classes ::: book,
children :::
branches ::: Full Circle
see also :::

Instances - Classes - See Also - Object in Names
Definitions - Quotes - Chapters


object:Full Circle
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link:https://www.synearth.net/Haskell/FC/FC.htm
missing ::: lots and lots of diagrams
This Web edition was produced by the Time-Binding Trust for research purposes.
The original hard copy book was scanned and converted to HTML by Don Steehler and Timothy Wilken. The following information pertains to the original 1972 book edition:
FULL CIRCLE
The Moral Force of Unified Science

EDWARD HASKELL, editor
Harold G. Cassidy, Jere W. Clark, Arthur R. Jensen


GORDON and BREACH
New York London Paris
Copyright 1972 by Edward F. Haskell

Published in the United States by
   Gordon and Breach, Science Publishers, Inc.
440 Park Avenue South
New York, N.Y. 10016
Publishers office for the United Kingdom
   Gordon and Breach, Science Publishers, Ltd.
440 Park Avenue South 41-42 William IV Street
London, W.C.2
Publishers office for France
   Gordon and Breach
7-9 rue Emile Dubois
Paris 14

Library of Congress Catalog card number 72-84271, ISBN 0 677 12480 (cloth); 0 677 12485 6 (paper). All rights reserved. No part of this book may be used or reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publishers. Printed in Great Britain.
"In the final analysis our compass must be
our relationship with a central order . . . "
WERNER HEISENBERG Physics and Beyond, 1971
Dedicated to
ALFRED E. EMERSON
who taught me the basic principles of ecology and who -- as Chairman of the University of Chicago's Interdivisional Committee for Unified Science, 1940-1943 -- launched the course of events which has resulted in this book and the others which are to follow.

Page vi
Contents
Dedication vi
Editors Statement: This is a Scientific Revolution viii
Chapter I
Summary of Theoretical Issues: What Generalization of Mendeleev's Periodic Table Means
    Harold G. Cassidy 1
Chapter II
Generalization of the Structure of Mendeleev's Periodic Table
    Edward Haskell 21
Chapter III
The Role of Unified Science in Vitalizing Research and Education
    Jere W. Clark 91
Chapter IV
The Periodic Table of Human Cultures
Part 1: Anthropo-Socio-Historico-Linguistic Bases of the Periodic Table
    Edward Haskell
111
Part 2: Direct Psychological and Genetic Empirical Basis of the Periodic Table
    Arthur R.Jensen 156
Chapter 5
Unified Science's Moral Force
    Edward Haskell 169
Glossary Index 215
The Author's 239
Editor's Acknowledgements 241
Appendix 243
Index 251

Page vii
EDITOR'S STATEMENT:
THIS IS A SCIENTIFIC REVOLUTION
Edward Haskell1
This symposium volume announces the results of a project begun in 1948 at the Centenary of the American Association for the Advancement of Science in Washington, D.C.2 The Council for Unified Research and Education, established at that time, is here announcing the results of its then twenty-one year effort: Assembly of the Sciences into a Single Discipline.
Why have we waited to announce them all at once? "The kind of change we need probably cannot occur piecemeal," said Jerome Wiesner to C. P. Snow in a televised discussion. "It probably has to happen all at once." And Snow agreed: The reason Wiesner gave is, that "The forces of tradition are strong and piecemeal changes tend to get changed back."3
To this important reason, another is added by Thomas Kuhn: Implicit in the traditional assortment of separate disciplines is the tacit assumption, the paradigm, that their data are at bottom structurally diverse. As Kuhn points out, however, "A scientific theory is declared invalid only if an alternative candidate is available. The decision to reject one paradigm is always simultaneously to accept another."4
The contrary hypothesis underlying our assembly of sciences is, that All natural systems have a common underlyng structure; and that the Periodic Table of Chemical elements is its special atomic case. And, since an assembly is a single thing, it has to be displayed and examined all at once.
Extension of this Periodic table's structure to each of these parts of science involves what Willard V.Quine calls "clearing up the similarity notion" and discovering the universe's "natural kinds." And the procedure of extending to all of these kinds of theories a single and well established structure guarantees that these "branches of science would qualify as unified, or integrated into our inclusive systematization of nature . . . [for it makes] their several similarity concepts . . . compatible; capable of meshing . . ."5
We announced these results in 1969, in honor of Dimitri Ivanovich Mendeleev's Periodic Table of Chemical Elements. But the fact that this was the centenary of its announcement was our least important reason. (His famous paper was presented in his absence, due to illness, before the Russian Chemical Society in St. Petersburg on March 6, 1869, and was entitled The Dependence Between the Properties and the Atomic Weights of the Elements.6) Our primary reason for convening this (1969) symposium is that Mendeleev's insight and audacity, celebrated among chemists, is here extended to all-repeat, all-the sciences; and that his farthest out vision is, in this symposium, not transcended, but faithfully fulfilled:
"It is the function of science," Mendeleev declared to his chemistry students, "to discover the existence of a general reign of order in nature, and to find the causes governing this order. And this refers in equal measure to the relations of man--social and political--and to the entire universe as a whole . . ."6
How happy Dimitri Ivanovich would have been if he could have heard us fulfil his intuitive prediction. However, I'm pleased to say that some of his compatriots did: The Voice of America included them with us in our Boston hall: that morning's Russian broadcast featured our symposium.
The structure of Mendeleev's "general reign of order in the entire universe as a whole" is represented by our fold-out at the end of the book. (If the reader stands it in clear view he will see in a few glances how simply this assembly works.)--Is not the Periodic co-ordinate system (right-hand side) with its five Periodic tables (and spaces for two more which are still missing) mapped into it--is it not also the fulfilment of the Royal Society's ambitious objective, set forth in 1663? Its first objective, as you remember, was the development of our discrete, one-field sciences, which has now been pretty well fulfilled. Its second objective was all but glossed over. It was stated in a single sentence: "The compiling of a complete system of solid philosophy."7 Of this system we present a model. Mendeleev's "general reign of order in the entire universe" turns out to be so constructed that our pursuit of the objectives we published in Science has turned out to be a model of the Royal Society's "complete system of solid philosophy."
We stated our objectives in Science as follows: To "advance social science through the stages of natural classification and evolution theory, into that achieved by the physical sciences, where scientific fields are connected, and science is closely linked to philosophy and technology."2
In fact, it appears to fulfill, model, map, complete, execute, generalize and assemble all the theories and predictions listed in the left-hand column of our fold-out chart, and many more for which there was no space. In his address as retiring President of the A.A.A.S. James B. Conant had said: "I place science within the area of accumulative knowledge," and had urged the coordination of its role in our society.8--The theoretical condition for doing this was, as we announced in Science, "The independent discoveries of parts of the same general conceptual scheme by students of plant, animal, and human coactions . . ."9 This conceptual scheme was the old Periodic Table's underlying structure; and once these independent discoveries of it were recognized as such, they were developed into the Periodic tables represented in our wall display. The geometric representation of their common or universal characteristics, the Periodic co-ordinate system shown in its center, appears thus to be a model of Leibniz' celebrated project, the Characteristica Universalis.10
Our 1948 announcement in Science concluded with this conditional prediction: "Should this scheme prove to be a natural classification, it would create conditions for rapid coordination and advance of social sciences, as the Periodic Table did in Chemistry."2 Its fulfilment will be set forth in our chapter on "The Periodic Table of Human Cultures."
The object of this expanded symposium is to submit our results to the scientific community so that it can judge whether or not our announced objective has been reached; and so that, if it has been reached, we can in the social and ecological sciences start reaping the kind of benefits which Mendeleev's Periodic Table, the first step in this process, conferred on the physical sciences a century ago. Namely, meaningful organization of masses of accumulated data, resolution of their paralyzing communication noise and fouling, predictions and discoveries of missing concepts and data, and increased capability of predicting changes of natural and psychosocial phenomena, and of inducing, modifying, or preventing them. In short, gaining at least some control over our destiny.
This book is an expansion of the Twenty-first Anniversary Symposium of the Council for Unified Research and Education. The original symposium was conducted, very appropriately, under the auspices of our sister organization, the Society for General Systems Research, of which all our participants but one are members.11

NOTES AND REFERENCES
1. Arranger of the symposium; and chairman of the Council for Unifled Research and Education: C.U.R.E., Inc.
2. "Symposium on Cooperation and Conflict Among Living Organisms," Science, Sept. 3, 1948, p. 263.
3. Program on National Educational TV chaired by Eleanor Roosevelt, ca. 1964.
4. Thomas S. Kuhn, The Structure of Scientific Revolutions, University of Chicago Press, Chicago, Illinois, 1962 (p. 77).
5. W. V. Quine, Ontological Relativity and other essays, Columbia Univ. Press, New York, 1969, p. 138.
6. Daniel Q. Posin, Mendeleyev The Story of a Great Scientist, p. 167. McGraw-Hill, New York, 1948.
The three Mendeleyev quotations in our symposium wall display appear in the removable wall chart at the end of this book.
7. Sir Henry Lyons, The Royal Society, 1600-1940--A History of its Administration Under its Charter, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge 1944.
8. James B. Conant, "The Role of Science in Our Unique Society." Address of the retiring president of the A.A.A.S., Chicago, Dec. 1947, Science, Vol. 107, Jan. 23, 1948, p. 78.
9. Edward F. Haskell with the collaboration of Burton Wade and Jerome Pergament: "The Coaction Compass: A General Conceptual Scheme based upon the Independent Systematizations of Coactions Among Plants by Gause, Animals by Haskell, and Men by Moreno, Horney, Lundberg and Others." (The symposium's mimeographed convening paper.)2
10. Leibniz Selections, P. P. Wiener, Ed., Scribners, N.Y., 1951, pp. 5, 15-25, 66, etc.
11. Program of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, Boston, Massachusetts, December 26-31, 1969 (pp. 248-9).

Pages viii-xi

HAROLD G. CASSIDY: AN INTRODUCTION
Edward Haskell
Harold Cassidy has had an important role in this assembly of sciences, this scientific synthesis. His role began when he and I were undergraduates at Oberlin College in the late 'Twenties. We lived in a house called ' ' (Arthron, the Joint). Each of us in this house majored in a different field. Our endless sessions of talk then, and at our Arthric reunions through the decade of graduate studies and thirty-odd years of professional work, gave each of us an interdisciplinary and constantly updated education. During these decades, each of us made available to the others most of his papers and books as they came off the press. Thus, quite inadvertently, Arthron became a think tank.1
What made it goal-directed was Harold Cassidy's growing concern, in the mid-Forties, with my predicament. Being a chemist, he discerned in my writings, couched though they were in what he called "incomprehensible jargon," the actual extension of the Periodic table to biology and social science. He had the patience to follow the reasoning step by step, pointing out mistakes, suggesting improvements and, in the process, mastering those parts of the technical language without which the new abstract concepts cannot be acquired.2
We supported each other more and more confidently through two more decades of Arthric reunions, and eventually produced a small, privately printed book, Plain Truth--And Redirection of the Cold War, and now the book before you. So, over the past twenty-odd years Harold Cassidy has been my constant coach, mentor, collaborator, and link with the academic community. Without him, we would not have held this symposium, and this book would not have seen the academic light of day.
But I want to say more: While my scientific writings continued in only xeroxed and offset-printed forms, Harold Cassidy (I keep repeating his full name to distinguish him from his equally illustrious literary brother Fred), Harold has published three "Two-Culture" contri butions: the first, is titled The Sciences and the Arts--A New Alliance (Harper, 1962). Through it, scientists and humanists can recognize each others' contri butions far better than they could before. The second, is titled, Knowledge, Experience and Action-An Essay in Education (Teachers College Press, 1969). This Essay is essential to everyone who wants to learn, and even more, to teach--Unified Science. And here, now, is the third: the bridge across which physical scientists can explore unified science's general background-theory, of which their own discipline is shown to be a special case. And so are, of course, the major theories and laws of the biological and social sciences. In reading this chapter, one recapitulates Cassidy's twenty-or-thirty year "phylogeny", from one-field specialist to generalist. Figure IV-11 is a diagram of what this statement means.

NOTES
1. Other Arthrites are: Frederick G. Cassidy, Professor of English Literature, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin; George T. Lodge, Professor of Psychology, Old Dominion University, Norfolk, Virginia: and Willard V. Quine, Professor of Philosophy, Harvard University, whose clarification of ontological relativity informs the concluding section of this book.
2. Hence the Glossary at the rear.

Pages 1-2
Chapter I

Summary of Theoretical Issues:
What Generalization of Mendeleev's
Periodic Table Means
HAROLD G. CASSIDY
1. INTRODUCTION
I would like, first, to summarize briefly the theoretical ideas present in Haskell's work as I have observed them appear and develop over the last twenty years to their present fruition. Then I would like to suggest in summary their meaning for the field of Education.
In my opinion, Haskell has discovered a scientifically-based pattern of a universal kind which is displayed in some respect by all of human knowledge and experience of Nature and Man. This is a large statement. Propositions of this kind have been advanced since the earliest days of philosophy, and in view of the signal lack of agreement among philosophers throughout the ages and today, it behooves us to be extremely wary of such statements. Yet strange things have been happening in science; and if I say that, in my opinion, this pattern that Haskell has discovered (and such discovery inevitably involves a degree of creative invention) constitutes an invariant-relation that enables translation between various developing fields of knowledge and experience, then at least metaphorically one can understand me to mean that like the Lorentz Transformations it makes the applicable relativity tolerable.
I assume then, that my task is to summarize the theoretical and empirical bases of this statement. That is, to give support to the hypothesis that Haskell has here a universal pattern; to show its nature and empirical reference; and to make it plausible for scientists to give it their attention. The pattern with which we are concerned is made up of several sub-patterns. I shall summarize each of these, as I see them, then put the whole together.
2. PERIODICITY
We are celebrating the centenary of Mendeleev's Periodic classification of the chemical elements. I need not remind you in detail of this work: you have before you (in the fold-out chart at the rear) a modern version of part of his Table. Essentially, what he did was to recognize a key variable, by classifying which other properties of the things classified fell into orderly patterns. This variable was atomic weight, and as you know it has been replaced by the more operationally constant property atomic number. Periodicity is displayed by the properties of the chemical elements when the elements are arranged according to increasing atomic number-and incidentally the evolutionary sequence of the production of elements must also display such periodicity. What Haskell has done is to find evidence that not only the Kingdom of Atoms, but that of Nuclei, of Plants, of Animals, of Cultures, displays a periodicity provided that the essential variables are properly chosen. This choice depends on cybernetic analysis, and its application leads directly to a sub-pattern known as `Coaction.'

Cybernetic Basis
The essential points needed to show the relevance of a cybernetic analysis in Haskell's work can be developed with the aid of a simple diagram. Cybernetics, "the science of communication and control in the animal and the machine," as Norbert Wiener defined it in a fatherly way, deals with processes. These are analyzed in terms of the variables that change as the process occurs. That which is undergoing the process is a system.
Consider a system such as an animal organism undergoing processes which we summarize by saying it is alive. It exists in a habitat which affects it (by inputs) and which it affects through outputs. The inputs comprise work-factors such as food, air, water, and so on, depending on the organism and controls upon them, as well as contingent factors over which the animal has little control until they impinge on it. The outputs are linked retroactively by feedback to the work components. In this feedback loop, and controlling it, is the governing factor. It receives information about the state of the output, and about the state of the habitat, and by its behavior can control, through the work components, the direction of the output.
Figure I-1 System.
Information and control are clearly linked in the cybernetic analysis. It is the case that a system may comprise small or large groups of processes; from some ultimately single and simple process such as the reaction of two chemical substances, to the complicated, interlocked system of an unknown number of homeostatic and other processes called a living organism and, indeed, beyond to the behaviors of groups of organisms. It is the case also, that a factor that in one system is an output may exercise a governing function in an interlocking system, or may function as work component in another. This is in agreement with what we observe in the world around us.

Coaction
In the cybernetic analysis of the more complex and organized systems we recognize two distinct kinds of factors. There is the work component or components, which we shall designate X, and the governor, or controller, which we shall designate Y. Of course, the governor does work too (the strategic work), and we have simplified the relationships very greatly. There will be cases of a system made up of sub-systems, one controlling in some respects, not in others, and so on. Let us stay with the simpler case. Now, the processes that characterize X may, in the interaction with Y, be accelerated or in some way enhanced ( + ), or may be unaffected ( O ), or may be decreased ( - ). Similarly, the processes that Y undergoes. When the possibilities are cross-tabulated, it becomes evident that there are nine and only nine of these qualitatively different `coactions.'
Figure I-2 Cross-tabulaion of two coacting entities.
In ( + , + ) both gain. If X and Y represent two organisms, this might be called symbiosis, or mutualism. The relation ( + , O ) may be illustrated by the case of an older brother (Y) who, without knowing it ( O ), sets a constructive example ( + ) to a younger (X). This may be called commensalism. It is important to notice that by this classification Haskell discovered three new coactions, ( O , + ), ( - , O ), ( O , - ), which occur widely but had not been recognized before. To me, it is very impressive when a theory makes possible the discovery of new relationships, and especially when it completes a set of philosophical categories.
We know, of course, that there are infinite varities of coactions, both within the qualitative differences, and quantitatively. This fact is dealt with by geometrizing the Table.

Geometric Representation
When the Table is put into a coordinate system of a special kind that you have before you, several new features appear. Eight of the coactions fall neatly upon the axes or in the quadrants, as shown1. The ( O , O ) coaction may be placed at the origin if there are no coactors. But in actual systems it must be interpreted as a third "axis," the Scalar Zero circle. This, I think, was a stroke of genius on Haskell's part. How do you decide whether a coaction has net ( + ) or ( - ) or ( O ) effect? You must have a reference, which is the state of the system before the coaction is initiated, or a reference point must be picked. This then establishes the ( O , O ) state and is, of course, neutral to all coactions. Its value is thus plotted as the radius of a circle, the Zero-Zero circle ( O , O ).2
Figure I-3 The Periodic coordinate system: One Period.3
As an example, in labor-management relations there is a profit-sharing arrangement known as the Scanlon Plan. An essential feature of the Plan is to have a reference period before it is put into operation, so that one will know whether there is actually a profit or loss under the Plan and how much it is. The value or range of a variable, measured at this time, would serve to place the ( O , O ) circle in the upper right half of the manifold, and of net ( - ) within the reference ( O , O ) in the lower left. This yields a `Coaction Cardioid.' Along the Axis of Atropy bisecting quadrants 2 and 4, the magnitudes of x and y are equal, but the signs are opposite, so the net coaction is zero. To the right and above this axis is what the philosopher Braithwaite calls the `cooperator's surplus.' Once more we complete the philosophical categories by calling attention to the `conflictor's deficit,' as we name it, in the lower left, net ( - ) part of the manifold.3
3. SYSTEM-HIERARCHY
A second sub-pattern is hierarchical. It is related to periodicity. The archetypical structure is that of the electron energy-level structure of atoms. Consider the structures of the first few members of the Periodic Table, arranged in the form of a System-hierarchy. Here System refers to the whole Kingdom, and the terms `Period ', `Stratum,' and `Substratum' have the following significance.
Figure I-4 Part of the Kingdom of Atoms. Major Structure 2.
In this particular Kingdom, Period 1 contains one Stratum (the `shell') and one Substratum, the orbital. Period 2 contains two Strata, the closed first shell and a second shell which shows three possible Substrata, the three orbitals. Period 3 contains three Strata, the closed first and second shells and a third, which contains five Substrata. And so on. This structure exemplifies a System-hierarchy, which has the characteristic that each higher Period comprises all previous Strata plus one new Stratum, which modifies and is modified by the others.4 This important last characteristic is shown by Period 2, for example. The first shell of electrons is modified by the presence of increased nuclear charge and also of the second shell of electrons.
In the cases of plant and animal Kingdoms, the conventional taxonomic classification is not suitable for constructing System-hierarchies, nor for displaying periodicity. Haskell has therefore offered the additional classification scheme below which offers new insights, it seems to me. This scheme is based on cybernetic analysis. Essentially, the Periods are distinguished by a sharp change in the organism's control of its habitat. The whole scheme is based on this relationship, central to evolutionary changes in all natural Kingdoms.
Figure I-5 Part of the theoretical System-hierarchy, show the logical necessity of distinguishing habitat from environment. See Chapter 11.
The steps in the hierarchy occur with changes from control-by-habitat to control-by-organism.
For example, the System-hierarchy of the Kingdom of Plants begins in Period 1 with the Protophytes and Thallophytes. These simplest living things could colonize bare rock, and convert the surface, as they grew, multiplied, and died, into a kind of 'soil.' Thus they changed their habitat. At the same tie this new habitat could select for new kinds of plants. Period 2 is recognized as comprising the Bryophytes and lichens which, having roots or their equivalents, could draw nourishent from the 'soil.' At the same time they sheltered the Period 1 plants which were becoming modified too. In Period 3, the Pteridophytes, a great increase in control over the habitat came with the development of vascular tissues, stems, and leaves. Here the energy source of the sun could be more efficiently exploited, and nutrients better distri buted longer distances in the plant. Finally, Period 4 plants, the seed plants, are characterized by any improvements of the habitat, including in various cases improved selective fertilization procedures; protection of the zygote in a shell; increasing its survival chances by including with it a source of nutriment.
Figure I-6 Kingdom of plant ecosystems. Major Stratum 5.*
* Editor's Note. Missing from this figure are the Sub-strata. These would, if entered, appear on the right, as they do in Figure I-4. Sub-strata represent the plant's ontogenetic stages. In accordance with Haeckel's Law, each Stratum (which developed phylogenetically) is composed of its own number of (ontogenetically developed) Sub-strata. See Chapter II. This structure may, for some people, be obscured by the fact that the controlling Stratum develops species whose adult forms occupy lower Stratum niches. Modern shrubs and grasses, for example, (Stratum 4), often occupy what used to be, in ancient times, fern niches (Stratum 3). What were once fern lands are now, in many places, grass lands. Nature, as Einstein said, is subtle. To those who see her subtlety, as Einstein did, she is not vindictive.
This additional type of classification opens new avenues for experimentation such as are suggested by terms like `input,' `output,' `feedback,' and so on. At the same time it brings this Kingdom into the pattern of the Periodic Coordinate System. A similar approach deduces a System-hierarchy for Animal and one for Human ecosystems. (Chapters II and IV).
We have, then, a grand pattern which consists of the Periodic Coordinate System for the description of the state, and changes in state of systems, subsystems, and very subordinate systems, in any given Period. Each Kingdom, from Particles to Human Cultures, comprises a System-Hierarchy, each Period of which is describable in coaction terms. Superimposed on all of this is a System-Hierarchy of Kingdoms.5 Here we are not certain about the numbering of Periods. However we do know that Particles and Atoms must have lower numbers, increasing in that order, than Molecules, Geoid Systems, Plants, Animals, and Human Cultures.
4. EVOLUTIONARY TREND
It is evident, as time has passed in the history of our world, that there has been a trend from the most chaotic state of primordial matter via a gradually habitable Earth, and the first appearance of Life, to our present state. It can be asserted, in broad terms, that two time-related phenomena are visible here. There is the Second Law of Thermodynamics which says that in any closed system undergoing process, a quantity called the entropy tends to be maximized. As far as we can judge this is a law without any exceptions-almost certainly without terrestrial exception. At the same time, we observe the appearance of organized, information- and control-employing creatures. These are always associated with open systems, and they decrease net entropy at the expense of their habitat. We must thus confirm, as many others have suggested, that there is also a drive in a direction which, since it has led to our existence, we can only speak of as `upward'; that is, to increased complexity and the organisation needed to keep it viable.6 These two directions are symbolized by Haskell in the diagrams, taking a leaf from Teilhard de Chardin, as `Alpha,' A, and `Omega,' . They confer limits and rational bias on the entire formulation.
5. MEANING
What I wish to have made clear is that we have here an ambitious attempt at a Grand World-view. Haskell has provided us with a pattern of invariant-relations, the System-hierarchies and Periodic coordinates, which enable us to translate between all the sciences; he has provided us with a set of compatible interconnected frames of reference.
6. IMPLICATIONS FOR EDUCATION
Very basically, the essential problems in education are those of our whole culture: communication, control, and direction. Education depends in considerable part on rational discourse, though there is also a large and important non-rational component that is learned by non-verbal means: by example, and "showing how." We have seen how Haskell has discovered an overall pattern that comprises compatible frames of reference (Periodicity and Stratification) for all the sciences. This pattern, couched in operationally constant language, allows translation between the present languages of the sciences, and so should counter the present ever-increasing fragmentation among disciplines.
We see in this work the potential for improved communication, for control and direction in education. The improvement in communication comes from the use of operationally constant concepts. Words like `conflict,' used commonly and confusingly for ( - , + ), ( - , - ), and ( + , - ) coactions, can be cleared up. The people who use them can be led out of the semantical swamps in which they flounder under such usages. Precise use of words and symbols can be encouraged, and made to yield positive, constructive results.
Control is important too. To obtain an holistic education, an education that opposes fragmentation of the curriculum, and alienation and loss of integrity in the student, the education must have a rational structure. It must depend on many constraints such as always trying to tell the truth in clear and precise language. If the truth cannot be communicated in this way then the teacher must be constrained to alert the student. It should have an orderly sequence of progression that is constrained to fit the stage of physical, mental, and spiritual growth of the child. It should have an intellectual skeleton that is capable of supporting a wide variety of features as it is fleshed out with educational growth. What I am suggesting is that Haskell's world-view provides just such an intellectual skeleton. We know that the concept of coactions can be grasped by very young children--Haskell has demonstrated this. A young child can grasp, even if in a very simple way, some of his interrelations with his habitat. The thing we must be wary of, however, is the tendency in education to idolize a theory. We must engineer into any application of this work an openness to rational change, an opportunity for a variety of approaches and interpretations, and a self-revising feedback.
One implication for education that comes from this work is not only that the curriculum must be given an holistic structure, but the administrative side also. Application of systems theories is already showing remarkable results in certain school systems at the primary and secondary levels. It should be applied at the college level.
ADDENDUM
Empirical examples of the calculation of coactions may be helpful. Two aspects of the general coaction problem may be mentioned, of which the first only is dealt with here. The first is calculation from raw experimental data to a form that may be plotted in the Periodic Coordinate System. This takes care of data within Periods. But transition from one Period to another (up or down) in a System Hierarchy will probably require the use of step functions of some kind, and are not dealt with here.
We take our examples from the work of Gause7. Gause studied the growth behavior of protozoa, yeasts, and other organisms as they were cultured on liquid media, controlled as needed with respect to temperature, composition, pH, availability of oxygen, and accumulation of waste products. Conditions were such that the population of protozoa (or other organism) would reach a fixed level and remain there indefinitely. This was the saturation population (K) and represented a steady state with respect to the volume, or bio-mass, of protozoa present per unit volume of culture. The organisms were grown separately, and in mixture. Figure A-1 is a reproduction of Gause's Figure 10, p. 31.
Figure A-1 Growth of the population of Paramecium caudatum and P. bursaria (nutrients: S. exiguus + B. pyocyaneus). From Gause.7 Figure 10, p. 31. K is the total volume of individuals of the particular kind in 1 cc at the steady state level.
In one method of calculation we utilize Gause's K values. This gives an end-result of the processes traced in Figure A-1. One might, of course, calculate every point on the curves of mixed growth and thus trace out a line of behavior that ends at the steady-state values K (shown in Figure A-3).
Figure A-2 The data of Figure A-1 are plotted to show the calculation of the coaction vector 'c'.
From Figure A-1 we see that, grown separately, caudatum (Y) attains the volume of individuals per cc 107. This is yo. Similarly, bursaria (X), attains the value xo = 85. As a result of the interaction when the two are grown together, the steady state that is reached shows the values yn = 90; xn = 22. These values are plotted in Figure A-2 in the usual way. They define two vectors ro and rn. The coaction vector is measured as c = (xn, yn) - (xo, yo), the Vector difference between ro and rn. The direction of this vector shows (as the numerical data showed) that mutual depression ( - , - ) has occurred. From the above data the components of c (a, b), may be calculated by the usual method to be a = - 63; b = - 17. By trigonometry,
c calculates to 65.3 units of magnitude (the squares dispose of the negative signs). The angle of c calculates, from the tangent and inspection of the direction, to be 1957' (which preserves the negative direction). This places the coaction vector in quadrant III, i.e., between 180 and 270. We must then assign to c the negative sign: - 65.3 units.
Coaction is always plotted relative to the (O ,O) reference circle. This is a circle with radius ro (Figure A-3). The value ro is thought of as a magnitude only. Moreover the symbols ( O ,O ) are related to the symbols ( + ) and ( - ), and are not numerical zeros.
Figure A-3 The RO circle [reference zero , or ( O , O )] of radius ro is shown together with a plot of the line of behavior of the system from (xo,yo) to (xn,yn) in the phase space of Quadrant III ( - , - ). The data are from Gause(1), Figure 10, p. 31. The wide fluctuations in the first few points are well within experimental error that goes with the presence of only a few organisms. The Axis of Atropy error is shown, -.-.-.
The Periodic Coordinate System is not Cartesian, though it does resemble the Cartesian in quadrant I. The axes are calibrated numerically from the origin outward. However, the X axis is interpreted to be directed from left to right; the Y from below to above. There are singularities in quadrants II and IV. These are two points which, with the origin define an axis, the Axis of Atropy, along which at any point the magnitudes of x and y are equal but their signs are opposite, so that the net coaction is zero (Figure A-3). Now, because of the defined directions of the X and Y axes, ro takes on the property that, on the net negative, or left-hand, part of the manifold it is directed toward the origin while in the other half it is directed away from the origin. This makes it so that if c is added to ro (which takes the same angle as c) the resultant vector R will fall within the ( O , O ) circle of radius ro when the coaction is net negative. It will extend outside of the ( O ,O ) circle when the coaction is net positive. As we said, coaction is always relative to the ( O ,O ) or RO circle. Thus all net positive coactions (a + b > O ) will lie outside of the R0 circle, and all net negative coactions (a + b < O ) will lie inside of the circle. Where a + b = 0, we have the intersection of R0 and the axis of atropy. This formulation causes the net plus and net minus phase spaces to stand out clearly and strikingly.
Figure A-4 Relative curves of coexistence of P. caudatum and P. aurelia. The solid line is from experiment; the dashed lines are from theory. P. aurelia eventually completely replaces P. caudatum under all conditions of relative abundance present at the start of the experiment. From Gause (1), Figure 4, p. 19.
As another experimental example we take the case where P. aurelia grown in the presence of P. caudatum is found to completely displace caudatum (Figure A-4). Grown separately aurelia (Y) attains a steady state of 105 volume units per 0.5 cc; caudatum (X) under the same conditions attains 64 volume units per 0.5 cc. Grown together, the steady state is reached with yn = 105; xn = 0. Then ro = 123; (a,b) = (- 64,0) and c is -64. R then is 59 at the angle 180.
We have gathered in Table A-I data from two experiments of Gause and from two of his theoretical calculations. Because we are dealing here with different organisms, the problem of how to calibrate the X and Y axes arises between experiments and within experiments (the problem is that of `utilities' in economics). We have arbitrarily "normalized" the data to the value ro = 100 for all the data, which is why these numbers are different from those quoted above which were taken directly from experiment. This may not be the best way to make comparisons, but it serves until a better is found. This new coordinate system cries for mathematical sophistication.
Table A-I Data from Gause (1,2) and calculated values of coaction
Figure c a b R Coaction
A-6 +39.2 27 28.5 4615' 139 ( + ,+ )
A-5 - 31.0 29.6    9.85 16135' 69 ( - ,+ )
A-4 - 52 - 52    0 180 48 ( - ,O )
A-3 - 48 - 12.4 - 46 1957' 52 ( - ,- )
Note. The data have all been calculated for ro = 100 units (volume of organism per cc). c represents coaction; a and b are the ordered pair that describe the vector c; is the angle of this vector (tan = b/a) relative to the X axis; R is the resultant of the vector addition ro + c; the Coactions are those in Figure 2 of this chapter.
It should be noticed that the resultant vector R is not a coaction, but a convenient means for visualizing the interaction. The values of R from Table A-I are plotted in Figure A-5.
Figure A-5 Summary of data from Table A-I.
In summary, the coaction is calculated in a conventional way to give a coaction vector c with length |c| and direction F. The sign of the value of c as determined from the relation c is ( + ) when (a + b) (the ordered pair that describes c is (a,b)] is larger than zero; minus when smaller, and zero when a and b are equal in magnitude and opposite in sign. For a perfectly symmetrical figure, c is (+) over the range of angles from = 0 to 135 and from 315 to 0; c is ( - ) from 135 to 315. At angles of 135 and 315, |c| = R.
Figure A-6 This is the lower part of Figure 4 from Gause & Witt8, p. 604. The coaction is mis-named commensalism by these authors. The distance from the origin Z is our ro; that to the focus of the curves at the steady state, is our ro. This figure is drawn according to the theory and does not describe an experiment.
Figure A-7 This is the upper part of Figure 4, Gause & Witt8, p. 604, see Figure A-6 for definition of terms.

