classes ::: author,
children :::
branches ::: Demosthenes

bookmarks: Instances - Definitions - Quotes - Chapters - Wordnet - Webgen


object:Demosthenes
Greek statesman
Demosthenes was a Greek statesman and orator of ancient Athens. His orations constitute a significant expression of contemporary Athenian intellectual prowess and provide an insight into the politics and culture of ancient Greece during the 4th century BC. Wikipedia

Professions: orator, artist, politicians
class:author

see also :::

questions, comments, suggestions/feedback, take-down requests, contribute, etc
contact me @ integralyogin@gmail.com or
join the integral discord server (chatrooms)
if the page you visited was empty, it may be noted and I will try to fill it out. cheers



now begins generated list of local instances, definitions, quotes, instances in chapters, wordnet info if available and instances among weblinks


OBJECT INSTANCES [0] - TOPICS - AUTHORS - BOOKS - CHAPTERS - CLASSES - SEE ALSO - SIMILAR TITLES

TOPICS
SEE ALSO


AUTH

BOOKS
The_Use_and_Abuse_of_History

IN CHAPTERS TITLE

IN CHAPTERS CLASSNAME

IN CHAPTERS TEXT
1.pbs_-_HERE_I_sit_with_my_paper
The_Theologians

PRIMARY CLASS

author
SIMILAR TITLES
Demosthenes

DEFINITIONS


TERMS STARTING WITH


TERMS ANYWHERE

demosthenic ::: a. --> Pertaining to, or in the style of, Demosthenes, the Grecian orator.

first ::: a. --> Preceding all others of a series or kind; the ordinal of one; earliest; as, the first day of a month; the first year of a reign.
Foremost; in front of, or in advance of, all others.
Most eminent or exalted; most excellent; chief; highest; as, Demosthenes was the first orator of Greece. ::: adv.


philippic ::: n. --> Any one of the series of famous orations of Demosthenes, the Grecian orator, denouncing Philip, king of Macedon.
Hence: Any discourse or declamation abounding in acrimonious invective.




QUOTES [1 / 1 - 98 / 98]


KEYS (10k)

   1 Demosthenes

NEW FULL DB (2.4M)

   51 Demosthenes
   6 Plutarch
   6 Orson Scott Card
   6 Anonymous
   4 Ryan Holiday
   2 Sinclair Lewis
   2 Johann Georg Hamann

1:Nothing is easier than self-deceit. For what each man wishes, that he also believes to be true. ~ Demosthenes, Third Olynthiac, sec. 19,

*** WISDOM TROVE ***

1:Pythias once, scoffing at Demosthenes, said that his arguments smelt of the lamp. ~ plutarch, @wisdomtrove
2:When Demosthenes was asked what were the three most important aspects of oratory, he answered, &
3:Demosthenes overcame and rendered more distinct his inarticulate and stammering pronunciation by speaking with pebbles in his mouth. ~ plutarch, @wisdomtrove
4:Demosthenes told Phocion, "The Athenians will kill you some day when they once are in a rage." "And you," said he, "if they are once in their senses. ~ plutarch, @wisdomtrove
5:Demosthenes, when taunted by Pytheas that all his arguments "smelled of the lamp," replied, "Yes, but your lamp and mine, my friend, do not witness the same labours. ~ plutarch, @wisdomtrove
6:When Demosthenes was asked what was the first part of Oratory, he answered, "Action," and which was the second, he replied, "action," and which was the third, he still answered "Action. ~ plutarch, @wisdomtrove
7:Eloquence, when at its highest pitch, leaves little room for reason or reflection; but addressing itself entirely to the fancy or the affections, captivates the willing hearers, and subdues their understanding. Happily, this pitch it seldom attains. But what a Tully or a Demosthenes could scarcely effect over a Roman or Athenian audience, every Capuchin, every itinerant or stationary teacher can perform over the generality of mankind, and in a higher degree, by touching such gross and vulgar passions. ~ david-hume, @wisdomtrove

*** NEWFULLDB 2.4M ***

1:The fact speak for themselves. ~ Demosthenes,
2:Nothing is easier than self-deceit. ~ Demosthenes,
3:What a man wishes, he will believe. ~ Demosthenes,
4:The man who flies shall fight again. ~ Demosthenes,
5:What we wish, that we readily believe. ~ Demosthenes,
6:We believe whatever we want to believe. ~ Demosthenes,
7:One believes in what one wants to believe in. ~ Demosthenes,
8:The end of wisdom is consultation and deliberation. ~ Demosthenes,
9:Small opportunities often presage great enterprises. ~ Demosthenes,
10:By persistent labor man may attain to all excellence. ~ Demosthenes,
11:Every dictator is an enemy of freedom, an opponent of law. ~ Demosthenes,
12:Beware lest in your anxiety to avoid war you obtain a master ~ Demosthenes,
13:Close alliances with despots are never safe for free states. ~ Demosthenes,
14:Whatever shall be to the advantage of all, may that prevail! ~ Demosthenes,
15:Clouds cannot cover secret places, nor denials conceal truth. ~ Demosthenes,
16:All speech is vain and empty unless it be accompanied by action. ~ Demosthenes,
17:I decline to buy repentance at the cost of ten thousand drachmas. ~ Demosthenes,
18:Small opportunities are often the beginning of great enterprises. ~ Demosthenes,
19:Everything great is not always good, but all good things, are great. ~ Demosthenes,
20:Every advantage in the past is judged in the light of the final issue. ~ Demosthenes,
21:What we have in us of the image of God is the love of truth and justice. ~ Demosthenes,
22:The most noble title any child can have, Demosthenes wrote, is Third. ~ Orson Scott Card,
23:The most noble title any child can have, Demosthenes wrote, is third. ~ Orson Scott Card,
24:The readiest and surest way to get rid of censure, is to correct ourselves. ~ Demosthenes,
25:Excessive dealings with tyrants are not good for the security of free states. ~ Demosthenes,
26:Pythias once, scoffing at Demosthenes, said that his arguments smelt of the lamp. ~ Plutarch,
27:Nothing is so easy as to deceive oneself; for what we wish, we readily believe. ~ Demosthenes,
28:The sower of the seed is assuredly the author of the whole harvest of mischief. ~ Demosthenes,
29:To remind a man of the good turns you have done him is very much like a reproach. ~ Demosthenes,
30:It is not possible to found a lasting power upon injustice, perjury, and treachery. ~ Demosthenes,
31:Success has a great tendency to conceal and throw a veil over the evil deeds of men. ~ Demosthenes,
32:Nothing is more easy than to deceive one's self, as our affections are subtle persuaders. ~ Demosthenes,
33:The best protection for the people is not necessarily to believe everything people tell them. ~ Demosthenes,
34:A man is his own easiest dupe, for what he wishes to be true he generally believes to be true. ~ Demosthenes,
35:Great and unexpected successes are often the cause of foolish rushing into acts of extravagance. ~ Demosthenes,
36:No man who is not willing to help himself has any right to apply to his friends, or to the gods. ~ Demosthenes,
37:We need money, for sure, Athenians, and without money nothing can be done that ought to be done. ~ Demosthenes,
38:The orator Demosthenes once said that virtue begins with understanding and is fulfilled by courage. ~ Ryan Holiday,
39:There is a great deal of wishful thinking in such cases it is the easiest thing of all to deceive ones self. ~ Demosthenes,
40:The more able a man is, if he make ill use of his abilities, the more dangerous will he be to the commonwealth. ~ Demosthenes,
41:Good fortune is the greatest of blessings, but good counsel comes next, and the lack of it destroys the other also. ~ Demosthenes,
42:If only I was as eloquent as Demosthenes, I would have to do no more than repeat a single word three times. ~ Johann Georg Hamann,
43:When Demosthenes was asked what were the three most important aspects of oratory, he answered, 'Action, Action, Action.' ~ Plutarch,
44:Nothing is easier than self-deceit. For what each man wishes, that he also believes to be true. ~ Demosthenes, Third Olynthiac, sec. 19,
45:Plato is never sullen, Cervantes is never petulant, Demosthenes never comes unseasonably, Dante never stays too long. ~ Nathaniel Parker,
46:The man who has received a benefit ought always to remember it, but he who has granted it ought to forget the fact at once. ~ Demosthenes,
47:Demosthenes overcame and rendered more distinct his inarticulate and stammering pronunciation by speaking with pebbles in his mouth. ~ Plutarch,
48:As a vessel is known by the sound, whether it be cracked or not; so men are proved, by their speeches, whether they be wise or foolish. ~ Demosthenes,
49:You cannot have a proud and chivalrous spirit if your conduct is mean and paltry; for whatever a man's actions are, such must be his spirit. ~ Demosthenes,
50:Demosthenes told Phocion, "The Athenians will kill you some day when they once are in a rage." "And you," said he, "if they are once in their senses." ~ Plutarch,
51:The man who is in the highest state of prosperity, and who thinks his fortune is most secure, knows not if it will remain unchanged till the evening. ~ Demosthenes,
52:Some academic once asked Demosthenes what the three most important traits of speechmaking were. His reply says it all: “Action, Action, Action!” Sure, ~ Ryan Holiday,
53:It is impossible for men engaged in low and groveling pursuits to have noble and generous sentiments. A man's thought must always follow his employment. ~ Demosthenes,
54:There is one safeguard known generally to the wise, which is an advantage and security to all, but especially to democracies as against despots - suspicion. ~ Demosthenes,
55:Demosthenes, when taunted by Pytheas that all his arguments "smelled of the lamp," replied, "Yes, but your lamp and mine, my friend, do not witness the same labours. ~ Plutarch,
56:Nothing is so easy as to deceive one's self; for what we wish, that we readily believe; but such expectations are often inconsistent with the real state of things. ~ Demosthenes,
57:It is the natural disposition of all men to listen with pleasure to abuse and slander of their neighbour, and to hear with impatience those who utter praises of themselves. ~ Demosthenes,
58:Do you remember that in classical times when Cicero had finished speaking, the people said, "How well he spoke" but when Demosthenes had finished speaking, they said, "Let us march. ~ Demosthenes,
59:When Demosthenes was asked what was the first part of Oratory, he answered, "Action," and which was the second, he replied, "action," and which was the third, he still answered "Action. ~ Plutarch,
60:He who confers a favor should at once forget it, if he is not to show a sordid ungenerous spirit. To remind a man of a kindness conferred and to talk of it, is little different from reproach. ~ Demosthenes,
61:Quoting Demosthenes, 'For what each man wishes, that he also believes to be true.' I would rather make money playing a piano in a whorehouse than arguing that no cost is incurred when employees are paid in stock options instead of cash. I am not kidding. ~ Charlie Munger,
62:In the period between Homer and Socrates most philosophers wrote in verse, and Plato, writing in the great age of Athenian tragedy and comedy, composed dramatic dialogue. Aristotle, an exact contemporary of the greatest Greek orator Demosthenes, preferred to write in prose monologue. ~ Anthony Kenny,
63:The Life of Johnson is assuredly a great, a very great work. Homer is not more decidedly the first of heroic poets, Shakspeare is not more decidedly the first of dramatists, Demosthenes is not more decidedly the first of orators, than Boswell is the first of biographers. He has no second. ~ Anonymous,
64:The Life of Johnson is assuredly a great, a very great work. Homer is not more decidedly the first of heroic poets. Shakespeare is not more decidedly the first of dramatists, Demosthenes is not more decidedly the first of orators, than Boswell is the first of biographers. He has no second. ~ Thomas B Macaulay,
65:The Life of Johnson is assuredly a great, a very great work. Homer is not more decidedly the first of heroic poets, Shakspeare is not more decidedly the first of dramatists, Demosthenes is not more decidedly the first of orators, than Boswell is the first of biographers. He has no second. ========== ~ Anonymous,
66:The greatest and truest models for all oratorsis Demosthenes. One who has not studied deeply and constantly all the great speeches of the great Athenian, is not prepared to speak in public. Only as the constant companion of Demosthenes, Burke, Fox, Canning and Webster, can we hope to become orators. ~ Woodrow Wilson,
67:If only I was as eloquent as Demosthenes, I would have to do no more than repeat a single word three times. Reason is language - Logos; I gnaw on this marrowbone and will gnaw myself to death over it. It is still always dark over these depths for me: I am still always awaiting an apocalyptic angel with a key to this abyss. ~ Johann Georg Hamann,
68:Speak as educated nature suggests to you, and you will do well, but let it be educated and not raw, rude, uncultivated nature. Demosthenes took unbounded pains with his voice, and Cicero, who was naturally weak, made a long journey into Greece to correct his manner of speaking. With far nobler themes, let us not be less ambitious to excel. ~ Charles Haddon Spurgeon,
69:From the First Philippic of Demosthenes, he plucked a passage that summed up his conception of a leader as someone who would not pander to popular whims. “As a general marches at the head of his troops,” so should wise politicians “march at the head of affairs, insomuch that they ought not to wait the event to know what measures to take, but the measures which they have taken ought to produce the event. ~ Ron Chernow,
70:To paraphrase Demosthenes, the greater this administration’s ready tongue, the greater distrust it inspires in our allies, and the greater boldness it creates in our enemies. Or to put it in my old man’s more earthy terms when I smarted off, “Don’t let your mouth write checks your ass can’t cash.” Obama has been bouncing foreign policy checks from Ukraine to the South China Sea, and most points in between. ~ Anonymous,
71:There are things to be done. Resist retreat as a matter of strategy and principle. And provide the means to continue our dominant role in the world by keeping our economic house in order. And finally, we can follow the advice of Demosthenes when asked what was to be done about the decline of Athens. His reply? 'I will give what I believe is the fairest and truest answer: Don't do what you are doing now. ~ Charles Krauthammer,
72:It is not possible to found a lasting power upon injustice, perjury, and treachery. These may, perhaps, succeed for once, and borrow for awhile, from hope, a gay and flourishing appearance. But time betrays their weakness, and they fall into ruin of themselves. For, as in structures of every kind, the lower parts should have the greatest firmness--so the grounds and principles of actions should be just and true. ~ Demosthenes,
73:That night Demosthenes published a scathing denunciation of the population limitation laws. People should be allowed to have as many children as they like, and the surplus population should be sent to other worlds, to spread mankind so far across the galaxy that no disaster, no invasion could ever threaten the human race with annihilation. "The most noble title any child can have," Demosthenes wrote, "is Third. ~ Orson Scott Card,
74:In struggling with his unfortunate fate, Demosthenes found his true calling: He would be the voice of Athens, its great speaker and conscience. He would be successful precisely because of what he’d been through and how he’d reacted to it. He had channeled his rage and pain into his training, and then later into his speeches, fueling it all with a kind of fierceness and power that could be neither matched nor resisted. ~ Ryan Holiday,
75:There are all kinds of devices invented for the protection and preservation of countries: defensive barriers, forts, trenches, and the like... But prudent minds have as a natural gift one safeguard which is the common possession of all, and this applies especially to the dealings of democracies. What is this safeguard? Skepticism. This you must preserve. This you must retain. If you can keep this, you need fear no harm. ~ Demosthenes,
76:Military history is just as often the tangential story of an appeasement that fails to head off warmongering as it is of an aggressive chest-thumping that prompts conflict. The destructive military careers of Alexander the Great, Caesar, Napoleon, and Hitler all would have ended earlier had any of their numerous enemies united when the odds favored them, had any listened to a Demosthenes, a Cato the Younger, or a Churchill. ~ Victor Davis Hanson,
77:Since we are not yet fully comfortable with the idea that people from the next village are as human as ourselves, it is presumptuous in the extreme to suppose we could ever look at sociable, tool-making creatures who are from other evolutionary paths and see not beasts, but brothers, not rivals, but fellow pilgrims journeying to the shrine of intelligence...The difference... is not in the creature judged, but in the creature judging. ~ Demosthenes,
78:The whole life of Demosthenes... leaves the impression of a melancholy state of things, and of the brazen insolence of wickedness. A particularly striking idea of how things really were in Greece can be obtained from one feature of life - the sons who turned out badly.... the sons of gifted but arrogant fathers turned out merely arrogant, the grandsons hopeless; it is respect alone that sustains families and gives them traditions. ~ Jacob Burckhardt,
79:He may steal," says Plato, "who knows how to do it." Oaths are frequent in the writings of Plato and Seneca. Anstippus taught that a wise man had a right to commit adultery. Aristotle vindicated the awful crimes of foeticide and infanticide. Even suicide was defended by Cicero and Seneca as the mark of a hero, and Demosthenes, Cato, Brutus and Cassius carried the means of self-destruction about them, that they might not fall alive into the hands of their enemies. ~ Anonymous,
80:Valentine went back to class without answering. That night Demosthenes published a scathing denunciation of the population limitation laws. People should be allowed to have as many children as they like, and the surplus population should be sent to other worlds, to spread mankind so far across the galaxy that no danger, no invasion could ever threaten the human race with annihilation. "The most noble title any child can have," Demosthenes wrote, "is Third. ~ Orson Scott Card,
81:...if Clinton's answers come off as well-intended lectures, Obama is offering soaring sermons and generational opportunity. In 1960, the articulate Adlai Stevenson compared his own oratory unfavorably with John F. Kennedy's. "Do you remember," Stevenson said, "that in classical times when Cicero had finished speaking, the people said, 'How well he spoke,' but when Demosthenes had finished speaking, the people said, 'Let us march.' " At this hour, Obama is the Democrats' Demosthenes. ~ E J Dionne Jr,
82:Eloquence, when at its highest pitch, leaves little room for reason or reflection; but addressing itself entirely to the fancy or the affections, captivates the willing hearers, and subdues their understanding. Happily, this pitch it seldom attains. But what a Tully or a Demosthenes could scarcely effect over a Roman or Athenian audience, every Capuchin, every itinerant or stationary teacher can perform over the generality of mankind, and in a higher degree, by touching such gross and vulgar passions. ~ David Hume,
83:Not half so serious as it is to abuse everything unreasonably. If abuse is your particular talent, abuse something that ought to be abused. Abuse the Conservatives—or the Liberals—it does not matter which, since they are always abusing each other. Make yourself felt by other people. You will like it, if they don't. It will make a man of you. Fill your mouth with pebbles, and howl at the sea, if you cannot do anything else. It did Demosthenes no end of good you know. You will have the satisfaction of imitating a great man. ~ F Marion Crawford,
84:I am encouraged as I look at some of those who have listened to their "different drum": Einstein was hopeless at school math and commented wryly on his inadequacy in human relations. Winston Churchill was an abysmal failure in his early school years. Byron, that revolutionary student, had to compensate for a club foot; Demosthenes for a stutter; and Homer was blind. Socrates couldn't manage his wife, and infuriated his countrymen. And what about Jesus, if we need an ultimate example of failure with one's peers? Or an ultimate example of love? ~ Madeleine L Engle,
85:Demosthenes, the great Athenian patriot, cried out to his countrymen when they seemed too confused and divided to stand against the tyranny of Macedonia: “In God's name, I beg of you to think.” For a long while, most Athenians ridiculed Demosthenes’ entreaty: Macedonia was a great way distant, and there was plenty of time. Only at the eleventh hour did the Athenians perceive the truth of his exhortations. And that eleventh hour was too late. So it may be with Americans today. If we are too indolent to think, we might as well surrender to our enemies tomorrow. ~ Russell Kirk,
86:There were two things, they told Doremus, that distinguished this prairie Demosthenes. He was an actor of genius. There was no more overwhelming actor on the stage, in the motion pictures, nor even in the pulpit. He would whirl arms, bang tables, glare from mad eyes, vomit Biblical wrath from a gaping mouth; but he would also coo like a nursing mother, beseech like an aching lover, and in between tricks would coldly and almost contemptuously jab his crowds with figures and facts - figures and facts that were inescapable even when, as often happened, they were entirely incorrect. ~ Sinclair Lewis,
87:Read Demosthenes or Cicero, read Plato, Aristotle, or any other of that class: you will, I admit, feel wonderfully allured, pleased, moved, enchanted; but turn from them to the reading of the Sacred Volume, and whether you will or not, it will so affect you, so pierce your heart, so work its way into your very marrow, that, in comparison of the impression so produced, that of orators and philosophers will almost disappear; making it manifest that in the Sacred Volume there is a truth divine, a something which makes it immeasurably superior to all the gifts and graces attainable by man. Section ~ John Calvin,
88:I might preach to you for ever," declared Charles Spurgeon, "I might borrow the eloquence of Demosthenes or of Cicero, but ye will not come unto Christ. I might beg of you on my knees, with tears in my eyes, and show you the horrors of hell and the joys of heaven, the sufficiency of Christ, and your own lost condition, but you would non of you come unto Christ of yourselves unless the Spirit that rested on Christ should draw you. It is true of all men in their natural condition that they will not come unto Christ" (Free Will a Slave [reprint ed.; Allentown, Penn: Sword and Trowel, 1973], pp. 17-18). ~ Anonymous,
89:first is the otherlander, or utlänning, the stranger that we recognize as being a human of our world, but of another city or country. The second is the framling—Demosthenes merely drops the accent from the Nordic främling. This is the stranger that we recognize as human, but of another world. The third is the raman, the stranger that we recognize as human, but of another species. The fourth is the true alien, the varelse, which includes all the animals, for with them no conversation is possible. They live, but we cannot guess what purposes or causes make them act. They might be intelligent, they might be self-aware, but we cannot know it. ~ Orson Scott Card,
90:Go back 2,400 years, and you can hear it from the Athenian orator Demosthenes as he chastises his fellow citizens for responding to Macedonian aggression by “forever debating the question and never making any progress” and issuing “empty decrees.” “All words, apart from action,” Demosthenes warned, “seem vain and idle, especially from Athenian lips: for the greater our reputation for a ready tongue, the greater the distrust it inspires in all men.” We’ve had several years now of watching Obama and his foreign policy team prove this eternal truth as they have feebly and fecklessly responded to crisis after crisis in Ukraine, Syria, and a dozen other venues. ~ Anonymous,
91:The Nordic language recognizes four orders of foreignness. The first is the otherlander, or utlänning, the stranger that we recognize as being a human of our world, but of another city or country. The second is the framling—Demosthenes merely drops the accent from the Nordic främling. This is the stranger that we recognize as human, but of another world. The third is the raman, the stranger that we recognize as human, but of another species. The fourth is the true alien, the varelse, which includes all the animals, for with them no conversation is possible. They live, but we cannot guess what purposes or causes make them act. They might be intelligent, they might be self-aware, but we cannot know it. ~ Orson Scott Card,
92:Homo proponit et Deus disponit. ~ And governeth alle goode virtues. ~ William Langland, Vision of Piers Ploughman (Ed. 1824), Volume II, p. 427, line 13,984. John Gerson is credited with same. Saying quoted in Chronicles of Battel Abbey (1066 to 1177). Translation by Lower, 1851, p. 27. Homer, Iliad, XVII. 515. Pindar, Olymp, XIII. 149. Demosthenes, De Corona., 209. Plautus, Bacchid. I, 2, 36. Ammianus Marcellinus, Hist, XXV. 3. Francois Fenelon, Sermon on the Epiphany, 1685. Montaigne, Essay, Book II, Chapter XXXVII. Seneca the Younger, Epistles, 107. Cleanthus, Fragment. Cervantes, Don Quixote, I. 22. Dante, Paradise, VIII, line 134. Friedrich Schiller, Wallenstein's Death, I, 7. 32. Ordericus Vitalis, Ecclesiastica Historia, Book III (1075),
93:But in our lives, when our worst instincts are in control, we dally. We don’t act like Demosthenes, we act frail and are powerless to make ourselves better. We may be able to articulate a problem, even potential solutions, but then weeks, months, or sometimes years later, the problem is still there. Or it’s gotten worse. As though we expect someone else to handle it, as though we honestly believe that there is a chance of obstacles unobstacle-ing themselves. We’ve all done it. Said: “I am so [overwhelmed, tired, stressed, busy, blocked, outmatched].” And then what do we do about it? Go out and party. Or treat ourselves. Or sleep in. Or wait. It feels better to ignore or pretend. But you know deep down that that isn’t going to truly make it any better. You’ve got to act. And you’ve got to start now. We forget: In life, it doesn’t matter what happens to you or where you came from. It matters what you do with what happens and what you’ve been given. And the only way you’ll do something spectacular is by using it all to your advantage. ~ Ryan Holiday,
94:Ralph Waldo Emerson would later observe that “Souls are not saved in bundles.”16 Johnson fervently believed in each individual’s mysterious complexity and inherent dignity. He was, through it all, a moralist, in the best sense of that term. He believed that most problems are moral problems. “The happiness of society depends on virtue,” he would write. For him, like other humanists of that age, the essential human act is the act of making strenuous moral decisions. He, like other humanists, believed that literature could be a serious force for moral improvement. Literature gives not only new information but new experiences. It can broaden the range of awareness and be an occasion for evaluation. Literature can also instruct through pleasure. Today many writers see literature and art only in aesthetic terms, but Johnson saw them as moral enterprises. He hoped to be counted among those writers who give “ardor to virtue and confidence to truth.” He added, “It is always a writer’s duty to make the world better.” As Fussell puts it, “Johnson, then, conceives of writing as something very like a Christian sacrament, defined in the Anglican catechism as ‘an outward and visible sign of an inward and spiritual grace given to us.’ ” Johnson lived in a world of hack writers, but Johnson did not allow himself to write badly—even though he wrote quickly and for money. Instead, he pursued the ideal of absolute literary honesty. “The first step to greatness is to be honest” was one of Johnson’s maxims. He had a low but sympathetic view of human nature. It was said in Greek times that Demosthenes was not a great orator despite his stammer; he was a great orator because he stammered. The deficiency became an incentive to perfect the associated skill. The hero becomes strongest at his weakest point. Johnson was a great moralist because of his deficiencies. He came to understand that he would never defeat them. He came to understand that his story would not be the sort of virtue-conquers-vice story people like to tell. It would be, at best, a virtue-learns-to-live-with-vice story. He wrote that he did not seek cures for his failings, but palliatives. This awareness of permanent struggle made him sympathetic to others’ failings. He was a moralist, but a tenderhearted one. ~ David Brooks,
95:Doremus Jessup, so inconspicuous an observer, watching Senator Windrip from so humble a Boeotia, could not explain his power of bewitching large audiences. The Senator was vulgar, almost illiterate, a public liar easily detected, and in his "ideas" almost idiotic, while his celebrated piety was that of a traveling salesman for church furniture, and his yet more celebrated humor the sly cynicism of a country store.

