classes ::: Integral Theory,
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branches ::: archetypes, Neo-Jungian Archetypes, types

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subject class:Integral Theory
subject:Integral Theory

  this section can become immensely huge as in its use in IT it is a basket for things missing from AQAL, but then there is more missing and types doesnt encompass it but regardless.

the two types which oddly was the spawn for this note was "classics and favorites" two types of grades for media.

see also :::

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now begins generated list of local instances, definitions, quotes, instances in chapters, wordnet info if available and instances among weblinks









Neo-Jungian Archetypes
The 5 Dharma Types
The Archetypes and the Collective Unconscious
types of words



typesetter ::: n. --> One who, or that which, sets type; a compositor; a machine for setting type.

typesetting ::: n. --> The act or art of setting type.

types ::: Horizontal styles available to any developmental level within the quadrants. Examples of types include Myers-Briggs, Enneagram, masculine and feminine in the Upper Left; body types in the Upper Right; cultural types in the Lower Left; and types of biomes in the Lower Right.

Types, Ancestral In biology used in connection with theories of evolution, which seek for ancestral types which may have served as staring points for physical development. But the causes operative on the physical plane on which science relies, are in fact only secondary causes. The true ancestral types are astral, and indeed, because of distant causal action, even spiritual models reflected in the astral and thence into the physical, and thus governing shape, form, and their correlations with other effects. The secondary causes come into play mainly after the physicalization of the astral forms (cf SD 2:648-9).

TYPES, DIVISION INTO The division into types works thoroughly, in many ways and in innumerable kinds of combinations. Strange as it may seem, every solar system, every planet, every aggregate expresses one of the seven types especially. Every individual belongs to one, all man's envelopes can be of different types.

Individual character also makes itself felt, so that every individual, despite his type, is something unique, which fact conduces to greater understanding and makes cosmic unity more fully vibrant. K 2.5.8f

Types of illnesses ::: An illness which comes in the ordinary course as the result of physical causes — even though adverse universal forces are the first cause — is an ordinary illness. One brought by the forces hostile to yoga to upset the system and prevent or disturb progress — without any adequate physical reason — is a hostile attack. It may have the appearance of a cold or other illness, but to the eye which sees the action of the forces and not only the outward symptoms or results, the diHerence is clear.

Types of life ::: The ordinary life is that of the average human consciousness separated from its own true self and from the


100BaseVG "networking" A 100 {MBps} {Ethernet} standard specified to run over four pairs of {category 3} {UTP} wires (known as voice grade, hence the "VG"). It is also called 100VG-AnyLAN because it was defined to carry both {Ethernet} and {token ring} {frame} types. 100BaseVG was originally proposed by {Hewlett-Packard}, ratified by the {ISO} in 1995 and practically extinct by 1998. 100BaseVG started in the IEEE 802.3u committee as {Fast Ethernet}. One faction wanted to keep {CSMA/CD} in order to keep it pure Ethernet, even though the {collision domain} problem limited the distances to one tenth that of {10baseT}. Another faction wanted to change to a polling architecture from the hub (they called it "demand priority") in order to maintain the 10baseT distances, and also to make it a {deterministic} {protocol}. The CSMA/CD crowd said, "This is 802.3 -- the Ethernet committee. If you guys want to make a different protocol, form your own committee". The IEEE 802.12 committee was thus formed and standardised 100BaseVG. The rest is history. (1998-06-30)

2. In psychology, the act or process of exercising the mind, the faculty of connecting judgments; the power and fact of using reason; the thought-processes of discussion, debate, argumentation or inference; the manifestation of the discursive property of the mind; the actual use of arguments with a view to convince or persuade; the art and method or proving or demonstrating; the orderly development of thought with a view to, or the attainment of a conclusion believed to be valid. -- The origin, nature and value of reasoning are debated questions, with their answers ranging from spiritualism (reasoning as the exercise of a faculty of the soul) to materialism (reasoning as an epiphenomenon depending on the brain), with all the modern schools of psychology ordering themselves between them. A few points of agreement might be mentioned here: reasoning follows judgment and apprehension, whichever of the last two thought-processes comes first in our psychological development; reasoning proceeds according to four main types, namely deductive, inductive, presumptive and deceptive; reasoning assumes a belief in its own validity undisturbed by doubt, and implies various logical habits and methods which may be organized into a logical doctrine; reasoning requires a reference to some ultimate principles to justify its progress 3. In logic, Reasoning is the process of inference, it is the process of passing from certain propositions already known or assumed to be true, to another truth distinct from them but following from them; it is a discourse or argument which infers one proposition from another, or from a group of others having some common elements between them. The inference is necessary in the case of deductive reasoning; and contingent, probable or wrong, in the case of inductive, presumptive or deceptive reasoning respectively. -- There are various types of reasoning, and proper methods for each type. The definition, discussion, development and evaluation of these types and methods form an important branch of logic and its subdivisions. The details of the application of reasoning to the various sciences, form the subject of methodology. All these types are reducible to one or the other of the two fundamental processes or reasoning, namely deduction and induction. It must be added that the logical study of reasoning is normative logic does not analyze it simply in its natural development, but with a view to guide it towards coherence, validity or truth. -- T.G.