NOTES
1. Editor's Note. The first quadrant is Cartesian, but the other three are not: Two of the axes are directed inward. A method of calculation is shown in the Addendum to this chapter.
2. Editor's Note. Also called the Circle of Atropy, relative to which entropy and its opposite, ectropy, can be represented and measured, as discussed below.
3. Editor's Note. The limits of the Periodic coordinate system are thus obviously the point of maximum entropy A and the region of maximum ectropy .
4. Editor's Note. This Period-Stratum relation has no fundamental exception throughout unified science Its analogous Sub-stratum-Stratum relation has an exception: its second Stratum has 3 Sub-strata (instead of 2), the third Stratum has 5 (instead of 3), the fourth has 7 (instead of 4), etc. In the atomic case, not one but two Sub-strata characterize each additional Stratum.
5. Editor's Note. Also called Major Periods: just as Sub-strata build up into Strata, and Strata into Periods, so Periods build up into Major Strata (Natural Kingdoms), and these build up into Major Periods (Natural Empires). The Major Periodic Table is the natural classification of Unified Science. (Chapters IV and V.)
6. Editor's Note. The term ectropy was suggested for this process by Willard V. Quine in a discussion following this symposium. Its brevity and elegance have led to its adoption throughout this book. The term atropy was coined by Haskell a few days later. The relations of concepts entropy, atropy, ectropy are shown in the Periodic coordinate system above.
7. G. F. Gause, Verifications Exprimentales de la thorie mathmatique de la Lutte Pour Ia Vie. Hermann, Paris, 1935.
8. G. F. Gause & A. A. Witt, The Armrican Naturalist 69, 596 (1935).

Pages 3-19
Table of Contents Chapter II


Chapter II

Generalization of the Structure of
Mendeleev's Periodic Table
EDWARD HASKELL
l. THE STRUCTURE OF THE UNIVERSE
ACCORDING TO UNIFIED SCIENCE
The universe is a Systems-Hierarchy. It has evolved in a cumulative manner, each higher step in this hierarchy, after the first, consisting of lower step components plus a new entity which has emerged out of the hierarchy, mutually modified.l,2 The world is therefore at the same time "richly strange and deeply simple."
The objects represented by each of this dis-assembled cup's rings appear and are, of course, extremely different; yet they display a single background plan, the same when viewed from the "side" (side elevation) and from "above" (ground plan).
General (Abstract) System-hierarchy
The template for the assembly of
empirical systems.
"A System-hierarchy is a hierarchy such,
that each member of the hierarchy (except the first) consists of previous members of the hierarchy plus a new entity which the hierarchy has created, mutually modified."
Cassidy, Quine, Haskell, 1964.
FIGURE II-1 (a)
When you observe the cumulative edifice from below you are amazed to see that the structure of all the higher rings is potential and implicit in the forms and laws of the lower ones. And conversely, when you observe the universe from its highest rings you see that they collapse into huge numbers of their lower ring components. Theologians observing this, insist that the universe is teleological; that the lower kingdoms were designed to fulfil the goal of evolving ' into the higher kingdoms. In doing so, they arouse unending controversy with, or cold estrangement from, most one-field scientists. Assembly of the sciences, however, permits us to see that the universe is teleomorphic and teleonomic3; to see that the forms and laws of the lower kingdoms are such as to result in the higher kingdoms. This insight transforms the controversy and estrangement into a neutral state, where our scientific cultures' statement does not contradict the statement of our humanistic culture. The only alternative to the humanists' hypothesis of Mind is the one-field scientists' equally improbable hypothesis of Chance. (It scarcely needs to be said that from the viewpoint of the theory of probability, the latter is all but self contradictory in the immensity of its improbability.) The basis for discussion is thus streng thened, and will be expanded systematically in the following pages, as synthesis assembles the sciences into a single discipline.
FIGURE II-1 (b) The Cup of Life.49
Consider the deep simplicity of Unified Science: the "steps" of its great natural hierarchy fit together like the broad rings of the collapsible aluminium drinking cup, shown dis-assembled in this r figure. Each broad ring represents a natural kingdom or Major Stratum. Large portions of the bottom ring, stable particles, nest into the second ring, atoms, as shown by means of the nested braces at the left of the drawing. (Stable particles--plus neutrons which are composed of stable particles--combine to form atoms.) Large portions of these two rings nest into the third ring, molecules. (Atoms combine to form molecules.) Large portions of these three nest into the fourth ring called geoid systems. (Particles, atoms, and molecules combine to form the lowest geoid systems, gas-dust clouds, and these form all the higher ones--stars, planets, moons and so forth.) And so on up to the highest known natural kingdom, human cultures.
The hierarchy of ecosystems extends, at the left of the drawing, from Alpha to Omega , the beginning and the end--of organization. Not just the end of complexity, but of what, Warren Weaver calls organized complexity.4,5
In the vicinity of , we represent the basic natural kingdom, that of atomic particles; the entities which, many cosmologists think, comprise the cores of quasi-stellar objects, usually called quasars.6 The quasar, the nucleus of an emergent galaxy, is the habitat of atomic particles, where habitat is defined as All things that an entity affects, and which affect it.7 This nucleus is the first ring in the Grand System-hierarchy.
FIGURE II-2 The Genesis of the Atom Population. Reference to cosmic genotypes and the Mendelian population of atoms (cosmic phenotypes) refers to the discovery of Mendelian ratios in the atom population, and of the mechanism which probably produces them. The Chi Square test yields just under 98% significance probability28. See fold-out chart, top of the middle column. Data from Greenstein & Schmidt8.
Out of the quasar expand its hollow spherical shells. In the first shell some atomic particles (protons and electrons) combine to form the simplest, smallest atoms; representatives of the second natural kingdom, namely atoms of hydrogen and helium, with a single electron shell. As the first quasar shell expands, some of the small atoms build up into larger atoms, with two and three nuclear and , electron-shells, while a small new quasar shell emerges inside the first. And as the large first quasar shell grows still larger, still larger atoms form, with four nuclear and electron-shells. Iron atoms have been observed in this quasar shell, indicating the existence of about a quarter of the population of chemical elements.8 The atoms, however, consist of particles, and particles move into, out of, and among these atoms. At this period of its development, this quasar shell thus constitutes an ecosystem made up of two natural kingdoms: a lower kingdom of particles and a higher kingdom of atoms, always and necessarily integrated.
This System-hierarchic integration obliges us to recognize and coin a cumulative concept; one visually represented by the nest formed by the first two braces in our side elevation (Figure 1) and geometric ground plans (Figure 7). Namely, the concept, natural empire or Major Period. A Major Period is a cumulation of natural kingdoms or Major Strata.
As in human empires, so also in natural empires, the highest Stratum confers its name upon the empire as a whole. (For instance, the Roman Empire.) The kingdom of atoms being here the controlling Major Stratum, we call the second Major Period the empire of atoms.9
At some point in the outermost quasar shell's development--quite probably an early one--some atoms combine to form molecules, beginning the third natural kingdom and thereby, the third natural empire.
Atoms and molecules now draw together into clouds of gas, mist and dust. These are the simplest entities of the fourth natural kingdom, for which we propose the name geoid systems. These clouds draw together by gravitational attraction, forming the rest of this natural empire: stars of all magnitudes, solar systems, meteors, and so forth. Geoid systems thus comprise all celestial bodies except quasars, out of which they emerged.
FIGURE II-3 A spiral galaxy like our Milky Way.
I now suggest that as these celestial bodies form, they pull the outer quasar shell apart along half of its equator, shrinking the great sheet of stars into the curving equatorial arm of a lens-shaped spiral galaxy; a galaxy like our Milky Way in whose oldest and outermost arm our Solar System is located.
Our Solar System's habitat is our galaxy; and our galaxy's habitat is the millions of other galaxies, jointly called the Universe. That may be the ultimate ecosystem, the vastest space-time system known and knowable to Man; the physical pedestal from and within which, two or three billion years ago, emerged the biosphere.l0 The fourth Major Stratum, that of geoid systems, controls the fourth Major Period represented in Figure 1 by the first four nested braces.ll
The fifth Major Stratum emerges at a particular state in the development of a particular kind of planet in a particular kind of solar system by a richly strange process called biopoesis.l2 This process, which probably is itself Periodicl3, culminates in a tiny self-replicating sun-energy using structure called a bacterium or a one-cell plant: an entity so small that it is invisible to the naked eye. This is the emergence of the kingdom of plants, the fifth Major Stratum.
Self replication being, however, an exponentially cumulative process; and being augmented by positive, self-intensifying entity-habitat retroaction, this planet's kind of surface--solid, liquid and gaseous--is modified ever more rapidly. The natural kingdom of plants herewith presently becomes the controlling Major Stratum of the fifth Major Period, the natural empire of plant ecosystems.
Let me interpose this paragraph parenthetically: At this point, which is the emergence of life, and from here on, the discussion between theologians and scientists tends to heat up or to get broken off. As you will soon see, however, the first four (non-living, abiotic or azoic) natural kingdoms are just as richly strange as the three highest kingdoms, Man's included. What fouled up the communications and parted the ways of the West's Two Cultures was not the complexity of their subject matter, nor even the scientists' shift from the authority of sacred writings to the authority of empirical data. What fouled communications most was the scientists' long failure to assemble their findings. How can you compare a coherently working system, such as each of the Great Religions is to its professors, with what William McElroy, Chairman of the National Science Foundation, calls "the assemblage of institutional and disciplinary fragments it (science) is largely today?"14 However, when the sub-assemblies have been organized in a scientifically acceptable way, as I hope they are here, comparison with the theological systems becomes possible. That is why we find ourselves in an entirely new situation; one in which science comes full circle: becomes normative, and can be compared with theology; a situation in which the Two Cultures come together.
Resuming our discussion of the Systems-hierarchy: The sixth natural kingdom, that of animal ecosystems, emerged within the plant empire. But only the highest animals (which are, from the viewpoint of systems-theory, not apes but beavers) began to exert control over their ecosystems, and thus over a natural empire.
The minimal hypothesis necessary to explain the emergence of the simplest animal requires four simultaneous, coordinated changes, the kind of coincidence at which thermodynamics boggles: At some point, O. R. Anderson believes, a one-cell plant mutated part of its photosyn thesizing process into rudimentary vision.l5 (It had already mutated organs of auto-motion, possibly flagelli, like those of Euglena viridis.) It sharpened a taste organ into an organ of smell, permitting it to follow waterborn gradients of decaying particles to their plant sources. At the same time one of its absorbing organs adapted itself to ingest plant ma'terial. And the development of genetic or non-genetic organs for information storage and association permitted, besides location and choice of distant foods and congenial habitat conditions, avoidance of dangers. This was the emergence of the kingdom of animals and of the highest kind of organization, which Teilhard de Chardin has called the nosphere.16 This is the sixth Major Stratum, the highest one of Major Period 6. It emerged from the lowest Period in the Periodic Table of plant ecosystems, and only the highest animal Period in the Periodic Table of animal ecosystems, that of beaver and certain ants, achieved significant control or empire over plant ecosystems.
Beavers are true agriculturalists: Through their technology of pond and canal construction, they grow thousands of acres of plants, aquatic and terrestrial. (They regularly harvest floating algae, called pond scum.) Certain ants, on their part, are both agriculturalists and pastoralists. But they control small plants and animals by means of technogeny: elaborate genetically evolved and transmitted techniques, without which they could not live. Technology and technogeny are diverse methods by which animals achieve control over their habitats.
The seventh natural kingdom, that of human cultures, emerged from the next-to-the-highest animal ecosystem, that of the anthropoids. The first three human Periods--Lower Hunters; Higher Hunters and Lower Agriculturalists; Middle Agriculturalists and Lower Pastoralists17,18 did not equal the beavers, control-wise. But the Higher Agriculturalists--who developed irrigation, crop-rotation and fertilization--began to do so. And the Literates, Toynbee's great civilizations, far surpassed them.l9 Our Lower Industrial civilization comprizes the highest known Period of the highest known Major Stratum of the highest known Major Period of the Universe; namely, the natural empire of Man.--Einstein afflrmed that "God is a tendency in the universe."
Thus far however mankind, having developed vast technology but failed to achieve coordination of its understanding, is destroying its natural empire, which of course includes itself. Mankind is daily accelerating disintegration, the increase of entropy, the downward tendency toward Alpha, the collapse of the Cup of Life's highest ring into vast numbers of lower ring components, and of these components' arrangements into ever less organized states.
This is far easier to see than the opposite tendency, ectropy, for it not only happens faster but is immensely easier to produce: An animal can easily be killed, a forest fire made to wreck an ecosystem, H-bombs to destroy continents. All we have then is ashes and rocks; molecules, atoms, particles--only the Universe's lower staircases. "The highway to destruction is broad," say theologians, and they call this tendency God's Adversary, the Destroyer. Its theoretical limit we call Alpha . (See Figure l, the left-hand column.)
What needs to happen for any given natural empire to be transmuted into the next lower Major Period? Simply removal of its top Major Stratum. A glance at our side elevation, Figure 1, will show that if Mankind, Major Stratum 7, is removed, we have the natural empire of animals, Major Period 6. If Major Stratum 6 is removed, we have some fragments of the natural empire of plants, Major Period 5. And so on down to Major Period 00 which is the Void.
FIGURE II-4 Organization-Time Graph of the System-Hierarchy: Natural Kingdoms combined into Natural Empires.
How devolution and evolution come about, the qualitative or moral relations which produce them, whatever the natural empire, will be described two sections later on.--Summed up in a simple graph, the quantitative aspect of the Systems-Hierarchy appears as follows:
The principle of cumulative emergence, and of the cumulative-systemic thinking required to represent it and control it, permits us both to keep our lower mental systems and to generate higher ones: The first natural kingdom that emerges, particles, persists as entity to the present time; much of it does. A part of it, however, is organized into the next higher kingdom, atoms; a part of them both into the third; a part of all three into the fourth, and so on to the seventh, human cultures. Thus, while higher and higher natural empires emerge out of the lower, examples of the lower ones none the less persist. Thus does the span of the Systems-Hierarchy increase toward . And by the reverse process, that of removing any given natural empire's top Stratum, the span of the Systems-Hierarchy decreases toward .--There is a visible correspondence between the structure of this natural hierarchy and one in human thought: the Natural number system, especially as expressed in Roman numerals: I, II, III; X, XX, XXX, etc.
2. THE PERIODIC TABLE OF CHEMICAL ELEMENTS
AND ITS UNDERLYING QUANTITATIVE PRINCIPLES
It follows logically from our definition of the System hierarchy that examination of any of the natural kingdoms or Major Strata should show the general structure which all of the natural kingdoms are postulated to have in common; and that all Periodic Tables should be equally good demonstration models. (This will some day, I believe, prove to be factually true.) Today, however, at this particular point in the history of science, there is one Major Stratum, that of atoms, whose Periodic Table has been worked out and verified incomparably further and better than any other. This Periodic Table, therefore, is the classification whose structure has been generalized.--First, let us consider this model in its traditional form; the form based on empirical data; then in its geometric form obtained by generalizing its structure Systems-Theoretically: the Periodic Coordinate System.
The Periodic Chart of the Chemical Elements appears on the walls of chemistry labs and class rooms around the world; and it appears in several forms. Whatever its form, it has developed from a brilliant arrangement of data about the chemical elements which early l9th century chemists and physicists had accumulated. This classification was announced in 1869 by the Russian chemist Dimitri Ivanovich Mendeleev.20 Its structure has been verified, extended and improved ever since, and currently displays the form given it by Glenn T. Seaborg, Chairman-emeritus of the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission.21 For purposes of exposition, however, I have simplified its representation i~to s form elosex' to the one originally proposed by Mendeleev.22
All of the hundred-odd sets of atoms called chemical elements fall empirically into nine Groups; the nine patterns into which the major properties of the chemical elements resolve themselves. The Groups appear as the vertical columns numbered from I to VIII, plus the right-hand column which may conveniently be called Group O. And, since there are over a hundred of these sets, these patterns are repeated Periodically. These Periods form the table's horizontal rows.
Mendeleev did not try to explain theoretically why there are nine Groups. (As a matter of fact, when he first announced his Periodic Table, it had just eight: the Group O elements, the inert gases, were all discovered later.) The reason why there are nine Groups appears to be systems-theoretic in nature. It holds good for all the Periodic Tables to which the structure of Mendeleev's table has been generalized, and is one of the principal hypotheses upon which this assembly of the sciences is based.
FIGURE II-5a The Kingdom of Atoms: Major Stratum 2. The empirical classification from which the Periodic coordinate system was derived.
FIGURE II-5b The Periodic Table of Chemical Elements mapped into the Periodic Coordinate system. Simplified: coaction cardioids omitted. (Shown in Figure 11.)
The systems-theoretic reason why there are nine Groups is as follows: Natural systems are basically made up of two coacting components, shown in the general or abstract concepts diagrammed in the central part of Figure 1a. The habitat or work component--which cyberneticians often call collectively the factors23--and its usually much smaller entity, which they call the controller. (In atoms, the controller is the small, massive nucleus; the work component is the large electron cloud.) Those properties of the system that fall into the Groups, manifest the theoretically and empirically possible sets of coactions between the work component (habitat) and the controller (entity).
The relations between these two basic systems components are fundamentally action (or causation) and retroaction which, when it activates the controller, is called feedback, shown as a leftward arrow in Figure 1a. These cybernetic relations are jointly called coactions,24 and are obtained by considering the totality of rate-changes which each coactor can induce in the other. Not only do + and - represent rate changes (acceleration and deceleration, respectively) but 0 too is regarded as a rate-change; namely, as 0 rate-change. The theoretical and empirical totality of coaction is then obtained by cross-tabulating +,0 and - for work-component and controller, as in Figure II-6, top.
3. THE PERIODIC COORDINATE SYSTEM
This cross-table Gestalt changes almost at once into the conventional pattern that every school child learns, the plane Cartesian coordinate system shown in the center of Figure 6. It changes into a Cartesian coordinate system on whose X axis Unified Science maps the system's work component, and on whose Y axis, the controller.
FIGURE II-6a The Coaction Cross-table.
FIGURE II-6b Newton's Cartesian Coordinate System: Zero, positive, and negative numbers. (Aberration from Descartes' system.)
FIGURE II-6c Descartes' Coordinate System: Zero and positive numbers only. Completion of this coordinate system yields the Periodic coordinate system, Figures 7, 8, 9, 10.
The Cartesian coordinate system, however, has just one point at which coaction is ( 0, 0 ), its center or origin. It follows that the rate-changes of only one kind of system at a time can be mapped into it. This means that it cannot be the framework into which the sciences are to be assembled. To unify the sciences--to map the Periodic Table of chemical elements geometrically, as in the lower part of Figure 5, and all the other Periodic tables representing the empirical Systems-hierarchy from to into a single coordinate system (below)--a drastically new coordinate system had to be invented, and a suitable method of calculation worked out for it.
To show how it came about--and how it involves a change from the traditional, mutually exclusive categories to inclusive, nested categories--this invention will be considered in the context of the history of the coordinate system:
The first quadrant of the traditional (Cartesian) coordinate system (Figure 6, center) was the first to be invented, and remains firmly in place in the Periodic coordinate system. (It was invented in Ancient Egypt and reinvented in ancient Greece.) Why only quadrant 1? Because these civilizations had only the Natural number system, which at that time started with the number 1 and has just positive integers.
This one-quadrant coordinate system was lost during Egypt's dark ages, was reinvented in Greece, and lost again in the dark ages resulting from the disintegration of the Graeco-Roman civilization. Some time after the rise of Western Christendom it was reinvented independently by Descartes and Laplace in a more advanced form, one which includes zero, as shown in the bottom part of Figure 6.
It was not a complete concept. However, two of Descartes' famous dreams of the night of March 19, 1619 in Nuremberg indicate that its completion would have to result, not in the Cartesian, but in the Periodic coordinate system: Descartes' principal dream was as follows: "I saw physics reduced to geometry and all the sciences extending out of it as a great chain".25,26 This chain seems to appear in Figure II-lb as the interlocked braces whose first four links represent the physical sciences, and out of which extend three more links representing the biological and social sciences. (These linked braces reappear much more graphically, however, in Descartes' quadrant of the Periodic coordinate system shown in Chapter V.)
The other of Descartes' obviously relevant dreams was simply "Est et non" ("Is and not"). This can be interpreted as positive numbers (est) and zero (non), and thus as implying exclusion of negative numbers. This exclusion is not trivial: it is essential to the realization of Descartes' first dream, the great chain of geometrized sciences.
To achieve this ancient objective, it is obviously necessary to start the coordinate system with the symbol which represents the very bottom of the Systems hierarchy. This symbol is Alpha which represents the point of maximum disorganization or entropy. It; lies at the origin, the center, of the Periodic coordinate system, Figure II-7.
FIGURE II-7 Periodic Coordinate System: zero and positive numbers. The Major Strata are shown, each representing a Periodic Table. Matter and Mind.
This part of unified science's coordinate system may be regarded as the plan view of the "Cup of Life," whose side elevation appears in Figure lb: the seven Major Periods are here shown in their nested position, viewed from "above."
Let us pass lightly, for the moment, over the half circle near representing half of the kingdom of stable particles. (The other half, representing the stable anti-particles, is shown in the Inverted Periodic coordinate system, near the center of Figure II-8.)
We thus come to the second Major Stratum, the kingdom of atoms, represented by what will be called a Major scalar-zero circle. This circle represents the whole geometrized Periodic Table of chemical elements shown in Figure II-5. Each of the other five nested scalar-zero circles in Figure 7 similarly represents an entire geornetrized Periodic table, though they cannot be shown in this short book.27 Each of the natural kingdoms or Major Strata is represented by a nested set of Periods, like the one representing Major Stratum 2, the kingdom of atoms (Figure 5.) Thus, each of the broad rings of the "Cup of Life," shown in Figure 1, turns out on closer inspection to be itself a "collapsible drinking cup." Whether Major Strata 3 and 4 (the kingdom of molecules and the kingdom of geoid systems) display Periods, and if so how many, remains to be determined. But the Kingdom of plants (Major Stratum 5) appears to have four Periods, the kingdom of animals appears to have five, and the kingdom of human cultures (which we will discuss in Chapter IV) seems to have six Periods, and to be in process of generating a seventh.28
The chain of interlocked braces in the Periodic coordinate system appears to be Descartes' "great chain of sciences." It is inherent in this model of unified science, and had been drawn some years before I read of Descartes' dreams. I am, however, most happy to acknowledge the priority of his two interdependent discoveries: limitation of the coordinate system to positive numbers and 0 (Est et non), and the nesting of seven Periodic coordinate systems which this makes possible, and is represented by his "great chain of sciences."29 (To interpret Descartes' l7th century dreams in this meaningful way it was, I think, necessary to have executed them previously in 20th century detail.)
This new detail, moreover, prevents us from omitting the breakdowns of higher systems into their lower system components. Since evolutions of higher systems are here represented as extending outward from along the X and Y axes, their breakdowns or devolutions have to be represented as progressing inward toward , and to be mapped along the inward-directed X and Y axes. (See Figure 7.) This mapping does not, however, imply the use of negative numbers. What it implies is subtraction from the upper limit of this coordinate system: from its largest zero circle, with radius Omega, (Est), toward its lower limit (Non). (Also subtraction within each Period, from its ( 0, 0 ) circle, as will be shown.)
Mathematicians, of course, see instantly that the method of calculation appropriate to the Cartesian coordinate system does not suffice for the Periodic coordinate system. The methods appropriate to the latter include the former, but go beyond it.--One method, developed by Harold G. Cassidy, is set forth in the Addendum to his Chapter I. Another method, which is still incomplete, was developed by Gause and Witt, following Volterra, Lotka and others.30,31 At the suggestion of G. Evelyn Hutchinson, I generalized this construct in 1947, thereby obtaining the Periodic coordinate system. However, while their equation works in quadrants 1 and 3, Cassidy and I have not succeeded in adapting it to quadrants 2 and 4. Through their method is promising, it is therefore here omitted.--Interested mathematicians are invited to take up this calculation tool and make it useable throughout the Periodic coordinate system. It can almost certainly be done.
FIGURE II-8 Inverted Periodic Coordinate System: zero and negative numbera. Anti-matter only; Major Strata.
Turning now to the part of Unified Science's Coordinate system which hardly anyone but particle physicists and habitually think about, it scarcely needs to be pointed out that for the representation of the probably immense regions of the universe inhabited by anti-matter, exclusive use of zero and negative numbers isjust as essential as exclusive use ofzero and positive numbers is for the representation of our familiar world of matter. There are socalled "black holes" in the sky: great celestial bodies through which matter apparently converts itself into anti-matter,32 presumably generating an Anti-System-hierarchy from to Anti . The Inverted Periodic coordinate system, into which anti-atoms and the rest of the Anti-System-hierarchy can be mapped, appears in Figure II-8.
Some effects of the anti-particles have been observed. What they imply has, theoretically, to be extrapolated into the construct of an anti-universe, as represented in this figure. Our understanding of the nature of anti-matter implies, however, that partially material beings such as we are cannot verify this figure's hypothesis empirically: To do so would annihilate our material parts. For this very reason however, it is important to consider the probably immense antiuniverse scientifically. And the Inverted Periodic coordinate system constitutes, it is hoped, a contri bution to this study.
FIGURE II-9 Alpha Coordinate System: zero, positive, and negative numbers. (Inverted Cartesian Coordinate System, Figure 6b). Stable Particles.
In any case, it is essential to unification of the sciences. For the first natural kingdom of the anti-universe, the stable anti-particles, constitutes just under half of the single Period which comprises the Periodic Table of stable particles, Figure 9. This is the Major Period which the universe and the anti-universe have in common; and its representation is the bridge linking the Periodic and the Inverted Periodic coordinate systems to each other.
The Alpha coordinate system's structure is, on one hand, implicit in the structures of the two Major Periodic Coordinate Systems; and on the other hand, determined by the data mapped into their lower parts. The transitional coordinate system consists of the other two coordinate systems' inward-directed axes. It is thus a combination (and repetition) of the end segments of these four axes, and turns out to be the Cartesian coordinate system with axes and coordinates reversed. For obvious reasons I have called it the Alpha coordinate system.
Mapped into it is the Periodic Table of stable particles: This is obtained first by repeating the half circles near the origins of the Periodic and Inverted Periodic Coordinate Systems and then by adding the photon which, being its own anti-particle, maps into its scalar zero circle. To correspond with reality, the Periodic Tables of all the material natural kingdoms beyond particles must be confined to zero and positive numbers; those of all anti-material higher kingdoms, to zero and negative numbers, as we have seen.

Relative Plus and Minus as well as Zero
There are different kinds of pluses and minuses: absolute ones, representing pro-matter and anti-matter which annihilate each other; and relative ones representing, say, proton ( + ) and electron ( - ), whose mutual attraction is essential to the formation of matter.gs It thus turns out that the symbols ( + ) and ( - ) have long represented quite different kinds of things, just as has ( 0 ).
Long ago Kelvin discovered a radically different kind of zero than Celsius' relative zero, the freezing point of water at sea level; namely cessation of translational movement, which is absolute. What we now find are fully as different kinds of + and -. The difference between protons +P and anti-protons -P, and between electrons -e and positrons +e is absolute: They literally nullify each other. But the difference between protons +P and electrons `-'e is relative: they combine to form atoms just as -P and `+'e probably combine to form anti-atoms. Only when these distinctions are mirrored in our notation is it possible to map the stable particles into a coordinate system. This mapping appears as shown in Figure II-9, where semi-quotes distinguish relative plus (`+') and relative minus (`-').
The four neutrinos fall on the four coordinate axes, each of whose coaction symbols contains a zero (Figure 6). Protons and antiprotons fall in quadrants 3 and 1, respectively. Their coaction symbols ( + , + ) and ( - , - ) nullify each other, producing ( 0 , 0 ) as the corresponding natural phenomena "annihilate" each other, producing photons ( 0 , 0 ).
Similarly, electrons (-e) and positrons (+e) fall into quadrants 2 and 4, respectively. Electrons are labeled `-'e because they and protons (+P) attract each other. They form atoms, systems higher in the hierarchy, which is the opposite of what positive and negative numbers do to each other.
It is thus clear that all minus quantities in the Periodic coordinate system (Figure 7) are relative: They represent subtraction from some relative-zero circle. It thus turns out that there need to be relative and absolute minuses and relative and absolute pluses just as there are relative and absolute zeros.
I present the Alpha Coordinate System in response to the following hope voiced by the nuclear physicist C. S. Wu: "Physicists," she wrote, "continue to study the smallest fragments of matter in the hope that careful analysis will fit quantitatively with a simple mathematical pattern that is yet to be found."34 The stable particles constitute but a small part of the kingdom of particles. Their mapping into the Alpha Coordinate System may, none the less, prove to be a step in the direction called for by Dr. Wu.
These three frames of reference-the Periodic, the Alpha, and the Inverted Periodic coordinate systems-comprise a single, logically consistent system whose components scientists can handle individually. Mathematicians can, however, visualize them as a single hyper-spatial coordinate system.35 In either case the coordinate system of unified science by-passes (or, rather, incorporates) the four-quadrant construct shown in the center of Figure 6, the Cartesian coordinate system.
This most used of all coordinate systems, was designed by Isaac Newton some decades after Descartes' famous dreams. It incorporates Descartes' one-quadrant coordinate system (bottom of Figure 6). But, by violating Descartes' dream Est et non (through inclusion of negative numbers), it precludes the realization of Descartes' dream of geometric unification of the sciences. This is the fateful rock which shattered the stream of science's development into a fan of separate disciplines, and thereby shattered the mind of Western civilization into two mutually paralyzing parts, which C. P. Snow has aptly called the Two Cultures. On one hand the great historic culture of the humanists; on the other hand the fatefully discoordinated culture of one-field scientists and technologists; and between them the confused gulf of mutual dislike and non-understanding.36
How have we by-passed the Cartesian rock of cultural division? By making it the keystone of the unified culture which Snow predicted would presently emerge in the United States. We have inverted the Cartesian coordinate system and placed its origin or center in a position corresponding to the one displayed by Nature: the mysterious solitary point located between the objective universe of pro-matter, to which we equate the subjective universe of absolute positive numbers; and the universe of anti-matter to which we equate the mental universe of absolute negative numbers.
Instead of many separate Cartesian coordinate systems, each centered on a relative-zero point which bears no relation to the other systems' origins, we now array the series of concentric, hierarchically related scalar-zero circles. The function of the Cartesian system's absolutely negative numbers which we have assigned to anti-matter is now fulfilled by the subtraction of positive numbers from these scalar-zero circles in the direction of .