Certainly there was nothing exhilarating in the actual words of his speeches, nor anything convincing in his philosophy. His political platforms were only wings of a windmill. Seven years before his present credo—derived from Lee Sarason, Hitler, Gottfried Feder, Rocco, and probably the revue Of Thee I Sing—little Buzz, back home, had advocated nothing more revolutionary than better beef stew in the county poor-farms, and plenty of graft for loyal machine politicians, with jobs for their brothers-in-law, nephews, law partners, and creditors.

Doremus had never heard Windrip during one of his orgasms of oratory, but he had been told by political reporters that under the spell you thought Windrip was Plato, but that on the way home you could not remember anything he had said.

There were two things, they told Doremus, that distinguished this prairie Demosthenes. He was an actor of genius. There was no more overwhelming actor on the stage, in the motion pictures, nor even in the pulpit. He would whirl arms, bang tables, glare from mad eyes, vomit Biblical wrath from a gaping mouth; but he would also coo like a nursing mother, beseech like an aching lover, and in between tricks would coldly and almost contemptuously jab his crowds with figures and facts—figures and facts that were inescapable even when, as often happened, they were entirely incorrect.

But below this surface stagecraft was his uncommon natural ability to be authentically excited by and with his audience, and they by and with him. He could dramatize his assertion that he was neither a Nazi nor a Fascist but a Democrat—a homespun Jeffersonian-Lincolnian-Clevelandian-Wilsonian Democrat—and (sans scenery and costume) make you see him veritably defending the Capitol against barbarian hordes, the while he innocently presented as his own warm-hearted Democratic inventions, every anti-libertarian, anti-Semitic madness of Europe.

Aside from his dramatic glory, Buzz Windrip was a Professional Common Man.

Oh, he was common enough. He had every prejudice and aspiration of every American Common Man. He believed in the desirability and therefore the sanctity of thick buckwheat cakes with adulterated maple syrup, in rubber trays for the ice cubes in his electric refrigerator, in the especial nobility of dogs, all dogs, in the oracles of S. Parkes Cadman, in being chummy with all waitresses at all junction lunch rooms, and in Henry Ford (when he became President, he exulted, maybe he could get Mr. Ford to come to supper at the White House), and the superiority of anyone who possessed a million dollars. He regarded spats, walking sticks, caviar, titles, tea-drinking, poetry not daily syndicated in newspapers and all foreigners, possibly excepting the British, as degenerate.

But he was the Common Man twenty-times-magnified by his oratory, so that while the other Commoners could understand his every purpose, which was exactly the same as their own, they saw him towering among them, and they raised hands to him in worship. ~ Sinclair Lewis,
96:HERE I sit with my paper, my pen my ink,
First of this thing, and that thing,
and t'other thing think ;
I Then my thoughts come so pell and
I mell all into my mind,
That the sense or the subject I never can find :
This word is wrong placed, no
regard to the sense,
The present and future, instead of
past tense,
Then my grammar I want; O dear!
what a bore,
I think I shall never attempt to
write more,
With patience I then my thoughts
must arraign,
Have them all in due order like
mutes in a train,
Like them too must wait in due
patience and thought,
Or else my fine works will all come
to nought.
My wit too 's so copious, it flows
like a river,
But disperses its waters on black
and white never ;
Like smoke it appears independent
and free,
But ah luckless smoke! it all passes
like thee
Then at length all my patience entirely
lost,
My paper and pens in the fire are
tossed ;
But come, try again you must
never despair,
Our Murray's or Entick's are not
all so rare,
Implore their assistance they'll
come to your aid,
Perform all your business without
being paid,
They'll tell you the present tense,
future and past,
Which should come first, and which
should come last,
This Murray will do then to Entick
repair,
To find out the meaning of any
word rare.
This they friendly will tell, and
ne'er make you blush,
With a jeering look, taunt, or an
O fie! tush!
Then straight all your thoughts in
black and white put,
Not minding the if's, the be's, and
the but,
Then read it all over, see how it
will run,
How answers the wit, the retort,
and the pun,
Your writings may then with old
Socrates vie,
May on the same shelf with Demosthenes
lie,
May as Junius be sharp, or as Plato
be sage,
The pattern or satire to all of the
age;
But stop a mad author I mean not
to turn,
Nor with thirst of applause does my
heated brain burn,
Sufficient that sense, wit, and grammar
combined,
My letters may make some slight
food for the mind ;
That my thoughts to my friends I
may freely impart,
In all the warm language that flows
from the heart.
Hark! futurity calls! it loudly
complains,
It bids me step forward and just
hold the reins,
My excuse shall be humble, and
faithful, and true,
Such as I fear can be made but by
few
Of writers this age has abundance
and plenty,
Three score and a thousand, two
millions and twenty,
Three score of them wits who all
sharply vie,
To try what odd creature they best
can belie,
A thousand are prudes who for
Charity write,
And fill up their sheets with spleen,
envy, and spite,
One million are bards, who to
Heaven aspire,
And stuff their works full of bombast,
rant, and fire,
T'other million are wags who in
Grub-street attend,
And just like a cobbler the old writings
mend,
The twenty are those who for pulpits
indite,
And pore over sermons all Saturday
night.
And now my good friends who
come after I mean,
As I ne'er wore a cassock, or dined
with a dean,
Or like cobblers at mending I never
did try,
Nor with poets in lyrics attempted
to vie;
As for prudes these good souls I
both hate and detest,
So here I believe the matter must
rest.
I've heard your complaint my
answer I've made,
And since to your calls all the
tribute I've paid,
Adieu my good friend ; pray never
despair,
But grammar and sense and everything dare,
Attempt but to write dashing, easy,
and free,
Then take out your grammar and
pay him his fee,
Be not a coward, shrink not to a
tense,
But read it all over and make it
out sense.
What a tiresome girl! pray soon
make an end,
Else my limited patience you'll
quickly expend.
Well adieu, I no longer your patience
will try
So swift to the post now the letter
shall fly.

