, if not all in all, emotion, passion, sensuousness, sensibility, nervous enthusiasm and imagination and fancy: remember the classic definition given by Shakespeare of the poet
   Of imagination all compact.. . .

01.03 - Mystic Poetry, #Collected Works of Nolini Kanta Gupta - Vol 02, #Nolini Kanta Gupta, #Integral Yoga
   This is what I was trying to make out as the distinguishing trait of the real spiritual consciousness that seems to be developing in the poetic creation of tomorrow, e.g., it has the same rationality, clarity, concreteness of perception as the scientific spirit has in its own domain and still it is rounded off with a halo of magic and miracle. That is the nature of the logic of the infinite proper to the spiritual consciousness. We can have a Science of the Spirit as well as a Science of Matter. This is the Thought element or what corresponds to it, of which I was speaking, the philosophical factor, that which gives form to the formless or definition to that which is vague, a nearness and familiarity to that which is far and alien. The fullness of the spiritual consciousness means such a thing, the presentation of a divine name and form. And this distinguishes it from the mystic consciousness which is not the supreme solar consciousness but the nearest approach to it. Or, perhaps, the mystic dwells in the domain of the Divine, he may even be suffused with a sense of unity but would not like to acquire the Divine's nature and function. Normally and generally he embodies all the aspiration and yearning moved by intimations and suggestions belonging to the human mentality, the divine urge retaining still the human flavour. We can say also, using a Vedantic terminology, that the mystic consciousness gives us the tatastha lakshana, the nearest approximative attribute of the attri buteless; or otherwise, it is the hiranyagarbha consciousness which englobes the multiple play, the coruscated possibilities of the Reality: while the spiritual proper may be considered as prajghana, the solid mass, the essential lineaments of revelatory knowledge, the typal "wave-particles" of the Reality. In the former there is a play of imagination, even of fancy, a decorative aesthesis, while in the latter it is vision pure and simple. If the spiritual poetry is solar in its nature, we can say, by extending the analogy, that mystic poetry is characteristically lunarMoon representing the delight and the magic that Mind and mental imagination, suffused, no doubt, with a light or a reflection of some light from beyond, is capable of (the Upanishad speaks of the Moon being born of the Mind).
   To sum up and recapitulate. The evolution of the poetic expression in man has ever been an attempt at a return and a progressive approach to the spiritual source of poetic inspiration, which was also the original, though somewhat veiled, source from the very beginning. The movement has followed devious waysstrongly negative at timeseven like man's life and consciousness in general of which it is an organic member; but the ultimate end and drift seems to have been always that ideal and principle even when fallen on evil days and evil tongues. The poet's ideal in the dawn of the world was, as the Vedic Rishi sang, to raise things of beauty in heaven by his poetic power,kavi kavitv divi rpam sajat. Even a Satanic poet, the inaugurator, in a way, of modernism and modernistic consciousness, Charles Baudelaire, thus admonishes his spirit:

01.04 - The Intuition of the Age, #Collected Works of Nolini Kanta Gupta - Vol 01, #Nolini Kanta Gupta, #Integral Yoga
   So instead of the rational principle, the new age wants the principle of Nature or Life. Even as regards knowledge Reason is not the only, nor the best instrument. For animals have properly no reason; the nature-principle of knowledge in the animal is Instinct the faculty that acts so faultlessly, so marvellously where Reason can only pause and be perplexed. This is not to say that man is to or can go back to this primitive and animal function; but certainly he can replace it by something akin which is as natural and yet purified and self-consciousillumined instinct, we may say or Intuition, as Bergson terms it. And Nietzsche's definition of the Superman has also a similar orientation and significance; for, according to him, the Superman is man who has outgrown his Reason, who is not bound by the standards and the conventions determined by Reason for a special purpose. The Superman is one who has gone beyond "good and evil," who has shaken off from his nature and character elements that are "human, all too human"who is the embodiment of life-force in its absolute purity and strength and freedom.
   This then is the mantra of the new ageLife with Intuition as its guide and not Reason and mechanical efficiency, not Man but Superman. The right mantra has been found, the principle itself is irreproachable. But the interpretation, the application, does not seem to have been always happy. For, Nietzsche's conception of the Superman is full of obvious lacunae. If we have so long been adoring the intellectual man, Nietzsche asks us, on the other hand, to deify the vital man. According to him the superman is he who has (1) the supreme sense of the ego, (2) the sovereign will to power and (3) who lives dangerously. All this means an Asura, that is to say, one who has, it may be, dominion over his animal and vital impulsions in order, of course, that he may best gratify them but who has not purified them. Purification does not necessarily mean, annihilation but it does mean sublimation and transformation. So if you have to transcend man, you have to transcend egoism also. For a conscious egoism is the very characteristic of man and by increasing your sense of egoism you do not supersede man but simply aggrandise your humanity, fashion it on a larger, a titanic scale. And then the will to power is not the only will that requires fulfilment, there is also the will to knowledge and the will to love. In man these three fundamental constitutive elements coexist, although they do it, more often than not, at the expense of each other and in a state of continual disharmony. The superman, if he is to be the man "who has surmounted himself", must embody a poise of being in which all the three find a fusion and harmonya perfect synthesis. Again, to live dangerously may be heroic, but it is not divine. To live dangerously means to have eternal opponents, that is to say, to live ever on the same level with the forces you want to dominate. To have the sense that one has to fight and control means that one is not as yet the sovereign lord, for one has to strive and strain and attain. The supreme lord is he who is perfectly equanimous with himself and with the world. He has not to batter things into a shape in order to create. He creates means, he manifests. He wills and he achieves"God said 'let there be light' and there was light."
   And the faculty of Intuition said to be the characteristic of the New Man does not mean all that it should, if we confine ourselves to Bergson's definition of it. Bergson says that Intuition is a sort of sympathy, a community of feeling or sensibility with the urge of the life-reality. The difference between the sympathy of Instinct and the sympathy of Intuition being that while the former is an unconscious or semi-conscious power, the latter is illumined and self-conscious. Now this view emphasises only the feeling-tone of Intuition, the vital sensibility that attends the direct communion with the life movement. But Intuition is not only purified feeling and sensibility, it is also purified vision and knowledge. It unites us not only with the movement of life, but also opens out to our sight the Truths, the fundamental realities behind that movement. Bergson does not, of course, point to any existence behind the continuous flux of life-power the elan vital. He seems to deny any static truth or truths to be seen and seized in any scheme of knowledge. To him the dynamic flow the Heraclitian panta reei is the ultimate reality. It is precisely to this view of things that Bergson owes his conception of Intuition. Since existence is a continuum of Mind-Energy, the only way to know it is to be in harmony or unison with it, to move along its current. The conception of knowledge as a fixing and delimiting of things is necessarily an anomaly in this scheme. But the question is, is matter the only static and separative reality? Is the flux of vital Mind-Energy the ultimate truth?
   Matter forms the lowest level of reality. Above it is the elan vital. Above the elan vital there is yet the domain of the Spirit. And the Spirit is a static substance and at the same a dynamic creative power. It is Being (Sat) that realises or expresses itself through certain typal nuclei or nodi of consciousness (chit) in a continuous becoming, in a flow of creative activity (ananda). The dynamism of the vital energy is only a refraction or precipitation of the dynamism of the spirit; and so also static matter is only the substance of the spirit concretised and solidified. It is in an uplift both of matter and vital force to their prototypesswarupa and swabhavain the Spirit that lies the real transformation and transfiguration of the humanity of man.

01.07 - Blaise Pascal (1623-1662), #Collected Works of Nolini Kanta Gupta - Vol 02, #Nolini Kanta Gupta, #Integral Yoga
   In his inquiry into truth and certitude Pascal takes his stand upon what he calls the geometrical method, the only valid method, according to him, in the sphere of reason. The characteristic of this method is that it takes for granted certain fundamental principles and realitiescalled axioms and postulates or definitionsand proceeds to other truths that are infallibly and inevitably deduced from them, that are inherent and implied in them. There is no use or necessity in trying to demonstrate these fundamentals also; that will only land us into confusion and muddle. They have to be simply accepted, they do not require demonstration, it is they that demonstrate others. Such, for instance, are space, time, number, the reality of which it is foolishness and pedantry to I seek to prove. There is then an order of truths that do not i require to be proved. We are referring only to the order of I physical truths. But there is another order, Pascal says, equally I valid and veritable, the order of the Spirit. Here we have another set of fundamentals that have to be accepted and taken for granted, matrix of other truths and realities. It can also be called the order of the Heart. Reason posits physical fundamentals; it does not know of the fundamentals of the Heart which are beyond its reach; such are God, Soul, Immortality which are evident only to Faith.
   But Faith and Reason, according to Pascal, are not contraries nor irreconcilables. Because the things of faith are beyond reason, it is not that they are irrational. Here is what Pascal says about the function and limitation of reason:

0.11 - Letters to a Sadhak, #Some Answers From The Mother, #The Mother, #Integral Yoga
  This is one way of putting it. Mental definitions are never more
  than approximations, ways of speaking.