Conclusion
There is a series of discontinuities which mark the boundaries of what Quine calls natural kinds.38 The greatest of these is the boundary between pro-matter and anti-matter, which I propose to call . The next most important boundaries separate the natural kingdoms or Major Strata, represented by the concentric circles in Figures 7 and 8. The third most important natural kinds are those of the Periods within each Major Stratum represented, for instance, by the circles in the lower part of Figure 5 (kingdom of atoms), but implicit in each of the other Major Strata as well. The third and fourth most important natural kinds are Strata (e.g. electron shells and nuclear shells) and Sub-strata (e.g. their orbitals). These too are implicit in the Periods of all the other Major Strata.
Relative ( + ) and relative ( - ) thus play just as important roles in unified science as does relative ( 0 ), which reappears in each Period and Major Stratum.
The formal quantitative aspect of unified science is summed up by putting together the three parts of unified science's coordinate system. There is a series of discontinuities which mark the boundaries of what Quine calls natural kinds.38 The greatest of these is the boundary between pro-matter and anti-matter, which I propose to call . The next most important boundaries separate the natural kingdoms or Major Strata, represented by the concentric circles in Figures 7 and 8. The third most important natural kinds are those of the Periods within each Major Stratum represented, for instance, by the circles in the lower part of Figure 5 (kingdom of atoms), but implicit in each of the other Major Strata as well. The third and fourth most important natural kinds are Strata (e.g. electron shells and nuclear shells) and Sub-strata (e.g. their orbitals). These too are implicit in the Periods of all the other Major Strata.
Relative ( + ) and relative ( - ) thus play just as important roles in unified science as does relative ( 0 ), which reappears in each Period and Major Stratum.
The formal quantitative aspect of unified science is summed up by putting together the three parts of unified science's coordinate system.
FIGURE II-10 The Coordinate System of Unified Science: Quantitative Aspect.
Data which would heretofore have required an indefinite number of arbitrarily arrayed Cartesian coordinate systems are hereby assembled into a single hyper-spatial construct whose center turns out to be a Cartesian plane coordinate system in reverse: the Alpha coordinate system. This rock of fateful division, by-passed in its original form, thus turns up inverted and renamed at the center of the mental organization which Leibniz predicted under the name of Universal Characteristic.37 This is the absolute point at which Relativity--both physical and ontological--begins, and from which they derive coherent existence and meaning in the mind of Man.
We turn now to the Universe's qualitative principles.
4. QUALITATIVE ASPECTS OF UNIFIED SCIENCE
One of the surprising ways in which this assembly of special sciences, this whole, exceeds the sum of its parts is the emergence within it of the Moral Law. Gottfried von Leibniz foresaw this clearly in the seventeenth century, as will be shown. And Werner Heisenberg has restated it for the twentieth century in Physics and Beyond as follows: "The problem of values ... concerns the compass by which we must steer our ship if we are to set a true course through life. The compass itself has been given different names by various religions and philosophies: happiness, the will of God, the meaning of life--to mention just a few ... I have the clear impression that all such formulations try to express man's relations to the central order. Of course we all know that our own reality depends on the structure of our consciousness; we can objectify no more than a small part of our world. But even. when we try to probe into the subjective realm we cannot ignore the central order or look upon the forms peopling this realm as mere phantoms or accidents. ... In the final analysis, the central order, or the `one' as it used to be called and with which we commune in the language of religion, must win out. And when people search for values, they are probably searching for the kind of actions that are in harmony with the central order, and as such are free of the confusion springing from divided, partial orders. The power of the `one' may be gathered from the very fact that we think of the orderly as the good, and of the confused and chaotic as the bad."39
When the Periodic coordinate system first appeared (in 1940), I called it The Coaction Compass.40 Soon after that an article appeared in the Scientific Monthly entitled "The Religious Force of Unified Science."41 To whatever extent Unified Science is an assembly of the whole, it represents, of course, the "one"; to whatever extent this assembly meets the scientific tests of correctness, its structure must correspond to the central order; and to whatever degree this happens, it represents the Moral Law.
This conclusion is implicit in the Systems Hierarchy depicted in Figure 1, the "Cup of Life": The apex of this hierarchy, the human mind, Heisenberg's "subjective realm", consists of representations of the previous systems, plus something more which has emerged from this hierarchy (namely, Man's mind), mutually modified.42
Unification of the sciences in any human mind implies this mind's assumption of the order central to the universe. For to the extent that in this mind, accurate representations of the universe's parts (one-field sciences) are so related to each other as to yield verifiable predictions, it probably is correct. To the extent that it is correct it probably results in "the kind of actions that are in harmony with the central order ..." And that is the Moral Law.
"We think of the orderly as the good," Heisenberg says, "and of the confused and chaotic as the bad." In less traditional terms, the increase of disorder is called increase of entropy and the increase of order is called increase of ectropy:43 In 1947 Warren Weaver pointed out that the sciences should be arrayed relative to these two universal tendencies.44 This has accordingly been done: the point of maximum entropy constitutes one limit of our organizing framework; the point of maximum ectropy its other limit. The whole quantitative aspect of the universe's moral manifestation, from Omega through Alpha to Anti-Omega, is shown in Figure 10. That is to say the range of one aspect of the Moral Law; its quantitative range.
These theoretical limits of entropy and ectropy constitute boundaries for mental organization, over-all. Each increase or decrease, however, implies a zero point, relative to which it has been recognized and then perhaps estimated or measured. Unorganized science permits these zero points to be arranged in ad hoc, hap-hazard, random fashion, as they long have been. Organization of the sciences, on the other hand, requires a rational, empirically based arrangement of zero points or lines, centered at the center of existence , and extending to its upper limit .
Since the universe's major moral tendencies are called entropy and ectropy, I propose for their zero or reference-tendency, the term atropy; and, as its geometric representation, a circle.
This theoretical concept may suggest what to look for empirically. What would atropic systems be? Would they not be inert systems; systems which neither combine with others ectropically, nor disintegrate other systems entropically? In the kingdom of atoms there is a complete Group of such systems: the inert or noble gases. They constitute Group 0 of the Periodic table of chemical elements, Figure 5.
How could they be represented geometrically? The limit of entropy is the point Alpha, the point where the regress of coordinate systems stops. A point may be regarded geometrically as a circle with zero diameter. Increases of ectropy may therefore be represented by concentric relative-zero circles with ever larger diameters, as shown in Figure 7; and increases of anti-ectropy may be shown in the same way, Figure 8. Organized representation of the Major Strata can thus occur in terms of concentric circles of atropy.
In geometrizing the Periodic Table of chemical elements (Figure 5, b), we begin by relating each Period to a zero circle, defined by an inert element, classed in Group 0; an element whose characteristic coaction is atropy ( 0 , 0 ).
FIGURE II-11 One Period of the Periodic Coordinate System showing the circle of atropy and the coaction cardioid. Radius angles are measured counterclockwise from the X axis. They are called theta angles, and their symbol is . Hence the generalized Periodic Law reads, R = f ( ). Its graphic representation is the coaction cardioid. The Groups of the Periodic Table of chemical elements, should be mapped on cardioids.
Let us assemble the three major manifestations of the Moral Law: the non-living or abiotic, the living or biotic, and the human or cultural, organizing our vast warehouse of what has been called, by William Eblen, the A B C interrelationships.45 The early formulations displayed various aspects of the Moral Law. They were statements about cultural relations, Major Stratum 7; and were, moreover, made thousands of years ago in the idioms of simpler cultures. "As ye sow, so shall ye reap."46 "Do unto others as you would that they did unto you."47 It is therefore natural that to this day discussions of values are made almost exclusively in terms confined to Man; and that, even by physicists. "The problem of values ..." says Werner Heisenberg, "concerns the compass by which we must steer our ship if we are to set a true eourse through life." And that includes the whole Systems-hierarchy.
Unified Science agrees unequivocally that values constitute the most determining human relations. But it goes further: it points out than Man belongs to the category of Culture, the highest member of the Systems-hierarchy, and that by definition these self same values must occur in various forms on its lower levels. Values must have been, and must still be displayed by biotic systems (by animal and plant ecosystems); and by abiotic systems: (geoid, molecule, and atomic systems). In fact, they must be displayed even by particles: Teleonomy, it was pointed out above, appears on every level of the Systems-hierarchy. It follows, of course, that we have been seeing the Moral Law at work on each of these levels all our lives without recognizing it, as people had seen falling apples and other objects all their lives without recognizing that they display the law of gravity. When each of these laws is pointed out, stated verbally, and formulated mathematically, so that it can be clearly verified or disproved, the gate is opened to our Two Cultures' complete, organic union.
The first formulation of the complete Moral Law for a non-human natural kingdom was Dimitri I. Mendeleev's 1869 announcement of the Periodic Law: "The properties of the chemical elements are functions of their atomic weights."20
This looks no more like a statement of the Moral Law of Man than a falling apple looks like an orbiting planet. Yet what it states for atoms is that "As ye sow, so shall ye reap," where "reaping" is the properties of the chemical elements and "sowing" is (as I will show) the coaction between the atom's work component, its vast, light electron cloud, and its controller, its tiny, massive nucleus. This "reaping" is the result of the doing of the one to the other, and the other's doing unto it.
Hindsight shows that atomic weight was the first manifestation of intra-atomic coaction discovered and measured by scientists. Its next manifestation was atomic number, the number of protons in the atom's nucleus. So the Periodic Law of atoms was improved to read "The properties of the chemical elements are functions of their atomic numbers." But with the (unconscious) discovery by T. H. Langlois48 that The properties of animal societies are functions of coactions between work component and controller (the 97% of small and medium fishes in the ponds, and the 3% of the largest fishes), the Periodic Law became a black box problem.49 As these two components of animal systems did unto one another, so they reaped:
Where the Majority and Minority cooperated ( + , + ), all their societies' properties were positive: the largest percentage of the populations survived, they grew the best, had the least sickness, and formed the most cohesive societies. Where the Majority and Minority persistantly damaged each other ( - , - ) all these properties were negative: the smallest percentage of the populations survived, they grew the least, had the most sickness, and had the most disintegrated societies.
Langlois, it is true, discovered only three or four of these coactions and their resulting property configurations in animal societies; and he did this empirically, as Mendeleev had done with atoms before him. But with the Periodic Law in existence; with the knowledge that in its atomic case there are nine Groups; and with Toynbee's clear demonstration in human civilizations that the corresponding properties of Man's societies are functions of the coactions between the Majority and the Minority, the black box problem of the explanation of the Periodic Law could be formulated, and a tenable solution be obtained: If the properties of systems in general--abiotic, biotic, and cultural--were functions of coaction between work component X and controller Y then their functions should be exactly nine Groups of properties (Figure 6); for instance, the nine Groups in the Periodic table of chemical elements, Figure 5.
The start of a tenable solution was obtained in 1940 by means of the crosstable shown in Figure 6, which yielded the requisite number and kinds of Groups. This tentative numerologicai approach to a solution was confirmed theoretically in 1948 by Norbert Wiener's "Cybernetics--Or Control and Communication in the Animal and The Machine."50 This, and the broader Systems-Theoretic works of von Bertalanffy51,52 and de Latil23 back up, and articulate Mendeleev's, Langlois' and Toynbee's a, b, c discoveries theoretically, showing them to be Systems-hierarchic manifestations of one universal law: "As ye sow"--as your work component and controller "do to one another"--"so shall ye reap"--such shall be your system's properties.53
Over a number of subsequent years the Periodic coordinate system was developed to express general, abstract relationships jointly displayed by these empirical a, b, c phenomena. And the empirical Periodic table of chemical elements (Figure II-5a) proved mappable into it (Figure II-5b).
When the Systems-hierarchy was defined by us (1964), it implied what actually is a very old idea: that any fundamental Law which obtains in one Major Stratum of the General Periodic Table obtains in all. That a single Law pervades the universe.
This concept is implicit in Leibniz's l7th century theory that it would one day be discovered that all sciences have a common structure. This prediction appears to be fulfilled by the Periodic coordinate system, whose recurrent structure is displayed (for the Abiotic Major Strata) in Figure 11.
The Periodic coordinate system is Cartesian with respect only to quadrant 1; and even there, just in respect to the circle of atropy. This circle's radius is determined by the intersection of perpendiculars erected in the cartesian manner at coordinates located on the X and Y axes. This circle-of reference represents the derivative of position (zero) which is the same in all quadrants, whether the axes are Cartesian or Periodic.54
This coordinate system is so constructed that all its higher derivatives--those of rate-change (of positive and negative acceleration) and thus the path of its radius vector--obey the General Periodic Law stated below. The path of the radius vector, therefore, turns out of the circle of atropy in the positive, Omega-ward part of the plane (in Greek, out-turning is ectropy); and it turns inside the circle of atropy in the negative, Alpha-ward part of the plane (in Greek, in-turning is entropy).
By letting the vector's scalar or length component (R) represent the system's properties, and letting the vector's directional component () represent the coactions of the system's work component X and controller Y, we obtain as the radius-vector's path, the coaction cardioid or heart-shaped curve in Figure 11. This is a geometric representation of the Periodic Law in its general or universal form: the form which applies to the kingdom of atoms, as Mendeleev's law does, and to all other natural kingdoms as well. The geometric, general form of the Periodic Law thus reads as follows:
R = f ()
The length of the radius vector (R) is a function of its direction (). This says in System-theoretic language that "The properties (R) of a system are functions of (are determined by) the coactions between its work component and controller ()," our empirically verifiable hypothesis.
Such is the general or abstract form of the Periodic or Moral Law. Let us now consider some of its concrete forms: abiotic, biotic, and cultural.
5. ABIOTIC COACTIONS
To map the chemical elements into this coordinate system (bottom part of Figure 5), we begin at the Axis of Atropy which bisects quadrant 2, and proceed counter-clockwise, representing the elements' increasing atomic numbers at 45 intervals.
The first Period has only two elements, hydrogen and helium. The second and third Periods begin on the Y axis and proceed around the coordinate system at 45 intervals, omitting Group VIII, but including Group 0.
It is important to understand why Period 1 consists just of Groups VII and 0, and can thus be regarded formally as beginning on the Y axis like the other Periods. (If one does not, this geometric mapping must seem arbitrary.) It happens to be a fact that two electrons (helium's number of electrons) complete the atom's smallest electron shell, the K shell. And it is shell-completion that makes atoms inert or atropic, the salient property of Group 0. It also happens that having one electron short of a completed electron shell (and hydrogen's one electron leaves it one short) makes atoms electro-negative, acidic, and extremely grabby, the salient properties of Group VII, the halogens.
Given these facts of nature, there is no other (physical) way for Period 1 to start. We are thus faced with two alternatives: Calling the halogens Group I, the inert elements Group II, and starting all Periods after the first with Group III; or doing what Mendeleev did intuitively: calling the first Group after the first Period Group I. I personally am glad that Mendeleev was obliged by the state of knowledge in his day to do the latter. Yet there is a dilemma, which some try to resolve in other ways.--Cassidy, for instance, places H in Group IV.33 It is dilemmas such as this that make the world so fascinatingly and richly strange.
Beginning with Period 4 (the Period which has four Strata, four electron shells--K, L, M and N), another strange thing happens: The new outer shell, (N) starts to fill up. The next ten electrons, however, go into the inner (M) shell, where three of them start Group VIII, with three sub-Groups, a, b, and c. (This is shown empirically in Figure 5 top, geometrically in 5 bottom, and in Figure 11.) Then it goes on around to germanium, whose electron goes into the outer (N) shell, and so on to the double Period's completion with krypton, Group 0.--(We will discuss the Triple Group (VIII) when we come to the top Major Period, human cultures, where it concerns us most directly. Figure II-16b).--All Periods which circle the coordinate system twice in completing a new electron shell are called double Periods. They contain all nine theoretically possible Groups. The rest have either eight Groups or (the first Period) just two. It takes a big system (one belonging to a high Period) to develop and be able to survive Group VIII, the ( - , - ) Group.55To map the chemical elements into this coordinate system (bottom part of Figure 5), we begin at the Axis of Atropy which bisects quadrant 2, and proceed counter-clockwise, representing the elements' increasing atomic numbers at 45 intervals.
The first Period has only two elements, hydrogen and helium. The second and third Periods begin on the Y axis and proceed around the coordinate system at 45 intervals, omitting Group VIII, but including Group 0.
It is important to understand why Period 1 consists just of Groups VII and 0, and can thus be regarded formally as beginning on the Y axis like the other Periods. (If one does not, this geometric mapping must seem arbitrary.) It happens to be a fact that two electrons (helium's number of electrons) complete the atom's smallest electron shell, the K shell. And it is shell-completion that makes atoms inert or atropic, the salient property of Group 0. It also happens that having one electron short of a completed electron shell (and hydrogen's one electron leaves it one short) makes atoms electro-negative, acidic, and extremely grabby, the salient properties of Group VII, the halogens.
Given these facts of nature, there is no other (physical) way for Period 1 to start. We are thus faced with two alternatives: Calling the halogens Group I, the inert elements Group II, and starting all Periods after the first with Group III; or doing what Mendeleev did intuitively: calling the first Group after the first Period Group I. I personally am glad that Mendeleev was obliged by the state of knowledge in his day to do the latter. Yet there is a dilemma, which some try to resolve in other ways.--Cassidy, for instance, places H in Group IV.33 It is dilemmas such as this that make the world so fascinatingly and richly strange.
Beginning with Period 4 (the Period which has four Strata, four electron shells--K, L, M and N), another strange thing happens: The new outer shell, (N) starts to fill up. The next ten electrons, however, go into the inner (M) shell, where three of them start Group VIII, with three sub-Groups, a, b, and c. (This is shown empirically in Figure 5 top, geometrically in 5 bottom, and in Figure 11.) Then it goes on around to germanium, whose electron goes into the outer (N) shell, and so on to the double Period's completion with krypton, Group 0.--(We will discuss the Triple Group (VIII) when we come to the top Major Period, human cultures, where it concerns us most directly. Figure II-16b).--All Periods which circle the coordinate system twice in completing a new electron shell are called double Periods. They contain all nine theoretically possible Groups. The rest have either eight Groups or (the first Period) just two. It takes a big system (one belonging to a high Period) to develop and be able to survive Group VIII, the ( - , - ) Group.55

Moral Tendencies Displayed by Atoms
The most cosmically important properties are those which, as Heisenberg points out, we regard as bad and good. Bad, he says, is the tendency to the confused and chaotic. Good is the tendency to increasing order or ectropy. Einstein probably referred to this when he said, "God is a tendency in the universe."
The chemical Group, relative to which these opposite tendencies can best be discerned, typically displays the (0,0) coaction and is aptly numbered Group 0: the relatively inert or "noble" gases. (I would prefer to drop the latter name since, in my view, Noblesse oblige.) When mapped into the Periodic coordinate system, they fall on the circles of atropy, the 0 circle in quadrant 3. (See Figure 11 and Figure 5b.)56
The most highly cooperative, creative, and thus ectropic elements typically display the ( + , + ) coaction. They are classed in Group IV, and are naturally mapped in the ( + , + ) quadrant; namely, in quadrant 1 where Omega is located.
Carbon is the first and most famous Group IV element. "Organic molecules," says Harold G. Cassidy, "are the class of molecules that contain at least one carbon atom. There are more than a million different members of this class." And he goes on to discuss the brilliant electron-structure that makes carbon the most ectropic element.33 Carbon atoms, Cassidy shows elsewhere, played and still play the key chemical role in biopoesis, the organization of life on our planet.28
The second Group IV element, silicon, plays the key role in the formation of life's habitat, the Earth. "Silicon plays an important part in the inorganic world, similar to that played by carbon in the organic world," says Linus Pauling. "Most of the rocks that constitute the earth's crust are composed of the silicate minerals of which silicon is the most important elementary constituent ... the framework minerals (hard minerals similar in their properties to quartz), the layer minerals (such as mica), and the fibrous minerals (such as asbestos)".57
And so forth through the existing Group IV elements and beyond them to the furthest ones envisaged for future creation or discovery. The "islands of stability," the theoretical regions in which the largest atoms are considered possible belong, Glenn Seaborg says, to Group IV.21
Turning to the chemically disintegrative, entropic elements, the most dramatic example is perhaps the halogens, Group VII, whose typical coaction is amensalism ( - , 0 ). These atoms, lacking one electron for completion of the outer shell or Stratum, attack many large molecules and destroy them in filling their need. "Fluorine ... is the most reactive of all the elements," says Linus Pauling. "Substances such as wood and rubber burst into flame when held in a stream of fluorine, and even asbestos ... reacts vigorously with it and becomes incandescent."57 The next element in Group VII, chlorine, was the first poison gas of World War I. And so forth.
Some chemists question the classification of hydrogen in Group VII because of its creative (rather than destructive) role in so many life processes. The explanation, however, involves us in an Irish bull: If straight hydrogen (H) occurred abundantly in nature, nobody would ask this question for there would be no chemists. One of the things that make them and other life forms possible is the order in which the elements and molecules were formed: H atoms were the first to be formed in the expanding quasar shells, Figure 2. Their great reactivity or grabbiness made them combine into the first molecules, H2. On one hand H2 molecules behave not like halogen atoms but like Group IV elements. And on the other hand, the lightness and smallness of H atoms permits larger atoms such as carbon to transform grabber into grabbed, thus (to anticipate) changing potential amensalism ( - , 0 ) into symbiosis ( + , + ), and potential entropy into ectropy. One function of unified science is to elucidate questions whose answers transcend the boundaries of one-field disciplines.
Space limitations permit us to discuss only one chemical Group displaying each of the primary moral tendencies: atropy, ectropy and entropy. The empirical reason why there are nine (and only nine) Groups has, to my knowledge, been discovered only implicitly, and thus unconsciously: It is implicit in Willard Gibbs' law that, given enough time and energy, a system will go through all of the states of which it is capable. In the expanding quasar shells there is enough time and energy for the whole atom population to ontogenate. (It did not evolve, as species do, but ontogenated as an individual organism does).28 Gibbs' law may thus be called the Law of Ectropy, the counterpart of the second law of thermodynamics.
An explanation of Periodicity (with a capital P) is implicit in the Law of Ectropy: since there are only nine coactions, not more than nine Groups can constitute a Period. If a system continues to grow, some or all of the same Groups have to recur in each higher Period; another Stratum is thereby added to the one or more Strata already in existence, displaying the same Groups.--Whenever, on the other hand, the top Stratum's last remaining Group's entities disintegrate, the system declines to a lower Period. Grouping, Stratification and Periodicity are thus interdependent. And that, from bottom to top of the System-hierarchy.
Because of their strong and justified reaction against anthropomorphism, physical scientists have been reluctant to discuss, let alone to name the coactions displayed in the abiotic kingdoms.58
A geometrically coded vocabulary has, however, been developed for biotic systems, as shown below in Figure 12. These coaction terms may be extended thence to abiotic systems by readers who see their way clear to doing so.
6. BIOTIC COACTIONS
Proceeding visually from the abiotic (the lifeless) systems up the Systems-hierarchy (Figures 1 and 7) to living ones, the coordinate system remains constant, while the terms mapped into it become first those of biology, and then those of political theory. Historically, however, the coactions were discovered in biotic systems (Langlois' societies of fishes mentioned above), completed theoretically as in Figure 6, and then extrapolated "downward" to abiotic, and "upward" to cultural systems. This seems to fulfill predictions made in various ways by philosophers of science such as Warren Weaver,4 and Suzanne Langer,59 that synthesis would probably start with biology somewhere near the center and extend thence in both directions.
What made these extensions possible is the apparently universal validity of the relation which Niels Bohr called the correspondence principle.59 He demonstrated wide and significant correspondences between the laws and relations which govern geoid systems (Major Period 4), stated in terms of classical or Newtonian physics, and those which govern particles and atoms (Major Periods 1 and 2), stated in the very different terms of atomic physics. Bohr was forced to adduce this principle by the insuperable difficulties presented by the disparities between the Newtonian theories for geoid systems and those of Planck, Einstein, Heisenberg, Schrodinger, Pauli, Fermi and others for particle and atom systems.--And the data, reality, permit it. Bohr was thereby foreshadowing the present scientific revolution: One paradigm of unified science is the assumption that correspondence is universal, that it extends through the entire System-hierarchy. This belongs to a system of paradigms which reverses previous assumptions. (See Chapter V.) Thus it is the hallmark of what Kuhn has defined as a scientific revolution.6l
Some major correspondences between the biotic and the atomic Groups have already been indicated. Biologists, however, have long had their own vocabulary, whose major terms are here mapped into the Periodic coordinate system.
FIGURE II-12 Biotic Coactions Mapped into the Periodic Coordinate System. Since no terms for ( - , 0 ), ( 0 , - ) and ( 0 , + ) exist in the literature, they had to be coined. They have since been discovered in nature: plant, animal, and human.
The coaction vocabulary contained in biological glossaries and dictionaries is rather indefinite, displays several kinds of signal fouling and, when mapped in this coordinate system, displays the absence of three Groups. Namely, amensalism ( - , 0 ), allopathy ( 0 , - ) and allotrophy ( 0 , + ).24 All three missing coactions have since been found in nature many times; and that, in all human Periods as well as in one plant Period and two animal Periods.
In order to present a biotic Periodic table, it is necessary, however, to show correspondence not only of the Groups, but also of Periods, Strata and Sub-Strata with those of lower Major Strata. Just as the atoms' Periods build up cumulatively, Stratum by Stratum, so also do those of the biotic and cultural Major Strata. Their relationship is diagrammed in Figure 13 by Harold G. Cassidy.
FIGURE II-13 The relationships of Sub-Strata to Strata, and of Strata to Periods in all Major Periods or Natural Empires. Abstracted by Harold G. Cassidy.
In all the natural kingdoms, the first Period has one Stratum; the second Period has two Strata; the third Period, three, and so forth. For all of them, the rule thus is that for each Period, the top Stratum's number is the number of the Period. The same holds true for the Sub-Strata: for every Stratum, the top Sub-Stratum's number is the number of the Stratum.

The Characteristic Numbers and their Assembly
into Maps of the Web of Life
When Mendeleev classified the chemical elements, their number was well under a hundred; and it is not much over 100 to this day.62 What we propose now is to classify hundreds of thousands of not just organisms, but of complex ecosystems; and to do so in a similar way.
How is this possible? It is possible if a method can be proposed, as will be done below, whereby scientists can team up to collect strategic data systematically and cumulatively, and feed them into modern computers. The computer can integrate these data periodically into a model of what ecologists call the web-of-life. It can simulate the operation of this web in such ways as to reveal the data's most strategic gaps and errors. Thereby it can direct the complex scientific effort in coherent, practically useful ways toward ever more accurate and complete models of the web of life on Earth.63
The object will, I hope, remain what it has been from the beginning of this undertaking: To help Man to gain, under God, control over his destiny. Toynbee has seen this sort of thing happen repeatedly, and calls it the Genesis of Civilization.
The first question which scientists will probably ask is this: What are the parameters, the variables, for this cumulative mapping of the web of life?
They are the variables which the Grand System-hierarchy's systems have in common; the ones in which, as Bohr would probably have put it, they correspond.60 There are at least five such parameters. And they yield, when put together, the strategic construct which Leibniz apparently had in mind when he said, "We can assign to every object its determined Characteristic Number".64
Physical scientists have long been writing parts of such numbers for atoms. It is natural therefore that it should be a chemist who proposed the pattern here adopted: Harold G. Cassidy. The preceding diagram by him displays most of the pattern: Sub-stratum, Stratum, Period.
To these three parameters we add Mendeleev's Groups; but, naturally, couched in their general, geometric notation. And thereto, finally, we add the number of the classificand's Major Stratum or Periodic table.
Assembly of these five parameters of any given natural system into a conventional pattern results in its "determined Characteristic Number." These characteristic numbers can then be assembled into working models of portions of the web-of-life; and these can in due course be assembled into a world-web model.
The web of Characteristic Numbers lies one level higher than the Periodic Tables within the Systems-hierarchy of meta-theories or, as Quine puts it, background theories: The web of characteristic numbers contains all of the Periodic tables, plus one or more additional entities which have emerged, mutually modified.
The two parameters classified in Mendeleev's table are Period and Group. In adding the other three parameters to his Periodic table--and to the other Periodic Tables constructed in its image--we develop his table and Periodic Law further, fulfilling the prediction he made in 1889 before ajoint meeting of the Royal Society and the Chemical Society: "It (the Periodic LawJ needs not only new applications but also improvements, further development, and plenty of fresh energy. All this will surely come ..."20,65
The general form proposed for all Characteristic Numbers is shown in Figure 14a; a concrete example of a web of Characteristic Numbers is then displayed in Figure 14b.
FIGURE II-14a The Characteristic Number, mapping any process (except molecules and geoid systems) into the Periodic coordinate system. Designed by H. G. Cassidy and E. F. Haskell. Term coined by Leibniz.64
FIGURE II-14b Sample of the Web of Life, mapped in terms of Characteristic Numbers and designed for eventual computer programming.
Practical implementation of Characteristic Numbers appears in the mapping of any portion of the web-of-life in any given spacetime region. These relations have not been mappable in the past because of the absence of a systematic meta-language. This meta-language has now been developed, as demonstrated in Figure 14b. By itself, however, it would be practically useless: The web's enormous complexity and rapid dynamism far exceed Man's mental capacity to grasp (diagnose), retain, and usefully modify it in real time. Modern computers, however, are capable of handling such problems. We need therefore have no anxiety as to the practical applicability of the web of characteristic numbers, no matter how complexly and rapidly it changes.--For modern Man, the impossible just takes a little longer. And this has been, and will be increasingly, an international modern undertaking.
Our little example maps a small part of a great world problem: the plant rusts.--These comprise some thousands of species of fungi, basidiomycetes, one or more of which live upon almost every species of seed plant, as well as some ferns. The rusts are probably, phylogenetically speaking, mosses which have degenerated through parasitisation of higher plants. Wherever they become dominant in a high (fourth Period) plant ecosystem, they destroy the highest plant Stratum (seed plants) and break the ecosystem down to plant Period 3; and when they become dominant in Period 3 ecosystems (whose highest Stratum is occupied by ferns), they break them down to plant Period 2, whose highest Stratum, 2, is mosses, the parasites' own highest ancestors. In whatever natural empire a lower Stratum destroys the controller and takes its place, this kind of breakdown follows cybernetically.
Our example is deliberately confined to a plant-animal ecosystem, Major Stratum 5. We are thus dealing with wild wheat. (Man, if he were included, would belong to the pre-agricultural human Period, 1.) In following this presentation, the reader is invited to refer to the framework of the animal Periodic table, Figure II-15; and to Figure I-6, diagramming plant Periods and Strata.
In the coaction-web drawn in Figure 14b, the coactions of four organisms are related to each other qualitatively as they occur at a given point in space-time. The coaction symbols + , 0 and - indicate positive, zero, and negative relationships. Numerical values can be ascertained and assigned to these symbols,28 but are here omitted both because they have not yet been ascertained, and for the sake of initial simplicity.
The fungus' Characteristic Number is linked to that of its host, the wild wheat plant, by the symbol for parasitism ( + , - ) in Figure 12. This fungus belongs to the plant kingdom (5 at the center of its Characteristic Number); is situated in a seed-plant ecosystem (plant Period 4, written at the bottom); belongs to Stratum 2 of that Period (written at the top); and is in its second ontogenetic stage (Sub-stratum 2, written at the left).
Its host is a plant (5 in the center), belongs to the top plant Period (4, bottom), to its highest Stratum, seed plants (4, top), and is at its highest ontogenetic stage (4, left). This wheat plant is linked with the Characteristic Number of the weasel by ( + , + ), the symbol for symbiosis, for reasons which will appear directly.
The weasel is an animal (6 in the center); belongs to the fourth animal-ecosystem Period (4 at the bottom). (The Periodic Table of animal ecosystems is shown as Figure II-15.} The weasel belongs to its highest Stratum (4 at the top); and, while able to hunt, is not yet fully grown (3 at the left). Its Number is linked to that of the rabbit by the symbol for predation ( - , + ). (This is a standard symbol, Figure 12. Its form is correlated to its position in the coordinate system.)
The rabbit is an animal (6 at the center), in the fourth animalecosystem Period (4 at the bottom), the fourth Stratum (4 at the top); and is just old enough to get about (2 at the left).
The wheat-rabbit coaction is shown as predation ( - , + ), but could have been shown as parasitism ( + , - ) almost equally well. The essential relation is, that the wheat is damaged by rabbit ( - ), which is benefited by wheat ( + ) and this can be shown either way.6s Since the weasel checks a damager of wheat, and since the wheat benefits the weasel's prey, the weasel-wheat coaction is ( + , + ).
Conversely, since fungus and rabbit damage each other's food (wheat), their coaction is synnecrosis ( - , - ). Finally, the fungusweasel coaction is estimated to be parasitism ( +, - ), since the weasel protects the wheat (the fungus' food), but the fungus damages the food of the weasel's prey, the rabbit.
This example shows the following: Characteristic Numbers represent, not empirical species but ecological roles. (This is the great advantage of the Periodic Table of chemical elements, whose entries consist of partial Characteristic Numbers.) This is what made it possible for Mendeleev and Seaborg to predict the discovery or invention of missing elements.
The greatest difference between atoms and organisms lies in the vastly greater number and variety of organismic species that can play any given ecological role, and in the changes of ecological roles which species can display. This makes it necessary to add the organism's traditional name to its Characteristic Number; and frequently to include additional information besides. For instance, while the rabbit-wease? coaction is predation ( - , + ) in the short run (synchronically), in the long run (diachronically), their coaction is symbiosis ( + , + ): rabbit-weasel population-explosions are reciprocally prevented. (The phased cyclic oscillation of prey-predator populations are typically cybernetic in character.)
The cardinal feature of this, and most other ecosystems, however, is the fact that each one has a controller (the wheat in this case) and a work component (the other organisms here represented). This system's relations are all determined by, and defined relative to, the wheat. In ecological terms, it is the ecosystem's dominant organism.--The clear distinction between controller and work component is basic to the diagnosis of an ecosystem's condition, and to the prognosis of its development. Should one of the lower organisms, say wheat rust, become dominant (become the controller), the ecosystem would break down to its lower Period. Conversely, where a high organism comes to dominate (control) a low ecosystem, the system transmutes up to the controller's Period.-In Chapter IV, this cybernetic principle will reappear in human cultures, resolving otherwise quite unresolvable political coniusion, and consequent disputes.
Anyone familiar with computers can see at once how accurately this meta-language, when developed, should permit computer mapping and simulation of the web-of-life. This is a contri bution obtained by geometrization of coaction vocabulary.
Students in inter-disciplinary courses which use this metalanguage become quite expert at writing and interpreting the Characteristic Numbers of particles, atoms, plants, animals and men. They learn herewith to locate any of these natural systems, including particular persons at various points in their life-runs, within their own Periodic tables, and these within the Periodic co-ordinate system as a whole.
All parts of the Characteristic Number written in Arabic numerals belong to the left-hand part of the General Periodic Law, R = f (). They belong to the properties of natural systems R which are functions of coaction (). Stated another way, the Arabic numerals comprise the scalar aspect of the radius vector, the Roman numerals (or their geometric counterparts) represent the coactions of which these properties are functions.
FIGURE II-15 Framework of the Periodic Table of Animal Ecosystems, Major Stratum 6, in terms of Characteristic Numbers.
CLICK ON IMAGE FOR ENLARGEMENT