~ Percy Bysshe Shelley, HERE I sit with my paper
,
97:The Falls Of The Chaudiere, Ottawa
I have laid my cheek to Nature's, placed my puny hand in hers,
Felt a kindred spirit warming all the life-blood of my face,
Moved amid the very foremost of her truest worshippers,
Studying each curve of beauty, marking every minute grace;
Loved not less the mountain cedar than the flowers at its feet,
Looking skyward from the valley, open-lipped as if in prayer,
Felt a pleasure in the brooklet singing of its wild retreat,
But I knelt before the splendour of the thunderous Chaudiere.
All my manhood waked within me, every nerve had tenfold force,
And my soul stood up rejoicing, looking on with cheerful eyes,
Watching the resistless waters speeding on their downward course,
Titan strength and queenly beauty diademed with rainbow dyes.
Eye and ear, with spirit quickened, mingled with the lovely strife,
Saw the living Genius shrined within her sanctuary fair,
Heard her voice of sweetness singing, peered into her hidden life,
And discerned the tuneful secret of the jubilant Chaudiere:
'Within my pearl-roofed shell,
Whose floor is woven with the iris bright,
Genius and Queen of the Chaudiere I dwell,
As in a world of immaterial light.
My throne, an ancient rock,
Marked by the foot of ages long-departed,
My joy, the cataract's stupendous shock,
Whose roll is music to the grateful-hearted.
I've seen the eras glide
With muffled tread to their eternal dreams,
While I have lived in vale and mountain side,
With leaping torrents and sweet purling streams.
The Red-Man's active life;
His love, pride, passions, courage, and great deeds;
His perfect freedom, and his thirst for strife;
His swift revenge, at which the memory bleeds:
The sanguinary years,
141
When sullen Terror, like a raging Fate,
Swept down the stately tribes like slaughtered deers,
And war and hatred joined to decimate
The remnants of the race,
And spread decay through centuries of painNo more I mark their sure, avenging pace,
And forests wave where war-whoops shook the plain.
Their deeds I envied not.
The royal tyrant on his purple throne,
I, in secluded grove or shady grot,
Had purer joys than he had ever known,
God made the ancient hills,
The valleys and the solemn wildernesses,
The merry-hearted and melodious rills,
And strung with diamond dews the pine-trees' tresses;
But man's hand built the palace,
And he that reigns therein is simply man;
Man turns God's gifts to poison in the chalice
That brimmed with nectar in the primal plan.
Here I abide aloneThe wild Chaudiere's eternal jubilee
Has such sweet divination in its tone,
And utters nature's truest prophecy
In thunderings of zeal!
I've seen the Atheist in terror start,
Awed to contrition by the strong appeal
That waked conviction in his doubting heart:
'Teachers speak throughout all nature,
From the womb of Silence born,
Heed ye not their words, O Scoffer?
Flinging back thy scorn with scorn!
To the desert spring that leapeth,
Pulsing, from the parched sod,
Points the famished trav'ler, saying'Brothers, here, indeed, is God!'
142
From the patriarchal fountains,
Sending forth their tribes of rills,
From the cedar-shadowed lakelets
In the hearts of distant hills,
Whispers softer than the moonbeams
Wisdom's gentle heart have awed,
Till its lips approved the cadence'Surely here, indeed, is God!'
Lo! o'er all, the Torrent Prophet,
An inspired Demosthenes,
To the Doubter's soul appealing,
Louder than the preacher-seas:
Dreamer! wouldst have nature spurn thee
For a dumb, insensate clod?
Dare to doubt! and these shall teach thee
Of a truth there lives a God!'
By day and night, for hours,
I watch the cataract's impulsive leap,
Refreshed and gladdened by the cheering showers
Wrung from the passion of the seething deep.
Pleased when the buried waves
Emerge again, like incorporeal hosts
Rising, white-sheeted, from their gloomy graves,
As if the depths had yielded up their ghosts.
And when the midnight storm
Enfolds the welkin in its robe of clouds,
Through the dim vapours of the cauldron swarm
The sheeted spectres in their whitest shrouds,
By the lightning's flash betrayed.
These gather from the insubstantial vapour
The lunar rainbows, which by them are madeWoven with moonbeams by some starry taper,
To decorate the halls
Of my fair palace, whence I'm pained to see
Thy human brethren watch the waterfalls-
143
Not with such rev'rence as I've found in thee:
Too many with an eye
To speculation and the worldling's dreams;
Others, who seek from nature no reply,
Nor read the oral language of the streams.
But of the few who loved
The beautiful with grateful heart and soul,
Who looked on nature fondly, and were moved
By one sweet glance, as by the mighty whole:
Of these, the thoughtful few,
Thou wert the first to seek the inner temple,
And stand before the Priestess. Thou wert true
To nature and thyself. Be thy example
The harbinger of times
When the Chaudiere's imposing majesty
Will awe the spirits of the heartless mimes
To worship God in truth, with nature's constancy.'
Still I heard the mellow sweetness of her voice at intervals,
Mingling with the fall of waters, rising with the snowy spray,
Ringing through the sportive current like the joy of waterfalls,
Sending up their hearty vespers at the calmy close of day.
Loath to leave the scene of beauty, lover-like I stayed, and stayed,
Folding to my eager bosom memories beyond compare;
Deeper, stronger, more enduring than my dreams of wood and glade,
Were the eloquent appeals of the magnificent Chaudiere.
E'en the solid bridge is trembling, whence I look my last farewell,
Dizzy with the roar and trampling of the mighty herd of waves,
Speeding past the rocky Island, steadfast as a sentinel,
Towards the loveliest bay that ever mirrored the Algonquin Braves.
Soul of Beauty! Genius! Spirit! Priestess of the lovely strife!
In my heart thy words are shrined, as in a sanctuary fair;
Echoes of thy voice of sweetness, rousing all my better life,
Ever haunt my wildest visions of the jubilant Chaudiere.
~ Charles Sangster,
98:The Third Monarchy, Being The Grecian, Beginning
Under Alexander The Great In The 112. Olympiad.
Great Alexander was wise Philips son,
He to Amyntas, Kings of Macedon;
The cruel proud Olympias was his Mother,
She to Epirus warlike King was daughter.
This Prince (his father by Pausanias slain)
The twenty first of's age began to reign.
Great were the Gifts of nature which he had,
His education much to those did adde:
By art and nature both he was made fit,
To 'complish that which long before was writ.
The very day of his Nativity
To ground was burnt Dianaes Temple high:
An Omen to their near approaching woe,
Whose glory to the earth this king did throw.
His Rule to Greece he scorn'd should be confin'd,
The Universe scarce bound his proud vast mind.
This is the He-Goat which from Grecia came,
That ran in Choler on the Persian Ram,
That brake his horns, that threw him on the ground
To save him from his might no man was found:
Philip on this great Conquest had an eye,
But death did terminate those thoughts so high.
The Greeks had chose him Captain General,
Which honour to his Son did now befall.
(For as Worlds Monarch now we speak not on,
But as the King of little Macedon)
Restless both day and night his heart then was,
His high resolves which way to bring to pass;
Yet for a while in Greece is forc'd to stay,
Which makes each moment seem more then a day.
Thebes and stiff Athens both 'gainst him rebel,
Their mutinies by valour doth he quell.
This done against both right and natures Laws,
His kinsmen put to death, who gave no cause;
That no rebellion in in his absence be,
Nor making Title unto Sovereignty.
And all whom he suspects or fears will climbe,
129
Now taste of death least they deserv'd in time,
Nor wonder is t if he in blood begin,
For Cruelty was his parental sin,
Thus eased now of troubles and of fears,
Next spring his course to Asia he steers;
Leavs Sage Antipater, at home to sway,
And through the Hellispont his Ships made way.
Coming to Land, his dart on shore he throws,
Then with alacrity he after goes;
And with a bount'ous heart and courage brave,
His little wealth among his Souldiers gave.
And being ask'd what for himself was left,
Reply'd, enough, sith only hope he kept.
Thirty two thousand made up his Foot force,
To which were joyn'd five thousand goodly horse.
Then on he marcht, in's way he view'd old Troy,
And on Achilles tomb with wondrous joy
He offer'd, and for good success did pray
To him, his Mothers Ancestors, (men say)
When news of Alexander came to Court,
To scorn at him Darius had good sport;
Sends him a frothy and contemptuous Letter,
Stiles him disloyal servant, and no better;
Reproves him for his proud audacity
To lift his hand 'gainst such a Monarchy.
Then to's Lieftenant he in Asia sends
That he be ta'ne alive, for he intends
To whip him well with rods, and so to bring
That boy so mallipert before the King.
Ah! fond vain man, whose pen ere while
In lower terms was taught a higher stile.
To River Granick Alexander hyes
Which in Phrygia near Propontike lyes.
The Persians ready for encounter stand,
And strive to keep his men from off the land;
Those banks so steep the Greeks yet scramble up,
And beat the coward Persians from the top,
And twenty thousand of their lives bereave,
Who in their backs did all their wounds receive.
This victory did Alexander gain,
With loss of thirty four of his there slain;
Then Sardis he, and Ephesus did gain,
130
VVhere stood of late, Diana's wondrous Phane,
And by Parmenio (of renowned Fame,)
Miletus and Pamphilia overcame.
Hallicarnassus and Pisidia
He for his Master takes with Lycia.
Next Alexander marcht towards the black Sea,
And easily takes old Gordium in his way;
Of Ass ear'd Midas, once the Regal Seat,
VVhose touch turn'd all to gold, yea even his meat
VVhere the Prophetick knot he cuts in twain,
VVhich who so doth, must Lord of all remain.
Now news of Memnon's death (the Kings Viceroy)
To Alexanders heart's no little joy,
For in that Peer, more valour did abide,
Then in Darius multitude beside:
In's stead, was Arses plac'd, but durst not stay,
Yet set one in his room, and ran away;
His substitute as fearfull as his master,
Runs after two, and leaves all to Disaster.
Then Alexander all Cilicia takes,
No stroke for it he struck, their hearts so quakes.
To Greece he thirty thousand talents sends,
To raise more Force to further his intends:
Then o're he goes Darius now to meet,
Who came with thousand thousands at his feet.
Though some there be (perhaps) more likely write
He but four hundred thousand had to fight,
The rest Attendants, which made up no less,
Both Sexes there was almost numberless.
For this wise King had brought to see the sport,
With him the greatest Ladyes of the Court,
His mother, his beauteous Queen and daughters,
It seems to see the Macedonian slaughters.
Its much beyond my time and little art,
To shew how great Darius plaid his part;
The splendor and the pomp he marched in,
For since the world was no such Pageant seen.
Sure 'twas a goodly sight there to behold,
The Persians clad in silk, and glistering gold,
The stately horses trapt, the lances gilt,
As if addrest now all to run a tilt.
The holy fire was borne before the host,
131
(For Sun and Fire the Persians worship most)
The Priests in their strange habit follow after,
An object, not so much of fear as laughter.
The King sate in a chariot made of gold,
With crown and Robes most glorious to behold,
And o're his head his golden Gods on high,
Support a party coloured Canopy.
A number of spare horses next were led,
Lest he should need them in his Chariots stead;
But those that saw him in this state to lye,
Suppos'd he neither meant to fight nor flye.
He fifteen hundred had like women drest;
For thus to fright the Greeks he judg'd was best.
Their golden ornaments how to set forth,
Would ask more time then was their bodies worth
Great Sysigambis she brought up the Reer,
Then such a world of waggons did appear,
Like several houses moving upon wheels,
As if she'd drawn whole Shushan at her heels:
This brave Virago to the King was mother,
And as much good she did as any other.
Now lest this gold, and all this goodly stuff
Had not been spoyle and booty rich enough
A thousand mules and Camels ready wait
Loaden with gold, with jewels and with plate:
For sure Darius thought at the first sight,
The Greeks would all adore, but none would fight
But when both Armies met, he might behold
That valour was more worth then pearls or gold,
And that his wealth serv'd but for baits to 'lure
To make his overthrow more fierce and sure.
The Greeks came on and with a gallant grace
Let fly their arrows in the Persians face.
The cowards feeling this sharp stinging charge
Most basely ran, and left their king at large:
Who from his golden coach is glad to 'light,
And cast away his crown for swifter flight:
Of late like some immoveable he lay,
Now finds both legs and horse to run away.
Two hundred thousand men that day were slain,
And forty thousand prisoners also tane,
Besides the Queens and Ladies of the court,
132
If Curtius be true in his report.
The Regal Ornaments were lost, the treasure
Divided at the Macedonians pleasure;
Yet all this grief, this loss, this overthrow,
Was but beginning of his future woe.
The royal Captives brought to Alexander
T'ward them demean'd himself like a Commander
For though their beauties were unparaled,
Conquer'd himself now he had conquered,
Preserv'd their honour, us'd them bounteously,
Commands no man should doe them injury:
And this to Alexander is more fame
Then that the Persian King he overcame.
Two hundred eighty Greeks he lost in fight,
By too much heat, not wounds (as authors write)
No sooner had this Victor won the field,
But all Phenicia to his pleasure yield,
Of which the Goverment he doth commit
Unto Parmenio of all most fit.
Darius now less lofty then before,
To Alexander writes he would restore
Those mournfull Ladies from Captivity,
For whom he offers him a ransome high:
But down his haughty stomach could not bring,
To give this Conquerour the Stile of King.
This Letter Alexander doth disdain,
And in short terms sends this reply again,
A King he was, and that not only so,
But of Darius King, as he should know.
Next Alexander unto Tyre doth goe,
His valour and his victoryes they know:
To gain his love the Tyrians intend,
Therefore a crown and great Provision send,
Their present he receives with thankfullness,
Desires to offer unto Hercules,
Protector of their town, by whom defended,
And from whom he lineally descended.
But they accept not this in any wise,
Lest he intend more fraud then sacrifice,
Sent word that Hercules his temple stood
In the old town, (which then lay like a wood)
With this reply he was so deep enrag'd,
133
To win the town, his honour he ingag'd:
And now as Babels King did once before,
He leaves not till he made the sea firm shore,
But far less time and cost he did expend,
The former Ruines forwarded his end:
Moreover had a Navy at command,
The other by his men fetcht all by land.
In seven months time he took that wealthy town,
Whose glory now a second time's brought down.
Two thousand of the chief he crucifi'd,
Eight thousand by the sword then also di'd,
And thirteen thousand Gally slaves he made,
And thus the Tyrians for mistrust were paid.
The rule of this he to Philotas gave
Who was the son of that Parmenio brave.
Cilicia to Socrates doth give,
For now's the time Captains like Kings may live.
Zidon he on Ephestion bestowes;
(For that which freely comes, as freely goes)
He scorns to have one worse then had the other,
So gives his little Lordship to another.
Ephestion having chief command of th'Fleet,
At Gaza now must Alexander meet.
Darius finding troubles still increase,
By his Ambassadors now sues for peace,
And layes before great Alexanders eyes
The dangers difficultyes like to rise,
First at Euphrates what he's like to 'bide,
And then at Tygris and Araxis side,
These he may scape, and if he so desire,
A league of friendship make firm and entire.
His eldest daughter he in mariage profers,
And a most princely dowry with her offers.
All those rich Kingdomes large that do abide
Betwixt the Hellespont and Halys side.
But he with scorn his courtesie rejects,
And the distressed King no whit respects,
Tells him, these proffers great, in truth were none
For all he offers now was but his own.
But quoth Parmenio that brave Commander,
Was I as great, as is great Alexander,
Darius offers I would not reject,
134
But th'kingdomes and the Lady soon accept.
To which proud Alexander made reply,
And so if I Parmenio was, would I.
He now to Gaza goes, and there doth meet,
His Favorite Ephestion with his Fleet,
Where valiant Betis stoutly keeps the town,
(A loyal Subject to Darius Crown)
For more repulse the Grecians here abide
Then in the Persian Monarchy beside;
And by these walls so many men were slain,
That Greece was forc'd to yield supply again.
But yet this well defended Town was taken,
For 'twas decree'd, that Empire should be shaken;
Thus Betis ta'en had holes bor'd through his feet,
And by command was drawn through every street
To imitate Achilles in his shame,
Who did the like to Hector (of more fame)
What hast thou lost thy magnimity,
Can Alexander deal thus cruelly?
Sith valour with Heroicks is renown'd,
Though in an Enemy it should be found;
If of thy future fame thou hadst regard,
Why didst not heap up honours and reward?
From Gaza to Jerusalem he goes,
But in no hostile way, (as I suppose)
Him in his Priestly Robes high Jaddus meets,
Whom with great reverence Alexander greets;
The Priest shews him good Daniel's Prophesy,
How he should overthrow this Monarchy,
By which he was so much encouraged,
No future dangers he did ever dread.
From thence to fruitful Egypt marcht with speed,
Where happily in's wars he did succeed;
To see how fast he gain'd was no small wonder,
For in few dayes he brought that Kingdome under.
Then to the Phane of Jupiter he went,
To be install'd a God, was his intent.
The Pagan Priest through hire, or else mistake,
The Son of Jupiter did streight him make:
He Diobolical must needs remain,
That his humanity will not retain.
Thence back to Egypt goes, and in few dayes;
135
Fair Alexandria from the ground doth raise;
Then setling all things in less Asia;
In Syria, Egypt, and Phenicia,
Unto Euphrates marcht and overgoes,
For no man's there his Army to oppose;
Had Betis now been there but with his band,
Great Alexander had been kept from Land.
But as the King, so is the multitude,
And now of valour both are destitute.
Yet he (poor prince) another Host doth muster,
Of Persians, Scythians, Indians in a cluster;
Men but in shape and name, of valour none
Most fit, to blunt the Swords of Macedon.
Two hundred fifty thousand by account,
Of Horse and Foot his Army did amount;
For in his multitudes his trust still lay,
But on their fortitude he had small stay;
Yet had some hope that on the spacious plain,
His numbers might the victory obtain.
About this time Darius beautious Queen,
Who had sore travail and much sorrow seen,
Now bids the world adue, with pain being spent,
Whose death her Lord full sadly did lament.
Great Alexander mourns as well as he,
The more because not set at liberty;
When this sad news (at first Darius hears,
Some injury was offered he fears:
But when inform'd how royally the King,
Had used her, and hers, in every thing,
He prays the immortal Gods they would reward
Great Alexander for this good regard;
And if they down his Monarchy will throw,
Let them on him this dignity bestow.
And now for peace he sues as once before,
And offers all he did and Kingdomes more;
His eldest daughter for his princely bride,
(Nor was such match in all the world beside)
And all those Countryes which (betwixt) did lye
Phanisian Sea, and great Euphrates high:
With fertile Egypt and rich Syria,
And all those Kingdomes in less Asia.
With thirty thousand Talents to be paid,
136
For the Queen Mother, and the royal maid;
And till all this be well perform'd, and sure,
Ochus his Son for Hostage should endure.
To this stout Alexander gives no ear,
No though Parmenio plead, yet will not hear;
Which had he done. (perhaps) his fame he'd kept,
Nor Infamy had wak'd, when he had slept,
For his unlimited prosperity
Him boundless made in vice and Cruelty.
Thus to Darius he writes back again,
The Firmament, two Suns cannot contain.
Two Monarchyes on Earth cannot abide,
Nor yet two Monarchs in one world reside;
The afflicted King finding him set to jar,
Prepares against to morrow, for the war,
Parmenio, Alexander, wisht that night,
To force his Camp, so vanquish them by flight.
For tumult in the night doth cause most dread,
And weakness of a Foe is covered,
But he disdain'd to steal a victory:
The Sun should witness of his valour be,
And careless in his bed, next morne he lyes,
By Captains twice is call'd before hee'l rise,
The Armyes joyn'd a while, the Persians fight,
And spilt the Greeks some bloud before their flight
But long they stood not e're they're forc'd to run,
So made an end, As soon as well begun.
Forty five thousand Alexander had,
But is not known what slaughter here was made,
Some write th'other had a million, some more,
But Quintus Curtius as before.
At Arbela this victory was gain'd,
Together with the Town also obtain'd;
Darius stript of all to Media came,
Accompan'ed with sorrow, fear, and shame,
At Arbela left his Ornaments and Treasure,
Which Alexander deals as suits his pleasure.
This conqueror to Babylon then goes,
Is entertain'd with joy and pompous showes,
With showrs of flours the streets along are strown,
And incense burnt the silver Altars on.
The glory of the Castle he admires,
137
The strong Foundation and the lofty Spires,
In this, a world of gold and Treasure lay,
Which in few hours was carried all away.
With greedy eyes he views this City round,
Whose fame throughout the world was so renownd
And to possess he counts no little bliss
The towres and bowres of proud Semiramis,
Though worne by time, and rac'd by foes full sore,
Yet old foundations shew'd and somewhat more.
With all the pleasures that on earth are found,
This city did abundantly abound,
Where four and thirty dayes he now did stay,
And gave himself to banqueting and play:
He and his souldiers wax effeminate,
And former discipline begin to hate.
Whilst revelling at Babylon he lyes,
Antipater from Greece sends fresh supplyes.
He then to Shushan goes with his new bands,
But needs no force, tis rendred to his hands.
He likewise here a world of treasure found;
For 'twas the seat of Persian Kings renownd.
Here stood the royal Houses of delight,
Where Kings have shown their glory wealth and might
The sumptuous palace of Queen Esther here,
And of good Mordicai, her kinsman dear,
Those purple hangings, mixt with green and white
Those beds of gold, and couches of delight.
And furniture the richest in all lands,
Now fall into the Macedonians hands.
From Shushan to Persipolis he goes,
Which news doth still augment Darius woes.
In his approach the governour sends word,
For his receipt with joy they all accord,
With open gates the wealthy town did stand,
And all in it was at his high command.
Of all the Cities that on earth was found,
None like to this in riches did abound:
Though Babylon was rich and Shushan too
Yet to compare with this they might not doe:
Here lay the bulk of all those precious things
That did pertain unto the Persian Kings:
For when the souldiers rifled had their pleasure,
138
And taken money plate and golden treasure,
Statues some gold, and silver numberless,
Yet after all, as storyes do express
The share of Alexander did amount
To an hundred thousand talents by account.
Here of his own he sets a Garison,
(As first at Shushan and at Babylon)
On their old Governours titles he laid,
But on their faithfulness he never staid,
Their place gave to his Captains (as was just)
For such revolters false, what King can trust?
The riches and the pleasures of this town
Now makes this King his virtues all to drown,
That wallowing in all licentiousness,
In pride and cruelty to high excess.
Being inflam'd with wine upon a season,
Filled with madness, and quite void of reason,
He at a bold proud strumpets leud desire,
Commands to set this goodly town on fire.
Parmenio wise intreats him to desist
And layes before his eyes if he persist
His fames dishonour, loss unto his state,
And just procuring of the Persians hate:
But deaf to reason, bent to have his will,
Those stately streets with raging flame did fill.
Then to Darius he directs his way,
Who was retir'd as far as Media,
And there with sorrows, fears & cares surrounded
Had now his army fourth and last compounded.
Which forty thousand made, but his intent
Was these in Bactria soon to augment:
But hearing Alexander was so near,
Thought now this once to try his fortunes here,
And rather chose an honourable death,
Then still with infamy to draw his breath:
But Bessus false, who was his chief Commander
Perswades him not to fight with Alexander.
With sage advice he sets before his eyes
The little hope of profit like to rise:
If when he'd multitudes the day he lost,
Then with so few, how likely to be crost.
This counsel for his safety he pretended,
139
But to deliver him to's foe intended.
Next day this treason to Darius known
Transported sore with grief and passion,
Grinding his teeth, and plucking off his hair,
Sate overwhelm'd with sorrow and dispair:
Then bids his servant Artabasus true,
Look to himself, and leave him to that crew,
Who was of hopes and comforts quite bereft,
And by his guard and Servitors all left.
Straight Bessus comes, & with his trait'rous hands
Layes hold on's Lord, and binding him with bands
Throws him into a Cart, covered with hides,
Who wanting means t'resist these wrongs abides,
Then draws the cart along with chains of gold,
In more despight the thraled prince to hold,
And thus t'ward Alexander on he goes,
Great recompence for this, he did propose:
But some detesting this his wicked fact,
To Alexander flyes and tells this act,
Who doubling of his march, posts on amain,
Darius from that traitors hands to gain.
Bessus gets knowledg his disloyalty
Had Alexanders wrath incensed high,
Whose army now was almost within sight,
His hopes being dasht prepares himself for flight:
Unto Darius first he brings a horse,
And bids him save himself by speedy course:
The wofull King his courtesie refuses,
Whom thus the execrable wretch abuses,
By throwing darts gave him his mortal wound,
Then slew his Servants that were faithfull found,
Yea wounds the beasts that drew him unto death,
And leaves him thus to gasp out his last breath.
Bessus his partner in this tragedy,
Was the false Governour of Media.
This done, they with their host soon speed away,
To hide themselves remote in Bactria.
Darius bath'd in blood, sends out his groans,
Invokes the heav'ns and earth to hear his moans:
His lost felicity did grieve him sore,
But this unheard of treachery much more:
But above all, that neither Ear nor Eye
140
Should hear nor see his dying misery;
As thus he lay, Polistrates a Greek,