0 1963-06-08, #Agenda Vol 04, #The Mother, #Integral Yoga
   It had nothing to do with either Knowledge or Light or understanding (the whole angle of light and intellectual knowledge); nothing to do with Love (which I had felt last time and which has its own particular vibration). The best definition we could give is Power. It was Power in its most formidable aspectcrushing. With REAL All-Powerfulness; Power in its all-powerfulness, with that something unshakable, immutable, untouchable.2 Yes, really Power, thats right.
   But Power, you understand For example, a hurricanes power is nothing in comparison. All the powers a human being can withstand, even probably imagine, are nothingnothing its (Mother blows in the air) like soap bubbles.

0 1963-07-27, #Agenda Vol 04, #The Mother, #Integral Yoga
   What the supramental will do the mind cannot foresee or lay down. The mind is ignorance seeking for the Truth, the supramental by its very definition is the Truth-Consciousness, Truth in possession of itself and fulfilling itself by its own power. In a supramental world imperfection and disharmony are bound to disappear. But what we propose just now is not to make the earth a supramental world but to bring down the supramental as a power and established consciousness in the midst of the restto let it work there and fulfill itself as Mind descended into Life and Matter and has worked as a Power there to fulfill itself in the midst of the rest. This will be enough to change the world and to change Nature by breaking down her present limits. But what, how, by what degrees it will do it, is a thing that ought not to be said nowwhen the Light is there, the Light will itself do its workwhen the supramental Will stands on earth, that Will will decide. It will establish a perfection, a harmony, a Truth-creation for the rest, well, it will be the rest that is all.

0 1963-10-19, #Agenda Vol 04, #The Mother, #Integral Yoga
   The Help is ever present, in the sense that you unquestionably feel that the Force acts (the Force, that is, the supreme Consciousness and supreme Knowledge), the Force acts with a sort of pressure on all people and all circumstances, in a favorable direction so that what happens may truly be the bestand the best hierarchically; in other words, the highest and purest (you know my definition of pure) is a sort of center in relation to which things get organized; they get organized hierarchically, each with its right to progress, but as if to favor whats closest to and most expressive of the Divine that is going on constantly, I see hundreds of examples of it all the time. Yet, from the point of view of outer circumstances, there is such a tension that you feel you are close to catastrophe.
   Sri Aurobindo told me that there are three difficulties, and they are the three things that have to be conquered for the earth to be ready (this is from the purely outward point of view, I am not speaking of psychological factors): government, money, health.

0 1965-07-14, #Agenda Vol 06, #The Mother, #Integral Yoga
   I called it, A few definitions.
   The first one was about someone going away who wanted to take something [blessed by Mother] for his family. I told him, Oh, they arent receptive. So he asked, What does being receptive mean? (He didnt ask me, but when he left the room he was scratching his head and he asked his friend, What does Mother mean? What does being receptive mean?) I answered in English and it took many, many forms, and today, its one of the things that came in that vein. And whats peculiar in this sort of experience is that when it comes, the words take on a very precise meaning; I am not at all sure if its their usual meaning, but they have the vibration of their meaning, a sort of crystalline little vibration. And it comes without alteration. I put:
   Then a third definition came:
   To be sincere is to unify ones entire being around the supreme inner Will.

0 1966-06-29, #Agenda Vol 07, #The Mother, #Integral Yoga
   So, lets note down your definition for the child.
   No, your definition first, thats the first stage! Then the second stage, the human.
   (Mother laughs and writes:)

0 1966-12-24, #Agenda Vol 07, #The Mother, #Integral Yoga
   They want a mental definition of the Truth.
   Truth cannot be expressed in the minds terms. Thats the point. And all the questions they ask are mental ones.

0 1967-06-07, #Agenda Vol 08, #The Mother, #Integral Yoga
   I am intentionally not giving any definition. Because my lifelong feeling has been that its a mere word, and a word behind which people put a lot of very undesirable things. Its that idea of a god who claims to be the one and only, as they say: God is the one and only. But they feel it and say it in the way Anatole France put it (I think it was in The Revolt of Angels): this God who wants to be the one and only and ALL ALONE. That was what had made me a complete atheist, if I may say so, in my childhood; I refused to accept a being, WHOEVER HE WAS, who proclaimed himself to be the one and only and almighty. Even if he were indeed the one and only and almighty (laughing), he should have no right to proclaim it! Thats how it was in my mind. I could make an hour-long speech on this, to show how in every religion they tackled the problem.
   In any case, I have given what I find is the most objective definition. And as in the other days What is the Divine?, I have tried to give a feeling of the Thing; here I wanted to fight against the use of the word which, to me, is hollow, but dangerously so.
   I remember a very powerful line in Savitri which says it all wonderfully in one sentence. He says, The bodiless Namelessness that saw God BORN.2

0 1967-06-14, #Agenda Vol 08, #The Mother, #Integral Yoga
   Oh, for those who like definitions, heres another answer to What is the Divine?a smiling and luminous Immensity.
   And THERE, you know, its there. THERE.

0 1967-07-05, #Agenda Vol 08, #The Mother, #Integral Yoga
   In fact, the best definition would be pale orange, or salmon pink.
   Mother had said several times that she "was" Sri Aurobindo's feet (see in particular Agenda VI, March 10, 1965).

0 1967-08-16, #Agenda Vol 08, #The Mother, #Integral Yoga
   Do you know, I sat down, when it was nearly time, maybe half a minute before, and instantly, without warning like that, like a staggering blow: such a powerful descent (I was completely immobilised) of something. At the same time, it was as if Sri Aurobindo was telling me (because the definition came along with the thingit was a vision which wasnt a vision, which was absolutely concrete), and the word was: golden peace. But so strong! And it didnt budge at all. For the entire half-hour it didnt budge. Never before Its something new, I had never felt that before. I cant say. It was perceived, but not like an objective vision. And other people spontaneously told me that as soon as they sat down for the meditation (gesture of a massive descent), something came with a tremendous power and immobilised everything, with a sense of peace as they had never felt before in their life.
   Golden peace

0 1968-03-13, #Agenda Vol 09, #The Mother, #Integral Yoga
   Yes, they will find the same thing that mystics and monks and everyone have found thats the power. The power is what you find. And to That, essentially, you cannot give any name or definition.
   Its the big quarrel now about Auroville: in the Charter I put Divine Consciousness [To live in Auroville one must be a willing servitor of the Divine Consciousness], but they say, It brings God to mind. I said (laughing), Not to my mind! So then, some change it to the highest consciousness, others put something else. With the Russians I agreed to put perfect Consciousness, but thats an approximation. And Thatwhich we cant name or defineis what is the supreme Power. What you find is the supreme Power. And the supreme Power is only one aspect: the aspect concerned with the creation.

0 1968-05-04, #Agenda Vol 09, #The Mother, #Integral Yoga
   Sri Aurobindos definition of purity is being exclusively under the influence of the Divine. So naturally, the Divine is exclusively under his own influence (!), and thats purity!
   Any news regarding P.L.?

0 1969-12-17, #Agenda Vol 10, #The Mother, #Integral Yoga
   Then (Mother takes other notes) I am continuing the answers to the Aphorisms, and yesterday (those Aphorisms of Sri Aurobindo are extremely interesting, I had forgotten), yesterday T. asked me a question (because in those Aphorisms, Sri Aurobindo speaks of courage and love, meanness and selfishness, nobleness and generosity1), so she asked me, Could you give me the definition of these words? At first, I thought it wouldnt come, but all of a sudden it came. So I noted it down, its interesting.
   (Mother reads)
   I repeat, its not at all on this plane (gesture below), because it was the exact definition of divine Love as it acts.
   Then the two dark things:

0 1971-04-17, #Agenda Vol 12, #The Mother, #Integral Yoga
   Now, you have completely confused the psychic and the spiritual. The psychic, the soul, the Fire within, Agni, does not belong to the mental bubble or to any bubble: it is the Divine in matter. It is that little Fire which opens the door to the great solar Fire of the New Consciousness. It is the instrument of the yoga of the superman (when I speak of turning on the psychic switch, I am there taking the word in the vulgar and ridiculous sense of people seeking visionary and occult experiencesnot in the true sense). Others in every age have had the experience of the psychic, of the inner Fire, but aside from the Rishis, no one used it to transform matter; the religions have made a purely devotional and mystical thing out of it. As for the spiritual, that includes all the planes of consciousness above the ordinary mind. It is the path of ascent. And that is where I repeatedly and emphatically, and from experience, say that those great Experiences, which have to be turned into spiritual summits, are part of the mental bubble (including the overmind): they are the rarefied summits on which the being thins out into a marvelous whiteness, immense, royal, without a ripple of trouble, in an eternal peacewhich can last for millenniums without its changing the world one iota, by definition. But the spiritual is not the supramental, and when one touches the supramental, it seems to be almost a whole other Spirit, it is so compact, warm, powerful, present, embodied and radiantly solid in broad daylight. That is the Radiance which Sri Aurobindo and Mother came to bring down on earththey said over and over that their yoga was new, new, newand it is through the simple little fire inside us that we can enter into direct contact with That, without sitting in the lotus position or leaving life. When one touches That, the spiritual heights seem pale. That is all I have to say. So we do not at all need to be superyogis to have this contact, and those who have found Nirvana, or what have you, have not advanced one inch toward That, because the clue to That is not up there at all or outside, but in your own small capacity of flame.
   So if instead of splitting hairs, you set out boldly on the road, afire, you would perhaps discover that we are indeed at the Hour of God and that a single spark of sincere effort, at ones own level, opens doors which have been closed for millenniums.