ABC 1. "computer" {Atanasoff-Berry Computer}. 2. "language" An {imperative language} and programming environment from {CWI}, Netherlands. It is interactive, structured, high-level, and easy to learn and use. It is a general-purpose language which you might use instead of {BASIC}, {Pascal} or {AWK}. It is not a systems-programming language but is good for teaching or prototyping. ABC has only five data types that can easily be combined; {strong typing}, yet without declarations; data limited only by memory; refinements to support top-down programming; nesting by indentation. Programs are typically around a quarter the size of the equivalent {Pascal} or {C} program, and more readable. ABC includes a programming environment with {syntax-directed} editing, {suggestions}, {persistent variables} and multiple workspaces and {infinite precision} arithmetic. An example function words to collect the set of all words in a document:  HOW TO RETURN words document:   PUT {} IN collection   FOR line in document:     FOR word IN split line:       IF word collection:        INSERT word IN collection   RETURN collection {Interpreter}/{compiler}, version 1.04.01, by Leo Geurts, Lambert Meertens, Steven Pemberton "". ABC has been ported to {Unix}, {MS-DOS}, {Atari}, {Macintosh}. {(}. {FTP (}, {FTP (}, {FTP uunet (}. Mailing list: "". E-mail: "". ["The ABC Programmer's Handbook" by Leo Geurts, Lambert Meertens and Steven Pemberton, published by Prentice-Hall (ISBN 0-13-000027-2)]. ["An Alternative Simple Language and Environment for PCs" by Steven Pemberton, IEEE Software, Vol. 4, No. 1, January 1987, pp. 56-64.] (1995-02-09) 2. "language" Argument, Basic value, C?. An {abstract machine} for implementation of {functional languages} and its intermediate code. [P. Koopman, "Functional Programs as Executable Specifications", 1990]. (1995-02-09)

abstract interpretation "theory" A partial execution of a program which gains information about its {semantics} (e.g. control structure, flow of information) without performing all the calculations. Abstract interpretation is typically used by compilers to analyse programs in order to decide whether certain optimisations or transformations are applicable. The objects manipulated by the program (typically values and functions) are represented by points in some {domain}. Each abstract domain point represents some set of real ("{concrete}") values. For example, we may take the abstract points "+", "0" and "-" to represent positive, zero and negative numbers and then define an abstract version of the multiplication operator, *

abstraction 1. Generalisation; ignoring or hiding details to capture some kind of commonality between different instances. Examples are {abstract data types} (the representation details are hidden), {abstract syntax} (the details of the {concrete syntax} are ignored), {abstract interpretation} (details are ignored to analyse specific properties). 2. "programming" Parameterisation, making something a function of something else. Examples are {lambda abstractions} (making a term into a function of some variable), {higher-order functions} (parameters are functions), {bracket abstraction} (making a term into a function of a variable). Opposite of {concretisation}. (1998-06-04)

According to another interpretation of the notion of whole and of the part-whole principle, a whole is an object whose parts are mutually interdependent in the sense that a change affecting one of its parts will bring about changes in all of the other parts, and because of this interdependence the whole is said to be "more" than the sum of its parts. The part-whole principle then obviously is true simply by definition, and again, lacks explanatory value. Besides, if the above interdependence criterion for wholes is taken literally, then any object turns out to be a whole. What the concept of whole is actually meant to refer to, are specific types of interdependence as found in living organisms, etc., but then, again, an adequate description and explanation of those phenomena can be attained only by a study of their special regularities, not by a sweeping use of the vague concept of whole and of the unclear part-whole principle. (For the points referred to in the preceding remarks, see also Emergent Evolution, Gestalt, Holism, Mechanism, Vitalism.)