Wearied with his long march, did water seek,
So chanc'd these bloudy Horses to espy,
Whose wounds had made their skins of purple dye
To them repairs then looking in the Cart,
Finds poor Darius pierced to the heart,
Who not a little chear'd to have some eye,
The witness of this horrid Tragedy;
Prays him to Alexander to commend
The just revenge of this his woful end:
And not to pardon such disloyalty,
Of Treason, Murther, and base Cruelty.
If not, because Darius thus did pray,
Yet that succeeding Kings in safety may
Their lives enjoy, their Crowns and dignity,
And not by Traitors hands untimely dye.
He also sends his humble thankfulness,
For all the Kingly grace he did express;
To's Mother, Children dear, and wife now gone.
Which made their long restraint seem to be none:
Praying the immortal Gods, that Sea and Land
Might be subjected to his royal hand,
And that his Rule as far extended be,
As men the rising, setting Sun shall see,
This said, the Greek for water doth intreat,
To quench his thirst, and to allay his heat:
Of all good things (quoth he) once in my power,
I've nothing left, at this my dying hour;
Thy service and compassion to reward,
But Alexander will, for this regard.
This said, his fainting breath did fleet away,
And though a Monarch late, now lyes like clay;
And thus must every Son of Adam lye,
Though Gods on Earth like Sons of men they dye.
Now to the East, great Alexander goes,
To see if any dare his might oppose,
For scarce the world or any bounds thereon,
Could bound his boundless fond Ambition;
Such as submits again he doth restore
Their riches, and their honours he makes more,
On Artabaces more then all bestow'd,
141
For his fidelity to's Master show'd.
Thalestris Queen of th'Amazons now brought
Her Train to Alexander, (as 'tis thought.)
Though most of reading best and soundest mind,
Such Country there, nor yet such people find.
Then tell her errand, we had better spare
To th'ignorant, her title will declare:
As Alexander in his greatness grows,
So dayly of his virtues doth he lose.
He baseness counts, his former Clemency,
And not beseeming such a dignity;
His past sobriety doth also bate,
As most incompatible to his State;
His temperance is but a sordid thing,
No wayes becoming such a mighty King;
His greatness now he takes to represent
His fancy'd Gods above the Firmament.
And such as shew'd but reverence before,
Now are commanded strictly to adore;
With Persian Robes himself doth dignifie,
Charging the same on his nobility,
His manners habit, gestures, all did fashion
After that conquer'd and luxurious Nation.
His Captains that were virtuously inclin'd,
Griev'd at this change of manners and of mind.
The ruder sort did openly deride,
His feigned Diety and foolish pride;
The certainty of both comes to his Ears,
But yet no notice takes of what he hears:
With those of worth he still desires esteem,
So heaps up gifts his credit to redeem
And for the rest new wars and travails finds,
That other matters might take up their minds,
And hearing Bessus, makes himself a King,
Intends that Traitor to his end to bring.
Now that his Host from luggage might be free,
And with his burthen no man burthened be;
Commands forthwith each man his fardle bring,
Into the market place before the King;
VVhich done, sets fire upon those goodly spoyles,
The recompence of travails wars and toyles.
And thus unwisely in a mading fume,
142
The wealth of many Kingdomes did consume,
But marvell 'tis that without mutiny,
The Souldiers should let pass this injury;
Nor wonder less to Readers may it bring,
Here to observe the rashness of the King.
Now with his Army doth he post away
False Bessus to find out in Bactria:
But much distrest for water in their march,
The drought and heat their bodies sore did parch.
At length they came to th'river Oxus brink,
Where so immoderately these thirsty drink,
Which more mortality to them did bring,
Then all their warrs against the Persian King.
Here Alexander's almost at a stand,
To pass the River to the other land.
For boats here's none, nor near it any wood,
To make them Rafts to waft them o're the flood:
But he that was resolved in his mind,
Would without means some transportation find.
Then from the Carriages the hides he takes,
And stuffing them with straw, he bundles makes.
On these together ti'd, in six dayes space,
They all pass over to the other place.
Had Bessus had but valour to his will,
With little pain there might have kept them still:
But Coward durst not fight, nor could he fly,
Hated of all for's former treachery,
Is by his own now bound in iron chains,
A Coller of the same, his neck contains.
And in this sort they rather drag then bring
This Malefactor vile before the King,
Who to Darius brother gives the wretch,
With racks and tortures every limb to stretch.
Here was of Greeks a town in Bactria,
Whom Xerxes from their Country led away,
These not a little joy'd, this day to see,
Wherein their own had got the sov'raignty
And now reviv'd, with hopes held up their head
From bondage long to be Enfranchised.
But Alexander puts them to the sword
Without least cause from them in deed or word;
Nor Sex, nor age, nor one, nor other spar'd,
143
But in his cruelty alike they shar'd:
Nor reason could he give for this great wrong,
But that they had forgot their mother tongue.
While thus some time he spent in Bactria,
And in his camp strong and securely lay,
Down from the mountains twenty thousand came
And there most fiercely set upon the same:
Repelling these, two marks of honour got
Imprinted in his leg, by arrows shot.
The Bactrians against him now rebel;
But he their stubborness in time doth quell.
From hence he to Jaxartis River goes,
Where Scythians rude his army doth oppose,
And with their outcryes in an hideous sort
Beset his camp, or military court,
Of darts and arrows, made so little spare,
They flew so thick, they seem'd to dark the air:
But soon his souldiers forc'd them to a flight,
Their nakedness could not endure their might.
Upon this rivers bank in seventeen dayes
A goodly City doth compleatly raise,
Which Alexandria he doth likewise name,
And sixty furlongs could but round the same.
A third Supply Antipater now sent,
Which did his former forces much augment;
And being one hundred twenty thousand strong;
He enters then the Indian Kings among:
Those that submit, he gives them rule again,
Such as do not, both them and theirs are slain.
His warrs with sundry nations I'le omit,
And also of the Mallians what is writ.
His Fights, his dangers, and the hurts he had,
How to submit their necks at last they're glad.
To Nisa goes by Bacchus built long since,
Whose feasts are celebrated by this prince;
Nor had that drunken god one who would take
His Liquors more devoutly for his sake.
When thus ten days his brain with wine he'd soakt,
And with delicious meats his palate choakt:
To th'River Indus next his course he bends,
Boats to prepare, Ephestion first he sends,
Who coming thither long before his Lord,
144
Had to his mind made all things to accord,
The vessels ready were at his command,
And Omphis King of that part of the land,
Through his perswasion Alexander meets,
And as his Sov'raign Lord him humbly greets
Fifty six Elephants he brings to's hand,
And tenders him the strength of all his land;
Presents himself first with a golden crown,
Then eighty talents to his captains down:
But Alexander made him to behold
He glory sought, no silver nor no gold;
His presents all with thanks he did restore,
And of his own a thousand talents more.
Thus all the Indian Kings to him submit,
But Porus stout, who will not yeild as yet:
To him doth Alexander thus declare,
His pleasure is that forthwith he repair
Unto his Kingdomes borders, and as due,
His homage to himself as Soveraign doe:
But kingly Porus this brave answer sent,
That to attend him there was his intent,
And come as well provided as he could,
But for the rest, his sword advise him should.
Great Alexander vext at this reply,
Did more his valour then his crown envy,
Is now resolv'd to pass Hydaspes flood,
And there by force his soveraignty make good.
Stout Porus on the banks doth ready stand
To give him welcome when he comes to land.
A potent army with him like a King,
And ninety Elephants for warr did bring:
Had Alexander such resistance seen
On Tygris side, here now he had not been.
Within this spacious River deep and wide
Did here and there Isles full of trees abide.
His army Alexander doth divide
With Ptolemy sends part to th'other side;
Porus encounters them and thinks all's there,
When covertly the rest get o're else where,
And whilst the first he valiantly assail'd,
The last set on his back, and so prevail'd.
Yet work enough here Alexander found,
145
For to the last stout Porus kept his ground:
Nor was't dishonour at the length to yield,
When Alexander strives to win the field.
The kingly Captive 'fore the Victor's brought,
In looks or gesture not abased ought,
But him a Prince of an undaunted mind
Did Alexander by his answers find:
His fortitude his royal foe commends,
Restores him and his bounds farther extends.
Now eastward Alexander would goe still,
But so to doe his souldiers had no will,
Long with excessive travails wearied,
Could by no means be farther drawn or led,
Yet that his fame might to posterity
Be had in everlasting memory,
Doth for his Camp a greater circuit take,
And for his souldiers larger Cabbins make.
His mangers he erected up so high
As never horse his Provender could eye.
Huge bridles made, which here and there he left,
Which might be found, and for great wonders kept
Twelve altars then for monuments he rears,
Whereon his acts and travels long appears.
But doubting wearing time might these decay,
And so his memory would fade away,
He on the fair Hydaspes pleasant side,
Two Cities built, his name might there abide,
First Nicea, the next Bucephalon,
Where he entomb'd his stately Stalion.
His fourth and last supply was hither sent,
Then down Hydaspes with his Fleet he went;
Some time he after spent upon that shore,
Whether Ambassadors, ninety or more,
Came with submission from the Indian Kings,
Bringing their presents rare, and precious things,
These all he feasts in state on beds of gold,
His Furniture most sumptuous to behold;
His meat & drink, attendants, every thing,
To th'utmost shew'd the glory of a King.
With rich rewards he sent them home again,
Acknowledged their Masters sovereign;
Then sailing South, and coming to that shore,
146
Those obscure Nations yielded as before:
A City here he built, call'd by his Name,
Which could not sound too oft with too much fame
Then sailing by the mouth of Indus floud,
His Gallyes stuck upon the flats and mud;
Which the stout Macedonians amazed sore,
Depriv'd at once the use of Sail and Oar:
Observing well the nature of the Tide,
In those their fears they did not long abide.
Passing fair Indus mouth his course he steer'd
To th'coast which by Euphrates mouth appear'd;
Whose inlets near unto, he winter spent,
Unto his starved Souldiers small content,
By hunger and by cold so many slain,
That of them all the fourth did scarce remain.
Thus winter, Souldiers, and provisions spent,
From hence he then unto Gedrosia went.
And thence he marcht into Carmania,
And so at length drew near to Persia,
Now through these goodly Countryes as he past,
Much time in feasts and ryoting did waste;
Then visits Cyrus Sepulchre in's way,
Who now obscure at Passagardis lay:
Upon his Monument his Robe he spread,
And set his Crown on his supposed head.
From hence to Babylon, some time there spent,
He at the last to royal Shushan went;
A wedding Feast to's Nobles then he makes,
And Statyra, Darius daughter takes,
Her Sister gives to his Ephestian dear,
That by this match he might be yet more near;
He fourscore Persian Ladies also gave,
At this same time unto his Captains brave:
Six thousand guests unto this Feast invites,
Whose Sences all were glutted with delights.
It far exceeds my mean abilities
To shadow forth these short felicities,
Spectators here could scarce relate the story,
They were so rapt with this external glory:
If an Ideal Paradise a man would frame,
He might this Feast imagine by the same;
To every guess a cup of gold he sends,
147
So after many dayes the Banquet ends.
Now Alexanders conquests all are done,
And his long Travails past and overgone;
His virtues dead, buried, and quite forgot,
But vice remains to his Eternal blot.
'Mongst those that of his cruelty did tast,
Philotus was not least, nor yet the last,
Accus'd because he did not certifie
The King of treason and conspiracy:
Upon suspition being apprehended,
Nothing was prov'd wherein he had offended
But silence, which was of such consequence,
He was judg'd guilty of the same offence,
But for his fathers great deserts the King
His royal pardon gave for this foul thing.
Yet is Phylotas unto judgment brought,
Must suffer, not for what is prov'd, but thought.
His master is accuser, judge and King,
Who to the height doth aggravate each thing,
Inveighs against his father now absent,
And's brethren who for him their lives had spent.
But Philotas his unpardonable crime,
No merit could obliterate, or time:
He did the Oracle of Jove deride,
By which his Majesty was diefi'd.
Philotas thus o'recharg'd with wrong and grief
Sunk in despair without hope of Relief,
Fain would have spoke and made his own defence,
The King would give no ear, but went from thence
To his malicious Foes delivers him,
To wreak their spight and hate on every limb.
Philotas after him sends out this cry,
O Alexander, thy free clemency
My foes exceeds in malice, and their hate
Thy kingly word can easily terminate.
Such torments great as wit could worst invent,
Or flesh and life could bear, till both were spent
Were now inflicted on Parmenio's son
He might accuse himself, as they had done,
At last he did, so they were justifi'd,
And told the world, that for his guilt he di'd.
But how these Captains should, or yet their master
148
Look on Parmenio, after this disaster
They knew not, wherefore best now to be done,
Was to dispatch the father as the son.
This sound advice at heart pleas'd Alexander,
Who was so much ingag'd to this Commander,
As he would ne're confess, nor yet reward,
Nor could his Captains bear so great regard:
Wherefore at once, all these to satisfie,
It was decreed Parmenio should dye:
Polidamus, who seem'd Parmenio's friend
To do this deed they into Media send:
He walking in his garden to and fro,
Fearing no harm, because he none did doe,
Most wickedly was slain without least crime,
(The most renowned captain of his time)
This is Parmenio who so much had done
For Philip dead, and his surviving son,
Who from a petty King of Macedon
By him was set upon the Persian throne,
This that Parmenio who still overcame,
Yet gave his Master the immortal fame,
Who for his prudence, valour, care and trust
Had this reward, most cruel and unjust.
The next, who in untimely death had part,
Was one of more esteem, but less desert;
Clitus belov'd next to Ephestian,
And in his cups his chief companion;
When both were drunk, Clitus was wont to jeer,
Alexander to rage, to kill, and swear;
Nothing more pleasing to mad Clitus tongue,
Then's Masters Godhead to defie and wrong;
Nothing toucht Alexander to the quick,
Like this against his Diety to kick:
Both at a Feast when they had tippled well,
Upon this dangerous Theam fond Clitus fell;
From jest to earnest, and at last so bold,
That of Parmenio's death him plainly told.
Which Alexanders wrath incens'd so high,
Nought but his life for this could satisfie;
From one stood by he snatcht a partizan,
And in a rage him through the body ran,
Next day he tore his face for what he'd done,
149
And would have slain himself for Clitus gone:
This pot Companion he did more bemoan,
Then all the wrongs to brave Parmenio done.
The next of worth that suffered after these,
Was learned, virtuous, wise Calisthenes,
VVho lov'd his Master more then did the rest,
As did appear, in flattering him the least;
In his esteem a God he could not be,
Nor would adore him for a Diety:
For this alone and for no other cause,
Against his Sovereign, or against his Laws,
He on the Rack his Limbs in pieces rent,
Thus was he tortur'd till his life was spent.
Of this unkingly act doth Seneca
This censure pass, and not unwisely say,
Of Alexander this th'eternal crime,
VVhich shall not be obliterate by time.
VVhich virtues fame can ne're redeem by far,
Nor all felicity of his in war.
VVhen e're 'tis said he thousand thousands slew,
Yea, and Calisthenes to death he drew.
The mighty Persian King he overcame,
Yea, and he kill'd Calistthenes of fame.
All Countryes, Kingdomes, Provinces, he wan
From Hellispont, to th'farthest Ocean.
All this he did, who knows' not to be true?
But yet withal, Catisthenes he slew.
From Macedon, his Empire did extend
Unto the utmost bounds o' th'orient:
All this he did, yea, and much more, 'tis true,
But yet withal, Catisthenes he slew.
Now Alexander goes to Media,
Finds there the want of wise Parmenio;
Here his chief favourite Ephestian dies,
He celebrates his mournful obsequies:
Hangs his Physitian, the Reason why
He suffered, his friend Ephestian dye.
This act (me-thinks) his Godhead should a shame,
To punish where himself deserved blame;
Or of necessity he must imply,
The other was the greatest Diety.
The Mules and Horses are for sorrow shorne,
150
The battlements from off the walls are torne.
Of stately Ecbatane who now must shew,
A rueful face in this so general woe;
Twelve thousand Talents also did intend,
Upon a sumptuous monument to spend:
What e're he did, or thought not so content,
His messenger to Jupiter he sent,
That by his leave his friend Ephestion,
Among the Demy Gods they might inthrone.
From Media to Babylon he went,
To meet him there t'Antipater he'd sent,
That he might act also upon the Stage,
And in a Tragedy there end his age.
The Queen Olimpias bears him deadly hate,
Not suffering her to meddle with the State,
And by her Letters did her Son incite,
This great indignity he should requite;
His doing so, no whit displeas'd the King,
Though to his Mother he disprov'd the thing.
But now Antipater had liv'd so long,
He might well dye though he had done no wrong;
His service great is suddenly forgot,
Or if remembred, yet regarded not:
The King doth intimate 'twas his intent,
His honours and his riches to augment;
Of larger Provinces the rule to give,
And for his Counsel near the King to live.
So to be caught, Antipater's too wise,
Parmenio's death's too fresh before his eyes;
He was too subtil for his crafty foe.
Nor by his baits could be insnared so:
But his excuse with humble thanks he sends,
His Age and journy long he then pretends;
And pardon craves for his unwilling stay,
He shews his grief, he's forc'd to disobey.
Before his Answer came to Babylon,
The thread of Alexanders life was spun;
Poyson had put an end to's dayes ('twas thought)
By Philip and Cassander to him brought,
Sons to Antipater, and bearers of his Cup,
Lest of such like their Father chance to sup;
By others thought, and that more generally,
151
That through excessive drinking he did dye:
The thirty third of's Age do all agree,
This Conquerour did yield to destiny.
When this sad news came to Darius Mother,
She laid it more to heart, then any other,
Nor meat, nor drink, nor comfort would she take,
But pin'd in grief till life did her forsake;
All friends she shuns, yea, banished the light,
Till death inwrapt her in perpetual night.
This Monarchs fame must last whilst world doth stand,
And Conquests be talkt of whilest there is land;
His Princely qualities had he retain'd,
Unparalled for ever had remain'd.
But with the world his virtues overcame,
And so with black beclouded, all his fame;
Wise Aristotle Tutor to his youth.
Had so instructed him in moral Truth:
The principles of what he then had learn'd
Might to the last (when sober) be discern'd.
Learning and learned men he much regarded,
And curious Artist evermore rewarded:
The Illiads of Homer he still kept.
And under's pillow laid them when he slept.
Achilles happiness he did envy,
'Cause Homer kept his acts to memory.
Profusely bountifull without desert,
For such as pleas'd him had both wealth and heart
Cruel by nature and by custome too,
As oft his acts throughout his reign doth shew:
Ambitious so, that nought could satisfie,
Vain, thirsting after immortality,
Still fearing that his name might hap to dye,
And fame not last unto eternity.
This Conqueror did oft lament (tis said)
There were no more worlds to be conquered.
This folly great Augustus did deride,
For had he had but wisdome to his pride,
He would had found enough there to be done,
To govern that he had already won.
His thoughts are perisht, he aspires no more,
Nor can he kill or save as heretofore.
A God alive, him all must Idolize,
152
Now like a mortal helpless man he lyes.
Of all those Kingdomes large which he had got,
To his Posterity remain'd no jot;
For by that hand which still revengeth bloud,
None of his kindred, nor his race long stood:
But as he took delight much bloud to spill,
So the same cup to his, did others fill.
Four of his Captains now do all divide,
As Daniel before had prophysi'd.
The Leopard down, the four wings 'gan to rise,
The great horn broke, the less did tyranize.
What troubles and contentions did ensue
We may hereafter shew in season due.
Aridæus.
Great Alexander dead, his Armyes left,
Like to that Giant of his Eye bereft;
When of his monstrous bulk it was the guide,
His matchless force no creature could abide.
But by Ulisses having lost his sight,
All men began streight to contemn his might;
For aiming still amiss, his dreadful blows
Did harm himself, but never reacht his Foes.
Now Court and Camp all in confusion be,
A King they'l have, but who, none can agree;
Each Captain wisht this prize to bear away,
But none so hardy found as so durst say:
Great Alexander did leave Issue none,
Except by Artabasus daughter one;
And Roxane fair whom late he married,
Was near her time to be delivered.
By natures right these had enough to claim,
But meaness of their mothers bar'd the same,
Alledg'd by those who by their subtile Plea
Had hope themselves to bear the Crown away.
A Sister Alexander had, but she
Claim'd not, perhaps, her Sex might hindrance be.
After much tumult they at last proclaim'd
His base born brother Aridæus nam'd,
That so under his feeble wit and reign,
Their ends they might the better still attain.
This choice Perdiccas vehemently disclaim'd,
And Babe unborn of Roxane he proclaim'd;
153
Some wished him to take the style of King,
Because his Master gave to him his Ring,
And had to him still since Ephestion di'd
More then to th'rest his favour testifi'd.
But he refus'd, with feigned modesty,
Hoping to be elect more generally.
He hold on this occasion should have laid,
For second offer there was never made.
'Mongst these contentions, tumults, jealousies,
Seven dayes the corps of their great master lies
Untoucht, uncovered slighted and neglected,
So much these princes their own ends respected:
A Contemplation to astonish Kings,
That he who late possest all earthly things,
And yet not so content unless that he
Might be esteemed for a Diety;
Now lay a Spectacle to testifie,
The wretchedness of mans mortality.
After some time, when stirs began to calm,
His body did the Egyptians embalme;
His countenance so lively did appear,
That for a while they durst not come so near:
No sign of poyson in his intrails sound,
But all his bowels coloured, well and sound.
Perdiccas seeing Arideus must be King,
Under his name began to rule each thing.
His chief Opponent who Control'd his sway,
Was Meleager whom he would take away,
And by a wile he got him in his power,
So took his life unworthily that hour.
Using the name, and the command of th'King
To authorize his acts in every thing.
The princes seeing Perdiccas power and pride,
For their security did now provide.
Antigonus for his share Asia takes,
And Ptolemy next sure of Egypt makes:
Seleucus afterward held Babylon,
Antipater had long rul'd Macedon.
These now to govern for the king pretends,
But nothing less each one himself intends.
Perdiccas took no province like the rest,
But held command of th'Army (which was best)
154
And had a higher project in his head,
His Masters sister secretly to wed:
So to the Lady, covertly he sent,
(That none might know, to frustrate his intent)
But Cleopatra this Suitor did deny,
For Leonatus more lovely in her eye,
To whom she sent a message of her mind,
That if he came good welcome he should find.
In these tumultuous dayes the thralled Greeks,
Their Ancient Liberty afresh now seeks.
And gladly would the yoke shake off, laid on
Sometimes by Philip and his conquering son.
The Athenians force Antipater to fly
To Lamia where he shut up doth lye.
To brave Craterus then he sends with speed
For succours to relieve him in his need.
The like of Leonatus he requires,
(Which at this time well suited his desires)
For to Antipater he now might goe,
His Lady take in th'way, and no man know.
Antiphilus the Athenian General
With speed his Army doth together call;
And Leonatus seeks to stop, that so
He joyne not with Antipater their foe.
The Athenian Army was the greater far,
(Which did his Match with Cleopatra mar)
For fighting still, while there did hope remain
The valiant Chief amidst his foes was slain.
'Mongst all the princes of great Alexander
For personage, none like to this Commander.
Now to Antipater Craterus goes,
Blockt up in Lamia still by his foes,
Long marches through Cilicia he makes,
And the remains of Leonatus takes:
With them and his he into Grecia went,
Antipater releas'd from prisonment:
After which time the Greeks did never more
Act any thing of worth, as heretofore:
But under servitude their necks remain'd,
Nor former liberty or glory gain'd.
Now di'd about the end of th'Lamian war
Demosthenes, that sweet-tongue'd Orator,
155
Who fear'd Antipater would take his life
For animating the Athenian strife:
To end his dayes by poison rather chose
Then fall into the hands of mortal foes.
Craterus and Antipater now joyne,
In love and in affinity combine,
Craterus doth his daughter Phila wed
Their friendship might the more be strengthened.
Whilst they in Macedon do thus agree,
In Asia they all asunder be.
Perdiccas griev'd to see the princes bold
So many Kingdomes in their power to hold,
Yet to regain them, how he did not know,
His souldiers 'gainst those captains would not goe
To suffer them go on as they begun,
Was to give way himself might be undone.
With Antipater to joyne he sometimes thought,
That by his help, the rest might low be brought,
But this again dislikes; he would remain,
If not in stile, in deed a soveraign;
(For all the princes of great Alexander
Acknowledged for Chief that old Commander)
Desires the King to goe to Macedon,
Which once was of his Ancestors the throne,
And by his presence there to nullifie
The acts of his Vice-Roy now grown so high.
Antigonus of treason first attaints,
And summons him to answer his complaints.
This he avoids, and ships himself and son,
goes to Antipater and tells what's done.
He and Craterus, both with him do joyne,