0 1971-07-14, #Agenda Vol 12, #The Mother, #Integral Yoga
   Nothing seems able to disturb the immobility of things and all that is active outside our own selves is a sort of welter of dark and sombre confusion from which nothing formed or luminous can emerge. It is a singular condition of the world, the very definition of chaos with the superficial form of the old world resting apparently intact on the surface. But a chaos of long disintegration or of some early new birth? It is the thing that is being fought out from day to day, but as yet without any approach to a decision.
   Sri Aurobindo

04.03 - The Eternal East and West, #Collected Works of Nolini Kanta Gupta - Vol 01, #Nolini Kanta Gupta, #Integral Yoga
   This view finds its justification because of a particular outlook on spirituality and non-spirituality. If the Spirit and things spiritual are taken to mean something transcending and rejecting the world and the things of the world, something exclusive of life and its fulfilment here on earth, if on the other hand, the world and its life are given only their face value emptying them of their deeper and transcendent contentsin the manner of the great Laplace who could find no place for God in his map of the world which seemed to be quite complete in itself, if this trenchant division is made in the very definition of the terms, in our primary axioms and postulates, then, of course, we cannot avoid a scission and an eternal struggle. If you consider the Spirit as only pure spirit, an absolute without any relation, as, an ever-fixed and static entity and if we view Matter as purely material and the law of mechanics as supreme and inviolable, then there cannot be a reconciliation or even a meeting between the two. There are some who have a great goodwill, who wish to avoid clash and quarrel and are for concord and harmony. They have tried the reconciliation, but failed. The two positions being fundamentally exclusive of each other can, at best, be juxtaposed, but not unified or fused together.
   And yet mankind has always sought for an integral, an all comprehending fulfilment, a truth and a realisation that would go round his entire existence. Man has always aspired, in the midst of the transience and imperfection that the world is, for something stable and perfect, in the heart of disharmony for some core of perfect harmony. He termed it God, Atman, Summum Bonum and he sought it sometimes, as he thought necessary, even at the cost of the world and the life, if it is to be found elsewhere. Man aspired also always to find this habitation of his made somewhat better. Dissatisfied with his present state, he sought to mould it, remake it, put into it something which his aspiration and inspiration called the True, the Beautiful, the Good. There was always this double aspiration in man, one of ascent and the other of descent, one vertical and the other horizontal, one leading up and beyondtotally beyond, in its extreme urge the other probing into the mystery locked up there below, releasing the power to reform or recreate the world, although he was not always sure whether it was a power of mind or of matter.

05.03 - Bypaths of Souls Journey, #Collected Works of Nolini Kanta Gupta - Vol 01, #Nolini Kanta Gupta, #Integral Yoga
   There is also the other question asked very often whether men and women always follow different lines of growth or whether there may be intermixture of the lines. Although the soul is sexless, still it may be said that on the whole there are these two lines, masculine and feminine; and generally a soul follows the same line in its incarnations. The soul difference is not in the sex as we know it; but there is a disposition and character that mark the difference and each type, masculine or feminine, is that because of some special role to fulfil, a particular kind of work to be done in a particular way. The difference is difficult to define exactly; but one may say, in the language of the mystics, that it "is the difference between the left hand and the right hand. The mystics refer to the two sides of consciousness, that of light and that of force (chit-tapas), that is to say, knowledge and power. It is not that the two are quite separate entities, they are together and grow together; but in actuality one aspect is more in front than the other. The masculine aspect is often termed as the right hand and the feminine as the left hand of the conscious being. And in a general way man represents the knowledge aspect the conceptual dynamism and woman represents the executive dynamism. This definition however should not be taken absolutely or rigidly. So it can be said that a woman generally remains a woman in all her births and man like-wise remains a man. Here too, although there may not be a central metamorphosis, there may be a partial change: that is to say a part of a mantoo womanish, so to saymay enter a woman and live and fulfil itself or exhaust there; and the masculine part of a woman also can identify itself with its type and pattern in a man. The difference, however, between Purusha and Prakriti, philosophically, seems to be very definite and clear; but in actuality, when they take form and embodiment, it is not easy to define the principles or qualities that mark out the two. At the source when the difference starts, it is a matter of stress and temper and not any so-called division of labour as human mind ordinarily understands it.
   The soul in its inner consciousness knows all its evolutionary formations, remembers those of the past and foresees those of the future, when needed, and even determines them essentially. The mind ruling one incarnation cannot recall other incarnations, for it is a product of that incarnation and is meant to guide and control it; physical memory is a function of the brain in the particular body that the soul inhabits for the time. The soul carries a deeper reminiscence which is part and parcel of the self-consciousness inherent in its nature. The physical memory too can partake of this inner reminiscence if it is purified, illumined and organised around the soul as its instrument of expression. Indeed, although the journey of the soul essentially and originally is the flight of the spirit to the Spirit, yet the final consummation is towards an increasing integration of all the external instruments from the highest to the lowest, from the subtlest to the grossest into a harmonised organised whole, reflecting and embodying the Spirit in its purity and totality. The mind, the life and the body too attain a perfectly unified individuality that is the expression of the soul's truth-consciousness and escaping disruption and dissolution partake ultimately of the inherent immortality of the spiritual being.

05.07 - The Observer and the Observed, #Collected Works of Nolini Kanta Gupta - Vol 01, #Nolini Kanta Gupta, #Integral Yoga
   In any case, at the end of all our peregrinations we seem to circle back to our original Cartesian-cum-Berkeleyean position; we discover that it is not easy to extricate the observed from the observer: the observer is so deep set in the observed, part and parcel of it that there are scientists who consider their whole scientific scheme of the world as only a mental set-up, we may replace it very soon by another scheme equally cogent, subjective all the same. The subject has entered into all objects and any definition of the object must necessarily depend upon the particular poise of the subject. That is the cosmic immanence of the Purusha spoken of in the Upanishads the one Purusha become many and installed in the heart of each and, every object. There is indeed a status of the Subject in which the subject and the object are gathered into or form one reality. The observer and the observed are the two ends, the polarisation of a single entity: and all are reals at that level. But the scientific observer is only the mental purusha and in his observation the absolute objectivisation is not possible. The Einsteinian equations that purport to rule out all local view-points can hardly be said to have transcended the co-ordinates of the subject. That is possible only to the consciousness of the cosmic Purusha.

05.09 - The Changed Scientific Outlook, #Collected Works of Nolini Kanta Gupta - Vol 01, #Nolini Kanta Gupta, #Integral Yoga
   There is a scientific obscurantism, which is not less obscure because it is scientific, and one must guard against it with double care and watchfulness. It is the mentality of the no-changer whose motto seems to be: plus a change, plus a reste le mme.. Let me explain. The scientist who prefers still to be called a materialist must remember that the (material) ground under his feet has shifted considerably since the time he first propounded his materialistic position: he does not stand in the same place (or plane?) as he did even twenty years ago. The change has been basic and fundamentalfundamental, because the very definitions and postulates with which we once started have been called in question, thrown overboard or into the melting-pot.
   Shall we elucidate a little? We were once upon a time materialists, that is to say, we had very definite and fixed notions about Matter: to Matter we gave certain invariable characteristics, inalienable properties. How many of them stand today unscathed on their legs? Take the very first, the crucial property ascribed to Matter: "Matter is that which has extension." Well, an electric charge, a unit energy of it, the ultimate constituent of Matter as discovered by Science today, can it be said to occupy space? In the early days of Science, one Boscovich advanced a theory according to which the ultimate material particle (a molecule, in his time) does not occupy space, it is a mere mathematical point toward or from which certain forces act. The theory, naturally, was laughed out of consideration; but today we have come perilously near it. Again, another postulate describing Matter's dharma was: "two material particles cannot occupy the same place at the same time". Now what do you say of the neutron and proton that coalesce and form the unit of a modern atomic nucleus? Once more, the notion of the indestructibility of Matter has been considerably modified in view of the phenomenon of an electric particle (electron) being wholly transmuted ("dematerialised" as the scientists themselves say) into a light particle (photon). Lastly, the idea of the constancy of massa bed-rock of old-world physicsis considered today to be a superstition, an illusion. If after all these changes in the idea of Matter, a man still maintains that he is a materialist, as of old, well, I can only exclaim in the Shakespearean phrase: "Bottom, thou art translated"! What I want to say is that the changes that modern physics proposes to execute in its body are not mere amendments and emendations, but they mean a radical transfiguration, a subversion and a mutation. And more than the actual changes effected, the possibilities, the tendencies that have opened out, the lines along which further developments are proceeding do point not merely to a reformation, but a revolution.