The Periodic Table of Animal Ecosystems
We turn now to the first step in the cumulative assembly of Characteristic Numbers into the framework of, for instance, a biotic Periodic table. In Figure II-15, an entire biotic Periodic table is displayed in token fashion: the Periodic table of animal ecosystems. (The framework of the Periodic table of human ecosystems will be shown in Chapter IV.) These frameworks consist essentially of arrays of what biologists call type specimens, and Quine calls paradigm cases. In all these frameworks, however, the specimens are systems; and usually ecosystems. For it is never the organism alone that evolves; it is always, and only, the ecosystem: the habitat-organism system. Collecting these specimens will require appropriate equipment and techniques; and storing the data will involve pictures, films and tapes, besides paper-filing cabinets. The framework of the Periodic table of animal ecosystems is seen opposite.
Across the top right half of this framework, the nine Groups are listed and numbered with Roman numerals in their traditional order; and the Periods proceed upward at the left from the bottom to the top.
Each Period has a four-part description, ordered in four columns: The column at the far left lists the Periods' numbers. Next to it is listed the name of the animal Phylum which occupies the top Stratum of the Period in question. In the third column is listed in each case the new, emerged process which these animals display, and which distinguishes them from the previous Period's highest animals. And in the right-hand column, are stated the four scalar (Arabic-numeral) parts of the Characteristic Number of the particular organism in question. This summarizes the first three columns.
Period 1 is thus labeled Proto, Meta, Para-zoan ecosystem; its characteristic process is Auto-motion; and the scalar part of its characteristic number, in the fourth column, is
1
1 6
1
Its nine possible Groups then follow across the right-hand side of the table, each to be labeled with the reference to a list of the animals, plants and men which typically display the coaction in question with the organism of reference.
Each higher Period, as we proceed up the table, contains the preceding Periods (usually in modified forms) as its lower Strata. Among these modifications are each lower Period's mutated forms, thousands of which are represented in token or framework fashion by the dashed slanting arrows in the fourth column. (The extinguished lines-of descent do not appear.) Leftward-slanting dashed arrows represent degenerative (entropic) evolution; rightward dashed arrows represent creative, ectropic evolution; and solid vertical arrows indicate atropy: zero or negligible evolution.
All characteristic numbers in this table (except the upper right-hand one in each Period after the first) denotate zygotes, the lowest Sub-stratum marked 1 at the left. The upper right-hand one, however, represents the mature adult. (The Sub-stratum attained is here equal to the Stratum ceiling, the number at the top.) Where necessary, as in the case of the stages of insect metamorphosis, Sub-strata can and should not only be entered numerically, but should be keyed to their traditional scientific names as well.
Since this ecological classification is based upon, and includes, all organisms listed in the taxonomic series, it makes use of all the achievements of genetics and evolution theory. (It thus includes all of what is traditionally called Natural Law.) Yet it decreases the penalties incurred by the taxonomic series' omission of habitats and of the moral or tropic tendencies.67
The Periodic tables of plant and animal ecosystems include all of pathology and immunology related to parasitism (Group II), all of predation and the defenses against it (Group VI), all of co-operation, mutual help and synergism subsumed under symbiosis (Group IV); and so forth through the nine theoretically possible and empirically recognized coactions and their ranges of gradations. It thus includes a considerable portion of what is traditionally called the Moral Law, and states it in scientific terms. In consequence, these tables can be made to present part of a framework for the coherent, systematic study of the web-of-life's moral or tropic tendencies relative to the highest member of its System-hierarchy, human cultures. (See the Appendix at end of book.)
7. CULTURAL COACTIONS
We turn now to what Mendeleev called "the relations of mansocial and political," which he predicted could be included in "the general reign of order in nature, and in the entire universe as a whole."20
A few years before Langlois discovered that the properties of bass societies are functions of the coactions between the Majority and the Minority, Arnold Toynbee had, also unconsciously, discovered a similar version of the Periodic Law in more than twenty human civilizations.l9 He had found that during the periods when these two components had been symbiotic and helped each other, ( + , + ), their societies' major properties were these: high productivity, cohesiveness, and good health, especially mental health. He called these periods the genesis of civilization, and their Minorities creative. But when predation developed ( - , +), so that the Minority benefited greatly at the expense of the Majority, these properties sharply changed: mental health declined (schizm of the soul), social cohesiveness went into its opposite (schizm of the body politic), and productivity plummeted: on one hand a large part of it became armaments; and on the other, real goods were destroyed by these armaments. These periods he called the breakdowm of civilization, and their Minorities dominant. At this point each of these twenty-odd civilizations went into what Toynbee called the rhythm of disintegration: it oscillated back and forth between predation ( - , + ) and parasitism ( + , - ), finally reaching the climax of committing suicide by mutual destruction, synnecrosis ( - , - ). Toynbee called this disintegration of civilization and showed that it regularly results in the transmutation of the civilization's breakdown-products into what we now call a lower human Period.
Toynbee discovered these opposite tendencies in Literate societies, which comprise human Period 5, as will be shown in Chapter IV. They have also been observed in a Lower Agricultural society (Period 2) by Gregory Bateson, and in Industrial societies, (Period 6) by many social scientists.
In his book on the Iatmul of New Guinea,68 Bateson showed that primitive societies split or fission in two opposite ways which he calls horizontal schizmogenesis and vertical schizmogenesis: When they split horizontally, between the Majority or lower Strata and the Minority or controlling Strata (which usually involves negative coactions between the two), the society disintegrates. But when they split vertically, so that a large part of the Majority and Minority together leave the village (which usually involves positive coactions), both the old and the new village remain viable societies. (This peaceful, vertical schizmogenesis occurs routinely in many high animal societies such as those of bees. So also in Literate human societies such as the one which formed Australia, New Zealand, and Britain's American Colonies.)
A notable case of vertical splitting which has been reported for an Industrial society (Period 6) occurred in modern Switzerland.69 A tiny group of commercial, industrial, political and social leaders (part of the Minority), together with a sufficiently large group of the broad public, the Majority, formed a Federation of Cooperatives (Migros), a political party (the Landring of the Independents), and an educational and research institute (the Gottlieb Duttweiler Institute). In a series of brilliant, tenacious campaigns that began in 1925 and continue today as strongly as ever, they have forced Switzerland's Dominant or Caste Minority to lower monopolistic prices, thus changing predation ( - , + ) symbiosis ( + , + ); forced truth about monopoly prices, profits, wage demands, strikes, lockouts, and so forth into the press (often excluded in the name of freedom of the press); forced discussions of the same into Parliament (often excluded in the name of free speech); and turned repressive law suits into public forums. (Migros now has the largest press in Switzerland. Persistence of the vertical front in that country is therefore very probable.)
The best study, for the United States, of Bateson's classical concept "vertical and horizontal schizmogenesis" is Baltzell's famous book, "The Protestant Establishment--Aristocracy and Caste in America."70 But perhaps the most famous cases of the prevalence of the vertical over the horizontal front in the English speaking world are the Magna Carta and Cromwell's Protectorate. In neither case was the Dominant Minority destroyed or liquidated. Instead, it was forced by a Creative Minority to change its predation ( - , + ) into a considerable degree of cooperation ( + , +). This strategic and creative maneuver resulted both times in a Genesis of Civilization.
The most famous cases of the prevalence or "victory" of the horizontal front, on the other hand, are the French and Russian revolutions. In both cases, a Dominant Minority was destroyed. The society was thereby decapitated to such a degree that it has not recovered. It resulted, in the case of France, in perpetual oscillation between republics and empires; in that of Russia, in perpetual and spreading dictatorship and terror.71 It thus appears that human cultures, emerging at the apex of the System-hierarchy, obey the General Periodic Law as clearly as do their preceding and accompanying biotic and abiotic systems.
Historical forces and accidents, however, have resulted in systematic though unconscious errors of theory which transform what would otherwise be intellectual schools of political science and sociology, comparable to those in physical and biological sciences, into emotional ideologies. On one hand the tradition of the vertical front occurred as the growth of folk custom in the tradition, say, of British and American Common Law. On the other hand the tradition of the horizontal front developed as a theoretical system in the tradition, say, of French rationalism and German philosophies. These two political traditions are thus not only emotionally and temperamentally diverse; they are, in addition, couched in the two diverse and here-to-fore incompatible modes of thought: The first is carried on by way of what James Conant calls the inductive empirical mode of thought; the second by way of the deductive theoretical mode.72 (See Figure V-I.) Both of these temperaments and modes of thought, moreover, occur not only in every industrial nation, but in each Stratum, and Sub-Stratum or age-grade of each industrial and even most sub-industrial nations.
Formulation of the strategic problem of the psycho-socio-political sciences, and resolution of their ever growing crisis and impasse, can occur only in terms of a discipline which defines and distinguishes these cultural categories, beginning with their simpler counterparts in the abiotic and biotic sciences; of a science, moreover, which has developed a method for cleansing these sciences' vocabularies of communication fouling: namely, the geometric definition of concepts and terms in Unified Science. The coaction compass can be boxed in the languages of the anthropo-socio-political as well as in those of other sciences.
The basically diverse historic meanings of the paradigmatic framework of political thought, Left and Right, were clearly displayed by the seating arrangements of the British House of Commons on one hand and of the French Etats Gnraux in the year 1789 on the other. In the House of Commons (as in the U.S. Congress) the seating did not display social stratification; but it did in the Etats Gnraux. What it displayed in the British case was (and remains) the following: on the Right, adherence to the Government at the time in question; on the Left, the Government's Loyal Opposition. Since all social Strata are represented on both sides of the Speaker and the aisle perpendicular to him, this aisle represents and demarcates a case of the vertical front: that Left and Right remain predominantly class-cooperative is guaranteed by the institution of universal suffrage by secret ballot. Members of Parliament ipso facto belong to the Minority. But they are elected freely by, and represent, the Majority. They cannot otherwise sit either on the Left or Right.
The composition of the Etats Gnraux of 1789 was basically different: There l'aristocracie, the nation's Minority or controller , sat in splendor at the Right (of the rostrum), the Jacquerie (or Proletariat) in squalor on its Left, and the bourgeoisie between them, in the Center. The latter two Strata together represented the system's Majority or work component, with the much smaller Bourgeoisie ready to seize the control.
The coaction was different too: These basic components of the culture, Majority and Minority, had long been alienated from each other: L'aristocracie was a Dominant Minority, the Jacquerie and bourgeoisie an alienated proletariat in Toynbee's meaning of being in, but not of, the society. At this point in history they became enraged at each other. Their negative coaction approached the limit of ferocity. And that negative coaction was fixated as the paradigm of political theory, and became the dominant value premise of large regions of the world.73 The King and all aristocrats who could be found were imprisoned and executed by savage mobs and tribunals. Any profession of loyal opposition became grounds for arrest. All possibility of a vertical, class-cooperative front was consciously destroyed, and the Proletariat rampaged destructively through the streets.
The manner in which order was restored reinforced the paradigm of class-conflict: It was not the introduction of a better (less predatory, more symbiotic) coaction, as in Switzerland, but artillery turned on the mob by a young offlcer, Napoleon Bonaparte. He represented, and restored control to, the Dominant Minority in another form, the Bourgeoisie; a form which presently evolved with equal savagery into what Talmon calls Totalitarian Democracy,74 controlled by what Milovan Djilas calls The New Class.75,76
Had the vertical front of class cooperation been generalized into a theory about "all of recorded history," it would have been incorrect, for no one coaction ever has excluded all the others. Yet it is positive coactions that predominate on our planet. They have predominated in all natural Kingdoms for billions of years, as shown by the fact that evolution has been mainly upward. And all the great religions unite in afflrming it. The largely class-cooperative British and Americans however, as Conant has pointed out, tend to be weak in the deductive-theoretical mode of thought.72 Their Creative Minority therefore failed to produce a coherent, let alone a compelling, socio-political theory demonstrating the value of positive coactions. Baltzell shows this most clearly in his chapter on "The Intellectual Counterattack on Caste: The Social Gospel, Reform and the New Social Science."70
The English-speaking Dominant Minority, it is true, developed no more coherent or compelling theory of horizontal splitting, as Baltzell shows in his chapter on "The Ideological Defense of Caste."70 But their angry colleagues in Continental Europe, being traditionally prone to the deductive-theoretical mode of thought,72 picked out and exalted local experiences of horizontal, conflictive schizmogenesis into what they consider to be a universal axiom: "All af recorded history is the history of class conflict".77,78
This paradigm they reinforced in both theory and practice: They deduced theoretically that the only way to end exploitation ( - , + ) is to destroy the controller, the Minority, which they have done throughout over a third of the world. And they deduced that the only way to generate symbiosis ( + , + ) is to develop a "controlless" ("class-less") society. This goal being objectively impossible--and they themselves having, of course, assumed control, as Djilas has shown in The Nerw Class75--this Dominant Minority enacted its goal subjectively: it called itself "The Vanguard of the Proletariat," where "proletariat" is defined as the first three social strata. Being convinced that the only class relation possible to Mankind is conflict (and being involved in it themselves), they fear and punish their identification as a class, and declare their misinterpretation of history to be "irrevisible."
Forced by their clearly incorrect theory on one hand to imprison or execute those who show its inconsistencies, and on the other hand to substitute in place of objective reality and intellectual force a vast apparatus of radios, jammers and agitation, the horizontal front has filled the upholders of vertical fronts around the world--which may well be the silent majority-with deep anxiety. Being unable to defend itself theoretically for the reason just given, it tries to do so militarily, involving itself too in contradiction. Both fronts are thus involved in ever more fearfully dangerous, protracted and self intensifying politico-military conflicts.79 And today, in the Seventies, they are as clearly bringing on World War III as in the Thirties they were bringing on World War II. But World War III would probably fulfill the old and persistent predictions of Apocalypse: It would destroy the Earth's System-hierarchy all the way down to radioactive, lifeless rocks and oil-slicked water which looks not altoge ther unlike what these ancient predictions have described as "dead men's blood".80
This is, of course, a total contradiction of the appealing course of events predicted by the horizontal front's glib theoreticians. But these conflict-prone Left and Right theoreticians are as helpless to change their course as are the less articulate upholders of vertical front; its "silent Majority" and equally silent Minority. For what is true of scientists applies even more strongly to ideologists: "What scientists never do when confronted by even severe and prolonged anomalies", says Thomas Kuhn, "[is to] renounce the paradigm that has led them into crisis ... Once it has achieved the status of paradigm, a scientific theory is declared invalid only if an alternative candidate is available to take its place."61
As chairman of a 1936 delegation observing fascism, communism and democracy in ten countries, I was forced to realize that the conflict-dominated theories of the Extreme Left and Extreme Right-of Communists and fascists-were bringing on World War II. And it was perfectly clear that no matter who won that war, these theories would, in the absence of a compelling alternative, bring on World War III, as they are clearly doing now. It was this conviction which determined me to undertake unification of the sciences. For that is the only effective alternative to ideologies I could envisage.
I had no conscious idea that the cardioid of values would emerge in this sum of zero-valued parts. But the value-cardioid proves to inhere in Unified Science's very corner stone, the Periodic Law. Herewith it challenges both the zero value-premise of the one-field scientists and the negative value-premise of the ideologist; and it supports the positive value-premise of what Toynbee has called the seven great religions. Herefrom it follows, as the day the night, that the great schizm caused by the rise of the sciences has come full circle, and that the mental and spiritual crisis of industrial civilization is finally capable of coming to an end.
The schizm began, as Authur Koestler shows, when the empirical scientists and theoretical theologians agreed to go separate ways: the scientists agreed to confine themselves to res extensa, the theologians to res cogitans, splitting the West into the Two Cultures.81 This crisis developed into chaos as the sciences on one side grew apart from each other, and the ideologies and religions on the other side parted from each other too.
The scientists rationalized their separations by assuming that abiotic, biotic and cultural processes differ basically from each other. And humanists supported this assumption by declaring that Moral Law and values are confined to Man, and are not shared by animals, plants, and non-living entities. The groundless axiom of each of these sub-cultures supported that of the other in forcing industrial civilization's breakdown, and preparing conditions for the rise of the negatively biased ideologies.82
Unified Science's paradigm is opposite to those of both of our traditional sub-cultures: The structures of all systems--abiotic, biotic, and cultural--are assumed to be isomorphic unless proved otherwise, which has certainly not been done. The laws of the simplest systems, those belonging to Major Stratum 1 and 2, are assumed to be teleonomic; to be so structured that their telos or goal-which is the highest Major Stratum, human culture-is implicit in their Systemhierarchic combinations. The Periodic Law of chemical elements is shown to be a special case of a general law which rules throughout; namely, the Moral Law.
In 1889 Dimitri I. Mendeleev foreshadowed all the paradigms of Uunified Science in his above mentioned address before the Royal Society of London: "There are in the world two things which never cease to call for the admiration and reverence of man," he said, quoting Kant: "the moral law within ourselves, and the stellar sky above us. ... But we must add a third subject, the nature of the elementary individuals which we discover everywhere around us. ... In the atoms we see ... the submission of their seeming freedom to the general harmony of nature."20
This law--extending from Man through the hierarchic sky down to the atoms--affirms that the properties of systems are functions of their coactions; that "As ye sow, so shall ye reap." This contradicts the paradigm of the Cultural Relativists who affirm that cultures with diametrically opposite value-premises are equally valid.83 In the same way it contradicts the Existentialists' paradigm that there are no objective values; that it is therefore indifferent what values the individual may choose to follow.84
When I say that the world has come full circle I mean that we have come to recognize that Moral and Natural Law are the same thing. A person is free to defy them both subjectively. Objectively, however, he is free to select the degree of grace with which he submits to the general harmony of nature. No lower member of the Systems-hierarchy has such freedom.
8. THE COORDINATE SYSTEM OF
POLITICAL SCIENCE
The so-called political spectrum has served for nearly two centuries as political science's frame of reference. Yet it is flagrantly incorrect.
FIGURE II-16a The Political Spectrum; l8th century construct which timc has shown to be radically misleading.
Its criticism and correction will be carried out in two complementary ways, theoretical and empirical.
The deductive-theoretical mode of thought permits short and decisive treatment. The situation can be formulated geometrically, thus: The traditional political parties represent the principal resultants of two variables, X and Y. These cannot be deployed correctly on a straight line because the limiting resultants (at the ends of the line) are actually adjacent. Their correct deployment requires the line to be curved so that its ends adjoin.
FIGURE II-16b The Coordinate System of Political Science: obtained by mapping the Political Spectrum into the Periodic coordinate system7l.
*The locus of the Sub-Group VIII b ( - = - ), whose political name is Nihilism.90
The concept, political spectrum, resulted from a false analogy between the array of political coactions and the physicists' color spectrum. The color spectrum deploys a single variable, wave length. This extends from very short at one end of the straight line to very long at the other. This deployment is correct: Where the variable is arrayed perpendicularly to the straight line, the interval between shortest and longest variable corresponds to the interval between the straight line's ends, whatever its length.
Because this false analogy does not conflict with the system of incorrect paradigms underlying the array of fragmented sciences (see Chapter V), the analogy was accepted in the face of dramatic empirical contradictions to be set forth next.--We turn now to the inductive-empirical mode of thought.

Empirical Criticism and Correction of the
So-called Political "Spectrum"
For thousands of years, Toynbee has shown, the seven great religions have displayed positive value-biases. That is to say, they have advocated and stressed mutual help and class cooperation in various ways, degrees, and idioms.85 With the rise of modern science since the l5th century (studying, as it had to, parts of systems), values were subjectively confined to the humanistic and literary sub-culture. However, what the rising scientific sub-culture actually (objectively) adopted was a value-bias. Namely, the zero value-bias. It claimed, subjectively, to have nothing to do with values. And since its various specialists dealt largely in isolated parts of systems--e.g. in habitat-less plants, animals, and people, in which the Periodic Law is not discernible (and since it did not recognize the moral nature of that law in atoms, where it is discernible, as Mendeleev intuited)--it confused its zero value-bias with no values, and banned discussions of morals from its leading societies.
Then, in the l8th and l9th centuries, emerged the negatively biased misinterpretations of history, advocating class conflict on the Far and Extreme Left, race and national conflict on the Far and Extreme Right.
Traditional scientists (who study just system-components), having renounced values, are helpless to interfere with ideologists in any effective way. Traditional men of religion--speaking, as Bishop Robinson affirms, in the no longer effective language of pre-industrial civilizations--have been engaged in mere rearguard actions for over a century.86,87 And so, as the conflict-spreading propaganda apparatus penetrates the world's mass media--its films, television, radio, and press--the traditional spokesmen and their followers, the great majority, fall silent. For in a culture whose dominant value-premise is becoming negative, as it is now in ours, the people with positive value biases become deviant; and deviants tend to become silent, even when they are the majority.
What Unified Science now asks mainly of scientists (who are the best equipped to get the thrust of this question) is the following: Can we accept a frame-of-reference--a coordinate system such as, for instance, the so-called political spectrum--without considering the way it has been formed?
Consider the case of physical scientists before Einstein's theory of Relativity emerged and corrected their only locally correct Newtonian frame of reference. Would it be realistic to consider social scientists immune to similarly incorrect micro-centric points of view? I quote from a paper I presented at the Second International Congress for the Philosophy of Science:
Einstein has shown that in physics, ideas of local physical phenomena are generalized into theories of the universe. (A perpetually rotating room or free-falling elevator, he shows, would give rise in its inhabitants to specially biased kinds of physics.) Similarly, autocratic and predatory cultures on the one hand, democratic and symbiotic cultures on the other, have given rise in their inhabitants to specially biased kinds of political philosophy. These intellectual biases we call logo-centrisms ...
The same principle has been shown ... to operate on feelings and emotions. Societies with emotional "climates" of overwhelming fear and hate produce, in their inhabitants, philosophies of universal conflict and danger; societies with "climates" of friendly cooperation produce in their inhabitants equally biased philosophies of universal friendship. These emotional biases we call pathocentrism.
The opponents within each political system share the same logo- and patho-centrism. Hence the relative ease with which they exchange roles, and the difficulty with which they change systems ... The bearers of each of the patho- and logo-centrisms tend to attri bute their own views and motives to the bearers of the other ... in spite of contrary empirical evidence ... This illusion is systematically utilised by the ideologists, to prepare their prospective victims for involvement in mental infection and physical conquest.
The greater the proportion of conflict and falsehood in a political philosophy, the greater the isolation necessary for its continuation. As, in Einstein's hypothetical falling elevator or rotating room, opaque walls are essential to the maintenance of the inhabitants' special kinds of physics, so in the Two-Ideology system an "Iron Curtain" is necessary to maintain the inhabitants' mis-interpretation of the world and of history. The "Curtain" exists in fact.
It follows that, with the development of geometric definition, mutual confrontation of the . . . systems-or their basic natures, structures, origins, functioning, and consequences-must tend to counteract falsehood and other negative relationships ... Geometrization will therefore help the creative individuals among the inhabitants of these local habitats ... to evaluate them realistically, and hence to transform them ...71
Example:
Gilbert Allardyce has compiled descriptions of a single political phenomenon, fascism, as seen from three frames-of reference: the communist Left, the humanist-socialist Center, the conservative Right. (See "Fascism as the End of Liberal Society" both as treated by him in his preface and by the authors in the text of his book The Place of Fascism in European History.88) Several other interpretations of fascism are included in his book, most of which fall into various categories of Unified Science. (But they necessitate more detailed analysis than can be included in the present volume.)
The point which needs to be made here is that Unified Science uses the same method to reconcile the discrepancies due to diverse frames of reference which relativity physics has used so successfully: systematic transformations made possible by the emergence of an invariant background-theory and its geometric background language. (See Harold Cassidy's assessment of Unified Science in the opening chapter, made from the viewpoint of a physical scientist.)
The profound and pernicious incorrectness of the one-dimensional "political spectrum", Figure II-16a, has been sensed by political scientists for nearly fifty years: "Some scholars," says Allardyce, "had already connected fascism and bolshevism in the 1920s, almost from the moment that the Blackshirts appeared on the Italian scene. Being for the most part men of liberal and democratic opinion, they associated Mussolini and the Bolsheviks with a common assault upon free institutions and open societies. It appeared to some of them that the terms `Left' and `Right'-descriptions which had never been very satisfactory anyway-no longer defined political reality, but rather seemed to obscure it." p. 13.88
This was the clear recognition of profound anomaly which typically characterizes the outbreak of crisis in any science. And here as in other sciences, it is a coherent scientific theory, based upon an incompatible paradigm, which resolves the basic anomaly and solves a number of troublesome subsidiary problems, which marks the outbreak of a scientific revolution.61 Such is the case at present, as I will now try to demonstrate:
What obscures political reality is not the terms Left and Right, which correspond to fundamental cultural structures, but the failure of that l8th century frame-of reference to group together the symbiotic (Center) Left and Right, to group together the synnecrotic (Extreme) Left and Right, and to separate these fundamentally diverse pairs of phenomena from each other. This greatest of all moral distinctions, and the intermediate distinctions between these limits, appear when the traditional simplistic, amoral l8th century political frame-of-reference, Figure II-16a, is mapped into the Periodic coordinate system, the frame-of-reference of the Moral Law, as shown in Figures II-16a and b.
The political scientists' schools array themselves just as neatly as schools formed during the crises of other sciences: Those ideologies which Digby Baltzell groups under "The Ideological Defense of Caste" fall on the Right of Center; those which he classes under "The Intellectual Counterattack on Caste" fall on the Left of Center. The Right Center schools stress evidence connecting social status to genetically determined, hereditary traits, and minimize evidence connecting social status to environmentally determined factors. The Left Center schools, on the contrary, minimize evidence connecting abilities and social position to genetically determined, hereditary traits; and emphasize evidence relating environmental factors to social position, low and high. Those Leftist ideologies holding positions up to and including the Moderate Left are egalitarian and culturally relativistic (that is, anthropologically egalitarian); those up to and including the Moderate Right believe in what Thomas Jefferson called Natural Aristocracy; namely, that people born with outstanding talent and virtue (like himself) should, and usually do, occupy controlling social positions.89
Motivation:
Egalitarianism and environmentalism subjectively raise lower Strata and lower Periods relative to higher Strata and Periods, grinding their incumbents' axe, and making Left theorists their spokesmen and leaders. On the other hand, minimization of environmental effects, and exaggeration of hereditary factors increase the self assurance (subjective power) of those occupying controlling positions, and decrease that of those occupying lower Strata. This grinds the top Strata's axe and makes Right theorists their spokesmen and intellectual leaders.70
What these schools share, however, is far more important than that which separates them. Namely, the positive value-bias summed up in the commandment, Do unto others as you would have them do unto you.47 All the political schools of the Center listen to each other's view and evidence respectfully (though sometimes reluctantly), credit each other's sincerity, and trust each others' loyalty to the principles of free speech, press, assembly and the ballot. Symbiotic freedom is the expression of love, of positive coaction. That makes inequality, which is fundamental throughout the universe, creative. Hence the term Creative Center. At the Center, Left and Right are convinced of their common positive value-bias and thus of their Ioyalty to each other in opposition. These are the criteria of the most important political system.
As we proceed toward the Left and Right extremes of this frame of reference, however, we note ever increasing vehemence and violence, ever decreasing interest in and respect for evidence, and ever decreasing mutual respect and trust. (See, for example, R. Palme Dutt's chapter in Gilbert Allardyce's book, just mentioned.)
And a certain point, called "loss of legality", a quantum change occurs, sudden and immense: suddenly the man, whether of Left or Right, finds himself not with just a vested interest, but with his very freedom and survival themselves, or those of his enemy, (Lenin's "Who-whom", dependent upon his own political control. Under these circumstances, the life, liberty and happiness of both the Left Extremist and the Right Extremist leaders depend upon the other controller's destruction, and upon the incorporation of his opponents' followers (their work components) into his own system.
This is, as Americans characteristically put it, an entirely different ball game: the Extreme Left and Extreme Right are playing for keeps, with no holds barred. They understand each other, and they fear and respect each others' ruthlessness and cunning. They are, of course, utterly contemptuous of the trustfulness, tolerance, and relative truthfulness of all Center parties. (They call them "naive, sentimental, vacillating, reformist, hypocritical," and so forth.) They enter transient "united front" alliances with Center parties against each other. They also enter temporary alliances with each other against Center parties, each closely watching for the opportunity to stab his well understood, highly perfidious "ally" in the back.
The almost certain outcome is that of the Two Ideology system's most famous case, the Stalin-Hitler pact: mutual devastation or, as biologists put it, synnecrosis ( - , - ). In a great historians terms, this is called disintegration of civilization.l9,90 Conversely, the probable outcome of continuous symbiosis of the Creative Center--of their vertical front as developed, for instance, in Switzerland69 or in Benjamin Franklin's Pennsylvania9l--is dynamic peace, prosperity, and genesis of civilization.
When the one dimensional political frame of reference is mapped into the Periodic coordinate system, as in Figure 16b, the similarities and differences which have long bewildered so many political scientists, and fouled up their communication, are fully and decisively cleared up.
This mapping shows that the difference between the Creative Center and the Two-Ideology system is very much greater than the difference between Extreme Left and Extreme Right. (The one-dimensional "spectrum" indicates precisely the opposite, seriously confusing political thought.) According to Allardyce,
To interpret the fascists as a right-wing phenomenon, to seat them beside the monarchists and reactionaries [of the CenterJ in parliaments, and to consider them a radical extension of die-hard conservatism [rather than as qualitatively different from it] was to be blind to the remarkable similarities between Mussolini and his communist `enemies.' [The semi-quotes symptomatize the anomaly in these thinkers' concept.] With the rise of fascism, it appeared, the heat and passion of both ends of the political spectrum [Figure 16a] had resulted in a fusion of political extremes-the ends had met, completing the circle of political beliefs [Figure 16b] ...
From these beginnings an inquiry has gone forward into the underlying unity of the radical movements. The result has been a continuing literature on the connections between the two political poles, with social scientists seeking the common roots of left and right extremism, and psychologists particularly involved in working out theoretical models of what has been called the `authoritarian personality'.92 But it was the dual experience of Hitler and Stalin, much more than the earlier confrontation between fascism and communism in Italy, which gave these studies their real impetus and significance. Indeed the sight of the dictatorships in Berlin [today, East Berlin] and Moscow evolving side by side has stimulated some of the most original political thought of our time. It has provided our mental imagery of the modern political state and revealed the existing possibilities for total power over men.93 The two regimes opened our vision into the world of 1984, and returned the concepts of mystery and evil to political theory88 pp. 13-14.
That, however, is but a preliminary approach to the full circle. Full circle itself is reached when the Moral Law's concepts of good as well as of evil, its new intermediate concept of atropy between them and, more particularly, its concepts of the nine Groups and their many quantitative variations-when these are ordered geometrically in the same terms as those of the physical and biological sciences, Figure 16b. Being part of a scientific revolution, it has the power to change the course of history away from the formerly probable goal described as 1984 and toward genesis of the Higher Industrial Period.91
If, now, you will look once again at the so-called "political spectrum," Figure 16a, its anomalies will be unmistakable: Using a ruler or a compass, compare the distance between Right Center and Extreme Right, or Left Center and Extreme Left, with the distance between Extreme Right and Extreme Left. The latter is more than twice as great as the former distances, when precisely the opposite is the case in reality. Is it not clear that any science-abiotic, biotic, or cultural-must be in crisis to the degree in which its frameof reference contradicts and misrepresents its data, and that the crisis of political theory and political practice has, in fact, been profound and desperate to just that vast degree?
Until the rise of Unified Science, the one-field sciences' background theory, it has been impossible for all but the most astute and imaginative Centrists and Extremists to understand each other or credit each other's actual existence: each had developed strong logo-centrism and patho-centrism, and there was no concept-system in terms of which to grasp and evaluate this self blinding fact. The Extremists, communist and fascist, could not conceive that class cooperation, race cooperation and overriding respect for evidence exist in reality rather than as mere propaganda. The Centrists--Republicans or Conservatives, and Democrats or Laborites--could not, for the same reason, conceive of the genuine contempt, treachery and cynicism with which they are viewed and treated, as a matter of course and of policy, by almost all Extremists, Left and Right. Only personal, often-repeated field-experience inside both political cultures--such as I encountered in ten countries in the mid-Thirties--can, in the absence of Unified Science, make logo-centrism and patho-centrism a visible, observable, and formulable phenomenon.7l,91 Unless you are an Einstein, you have to have lived in the free-falling elevator, rotating room, and on the solid ground--and to have moved back and forth several times from one to the other--to acquire and codify the coordinate systems of people who have spent their whole lives in only one of these windowless systems.95
Such is the new coordinate system of political science, and its resolution of the long festering crisis in political thought. When implemented in political practice, it will give the democratic shipsof state a political compass by which to set their course more safely.
"If this mixture of pragmatism and positivism does involve an ethical doctrine--" Heisenberg remarked to Pauli, "and you are certainly correct that it does and that we see it at work in America and England--by what compass does it set its course? You have claimed that in the final analysis our compass must be our relationship with the central order, but where can you find such a relationship in pragmatism?" p. 217.39 My answer is, nowhere in pragmatism, but in Unified Science it is called the coaction compass40 and is shown in Figures 11, 12 and 16.
In Chapter IV, separately studied genetic and psychological data will be related to their sociological, anthropological and political-scientific counterparts. Together, they will be assembled into a single discipline coherent with, and relevant to, the biotic and abiotic sciences.
9. CLOSING THE CIRCLE: SUMMARY.
The Unified Science Chart at the end of this book sums up this chapter's basic concepts and relates its basic figures to each other. It also relates them to a representative array of historic scientific concepts, listed in the left-hand column, which it completes, generalizes, assembles andjor maps into the single discipline, Unified Science. Experience shows that this fold-out chart, mounted on the wall, can serve the reader in coordinating his study of the rest of this volume, as perhaps also in other of his professional pursuits.96
It was Leibniz who predicted (fifth entry from the top, counting Mendeleev) that one day it would be discovered that the many scientists who had believed that they were working in separate disciplines had, unknown to themselves, actually been working on a single discipline. He predicted that this will happen when the characteristics which their data have in common are abstracted and represented geometrically, as the Universal Characteristic. And he foresaw that into this Universal Characteristic would be mapped, besides the traditional sciences, the following: jurisprudence, medicine, and metaphysics.64 Does this not close the dangerously broken Circle?
The chart before you opens the way to the fulfilment of Leibniz's prediction by assembling the constructs for closing the Circle in the Twentieth Century's Two Modes of Thought.72
In The Breaking of the Circle, Marjorie Hope Nicolson describes what the Circle of our thought was like in the sixteenth century, before it broke. Does she not, in so doing, come close to describing how it has now been closed in the 20th a "Man was in little all the sphere," she says. "As he grew and flourished, so did his world; as he decayed and died, so too his world. God's `pattern' was eternally repeated in macrocosm, geocosm, microcosm. Man's head was a `copy' of God and the universe, not only in its shape, but in its being the seat of Reason. Man, the epitome of God and the world, was rational; so were the world and the universe, into which God had imparted some of His own rationality. Each of the `three worlds' had its individuality, yet each was involved with the others, and all partook of God. Only since the seventeenth century has the poet felt the necessity of bringing together what the shears of scientific philosophy cut apart." pp. 106-797
The constructs listed in our chart's left-hand column are but a minute sample of the immense array of data and theories cut apart by the shears of l7th, l8th, and l9th century scientific philosophy; constructs which can, and will shortly be, mapped into the Periodic coordinate system. Is it not perfectly clear that we have been working on a single discipline?
The web-of-life, a tiny part of which is shown in Figure 14b, is keyed to the Biotic region of the Periodic coordinate system, shown at the center of the Chart. These will permit the conservationists' computers to talk turkey, as American slang puts it, with our fellow citizen's blind, deaf and dumb technology, and set a rational, mutually acceptable course of action.
Keyed to the Cultural region of our coordinate system, at the bottom of the Chart, we are now drawing several sets of psycho-political coaction webs: one of objective coactions, the others of subjective coactions. One of these is a web of the subjective political-economic coactions of Left-Center Liberals; one of Right-Center Conservatives; a third of Communist, and a fourth of fascist extremists.
The objective is to move our discussions from the barricade to the blackboard, to exchange our machine guns and bombers for chalk and erasers Or, in the milder terms of the Creative Center, the goal is to meet the need, as L. J. Livesey puts it, "Of institutions that seek to establish an innovative image while at the same time yearning for traditional respectability; and the never-ending process of deciding how much freedom one must yield as the price for community and government support ..."98
Fulfilment of these objectives is inherent in our execution of Leibniz's project for, as he predicted would happen once his Universal Characteristic had been created: "If someone disagreed with me [on any subject, abiotic, biotic, or cultural] I should say to him, `Sir, let us calculate!' And by taking to paper and ink we would settle the question."64 Why is this possible? Because we have now come Full Circle: The natural law and moral law are recognized once more, and have been proved in the new 20th century terms to be identical.