And 'gainst Perdiccas all their strength combine.
Brave Ptolemy, to make a fourth then sent
To save himself from danger imminent.
In midst of these garboyles, with wondrous state
His masters funeral doth celebrate:
In Alexandria his tomb he plac'd,
Which eating time hath scarcely yet defac'd.
Two years and more, since natures debt he paid,
And yet till now at quiet was not laid.
Great love did Ptolemy by this act gain,
And made the souldiers on his side remain.
156
Perdiccas hears his foes are all combin'd,
'Gainst which to goe, is not resolv'd in mind.
But first 'gainst Ptolemy he judg'd was best,
Neer'st unto him, and farthest from the rest,
Leaves Eumenes the Asian Coast to free
From the invasions of the other three,
And with his army unto Egypt goes
Brave Ptolemy to th'utmost to oppose.
Perdiccas surly cariage, and his pride
Did alinate the souldiers from his side.
But Ptolemy by affability
His sweet demeanour and his courtesie,
Did make his own, firm to his cause remain,
And from the other side did dayly gain.
Perdiccas in his pride did ill intreat
Python of haughty mind, and courage great.
Who could not brook so great indignity,
But of his wrongs his friends doth certifie;
The souldiers 'gainst Perdiccas they incense,
Who vow to make this captain recompence,
And in a rage they rush into his tent,
Knock out his brains: to Ptolemy then went
And offer him his honours, and his place,
With stile of the Protector, him to grace.
Next day into the camp came Ptolemy,
And is receiv'd of all most joyfully.
Their proffers he refus'd with modesty,
Yields them to Python for his courtesie.
With what he held he was now more content,
Then by more trouble to grow eminent.
Now comes there news of a great victory
That Eumenes got of the other three.
Had it but in Perdiccas life ariv'd,
With greater joy it would have been receiv'd.
Thus Ptolemy rich Egypt did retain,
And Python turn'd to Asia again.
Whilst Perdiccas encamp'd in Affrica,
Antigonus did enter Asia,
And fain would Eumenes draw to their side,
But he alone most faithfull did abide:
The other all had Kingdomes in their eye,
But he was true to's masters family,
157
Nor could Craterus, whom he much did love.
From his fidelity once make him move:
Two Battles fought, and had of both the best,
And brave Craterus slew among the rest:
For this sad strife he poures out his complaints,
And his beloved foe full sore laments.
I should but snip a story into bits
And his great Acts and glory much eclipse,
To shew the dangers Eumenes befel,
His stratagems wherein he did excel:
His Policies, how he did extricate
Himself from out of Lab'rinths intricate:
He that at large would satisfie his mind,
In Plutarchs Lives his history may find.
For all that should be said, let this suffice,
He was both valiant, faithfull, patient, wise.
Python now chose Protector of the state,
His rule Queen Euridice begins to hate,
Sees Arrideus must not King it long,
If once young Alexander grow more strong,
But that her husband serve for supplement,
To warm his seat, was never her intent.
She knew her birth-right gave her Macedon,
Grand-child to him who once sat on that throne
Who was Perdiccas, Philips eldest brother,
She daughter to his son, who had no other.
Pythons commands, as oft she countermands;
What he appoints, she purposely withstands.
He wearied out at last would needs be gone,
Resign'd his place, and so let all alone:
In's room the souldiers chose Antipater,
Who vext the Queen more then the other far.
From Macedon to Asia he came,
That he might settle matters in the same.
He plac'd, displac'd, control'd rul'd as he list,
And this no man durst question or resist;
For all the nobles of King Alexander
Their bonnets vail'd to him as chief Commander.
When to his pleasure all things they had done,
The King and Queen he takes to Macedon,
Two sons of Alexander, and the rest,
All to be order'd there as he thought best.
158
The Army to Antigonus doth leave,
And Government of Asia to him gave.
And thus Antipater the ground-work layes,
On which Antigonus his height doth raise,
Who in few years, the rest so overtops,
For universal Monarchy he hopes.
With Eumenes he diverse Battels fought,
And by his slights to circumvent him sought:
But vain it was to use his policy,
'Gainst him that all deceits could scan and try.
In this Epitome too long to tell
How finely Eumenes did here excell,
And by the self same Traps the other laid,
He to his cost was righteously repaid.
But while these Chieftains doe in Asia fight,
To Greece and Macedon lets turn our sight.
When great Antipater the world must leave,
His place to Polisperchon did bequeath,
Fearing his son Cassander was unstaid,
Too rash to bear that charge, if on him laid.
Antigonus hearing of his decease
On most part of Assyria doth seize.
And Ptolemy next to incroach begins,
All Syria and Phenicia he wins,
Then Polisperchon 'gins to act in's place,
Recalls Olimpias the Court to grace.
Antipater had banish'd her from thence
Into Epire for her great turbulence;
This new Protector's of another mind,
Thinks by her Majesty much help to find.
Cassander like his Father could not see,
This Polisperchons great ability,
Slights his Commands, his actions he disclaims,
And to be chief himself now bends his aims;
Such as his Father had advanc'd to place,
Or by his favours any way had grac'd
Are now at the devotion of the Son,
Prest to accomplish what he would have done;
Besides he was the young Queens favourite,
On whom (t'was thought) she set her chief delight:
Unto these helps at home he seeks out more,
Goes to Antigonus and doth implore,
159
By all the Bonds 'twixt him and's Father past,
And for that great gift which he gave him last.
By these and all to grant him some supply,
To take down Polisperchon grown so high;
For this Antigonus did need no spurs,
Hoping to gain yet more by these new stirs,
Streight furnish'd him with a sufficient aid,
And so he quick returns thus well appaid,
With Ships at Sea, an Army for the Land,
His proud opponent hopes soon to withstand.
But in his absence Polisperchon takes
Such friends away as for his Interest makes
By death, by prison, or by banishment,
That no supply by these here might be lent,
Cassander with his Host to Grecia goes,
Whom Polisperchon labours to oppose;
But beaten was at Sea, and foil'd at Land,
Cassanders forces had the upper hand,
Athens with many Towns in Greece beside,
Firm (for his Fathers sake) to him abide.
Whil'st hot in wars these two in Greece remain,
Antigonus doth all in Asia gain;
Still labours Eumenes, would with him side,
But all in vain, he faithful did abide:
Nor Mother could, nor Sons of Alexander,
Put trust in any but in this Commander.
The great ones now began to shew their mind,
And act as opportunity they find.
Aridæus the scorn'd and simple King,
More then he bidden was could act no thing.
Polisperchon for office hoping long,
Thinks to inthrone the Prince when riper grown;
Euridice this injury disdains,
And to Cassandar of this wrong complains.
Hateful the name and house of Alexander,
Was to this proud vindicative Cassander;
He still kept lockt within his memory,
His Fathers danger, with his Family;
Nor thought he that indignity was small,
When Alexander knockt his head to th'wall.
These with his love unto the amorous Queen,
Did make him vow her servant to be seen.
160
Olimpias, Aridæus deadly hates,
As all her Husbands, Children by his mates,
She gave him poyson formerly ('tis thought)
Which damage both to mind and body brought;
She now with Polisperchon doth combine,
To make the King by force his Seat resigne:
And her young grand-child in his State inthrone,
That under him, she might rule, all alone.
For aid she goes t'Epire among her friends,
The better to accomplish these her ends;
Euridice hearing what she intends,
In haste unto her friend Cassander sends,
To leave his siege at Tegea, and with speed,
To save the King and her in this their need:
Then by intreaties, promises and Coyne,
Some forces did procure with her to joyn.
Olimpias soon enters Macedon,
The Queen to meet her bravely marches on,
But when her Souldiers saw their ancient Queen,
Calling to mind what sometime she had been;
The wife and Mother of their famous Kings,
Nor darts, nor arrows, now none shoots or flings.
The King and Queen seeing their destiny,
To save their lives t'Amphipolis do fly;
But the old Queen pursues them with her hate,
And needs will have their lives as well as State:
The King by extream torments had his end,
And to the Queen these presents she did send;
A Halter, cup of poyson, and a Sword,
Bids chuse her death, such kindness she'l afford.
The Queen with many a curse, and bitter check,
At length yields to the Halter her fair neck;
Praying that fatal day might quickly haste,
On which Olimpias of the like might taste.
This done the cruel Queen rests not content,
'Gainst all that lov'd Cassander she was bent;
His Brethren, Kinsfolk and his chiefest friends,
That fell within her reach came to their ends:
Dig'd up his brother dead, 'gainst natures right,
And threw his bones about to shew her spight:
The Courtiers wondring at her furious mind,
Wisht in Epire she had been still confin'd.
161
In Peloponesus then Cassander lay,
Where hearing of this news he speeds away,
With rage, and with revenge he's hurried on,
To find this cruel Queen in Macedon;
But being stopt, at streight Thermopoly,
Sea passage gets, and lands in Thessaly:
His Army he divides, sends post away,
Polisperchon to hold a while in play;
And with the rest Olimpias pursues,
For all her cruelty, to give her dues.
She with the chief o' th'Court to Pydna flyes,
Well fortifi'd, (and on the Sea it lyes)
There by Cassander she's blockt up so long,
Untill the Famine grows exceeding strong,
Her Couzen of Epire did what he might,
To raise the Siege, and put her Foes to flight.
Cassander is resolved there to remain,
So succours and endeavours proves but vain;
Fain would this wretched Queen capitulate,
Her foe would give no Ear, (such is his hate)
The Souldiers pinched with this scarcity,
By stealth unto Cassander dayly fly;
Olimpias means to hold out to the last,
Expecting nothing but of death to tast:
But his occasions calling him away,
Gives promise for her life, so wins the day.
No sooner had he got her in his hand,
But made in judgement her accusers stand;
And plead the blood of friends and kindreds spilt,
Desiring justice might be done for guilt;
And so was he acquitted of his word,
For justice sake she being put to th'Sword:
This was the end of this most cruel Queen,
Whose fury scarcely parallel'd hath been.
The daughter, sister, Mother, Wife to Kings,
But Royalty no good conditions brings;
To Husbands death ('tis thought) she gave consent,
The murtherer she did so much lament:
With Garlands crown'd his head, bemoan'd his fates,
His Sword unto Apollo consecrates.
Her Outrages too tedious to relate,
How for no cause but her inveterate hate;
162
Her Husbands wives and Children after's death,
Some slew, some fry'd, of others stopt the breath:
Now in her Age she's forc'd to tast that Cup,
Which she had others often made to sup.
Now many Towns in Macedon supprest,
And Pellas fain to yield among the rest;
The Funerals Cassander celebrates,
Of Aridæus and his Queen with State:
Among their Ancestors by him they're laid,
And shews of lamentation for them made.
Old Thebes he then rebuilt so much of fame,
And Cassandria rais'd after his name.
But leave him building, others in their Urne,
Let's for a while, now into Asia turn.
True Eumenes endeavours by all Skill,
To keep Antigonus from Shushan still;
Having command o'th' Treasure he can hire,
Such as no threats, nor favour could acquire.
In divers Battels he had good success,
Antigonus came off still honourless;
When Victor oft he'd been, and so might still,
Peucestes did betray him by a wile.
T'Antigonus, who took his Life unjust,
Because he never would forgoe his trust;
Thus lost he all for his fidelity,
Striving t'uphold his Masters Family.
But to a period as that did haste,
So Eumenes (the prop) of death must tast;
All Persia now Antigonus doth gain,
And Master of the Treasure sole remain:
Then with Seleucus streight at odds doth fall,
And he for aid to Ptolomy doth call,
The Princes all begin now to envy
Antigonus, he growing up so high;
Fearing his force, and what might hap e're long,
Enters into a Combination strong,
Seleucus, Ptolemy, Cassander joynes,
Lysimachus to make a fourth combines:
Antigonus desirous of the Greeks,
To make Cassander odious to them seeks,
Sends forth his declarations near and far,
And clears what cause he had to make this war,
163
Cassanders outrages at large doth tell,
Shews his ambitious practises as well.
The mother of their King to death he'd put,
His wife and son in prison close had shut:
And aiming now to make himself a king,
And that some title he might seem to bring,
Thessalonica he had newly wed,
Daughter to Philip their renowned head:
Had built and call'd a City by his name,
Which none e're did, but those of royal fame:
And in despight of their two famous Kings
Hatefull Olinthians to Greece rebrings.
Rebellious Thebes he had reedified,
Which their late King in dust had damnified,
Requires them therefore to take up their arms
And to requite this traitor for these harms.
Then Ptolemy would gain the Greeks likewise,
And he declares the others injuryes:
First how he held the Empire in his hands,
Seleucus driven from Goverment and lands,
The valiant Eumenes unjustly slain,
And Lord of royal Shushan did remain;
Therefore requests their help to take him down
Before he wear the universal Crown.
These princes at the sea soon had a fight,
Where great Antigonus was put to flight:
His son at Gaza likewise lost the field,
So Syria to Ptolemy did yield:
And Seleucus recovers Babylon,
Still gaining Countryes eastward he goes on.
Demetrius with Ptolemy did fight,
And coming unawares, put him to flight;
But bravely sends the prisoners back again,
With all the spoyle and booty he had tane.
Courteous as noble Ptolemy, or more,
VVho at Gaza did the like to him before.
Antigonus did much rejoyce, his son
VVith victory, his lost repute had won.
At last these princes tired out with warrs,
Sought for a peace, and laid aside their jarrs:
The terms of their agreement, thus express
That each should hold what now he did possess,
164
Till Alexander unto age was grown,
VVho then should be enstalled in the throne.
This toucht Cassander sore for what he'd done,
Imprisoning both the mother and the son:
He sees the Greeks now favour their young Prince
Whom he in durance held, now, and long since,
That in few years he must be forc'd or glad,
To render up such Kingdomes as he had;
Resolves to quit his fears by one deed done,
So puts to death the Mother and her Son.
This Roxane for her beauty all commend,
But for one act she did, just was her end.
No sooner was great Alexander dead,
But she Darius daughters murthered.
Both thrown into a well to hide her blot,
Perdiccas was her Partner in this plot.
The heavens seem'd slow in paying her the same;
But at the last the hand of vengeance came.
And for that double fact which she had done,
The life of her must goe, and of her son
Perdiccas had before for his amiss,
But by their hands who thought not once of this.
Cassanders deed the princes do detest,
But 'twas in shew; in heart it pleas'd them best.
That he is odious to the world, they'r glad:
And now they were free Lords of what they had.
When this foul tragedy was past and done,
Polysperchon brings the other son
Call'd Hercules, and elder then his brother,
(But Olimpias would prefer the other)
The Greeks toucht with the murther done of late,
This Orphan prince 'gan to compassionate,
Begin to mutter much 'gainst proud Cassander,
And place their hopes on th'heir of Alexander.
Cassander fear'd what might of this ensue,
So Polisperchon to his counsel drew,
And gives Peloponesus for his hire,
Who slew the prince according to desire.
Thus was the race and house of Alexander
Extinct by this inhumane wretch Cassander.
Antigonus, for all this doth not mourn,
He knows to's profit, this at last will turn,
165
But that some Title now he might pretend,
To Cleopatra doth for marriage send;
Lysimachus and Ptolemy the same,
And lewd Cassander too, sticks not for shame:
She then in Lydia at Sardis lay,
Where by Embassage all these Princes pray.
Choice above all, of Ptolemy she makes,
With his Embassador her journy takes;
Antigonus Lieutenant stayes her still,
Untill he further know his Masters will:
Antigonus now had a Wolf by th'Ears,
To hold her still, or let her go he fears.
Resolves at last the Princess should be slain,
So hinders him of her, he could not gain;
Her women are appointed for this deed,
They for their great reward no better speed:
For by command, they streight were put to death,
As vile Conspirators that stopt her breath.
And now he hopes, he's order'd all so well,
The world must needs believe what he doth tell;
Thus Philips house was quite extinguished,
Except Cassanders wife who yet not dead.
And by their means who thought of nothing less,
Then vengeance just, against them to express;
Now blood was paid with blood for what was done
By cruel Father, Mother, cruel Son:
Thus may we hear, and fear, and ever say,
That hand is righteous still which doth repay.
These Captains now the stile of Kings do take,
For to their Crowns their's none can Title make;
Demetrius first the royal stile assum'd,
By his Example all the rest presum'd.
Antigonus himself to ingratiate,
Doth promise liberty to Athens State;
With Arms and with provision stores them well,
The better 'gainst Cassander to rebel.
Demetrius thether goes, is entertain'd
Not like a King, but like some God they feign'd;
Most grosly base was their great Adulation,
Who Incense burnt, and offered oblation:
These Kings afresh fall to their wars again,
Demetrius of Ptolemy doth gain.
166
'Twould be an endless Story to relate
Their several Battels and their several fate,
Their fights by Sea, their victories by Land,
How some when down, straight got the upper hand
Antigonus and Seleucus then fight
Near Ephesus, each bringing all his might,
And he that Conquerour shall now remain,
The Lordship of all Asia shall retain;
This day 'twixt these two Kings ends all the strife,
For here Antigonus lost rule and life:
Nor to his Son, did e're one foot remain
Of those vast Kingdomes, he did sometimes gain.
Demetrius with his Troops to Athens flyes,
Hopes to find succours in his miseries;
But they adoring in prosperity,
Now shut their gates in his adversity:
He sorely griev'd at this his desperate State
Tryes Foes, sith friends will not compassionate.
His peace he then with old Seleucus makes,
Who his fair daughter Stratonica takes,
Antiochus, Seleucus, dear lov'd Son,
Is for this fresh young Lady quite undone;
Falls so extreamly sick, all fear'd his life,
Yet durst not say, he lov'd his Fathers wife,
When his disease the skill'd Physitian found,
His Fathers mind he wittily did sound,
Who did no sooner understand the same,
But willingly resign'd the beautious Dame:
Cassander now must dye his race is run,
And leaves the ill got Kingdomes he had won.
Two Sons he left, born of King Philips daughter,
Who had an end put to their dayes by slaughter;
Which should succeed at variance they fell,
The Mother would, the youngest might excell:
The eld'st inrag'd did play the Vipers part,
And with his Sword did run her through the heart:
Rather then Philips race should longer live,
He whom she gave his life her death shall give.
This by Lysimacus was after slain,
Whose daughter he not long before had ta'ne;
Demetrius is call'd in by th'youngest Son,
Against Lysimachus who from him won.
167
But he a Kingdome more then's friend did eye,
Seaz'd upon that, and slew him traitrously.
Thus Philips and Cassander's race both gone,
And so falls out to be extinct in one;
And though Cassander died in his bed,
His Seed to be extirpt, was destined;
For blood, which was decre'd that he should spill,
Yet must his Children pay for Fathers ill;
Jehu in killing Ahab's house did well,
Yet be aveng'd must blood of Jezerel.
Demetrius thus Cassander's Kingdoms gains,
And now in Macedon as King he reigns;
Though men and mony both he hath at will,
In neither finds content if he sits still:
That Seleucus holds Asia grievs him sore,
Those Countryes large his Father got before.
These to recover, musters all his might,
And with his Son in Law will needs go fight;
A mighty Navy rig'd, an Army stout,
With these he hopes to turn the world about:
Leaving Antigonus his eldest Son,
In his long absence to rule Macedon.
Demetrius with so many troubles met,
As Heaven and Earth against him had been set;
Disaster on disaster him pursue,
His story seems a Fable more then true.
At last he's taken and imprisoned
Within an Isle that was with pleasures fed,
Injoy'd what ere beseem'd his Royalty,
Only restrained of his liberty:
After three years he died, left what he'd won,
In Greece unto Antigonus his Son.
For his Posterity unto this day,
Did ne're regain one foot in Asia;
His Body Seleucus sends to his Son,
Whose obsequies with wondrous pomp was done.
Next di'd the brave and noble Ptolemp,
Renown'd for bounty, valour, clemency,
Rich Egypt left, and what else he had won,
To Philadelphus his more worthy Son.
Of the old Heroes, now but two remain,
Seleucus and Lysimachus these twain,
168
Must needs go try their fortune and their might,
And so Lysimachus was slain in fight;
'Twas no small joy unto Seleucus breast,
That now he had out-lived all the rest:
Possession of Europe thinks to take,
And so himself the only Monarch make;
Whilst with these hopes in Greece he did remain,
He was by Ptolemy Ceraunus slain.
The second Son of the first Ptolemy,
Who for Rebellion unto him did fly;
Seleucus was a Father and a friend,
Yet by him had this most unworthy end.
Thus with these Kingly Captains have we done,
A little now how the Succession run,
Antigonus, Seleucus and Cassander,
With Ptolemy, reign'd after Alexander;
Cassander's Sons soon after's death were slain,
So three Successors only did remain:
Antigonus his Kingdomes lost and life,
Unto Seleucus, Author of that strife.
His Son Demetrius, all Cassanders gains,
And his posterity, the same retains;
Demetrius Son was call'd Antigonus,
And his again was nam'd Demetrius.
I must let pass those many Battels fought,
Betwixt those Kings, and noble Pyrrhus stout,
And his Son Alexander of Epire,
Whereby immortal honour they acquire;
Demetrius had Philip to his Son,
(Part of whose Kingdomes Titus Quintius won)
Philip had Perseus, who was made a Thrale
T'Emilius the Roman General;
Him with his Sons in Triumph lead did he,
Such riches too as Rome did never see:
This of Antigonus, his Seed's the Fate,
VVhose Empire was subdu'd to th'Roman State.
Longer Seleucus held the royalty,
In Syria by his Posterity;
Antiochus Soter his Son was nam'd,
To whom the old Berosus (so much fam'd,)
His Book of Assurs Monarchs dedicates,
Tells of their names, their wars, their riches, fates;
169
But this is perished with many more,
VVhich oft we wish was extant as before.
Antiochus Theos was Soter's Son,
VVho a long war with Egypts King begun;
The Affinityes and Wars Daniel sets forth,
And calls them there the Kings of South & North,
This Theos murther'd was by his lewd wife,
Seleucus reign'd, when he had lost his life.
A third Seleucus next sits on the Seat,
And then Antiochus sirnam'd the great,
VVhose large Dominions after was made small,
By Scipio the Roman General;
Fourth Seleucus Antiochus succeeds,
And next Epiphanes whose wicked deeds,
Horrid Massacres, Murthers, cruelties,
Amongst the Jews we read in Machabees.
Antiochus Eupater was the next,
By Rebels and Impostors dayly vext;
So many Princes still were murthered,
The Royal Blood was nigh extinguished;
Then Tygranes the great Armenian King,
To take the Government was called in,
Lucullus, Him, (the Roman General)
Vanquish'd in fight, and took those Kingdomes all;
Of Greece and Syria thus the rule did end,
In Egypt next, a little time wee'l spend.
First Ptolemy being dead, his famous Son
Call'd Philadelphus, did possess the Throne.
At Alexandria a Library did build,
And with seven hundred thousand Volumes fill'd;
The seventy two Interpreters did seek,
They might translate the Bible into Greek.
His Son was Evergetes the last Prince,
That valour shew'd, virtue, or excellence,
Philopater was Evergetes Son,
After Epiphanes sate on the Throne;
Philometor, Evergetes again,
And after him, did false Lathurus reign:
Then Alexander in Lathurus stead,
Next Auletes, who cut off Pompeys head.
To all these names, we Ptolemy must add,
For since the first, they still that Title had.
170
Fair Cleopatra next, last of that race,
Whom Julius Cæsar set in Royal place,
She with her Paramour, Mark Anthony
Held for a time, the Egyptian Monarchy,
Till great Augustus had with him a fight
At Actium, where his Navy's put to flight;
He seeing his honour lost, his Kingdome end,
Did by his Sword his life soon after send.
His brave Virago Aspes sets to her Arms,
To take her life, and quit her from all harms;
For 'twas not death nor danger she did dread,
But some disgrace in triumph to be led.
Here ends at last the Grecian Monarchy,
Which by the Romans had its destiny;
Thus King & Kingdomes have their times & dates,
Their standings, overturnings, bounds and fates:
Now up, now down now chief, & then broght under,
The heavn's thus rule, to fil the world with wonder
The Assyrian Monarchy long time did stand,
But yet the Persian got the upper hand;
The Grecian them did utterly subdue,
And millions were subjected unto few:
The Grecian longer then the Persian stood,
Then came the Roman like a raging flood;
And with the torrent of his rapid course,
Their Crowns their Titles, riches bears by force.
The first was likened to a head of gold.
Next Arms and breast of silver to behold,
The third, Belly and Thighs of brass in sight,
And last was Iron, which breaketh all with might;
The stone out of the mountain then did rise,
and smote those feet those legs, those arms & thighs
Then gold, silver, brass, Iron and all the store,
Became like Chaff upon the threshing Floor.
The first a Lion, second was a Bear,
The third a Leopard, which four wings did rear;
The last more strong and dreadful then the rest,
Whose Iron teeth devoured every Beast,
And when he had no appetite to eat,
The residue he stamped under feet;
Yet shall this Lion, Bear, this Leopard, Ram,
All trembling stand before the powerful Lamb.
171
With these three Monarchyes now have I done,
But how the fourth, their Kingdomes from them won,
And how from small beginnings it did grow,
To fill the world with terrour and with woe;
My tyred brain leavs to some better pen,
This task befits not women like to men:
For what is past, I blush, excuse to make,
But humbly stand, some grave reproof to take;
Pardon to crave for errours, is but vain,
The Subject was too high, beyond my strain,
To frame Apology for some offence,
Converts our boldness into impudence:
This my presumption some now to requite,
Ne sutor ultra crepidum may write.
The End of the Grecian Monarchy.
~ Anne Bradstreet,