05.15 - Sartrian Freedom, #Collected Works of Nolini Kanta Gupta - Vol 01, #Nolini Kanta Gupta, #Integral Yoga
   "Freedom is not abeing: it is thebeing of man, that is to say, his not-being". A very cryptic mantra. Let us try to unveil the Shekinah. "Being" means "being" i.e. existing, something persisting, continuing in the same condition, something fixed, a status. Freedom is not a thingof that kind, it is movement: even so, it is not a continuous movement. According to Bergson, the true, the ultimate reality is a continuity of urge (lan vital); according to Sartre, however, in line with the trend of modern scientific knowledge, the reality is an assemblage of discrete units of energy, packets or quanta. So freedom is an urge, a spurt (jaillissement):it acts in a disconnected fashion and it is absolute and unconditional. It is veritably the wind that bloweth where it listeth. It has no purpose, no direction, no relation: for all those attributes or definitions would annul its absoluteness. It does not stop or halt or dwell upon, it bursts forth and passes. It does not exist, that is stay: therefore it is non-being. Man's being then consist of a conglomeration (ensemble)of such freedoms. And that is the whole reality ofman, his very essence. We have said that a heavy sense of responsibility hangs upon the .free Purusha: but it appears the Sartrian Purusha is a divided personality. In spite of the sense of responsibility (or because of it?) he acts irresponsibly; for, acting otherwise would not be freedom. So then this essence, the self-consciousness, self-existence, presence in oneself is not a status, a fixed standing entity: it is not a point, even if geometrical; it is, Sartre describes, the jet from one point to another, for, real point there is none: so it is the emptiness behind all concrete realities that is the true reality, asat brahman, unyamto Sartre that is freedom, freedom absolute and ultimate.
   Practically this conception of freedom brings into high relief, makes almost all in all, only one aspect, one character or attri bute of freedom: the abolition of all ties and obligations and relations beyond oneself involving a hollow self-sufficiency. Naturally such an outlook requires against it a complementary one, even if it is not to correct and complete, at least to support and implement it. Sartre too cannot ignore the fact that the free being is not an isolated phenomenon in the world; it exists along with and in the company of others of the same nature and quality. Indeed human society is that in essence, an association of freedoms, although these movements of freedom are camouflaged in appearance and are not recognised by the free persons themselves. The interaction between the free persons, the reflection of oneself in others and the mutual dependence of egos is a constant theme in the novels and plays of Sartre.

05.23 - The Base of Sincerity, #Collected Works of Nolini Kanta Gupta - Vol 01, #Nolini Kanta Gupta, #Integral Yoga
   That is the definition of sincerity: to be transparent and single-pointed to your soul-consciousness, to your deity. And that also is the only way by which there can be realised in you, the highest and largest, the most intimate and absolute harmony you are capable of and that is demanded of you. The perfect organisation of the individual life can be obtained in and through the harmony inherent in the central reality, in the natural order of its activities. In the scheme or pattern laid out in the inmost consciousness, each element has its own orbit and its own quantum of energy, each force its allotted function: the will in each is exactly commensurable with what should be the expression in it of the total reality, each is the whole and rounded articulation of an aspect or figure put forth by the central truth in its self-display. As in a musical theme, each note has a definite pitch, amplitude, tone which give it its perfect form in order to constitute a common pattern the highest pitch, the largest amplitude or the most vibrant tone is not needed, not only not needed, would be a bar on the contraryeven so, the individual man when he attains perfection realises in himself a harmony which gives the true expression of all his limbs, the fullest and fairest expression of each and every one as demanded by the divine role destined for him.

05.32 - Yoga as Pragmatic Power, #Collected Works of Nolini Kanta Gupta - Vol 01, #Nolini Kanta Gupta, #Integral Yoga
   People ask about the practical value of Yoga, but do not always wait for an answer. For, according to some, Yoga means "introversion", escapismillusion, delusion, hallucination. And yet the truth of the matter is that Yoga is nothing but a downright practical affair, that its proof is in the very eating of it. To judge a Yogin you are to ask, as did Arjuna, a very prince of pragmatic men, how he sits, how he walks aboutkim sta vrajeta kim. Indeed the very definition of Yoga is that it is skill in works. To do works and not to run away from them has always been the true and natural ideal even (and particularly, as we shall see), for the spiritual man: the ideal is as old as the Upanishadic injunction, "Doing verily works in this world one should wish to live a hundred years." The Yogi as a world-shunner was not always the only ideal or the highest ideal. To do works, yes; but, with skill, it is pointed out, that is to say, in the way in which they can be most effectively done. Sri Krishna teaches Arjuna the skill and shows how to apply it in the crudest and the most terrible action, viz ., a bloody battle. But the skill that he demands, that is demanded of a Yogi, is not mere cleverness, craftiness or business policy including deceit, duplicity, sharpness; it means quite another spirit and faculty.
   The ordinary man does works, achieves the object he aims at, through processes and means which, however powerful and effective, can be only moderately and approximately so. The amount of time and energy wasted is not proportionate to the result obtained. Man knows to utilise only a fraction of the energy collected in a system: the best of dispositions and organisation can harness just a modicum of the total stock, the rest is frittered away or locked up, whether it is vital energy or mental energy or even physical energy. That is because the central power that drives, the consciousness that controls the whole mechanism is of an inferior quality, of a lower potential. The Yogi views all energy as various forms and gradations of consciousness. So what he proposes, as a good scientist, is to lift up the consciousness and thus raise its potential and effectivity and minimise the waste. The higher the consciousness, the greater the effectivity, that is to say, the pragmatic value. As we rise in the scale there is less and less waste and greater and greater utilisation until we reach a climax, a critical degree, where there is absolutely no waste and where there is the utmost, the total utilisation of the whole energy. This supreme peak of consciousness that is absolute energy Sri Aurobindo names the Supermind. But on lesser levels too the spiritual consciousness is dynamic and effectivepragmatic in a way that the ordinary, limited, externally pragmatic consciousness cannot hope to be.
   The fundamental truth to be noted is that the Spirit is power, not merely consciousness: indeed the very definition of the spirit is that it is consciousness-energy. And it is this consciousness-energy that is at the source of all cosmic activities. Man's action too springs from this original source, although apparently it seems to be caused by other secondary and derivative energies. As a matter of fact what these energies that seem to be actually in play do is not the origination but rather the deviation and diversion, a diminution and adulteration of the supreme energy, a lowering of the quality, the tone and temper of the dynamism. In other words, as we have already said, a thought force, a vital force, a nervous or physical force, all these are only lower, even minima values, more or less distant and deformed echoes of a true and absolute Power behind and above them all. These forces become powerful in proportion as they are instruments and functions of that one mother energy. The truth is most beautifully illustrated in the story of Brahma a and the gods in the Kena Upanishad. The gods conquered and were proud of their conquest; each thought that it was due to his own personal prowess that he conquered. But they were utterly discomfited and shamed when the Divine Power appeared and proved to them that but for this Power they would not be able even to tackle a blade of grassFire would not burn it, Water would not drench it, Wind would not move it.
   The Life Divine, by Sri Aurobindo

07.08 - The Divine Truth Its Name and Form, #Collected Works of Nolini Kanta Gupta - Vol 03, #Nolini Kanta Gupta, #Integral Yoga
   What is the value of a word, after all? Have you not noticed that there are people who do not understand you, however clearly you speak to them. There are others again who understand you if you utter only two words. The external form the sound of a wordhas a meaning, if there is a force of thought behind; the greater the force of thought, the more powerful and precise and clear it is, and greater the chance of people receiving the force and understanding the word that carries the force. But if someone speaks without thinking, usually it is impossible to understand him; he would seem to you to make only a noise. You must have noticed also that people who have lived together and are habituated to each other's thought and talk, do not require any definition of the words they use or even a large use to understand each other. There has been a mental adjustment and the words are only an excuse for the inner contact, the contact between brain and brain which underlies or even precedes the words. But when you meet a new person, it takes you time to adapt and adjust yourself to understand the words he uses.
   It is the meaning, the thought behind the word that is important. When the thought is powerfully thought, it produces a vibration of which the word is only a carrier, an intermediary. Indeed, you can develop the thought-power to such an extent that you are able to establish a direct material contact with the minimum or even no words at all. Naturally this requires a strong power of concentration. But you will find that the bodily mechanism is only a mechanical means; it is an instrument, but not always important or indispensable.
   You expect to see a divine form in each and all things? It may happen so. But I am not sure; I have the impression that there is a large part of imagination in such experiences. You may, for example, see the form of Krishna or Christ or Buddha in every being or thing. But I say that much of human conception enters into this perception. Otherwise what I was telling you just now would not be true. I said all who have the consciousness of the Divine, all who get the contact with the Divine, wherever one may be, to whatever age or country he may belong, all have the same essential experience. If it were not so, the Hindus would always see one of their gods, the Europeans one of theirs, the Japanese a third variety and so on. This may be an addition of each one's own mental formation, but it would not be the Reality in its essence or purity which is beyond all form. One can have a perception of the Divine Presence, a very concrete perception, one can have even a personal contact with the Divine, but it need not happen in and through the kind of form you imagine; it is something inexpressible, beyond all explanation or definition, it is evident only to one who has the experience. It may be as you are suddenly lifted up into a peculiar condition, you find yourself in the presence of the Divine which takes a form familiar to you, a form you have been accustomed to associate with the Divine, because of your education, your up-bringing and tradition. But, as I say, it is not the supreme essence of the experience: the form gives after all a limitation to the experience, takes away from it its universality and a large measure of its power.