NOTES AND REFERENCES
1. The original form of this concept was formulated jointly by W. V. Q,uine, H. G. Cassidy and E. F. Haskell in 1964, and has been developed by us to the present state. For a rich discussion and bibliography on related concepts of hierarchy, see Donna Wilson2 (below).
2. Wilson, Donna, "Forms of Hierarchy; A selected Bibliography" General Systems Vol. XIV, 1969 (pp. 3-15) Yearbook of the Society for General Systems Research 2100 Pennsylvania Ave., N.W., Roorn 818 Washington D.C. 20006.
3. Mayr, Ernst, "Discussion Footnotes on the Philosophy of Biology".
4. Weaver, Warren, "Science and Complexity," in The Scientists Speak (W. Weaver, editor). Boni and Gaer, New York, 1947.
5. "I am the Alpha and the Omega, the beginning and the end." (The Bible, Revelation 21:6.) This sentence is herewith completed in a scientifically meaningful way which was not possible, when it was written, for Man to understand. It is also in accord with the other two references: "I am the Alpha and the Omega, the first and the last, the beginning and the end." (Revelation 22: 13.) And "I am the Alpha and the Omega, saith the Lord God, who is and who was, and who is to come, the Almighty." (Revelation 1:8.) As the two limits of the Periodic coordinate system, and thus of Unified Science, this concept agrees with, and completes Teilhard de Chardin's scientific concept of Omega.l6
6. A still more fundamental entity, the parton, has just been discovered. If verified, it will be classed in Major Period 0.
7. Haskell, Edward F., "Mathematical Systematization of `Environment' `Organism' and `Habitat'" Ecology, Vol. 21, No. 1 Jan. 1940.
8. Greenstein, J. and M. Schmidt "The Absorption Fine Redshifts in Parkes 0237-23," Astro physical Journal (Correspondence) Vol 148, April 1967.
9. The term Major Period is a conceptual extension of the term Period in Mendeleev's Periodic Table. Similarly, the term Major Stratum is an extension of the general term Stratum, coined to include the atoms' nuclear and electron shells and their analogues in the other sciences. The Major Periodic table appears below in a simple geometric form. The term, Major Period, was coined by my research assistant, Paul Mankiewicz. (I had been using a poor term, Macro Period.) A natural kingdom is a Major Stratum; a natural empire is a Major Period. (See Figure 2-4.)
10. The Biosphere, The Scientific American, September issue, 1970.
11. Periodic tables of molecules and geoid systems have not been constructed. But Stratification, Periodicity and Grouping are postulated for them, and the construction of corresponding Periodic tables is predicted.
12. Pirie, Norman W. "The Origins of Life," Nature 180, 886-888, 1957.
13. Cassidy, Harold G., "The Kingdom of Biopoetic Systems-Phylogeny of the Cell." A chapter in Unified Science--Assembly of the Sciences Into a Single Discipline, Edward Haskell. Offset-printed in 50 copies by the National Institute of Health 1968, Xeroxed in 50 copies by the IBM Systems Research Institute, 1969.
14. Reinhold, Robert, "Scientists in Varied Fields Join in Attacking National Problems." New York Times, Oct. 6, 1970, page 1 ff.
15. Anderson, O. Roger, "An Interdiciplinary Theory of Behavior," Jour. of Research in Science Teaching Vol. 6, No. 3, 1969, pp 265-272.
16. Chardin, P. Teilhard de, The Phenomenon of Man, (transl. B. Wall) Harper, New York 1959.
17. Murdock, G. P., "Ethnographic Atlas", Ethnology, Jan. 1962-to date.
18. Hobhouse, L. C.; G. C. Wheeler, M. Ginsburg, The Material Cultures and Social Institutions of the Simpler Peoples; an Essay in Correlation. Chapman, London, 1915.
19. Toynbee, Arnold J., A Study of History (Somervell Abridgement of Vols. I-VI) Oxford Univ. Press, New York 1947.
20. Posin, Daniel Q., Mendeleyev, The Story of a Great Scientist, McGraw-Hill, New York, 1948.
21. Seaborg, Glenn T., From Mendeleev to Mendelevium--and Beyond Monograph presented at the Robert A. Welch Foundation Conference on Transuranium Elements-the Mendeleev Centennial, Houston, Texas, released by the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission, Washington D.C., Nov. 17, 1969.
22. From Science Restated--Physics and Chemistry for the Non-Scientist (page 300) by Harold G. Cassidy, Freeman-Cooper, San Francisco, 1970. Reprinted by permission of the publisher: I have shifted the position of hydrogen (H) from Group IV to Group VII for reasons to be set forth, and have reversed the order of the Periods: We start at the bottom and count upward.
23. Latil, Pierre de, Thinking by Machine--A study of Cybernetics Houghton Mifflin, Boston, 1957. Originally, La Pense Artificelle Gaillard, Paris, 1956; Sidgwick and Jackson, London, 1968.
24. Haskell, Edward F., "A Clarification of Social Science," Main Currents in Modern Thought, 7, 45, 1949.
25. Adam, Charles Ernest, Descartes; sa vie et son oeuvre, Boivin, Paris 1937.
26. For a description of the role played by dreams in the development of mathematics and scientific theories, see Jacques Hadamard, An Essay on the Psychology of Invention in the Mathematical Field, Dover Publ., New York, 1945.
27. They appear in Unified Science--Assembly of the Sciences Into a Single Discipline; offset-printed by the National Institute of Health, 1968 and xeroxed by the IBM Systems Research Institute, 1969. (Three volumes, when completed.)
28. Haskell, Edward F., with preface and a chapter by Harold G. Cassidy, "Unified Science--Assembly of the Sciences Into a Single Discipline" Vol. I, Scientia Generalis. Offset-printed by the National Institute of Health 1968, xeroxed by the IBM Systems Research Institute, 1969.
29. This corresponds to the Great Chain of Being the medieval precursor of the System-hierarchy.
30. Gause, G. F., The Struggle for Existence, Williams and Wilkins, Baltimore, 1934, Hafner, New York, 1964.
31. Gause, G. F. and A. A. Witt, "Behavior of Mixed Populations and the Problem of Natural Selection", American Naturalist 69, 725, 1935.
32. Wheeler, J. A., "Our Universe: The Known and The Unknown." American Scholar, Phi Beta Kappa Society, Spring, 1968..
33. Cassidy, Harold G., Science Restated--Physics and Chemistry for the Non-Scientist, Freeman, Cooper, San Francisco, 1970.
34. Wu, C. S., "Subtleties and Surprises-A Brief History of the Theory of Beta Decay." Columbia University Forum 9, 1 (1966).
35. It has to be hyper-spatial because it corresponds structurally to mutually exclusive phenomena. The Periodic and Inverted-Periodic coordinate systems can no more be superimposed (occupy the same space) than can pro-particles and anti-particles. Their corresponding axes are oppositely directed. Whether their radius angles should be directed oppositely, as shown, or similarly directed I do not know. I have decided it arbitrarily, pending more knowledge.
36. Snow, C. P., The Two Cultures--and the Sczentific Revolution Cambridge Univ. Press, New York, 1959.
37. Couturat, Louis: La Logique de Leibnitz, Olms, Verlagsbuchhandlung, Hildesheim.
38. Quine, Willard V., Ontological Relativity and other essays. Columbia Univ. Press, New York, 1969.
39. Heisenberg, Werner, Physics and Beyond--Encounters and Conversations. Harper and Row, New York, 1971.
40. Haskell, Edward F., The Coaction Compass--A general Conceptual Scheme Based Upon the Independent Systematizations of Coaction Among Plants by Gause, Animals by Haskell, and Men by Moreno, Lundberg, Horney and Others.--Mimeographed, 1948. (Mentioned in Science, Sep. 3, 1948 (p. 264).
41. Haskell, Edward F., "The Religious Force of Unified Science," Scientific Monthly 54, 545, 1942.
42. In his review of Physics and Beyond, Elting Morrison remarked that "Events in the physical world take place the way a man thinks"99. And one of the great questions of philosophy has been how this could have come about. Unified science explains it by extending Bohr's principle of complementarity up from geoid systems (to which Newtonean physics applies) through the kingdoms of plant and animal ecosystems to that of human cultures. This explains why Man "thinks the way things happen in the physical world."
43. This term was suggested by W. V. Quine in discussions following this symposium: Entropy, he pointed out, is Greek for turning in; the opposite term, should therefore be the Greek for turning out, namely ectropy. Since the coaction cardioid literally turns in and out of the circle of reference, his short, elegant term has been adopted and used throughout.
44. Weaver, Warren, "Science and Complexity," American Scientist 36, 537-44, 1948.
45. Eblen, William R., Total Education in the Total Environment, SPRED, Norwalk Conn., 18, 1971.
46. The Bible, Paul's Epistle to the Galatians 6: 7 "For whatsoever a man sows that he will also reap." RSV. 2.
47. The Bible, Matthew 7:12 "As you wish that men would do to you, do so to them; for this is the law and the prophets." Luke 6:31 "And as ye would that men should do to you, do ye also to them likewise."
48. Langlois, T. H., A Study of Small-Mouth Bass, Micropterus Dolomieu (Lacepede) in Rearing Ponds in Ohio. Ohio State Univ. Studies, Oct. 1936.
49. Langlois, T. H., Haskell, Edward, "Assembly of the Sciences into a Single Discipline," The Science Teacher Vol. 37, No. 9, Dec. 1970, Supplement.
50. Wiener, Norbert., Cybernetics--Or Control and Communication in the Animal and the Machine, Wiley, New York 1948, Hermann, Paris 1948.
51. Bertalanffy, Ludwig von, General Systems Theory--Foundations, Development, Applications, Braziller, New York, 1968.
52. Bertalanffy, Ludwig von, "General Systems Theory--A Critical Review", a chapter in Modern Systems Research for the Behanioral Sciences, Walter Buckley, ed., Aldine, Chicago, 1968.
53. The paper in which these concepts were first expounded was called The Coaction Compass (see Note 40, above). Heisenberg's statement that "The problem of values...concerns the compass by which we must steer our ship if we are to set a true course through life" appears to infer this sort of thing. (See Note 39, above).
54. Coordinates of position begin at the origin and extend outward just as in the Cartesian system. But in the Periodic system, negative coordinates are subtracted from the zero circle. Example: Let the zero circle's radius be 15 units long. The coordinate X-5 is obtained by subtracting 5 units inward from the circle, and is thus a positive number: 10. This is the meaning of relative minus. The method of calculation was put forward by Gause30 and Gause and Witt,31 and was then generalized.28 For another method of calculation, see the Addendum to Chapter 1.
55. Discussion of the lanthanide and actinide elementat is here omitted, as they themselves are in Figure 5.
56. Location of Group 0 in quadrant 3 is neither geometrically nccessary nor significant, since the 0 circle falls in all the quadrants equally. It is, however, empirically convenient, since Group VIII does fall in the ( - , - ) quadrant, and Group 0 elements alternate with those of Group VIII in all the double Periods.
Techniques have recently been invented by which inert elements can be induced to combine with others, something they never do in nature; that is, spontaneously. This shows that Period 6 Man need not resign himself to acceptance of apparently immutable natural conditions, which lower Period peoples could not even dream of questioning. We shall return to this crucial fact in later chapters.
57. Pauling, Linus, College Chemistry, An Introductory Textbook of General Chemistry. W. H. Freeman, San Francisco, 1951 (Chapter 31).
58. Simple peoples, and the half-conscious and sub-conscious parts of our own modern selves, tend to explain azoic phenomena by only partially or symbolically correct zoic and human analogies called myths and symbols. One-field specialists tend to react so strongly to avoid this error, that they also avoid correct analogies or veiled truths, and thus resist synthesis. This has resulted in the Two Cultures and widespread loss of self determination through-out the West--Unification of the sciences should overcome this paralysis and help us gain some control over our destiny. (See Jung, Carl Man and His Symbols, W. H. Allen, London, 1964).
59. Langer, Suzanne, Philosophy in a New Key--A study in tht symbolism of reason, rite and art. Harvard Univ. Press, Cambridge, Mass, 1957.
60. Bohr, Niels H. D., Atomic Physics and Human Knowledge, Wiley, New York 1958.
61. Kuhn, Thomas S., The Structure of Scientific Revolutions, Univ. of Chicago Press, 1962, Chapter VIII.
62. There are, however, hundreds of isotopes which also map into the Periodic table.
63. The most famous approach to date has resulted in the models described in The Limits to Growth, produced under the auspices of the Club of Rome. Universe Books, N.Y., 1972.
64. Leibniz-Selections, Ed. P. P. Wiener, Scribners, N.Y. 1951.
65. These "improvements and further developments" of the Periodic Law appear to consist in the substitution of coaction for atomic weight or atomic number, and in the substitution of the general geometric form in place of its originally concrete empirical form.
66. The decision as to which of these coactions obtains depends upon which organism is at the time the work component (x), and which the controller (y). These relations are complex, and are described and defined in more detail elsewhere.28
67. Subsuming by this and all other scientific classifications is W. V. Quine's deductively formulated theory of natural kinds.38 His construct is therefore related to this work in the concluding chapter.Subsuming by this and all other scientific classifications is W. V. Quine's deductively formulated theory of natural kinds.38 His construct is therefore related to this work in the concluding chapter.
68. Bateson, Gregory, Naven, A Survey of the Problems Suggested by a Composite Picture of the Culture of a New Guinea Tribe, Drawn from Three Points of View. Cambridge Univ. Press, Cambridge, 1936.Bateson, Gregory, Naven, A Survey of the Problems Suggested by a Composite Picture of the Culture of a New Guinea Tribe, Drawn from Three Points of View. Cambridge Univ. Press, Cambridge, 1936.
69. Haskell, Edward F. Switzerland's Vertical Front--The Migros Federation of Cooperatives in the Light of Systematic Social Science. A chapter in Gottlieb Duttweiler by 65 authors. Speer Verlag. Zurich, 1948.Haskell, Edward F. Switzerland's Vertical Front--The Migros Federation of Cooperatives in the Light of Systematic Social Science. A chapter in Gottlieb Duttweiler by 65 authors. Speer Verlag. Zurich, 1948.
70. Baltzell, E. Digby, The Protestant Establishment--Aristocracy and Caste in America, Random House, N.Y. 1964.
71. Haskell, Edward F., "Geometric Coding of Political Philosophies." Proceedings of the Second International Congress for the Philosophy of Science, Vol. IV, Zurich 1954, Editions du Griffon, Neuchtel, Switz., 1955.
72. Conant, James B., Two Modes of Thought, Trident, New York, 1964.
73. "Power grows out of the muzzle of a gun." Mao Tse Tung. "All of (recorded) history is the history of class conflict." Marx, Engels. (Analysed geometrically in Chapter V.)
74. Talmon, J. L., The Origins of Totalitarian Democracy, Praeger, New York 1952.Talmon, J. L., The Origins of Totalitarian Democracy, Praeger, New York 1952.
75. Djilas, Milovan, The New Class--An Analysis of the Communist System, Praeger, New York, 1957.
76. Oliver Cromwell, it has been pointed out to me, had his king beheaded, too. The crucial difference, however, is that Cromwell did this not gladly but reluctantly; that he steadfastly refused the crown; that he did not destroy the Minority; and that, when he bowed from the stage of history, he had markedly restored and improved his nation's over-all condition, which has maintained its form ever since.
77. Marx, Karl, and Friedrich Engels, The Communist Manifesto, London, 1848.
78. Until the sciences' theories are unified, strength in either of these modes of thought requires and produces weakness in the other: The parts of the universe are interlocked and display coherent structure. Until this is grasped, suitable concepts to describe it are formulated, and inter-disciplinary language-fouling is reduced, accurate empirical descriptions of its various parts necessarily result in an array of incoherent theories. Conversely, as long as the sciences remain discrete, coherent theory can be formulated only in non-empirical terms, and its content must contradict or ignore many empirical data and relationships. To the extent that unified science is empirically correct and logically consistent, it reconciles these here-to-fore mutually exclusive modes of thought. See Chapter V.
79. Strausz-Hup, Robert; W. R. Kintner, J. E. Daugherty; A. J. Cottrall; Protracted Conflict--A Challenging Study of Communist Strategy. Harper & Bro's New York, 1959.
80. Philberth, Bernhard, Christliche Prophetie und Nuklearenergie, R. Brockhaus Verlag, Wuppertal W. Germany 1964.
81. Koestler, Arthur, The Sleep Walkers, A History of Man's Changing View of the Universe. MacMillan, New York 1959.
82. It is no accident that the Extremist ideologists so strongly and consistently oppose all religions, and vice versa: Their dominant value-premises are diametrically opposite: the ideologists prize class or race conflict, the people of religion prize cooperation.
83. Benedict, Ruth, Patterns of Culture, Houghton MifHin, Boston, 1934.
84. Sartre, Jean Paul, The Philosophy of Jean-Paul Sartre, (selections), R. D. Cumming, ed., Modern Library, New York, 1966.
85. Toynbee, Arnold J., An Historian's Approach to Religion, Oxford Univ. Press, London, New York, Toronto, 1956.
87. This insight has been extended in Divine Principle and its Applications by Young Oon Kim, The Holy Spirit Association for the Unification of World Christianity, 1611 Upshur St. N.W., Washington, D.C. 20011, 1968.
88. Allardyce, Gilbert, The Place of Fascism in European History, Prentice-Hall, Englewood ClifFs, New Jersey, 1971.
89. Allardyce, Gilbert, The Place of Fascism in European History, Prentice-Hall, Englewood ClifFs, New Jersey, 1971.
90. Geometrically, this coaction falls in quadrant 3, where the coaction cardioid displays two lobes and an apex. These geometric features correspond to the three sub-Groups in chemistry's Group VIII (Figures 5 and 11 ) . The cardioid's negative apex ( - = - ) is the geometric locus of the Sub-Group whose political expression is Nihilism. (Sometimes it is misnamed Anarchism.) This coaction is so destructive that its exponents frequently destroy themselves. See Zero by Robert Payne, John Day, New York, 1950. The "political spectrum" cannot map this phenomenon because it falls next to, yet between, its limits.
91. Haskell, Edward F. and Harold G. Cassidy, "Plain Truth--and Redirection of the Cold War," (136 pages) Privately printed and distri buted, 1961.
92. Adorno, T. W. et al, "The Authoritarian Personality," Harper, New York 1950.
93. Communist and fascist regimes have the following six concrete traits in common: an ideology; a single party, typically led by one man; a terroristic police; a communications monopoly; a weapons monopoly; and a centrally directed economy. See Carl J. Friedrich and Zbigniew K. Brzezinski, "Fascism as Totalitarianism: Men and Technology." To these, Hannah Arendt adds a seventh common trait: "a foreign policy...directed toward world domination".88
94. Haskell, Edward F., "Lance--A Novel About Multi-cultural Men." John Day, 1941.
95. I have, however, expressed these two and several other centrisms--logo, patho, ego, ethno, and trato- centrisms--in fiction: "Lance--A Novel about Multi-cultural Men"94. Fiction permits the depiction of emotions which science strives to cancel out by means of invariants. Neither of the Two Cultures can be supplanted by the other. A would-be C. P. Snow must be both scientist and novelist.
96. A less complete version of this chart about four meters high formed the visual background of the 1969 Boston symposium, whose papers (two of them in expanded form) are assembled in the present volume.
97. Nicolson, Marjorie Hope, "The Breaking of the Circle--Studies in the Effect of the `New Science' upon Seventeenth Century Poetry." Northwestern Univ. Press, Evanston, Ill., 1950.
98. Livesey, L. J., Tomorrow's Education, Program of the World Future Society's First General Assembly, Washington, D.C., May 1971.
99. Morrison, Elting G.; review of "Physics and beyond--Encounters and Conversations," New York Times Book Review, Sunday Jan. 11, 1971.

Pages 21-87
Table of Contents Chapter III


JERE W. CLARK: AN INTRODUCTION
Edward Haskell
Interchangeable machine parts that can be assembled were first envisaged and made in Connecticut. In 1800, Eli Whitney of Connecticut amazed and delighted Thomas Jefferson by staging a demonstration of parts assembly before a group of United States Government officials. Whitney casually dumped piles of meaningless parts out of several bags. He then picked them up at random from the piles, assembled complete muskets like rabbits conjured out of a magician's hat, and handed them to his astonished audience. And, to their amazement, every one of them worked!
This industrial feat made Connecticut so famous that when Mark Twain wanted to dramatize America's industrial advances over the Old World, the Yankee he chose for King Arthur's Court was a Connecticut Yankee. And rightly so, for among the most necessary conditions of industrial civilization is this abstract capability: the capability of machine parts--from the parts of transistors to those of planes, cars and houses-to be assemblable.
Now, there is no way around the fact that the author of Chapter III, Jere Clark, is not exactly a Connecticut Yankee. No matter what he's saying, whenever he opens his mouth he proclaims himself, loud and clear, to be from the South. (He once told me that the only Connecticut State College he could possibly have accepted an invitation to was Southern Connecticut.) So I'm introducing that interesting new type, the Southern Yankee. And the most interesting thing about this one is that while Eli Whitney, the first Connecticut Yankee, made interchangeable machine-parts, the second one, Jere Clark, has organized a Center for making mind-parts. For assemblable mind parts are just as vital to our new scientific and academic revolution as assemblable machine parts were and are to the industrial revolution.
You know what the modern university has become: a tremendous industry composed of a lot of high-powered departments making parts of mind; but parts which have not been designed to be assembled! (Figure IV-9.) The product of each department has his own special vocabulary and notation, and even his own world view, centered upon his particular ology. But each departmental specialist, characterized by his own logocentric background theory, is so remote from his colleagues in other logocentric fields that Dr. Clark talks about "interdisciplinary space", and likens unified science to a space ship for inter-disciplinary space travel!
And he does not just talk: he acts. Dr. Clark is perhaps the most active promoter of intellectual space-ship assembly plants known to history: He is Director of the Center for Interdisciplinary Creativity at Southern Connecticut State College. For the last three years he has served, and is still serving, as the international Chairman of the Education Committee of the Society for General Systems Research. He is past Coordinator of the Northeastern States Division of that Society, Executive Director of the Consortium on Systems Education in New Haven; U.S.A. Representative, Education Coordinating Committee, World Organization for General Systems and Cybernetics; and President of the Conneticut Chapter of the World Future Society. Dr. Clark is a charter member of the Leadership Council of the Buffalo-based Creative Education Foundation and is currently serving as a consulting editor of the Journal of Creative Behavior. He is also a consulting editor for International Associations, and Associate Editor of General Systems Bulletin. During the U.N. International Education Year ( 1970), he served as Systems Creativity Editor for International Associations.
In the beautiful, hilly outskirts of New Haven, at Southern Connecticut State College, Dr. Jere W. Clark directs his pilot plant for assembly of the sciences' now interchangeable parts. History thus repeats itself, as usual, on a higher level: what Whitney's plant for interchangeable mechanical parts was to our Industrial revolution, Clark's Center for Interdisciplinary Creativity is to our Scientific Revolution: an assembly plant in which to pull this civilization's unassembled mind together and gain, under God, control over its destiny.

Pages 89-90



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1:An Informal Integral Canon: Selected books on Integral Science, Philosophy and the Integral Transformation Sri Aurobindo - The Life Divine Sri Aurobindo - The Synthesis of Yoga Pierre Teilhard de Chardin - The Phenomenon of Man Jean Gebser - The Ever-Present Origin Edward Haskell - Full Circle - The Moral Force of Unified Science Oliver L. Reiser - Cosmic Humanism and World Unity Christopher Hills - Nuclear Evolution: Discovery of the Rainbow Body The Mother - Mother's Agenda Erich Jantsch - The Self-Organizing Universe - Scientific and Human Implications of the Emerging Paradigm of Evolution T. R. Thulasiram - Arut Perum Jyothi and Deathless Body Kees Zoeteman - Gaiasophy Ken Wilber - Sex Ecology Spirituality: The Spirit of Evolution Don Edward Beck - Spiral Dynamics: Mastering Values, Leadership, and Change Kundan Singh - The Evolution of Integral Yoga: Sri Aurobindo, Sri Ramakrishna, and Swami Vivekananda Sean Esbjorn-Hargens - Integral Ecology: Uniting Multiple Perspectives on the Natural World ~ M Alan Kazlev, Kheper.html">Kheper ,

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1:Life comes full circle. ~ Tracey Gold
2:Everything comes full circle. ~ Unknown
3:The wheel is come full circle. ~ William Shakespeare
4:Full circle. The beginning and the end. ~ Kami Garcia
5:At last, the wheel comes full circle ~ Cassandra Clare
6:Its so funny whenever things come full circle. ~ Swoosie Kurtz
7:Most things in music go full circle eventually. ~ Simon Cowell
8:When life brings you full circle, pay attention. There's a lesson there. ~ Mandy Hale
9:Full circle, from to tomb of the womb to the womb of the tomb, we come ~ Joseph Campbell
10:When I got this role, my daughter Molly said, 'Dad, you've come full circle. ~ Jeffrey Tambor
11:Life is a full circle, widening until it joins the circle motions of the infinite. ~ Anais Nin
12:Life is a full circle, widening until it joins the circle motions of the infinite. ~ Ana s Nin
13:I kinda feel like everything comes full circle in life, even though that's a cliche. ~ Iggy Pop
14:To put it squarely, as I say in my memoir, the eternal triangle has come full circle. ~ Muriel Spark
15:It’s come full circle: the girl who set me on the path of destruction can be my redemption. ~ Nina G Jones
16:Your actions will follow you full circle round,the higher the leap, I said, the harder the ground! ~ Amy Ray
17:Not a coincidence, but events coming full circle. The infinite possibilities of energy and spirit. ~ M J Rose
18:You know, if you hang around this earth long enough you really see how things come full circle. ~ Patti Davis
19:To me, the model of success is not linear. Success is completing the full circle of yourself. ~ Gloria Steinem
20:It's really nice when life comes full circle and you get to work with people four years down the line. ~ Gillian Jacobs
21:Leave me like this. I have come full circle and I understand. The world must be read backward. All is clear. ~ Italo Calvino
22:IF EVERYONE HAS A full circle of human qualities to complete, then progress lies in the direction we haven’t been. ~ Gloria Steinem
23:I still prefer the bebop of the '40s. The very stuff I started out with is still the best to me. I have come full circle. ~ Carla Bley
24:Maybe love isn’t something that comes full circle. It just ebbs and flows, in and out, just like the people in our lives ~ Colleen Hoover
25:Full circle. A new terror born in death, a new superstition entering the unassailable fortress of forever. I am legend. ~ Richard Matheson
26:Maybe love isn’t something that comes full circle. It just ebbs and flows, in and out, just like the people in our lives. ~ Colleen Hoover
27:Maybe love isn’t something that comes full circle. It just ebbs and flows, in and out, just like the people in our lives. On ~ Colleen Hoover
28:Your past has not come full circle to its complete redemption until you allow Christ to not only defuse it, but also to use it. ~ Renee Swope
29:This is not a full circle. It's life carrying on. It's the next breath we all take. It's the choice we make to get on with it. ~ Alexandra Fuller
30:This is not a full circle. It's Life carrying on. It's the next breath we all take. It's the choice we all make to get on with it. ~ Alexandra Fuller
31:I tried to see it as bringing things full circle. I'd left and, in doing so, fractured myself. By returning, I'd be able to be whole again. ~ Sarah Dessen
32:Twelve years had passed, and now he'd come full circle. The whole business had started here, and here it must end. That was simple justice. ~ Robert Bloch
33:Maybe love isn’t something that comes full circle. It just ebbs and flows, in and out, just like the people in our lives. On a particularly ~ Colleen Hoover
34:Service or giving is the other side of receiving. Giving and receiving is a full circle: a full circle feels more natural than a half circle. ~ Laura Huxley
35:A sage is a former fool who has become tired of himself.

A foolish sage is one who forgets this.