IN CHAPTERS [2/2]



   1 Poetry
   1 Fiction






1.pbs - HERE I sit with my paper, #Shelley - Poems, #Percy Bysshe Shelley, #Fiction
  May on the same shelf with Demosthenes
  lie,

The Theologians, #Labyrinths, #Jorge Luis Borges, #Poetry
  are lions, dragons, boars, water and a tree." Demosthenes tells how the
  initiates into the Orphic mysteries were submitted to purification with mud;

WORDNET



--- Overview of noun demosthenes

The noun demosthenes has 1 sense (no senses from tagged texts)
                
1. Demosthenes ::: (Athenian statesman and orator (circa 385-322 BC))


--- Synonyms/Hypernyms (Ordered by Estimated Frequency) of noun demosthenes

1 sense of demosthenes                        

Sense 1
Demosthenes
   INSTANCE OF=> orator, speechmaker, rhetorician, public speaker, speechifier
     => speaker, talker, utterer, verbalizer, verbaliser
       => articulator
         => communicator
           => person, individual, someone, somebody, mortal, soul
             => organism, being
               => living thing, animate thing
                 => whole, unit
                   => object, physical object
                     => physical entity
                       => entity
             => causal agent, cause, causal agency
               => physical entity
                 => entity
   INSTANCE OF=> statesman, solon, national leader
     => politician, politico, pol, political leader
       => leader
         => person, individual, someone, somebody, mortal, soul
           => organism, being
             => living thing, animate thing
               => whole, unit
                 => object, physical object
                   => physical entity
                     => entity
           => causal agent, cause, causal agency
             => physical entity
               => entity
   INSTANCE OF=> Athenian
     => Greek, Hellene
       => European
         => inhabitant, habitant, dweller, denizen, indweller
           => person, individual, someone, somebody, mortal, soul
             => organism, being
               => living thing, animate thing
                 => whole, unit
                   => object, physical object
                     => physical entity
                       => entity
             => causal agent, cause, causal agency
               => physical entity
                 => entity


--- Hyponyms of noun demosthenes
                                    


--- Synonyms/Hypernyms (Ordered by Estimated Frequency) of noun demosthenes

1 sense of demosthenes                        

Sense 1
Demosthenes
   INSTANCE OF=> orator, speechmaker, rhetorician, public speaker, speechifier
   INSTANCE OF=> statesman, solon, national leader
   INSTANCE OF=> Athenian