08.14 - Poetry and Poetic Inspiration, #Collected Works of Nolini Kanta Gupta - Vol 04, #Nolini Kanta Gupta, #Integral Yoga
   I do not mean, in other words, that such a view, the poetic view, necessarily prevents you from seeing the truth of things. It only describes the way of the poet's approach as poet. Indeed, if it were a choice between reading a book of good poetry and reading a book of metaphysics, personally I would prefer poetry, for that is less arid! My definition of poetry, I assure you, is not a condemnation, it is only a description, a statement of fact, namely, that poetry is the sensual or sensuous approach to truth. It is perhaps a somewhat paradoxical way of putting the thing: it is meant to strike the thought, to awaken it to the perception of a reality which is usually obscured by the habitual, traditional or "classical" way of thinking.
   If you mean by inspiration that the poet does not think when he writes a poem, that is to say, he has gone beyond all thought, has made his mind silent, silent and immobile, has opened himself to inner or higher regions and writes almost automatically, well, such a thing happens perhaps once a thousand years. It is not a common phenomenon. A Yogi has the power to do that. What you normally mean, however, by an inspired poet is something quite different. People who have some kind of genius, who have an opening into other and higher regions are called "inspired" ; persons who have made some discovery are also included in that category. Each time you are in relation with a thing belonging to a domain superior to the normal human consciousness, you are inspired. And when you are not totally bound to the very ordinary level you do receive "inspirations" from above. It is the same in the case of a poet. The source of his creation is elsewhere up above the ordinary mind; for that he need not possess an empty vacant mind.

100.00 - Synergy, #Synergetics - Explorations in the Geometry of Thinking, #R Buckminster Fuller, #Science
  101.00 definition: Synergy
  120.00 Mass Interattraction●
  shape. (Thus we arrive at the triangular definition of a structure.)
  100.302 A triangle is a microaltitude tetrahedron with its apex almost congruent

101.00 definition: Synergy

  101.01 Synergy means behavior of whole systems unpredicted by the behavior

1.001 - The Aim of Yoga, #The Study and Practice of Yoga, #Swami Krishnananda, #Yoga
  Knowing has been generally regarded as a process of understanding and accumulation of information, gathering intellectual or scientific definitive descriptions in respect of things. These days, this is what we call education. We gather definitions of things and try to understand the modes of their apparent functions in temporal life. This is what we call knowing, ordinarily speaking. I know that the sun is rising. This is a kind of knowledge. What do I mean by this knowledge? I have only a functional perception of a phenomenon that is taking place which I regard as the rise of the sun. This is not real knowledge. When I say, "I know that the sun is rising", I cannot say that I have a real knowledge of the sun, because, first of all, the sun is not rising it is a mistake of my senses. Secondly, the very idea of rising itself is a misconception in the mind. Unless I am static and immovable, I cannot know that something is moving. So when I say, "The sun is moving", I mean that I am not moving; it is understood there. But it is not true that I am not moving. I am also in a state of motion for other reasons which are not easily understandable. So it is not possible for a moving body to say that something else is moving. Nothing that is in a state of motion can say that something else is in motion. There is a relative motion of things, and so perception of the condition of any object ultimately would be impossible. This is a reason why scientific knowledge fails.
  All knowledge gathered through observations, whether through a microscope or telescope, in laboratories, etc., is ultimately invalid because it presupposes the static existence of the observer himself, the scientist's capacity to impartially observe and to unconditionally understand the conditions of what he observes very strange indeed, really. How does the scientist take for granted or imagine that he is an unconditioned observer and everything that he observes is conditioned? It is not true, because the observing scientist is as much conditioned by factors as the object that he observes. So, who is to observe the conditions of his own observing apparatus: his body, his senses the eyes, for example, and even the mind, which is connected to the body? Inasmuch as the observing scientist the observing individual, the knowing person is as much conditioned and limited as the object that is observed or seen, it is not possible to have ultimately valid knowledge in this world.
  We are gradually led by this proclamation of the Veda into a tremendous vision of life which requires of us to have a superhuman power of will to grasp the interrelationship of things. This difficulty of grasping the meaning of the interrelationship of things is obviated systematically, stage by stage, gradually, by methods of practice. These methods are called yoga the practice of yoga. I have placed before you, perhaps, a very terrible picture of yoga; it is not as simple as one imagines. It is not a simple circus-master's feat, either of the body or the mind, but a superhuman demand of our total being. Mark this definition of mine: a superhuman demand which is made of our total being not an ordinary human demand of a part of our being, but of our total being. From that, a demand is made by the entire structure of life. The total structure of life requires of our total being to be united with it in a practical demonstration of thought, speech and action this is yoga. If this could be missed, and of course it can easily be missed as it is being done every day, then every effort, from the smallest to the biggest, becomes a failure. All our effort ends in no success, because it would be like decorating a corpse without a soul in it. The whole of life would look like a beautiful corpse with nicely dressed features, but it has no vitality, essence or living principle within it. Likewise, all our activities would look wonderful, beautiful, magnificent, but lifeless; and lifeless beauty is no beauty. There must be life in it only then has it a meaning. Life is not something dead; it is quite opposite of what is dead. We can bring vitality and life into our activity only by the introduction of the principle of yoga.
  Yoga is not a technique of sannyasins or monks, of mystics or monastic disciples it is a technique of every living being who wishes to succeed in life. Without the employment of the technique of yoga, no effort can be successful. Even if it is a small, insignificant act like cooking food, sweeping the floor, washing vessels, whatever it is even these would be meaningless and a boredom, a drudgery and a stupid effort if the principle of yoga is not applied.

1.009 - Perception and Reality, #The Study and Practice of Yoga, #Swami Krishnananda, #Yoga
  Now, perceptions are of two kinds: real perceptions and unreal perceptions. When we perceive an object in the world, like a tree, it appears to be real; we cannot say it is unreal. Why is it real? What is the definition of reality? This is another very interesting philosophical subject. How do we know that any object is real? If we are asked how we define reality, what we mean by 'real', what is our idea? If we are asked to define reality, define the character of anything being real, we will find that it is difficult to define it. If I project my fingers and attempt to touch it, I must have a sensation of touch then it is real, isn't it? The sensation of touch should say there is a hard object, and then I say it is real. Is this the definition of reality? So we want only a sensation of hardness. The moment that sensation comes, it is real. And it has to be corroborated by the eyes; they must also say, "Yes, we are seeing a shape." The eyes can see only a shape. But how do we know that the shape is real? The fingers will tell us, "We are feeling solidity a hardness and concreteness." If it has a smell and a taste, etc., then it becomes real. We have passed judgement it is real. So, the nose should smell, the fingers should feel the concreteness and solidity, the eyes should see a shape, etc.; then, the thing is real. Is this a definition? This is a dangerous definition, but we cannot have any other definition.
  The reason behind our feeling a solidity, concreteness, hardness, etc. of an object and a shape perceived by the eyes, is because the condition of the senses which perceive and that of the mind behind the senses are on the same level as the constitution of the object. That is why we can see this world and not the heavens, for example. We cannot say that heavens do not exist; but why do we not see them? Because the constitution of the objects of the heaven is subtler than, less dense than, the constitution of our present individuality the two are not commensurate with each other. Or, to give a more concrete example, why don't we hear the music when the radio is not switched on? Somebody must be singing at the radio station now, but our ears are unable to hear; they can't hear anything because the constitution, the structure, the frequency, the wavelength of the electrical message that is sent by the broadcasting station is subtler than the constitution and the structure of the eardrum. It is not possible for the eardrum to catch it because it is gross. But if you talk, I can hear, because the sound that you make by talking is of the same level or degree of density as the capacity of the eardrum. I can hear your sound, but not the sounds of radio waves, music, or the message, because of the dissimilarity of the structure of frequency, wavelength or density of structure.