A. Church, A formulation of the simple theory of types, The Journal of Symbolic Logic, vol. 5 (1940), pp. 56-68.

Ada 95 "language" A revision and extension of {Ada} (Ada 83) begun in 1988 and completed on 1994-12-01 by a team lead by Tucker Taft of {Intermetrics}. Chris Anderson was the Project Manager. The printed standard was expected to be available around 1995-02-15. Additions include {object-orientation} ({tagged types}, {abstract types} and {class-wide types}), hierarchical libraries and synchronisation with shared data (protected types) similar to {Orca}. It lacks {multiple inheritance} but supports the construction of multiple inheritance type hierarchies through the use of {generics} and {type composition}. {GNAT} aims to be a free implementation of Ada 95. You can get the standard from the {Ada Joint Program Office (}. ["Introducing Ada 9X", J.G.P. Barnes, Feb 1993]. (1999-12-02)

Ada "language" (After {Ada Lovelace}) A {Pascal}-descended language, designed by Jean Ichbiah's team at {CII Honeywell} in 1979, made mandatory for Department of Defense software projects by the Pentagon. The original language was standardised as "Ada 83", the latest is "{Ada 95}". Ada is a large, complex, {block-structured} language aimed primarily at {embedded} applications. It has facilities for {real-time} response, {concurrency}, hardware access and reliable run-time error handling. In support of large-scale {software engineering}, it emphasises {strong typing}, {data abstraction} and {encapsulation}. The type system uses {name equivalence} and includes both {subtypes} and {derived types}. Both fixed and {floating-point} numerical types are supported. {Control flow} is fully bracketed: if-then-elsif-end if, case-is-when-end case, loop-exit-end loop, goto. Subprogram parameters are in, out, or inout. Variables imported from other packages may be hidden or directly visible. Operators may be {overloaded} and so may {enumeration} literals. There are user-defined {exceptions} and {exception handlers}. An Ada program consists of a set of packages encapsulating data objects and their related operations. A package has a separately compilable body and interface. Ada permits {generic packages} and subroutines, possibly parametrised. Ada support {single inheritance}, using "tagged types" which are types that can be extended via {inheritance}. Ada programming places a heavy emphasis on {multitasking}. Tasks are synchronised by the {rendezvous}, in which a task waits for one of its subroutines to be executed by another. The conditional entry makes it possible for a task to test whether an entry is ready. The selective wait waits for either of two entries or waits for a limited time. Ada is often criticised, especially for its size and complexity, and this is attributed to its having been designed by committee. In fact, both Ada 83 and Ada 95 were designed by small design teams to be internally consistent and tightly integrated. By contrast, two possible competitors, {Fortran 90} and {C++} have both become products designed by large and disparate volunteer committees. See also {Ada/Ed}, {Toy/Ada}. {Home of the Brave Ada Programmers (}. {Ada FAQs (} (hypertext), {text only (}. {(}, {(}, {(}. E-mail: "". {Usenet} newsgroup: {news:comp.lang.ada}. {An Ada grammar (} including a lex scanner and yacc parser is available. E-mail: "". {Another yacc grammar and parser for Ada by Herman Fischer ("ADA.EXTERNAL-TOOLS"GRAM2.SRC)}. An {LR parser} and {pretty-printer} for {Ada} from NASA is available from the {Ada Software Repository}. {Adamakegen} generates {makefiles} for {Ada} programs. ["Reference Manual for the Ada Programming Language", ANSI/MIL STD 1815A, US DoD (Jan 1983)]. Earlier draft versions appeared in July 1980 and July 1982. ISO 1987. [{Jargon File}] (2000-08-12)

Ada-O "language" An {Ada} subset developed at the {University of Karlsruhe} in 1979, used for {compiler} {bootstrapping}. It lacks {overloading}, {derived types}, {real numbers}, tasks and {generics}. ["Revised Ada-O Reference Manual", G. Persch et al, U Karlsruhe, Inst fur Infor II, Bericht Nr 9/81]. (1995-02-14)

address 1. "networking" {e-mail address}. 2. "networking" {IP address}. 3. "networking" {MAC address}. 4. "storage, programming" An unsigned integer used to select one fundamental element of storage, usually known as a {word} from a computer's {main memory} or other storage device. The {CPU} outputs addresses on its {address bus} which may be connected to an {address decoder}, {cache controller}, {memory management unit}, and other devices. While from a hardware point of view an address is indeed an integer most {strongly typed} programming languages disallow mixing integers and addresses, and indeed addresses of different data types. This is a fine example for {syntactic salt}: the compiler could work without it but makes writing bad programs more difficult. (1997-07-01)

aggregate type "programming" A data {type} composed of multiple elements. An aggregate can be homogeneous (all elements have the same type) e.g. an {array}, a list in a {functional language}, a string of characters, a file; or it can be heterogeneous (elements can have different types) e.g. a {structure}. In most languages aggregates can contain elements which are themselves aggregates. e.g. a list of lists. See also {union}. (1996-03-23)

ahaituka ::: causeless; objectless; lacking a hetu; (with reference to any form of physical ananda or certain types of subjective ananda) manifesting without relation to an outer stimulus or object; short for ahaituka ananda. ahaituka ananda