Remember, or come full circle. ~ Vera Nazarian
36:Thus the story describes a full circle... a vicious circle as all circles are, despite their posing as apples, or planets, or human faces. ~ Vladimir Nabokov
37:As I was wheeled into the operating room one of the nurses said, “Hey, it’s Hillary Clinton!” and I answered by barfing all over her. Full circle. ~ Amy Poehler
38:Gardeners instinctively know that flowers and plants are a continuum and that the wheel of garden history will always be coming full circle. ~ Francis Cabot Lowell
39:No matter the deviation, all things come full circle. You begin and end your journey in the same place, but with a different set of eyes. - Abram ~ Jennifer DeLucy
40:Twentieth-century physics, going full circle back to Heracleitus, postulates that all matter is in motion. In other words, there is no thing, only energy. ~ Camille Paglia
41:Things in life never come full circle. Maybe once or twice they’re hexagonal, but to me they’re almost always misshapen, as if drawn by a toddler in crayon. ~ Michael Diamond
42:You just stay the course, and do what it is that you do, and grow while you're doing it. Eventually it will either come full circle, or at least you'll go to bed at night happy. ~ Jon Bon Jovi
43:In this new digital landscape, this sort of international marketplace, it's come full circle, and I wanted to take advantage of my talent relations on both sides of the Atlantic. ~ Colin Callender
44:She still dotted her i’s with full circles and felt genuinely thankful for every sunny day. I believed more in dark clouds, in sharp dots, in needing proof in order to feel trust. ~ David Levithan
45:We lost Coop in this very spot not even a year ago, and here we are now - Coop's son being born right where he was lost to us forever. "Full Circle," I murmur, stroking Zac's cheek. ~ Harper Sloan
46:So, there it was in a nutshell. Poverty led him to religion, religion to education, education to lust, lust to communism. And Communism had brought him back full circle to poverty. ~ Colin Cotterill
47:It seemed to Ciro that so much of life was about not holding on, but letting go and in so doing, the beauty of the past and the happiness he felt then came full circle like a band of gold. ~ Adriana Trigiani
48:Full circle from the tomb of the womb to the womb of the tomb we come, an ambiguous, enigmatical incursion into a world of solid matter that is soon to melt from us like the substance of a dream. ~ Joseph Campbell
49:My whole life is a practical joke. Every evening and every show has really become about entertaining me. I was always like that. And now I've come full circle because that's what the TV show is too. ~ Howie Mandel
50:We conclude this list of thanks by coming full circle:We thank the families of 9/11, whose persistence and dedication helped create the Commission.They have been with us each step of the way, as partners ~ Anonymous
51:As you get older, then you finally come back around full circle when you don't give a s - anymore and you decide I'm going to just tell the truth to everybody. I don't give a s - if anybody likes me. ~ Chelsea Handler
52:Kai’s attention fell from the pictures and snagged on the small metal foot that sat on the corner of his desk, its joints caked with grease. Like a revolving wheel, his thoughts came full circle yet again. ~ Marissa Meyer
53:(I)n this world of change and lost memories, time brings all things full circle. That which was discarded becomes priceless.Those who were abandoned will someday be loved—if you can hold on till that day. ~ Neal Shusterman
54:His way had therefore come full circle, or rather had taken the form of an ellipse or a spiral, following as ever no straight unbroken line, for the rectilinear belongs only to Geometry and not to Nature and Life. ~ Hermann Hesse
55:The gypsy in my soul is living on the road again, ... When I first started my career, I was on the road for about five or six years straight, not living anywhere. Thirty-three years later, I`ve come full circle. ~ Maureen McGovern
56:Maybe love isn't something that comes full circle. It just ebbs and flows, in and out, just like the people in our lives. Just because we didn't end up on the same wave, doesn't mean we aren't apart of the same ocean ~ Colleen Hoover
57:Maybe love isn't something that comes full circle. It just ebbs and flows, in and out, just like the people in our lives. Just because we didn't end up on the same wave, doesn't mean we aren't apart of the same ocean. ~ Colleen Hoover
58:We can't say anything, but just remember that, on Fringe, nothing is as it seems. There's always a little more to the story behind the story. He's definitely a large part, going forward. A lot of things will come full circle. ~ J H Wyman
59:Grace Kelly was written after these musicians were trying to mold me into what I should be. I was really angry and so I wrote the song and mailed them the lyrics. They didn't call me back, but two years later it's come full circle. ~ Mika
60:I was at the Apollo Theater all the time, skipping school, and I worked in a barbershop. That's how I started with doo-wop. Now I've come full circle. I did all kinds of music. I used to work on Broadway and Tin Pan Alley. ~ George Clinton
61:He and I have come full circle, except that now he’s the child and I’m the adult. This time, he’s begging me to stay and I’ll soon be the one walking out the door. The cruelty of my next thought shames me: You reap what you sow. ~ Theresa Weir
62:Some of us go full circle. Some of us blindly go nowhere. The circle doesn’t have to be very large to make a point, kick your ass and/or be entertaining. Remember that and stay light. Even the deaf know good music when they hear it. ~ Jason Mraz
63:How odd, then, that our culture has come full circle and now welcomes not religion but medication—namely, morphine—as that which gives us the hope and the courage to die without fear. Opiates have become the opiate of the people. ~ Hannah K Grieser
64:Life begins before a soul is born and commences once again with the act of dying, and as in the Afro-Asian symbol of the snake of eternity swallowing its tail, all is in flux, all comes full circle, with no beginning and no end. ~ Peter Matthiessen
65:descriptions of Jack had come full circle. He was fat, short, tall, thin, Herculean, frail, dark-eyed, light-eyed, foreign, domestic, well-groomed, slobbish, hairless, full-bearded, both Jewish and Satanic, raised by wolves and saints. ~ Tim Marquitz
66:I jogged down the corridor, but when I got to the other end, no one was there. I opened a door and found myself back in the main entry hall. I had gone full circle. I didn’t see Dr Thorn anywhere, but there on the opposite side of the room were the di ~ Rick Riordan
67:I'm convinced that the catastrophes of the next two decades will be so vast as to bring about a world where life, if it survives, will be far simpler - and the technologies, too. Then we will have come full circle to something like life on the savanna. ~ Kirkpatrick Sale
68:You’ve come full circle. Here you are again, with it all to do all over again, and you must decide all over again whether you want to be famous or whether you want to write. And the two things, in spite of all the evidence, have nothing whatever in common. ~ James Baldwin
69:I realize that our world has come full circle. That, for all the pain and suffering, for all the lies and deception, that everything is as it should be. That the journey doesn’t dictate the end. We do. Our choices determine the shape and path of our life. ~ Michelle Leighton
70:I was raised a Catholic, but with very liberal parents, so I had to find my spirituality. I've been looking for it since I was a child. I would find it in pieces of art, music, flowers, trees. Now I've come full circle finding God in clouds, flowers, and trees. ~ Sandra Cisneros
71:Some directors, like Stevens [George Stevens], shoot full circle, 360 degrees, and that's what's right for them. I generally shoot at about a seven to one ratio. But part of that is because I've worked on every screenplay, so I'm further along in the visual concept. ~ Elia Kazan
72:People always say that things come full circle, but I think that's not accurate. I think they just come very close. You find yourself almost back where you started, but you've moved slightly. Like evidence of the time that has passed, of the things that have happened. ~ Laura Dave
73:We are born of the Earth, and so we return to the Earth,” Athena intoned, a tear running heedlessly down one cheek.  “We belong to the honoured Lord and Lady, and so we return to their loving embrace.  The wheel of life turns, and so too, our lives come full circle.  ~ Sharon Hannaford
74:...innocence of eye has a quality of its own. It means to see as a child sees, with freshness and acknowledgment of the wonder; it also means to see as an adult sees who has gone full circle and once again sees as a child - with freshness and an even deeper sense of wonder. ~ Minor White
75:In the 19th century China dominated the manufacture of porcelain. Then European factories discovered a cheaper method of making pottery of equal quality, demolishing the Chinese industry the exact reverse of what is happening now. World economics have turned full circle. ~ Martin Sorrell
76:You experience them experiencing pure magic, unadulterated by cynicism or irony or self-consciousness. And as the ride makes its full circle, so do you, until Peter Pan has done it again, and you are once more a child, taking it all in, amazed, overwhelmed, enchanted. ~ Neil Patrick Harris
77:´´You know what's the strangest thing about tonight? Tonight, being an astoundingly strange night?´´

´´What's that?´´

´´That you still don't realize I'm willing to do anything, anything-he gestured in a full circle around them- ´´to stay in your company...´´ ~ Stephanie Perkins
78:You know what’s the strangest thing about tonight? Tonight, being an astoundingly strange night?” “What’s that?” “That you still don’t realize I’m willing to do anything, anything”—he gestured in a full circle around them—“to stay in your company. You don’t need to pay me. ~ Stephanie Perkins
79:It’s clear now that codependency isn’t a fad, as some people once claimed. It’s come full circle. As family illnesses, from alcoholism to Alzheimer’s disease, continue to become openly discussed by more people, so does the number of people seeking help for codependency increase. ~ Melody Beattie
80:It was Vikram Bhatt and 'Raaz' that got me interested in the medium of cinema. Before that, I was like any other youngster dabbling with various things - modelling, films - without a definite direction or focus. Now that I'm working with all of them, life has come full circle for me. ~ Bipasha Basu
81:And I’m sorry that I expected your amazing magic to make you smarter and wiser and more able to work with this difficult head of mine.  That was silly and wrong.” Her words had come full circle.  “You couldn’t possibly do that—you don’t know what it is to live in my head.  But I do.”  ~ Debora Geary
82:For there either was some Tristero beyond the appearance of the legacy America, or there was just America, and if there was just America then it seemed the only way she could continue, and manage to be at all relevant to it, was as an alien, unfurrowed, assumed full circle into some paranoia. ~ Thomas Pynchon
83:Very slowly, he turned a full circle, taking in the nothingness of it all. It seemed his lungs could never be large enough to breathe in this much air, his eyes could never see this much space, nor could he near the full extent of the rolling, roaring ocean. For the briefest moment, he had no edges. ~ M L Stedman
84:Having exhausted every possibility at the moment when he was coming full circle, Antonino realised that photographing photographs was the only course that he had left - or, rather, the true course he had obscurely been seeking all this time. (Last line of the story The Adventure of a Photographer ) ~ Italo Calvino
85:They're all qualities wrongly called feminine: attention to detail, patience, empathy. I don't have children, but I was raised as a female to have those qualities because they're perceived as feminine. Until men are raised with those qualities, too, they won't have the full circle of human qualities. ~ Gloria Steinem
86:The process has now run full circle: Preaching originates in personal counseling; preaching is personal counseling on a group basis; personal counseling originates in preaching. Personal counseling imparts to the preacher a practical familiarity with human nature which he would not otherwise obtain. ~ Harry Emerson Fosdick
87:Company for helping to get this report to the broad public. We conclude this list of thanks by coming full circle:We thank the families of 9/11, whose persistence and dedication helped create the Commission.They have been with us each step of the way, as partners and witnesses.They know better than any of us the ~ Anonymous
88:If you consider that the gender roles are just political, then what you come to see is that the full circle of human qualities is divided up so that two-thirds are masculine and one-third is feminine. Women are missing more of their human qualities, so you'll find us on the fore-front of trying to change this. ~ Gloria Steinem
89:Stories as written are progressive, sentence must build upon sentence as brick upon brick, yet the beauty of this life in its endless mystery is circular. Sun & moon, spheres endlessly circling. Black man, full circle; white man, bisected circle; life, the third circle, on & on, & round & round. ~ Richard Flanagan
90:She navigated the last turn before the Butler town line and had to slam on the brakes when a huge obstruction appeared out of nowhere, blocking the road. There was just enough moisture on the road to spin her tiny car around in a full circle that put her back where she started, her car nose-to-nose with Fred the moose. ~ Marie Force
91:I have a big, long episode [in Full Circle] with Calista [Flockhart], and then my character actually carries out through a lot of it because he was a cop investigating this crime. But it is almost hard to remember, even though it wasn't that long ago. We shot it so fast. We literally shot that whole episode in one day. ~ Eric McCormack
92:Stayed is also a book of the heart and I couldn’t be more thrilled to see its publication. In my twenty-six years of publishing, it’s my first major hardcover release and brings me full circle to work with Lou Aronica, whom I first had the pleasure of working with while at Avon Books. It’s also my very first non-genre ~ Tanya Anne Crosby
93:The end was present in the beginning and the beginning in the end, so that there was neither beginning nor end but only the perfection of the whole. Life had come round full circle, and the aging man that he was admitted it not with weariness but with a welling up within him of refreshment that was like the welling up of youth. ~ Elizabeth Goudge
94:And if the Thames that ran beside them, sure and silver in the afternoon light, recalled a night long ago when the moon shone as bright as a shilling on this same boy and girl, and if the stones of Blackfriars recalled the thred of their feet and thought to themselves: at last, the wheel comes full circle, they kept their silence. ~ Cassandra Clare
95:Suddenly, I’m struck by the magnitude of the moment. Hurtling through the air becomes freeing, not terrifying. This time last year, I was suffocating within the confines of my life. I would’ve done anything to escape. That my life has come full circle is as exhilarating as it is scary.
Life is for living.
For moments like this. ~ Siobhan Davis
96:I became an actor to escape my own personality. Acting is the most therapeutic thing in the world. You see, through acting you come full circle in your personality and, oh, what a grand time you can have along the way being wonderful people through your characters...I think all the courage that I may lack personally I have as an actor. ~ George C Scott
97:Must lessons always be so hard? Must battles be so bloody? And must it always be our kind that keep the wheels in motion? The year, it turns, and it turns, and turns. Now it has come full circle. Winter and summer: life and death; the adder stone and the wedding-ring; all echo that endless coming of age. Who can stop the word turning? ~ Joanne M Harris
98:The blood ran in tiny rivulets down his white face, as if from Christ’s Crown of Thorns, his long blond hair flying out as he turned full circle, his hand ripping at his shirt, tearing it open down his chest, the black tie loose and falling. His pale crystalline blue eyes were glazed and shot with blood as he screamed the unimportant lyrics. ~ Anne Rice
99:I always wanted to be an NBA ball player since I was eight years old. I kind of went on the road of sports and I ended up on the stage with the microphone. For me it's like a dream come full circle. I think some people do it because their agent tells them it's a good look to get some publicity. But myself, I eat, live, and breathe basketball. ~ Michael Bivins
100:I had finally come full circle. Except for continuing to tell my story and spreading the Word, a great part of my life was over: the delinquency, the running, the war, the imprisonment, the drinking, the nightmares, the greediness and desperation, the unhappiness. I was completely satisfied with my test of forgiveness and more than ready to move on. ~ Louis Zamperini
101:That I had come full circle shouldn't have surprised me, for we are born into time only to be born out of it, after living through the cycles of the seasons, under stars that turn because the world turns, born into ignorance and acquiring knowledge that ultimately reveals to us our enduring ignorance: The circle is the essential pattern of our existence. ~ Dean Koontz
102:That I had come full circle shouldn’t have surprised me, for we are born into time only to be born out of it, after living through the cycles of the seasons, under stars that turn because the world turns, born into ignorance and acquiring knowledge that ultimately reveals to us our enduring ignorance: The circle is the essential pattern of our existence. ~ Dean Koontz
103:You aimin' to go the full circle now? How long before I have to come get you up from the sidewalks? You got hurt and pain in you? Well, I used to know a man who knew how to live with his pain and make his hurt work for him. Your daddy died with dignity; there wasn't no bum in him. And he known some hurts in this life you ain't never even heard of! ~ Lorraine Hansberry
104:Free to move, speak, extemporize, and yet. We have not been cut loose. Our truancy is defined by one fixed star, and our drift represents merely a slight change of angle to it: we may seize the moment, toss it around while the moments pass, a short dash here, an exploration there, but we are brought round full circle to face again the single immutable fact -- ~ Tom Stoppard
105:We are born of the Earth, and so we return to the Earth,” Athena intoned, a tear running heedlessly down one cheek.  “We belong to the honoured Lord and Lady, and so we return to their loving embrace.  The wheel of life turns, and so too, our lives come full circle.  This farewell is not a final farewell, for the wheel turns eternal and we shall meet again. ~ Sharon Hannaford
106:Money has to undergo a metamorphosis again, it has to relinquish its role in the market economy and engage in an economy of capacities. Then we would be concerned with human creative productivity. And we would come full circle, since each human being can then act within his company as co-creator of the future, can - in full dignity - contribute to shaping this future. ~ Joseph Beuys
107:Robert Neville looked out over the new people of the earth. He knew he did not belong to them; he knew that, like the vampires, he was anathema and black terror to be destroyed. And, abruptly, the concept came, amusing to him even in his pain. ... Full circle. A new terror born in death, a new superstition entering the unassailable fortress of forever. I am legend. ~ Richard Matheson
108:In a sense, in the area of child care, children's relationships with parents' working has come full circle. We have gone from the mom-and-pop store (or mom-and-pop farm), with its integration of child care and work, to children-at-home and dad-at-work; to the mom-plus-daddy working at home, with its integration of childcare and work again. From mom-and-pop back to mom-and-pop. ~ Warren Farrell
109:The PREP Formula Once you have your points, you can use the “PREP” formula for each point in your presentation. P: Point of View State your opinion, idea, or fact at the beginning. R: Reasons State your reasons for holding this point of view. E: Example Reinforce your point of view with an example. P: Point of View Restate your first “P” to emphasize your idea and to come full circle. ~ Brian Tracy
110:Tom." Mrs. Sprye's tone was severe. "I expect you to look after this boy, not encourage him to go about brawling in the street. In broad daylight!"
Tom was stung. "It's nigh impossible to brawl in the dark, Mrs. Sprye. And look—" He put his hands on Trumpet's shoulders and turned him full circle. "Scarcely a scratch on him. A bit dirty, true, but I believe that Pygmies can be washed. ~ Anna Castle
111:This was killing me to ask, and I knew I didn’t even want the answer. “How long?” “Dad, BT might be days away. I figure I’ve got a week or two at the tops.” And there it was, my heart was wrenching in my chest. It felt like my rib cage was crushing in on itself like I had a working garbage disposal in there. We were coming full circle to that time in my office the night he had been scratched going ~ Mark Tufo
112:We conclude this list of thanks by coming full circle:We thank the families of 9/11, whose persistence and dedication helped create the Commission.They have been with us each step of the way, as partners and witnesses.They know better than any of us the importance of the work we have undertaken. We want to note what we have done, and not done.We have endeavored to provide the most complete account ~ Anonymous
113:All European tradition, Marxism included, has conspired to defy the natural order of all things. Mother Earth has been abused, the powers have been abused, and this cannot go on forever. No theory can alter that simple fact. Mother Earth will retaliate, the whole environment will retaliate, and the abusers will be eliminated. Things come full circle, back to where they started. That's revolution. ~ Russell Means
114:I confide in everyone. I have no restricted private self, reserved specifically for certain trusted special people. I trust and mistrust anyone. I have traveled a full circle. But this time, on returning to zero again, I am able to act out the mistake more adeptly. I am on my way to becoming a very skilled loser. A specialist, a loser to end all losers. A flair for failing. I do it with style and finesse. ~ Carrie Fisher
115:Excitement is the more practical synonym for happiness, and it is precisely what you should strive to chase. It is the cure-all. When people suggest you follow your "passion" or your "bliss," I propose that they are, in fact, referring to the same singular concept: excitement. This brings us full circle. The question you should be asking isn't, "What do I want?" or "What are my goals?" but "What would excite me?" ~ Tim Ferriss
116:What's wrong?" he said. "I'll tell you what's wrong: you're killing us."
"But I thought that's what you wanted?"
"We did," my mother wept, "but not this way."
It hadn't occurred to me until that moment, but I seemed to have come full circle. What started as a dodge had inadvertently become my life's work, an irony I never could have appreciated had my extraordinary parents not put me through Princeton. ~ David Sedaris
117:This is the way the wheel turns, coming at last to full circle, with wild as well as tame at he crib; lion and turtle-dove together an barnyard beasts lying down with the fox. For wild and tame are but two hlaves and here, where all begins and ends, everything must be whole.
And always, among the sleepers, there must be somebody waking - somewhere, someone, waking and watchful. Or what would happen to the world..? ~ P L Travers
118:If I could take away his pain… If there was a way to transfer it from his soul onto mine. I would take it. Without hesitation I would take it all. Maybe that’s how you know you love someone. When you actually feel each tear they cry as if they were your own. When you feel each cut, each bruise, each hit as if you’re the one suffering. I bled for him.& in turn, he bled for her.Funny, how life comes full circle ~ Rachel Van Dyken
119:The Girl Who Stayed is also a book of the heart and I couldn’t be more thrilled to see its publication. In my twenty-six years of publishing, it’s my first major hardcover release and brings me full circle to work with Lou Aronica, whom I first had the pleasure of working with while at Avon Books. It’s also my very first non-genre novel, although you will find it a signature Tanya Anne Crosby read, filled with flawed characters, ~ Tanya Anne Crosby
120:then into a space where there seemed to be nothing but mist. When we came to a wall of yew twice as high as Aurelius himself, we followed it. I noticed a sparkling in the grass and on the leaves: The sun had come out. The moisture in the air began to evaporate and the circle of visibility grew wider by the minute. Our wall of yew had led us full circle around an empty space; we had arrived back at the same walkway we had entered by. ~ Diane Setterfield
121:I could vanish the silk better than Ben Vereen - that was for sure. So I think maybe they said, "Okay, maybe he has something to offer." Years pass and I get a bit of a career, and Ben Vereen ends up hosting one of my specials where I walked through the Great Wall of China. Things came full circle in kind of an ironic way, when you have that honor of people that have influenced you so much host your show. It's a huge experience in your life. ~ David Copperfield
122:Frank couldn't breathe underwater. But where was he? Percy turned in a full circle. Nothing. Then he glanced up. Hovering above him was a giant goldfish. Frank had turned -clothes, backpack, and all- into a koi the size of a teen-aged boy. "dude." Percy sent his thoughts through the water, the way he spoke to other sea creatures. "A goldfish?" Frank's voice came back to him: "I freaked. We were talking about goldfish, so it was on my mind. Sue me. ~ Rick Riordan
123:I'm really excited to act again because when I started out, there was an innocent sort of perception of the world that was coming though me, and I think now through a lot of experience and life and understanding, I've come full circle to having a purer response to things. So my craft will be really interesting to work from this place because I think acting is about being in tune with yourself - or maybe the struggle to be in tune with yourself. ~ Mariel Hemingway
124:. . . the idea of existing beyond the patriarchal institution of faith, of withdrawing our external projection of God onto the church is almost unfathomable. . . . We think there's nothing beyond the edge. No real spirituality, no salvation, no community, no divine substance. We cannot see that the voyage will lead us to whole new continents of depth and meaning. That if we keep going, we might even come full circle, but with a a whole new consciousness. ~ Sue Monk Kidd
125:Frank couldn't breathe underwater.
But where was he?
Percy turned in a full circle. Nothing. Then he glanced up. Hovering above him was a giant goldfish. Frank had turned -clothes, backpack, and all- into a koi the size of a teen-aged boy.
"dude." Percy sent his thoughts through the water, the way he spoke to other sea creatures. "A goldfish?"
Frank's voice came back to him: "I freaked. We were talking about goldfish, so it was on my mind. Sue me. ~ Rick Riordan
126:At the hospital. You’ve told me you need people with a motive to have killed Markham, but you don’t know of anyone else except your client, so all right, let’s assume for the moment that it’s not him, although that continues to make me uncomfortable as hell, except still, what you need, even beyond motive, is presence, by which I mean that whoever it was had to be there and that brings us back around full circle.” “I’ll give you a dollar if you can diagram that last sentence for me. ~ John Lescroart
127:What is life without this? which was why, in the end, it was I, and not he, who blurted out, not once, but many, many times, You'll kill me if you stop, because it was also my way of bringing full circle the dream and the fantasy, me and him, the longed-for words from his mouth to my mouth back into his mouth, swapping words from mouth to mouth, which was when I must have begun using obscenities that he repeated after me, softly at first, till he said, "Call me by your name and I'll call you by mine" ... ~ Andr Aciman
128:Behind the hieroglyphic streets there would either be a transcendent meaning, or only the earth.... Another mode of meaning behind the obvious, or none. Either Oedipa in the orbiting of a true paranoia, or a real Tristero. For there either was some Tristero beyond the appearance of the legacy of America, or there was just America and if there was just America then it seemed the only wa[y] she could continue, and manage to be at all relevant to it, was as an alien, unfurrowed, assumed full circle into some paranoia. ~ Thomas Pynchon
129:A ring was the accepted sign of infinity, eternity. If her own life was that carefully described pencil line, she knew it all at once that the two ends were drawing close together. I have come full circle, she told herself, and wondered what had happened to all the years. It was a question, which from time to time, caused her some anxiety and left her fretting with a dreadful sense of waste. But now, it seemed, the question had become irrelevant, and so the answer, whatever it was, was no longer of any importance. ~ Rosamunde Pilcher
130:First there is barbarism, no schools at all, all learning done at home, chaotically if at all. Then there is civil society, democracy, the right to free schooling for every child. Close on the heels of the right to free education is the right to pull these children out of the free schools and put them in private-schools--we have a right to pay for what is provided for free! And this is followed, inevitably and petulantly, by the right to pull them from school altogether, to do it yourself at home, everything coming full circle. ~ Dave Eggers
131:It’s nothing compared to happiness.”
I snorted through gritted teeth. “What happiness?”
“Exactly.”
“Reality interrupts—” Jaw clenching, my nostrils flared as I felt a gush of blood flow.
A whisper. “Life.” His blink was slow. “The mother of all bitches.”
“And the beauty?”
“Its absence is duly noted.”
“Only to be found by those later.”
Another swipe of my cheeks. “Once they’ve suffered to the point they scream for death.”
“Full circle.”
His hand found mine in a gentle hold. “Pain needs to be felt. ~ Scarlett Dawn
132:One of the most important variables in whether an enterprise remains great lies in a simple question: what is the truth about the inner motivations, character, and ambition of those who hold power? Their true, internal motivations will absolutely show up in their decisions and actions—if not immediately, then over time, and certainly under duress—no matter what they say or how they pose. And thus, we return full circle to a central tenet of Covey’s framework: build inner character first—private victory before public victory. ~ Stephen R Covey
133:So much has changed about me since I was that confident, happy girl in high school. In the years since then, I’ve experienced a lot of desperation and self-doubt, but in a way, I’ve come full circle. I know my worth. I embrace my power. I say if I’m beautiful. I say if I’m strong. You will not determine my story. I will. I’ll speak and share and fuck and love, and I will never apologize for it. I am amazing for you, not because of you. I am not who I sleep with. I am not my weight. I am not my mother. I am myself. And I am all of you. ~ Amy Schumer
134:Who Stayed is also a book of the heart and I couldn’t be more thrilled to see its publication. In my twenty-six years of publishing, it’s my first major hardcover release and brings me full circle to work with Lou Aronica, whom I first had the pleasure of working with while at Avon Books. It’s also my very first non-genre novel, although you will find it a signature Tanya Anne Crosby read, filled with flawed characters, and brimming with emotion. Set in Sullivan’s Island, South Carolina, this book takes me home and is both deeply personal ~ Tanya Anne Crosby
135:There was only so much space between us, not even a real distance if measured in miles or feet or even inches, all the things that told you how far you'd come or had left to go. But it was a big space, if only for me. And as I moved forward to him covering it, he waited there on the other side. It was only the last little bit I has to go, but in the end, I knew it would be all I would truly remember. So as I kissed him, bringing this summer and everything else full circle, I let myself fall, and was not scared of the ground I knew would rise up to meet me. ~ Sarah Dessen
136:Again we were too parochial, and were led to the false conclusion that knowledge-bearing entities can be physically identical to non-knowledge-bearing ones; and this in turn cast doubt on the fundamental status of knowledge. But now we have come almost full circle. We can see that the ancient idea that living matter has special physical properties was almost true: it is not living matter but knowledge-bearing matter that is physically special. Within one universe it looks irregular; across universes it has a regular structure, like a crystal in the multiverse. ~ David Deutsch
137:This was the march of civilization. First there is barbarism, no schools at all, all learning done at home, chaotically if at all. Then there is civil society, democracy, the right to free schooling for every child. Close on the heels of the right to free education is the right to pull these children out of the free schools and put them in private-schools—we have a right to pay for what is provided for free! And this is followed, inevitably and petulantly, by the right to pull them from school altogether, to do it yourself at home, everything coming full circle. ~ Dave Eggers
138:No, the last thing she cared about was whether people were staring at the boy and girl kissing by the river, as London, it's cities and towers and churches and bridges and streets, circled all about them like the memory of a dream. And if the Thames that ran beside them, sure and silver in the afternoon light, recalled a night long ago when the moon shone as brightly as a shilling on this same boy and girl, or if the stones of Blackfriars knew the tread of their feet and thought to themselves: At last, the wheel comes to a full circle, they kept their silence. ~ Cassandra Clare
139:Last lines:

Robert Neville looked out over the new people of the earth. He knew he did not belong to them; he knew that, like the vampires, he was anathema and black terror to be destroyed. And, abruptly, the concept came, amusing to him even in his pain.