1.00a - Introduction, #Magick Without Tears, #Aleister Crowley, #Philosophy
  1) It is of the first importance that you should understand my personal position. It is not actually wrong to regard me as a teacher, but it is certainly liable to mislead; fellow-student, or, if you like, fellow-sufferer, seems a more appropriate definition.
  The climax of my life was what is known as the Cairo Working, described in the minutest detail in The Equinox of the Gods. At that time most of The Book of the Law was completely unintelligible to me, and a good deal of it especially the third chapter extremely antipa thetic. I fought against this book for years; but it proved irresistible.
  It seems to me that you should confine yourself very closely to the actual work in front of you. At the present moment, of course, this includes a good deal of general study; but my point is that the terms employed in that study should always be capable of precise definition. I am not sure whether you have my Little Essays Toward Truth. The first essay in the book entitled "Man" gives a full account of the five principles which go to make up Man according to the Qabalistic system. I have tried to define these terms as accurately as possible, and I think you will find them, in any case, clearer than those to which you have become accustomed with the Eastern systems. In India, by the way, no attempt is ever made to use these vague terms. They always have a very clear idea of what is meant by words like "Buddhi," "Manas" and the like. Attempts at translation are very unsatisfactory. I find that even with such a simple matter as the "Eight limbs of Yoga," as you will see when you come to read my Eight Lectures.
  I am very pleased with your illustrations; that is excellent practice for you. Presently you have to make talismans, and a Lamen for yourself, and even to devise a seal to serve as what you might call a magical coat-of-arms, and all this sort of thing is very helpful.

1.00e - DIVISION E - MOTION ON THE PHYSICAL AND ASTRAL PLANES, #A Treatise on Cosmic Fire, #Alice Bailey, #Occultism
  In all these definitions it is necessary to bear in mind that the whole object of the senses is to reveal the not-self, and to enable the Self therefore to differentiate between the real and the unreal. [lxxxiv]82

1.01 - An Accomplished Westerner, #Sri Aurobindo or the Adventure of Consciousness, #Satprem, #Integral Yoga
  When he sailed back to India, Sri Aurobindo was twenty. He had no position, no titles. His father had just died. What remained of his fourteen years in the West? We are tempted to recall Edouard Herriot's perfect definition, for if it is true that education is what remains when everything is forgotten, then what remains of the West after one has left it is not its books, its museums, and theaters, but an urge to translate into living acts what has been theorized. There,
  perhaps, lies the true strength of the West. Unfortunately, we in the West have too much "intelligence" to have anything truly substantial to translate outwardly, while India, too inwardly replete, does not possess the necessary urge to match what she lives with what she sees.

1.01 - Archetypes of the Collective Unconscious, #The Archetypes and the Collective Unconscious, #Carl Jung, #Psychology
  alchemical definition of the meditatio: "an inner colloquy with

1.01 - Fundamental Considerations, #The Ever-Present Origin, #Jean Gebser, #Integral
  It is our belief that the essential traits of a new age and a new reality are discernible in nearly all forms of contemporary expression, whether in the creations of modern art, or in the recent findings of the natural sciences, or in the results of the humanities and sciences of the mind. Moreover we are in a position to define this new reality in such a way as to emphasize one of its most significant elements. Our definition is a natural corollary of the recognition that mans coming to awareness is inseparably bound to his consciousness of space and time.
  Scarcely five hundred years ago, during the Renaissance, an unmistakable reorganization of our consciousness occurred: the discovery of perspective which opened up the three-dimensionality of space. This discovery is so closely linked with the entire intellectual attitude of the modern epoch that we have felt obliged to call this age the age of perspectivity and characterize the age immediately preceding it as the unperspectival age. These definitions, by recognizing a fundamental characteristic of these eras, lead to the further appropriate definition of the age of the dawning new consciousness as the aperspectival age, a definition supported not only by the results of modern physics, but also by developments in the visual arts and literature, where the incorporation of time as a fourth dimension into previously spatial conceptions has formed the initial basis for manifesting the new.Aperspectival is not to be thought of as merely the opposite or negation of perspectival; the antithesis of perspectival is unperspectival. The distinction in meaning suggested by the three terms unperspectival, perspectival, and aperspectival is analogous to that of the terms illogical, logical, and alogical or immoral, moral, and amoral. We have employed here the designation aperspectival to clearly emphasize the need of overcoming the mere antithesis of affirmation and negation. The so-called primal words (Urworte), for example, evidence two antithetic connotations: Latin altus meant high as well as low; sacer meant sacred as well as cursed. Such primal words as these formed an undifferentiated psychically-stressed unity whose bivalent nature was definitely familiar to the early Egyptians and Greeks. This is no longer the case with our present sense of language; consequently, we have required a term that transcends equally the ambivalence of the primal connotations and the dualism of antonyms or conceptual opposites.
  Hence we have used the Greek prefix a- in conjunction with our Latin-derived word perspectival in the sense of an alpha privativum and not as an alpha negativum, since the prefix has a liberating character (privativum, derived from Latin privare, i.e., to liberate). The designation aperspectival, in consequence, expresses a process of liberation from the exclusive validity of perspectival and unperspectival, as well as pre-perspectival limitations. Our designation, then, does not attempt to unite the inherently coexistent unperspectival and perspectival structures, nor does it attempt to reconcile or synthesize structures which, in their deficient modes, have become irreconcilable. If aperspectival were to represent only a synthesis it would imply no more than perspectival-rational and it would be limited and only momentarilyvalid, inasmuch as every union is threatened by further separation. Our concern is with integrality and ultimately with the whole; the word aperspectival conveys our attempt to deal with wholeness. It is a definition which differentiates a perception of reality that is neither perspectivally restricted to only one sector nor merely unperspectivally evocative of a vague sense of reality.
  Finally, we would emphasize the general validity of the term aperspectival; it is definitely not intended to be understood as an extension of concepts used in art history and should not be so construed. When we introduced the concept in 1936/1939, it was within the context of scientific as well as artistic traditions. The perspectival structure as fully realized by Leonardo da Vinci is of fundamental importance not only to our scientific-technological but also artistic understanding of the world. Without perspective neither technical drafting nor three-dimensional painting would have been possible. Leonardo - scientist, engineer, and artist in one - was the first to fully develop drafting techniques and perspectival painting. In this same sense, that is from a scientific as well as artistic standpoint, the term aperspectival is valid, and the basis for this significance must not be overlooked, for it legitimizes the validity and applicability of the term to the sciences, the humanities, and the arts.

1.01 - MAPS OF EXPERIENCE - OBJECT AND MEANING, #Maps of Meaning, #Jordan Peterson, #Psychology
  subjective) must be at least eliminated from definition as a real aspect of the object.
  The painstaking empirical process of identification, communication and comparison has proved to be a
  appearance of something unexpected is proof that we do not know how to act by definition, as it is the
  production of what we want that we use as evidence for the integrity of our knowledge. If we are

1.01 - Newtonian and Bergsonian Time, #Cybernetics, or Control and Communication in the Animal and the Machine, #Norbert Wiener, #Cybernetics
  solid or liquid state exceeds a certain amount, but this definition
  would not be of the slightest value to anyone, and would at most

1.01 - Prayer, #Bhakti-Yoga, #Swami Vivekananda, #Hinduism
  In commenting on the Sutra of Patanjali, Ishvara pranidhndv, i.e. "Or by the worship of the Supreme Lord" Bhoja says, "Pranidhna is that sort of Bhakti in which, without seeking results, such as sense-enjoyments etc., all works are dedicated to that Teacher of teachers." Bhagavan Vysa also, when commenting on the same, defines Pranidhana as "the form of Bhakti by which the mercy of the Supreme Lord comes to the Yogi, and blesses him by granting him his desires". According to Shndilya, "Bhakti is intense love to God." The best definition is, however, that given by the king of Bhaktas, Prahlda:
  "That deathless love which the ignorant have for the fleeting objects of the senses as I keep meditating on Thee may not that love slip away from my heart!" Love! For whom? For the Supreme Lord Ishvara. Love for any other being, however great cannot be Bhakti; for, as Ramanuja says in his Shri Bhshya, quoting an ancient chrya, i.e. a great teacher:

1.01 - SAMADHI PADA, #Patanjali Yoga Sutras, #Swami Vivekananda, #Hinduism
  frequently neglected. We must remember the definition of
  this world of ours; it is only the Infinite Existence projected
  Soul) alone is excepted from this definition.
  46. cTT T4 T(4fTl: TFTTN: II II

1.01 - Tara the Divine, #Tara - The Feminine Divine, #unset, #Zen
  also by definition to protect. What is the difference between

1.01 - The Ego, #Aion, #Carl Jung, #Psychology
  With this definition we have described and delimited the
  scope of the subject. Theoretically, no limits can be set to the
  I have discussed this definition of the "psychic" at somewhat
  greater length.