--- Coordinate Terms (sisters) of noun demosthenes

1 sense of demosthenes                        

Sense 1
Demosthenes
  -> orator, speechmaker, rhetorician, public speaker, speechifier
   => eulogist, panegyrist
   => elocutionist
   => haranguer
   => spellbinder
   => tub-thumper
   HAS INSTANCE=> Burke, Edmund Burke
   HAS INSTANCE=> Cicero, Marcus Tullius Cicero, Tully
   HAS INSTANCE=> Demosthenes
   HAS INSTANCE=> Henry, Patrick Henry
   HAS INSTANCE=> Isocrates
  -> statesman, solon, national leader
   => elder statesman
   => Founding Father
   => stateswoman
   HAS INSTANCE=> Acheson, Dean Acheson, Dean Gooderham Acheson
   HAS INSTANCE=> Adenauer, Konrad Adenauer
   HAS INSTANCE=> Agrippa, Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa
   HAS INSTANCE=> Alcibiades
   HAS INSTANCE=> Arafat, Yasser Arafat
   HAS INSTANCE=> Ataturk, Kemal Ataturk, Kemal Pasha, Mustafa Kemal
   HAS INSTANCE=> Attlee, Clement Attlee, Clement Richard Attlee, 1st Earl Attlee
   HAS INSTANCE=> Augustus, Gaius Octavianus, Gaius Julius Caesar Octavianus, Octavian
   HAS INSTANCE=> Bacon, Francis Bacon, Sir Francis Bacon, Baron Verulam, 1st Baron Verulam, Viscount St. Albans
   HAS INSTANCE=> Baldwin, Stanley Baldwin, 1st Earl Baldwin of Bewdley
   HAS INSTANCE=> Balfour, Arthur James Balfour, 1st Earl of Balfour
   HAS INSTANCE=> Baruch, Bernard Baruch, Bernard Mannes Baruch
   HAS INSTANCE=> Begin, Menachem Begin
   HAS INSTANCE=> Ben Gurion, David Ben Gurion, David Grun
   HAS INSTANCE=> Bevin, Ernest Bevin
   HAS INSTANCE=> Bismarck, von Bismarck, Otto von Bismarck, Prince Otto von Bismarck, Prince Otto Eduard Leopold von Bismarck, Iron Chancellor
   HAS INSTANCE=> Blair, Tony Blair, Anthony Charles Lynton Blair
   HAS INSTANCE=> Boethius, Anicius Manlius Severinus Boethius
   HAS INSTANCE=> Bolivar, Simon Bolivar, El Libertador
   HAS INSTANCE=> Brandt, Willy Brandt
   HAS INSTANCE=> Brezhnev, Leonid Brezhnev, Leonid Ilyich Brezhnev
   HAS INSTANCE=> Brutus, Marcus Junius Brutus
   HAS INSTANCE=> Burke, Edmund Burke
   HAS INSTANCE=> Caesar, Julius Caesar, Gaius Julius Caesar
   HAS INSTANCE=> Cassius, Cassius Longinus, Gaius Cassius Longinus
   HAS INSTANCE=> Chamberlain, Neville Chamberlain, Arthur Neville Chamberlain
   HAS INSTANCE=> Chateaubriand, Francois Rene Chateaubriand, Vicomte de Chateaubriand
   HAS INSTANCE=> Chesterfield, Fourth Earl of Chesterfield, Philip Dormer Stanhope
   HAS INSTANCE=> Chiang Kai-shek, Chiang Chung-cheng
   HAS INSTANCE=> Churchill, Winston Churchill, Winston S. Churchill, Sir Winston Leonard Spenser Churchill
   HAS INSTANCE=> Cicero, Marcus Tullius Cicero, Tully
   HAS INSTANCE=> Cincinnatus, Lucius Quinctius Cincinnatus
   HAS INSTANCE=> Clemenceau, Georges Clemenceau, Georges Eugene Benjamin Clemenceau
   HAS INSTANCE=> Clive, Robert Clive, Baron Clive, Baron Clive of Plassey
   HAS INSTANCE=> Cosimo de Medici, Cosimo the Elder
   HAS INSTANCE=> Cromwell, Oliver Cromwell, Ironsides
   HAS INSTANCE=> Davis, Jefferson Davis
   HAS INSTANCE=> Dayan, Moshe Dayan
   HAS INSTANCE=> de Gaulle, General de Gaulle, Charles de Gaulle, General Charles de Gaulle, Charles Andre Joseph Marie de Gaulle
   HAS INSTANCE=> Demosthenes
   HAS INSTANCE=> Deng Xiaoping, Teng Hsiao-ping, Teng Hsiaoping
   HAS INSTANCE=> de Valera, Eamon de Valera
   HAS INSTANCE=> Disraeli, Benjamin Disraeli, First Earl of Beaconsfield
   HAS INSTANCE=> Flaminius, Gaius Flaminius
   HAS INSTANCE=> Fox, Charles James Fox
   HAS INSTANCE=> Gandhi, Indira Gandhi, Indira Nehru Gandhi, Mrs. Gandhi
   HAS INSTANCE=> Gladstone, William Gladstone, William Ewart Gladstone
   HAS INSTANCE=> Gorbachev, Mikhail Gorbachev, Mikhail Sergeyevich Gorbachev
   HAS INSTANCE=> Grey, Charles Grey, Second Earl Grey
   HAS INSTANCE=> Haldane, Richard Haldane, Richard Burdon Haldane, First Viscount Haldane of Cloan
   HAS INSTANCE=> Hamilton, Alexander Hamilton
   HAS INSTANCE=> Havel, Vaclav Havel
   HAS INSTANCE=> Hindenburg, Paul von Hindenburg, Paul Ludwig von Beneckendorff und von Hindenburg
   HAS INSTANCE=> Ho Chi Minh, Nguyen Tat Thanh
   HAS INSTANCE=> Jinnah, Muhammad Ali Jinnah
   HAS INSTANCE=> Kalinin, Mikhail Kalinin, Mikhail Ivanovich Kalinin
   HAS INSTANCE=> Kaunda, Kenneth Kaunda, Kenneth David Kaunda
   HAS INSTANCE=> Kenyata, Jomo Kenyata
   HAS INSTANCE=> Kerensky, Aleksandr Feodorovich Kerensky
   HAS INSTANCE=> Khama, Sir Seretse Khama
   HAS INSTANCE=> Khrushchev, Nikita Khrushchev, Nikita Sergeyevich Khrushchev
   HAS INSTANCE=> Konoe, Fumimaro Konoe, Prince Fumimaro Konoe, Konoye, Fumimaro Konoye, Prince Fumimaro Konoye
   HAS INSTANCE=> Kruger, Oom Paul Kruger, Stephanus Johannes Paulus Kruger
   HAS INSTANCE=> Lorenzo de'Medici, Lorenzo the Magnificent
   HAS INSTANCE=> Machiavelli, Niccolo Machiavelli
   HAS INSTANCE=> Major, John Major, John R. Major, John Roy Major
   HAS INSTANCE=> Mandela, Nelson Mandela, Nelson Rolihlahla Mandela
   HAS INSTANCE=> Marshall, George Marshall, George Catlett Marshall
   HAS INSTANCE=> Meir, Golda Meir
   HAS INSTANCE=> Metternich, Klemens Metternich, Prince Klemens Wenzel Nepomuk Lothar von Metternich
   HAS INSTANCE=> Mitterrand, Francois Mitterrand, Francois Maurice Marie Mitterrand
   HAS INSTANCE=> Molotov, Vyacheslav Mikhailovich Molotov
   HAS INSTANCE=> More, Thomas More, Sir Thomas More
   HAS INSTANCE=> Morris, Gouverneur Morris
   HAS INSTANCE=> Mubarak, Hosni Mubarak
   HAS INSTANCE=> Nansen, Fridtjof Nansen
   HAS INSTANCE=> Nasser, Gamal Abdel Nasser
   HAS INSTANCE=> Nehru, Jawaharlal Nehru
   HAS INSTANCE=> North, Frederick North, Second Earl of Guilford
   HAS INSTANCE=> Ortega, Daniel Ortega, Daniel Ortega Saavedra
   HAS INSTANCE=> Paderewski, Ignace Paderewski, Ignace Jan Paderewski
   HAS INSTANCE=> Pericles
   HAS INSTANCE=> Pitt, William Pitt, First Earl of Chatham, Pitt the Elder
   HAS INSTANCE=> Pitt, William Pitt, Second Earl of Chatham, Pitt the Younger
   HAS INSTANCE=> Pompey, Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus, Pompey the Great
   HAS INSTANCE=> Powell, Colin Powell, Colin luther Powell
   HAS INSTANCE=> Putin, Vladimir Putin, Vladimir Vladimirovich Putin
   HAS INSTANCE=> Radhakrishnan, Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan, Sir Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan
   HAS INSTANCE=> Richelieu, Duc de Richelieu, Armand Jean du Plessis, Cardinal Richelieu
   HAS INSTANCE=> Rockingham, Second Marquis of Rockingham, Charles Watson-Wentworth
   HAS INSTANCE=> Sadat, Anwar Sadat, Anwar el-Sadat
   HAS INSTANCE=> Schmidt, Helmut Schmidt, Helmut Heinrich Waldemar Schmidt
   HAS INSTANCE=> Seneca, Lucius Annaeus Seneca
   HAS INSTANCE=> Smith, Ian Smith, Ian Douglas Smith
   HAS INSTANCE=> Smuts, Jan Christian Smuts
   HAS INSTANCE=> Suharto
   HAS INSTANCE=> Sukarno, Achmad Sukarno
   HAS INSTANCE=> Sully, Duc de Sully, Maxmilien de Bethune
   HAS INSTANCE=> Sun Yat-sen, Sun Yixian
   HAS INSTANCE=> Talleyrand, Charles Maurice de Talleyrand
   HAS INSTANCE=> Themistocles
   HAS INSTANCE=> Tito, Marshal Tito, Josip Broz
   HAS INSTANCE=> Vargas, Getulio Dornelles Vargas
   HAS INSTANCE=> Verwoerd, Hendrik Verwoerd, Hendrik Frensch Verwoerd
   HAS INSTANCE=> Waldheim, Kurt Waldheim
   HAS INSTANCE=> Walesa, Lech Walesa
   HAS INSTANCE=> Walpole, Robert Walpole, Sir Robert Walpole, First Earl of Orford
   HAS INSTANCE=> Warwick, Earl of Warwick, Richard Neville, Kingmaker
   HAS INSTANCE=> Weizmann, Chaim Weizmann, Chaim Azriel Weizmann
   HAS INSTANCE=> Wellington, Duke of Wellington, First Duke of Wellington, Arthur Wellesley, Iron Duke
   HAS INSTANCE=> Wykeham, William of Wykeham
  -> Athenian
   HAS INSTANCE=> Alcibiades
   HAS INSTANCE=> Demosthenes
   HAS INSTANCE=> Draco
   HAS INSTANCE=> Socrates




--- Grep of noun demosthenes
demosthenes



IN WEBGEN [10000/495]