A coughing chuckle filled his throat. He turned and leaned against the wall while he swallowed the pills. Full circle, he thought while the final lethargy crept into his limbs. Full circle. A new terror born in death, a new superstition entering the unassailable fortress of forever.
I am legend. ~ Richard Matheson
140:Stranger still is how the very core issues we avoid return, sometimes with different faces, but still, we are brought full circle to them, again and again. Regardless of how we may try to skip over or sidestep what we need to face, we humbly discover that no other threshold is possible until we use our courage to open the door before us. Perhaps the oldest working truth of self-discovery is that the only way out is through. That we are returned repeatedly to the same circumstance is not always a sign of avoidance, but can mean our work around a certain issue is not done. ~ Mark Nepo
141:You’ll kill me if you stop, you’ll kill me if you stop, because it was also my way of bringing full circle the dream and the fantasy, me and him, the longed-for words from his mouth to my mouth back into his mouth, swapping words from mouth to mouth, which was when I must have begun using obscenities that he repeated after me, softly at first, till he said, “Call me by your name and I’ll call you by mine,” which I’d never done in my life before and which, as soon as I said my own name as though it were his, took me to a realm I never shared with anyone in my life before, or since. ~ Andr Aciman
142:In the twenty-first century, the visions of J.C. Nichols and Walt Disney have come full circle and joined. “Neighborhoods” are increasingly “developments,” corporate theme parks. But corporations aren’t interested in the messy ebb and flow of humanity. They want stability and predictable rates of return. And although racial discrimination is no longer a stated policy for real estate brokers and developers, racial and social homogeneity are still firmly embedded in America’s collective idea of stability; that’s what our new landlords are thinking even if they are not saying it. (138) ~ Tanner Colby
143:more thrilled to see its publication. In my twenty-six years of publishing, it’s my first major hardcover release and brings me full circle to work with Lou Aronica, whom I first had the pleasure of working with while at Avon Books. It’s also my very first non-genre novel, although you will find it a signature Tanya Anne Crosby read, filled with flawed characters, and brimming with emotion. Set in Sullivan’s Island, South Carolina, this book takes me home and is both deeply personal and intensely satisfying, in terms of pushing the storytelling envelope. In a sense, I’ve opened a vein with Zoe’s story. ~ Tanya Anne Crosby
144:The three-volume work on Jesus Christ, on its own, makes this pontificate unique. With it, Benedict XVI created a handbook for the future of theology, catechesis and priestly formation – in short, a foundation for the teaching of the faith for the third millennium. It was not on a professorial chair, but on the chair of Peter, that things could come full circle. And there was no one else with the educational formation, the background, the strength and the inspiration, to make the image of Jesus transparent again, with intellectual meticulousness and a level-headed spirituality, after it had been obscured beyond recognition. ~ Benedict XVI
145:I don't know how long I spent wandering about the supermarket creating meals in my mind. Hot roast chicken and mayonnaise sandwiches. Pizzas on crispy bases. Big, heaving bowls of spaghetti Bolognese. Crunchy, cheesy nachos with sour cream. I did a full circle and ended back in the fruit and veg section. Next to the peaches were boxes filled with tomatoes still clinging to their vines. The ripe tomato smell was almost sexual. It filled my nostrils as I lifted the box. There were some slightly rotten ones near the bottom of the box, but the rest were just perfect, thick with the perfume of their green vines, fat and red. ~ Hannah Tunnicliffe
146:And so we have come full circle, from the discovery that consciousness contains the whole of objective reality—the entire history of biological life on the planet, the world's religions and mythologies, and the dynamics of both blood cells and stars—to the discovery that the material universe can also contain within its warp and weft the innermost processes of consciousness. Such is the nature of the deep connectivity that exists between all things in a holographic universe. In the next chapter we will explore how this connectivity, as well as other aspects of the holographic idea, affect our current understanding of health. ~ Michael Talbot
147:Like most parents we had some kind of issue with each of our children. Two of them struggled getting through school, one was very messy, and another was an extreme perfectionist and put tremendous pressure on herself. The good news is they all made it and are doing fine. Some of them took a little detour and made some bad choices, but they learned from them and came full circle back to what they were taught. God’s Word states that if we train them in the way they should go, when they are old they will not depart from it (see Proverbs 22:6). If you are concerned about one of your children, just cling to that promise I just mentioned. ~ Joyce Meyer
148:What is life without this? which was why, in the end, it was I, and not he, who blurted out, not once, but many, many times, You'll kill me if you stop, you'll kill me if you stop, because it was also my way of bringing full circle the dream and the fantasy, me and him, the longed-for words from mouth to mouth, which was when I must have begun using obscenities that he repeated after me, softly at first, till he said, "Call me by your name and I'll call you by my name," which I'd never done in my life before and which, as soon as I said my own name as though it were his, took me to a realm I never shared with anyone in my life before, or since. ~ Andr Aciman
149:What is life without this? which was why, in the end, it was I, and not her, who blurted out, not once, but many, many times, You'll kill me if you stop, you'll kill me if you stop, because it was also my way of bringing full circle the dream and the fantasy, me and him, the longed-for words from mouth to mouth, which was when I must have begun using obscenities that he repeated after me, softly at first, till he said, "Call me by your name and I'll call you by my name," which I'd never done in my life before and which, as soon as I said my own name as though it were his, took me to a realm I never shared with anyone in my life before, or since. ~ Andr Aciman
150:The Girl Who Stayed is also a book of the heart and I couldn’t be more thrilled to see its publication. In my twenty-six years of publishing, it’s my first major hardcover release and brings me full circle to work with Lou Aronica, whom I first had the pleasure of working with while at Avon Books. It’s also my very first non-genre novel, although you will find it a signature Tanya Anne Crosby read, filled with flawed characters, and brimming with emotion. Set in Sullivan’s Island, South Carolina, this book takes me home and is both deeply personal and intensely satisfying, in terms of pushing the storytelling envelope. In a sense, I’ve opened a vein with Zoe’s ~ Tanya Anne Crosby
151:for me, although with the same voice my readers have come to anticipate. I believe that people are pretty much the same, regardless of era, physical space, or culture, and this is the essence of my storytelling. I strive for characters you will relate to, no matter where or when they may have lived. The Girl Who Stayed is also a book of the heart and I couldn’t be more thrilled to see its publication. In my twenty-six years of publishing, it’s my first major hardcover release and brings me full circle to work with Lou Aronica, whom I first had the pleasure of working with while at Avon Books. It’s also my very first non-genre novel, although you will find it a signature ~ Tanya Anne Crosby
152:will triumph over evil, and that, in the end, truth will be revealed and the story will come full circle. It all happens within a few pages, and it all happens on this earth. But we do not live in Hans Christian Andersen’s world. We live in this world. As Christians, we know there will come a day when all tears will be wiped away, when peace and joy will be the only songs we know, but we have a long road to walk until that Day of the Lord. For the moment, we have to live with one another, with all the good and bad that come with it. The sad truth is that we will let one another down. We will bruise each other. We will fail. So how should we live in the midst of this reality? ~ Sheila Walsh
153:And so we have come full circle, and return to the essential question: who are you? From a scientific perspective, you are miraculous. You are stardust. You contain the same energy and matter that created the universe 13 billion years ago. You were once that energy—inside the infinitesimally small point of light that began all of life. Everything around you, everything you can see, touch, and taste, is made of this matter, this same universal energy: the water that shines, the tree that reaches, the bird in flight, the grass that grows. The saints and sages across the ages said it this way: you are brothers and sisters with all of creation. If who you are and how things work are one and the same, then who you are is love. ~ Tom Shadyac
154:Blacks do not see the arrival of Hispanics as an opportunity to celebrate diversity. By 1999, there were 26 schools in the Los Angeles Unified School District in which Hispanics were a majority of the students but blacks were a majority of the staff. Hispanic parents demanded more Hispanic staff but blacks would not step down. As Celes King III, president of the Congress for Racial Equality, who once led a demonstration against a white principal at Manual Arts High School, noted, with no apparent sense of irony: 'The situation has gone full circle. The Hispanics are using the same thoughts and practices we used 30 years ago. . . . We need to organize and maintain our positions in education because we worked so hard for them. ~ Jared Taylor
155:It was strange how a person came full circle. How a man was once a baby and a boy, and then a lover and a father, and now a child again. It was strange that once she had been a little girl, climbing onto Pappy’s knee, burying her head in his shoulder, clinging to him for protection, and he had been young, and strong, and like a god. And now it was all over, the purpose of his life. The strength had ebbed away. The man who had lived, and loved, and given the beauty of his voice to millions, was weary, and crabbed, and fretful, following with his eyes the daughter he had once protected and carried in his arms. Yes, Pappy had come full circle. He was back again, on the road where he had begun. But why? To what end? Would anybody ever know? ~ Daphne du Maurier
156:In that century, a man adventuring by sea in the Mediterranean was likely to find the wheel of fortune turn full circle in a matter of a few hours. Dragut, greatest of all the corsairs after Barbarossa, saw La Valette when he was a galley slave and secured for him slightly more favourable conditions. Eight years later, when Dragut himself was captured by the Genoese admiral Giannettino Doria, Valette happened to be present. He sympathized with the corsair’s anger and remarked: ‘Monsieur Dragut—it is the custom of war.’ To which Dragut wryly replied, ‘And change of Fortune.’ Valette’s own captor, Kust-Aly, was in turn taken by La Valette, then chief admiral of the Order’s fleet, in 1554, and sent to the oars along with twenty-two other prisoners. ~ Ernle Bradford
157:Essentially, this extra structure covering our life has no reality. It has come to be there because of the misuse of our minds. It’s not a question of getting rid of it, since it has no reality; but it is a question of seeing its nature. And as we see its nature, instead of it being so thick and dark, the covering becomes more transparent: we see through it. Enlightenment (bringing in more light) is what happens in practice. Actually we’re not getting rid of a structure, we’re seeing through it as the dream it is, and as we realize its true nature its whole function in our life weakens; and at the same time we can see more accurately what is going on in our daily life. It’s as if we have to go full circle. Our life is always all right. There’s nothing ~ Charlotte Joko Beck
158:A Farewell
With all my will, but much against my heart,
We two now part.
My Very Dear,
Our solace is, the sad road lies so clear.
It needs no art,
With faint, averted feet
And many a tear,
In our opposèd paths to persevere.
Go thou to East, I West.
We will not say
There 's any hope, it is so far away.
But, O, my Best,
When the one darling of our widowhead,
The nursling Grief,
Is dead,
And no dews blur our eyes
To see the peach-bloom come in evening skies,
Perchance we may,
Where now this night is day,
And even through faith of still averted feet,
Making full circle of our banishment,
Amazèd meet;
The bitter journey to the bourne so sweet
Seasoning the termless feast of our content
With tears of recognition never dry.
~ Coventry Patmore
159:After 1,123 years and 18 days, the Byzantine Empire had drawn to a close. The Divine Liturgy that had echoed from the great dome of the Hagia Sophia for nearly a millennium fell silent, and the clouds of incense slowly cleared from the desecrated churches of the city. The shocked and shattered Byzantines were now in permanent exile, but they could at least reflect that their empire had come to a glorious and heroic end. Their last emperor had chosen death over surrender or a diminishment of his ideals, and in doing so he had found a common grave among the men he led. Proud and brave, the iconic eighty-eighth emperor of Byzantium had brought the empire full circle. Like the first to rule in the city by the Bosporus, he had been a son of Helena named Constantine, and it was fitting that in his hour of need he had a Justinian by his side. ~ Lars Brownworth
160:Sometimes I want to quit - not performing, but being a woman altogether. I want to throw my hands in the air after reading a mean Twitter comment and say, "All right, you got me. You figured me out. I'm not pretty. I'm not thin. I don't deserve love. I have no right to use my voice. I will start wearing a burka and move to a small town upstate and wait tables at a pancake house."
So much has changed about me since I was that confident, happy girl in high school. In the years since then, I've experienced a lot of desperation and self-doubt, but in a way, I've come full circle. I know my worth. I embrace my power. I say if I'm beautiful. I say if I'm strong. You will not determine my story. I will. I'll speak and share and fuck and love, and I will never apologise for it. I am amazing for you, not because of you. I am not who I sleep with. I am not my weight. I am not my mother. I am myself. And I am all of you. ~ Amy Schumer
161:La Mélinite: Moulin Rouge
Olivier Metra's Waltz of Roses
Sheds in a rhythmic shower
The very petals of the flower;
And all is roses,
The rouge of petals in a shower.
Down the long hall the dance returning
Rounds the full circle, rounds
The perfect rose of lights and sounds,
The rose returning
Into the circle of its rounds.
Alone, apart, one dancer watches
Her mirrored, morbid grace;
Before the mirror, face to face,
Alone she watches
Her morbid, vague, ambiguous grace.
Before the mirror's dance of shadows
She dances in a dream,
And she and they together seem
A dance of shadows;
Alike the shadows of a dream.
The orange-rosy lamps are trembling
Between the robes that turn;
In ruddy flowers of flame that burn
The lights are trembling:
The shadows and the dancers turn.
And, enigmatically smiling,
In the mysterious night,
She dances for her own delight,
A shadow smiling
Back to a shadow in the night.
~ Arthur Symons
162:I have indeed lived life in a very rough school and have seen more than the average man's share of inhumanity and cruelty, from the forecastle and the prison, the slum and the desert, the execution-chamber and the lazar-house, to the battlefield and the military hospital. I have seen horrible deaths and mutilations. I have seen imbeciles hanged, because, being imbeciles, they did not possess the hire of lawyers. I have seen the hearts and stamina of strong men broken, and I have seen other men, by ill-treatment, driven to permanent and howling madness. I have witnessed the deaths of old and young, and even infants, from sheer starvation. I have seen men and women beaten by whips and clubs and fists, and I have seen the rhinoceros-hide whips laid around the naked torsos of black boys so heartily that each stroke stripped away the skin in full circle. And yet, let me add finally, never have I been so appalled and shocked by the world's cruelty as have I been appalled and shocked in the midst of happy, laughing, and applauding audiences when trained-animal turns were being performed on the stage. ~ Jack London
163:
   An Informal Integral Canon: Selected books on Integral Science, Philosophy and the Integral Transformation
   Sri Aurobindo - The Life Divine
   Sri Aurobindo - The Synthesis of Yoga
   Pierre Teilhard de Chardin - The Phenomenon of Man
   Jean Gebser - The Ever-Present Origin
   Edward Haskell - Full Circle - The Moral Force of Unified Science
   Oliver L. Reiser - Cosmic Humanism and World Unity
   Christopher Hills - Nuclear Evolution: Discovery of the Rainbow Body
   The Mother - Mother's Agenda
   Erich Jantsch - The Self-Organizing Universe - Scientific and Human Implications of the Emerging Paradigm of Evolution
   T. R. Thulasiram - Arut Perum Jyothi and Deathless Body
   Kees Zoeteman - Gaiasophy
   Ken Wilber - Sex Ecology Spirituality: The Spirit of Evolution
   Don Edward Beck - Spiral Dynamics: Mastering Values, Leadership, and Change
   Kundan Singh - The Evolution of Integral Yoga: Sri Aurobindo, Sri Ramakrishna, and Swami Vivekananda
   Sean Esbjorn-Hargens - Integral Ecology: Uniting Multiple Perspectives on the Natural World
   ~ M Alan Kazlev, Kheper, #reading list,
164:And at that moment Charles's thoughts raced back to the time he'd lain blind and helpless in Sylvanus Leighton's house, with only Amy to look after him in his days of darkest despair.  He recalled how many moments they'd shared together, how much they'd come to mean to each other, and a huge knot of emotion closed the back of his throat as the full magnitude of his love for this woman nearly crushed him beneath its weight.  He could never live without her.  Ever.  And this time, of course, he had no guilt over Juliet, no feelings of self-doubt, and absolutely no reason this side of heaven not to give in to his most fervent desire:  to be with Amy, always. He had come full circle, then. He was the man he had always been. The Beloved One. Charles tilted his head back within Amy's arms and, looking up into her eyes, saw such a wealth of love for him there that he thought his heart was going to come bursting right out of his chest. He lifted her hand to his lips.  "Amy.  My dearest, precious Amy.  I love you.  Will you marry me?" Her eyes suddenly misty, she looked up at Lucien. He only smiled.  "I believe, my dear, that the traditional reply is 'I will."   ~ Danelle Harmon
165:A future world of computer circuits, getting smaller and smaller, yet faster and faster, is a plausible future "life- form" more technically competent than our own. The smaller a circuit can be made, the smaller are the regions over which voltages appear, and hence the smaller these voltages can be. Tiny layers of material just a few atoms thick allow the electronic properties of a material to be finely tuned and rendered far more effective. The first transistors were made of germanium but were far from reliable and failed at high temperatures. When high-quality silicon crystals could be grown they were used in a generation of faster and more reliable silicon transistors and integrated circuitry. Newer materials like gallium arsenide allow electrons to travel through them even faster than through silicon and has given rise to the line of cray supercomputers. The evolution of computer power is represented in figure 7.3. Undoubtedly other materials will eventually take over. The story may even come full circle back to carbon again. Pure carbon in the form of diamond is about the best conductor of heat, a property that is a premium in a densely packed array of circuits. ~ John D Barrow
166:I had, I'll admit, effected a certain style - a method, if you will - of cupcake eating. To begin, you remove the cupcake liner carefully so as not to unnecessarily crumble the cake, and set it aside. You then turn the cupcake slowly in your hand, taking bites along the line where cake meets icing, your mouth filling with a perfect combination of both components. Once you've come full circle, you gently twist off the bottom half inch of cake, a move that takes considerable finesse and leaves a delicate sliver of cake - the ideal size for lying flat on your tongue and allowing it to slowly dissolve, building anticipation for that final bite. To finish, you are left with the center cylinder of cake and icing, the cupcake's very heart, sometimes filled with a surprising burst of custard or jam or mousse, sometimes not, but always, always, the most moist, flavorful bite of the entire cupcake. Take a breath before diving into that final, perfect bite; it is to be savored for as long as possible. Finally, of course, you scavenge the crumbs from the cupcake liner you set aside during step one, then ball the liner into your fist and overhand it into the nearest receptacle. Make the shot? You get another cupcake. ~ Meg Donohue
167:Abalone stared into the fizzing glass. “My father served yours.”
“Yeah. Very well, I might add.”
“Through your blood’s generosity, mine has prospered.” Abalone took another sip, his shaking hand making the ice tinkle. “May I say something about your father?”
The King seemed to stiffen. “Yeah.”
Abalone looked up to the sunglasses. “The night he and your mother were killed, a part of my father died, too. He was never the same thereafter. I can remember our house being in mourning for a full seven years, the mirrors draped in black cloth, the incense burning, the threshold marked with a black jamb.”
Wrath rubbed his face. “They were good people, my parents.”
Abalone put the soda aside and shifted off the armchair, getting on his knees before his King. “I will serve you just as my father did, down to the bone and marrow.” Abalone was dimly aware that others had filed into the room and were looking at him. He cared naught. History had come full circle . . . and he was prepared to carry forward with pride.
Wrath nodded once. “I’m making you my chief cleric. Right here and now. Saxton,” he barked out. “What do I need to do?”
A cultured voice answered smoothly, “You just did it all. I’ll draw up the paperwork.”
The King smiled and put out his palm. “You’re the first member of my court. Boom! ~ J R Ward
168:In 2 Corinthians 4:6-7, Paul wrote, “For it is the God who commanded light to shine out of darkness, who has shone in our hearts to give the light of the knowledge of the glory of God in the face of Jesus Christ. But we have this treasure in earthen vessels, that the excellence of the power may be of God and not of us.” And that brings us full circle to where we started in this chapter: at the end of the day there is no human explanation for the growth of the church. The world thinks we’re odd and bizarre. We’re the losers. We’re the privy pots. And yet, through the mouths of Paul and other misfits across the centuries, the church inexplicably moves in the history of the world with immense power beyond anything else. The gospel alone turns sinners into saints by transplanting men and women from the kingdom of darkness into the kingdom of God’s dear Son—from eternal death to everlasting life. That is power to create new beings fit for God’s presence and glory. If we brought a bus load of movie stars, corporate titans, or Ivy League professors into our church (assuming they’d condescend to get on a bus), they’d look at us and laugh: “These people can’t change the world!” No, we can’t. But for those who remain faithful to the whole truth of Christianity, God is changing the world through us. He’s been doing it through all history. ~ John F MacArthur Jr
169:Nonfiction at its best is like fashioning a cabinet. It can be elegant and very beautiful but it can never be sculpture. Captive to facts—or predetermined forms—it cannot fly. Excepting those masters who transcend their craft—great medieval and Renaissance artisans, for example, or nameless artisans of traditional cultures as far back as the caves who were also spontaneous unselfconscious artists.

As in fiction, the nonfiction writer is telling a story, and when that story is well-made, the placement of details and events is never random. The parts are not strung out in a line but come around full circle, like a necklace, to set off the others. They resonate, rekindle one another, stirring the reader with a cumulative effect. A good essay or article can and should have all the attributes of a good short story, including structure and design, pacing and effective placement of its parts—almost all the attributes of fiction except the creative imagination, which can never be permitted to enliven fact. The writer of nonfiction is stuck with objective reality, or should be; how his facts are arranged and presented is where his craft appears, and it can be dazzling when the writer is a good one. The best nonfiction has many, many virtues, among which simple truthfulness is perhaps foremost, yet its fidelity to the known facts is its fatal constraint. ~ Peter Matthiessen
170:... And suddenly he thought, I'm the abnormal one now. Normalcy was a
majority concept, the standard of many and not the standard of just
one man.

Abruptly that realization joined with what he saw on their faces --
awe, fear, shrinking horror -- and he knew that they were afraid of
him. To them he was some terrible scourge they had never seen, a
scourge even worse than the disease they had come to live with. He was
an invisible spectre who had left for evidence of his existence the
bloodless bodies of their loved ones. And he understood what they felt
and did not hate them. His right hand tightened on the tiny envelope
of pills. So long as the end did not come with violence, so long as it
did not have to be a butchery before their eyes...

Robert Neville looked out over the new people of the earth. He knew he
did not belong to them; he knew that, like the vampires, he was
anathema and black terror to be destroyed. And, abruptly, the concept
came, amusing to him even in his pain.

A coughing chuckle filled his throat. He turned and leaned against the
wall while he swallowed the pills. Full circle, he thought while the
final lethargy crept into his limbs. Full circle. A new terror born in
death, a new superstition entering the unassailable fortress of
forever.