1.01 - The Four Aids, #The Synthesis Of Yoga, #Sri Aurobindo, #Integral Yoga
  23:To be conscious of him in all parts of our being and equally in all that the dividing mind sees as outside our being, is the consummation of the individual consciousness. To be possessed by him and possess him in ourselves and in all things is the term of all empire and mastery. To enjoy him in all experience of passivity and activity, of peace and of power, of unity and of difference is the happiness which the jiva, the individual soul manifested in the world, is obscurely seeking. This is the entire definition of the aim of integral Yoga; it is the rendering in personal experience of the truth which universal Nature has hidden in herself and which she travails to discover. It is the conversion of the human soul into the divine soul and of natural life into divine living.
  24:The surest way towards this integral fulfilment is to find the Master of the secret who dwells within us, open ourselves constantly to the divine Power which is also the divine Wisdom and Love and trust to it to effect the conversion. But it is difficult for the egoistic consciousness to do this at all at the beginning. And, if done at all, it is still difficult to do it perfectly and in every strand of our nature. It is difficult at first because our egoistic habits of thought, of sensation, of feeling block up the avenues by which we can arrive at the perception that is needed. It is difficult afterwards because the faith, the surrender, the courage requisite in this path are not easy to the ego-clouded soul. The divine working is not the working which the egoistic mind desires or approves; for it uses error in order to arrive at truth, suffering in order to arrive at bliss, imperfection in order to arrive at perfection. The ego cannot see where it is being led; it revolts against the leading, loses confidence, loses courage. These failings would not matter; for the divine Guide within is not offended by our revolt, not discouraged by our want of faith or repelled by our weakness; he has the entire love of the mother and the entire patience of the teacher. But by withdrawing our assent from the guidance we lose the consciousness, though not all the actuality-not, in any case, the eventuality -- of its benefit. And we withdraw our assent because we fail to distinguish our higher Self from the lower through which he is preparing his self-revelation. As in the world, so in ourselves, we cannot see God because of his workings and, especially, because he works in us through our nature and not by a succession of arbitrary miracles. Man demands miracles that he may have faith; he wishes to be dazzled in order that he may see. And this impatience, this ignorance may turn into a great danger and disaster if, in our revolt against the divine leading, we call in another distorting Force more satisfying to our impulses and desires and ask it to guide us and give it the Divine Name.

1.01 - What is Magick?, #Magick Without Tears, #Aleister Crowley, #Philosophy
  First let me go all Euclidean, and rub your nose in the definition, Postulate and Theorems given in my comprehensive (but, alas! too advanced and too technical) Treatise on the subject.[1] Here we are!
    I. definition:
    MAGICK - The Lord, #Isha Upanishad, #unset, #Zen
  all term and definition. We may equally call it "He", provided
  we speak with the same intention of rigorous exclusion. "Tat"
  and "Sa" are always the same, One that escapes definition.
  In the universe there is a constant relation of Oneness and - Knowledge and Ignorance, #Isha Upanishad, #unset, #Zen
  But by the very definition of the ego its capacity is limited. It
  accepts as itself a form made of the movement of Nature which

1.02 - In the Beginning, #unset, #Arthur C Clarke, #Fiction
  One can conceive such a unity, it is true, as an existence without cause, but it is only by totally ignoring the conditions of thought and the fundamental demands of Reason that one can see in it the cause of existences. Mere unity is by its very definition entire sterility; it is multiplicity alone that can produce multiplicity. The notion of cause is exclusive of the notion of unity; for the essence of unity is an indivisible, indiscernable, immobile identity.
  If then we give the name of God to the primordial existence which produces the universe, we postulate the whole of universal multiplicity in this essential cause and all the possibilities of the world are totalised in the first Being, creator of the world.

1.02 - Karmayoga, #Essays In Philosophy And Yoga, #Sri Aurobindo, #Integral Yoga
  Vedanta and Yoga to life. To many who take their knowledge of Hinduism secondh and this may seem a doubtful definition. It is ordinarily supposed by "practical" minds that Vedanta as a guide to life and Yoga as a method of spiritual communion are dangerous things which lead men away from action to abstraction. We leave aside those who regard all such beliefs as mysticism, self-delusion or imposture; but even those who reverence and believe in the high things of Hinduism have the impression that one must remove oneself from a full human activity in order to live the spiritual life. Yet the spiritual life finds its most potent expression in the man who lives the ordinary life of men in the strength of the Yoga and under the law of the Vedanta. It is by such a union of the inner life and the outer that mankind will eventually be lifted up and become mighty and divine. It is a delusion to suppose that Vedanta contains no inspiration to life, no rule of conduct, and is purely metaphysical and quietistic. On the contrary, the highest morality of which humanity is capable finds its one perfect basis and justification in the teachings of the Upanishads and the Gita. The characteristic doctrines of the Gita are nothing if they are not a law of life, a dharma, and even the most transcendental aspirations of the
  Vedanta presuppose a preparation in life, for it is only through life that one can reach to immortality. The opposite opinion is due to certain tendencies which have bulked large in the history and temperament of our race. The ultimate goal of our religion is emancipation from the bondage of material Nature and freedom from individual rebirth, and certain souls, among the highest we have known, have been drawn by the attraction of the final hush and purity to dissociate themselves from life and bodily action in order more swiftly and easily to reach the goal. Standing like

1.02 - MAPS OF MEANING - THREE LEVELS OF ANALYSIS, #Maps of Meaning, #Jordan Peterson, #Psychology
  desired. It was, by your own definition, a bad plan. You need another one and quickly. Luckily you have
  an alternate strategy, at your disposal. The stairs! You dash to the rear of the building. You try the door to
  After all, the unknown has not yet been explored by definition. Nothing can be said, by the dictates of
  standard logic, about something that has not yet been encountered. We are not concerned with sensory
  exists a mismatch between the two, the unexpected or novel occurs (by definition), grips our attention, and
  activates the intrapsychic systems that govern fear and hope.39 We strive to bring novel occurrences back
  valid solutions, but so that even the definition of solution may vary. The particular most appropriate or
  likely choices of people, including ourselves, cannot therefore be accurately determined beforeh and (not
  significance by definition: we only know how to act in the presence of the familiar. The appearance of the
  unexpected pops us out of unconscious, axiomatic complacency, and forces us (painfully) to think.
  The implications of novel or unpredictable occurrences are unknown, by definition. This observation
  carries within it the seeds of a difficult and useful question: what, is the significance of the unknown? It
  that what we have adapted to is, by definition, reality. For it is the case that the human brain and higher
  nervous systems, in general have specialized for operation in the domain of order, and in the domain
  emerges. But how can situation-relevant emotion attach itself to what has by definition not yet been
  encountered? Traditionally, significance is attached to previously irrelevant things or situations as a
  must be our behavioral adaptation is, by definition, insufficient (and the unexpected has not been
  vanquished). We have been unable to modify our actions to elicit from the environment really, from the
  understood, in part, in the following manner: positive affect rules in known territory, by definition: a thing
  or situation has been explored most optimally (and is therefore most well known) if it has been transformed
  nonmembers. A triangle is a closed three-sided figure. From the fact that a clear definition exists, it
  follows that membership in the set is not a matter of degree; one triangle is no more essentially
  all of the others. This capacity makes sense, since all of the objects in a given category are by definition
  regarded as equivalent, in some non-trivial sense (most generally, in terms of implication for action). The
  We are in addition habituated to what is familiar and known by definition and are therefore often
  unable to apprehend its structure (often even unable to perceive that it is there). Finally, we remain ignorant
  means, can bend to our own ends) have been likewise rendered predictable by definition. The territory
  of explored territory is therefore defined, at least in general, by security. Secure territory is that place
  upper hand, it is by definition because of a current paucity of heroism. It can be said, therefore, that the reappearance of the Great Mother, in her terrible guise, the death of the Great Father (who serves as
  protection from his creative and destructive wife), and the absence of the hero (who turns chaos into order)
  territory). Everything that is not order that is, not predictable, not usable is, by default (by definition)
  chaos. The foreigner whose behaviors cannot be predicted, who is not kin, either by blood or by custom,

1.02 - SADHANA PADA, #Patanjali Yoga Sutras, #Swami Vivekananda, #Hinduism
  very queer things sometimes, but the definition is just the
  same; wherever we find pleasure, there we are attached.