Wikipedia - Abigail Swann -- Assistant Professor of Atmospheric Science and Ecology
Wikipedia - Abundance (ecology) -- Relative representation of a species in anr ecosystem
Wikipedia - Acoustic ecology -- Studies the relationship, mediated through sound, between human beings and their environment
Wikipedia - Adaptive behavior (ecology) -- Behavior which increases reproductive success
Wikipedia - Agenor Mafra-Neto -- Chemical ecology researcher
Wikipedia - Agroecology -- The study of ecological processes in agriculture
Wikipedia - Animal ecology -- Scientific study of the relationships between living animals and their environment
Wikipedia - Anne Goodenough -- British ecologist, Professor of Applied Ecology
Wikipedia - Anthecology -- The study of pollination biology
Wikipedia - Aquatic ecology -- The study of interactions between organisms and the environment in water
Wikipedia - Arctic ecology -- The study of the relationships between biotic and abiotic factors in the arctic
Wikipedia - Astroecology
Wikipedia - Autonomy Liberty Participation Ecology -- Italian political party
Wikipedia - Bart Muys -- Belgian ecologist and professor in forest ecology
Wikipedia - Behavioral Ecology (journal)
Wikipedia - Behavioral ecology -- Study of the evolutionary basis for animal behavior due to ecological pressures
Wikipedia - Benjamin Philip Watson -- Professor of obstetrics and gynecology
Wikipedia - Benthic ecology -- The study of the interaction of sea-floor organisms with each other and with the environment
Wikipedia - Beta diversity -- Ratio of regional to local species diversity in ecology
Wikipedia - Bibliography of ecology -- List of publications on the topic of biology
Wikipedia - Biomass (ecology) -- Total mass of living organisms in a given area (all species or selected species)
Wikipedia - Biota (ecology)
Wikipedia - British Ecological Society -- UK learned society in the field of ecology
Wikipedia - Cape Town Ecology Group
Wikipedia - Caroline De Costa -- Professor of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
Wikipedia - Cascade effect (ecology)
Wikipedia - Category:Aquatic ecology
Wikipedia - Cheating (biology) -- Exploitive behavior in behavioral ecology
Wikipedia - Cognitive ecology -- Branch of ecology studying cognition in social and natural contexts
Wikipedia - Community ecology
Wikipedia - Community (ecology) -- Associated populations of species in a given area
Wikipedia - Corina Brussaard -- Dutch leading scientist for Antarctic viral ecology
Wikipedia - Cultural ecology
Wikipedia - Dead zone (ecology) -- Low-oxygen areas in oceans and large lakes caused by nutrient and fertilizer pollution
Wikipedia - Deep ecology -- Ecological and environmental philosophy
Wikipedia - Desert ecology -- The study of interactions between both biotic and abiotic components of desert environments
Wikipedia - Dianne Brunton -- New Zealand ecology researcher
Wikipedia - Disease ecology -- Sub-discipline of ecology
Wikipedia - Ecological engineering -- Use of ecology and engineering to predict, design, construct or restore, and manage ecosystems that integrate "human society with its natural environment for the benefit of both"
Wikipedia - Ecology Democracy Solidarity -- parliamentary group in France
Wikipedia - Ecology Flag -- American cultural symbol.
Wikipedia - Ecology: From Individuals to Ecosystems -- Book by Michael Begon, Colin Townsend and John Harper
Wikipedia - Ecology of Banksia -- Relationships and interactions among the plant genus Banksia and its environment
Wikipedia - Ecology of Fear -- book by Mike Davis
Wikipedia - Ecology of the North Cascades -- Ecosystems of the Cascade mountain range in northern Washington state and southern British Columbia
Wikipedia - Ecology of the Rocky Mountains -- Ecology of the Rocky Mountain range in North America
Wikipedia - Ecology -- Scientific study of the relationships between living organisms and their environment
Wikipedia - Eco-socialism -- Ideology merging aspects of socialism with green politics, ecology and alter-globalization
Wikipedia - Ecosystem ecology -- The study of living and non-living components of ecosystems and their interactions
Wikipedia - Environmental governance -- Concept in political ecology and environmental policy
Wikipedia - Erika Zavaleta -- American professor of ecology and evolutionary biology
Wikipedia - Ethnoecology
Wikipedia - Evolutionary ecology
Wikipedia - Feminist political ecology
Wikipedia - Festive ecology -- Study of the relationships between the symbolism and the ecology of the plants, fungi and animals associated with cultural events
Wikipedia - Fire ecology
Wikipedia - Forest ecology -- The study of interactions between the biota and environment in forets
Wikipedia - Genecology -- branch of ecology
Wikipedia - Genetic ecology -- Study of genetic material in the environment
Wikipedia - Geography and ecology of the Everglades -- Details of the natural environment of the Everglades
Wikipedia - Glossary of ecology -- List of definitions of terms and concepts commonly used in the study of ecology
Wikipedia - Guild (ecology) -- Group of sympatric species with similar ecological function
Wikipedia - Gynaecology -- Science of the treatment of diseases of the female sexual organs and reproductive tract
Wikipedia - Gynecology
Wikipedia - Habitat (ecology)
Wikipedia - Heidi Steltzer -- German born scientist of arctic and alpine ecology
Wikipedia - Historical ecology
Wikipedia - History of ecology -- Aspect of history covering the study of ecology
Wikipedia - Human behavioral ecology -- Study of human behavior and cultural diversity
Wikipedia - Human Ecology Fund
Wikipedia - Human ecology -- Study of the relationship between humans and their natural, social, and built environments
Wikipedia - Indicator value -- Term used in ecology
Wikipedia - Industrial ecology -- study of matter and energy flow in industrial systems
Wikipedia - Information ecology
Wikipedia - Insect ecology -- The study of how insects interact with the surrounding environment
Wikipedia - Institute for Social Ecology
Wikipedia - Integral ecology
Wikipedia - International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics
Wikipedia - Isaac Folorunso Adewole -- a Nigerian professor of gynaecology and obstetrics
Wikipedia - Landscape ecology -- The science of relationships between ecological processes in the environment and particular ecosystems
Wikipedia - Landscape genetics -- Combination of population genetics and landscape ecology
Wikipedia - Limiting similarity -- Concept in theoretical ecology and community ecology
Wikipedia - List of members of the National Academy of Sciences (Environmental sciences and ecology)
Wikipedia - Louis LaPierre -- Canadian professor of ecology
Wikipedia - Macroecology -- The study of relationships between organisms and their environment at large spatial scales
Wikipedia - Marine ecology -- Marine ecology
Wikipedia - Media ecology
Wikipedia - Microbial ecology -- Study of the relationship of microorganisms with their environment
Wikipedia - Microecology -- Microbial ecology or ecology of a microhabitat
Wikipedia - Migration (ecology) -- large-scale movement of members of a species to a different environment
Wikipedia - Mobilize Earth -- Ecology non-profit organization
Wikipedia - Molecular ecology -- A field of evolutionary biology that applies molecular population genetics, molecular phylogenetics, and genomics to traditional ecological questions
Wikipedia - Montane ecology
Wikipedia - Myrmecology
Wikipedia - Nature Ecology and Evolution -- Academic journal
Wikipedia - Obstetrics and gynaecology
Wikipedia - Open Source Ecology
Wikipedia - Open source ecology
Wikipedia - Organizational ecology
Wikipedia - Outline of ecology -- Scientific study of the relationships between living organisms and their environment
Wikipedia - Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology
Wikipedia - Paleoecology -- The study of interactions between organisms and their environments across geologic timescales
Wikipedia - Pediatric gynaecology -- Medical Condition of Kids
Wikipedia - Pest control -- Control of species that are harmful to health, economy or ecology
Wikipedia - Philippine House Committee on Ecology -- Standing committee of the House of Representatives of the Philippines
Wikipedia - Plant ecology -- The study of effect of the environment on the abundance and distribution of plants
Wikipedia - Polar ecology -- The relationship between plants and animals and a polar environment
Wikipedia - Political ecology
Wikipedia - Population ecology -- Study of the dynamics of species populations and how these populations interact with the environment
Wikipedia - Portal:Ecology
Wikipedia - Productivity (ecology) -- The rate of generation of biomass in an ecosystem
Wikipedia - Psychedelics and ecology
Wikipedia - Reconciliation ecology -- Study of maintaining biodiversity in human-dominated ecosystems
Wikipedia - Refuge (ecology) -- Place where an organism is protected from predation
Wikipedia - Relative abundance distribution -- Metric in ecology
Wikipedia - Resilience (ecology)
Wikipedia - Restoration ecology
Wikipedia - Saskia Hogenhout -- Dutch professor of entomology and ecology
Wikipedia - School of Social Ecology
Wikipedia - Sensory ecology
Wikipedia - Sex, Ecology, Spirituality -- 1995 book by Ken Wilber
Wikipedia - Sexecology -- Activism based around ecofetishism
Wikipedia - Social ecology (academic field) -- Study of relationships between people and their environment
Wikipedia - Social ecology (Bookchin)
Wikipedia - Social ecology (theory)
Wikipedia - Society for Andaman and Nicobar Ecology -- Environmental organization
Wikipedia - Soil ecology
Wikipedia - Spatial ecology -- Study of the distribution or space occupied by species
Wikipedia - Spiritual ecology
Wikipedia - Supertramp (ecology) -- Any type of animal which follows the strategy of high dispersion among many different habitats
Wikipedia - Systems ecology -- A holistic approach to the study of ecological systems
Wikipedia - The College of Human Ecology at East Carolina University
Wikipedia - The Ecology Channel -- Former Canadian specialty TV channel
Wikipedia - The Ecology of Freedom -- 1982 book by Murray Bookchin
Wikipedia - Theoretical ecology
Wikipedia - Thomas Crowther (ecologist) -- British scientist specializing in ecosystem ecology
Wikipedia - Trends in Ecology > Evolution
Wikipedia - Tropical ecology -- The study of the relationships between the biotic and abiotic components of the tropics
Wikipedia - Trust for Urban Ecology -- Organization
Wikipedia - UK Centre for Ecology & Hydrology -- UK government environmental science research organisation
Wikipedia - Urban ecology -- The study of the relation of living organisms with each other and their surroundings in the context of an urban environment.
Wikipedia - Urogynecology
Wikipedia - Wendy Brewster -- Professor of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
Wikipedia - Whale feces -- The excrement of whales and its role in the ecology of the oceans
Segolene Royal ::: Born: September 22, 1953; Occupation: Minister of Ecology, Sustainable Development and Energy;
https://www.goodreads.com/book/show/109423.Ecology_Meaning_and_Religion
https://www.goodreads.com/book/show/11498808-natural-healing-in-gynecology
https://www.goodreads.com/book/show/12198880-studies-in-viral-ecology
https://www.goodreads.com/book/show/12359778-reality-research-in-the-ecology-of-human-development
https://www.goodreads.com/book/show/1334408.A_People_s_Ecology
https://www.goodreads.com/book/show/14312022-handbook-of-spatial-point-pattern-analysis-in-ecology
https://www.goodreads.com/book/show/14355398-implementing-industrial-ecology
https://www.goodreads.com/book/show/1461420.Experimental_Behavioral_Ecology_And_Sociobiology
https://www.goodreads.com/book/show/1468658.The_Ecology_of_Eden
https://www.goodreads.com/book/show/152435.Steps_to_an_Ecology_of_Mind
https://www.goodreads.com/book/show/1542233.Bronx_Ecology
https://www.goodreads.com/book/show/15913418-the-community-ecology-of-sea-otters
https://www.goodreads.com/book/show/16128936-spiritual-ecology
https://www.goodreads.com/book/show/16241860-toward-an-ecology-of-transfiguration
https://www.goodreads.com/book/show/16544988-studies-in-viral-ecology
https://www.goodreads.com/book/show/16758505-chemical-ecology
https://www.goodreads.com/book/show/17121830-handbook-of-meta-analysis-in-ecology-and-evolution
https://www.goodreads.com/book/show/177151.Sex_Ecology_Spirituality
https://www.goodreads.com/book/show/17802098-prismatic-ecology
https://www.goodreads.com/book/show/181542.The_Ecology_of_Power
https://www.goodreads.com/book/show/183668.Marx_s_Ecology
https://www.goodreads.com/book/show/186042.Ecology_Against_Capitalism
https://www.goodreads.com/book/show/18635335-ecology-or-catastrophe
https://www.goodreads.com/book/show/1902933.Ecology_and_the_Politics_of_Scarcity_Revisited
https://www.goodreads.com/book/show/196714.Ecology_of_a_Cracker_Childhood
https://www.goodreads.com/book/show/19926153-studies-in-viral-ecology
https://www.goodreads.com/book/show/20255257-studies-in-viral-ecology
https://www.goodreads.com/book/show/2106101.Natural_Healing_in_Gynecology
https://www.goodreads.com/book/show/2107959.Applied_Ecology_and_Natural_Resource_Management
https://www.goodreads.com/book/show/2132023.Global_Ecology
https://www.goodreads.com/book/show/21378335-the-new-ecology-of-death
https://www.goodreads.com/book/show/21803068-ecology-of-fear
https://www.goodreads.com/book/show/2180408.Ecology_and_Management_of_North_American_Savannas
https://www.goodreads.com/book/show/22286952-ecology-of-the-coyote-in-the-yellowstone
https://www.goodreads.com/book/show/22761665-chemical-ecology
https://www.goodreads.com/book/show/23280436-political-ecology-of-disasters-and-climate-change
https://www.goodreads.com/book/show/2390786.Industrial_Ecology
https://www.goodreads.com/book/show/2476818.Ecology_and_the_politics_of_scarcity
https://www.goodreads.com/book/show/24831381-ecology-of-truth
https://www.goodreads.com/book/show/2578849-the-ecology-of-games
https://www.goodreads.com/book/show/26211742-austerity-ecology-the-collapse-porn-addicts
https://www.goodreads.com/book/show/26485636-the-ecology-of-law
https://www.goodreads.com/book/show/27392484-austerity-ecology-the-collapse-porn-addicts
https://www.goodreads.com/book/show/277148.Gregory_Bateson_Essays_for_an_Ecology_of_Ideas
https://www.goodreads.com/book/show/27886701-dark-ecology
https://www.goodreads.com/book/show/2891184-ecology-in-ancient-civilizations
https://www.goodreads.com/book/show/29240675-ecology-or-catastrophe
https://www.goodreads.com/book/show/312960.The_Ecology_of_Freedom
https://www.goodreads.com/book/show/3327640-judaism-and-ecology
https://www.goodreads.com/book/show/3338684-the-green-nazi---an-investigation-into-fascist-ecology
https://www.goodreads.com/book/show/34253501-fleischer-s-sonography-in-obstetrics-gynecology
https://www.goodreads.com/book/show/35021346-chemical-ecology
https://www.goodreads.com/book/show/369098.Social_Ecology_and_Communalism
https://www.goodreads.com/book/show/37842519-fleischer-s-sonography-in-obstetrics-gynecology
https://www.goodreads.com/book/show/39668620-living-earth-field-notes-from-the-dark-ecology-project-2014---2016
https://www.goodreads.com/book/show/402756.The_Ecology_of_Human_Development
https://www.goodreads.com/book/show/4517191-viral-ecology
https://www.goodreads.com/book/show/4530578-ecology-meaning-and-religion
https://www.goodreads.com/book/show/461732.Jainism_and_Ecology
https://www.goodreads.com/book/show/4840146-methods-in-quaternary-ecology
https://www.goodreads.com/book/show/503226.Ecological_Economics_and_the_Ecology_of_Economics
https://www.goodreads.com/book/show/503227.Economics_Ecology_Ethics
https://www.goodreads.com/book/show/5092006-motor-ecology
https://www.goodreads.com/book/show/514780.Ecology_Without_Nature
https://www.goodreads.com/book/show/7129667-industrial-ecology-and-sustainable-engineering
https://www.goodreads.com/book/show/7852.Ecology_of_Fear
https://www.goodreads.com/book/show/8493487-ecology-and-socialism
https://www.goodreads.com/book/show/899611.Hinduism_and_Ecology
https://www.goodreads.com/book/show/89997.The_Ecology_of_Commerce
https://www.goodreads.com/book/show/9330798-modelling-disease-ecology-with-mathematics
https://www.goodreads.com/book/show/938494.The_Ecology_of_Place
https://www.goodreads.com/book/show/979051.Politics_Of_Social_Ecology
https://religion.wikia.org/wiki/Baruch_Spinoza#Spinoza_and_Deep_Ecology
https://religion.wikia.org/wiki/Category:Judaism_and_ecology
https://religion.wikia.org/wiki/Oarfish#Ecology_and_life_history
https://religion.wikia.org/wiki/Oarfish#Feeding_ecology
https://religion.wikia.org/wiki/Zoroastrianism#Zoroastrianism_and_ecology
http://malankazlev.com/kheper/ecology/ecology.htm -- 0
http://malankazlev.com/kheper/gaia/biosphere/ecology/ecology.htm -- 0
Integral World - Pitfalls of Wilberian Ecology: A Critical Review of "Integral Ecology", Tomislav Markus
Integral World - Review of Sex, Ecology, Spirituality by Jan Adams
Integral World - Review by David Boadella of Sex, Ecology, Spirituality
Integral World - Review of Sex, Ecology, Spirituality by Christina Desser
Integral World - Review by Glickmann of Sex, Ecology, Spirituality
Integral World - Review of Sex, Ecology, Spirituality from Network
Integral World - Review by Sex, Ecology, Spirituality by Kaisa Puhakka
Integral World - Review of Sex, Ecology, Spirituality by Nova Spivak
Integral World - Overview of Sex, Ecology, Spirituality by Roger Walsh
Integral World - Review by Michael Zimmermann of Sex, Ecology, Spirituality
Integral World - Heidegger and Wilber on the Limitations of Spiritual Deep Ecology, by Michael Zimmerman
Integral Ecology: Uniting Multiple Perspectives on the Natural World
selforum - ai depression and dark ecology
wiki.auroville - Category:Auroville_ecology
wiki.auroville - Restoration_ecology
Dharmapedia - Integral_ecology
Psychology Wiki - Behavioral_ecology
Psychology Wiki - Ecology
Psychology Wiki - Sex,_Ecology,_Spirituality
Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy - ecology
https://en.wikiquote.org/wiki/Category:Ecology
https://en.wikiquote.org/wiki/Ecology
The New Lassie (1989 - 1991) - Chris McCullough and his wife Dee live in a small town, Glenridge, California. They live with their two children, Will and Megan, and of course his pet dog, Lassie. Chris is a building contractor. One frequent visiting relative is Uncle Steve. Adventures deal with several subjects related to ecology...
https://analytical.fandom.com/wiki/Agroecology
https://civilization.fandom.com/wiki/Alien_Ecology_(CivBE)
https://civilization.fandom.com/wiki/Ecology_(CivBE)
https://civilization.fandom.com/wiki/Industrial_Ecology_(CivBE)
https://community-sitcom.fandom.com/wiki/Competitive_Ecology
https://ecology.fandom.com/wiki/
https://fisherymanagement.fandom.com/wiki/Information_and_Fisheries_Ecology
https://forgottenrealms.fandom.com/wiki/Ecology
https://medicine.fandom.com/wiki/Gynecology
https://memory-alpha.fandom.com/wiki/Ecology
https://memory-beta.fandom.com/wiki/Ecology
https://tardis.fandom.com/wiki/World_Ecology_Bureau
https://wakfu.fandom.com/wiki/Ecology
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Category:Animalia_ecology
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Category:Ecology
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Category:Images_from_Ecology_and_Evolution
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Category:Marine_ecology
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Category:Media_from_Ecology_and_Evolution
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Category:Media_from_Journal_of_Ecology_and_Environment
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Category:Media_from_Marine_Ecology_Progress_Series
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Book_Release_-Ecology_as_politics.jpg
Abundance (ecology)
Adaptive behavior (ecology)
African Journal of Ecology
Agroecology
Agroecology and Sustainable Food Systems
Agroecology in Latin America
All-Ukrainian Political Party "Ecology and Social Protection"
American Board of Obstetrics and Gynecology
American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
American Osteopathic Board of Obstetrics and Gynecology
Annual Review of Ecology, Evolution, and Systematics
Anthecology
Applied ecology
Aquatic Microbial Ecology
Arcadian ecology
Arctic ecology
Arctic sea ice ecology and history
Ashoka Trust for Research in Ecology and the Environment
Asian Myrmecology
Astroecology
Austral Ecology
Autonomy Liberty Participation Ecology
Avian ecology field methods
Balanced Ecology
Behavioral ecology
Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology
Behavioral ecology (disambiguation)
Behavioral Ecology (journal)
Biochemical Systematics and Ecology
Biomass (ecology)
British Society of Urogynaecology
Canadian Institute of Ecology and Evolution
Chartered Institute of Ecology and Environmental Management
Chemical ecology
Clinical ecology
Clinical Obstetrics and Gynecology
College of Human Ecology
Community Cyberinfrastructure for Advanced Microbial Ecology Research and Analysis
Community (ecology)
Cornell University College of Human Ecology
David Orton (deep ecology)
Dead zone (ecology)
Deep ecology
Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology (Massachusetts General Hospital)
Desert ecology
Disturbance (ecology)
Dominance (ecology)
Durrell Institute of Conservation and Ecology
East Carolina University College of Human Ecology
Ecology
Ecology Action
Ecology (album)
Ecology and Evolution
Ecology and Evolutionary Biology
Ecology and Law
Ecology and Society
Ecology Center
Ecology Center (Berkeley)
Ecology, Community and Lifestyle
Ecology Democracy Solidarity
Ecology Flag
Ecology flag
Ecology: From Individuals to Ecosystems
Ecology Generation
Ecology (journal)
Ecology Law Quarterly
Ecology Letters
Ecology of Banksia
Ecology of Bermuda
Ecology of California
Ecology of Fear
Ecology of fear (ecology)
Ecology of Florida
Ecology of Tasmania
Ecology of the Himalayas
Ecology of the North Cascades
Ecology of the Oak Ridges Moraine
Ecology of the Rocky Mountains
Ecology of the San Francisco Estuary
Ecology of the Sierra Nevada
Ecology or Catastrophe
Ecology Party
Ecology Summit
Ecosystem ecology
Energy flow (ecology)
Ethnoecology
Ethology Ecology & Evolution
European Journal of Ecology
European Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology and Reproductive Biology
Europe Ecology
Europe Ecology The Greens
Evolutionary ecology
Evolutionary Ecology (journal)
Feminist political ecology
FEMS Microbiology Ecology
Fire ecology
Fonghuanggu Bird and Ecology Park
Forest ecology
Forest Ecology and Management
Freshwater ecology of Maharashtra
Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment
Functional ecology
Functional Ecology (journal)
Functional equivalence (ecology)
Functional group (ecology)
Geography and ecology of Philmont Scout Ranch
Geography and ecology of the Everglades
Global Ecology and Biogeography
Glossary of ecology
Guild (ecology)
Gynaecology
Hammock (ecology)
Harold H. Malkmes Wildlife Education and Ecology Center
History of ecology
History of industrial ecology
Human behavioral ecology
Human ecology
Human Ecology, Human Economy
Human Ecology (journal)
Human reproductive ecology
Indigenous (ecology)
Industrial ecology
Information ecology
Insect ecology
Insect winter ecology
Institute of Systematics and Ecology of Animals
Instruments used in obstetrics and gynecology
International Centre of Insect Physiology and Ecology
International Federation of Gynaecology and Obstetrics
International Journal of Ecology & Development
International Journal of Gynecology & Obstetrics
International Society for Infectious Diseases in Obstetrics and Gynaecology
International Society of Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology
Intertidal ecology
Island ecology
Italian Society of Silviculture and Forest Ecology
Journal of Animal Ecology
Journal of Applied Ecology
Journal of Chemical Ecology
Journal of Ecology
Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology
Journal of Industrial Ecology
Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
Journal of Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology
Journal of Political Ecology
Journal of Psychosomatic Obstetrics & Gynecology
Kazakh Agency of Applied Ecology
Knowledge Ecology International
Landscape ecology
Left Ecology Freedom
Lower East Side Ecology Center
Marine Ecology Progress Series
Marine larval ecology
Max Planck Institute for Chemical Ecology
Media ecology
Mercy Mercy Me (The Ecology)
Metabolic theory of ecology
Methods in Ecology and Evolution
Microbial ecology
Ministry of Ecology and Environment
Ministry of Ecology and Natural Resources (Azerbaijan)
Ministry of Ecology, Geology and Natural Resources (Kazakhstan)
Ministry of Ecology, Spatial planning and Urbanism (Montenegro)
Molecular Ecology
Molecular Ecology Resources
Myrmecology
Natality in population ecology
Nature Ecology and Evolution
New World Agriculture and Ecology Group
New Zealand Journal of Ecology
No-analog (ecology)
Obstetrics & Gynecology (journal)
Obstetrics and gynaecology
Open Source Ecology
Organizational ecology
Outline of ecology
Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology
Paleoecology
Peace ecology
Pediatric gynaecology
Phage ecology
Philosophy of ecology
Plant ecology
Plant Ecology (journal)
Polar ecology
Political ecology
Population ecology
Portal:Ecology
Productivity (ecology)
Quantitative ecology
Ramon Margalef Prize in Ecology
Recology
Reconciliation ecology
Regeneration (ecology)
Regius Professor of Obstetrics and Gynaecology (Glasgow)
Remote Sensing in Ecology and Conservation
Restoration ecology
R* rule (ecology)
Seascape ecology
Sexecology
Sex, Ecology, Spirituality
Sitka Center for Art and Ecology
Snag (ecology)
Social ecology
Social ecology (Bookchin)
Soil ecology
Solarium (myrmecology)
Soundscape ecology
Stanley Park Ecology Society
Steps to an Ecology of Mind
Supertramp (ecology)
Sympagic ecology
Systems ecology
The Ecology Channel
The Ecology of Freedom
The Open Ecology Journal
Theoretical ecology
Thermal ecology
UK Centre for Ecology & Hydrology
University of the Philippines Los Baos College of Human Ecology
Urban ecology
Urogynecology
Victoria University Coastal Ecology Laboratory
Vigilance (behavioural ecology)
Western Ghats Ecology Expert Panel
World-Ecology
Yaound Gynaecology, Obstetrics and Pediatrics Hospital



convenience portal:
recent: Section Maps - index table - favorites
Savitri -- Savitri extended toc
Savitri Section Map -- 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
authors -- Crowley - Peterson - Borges - Wilber - Teresa - Aurobindo - Ramakrishna - Maharshi - Mother
places -- Garden - Inf. Art Gallery - Inf. Building - Inf. Library - Labyrinth - Library - School - Temple - Tower - Tower of MEM
powers -- Aspiration - Beauty - Concentration - Effort - Faith - Force - Grace - inspiration - Presence - Purity - Sincerity - surrender
difficulties -- cowardice - depres. - distract. - distress - dryness - evil - fear - forget - habits - impulse - incapacity - irritation - lost - mistakes - obscur. - problem - resist - sadness - self-deception - shame - sin - suffering
practices -- Lucid Dreaming - meditation - project - programming - Prayer - read Savitri - study
subjects -- CS - Cybernetics - Game Dev - Integral Theory - Integral Yoga - Kabbalah - Language - Philosophy - Poetry - Zen
6.01 books -- KC - ABA - Null - Savitri - SA O TAOC - SICP - The Gospel of SRK - TIC - The Library of Babel - TLD - TSOY - TTYODAS - TSZ - WOTM II
8 unsorted / add here -- Always - Everyday - Verbs


change css options:
change font "color":
change "background-color":
change "font-family":
change "padding":
change "table font size":
last updated: 2022-04-29 18:54:47
9063 site hits