I am legend. ~ Richard Matheson
171:Don’t you see, Mhairie, if we don’t keep telling the stories, we shall forget them. And if we forget them, our marrow will leak away, our clan marrow will vanish. Now was not the time to forget. Now was the time to remember. Memory, Dearlea thought, is the life-pumping artery, the blood in that artery. Memory is the sinew, the muscle that stretches back to the Beyond and before the Beyond. Have we not come full circle? she wondered. Now is not the time to forget. She felt a quiet despair, for there was song deep within her desperate to get out. Lupus, she would not die with the song inside her! Her mother, who rode next to her on another narwhale’s back with Abban, turned toward her and howled, “Sing, Dearlea! Sing! You are a skreeleen. The first in this new world.” So Dearlea threw back her head and sang. And out of that dark place we fled That broken land so scarred and dead Our hopes our dreams forever gone. Then did we follow this wolf so bold To this place that did unfold As if lost in mists of time It was the Distant Blue A new world sublime. On a bridge of ice we walked and walked We now give thanks to Lupus, to Glaux, To Ursus and gods not known, And to whales who carried us The last way To here in our new home. The other creatures began to join in. The wolves howled, and from Toby’s and Burney’s deep chests came sonorous roars that stirred Faolan’s heart. Dearlea was so right to sing, to remind them of what they had left behind. ~ Kathryn Lasky
172:If I don’t take her back to her wooden walls, she will die.” Hunter met his father’s steady gaze across the leaping flames. “Then what will become of the prophecy? She emptied her belly of the meat broth and precious water as well. She will sure enough die if this continues.”
Soat Tuh-huh-yet, Many Horses, drew on his pipe and blew smoke toward the peak of the lodge, then toward the ground. After taking another drag, he exhaled east, west, north, and south. The pipe then passed from his right hand to Hunter, who inhaled slowly and returned the pipe to his father with his right hand to make a full circle, never to be broken.
“My tua, you have only just arrived. Give her some time.”
“She’ll be dead in a day or two.” Hunter spat a fleck of tobacco. Though he would never admit it, he detested the taste of his father’s pipe. “I have tried everything, Father. I’ve been kind to her. I’ve promised my strong arm will be hers forever into the horizon, until I am dust in the wind. And I’ve tried bargaining with her.”
“What bargains?”
Hunter shot a wary glance toward the shadows, where his mother sat listening. “After my mother left the lodge, I said that perhaps I would be a tired Comanche when the moon rose if she were to eat and drink.”
“And if she didn’t, and you were not tired?” Many Horses’ dark eyes filled with laughter. He too shot a glance into the shadows. “The bargain did not please her?”
Hunter shook his head. ~ Catherine Anderson
173:By the time she’d run full circle, reaching her house, her T-shirt was saturated in sweat, and she felt relaxed from head to toe.
It was the car in the driveway, and the man-boy perched on the hood waiting for her, that made her lose some of her newfound tranquility.
He was grinning at her in a way that made her legs feel like they were made her legs feel like they were made of nothing more solid then gelatin. They might have even quivered from something other than her early-morning run.
“What are you doing here?” she asked as she slowed from a jog to a walk and places her hands on her hips. It would take her a few minutes to get her breathing back to normal. Longer if he kept smiling at her like that.
He shrugged. “I couldn’t sleep. What about you?”
She opted for the obvious and filled her voice with as much sarcasm as she could. “I live here, actually.”
“Ha-ha, smart-ass. I was asking if maybe you couldn’t sleep too.” He shook his head at her wisecrack. “You know, since you were running at six-thirty in the morning? I was gonna see if you wanted to go for a walk or something.” He eyes her up and down, looking a little disappointed as he hopped down from the car’s hood. “But it looks like you already went without me. That’s okay, it was a long shot anyway.”
Violet didn’t like the way she was suddenly so eager to be near him. Even though they’d been nearly inseparable for the past ten years, it now felt urgent to keep him close.
“All right, let’s go. ~ Kimberly Derting
174:So he repeated what had happened to him nine hundred years before. He would make amends tonight by joining with-no, overring his past.
Cleaving.
It was the only way.
He rolled back his shoulders, unleashed his trembling wings into the darkness. He could feel them catch the wind at his back. At aurora of light painted the sky a hundred feet above him. It was bright enough to blind a mortal, bright enough to catch the attention of seven squabbling angels.
Commotion from the other side of the boulder. Shouting and gasps and the beat of wings coming closer.
Daniel propelled himself off the ground, flying fast and hard so that he soared over the boulder just as Cam came around behind it.They missed each other by a wingspan,but Daniel kept moving, swooped down upon his past self as fast as his love for Luce could take him.
His past self drew back and held out his hands,warding Daniel off.
All the angels knew the risks of cleaving. Once joined,it was nearly impossible to free oneself from one's past self,to seperate the two lives that had been cloven together.But Daniel knew he'd been cloven in the past and had survived.So he had to do it.
He was doing it to help Luce.
He pressed his wings together and dove down at his past self,striking so hard he should have been crushed-if he hadn't been absorbed.He shuddered, and his past self shuddered,and Daniel clamped his eyes shut and gritted his teeth to withstand the strange,sharp sickness that flooded his body. He felt as if he were tumbling down a hill: reckless and unstoppable.No way back up until he hit the bottom.
Then all at once,everything came to a stop.
Daniel opened his eyes and could hear only his breathing.He felt tired but alert. The others were staring at him.He couldn't be sure whether they had any idea what had just happened. They all looked afraid to come near him,even to speak to him.
He spread his wings and spun in a full circle,tilting his head toward the sky. "I choose my love for Lucinda," he called to Heaven and Earth,to the angels all around him and the ones who weren't there.To the soul of the one true thing he loved the most,wherever she was. "I now reaffirm my choice: I choose Lucinda over everything. And I will until the end. ~ Lauren Kate
175:The heavenly principalities and powers cannot touch you. But the earthly humans over which we rule can.” Though they had no authority to touch Yahweh’s anointed, they might do so through their human vessels. Jesus trembled with the weight of responsibility that now overwhelmed him. But the pain was lessened when he heard the familiar sound of his favorite angel echo in his mind. Jesus, be strong and courageous. “Jesus, be strong and courageous.” It wasn’t in his mind, it was being spoken to him from behind. “Sound familiar?” Jesus turned. He looked up into the smiling face of Uriel the smallest of three angels now standing before him. Uriel finished his thought, “The words you spoke to Joshua at the threshold of the Promised Land. Funny how it all comes full circle.” Gabriel, the second angel, and Uriel’s constant bickering companion, responded, “Uriel, I think your humor is once again in incredibly poor taste considering his suffering. Where is your compassion?” “Nonsense,” said Uriel. “Jesus has done it. Victory is a cause for celebration, not sadness. He made it forty days without food, which is more than I can say for you, chubby.” Uriel patted Gabriel’s stomach. Gabriel moved away annoyed at the jab. Sure, he was heavier than the lightweight Uriel, but he certainly didn’t see himself as “chubby.” Mikael, the largest and best groomed of the three, was the guardian prince of Israel, and tended to be protective of his ward. He offered a wineskin to Jesus, who took it and gulped with gratitude. After a moment of silence, Jesus wiped his beard of the wine and said, “You need a better sense of humor, Gabriel.” Gabriel pouted with frustration at being ganged up on. Uriel, his perpetual nemesis was one thing. But being teased by the Master was quite another. Jesus said, “And Uriel, you had better deliver on that bread you promised.” Uriel smiled again and held out a loaf of Mary’s best bread. “Baked two hours ago by your mother.” Jesus grabbed it. Mikael said, “Remember, do not eat too quickly. It is bad for your digestion after fasting.” “Thank you for your ministering spirits,” said Jesus, and took a big hungry bite out of the loaf. Uriel muttered, “Your mother should open a bakery. Can I have a bite?” Mikael was not so lighthearted. He knew that the challenge had been declared. The road to war had begun. ~ Brian Godawa
176:Mesmerized by the gilt ghastliness of it all, Elizabeth slowly turned in a full circle. Above the fireplace there was a gilt-framed painting of a lady attired in nothing whatsoever but a scrap of nearly-transparent red silk that had been draped across her hips. Elizabeth jerked her eyes away from that shocking display of nudity and found herself confronted by a veritable army of cavorting cupids. They reposed in chubby, gilt splendor atop the mantel and the bed tables; a cluster of them formed the tall candelabra beside the bed, which held twelve candles-one of which the footman had lit-and more cupids surrounded an enormous mirror.
“It’s…” Berta uttered as she gazed through eyes the size of saucers, “it’s…I can’t find words,” she breathed, but Elizabeth had passed through her own state of shock and was perilously close to hilarity.
“Unspeakable?” Elizabeth suggested helpfully, and a giggle bubbled up from her throat. “U-Unbelievable?” she volunteered, her shoulders beginning to shake with mirth.
Berta made a nervous, strangled sound, and suddenly it was too much for both of them. Days of relentless tension erupted into gales of hilarity, and they gave in to it with shared abandon. Great gusty shouts of laughter erupted from them, sending tears trickling down their cheeks. Berta snatched for her missing apron, then remembered her new, elevated station in life and instead withdrew a handkerchief from her sleeve, dabbing at the corners of her eyes; Elizabeth simply clutched the forgotten bust to her chest, perched her chin upon its smooth head, and laughed until she ached. So complete was their absorption that neither of them realized their host was entering the bedchamber until Sir Francis boomed enthusiastically, “Lady Elizabeth and Lady Berta!”
Berta let out a muffled scream of surprised alarm and quickly shifted her handkerchief from the corners of her eyes to her mouth.
Elizabeth took one look at the satin-clad figure who rather resembled the cupids he obviously admired, and the dire reality of her predicament hit her like a bucket of icy water, banishing all thoughts of laughter. She dropped her gaze to the floor, trying wildly to remember her plan and to believe she could make it work. She had to make it work, for if she failed, this aging roué with the penchant for gilded cupids could very likely become her husband. ~ Judith McNaught
177:The morning following Shaselle’s arrest and release, I descended the Grand Staircase to the entry hall below and was drawn toward the antechamber by raised voices. I entered to find one of my worst nightmares unfolding--Steldor and Narian were in heated argument, both seeming to have discounted where they were and who might overhear. They stood opposite one another across the room from me, Steldor likely having come from Cannan’s office, while Narian had probably been passing through on his way to the Hearing Hall. I stared transfixed, not knowing what they were arguing about, but certain they would not appreciate my interference.
“What business have you in the Bastion?” my betrothed demanded.
“Business that is not yours, Cokyrian,” Steldor spat.
Narian glowered at the former King. “Much as you might detest the thought, Steldor, I am no longer your enemy.”
“These scars on my back argue differently.”
“I was merciful in leaving you alive. You asked for execution and I ordered a lashing. If not for your ridiculous pride, you’d acknowledge that.”
Steldor laughed mirthlessly. “I owe you nothing after all you’ve taken from me.”
“Alera is not a possession,” Narian astutely shot back.
“Alera hadn’t entered my mind.” The curl in Steldor’s lip revealed the lie, and the hostility he exuded would have made most men run in the other direction. But Narian wasn’t most men.
“And yet I see you around this Bastion, her home, more than any soldier or son need be. You yearn for any chance glimpse of her.”
“I come to the palace on business, you mongrel pup.”
“Then pray tell, what business is that?”
I stood miserably by, for it was apparent neither of them was aware of my presence. Still, the argument had come full circle, and I prayed it would soon be over.
“I don’t have to tell you anything,” Steldor seethed. “You are not my superior.” His dark eyes glinted malevolently, a look he had once or twice directed at me during our unfortunate marriage.
“True enough. But you are nonetheless one of my subjects.”
Steldor’s fists clenched and unclenched at his sides, telling me how close he was to unleashing his hellish temper. Before I could intervene, he threw a right cross at Narian’s chin, which the commander adroitly dodged, stepping back and raising his hands in a gesture of surrender.
“I suggest you walk away, Steldor,” he said, unnervingly calm.
“I did so once,” my former husband retorted. “I don’t intend to do so again.”
Narian perused his opponent, judging his strengths and weaknesses, then struck Steldor in the middle of his chest with the heel of his palm, sending him staggering backward. In a flash, a dagger appeared in Steldor’s hand, and panic seized me. Would they spill each other’s blood right here, right now?
“Stop!” I cried. “Both of you!”
They straightened warily at the sound of my voice, and I hurried to stand between them, so distraught my hands were shaking.
“I don’t know what this is about,” I beseeched, hoping Cannan would hear and lend assistance. “But please, for my sake, leave things be.”
They glared at each other over the top of my head, then Steldor moved away, his eyes on Narian until he could place a hand on the door leading into the Grand Entry.
“Queen Alera,” he pointedly acknowledged me. “I humbly honor your request.”
With a disdainful smirk for Narian, he tossed the knife onto the floor, then exited, pulling the door firmly closed behind him. Narian crossed to snatch up the weapon, examining it carefully before showing it to me.
“Do you plan to tell me that you recognize this blade?” he asked, and I stared at him, dumbfounded. With a stiff nod, he strode through the same door Steldor had used, leaving me alone. ~ Cayla Kluver
178:The Unknown Eros. Book I.
Saint Valentine’s Day
Well dost thou, Love, thy solemn Feast to hold
In vestal February;
Not rather choosing out some rosy day
From the rich coronet of the coming May,
When all things meet to marry!
O, quick, prævernal Power
That signall'st punctual through the sleepy mould
The Snowdrop's time to flower,
Fair as the rash oath of virginity
Which is first-love's first cry;
O, Baby Spring,
That flutter'st sudden 'neath the breast of Earth
A month before the birth;
Whence is the peaceful poignancy,
The joy contrite,
Sadder than sorrow, sweeter than delight,
That burthens now the breath of everything,
Though each one sighs as if to each alone
The cherish'd pang were known?
At dusk of dawn, on his dark spray apart,
With it the Blackbird breaks the young Day's heart;
In evening's hush
About it talks the heavenly-minded Thrush;
The hill with like remorse
Smiles to the Sun's smile in his westering course;
The fisher's drooping skiff
In yonder sheltering bay;
The choughs that call about the shining cliff;
The children, noisy in the setting ray;
Own the sweet season, each thing as it may;
Thoughts of strange kindness and forgotten peace
In me increase;
And tears arise
Within my happy, happy Mistress' eyes,
And, lo, her lips, averted from my kiss,
210
Ask from Love's bounty, ah, much more than bliss!
Is't the sequester'd and exceeding sweet
Of dear Desire electing his defeat?
Is't the waked Earth now to yon purpling cope
Uttering first-love's first cry,
Vainly renouncing, with a Seraph's sigh,
Love's natural hope?
Fair-meaning Earth, foredoom'd to perjury!
Behold, all amorous May,
With roses heap'd upon her laughing brows,
Avoids thee of thy vows!
Were it for thee, with her warm bosom near,
To abide the sharpness of the Seraph's sphere?
Forget thy foolish words;
Go to her summons gay,
Thy heart with dead, wing'd Innocencies fill'd,
Ev'n as a nest with birds
After the old ones by the hawk are kill'd.
Well dost thou, Love, to celebrate
The noon of thy soft ecstasy,
Or e'er it be too late,
Or e'er the Snowdrop die!
II
Wind And Wave
The wedded light and heat,
Winnowing the witless space,
Without a let,
What are they till they beat
Against the sleepy sod, and there beget
Perchance the violet!
Is the One found,
Amongst a wilderness of as happy grace,
To make Heaven's bound;
So that in Her
All which it hath of sensitively good
Is sought and understood
After the narrow mode the mighty Heavens prefer?
211
She, as a little breeze
Following still Night,
Ripples the spirit's cold, deep seas
Into delight;
But, in a while,
The immeasurable smile
Is broke by fresher airs to flashes blent
With darkling discontent;
And all the subtle zephyr hurries gay,
And all the heaving ocean heaves one way,
T'ward the void sky-line and an unguess'd weal;
Until the vanward billows feel
The agitating shallows, and divine the goal,
And to foam roll,
And spread and stray
And traverse wildly, like delighted hands,
The fair and fleckless sands;
And so the whole
Unfathomable and immense
Triumphing tide comes at the last to reach
And burst in wind-kiss'd splendours on the deaf'ning beach,
Where forms of children in first innocence
Laugh and fling pebbles on the rainbow'd crest
Of its untired unrest.
III
Winter
I, singularly moved
To love the lovely that are not beloved,
Of all the Seasons, most
Love Winter, and to trace
The sense of the Trophonian pallor on her face.
It is not death, but plenitude of peace;
And the dim cloud that does the world enfold
Hath less the characters of dark and cold
Than warmth and light asleep,
And correspondent breathing seems to keep
With the infant harvest, breathing soft below
Its eider coverlet of snow.
Nor is in field or garden anything
212
But, duly look'd into, contains serene
The substance of things hoped for, in the Spring,
And evidence of Summer not yet seen.
On every chance-mild day
That visits the moist shaw,
The honeysuckle, 'sdaining to be crost
In urgence of sweet life by sleet or frost,
'Voids the time's law
With still increase
Of leaflet new, and little, wandering spray;
Often, in sheltering brakes,
As one from rest disturb'd in the first hour,
Primrose or violet bewilder'd wakes,
And deems 'tis time to flower;
Though not a whisper of her voice he hear,
The buried bulb does know
The signals of the year,
And hails far Summer with his lifted spear.
The gorse-field dark, by sudden, gold caprice,
Turns, here and there, into a Jason's fleece;
Lilies, that soon in Autumn slipp'd their gowns of green,
And vanish'd into earth,
And came again, ere Autumn died, to birth,
Stand full-array'd, amidst the wavering shower,
And perfect for the Summer, less the flower;
In nook of pale or crevice of crude bark,
Thou canst not miss,
If close thou spy, to mark
The ghostly chrysalis,
That, if thou touch it, stirs in its dream dark;
And the flush'd Robin, in the evenings hoar,
Does of Love's Day, as if he saw it, sing;
But sweeter yet than dream or song of Summer or Spring
Are Winter's sometime smiles, that seem to well
From infancy ineffable;
Her wandering, languorous gaze,
So unfamiliar, so without amaze,
On the elemental, chill adversity,
The uncomprehended rudeness; and her sigh
And solemn, gathering tear,
And look of exile from some great repose, the sphere
Of ether, moved by ether only, or
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By something still more tranquil.
IV
Beta
Of infinite Heaven the rays,
Piercing some eyelet in our cavern black,
Ended their viewless track
On thee to smite
Solely, as on a diamond stalactite,
And in mid-darkness lit a rainbow's blaze,
Wherein the absolute Reason, Power, and Love,
That erst could move
Mainly in me but toil and weariness,
Renounced their deadening might,
Renounced their undistinguishable stress
Of withering white,
And did with gladdest hues my spirit caress,
Nothing of Heaven in thee showing infinite,
Save the delight.
The Day After To-Morrow
Perchance she droops within the hollow gulf
Which the great wave of coming pleasure draws,
Not guessing the glad cause!
Ye Clouds that on your endless journey go,
Ye Winds that westward flow,
Thou heaving Sea
That heav'st 'twixt her and me,
Tell her I come;
Then only sigh your pleasure, and be dumb;
For the sweet secret of our either self
We know.
Tell her I come,
And let her heart be still'd.
One day's controlled hope, and then one more,
And on the third our lives shall be fulfill'd!
Yet all has been before:
214
Palm placed in palm, twin smiles, and words astray.
What other should we say?
But shall I not, with ne'er a sign, perceive,
Whilst her sweet hands I hold,
The myriad threads and meshes manifold
Which Love shall round her weave:
The pulse in that vein making alien pause
And varying beats from this;
Down each long finger felt, a differing strand
Of silvery welcome bland;
And in her breezy palm
And silken wrist,
Beneath the touch of my like numerous bliss
Complexly kiss'd,
A diverse and distinguishable calm?
What should we say!
It all has been before;
And yet our lives shall now be first fulfill'd,
And into their summ'd sweetness fall distill'd
One sweet drop more;
One sweet drop more, in absolute increase
Of unrelapsing peace.
O, heaving Sea,
That heav'st as if for bliss of her and me,
And separatest not dear heart from heart,
Though each 'gainst other beats too far apart,
For yet awhile
Let it not seem that I behold her smile.
O, weary Love, O, folded to her breast,
Love in each moment years and years of rest,
Be calm, as being not.
Ye oceans of intolerable delight,
The blazing photosphere of central Night,
Be ye forgot.
Terror, thou swarthy Groom of Bride-bliss coy,
Let me not see thee toy.
O, Death, too tardy with thy hope intense
Of kisses close beyond conceit of sense;
O, Life, too liberal, while to take her hand
Is more of hope than heart can understand;
Perturb my golden patience not with joy,
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Nor, through a wish, profane
The peace that should pertain
To him who does by her attraction move.
Has all not been before?
One day's controlled hope, and one again,
And then the third, and ye shall have the rein,
O Life, Death, Terror, Love!
But soon let your unrestful rapture cease,
Ye flaming Ethers thin,
Condensing till the abiding sweetness win
One sweet drop more;
One sweet drop more in the measureless increase
Of honied peace.
VI
Tristitia
Darling, with hearts conjoin'd in such a peace
That Hope, so not to cease,
Must still gaze back,
And count, along our love's most happy track,
The landmarks of like inconceiv'd increase,
Promise me this:
If thou alone should'st win
God's perfect bliss,
And I, beguiled by gracious-seeming sin,
Say, loving too much thee,
Love's last goal miss,
And any vows may then have memory,
Never, by grief for what I bear or lack,
To mar thy joyance of heav'n's jubilee.
Promise me this;
For else I should be hurl'd,
Beyond just doom
And by thy deed, to Death's interior gloom,
From the mild borders of the banish'd world
Wherein they dwell
Who builded not unalterable fate
On pride, fraud, envy, cruel lust, or hate;
Yet loved too laxly sweetness and heart's ease,
And strove the creature more than God to please.
216
For such as these
Loss without measure, sadness without end!
Yet not for this do thou disheaven'd be
With thinking upon me.
Though black, when scann'd from heaven's surpassing bright,
This might mean light,
Foil'd with the dim days of mortality.
For God is everywhere.
Go down to deepest Hell, and He is there,
And, as a true but quite estranged Friend,
He works, 'gainst gnashing teeth of devilish ire,
With love deep hidden lest it be blasphemed,
If possible, to blend
Ease with the pangs of its inveterate fire;
Yea, in the worst
And from His Face most wilfully accurst
Of souls in vain redeem'd,
He does with potions of oblivion kill
Remorse of the lost Love that helps them still.
Apart from these,
Near the sky-borders of that banish'd world,
Wander pale spirits among willow'd leas,
Lost beyond measure, sadden'd without end,
But since, while erring most, retaining yet
Some ineffectual fervour of regret,
Retaining still such weal
As spurned Lovers feel,
Preferring far to all the world's delight
Their loss so infinite,
Or Poets, when they mark
In the clouds dun
A loitering flush of the long sunken sun,
And turn away with tears into the dark.
Know, Dear, these are not mine
But Wisdom's words, confirmed by divine
Doctors and Saints, though fitly seldom heard
Save in their own prepense-occulted word,
Lest fools be fool'd the further by false hope,
And wrest sweet knowledge to their own decline;
217
And (to approve I speak within my scope)
The Mistress of that dateless exile gray
Is named in surpliced Schools Tristitia.
But, O, my Darling, look in thy heart and see
How unto me,
Secured of my prime care, thy happy state,
In the most unclean cell
Of sordid Hell,
And worried by the most ingenious hate,
It never could be anything but well,
Nor from my soul, full of thy sanctity,
Such pleasure die
As the poor harlot's, in whose body stirs
The innocent life that is and is not hers:
Unless, alas, this fount of my relief
By thy unheavenly grief
Were closed.
So, with a consecrating kiss
And hearts made one in past all previous peace,
And on one hope reposed,
Promise me this!
VII
The Azalea
There, where the sun shines first
Against our room,
She train'd the gold Azalea, whose perfume
She, Spring-like, from her breathing grace dispersed.
Last night the delicate crests of saffron bloom,
For this their dainty likeness watch'd and nurst,
Were just at point to burst.
At dawn I dream'd, O God, that she was dead,
And groan'd aloud upon my wretched bed,
And waked, ah, God, and did not waken her,
But lay, with eyes still closed,
Perfectly bless'd in the delicious sphere
By which I knew so well that she was near,
My heart to speechless thankfulness composed.
Till 'gan to stir
218
A dizzy somewhat in my troubled head—
It was the azalea's breath, and she was dead!
The warm night had the lingering buds disclosed,
And I had fall'n asleep with to my breast
A chance-found letter press'd
In which she said,
‘So, till to-morrow eve, my Own, adieu!
Parting's well-paid with soon again to meet,
Soon in your arms to feel so small and sweet,
Sweet to myself that am so sweet to you!’
VIII
Departure
It was not like your great and gracious ways!
Do you, that have nought other to lament,
Never, my Love, repent
Of how, that July afternoon,
You went,
With sudden, unintelligible phrase,
And frighten'd eye,
Upon your journey of so many days,
Without a single kiss, or a good-bye?
I knew, indeed, that you were parting soon;
And so we sate, within the low sun's rays,
You whispering to me, for your voice was weak,
Your harrowing praise.
Well, it was well,
To hear you such things speak,
And I could tell
What made your eyes a growing gloom of love,
As a warm South-wind sombres a March grove.
And it was like your great and gracious ways
To turn your talk on daily things, my Dear,
Lifting the luminous, pathetic lash
To let the laughter flash,
Whilst I drew near,
Because you spoke so low that I could scarcely hear.
But all at once to leave me at the last,
More at the wonder than the loss aghast,
With huddled, unintelligible phrase,
219
And frighten'd eye,
And go your journey of all days
With not one kiss, or a good-bye,
And the only loveless look the look with which you pass'd:
'Twas all unlike your great and gracious ways.
IX
Eurydice
Is this the portent of the day nigh past,
And of a restless grave
O'er which the eternal sadness gathers fast;
Or but the heaped wave
Of some chance, wandering tide,
Such as that world of awe
Whose circuit, listening to a foreign law,
Conjunctures ours at unguess'd dates and wide,
Does in the Spirit's tremulous ocean draw,
To pass unfateful on, and so subside?
Thee, whom ev'n more than Heaven loved I have,
And yet have not been true
Even to thee,
I, dreaming, night by night, seek now to see,
And, in a mortal sorrow, still pursue
Thro' sordid streets and lanes
And houses brown and bare
And many a haggard stair
Ochrous with ancient stains,
And infamous doors, opening on hapless rooms,
In whose unhaunted glooms
Dead pauper generations, witless of the sun,
Their course have run;
And ofttimes my pursuit
Is check'd of its dear fruit
By things brimful of hate, my kith and kin,
Furious that I should keep
Their forfeit power to weep,
And mock, with living fear, their mournful malice thin.
But ever, at the last, my way I win
To where, with perfectly sad patience, nurst
By sorry comfort of assured worst,
220
Ingrain'd in fretted cheek and lips that pine,
On pallet poor
Thou lyest, stricken sick,
Beyond love's cure,
By all the world's neglect, but chiefly mine.
Then sweetness, sweeter than my tongue can tell,
Does in my bosom well,
And tears come free and quick
And more and more abound
For piteous passion keen at having found,
After exceeding ill, a little good;
A little good
Which, for the while,
Fleets with the current sorrow of the blood,
Though no good here has heart enough to smile.
The Toys
My little Son, who look'd from thoughtful eyes
And moved and spoke in quiet grown-up wise,
Having my law the seventh time disobey'd,
I struck him, and dismiss'd
With hard words and unkiss'd,
His Mother, who was patient, being dead.
Then, fearing lest his grief should hinder sleep,
I visited his bed,
But found him slumbering deep,
With darken'd eyelids, and their lashes yet
From his late sobbing wet.
And I, with moan,
Kissing away his tears, left others of my own;
For, on a table drawn beside his head,
He had put, within his reach,
A box of counters and a red-vein'd stone,
A piece of glass abraded by the beach
And six or seven shells,
A bottle with bluebells
And two French copper coins, ranged there with careful art,
To comfort his sad heart.
So when that night I pray'd
221
To God, I wept, and said:
Ah, when at last we lie with tranced breath,
Not vexing Thee in death,
And Thou rememberest of what toys
We made our joys,
How weakly understood,
Thy great commanded good,
Then, fatherly not less
Than I whom Thou hast moulded from the clay,
Thou'lt leave Thy wrath, and say,
‘I will be sorry for their childishness.’
XI
Tired Memory
The stony rock of death's insensibility
Well'd yet awhile with honey of thy love
And then was dry;
Nor could thy picture, nor thine empty glove,
Nor all thy kind, long letters, nor the band
Which really spann'd
Thy body chaste and warm,
Thenceforward move
Upon the stony rock their wearied charm.
At last, then, thou wast dead.
Yet would I not despair,
But wrought my daily task, and daily said
Many and many a fond, unfeeling prayer,
To keep my vows of faith to thee from harm.
In vain.
‘For 'tis,’ I said, ‘all one,
The wilful faith, which has no joy or pain,
As if 'twere none.’
Then look'd I miserably round
If aught of duteous love were left undone,
And nothing found.
But, kneeling in a Church, one Easter-Day,
It came to me to say:
‘Though there is no intelligible rest,
In Earth or Heaven,
For me, but on her breast,
222
I yield her up, again to have her given,
Or not, as, Lord, Thou wilt, and that for aye.’
And the same night, in slumber lying,
I, who had dream'd of thee as sad and sick and dying,
And only so, nightly for all one year,
Did thee, my own most Dear,
Possess,
In gay, celestial beauty nothing coy,
And felt thy soft caress
With heretofore unknown reality of joy.
But, in our mortal air,
None thrives for long upon the happiest dream,
And fresh despair
Bade me seek round afresh for some extreme
Of unconceiv'd, interior sacrifice
Whereof the smoke might rise
To God, and 'mind Him that one pray'd below.
And so,
In agony, I cried:
‘My Lord, if Thy strange will be this,
That I should crucify my heart,
Because my love has also been my pride,
I do submit, if I saw how, to bliss
Wherein She has no part.’
And I was heard,
And taken at my own remorseless word.
O, my most Dear,
Was't treason, as I fear?
'Twere that, and worse, to plead thy veiled mind,
Kissing thy babes, and murmuring in mine ear,
‘Thou canst not be
Faithful to God, and faithless unto me!’
Ah, prophet kind!
I heard, all dumb and blind
With tears of protest; and I cannot see
But faith was broken. Yet, as I have said,
My heart was dead,
Dead of devotion and tired memory,
When a strange grace of thee
In a fair stranger, as I take it, bred
To her some tender heed,
Most innocent
223
Of purpose therewith blent,
And pure of faith, I think, to thee; yet such
That the pale reflex of an alien love,
So vaguely, sadly shown,
Did her heart touch
Above
All that, till then, had woo'd her for its own.
And so the fear, which is love's chilly dawn,
Flush'd faintly upon lids that droop'd like thine,
And made me weak,
By thy delusive likeness doubly drawn,
And Nature's long suspended breath of flame
Persuading soft, and whispering Duty's name,
Awhile to smile and speak
With this thy Sister sweet, and therefore mine;
Thy Sister sweet,
Who bade the wheels to stir
Of sensitive delight in the poor brain,
Dead of devotion and tired memory,
So that I lived again,
And, strange to aver,
With no relapse into the void inane,
For thee;
But (treason was't?) for thee and also her.
XII
Magna Est Veritas
Here, in this little Bay,
Full of tumultuous life and great repose,
Where, twice a day,
The purposeless, glad ocean comes and goes,
Under high cliffs, and far from the huge town,
I sit me down.
For want of me the world's course will not fail:
When all its work is done, the lie shall rot;
The truth is great, and shall prevail,
When none cares whether it prevail or not.
XIII
224
1867
In the year of the great crime,
When the false English Nobles and their Jew,
By God demented, slew
The Trust they stood twice pledged to keep from wrong,
One said, Take up thy Song,
That breathes the mild and almost mythic time
Of England's prime!
But I, Ah, me,
The freedom of the few
That, in our free Land, were indeed the free,
Can song renew?
Ill singing 'tis with blotting prison-bars,
How high soe'er, betwixt us and the stars;
Ill singing 'tis when there are none to hear;
And days are near
When England shall forget
The fading glow which, for a little while,
Illumes her yet,
The lovely smile
That grows so faint and wan,
Her people shouting in her dying ear,
Are not two daws worth two of any swan!
Ye outlaw'd Best, who yet are bright
With the sunken light,
Whose common style
Is Virtue at her gracious ease,
The flower of olden sanctities,
Ye haply trust, by love's benignant guile,
To lure the dark and selfish brood
To their own hated good;
Ye haply dream
Your lives shall still their charmful sway sustain,
Unstifled by the fever'd steam
That rises from the plain.
Know, 'twas the force of function high,
In corporate exercise, and public awe
Of Nature's, Heaven's, and England's Law
That Best, though mix'd with Bad, should reign,
Which kept you in your sky!
225
But, when the sordid Trader caught
The loose-held sceptre from your hands distraught,
And soon, to the Mechanic vain,
Sold the proud toy for nought,
Your charm was broke, your task was sped,
Your beauty, with your honour, dead,
And though you still are dreaming sweet
Of being even now not less
Than Gods and Goddesses, ye shall not long so cheat
Your hearts of their due heaviness.
Go, get you for your evil watching shriven!
Leave to your lawful Master's itching hands
Your unking'd lands,
But keep, at least, the dignity
Of deigning not, for his smooth use, to be,
Voteless, the voted delegates
Of his strange interests, loves and hates.
In sackcloth, or in private strife
With private ill, ye may please Heaven,
And soothe the coming pangs of sinking life;
And prayer perchance may win
A term to God's indignant mood
And the orgies of the multitude,
Which now begin;
But do not hope to wave the silken rag
Of your unsanction'd flag,
And so to guide
The great ship, helmless on the swelling tide
Of that presumptuous Sea,
Unlit by sun or moon, yet inly bright
With lights innumerable that give no light,
Flames of corrupted will and scorn of right,
Rejoicing to be free.
And, now, because the dark comes on apace
When none can work for fear,
And Liberty in every Land lies slain,
And the two Tyrannies unchallenged reign,
And heavy prophecies, suspended long
At supplication of the righteous few,
And so discredited, to fulfilment throng,
Restrain'd no more by faithful prayer or tear,
226
And the dread baptism of blood seems near
That brings to the humbled Earth the Time of Grace,
Breathless be song,
And let Christ's own look through
The darkness, suddenly increased,
To the gray secret lingering in the East.
XIV
‘If I Were Dead’
‘If I were dead, you'd sometimes say, Poor Child!’
The dear lips quiver'd as they spake,
And the tears brake
From eyes which, not to grieve me, brightly smiled.
Poor Child, poor Child!
I seem to hear your laugh, your talk, your song.
It is not true that Love will do no wrong.
Poor Child!
And did you think, when you so cried and smiled,
How I, in lonely nights, should lie awake,
And of those words your full avengers make?
Poor Child, poor Child!
And now, unless it be
That sweet amends thrice told are come to thee,
O God, have Thou no mercy upon me!
Poor Child!
XV
Peace
O England, how hast thou forgot,
In dullard care for undisturb'd increase
Of gold, which profits not,
The gain which once thou knew'st was for thy peace!
Honour is peace, the peace which does accord
Alone with God's glad word:
‘My peace I send you, and I send a sword.’
O England, how hast thou forgot,
How fear'st the things which make for joy, not fear,
Confronted near.
227
Hard days? 'Tis what the pamper'd seek to buy
With their most willing gold in weary lands.
Loss and pain risk'd? What sport but understands
These for incitements! Suddenly to die,
With conscience a blurr'd scroll?
The sunshine dreaming upon Salmon's height
Is not so sweet and white
As the most heretofore sin-spotted soul
That darts to its delight
Straight from the absolution of a faithful fight.
Myriads of homes unloosen'd of home's bond,
And fill'd with helpless babes and harmless women fond?
Let those whose pleasant chance
Took them, like me, among the German towns,
After the war that pluck'd the fangs from France,
With me pronounce
Whether the frequent black, which then array'd
Child, wife, and maid,
Did most to magnify the sombreness of grief,
Or add the beauty of a staid relief
And freshening foil
To cheerful-hearted Honour's ready smile!
Beneath the heroic sun
Is there then none
Whose sinewy wings by choice do fly
In the fine mountain-air of public obloquy,
To tell the sleepy mongers of false ease
That war's the ordained way of all alive,
And therein with goodwill to dare and thrive
Is profit and heart's peace?
But in his heart the fool now saith:
‘The thoughts of Heaven were past all finding out,
Indeed, if it should rain
Intolerable woes upon our Land again,
After so long a drought!’
‘Will a kind Providence our vessel whelm,
With such a pious Pilot at the helm?’
‘Or let the throats be cut of pretty sheep
228
That care for nought but pasture rich and deep?’
‘Were 't Evangelical of God to deal so foul a blow
At people who hate Turks and Papists so?’
‘What, make or keep
A tax for ship and gun,
When 'tis full three to one
Yon bully but intends
To beat our friends?’
‘Let's put aside
Our costly pride.
Our appetite's not gone
Because we've learn'd to doff
Our caps, where we were used to keep them on.’
‘If times get worse,
We've money in our purse,
And Patriots that know how, let who will scoff,
To buy our perils off.
Yea, blessed in our midst
Art thou who lately didst,
So cheap,
The old bargain of the Saxon with the Dane.’
Thus in his heart the fool now saith;
And, lo, our trusted leaders trust fool's luck,
Which, like the whale's 'mazed chine,
When they thereon were mulling of their wine,
Will some day duck.
Remnant of Honour, brooding in the dark
Over your bitter cark,
Staring, as Rispah stared, astonied seven days,
Upon the corpses of so many sons,
Who loved her once,
Dead in the dim and lion-haunted ways,
Who could have dreamt
That times should come like these!
Prophets, indeed, taught lies when we were young,
And people loved to have it so;
For they teach well who teach their scholars' tongue!
229
But that the foolish both should gaze,
With feeble, fascinated face,
Upon the wan crest of the coming woe,
The billow of earthquake underneath the seas,
And sit at ease,
Or stand agape,
Without so much as stepping back to 'scape,
Mumbling, ‘Perchance we perish if we stay:
'Tis certain wear of shoes to stir away!’
Who could have dreamt
That times should come like these!
Remnant of Honour, tongue-tied with contempt,
Consider; you are strong yet, if you please.
A hundred just men up, and arm'd but with a frown,
May hoot a hundred thousand false loons down,
Or drive them any way like geese.
But to sit silent now is to suborn
The common villainy you scorn.
In the dark hour
When phrases are in power,
And nought's to choose between
The thing which is not and which is not seen,
One fool, with lusty lungs,
Does what a hundred wise, who hate and hold their tongues,
Shall ne'er undo.
In such an hour,
When eager hands are fetter'd and too few,
And hearts alone have leave to bleed,
Speak; for a good word then is a good deed.
XVI
A Farewell
With all my will, but much against my heart,
We two now part.
My Very Dear,
Our solace is, the sad road lies so clear.
It needs no art,
With faint, averted feet
And many a tear,
In our opposed paths to persevere.
230
Go thou to East, I West.
We will not say
There's any hope, it is so far away.
But, O, my Best,
When the one darling of our widowhead,
The nursling Grief,
Is dead,
And no dews blur our eyes
To see the peach-bloom come in evening skies,
Perchance we may,
Where now this night is day,
And even through faith of still averted feet,
Making full circle of our banishment,
Amazed meet;
The bitter journey to the bourne so sweet
Seasoning the termless feast of our content
With tears of recognition never dry.
XVII
1880-85
Stand by,
Ye Wise, by whom Heav'n rules!
Your kingly hands suit not the hangman's tools.
When God has doom'd a glorious Past to die,
Are there no knaves and fools?
For ages yet to come your kind shall count for nought.
Smoke of the strife of other Powers
Than ours,
And tongues inscrutable with fury fraught
'Wilder the sky,
Till the far good which none can guess be wrought.
Stand by!
Since tears are vain, here let us rest and laugh,
But not too loudly; for the brave time's come,
When Best may not blaspheme the Bigger Half,
And freedom for our sort means freedom to be dumb.
Lo, how the dross and draff
Jeer up at us, and shout,
‘The Day is ours, the Night is theirs!’
231
And urge their rout
Where the wild dawn of rising Tartarus flares.
Yon strives their Leader, lusting to be seen.
His leprosy's so perfect that men call him clean!
Listen the long, sincere, and liberal bray
Of the earnest Puller at another's hay
'Gainst aught that dares to tug the other way,
Quite void of fears
With all that noise of ruin round his ears!
Yonder the people cast their caps o'erhead,
And swear the threaten'd doom is ne'er to dread
That's come, though not yet past.
All front the horror and are none aghast;
Brag of their full-blown rights and liberties,
Nor once surmise
When each man gets his due the Nation dies;
Nay, still shout ‘Progress!’ as if seven plagues
Should take the laggard who would stretch his legs.
Forward! glad rush of Gergesenian swine;
You've gain'd the hill-top, but there's yet the brine.
Forward! to meet the welcome of the waves
That mount to 'whelm the freedom which enslaves.
Forward! bad corpses turn into good dung,
To feed strange futures beautiful and young.
Forward! God speed ye down the damn'd decline,
And grant ye the Fool's true good, in abject ruin's gulf
As the Wise see him so to see himself!
Ah, Land once mine,
That seem'd to me too sweetly wise,
Too sternly fair for aught that dies,
Past is thy proud and pleasant state,
That recent date
When, strong and single, in thy sovereign heart,
The thrones of thinking, hearing, sight,
The cunning hand, the knotted thew
Of lesser powers that heave and hew,
And each the smallest beneficial part,
And merest pore of breathing, beat,
Full and complete,
The great pulse of thy generous might,
Equal in inequality,
232
That soul of joy in low and high;
When not a churl but felt the Giant's heat,
Albeit he simply call'd it his,
Flush in his common labour with delight,
And not a village-Maiden's kiss
But was for this
More sweet,
And not a sorrow but did lightlier sigh,
And for its private self less greet,
The whilst that other so majestic self stood by!
Integrity so vast could well afford
To wear in working many a stain,
To pillory the cobbler vain
And license madness in a lord.
On that were all men well agreed;
And, if they did a thing,
Their strength was with them in their deed,
And from amongst them came the shout of a king!
But, once let traitor coward meet,
Not Heaven itself can keep its feet.
Come knave who said to dastard, ‘Lo,
‘The Deluge!’ which but needed ‘No!’
For all the Atlantic's threatening roar,
If men would bravely understand,
Is softly check'd for evermore
By a firm bar of sand.
But, dastard listening knave, who said,
‘'Twere juster were the Giant dead,
That so yon bawlers may not miss
To vote their own pot-belly'd bliss,’
All that is past!
We saw the slaying, and were not aghast.
But ne'er a sun, on village Groom and Bride,
Albeit they guess not how it is,
At Easter or at Whitsuntide,
But shines less gay for this!
XVIII
The Two Deserts
233
Not greatly moved with awe am I
To learn that we may spy
Five thousand firmaments beyond our own.
The best that's known
Of the heavenly bodies does them credit small.
View'd close, the Moon's fair ball
Is of ill objects worst,
A corpse in Night's highway, naked, fire-scarr'd, accurst;
And now they tell
That the Sun is plainly seen to boil and burst
Too horribly for hell.
So, judging from these two,
As we must do,
The Universe, outside our living Earth,
Was all conceiv'd in the Creator's mirth,
Forecasting at the time Man's spirit deep,
To make dirt cheap.
Put by the Telescope!
Better without it man may see,
Stretch'd awful in the hush'd midnight,
The ghost of his eternity.
Give me the nobler glass that swells to the eye
The things which near us lie,
Till Science rapturously hails,
In the minutest water-drop,
A torment of innumerable tails.
These at the least do live.
But rather give
A mind not much to pry
Beyond our royal-fair estate
Betwixt these deserts blank of small and great.
Wonder and beauty our own courtiers are,
Pressing to catch our gaze,
And out of obvious ways
Ne'er wandering far.
XIX
Crest And Gulf
Much woe that man befalls
234
Who does not run when sent, nor come when Heaven calls;
But whether he serve God, or his own whim,
Not matters, in the end, to any one but him;
And he as soon
Shall map the other side of the Moon,
As trace what his own deed,
In the next chop of the chance gale, shall breed.
This he may know:
His good or evil seed
Is like to grow,
For its first harvest, quite to contraries:
The father wise
Has still the hare-brain'd brood;
'Gainst evil, ill example better works than good;
The poet, fanning his mild flight
At a most keen and arduous height,
Unveils the tender heavens to horny human eyes
Amidst ingenious blasphemies.
Wouldst raise the poor, in Capuan luxury sunk?
The Nation lives but whilst its Lords are drunk!
Or spread Heav'n's partial gifts o'er all, like dew?
The Many's weedy growth withers the gracious Few!
Strange opposites, from those, again, shall rise.
Join, then, if thee it please, the bitter jest
Of mankind's progress; all its spectral race
Mere impotence of rest,
The heaving vain of life which cannot cease from self,
Crest altering still to gulf
And gulf to crest
In endless chace,
That leaves the tossing water anchor'd in its place!
Ah, well does he who does but stand aside,
Sans hope or fear,
And marks the crest and gulf in station sink and rear,
And prophesies 'gainst trust in such a tide:
For he sometimes is prophet, heavenly taught,
Whose message is that he sees only nought.
Nathless, discern'd may be,
By listeners at the doors of destiny,
The fly-wheel swift and still
Of God's incessant will,
235
Mighty to keep in bound, tho' powerless to quell,
The amorous and vehement drift of man's herd to hell.
XX
‘Let Be!’
Ah, yes; we tell the good and evil trees
By fruits: But how tell these?
Who does not know
That good and ill
Are done in secret still,
And that which shews is verily but show!
How high of heart is one, and one how sweet of mood:
But not all height is holiness,
Nor every sweetness good;
And grace will sometimes lurk where who could guess?
The Critic of his kind,
Dealing to each his share,
With easy humour, hard to bear,
May not impossibly have in him shrined,
As in a gossamer globe or thickly padded pod,
Some small seed dear to God.
Haply yon wretch, so famous for his falls,
Got them beneath the Devil-defended walls
Of some high Virtue he had vow'd to win;
And that which you and I
Call his besetting sin
Is but the fume of his peculiar fire
Of inmost contrary desire,
And means wild willingness for her to die,
Dash'd with despondence of her favour sweet;
He fiercer fighting, in his worst defeat,
Than I or you,
That only courteous greet
Where he does hotly woo,
Did ever fight, in our best victory.
Another is mistook
Through his deceitful likeness to his look!
Let be, let be:
Why should I clear myself, why answer thou for me?
That shaft of slander shot
236
Miss'd only the right blot.
I see the shame
They cannot see:
'Tis very just they blame
The thing that's not.
XXI
‘Faint Yet Pursuing’
Heroic Good, target for which the young
Dream in their dreams that every bow is strung,
And, missing, sigh
Unfruitful, or as disbelievers die,
Thee having miss'd, I will not so revolt,
But lowlier shoot my bolt,
And lowlier still, if still I may not reach,
And my proud stomach teach
That less than highest is good, and may be high.
An even walk in life's uneven way,
Though to have dreamt of flight and not to fly
Be strange and sad,
Is not a boon that's given to all who pray.
If this I had
I'd envy none!
Nay, trod I straight for one
Year, month or week,
Should Heaven withdraw, and Satan me amerce
Of power and joy, still would I seek
Another victory with a like reverse;
Because the good of victory does not die,
As dies the failure's curse,
And what we have to gain
Is, not one battle, but a weary life's campaign.
Yet meaner lot being sent
Should more than me content;
Yea, if I lie
Among vile shards, though born for silver wings,
In the strong flight and feathers gold
Of whatsoever heavenward mounts and sings
I must by admiration so comply
That there I should my own delight behold.
237
Yea, though I sin each day times seven,
And dare not lift the fearfullest eyes to Heaven,
Thanks must I give
Because that seven times are not eight or nine,
And that my darkness is all mine,
And that I live
Within this oak-shade one more minute even,
Hearing the winds their Maker magnify.
XXII
Victory In Defeat
Ah, God, alas,
How soon it came to pass
The sweetness melted from thy barbed hook
Which I so simply took;
And I lay bleeding on the bitter land,
Afraid to stir against thy least command,
But losing all my pleasant life-blood, whence
Force should have been heart's frailty to withstand.
Life is not life at all without delight,
Nor has it any might;
And better than the insentient heart and brain
Is sharpest pain;
And better for the moment seems it to rebel,
If the great Master, from his lifted seat,
Ne'er whispers to the wearied servant ‘Well!’
Yet what returns of love did I endure,
When to be pardon'd seem'd almost more sweet
Than aye to have been pure!
But day still faded to disastrous night,
And thicker darkness changed to feebler light,
Until forgiveness, without stint renew'd,
Was now no more with loving tears imbued,
Vowing no more offence.
Not less to thine Unfaithful didst thou cry,
‘Come back, poor Child; be all as 'twas before.
But I,
‘No, no; I will not promise any more!
Yet, when I feel my hour is come to die,
And so I am secured of continence,
238
Then may I say, though haply then in vain,
'My only, only Love, O, take me back again!'’
Thereafter didst thou smite
So hard that, for a space,
Uplifted seem'd Heav'n's everlasting door,
And I indeed the darling of thy grace.
But, in some dozen changes of the moon,
A bitter mockery seem'd thy bitter boon.
The broken pinion was no longer sore.
Again, indeed, I woke
Under so dread a stroke
That all the strength it left within my heart
Was just to ache and turn, and then to turn and ache,
And some weak sign of war unceasingly to make.
And here I lie,
With no one near to mark,
Thrusting Hell's phantoms feebly in the dark,
And still at point more utterly to die.
O God, how long!
Put forth indeed thy powerful right hand,
While time is yet,
Or never shall I see the blissful land!
Thus I: then God, in pleasant speech and strong,
(Which soon I shall forget):
‘The man who, though his fights be all defeats,
Still fights,
Enters at last
The heavenly Jerusalem's rejoicing streets
With glory more, and more triumphant rites
Than always-conquering Joshua's, when his blast
The frighted walls of Jericho down cast;
And, lo, the glad surprise
Of peace beyond surmise,
More than in common Saints, for ever in his eyes.
XXIII
Remembered Grace
Since succour to the feeblest of the wise
239
Is charge of nobler weight
Than the security
Of many and many a foolish soul's estate,
This I affirm,
Though fools will fools more confidently be:
Whom God does once with heart to heart befriend,
He does so till the end:
And having planted life's miraculous germ,
One sweet pulsation of responsive love,
He sets him sheer above,
Not sin and bitter shame
And wreck of fame,
But Hell's insidious and more black attempt,
The envy, malice, and pride,
Which men who share so easily condone
That few ev'n list such ills as these to hide.
From these unalterably exempt,
Through the remember'd grace
Of that divine embrace,
Of his sad errors none,
Though gross to blame,
Shall cast him lower than the cleansing flame,
Nor make him quite depart
From the small flock named ‘after God's own heart,’
And to themselves unknown.
Nor can he quail
In faith, nor flush nor pale
When all the other idiot people spell
How this or that new Prophet's word belies
Their last high oracle;
But constantly his soul
Points to its pole
Ev'n as the needle points, and knows not why;
And, under the ever-changing clouds of doubt,
When others cry,
‘The stars, if stars there were,
Are quench'd and out!’
To him, uplooking t'ward the hills for aid,
Appear, at need display'd,
Gaps in the low-hung gloom, and, bright in air,
Orion or the Bear.
240
XXIV
Vesica Piscis
In strenuous hope I wrought,
And hope seem'd still betray'd;
Lastly I said,
‘I have labour'd through the Night, nor yet
Have taken aught;
But at Thy word I will again cast forth the net!’
And, lo, I caught
(Oh, quite unlike and quite beyond my thought,)
Not the quick, shining harvest of the Sea,
For food, my wish,
But Thee!
Then, hiding even in me,
As hid was Simon's coin within the fish,
Thou sigh'd'st, with joy, ‘Be dumb,
Or speak but of forgotten things to far-off times to come.’
~ Coventry Patmore

--- IN CHAPTERS (in Dictionaries, in Quotes, in Chapters)



0

   11 Integral Yoga
   1 Psychology


   10 Nolini Kanta Gupta
   2 The Mother
   2 Satprem


   3 Collected Works of Nolini Kanta Gupta - Vol 03
   2 Collected Works of Nolini Kanta Gupta - Vol 04


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