1.02 - SOCIAL HEREDITY AND PROGRESS, #The Future of Man, #Pierre Teilhard de Chardin, #Christianity
  By definition and in essence Christianity is the religion of the
  Incarnation: God uniting Himself with the world which He cre-

1.02 - The 7 Habits An Overview, #The 7 Habits of Highly Effective People, #Stephen Covey, #unset
  The P/PC Balance is the very essence of effectiveness. It's validated in every arena of life. We can work with it or against it, but it's there. It's a lighthouse. It's the definition and paradigm of effectiveness upon which the Seven Habits in this book are based.
  How to Use This Book

1.02 - The Child as growing being and the childs experience of encountering the teacher., #The Essentials of Education, #unset, #Zen
  Two extremes must be avoided. One is a result of intellectual- izing tendencies, where we approach children in an academic way, expecting them to assimilate sharply outlined ideas and defini- tions. It is, after all, very comfortable to instruct and teach by definitions. And the more gifted children learn to parrot them, allowing the teacher to be certain that they retain what theyve been taught in the previous lesson, whereas those who dont learn can be left behind.
  Such methods are very convenient. But its like a cobbler who thinks that the shoes he made for a three-year-old should still fit the ten-year-old; the shoes are well formed, but they no longer fit the child. And thats how it is with the teaching that the child is meant to assimilate. What the child takes in during the seventh or eighth year is no longer suited to the soul of the twelve-year-old; its as useless as shoes that have become too small. We just dont realize it when the problem unfolds within the soul. The teacher who demands of her students at age twelve the same definitions that were used earlier is like the cobbler who tries to put a three- year-olds shoes onto the feet of a ten-year-old: she might fit her toes into the shoes, but not her heels. Much of a childs spiritual and psychic nature doesnt fit into the education we give children. Whats needed is that, through the medium of flexible and artistic forms, we give children perceptions, ideas, and feelings in picto- rial form that can metamorphose and grow with the soul, because the soul itself is growing. But before this can happen, there has to be a living relationship between child and teacher, not the dead relationship that arises from lifeless educational concepts. Thus, all instruction given to children between approximately seven and fifteen needs to be permeated with pictures.
  In many ways, this runs counter to the ordinary tendencies of modern culture, and of course we belong to this modern culture. We read books that impart meaningful content through little squiggles we call a, b, c, and so on. We fail to realize that weve been damaged by being forced to learn these symbols, since they have absolutely no relationship to our inner life. Why should a or b look the way they do today? Theres no inner necessity, no experience that justifies writing an h after an a to express a feeling of astonishment or wonder.

1.02 - The Concept of the Collective Unconscious, #The Archetypes and the Collective Unconscious, #Carl Jung, #Psychology
  scious. In what follows I shall try to give (1) a definition of the
  concept, (2) a description of what it means for psychology, (3) an
  1. definition
  88 The collective unconscious is a part of the psyche which can

1.02 - THE NATURE OF THE GROUND, #The Perennial Philosophy, #Aldous Huxley, #Philosophy
  So far, then, as a fully adequate expression of the Perennial Philosophy is concerned, there exists a problem in semantics that is finally insoluble. The fact is one which must be steadily borne in mind by all who read its formulations. Only in this way shall we be able to understand even remotely what is being talked about. Consider, for example, those negative definitions of the transcendent and immanent Ground of being. In statements such as Eckharts, God is equated with nothing. And in a certain sense the equation is exact; for God is certainly no thing. In the phrase used by Scotus Erigena God is not a what; He is a That. In other words, the Ground can be denoted as being there, but not defined as having qualities. This means that discursive knowledge about the Ground is not merely, like all inferential knowledge, a thing at one remove, or even at several removes, from the reality of immediate acquaintance; it is and, because of the very nature of our language and our standard patterns of thought, it must be, paradoxical knowledge. Direct knowledge of the Ground cannot be had except by union, and union can be achieved only by the annihilation of the self-regarding ego, which is the barrier separating the thou from the That.

1.02 - The Philosophy of Ishvara, #Bhakti-Yoga, #Swami Vivekananda, #Hinduism
  Who is Ishvara? Janmdyasya yatah "From whom is the birth, continuation, and dissolution of the universe," He is Ishvara "the Eternal, the Pure, the Ever-Free, the Almighty, the AllKnowing, the All-Merciful, the Teacher of all teachers"; and above all, Sa Ishvarah anirvachaniyapremasvarupah "He the Lord is, of His own nature, inexpressible Love." These certainly are the definitions of a Personal God. Are there then two Gods the "Not this, not this," the Sat-chit-nanda, the Existence-Knowledge-Bliss of the philosopher, and this God of Love of the Bhakta? No, it is the same Sat-chit-ananda who is also the God of Love, the impersonal and personal in one. It has always to be understood that the Personal God worshipped by the Bhakta is not separate or different from the Brahman. All is Brahman, the One without a second; only the Brahman, as unity or absolute, is too much of an abstraction to be loved and worshipped; so the Bhakta chooses the relative aspect of Brahman, that is, Ishvara, the Supreme Ruler. To use a simile: Brahman is as the clay or substance out of which an infinite variety of articles are fashioned. As clay, they are all one; but form or manifestation differentiates them. Before every one of them was made, they all existed potentially in the clay, and, of course, they are identical substantially; but when formed, and so long as the form remains, they are separate and different; the clay-mouse can never become a clay-elephant, because, as manifestations, form alone makes them what they are, though as unformed clay they are all one.
  Ishvara is the highest manifestation of the Absolute Reality, or in other words, the highest possible reading of the Absolute by the human mind. Creation is eternal, and so also is Ishvara.
  This is proved from the scriptural text, "From whom all these things are born, by which all that are born live, unto whom they, departing, return ask about it. That is Brahman.' If this quality of ruling the universe be a quality common even to the liberated then this text would not apply as a definition of Brahman defining Him through His rulership of the universe. The uncommon attributes alone define a thing; therefore in texts like 'My beloved boy, alone, in the beginning there existed the One without a second. That saw and felt, "I will give birth to the many." That projected heat.' 'Brahman indeed alone existed in the beginning. That One evolved. That projected a blessed form, the Kshatra. All these gods are Kshatras: Varuna, Soma, Rudra, Parjanya, Yama, Mrityu, Ishna.' 'Atman indeed existed alone in the beginning; nothing else vibrated; He thought of projecting the world; He projected the world after.' 'Alone Nryana existed; neither Brahm, nor Ishana, nor the Dyv-Prithivi, nor the stars, nor water, nor fire, nor Soma, nor the sun. He did not take pleasure alone. He after His meditation had one daughter, the ten organs, etc.' and in others as, 'Who living in the earth is separate from the earth, who living in the Atman, etc.' the Shrutis speak of the Supreme One as the subject of the work of ruling the universe. . . . Nor in these descriptions of the ruling of the universe is there any position for the liberated soul, by which such a soul may have the ruling of the universe ascribed to it."
  In explaining the next Sutra, Ramanuja says, "If you say it is not so, because there are direct texts in the Vedas in evidence to the contrary, these texts refer to the glory of the liberated in the spheres of the subordinate deities." This also is an easy solution of the difficulty. Although the system of Ramanuja admits the unity of the total, within that totality of existence there are, according to him, eternal differences. Therefore, for all practical purposes, this system also being dualistic, it was easy for Ramanuja to keep the distinction between the personal soul and the Personal God very clear.

1.02 - The Pit, #A Garden of Pomegranates - An Outline of the Qabalah, #Israel Regardie, #Occultism
  It is obvious, however, that a definition of this unknown a can only be achieved by saying either a equals b or a equals cd. In the first case the idea of b is really implicit in a; thus we have learned nothing, and if not so, the statement is false. One simply defines one unknown in terms of
   another-and nothing is gained. In the second case, c and d themselves require definition as e1 and gh respectively.
  The process becomes extended; but it is bound to end by the eventual exhaustion of the alphabet, y equals za. In short, one gets no further than a equals a. The relation of the whole series of equations then becomes apparent, and the conclusion to which one is forced is that each and every term is a thing-in-itself, unknown, though to some extent apprehensible by Intuition.
  Athena. This necessity was emphasized in the most surprising way by the result of the Michelson-Morley experiments, when Physics itself calmly and frankly offered a contradiction in terms. It was not the metaphysicians this time who were picking holes in a vacuum. It was the mathematicians and the physicists who found the ground completely cut away from under their feet. It was not enough to replace the geometry of Euclid by those of Riemann and Lobatchevsky and the mechanics of Newton by those of Einstein, so long as any of the axioms of the old thought and the definitions of its terms survived. They deliberately abandoned positivism and materialism for an indeterminate mysticism, creating a new mathematical philosophy and a new logic, wherein infinite-or rather transfinite-ideas might be made commensurable with those of ordinary thought in the forlorn hope that all might live happily ever after. In short, to use a Qabalistic nomenclature, they found it incumbent upon themselves to adopt for inclusion of terms of Ruach (intellect) concepts which are proper only to Neschamah (the organ and faculty of direct spiritual apperception and intuition). This same process took place in Philosophy years earlier. Had the dialectic of Hegel been only. half understood, the major portion of philosophical speculation from the Schoolmen to
  Kant's perception of the Antinomies of Reason would have been thrown overboard.

1.02 - The Principle of Fire, #Initiation Into Hermetics, #Franz Bardon, #Occultism
  As mentioned before, the fiery principle owns the expansion, which I shall call electrical fluid for the sake of better comprehension. This definition does not just point to the roughly material electricity in spite of its having a certain analogy to it.
  Every one will realize at once, of course, that the quality of expansion is identical with extension. This elementary principle of fire is latent and active in all things created, as a matter of fact, in the whole Universe beginning from the tiniest grain of sand to the most sublime substance visible or invisible.