Aleph "text, language" ["Aleph: A language for typesetting", Luigi Semenzato "" and Edward Wang "" in Proceedings of Electronic Publishing, 1992 Ed. Vanoirbeek & Coray Cambridge University Press 1992]. (1994-12-15)

Alex "language" 1. A {polymorphic} language being developed by Stephen Crawley "" of Defence Science & Tech Org, Australia. Alex has {abstract data types}, {type inference} and {inheritance}. 2. "language" An {ISWIM}-like language with {exception handling}. ["An Exception Handling Construct for Functional Languages", M. Brez et al, in Proc ESOP88, LNCS 300, Springer 1988]. 3. "tool" A {scanner generator}. {Alexis} is its input language. ["Alex: A Simple and Efficient Scanner Generator", H. Mossenbock, SIGPLAN Notices 21(5), May 1986]. (1994-12-15)

algebraic data type "programming" (Or "sum of products type") In {functional programming}, new types can be defined, each of which has one or more {constructors}. Such a type is known as an algebraic data type. E.g. in {Haskell} we can define a new type, "Tree": data Tree = Empty | Leaf Int | Node Tree Tree with constructors "Empty", "Leaf" and "Node". The constructors can be used much like functions in that they can be (partially) applied to arguments of the appropriate type. For example, the Leaf constructor has the functional type Int -" Tree. A constructor application cannot be reduced (evaluated) like a function application though since it is already in {normal form}. Functions which operate on algebraic data types can be defined using {pattern matching}: depth :: Tree -" Int depth Empty = 0 depth (Leaf n) = 1 depth (Node l r) = 1 + max (depth l) (depth r) The most common algebraic data type is the list which has constructors Nil and Cons, written in Haskell using the special syntax "[]" for Nil and infix ":" for Cons. Special cases of algebraic types are {product types} (only one constructor) and {enumeration types} (many constructors with no arguments). Algebraic types are one kind of {constructed type} (i.e. a type formed by combining other types). An algebraic data type may also be an {abstract data type} (ADT) if it is exported from a {module} without its constructors. Objects of such a type can only be manipulated using functions defined in the same {module} as the type itself. In {set theory} the equivalent of an algebraic data type is a {discriminated union} - a set whose elements consist of a tag (equivalent to a constructor) and an object of a type corresponding to the tag (equivalent to the constructor arguments). (1994-11-23)

Algebraic Specification Language 1. "language" (ASL) ["Structured Algebraic Specifications: A Kernel Language", M. Wirsing, Theor Comput Sci 42, pp.123-249, Elsevier 1986]. 2. "language" (ASF) A language for equational specification of {abstract data types}. ["Algebraic Specification", J.A. Bergstra et al, A-W 1989]. (1995-12-13)

ALGOL 60 "language" ALGOrithmic Language 1960. A portable language for scientific computations. ALGOL 60 was small and elegant. It was {block-structured}, nested, {recursive} and {free form}. It was also the first language to be described in {BNF}. There were three {lexical} representations: hardware, reference, and publication. The only structured data types were {arrays}, but they were permitted to have lower bounds and could be dynamic. It also had {conditional expressions}; it introduced :=; if-then-else; very general "for" loops; switch declaration (an array of statement {labels} generalising {Fortran}'s {computed goto}). Parameters were {call-by-name} and {call-by-value}. It had {static} local "own" variables. It lacked user-defined types, character manipulation and {standard I/O}. See also {EULER}, {ALGOL 58}, {ALGOL 68}, {Foogol}. ["Report on the Algorithmic Language ALGOL 60", Peter Naur ed., CACM 3(5):299-314, May 1960]. (1995-01-25)

ALGOL 68 "language" An extensive revision of {ALGOL 60} by Adriaan van Wijngaarden et al. ALGOL 68 was discussed from 1963 by Working Group 2.1 of {IFIP}. Its definition was accepted in December 1968. ALGOL 68 was the first, and still one of very few, programming languages for which a complete formal specification was created before its implementation. However, this specification was hard to understand due to its formality, the fact that it used an unfamiliar {metasyntax} notation (not {BNF}) and its unconventional terminology. One of the singular features of ALGOL 68 was its {orthogonal} design, making for freedom from arbitrary rules (such as restrictions in other languages that arrays could only be used as parameters but not as results). It also allowed {user defined data types}, then an unheard-of feature. It featured {structural equivalence}; automatic type conversion ("{coercion}") including {dereferencing}; {flexible arrays}; generalised loops (for-from-by-to-while-do-od), if-then-else-elif-fi, an integer case statement with an 'out' clause (case-in-out-esac); {skip} and {goto} statements; {blocks}; {procedures}; user-defined {operators}; {procedure parameters}; {concurrent} execution (par-begin-end); {semaphores}; generators "heap" and "loc" for {dynamic allocation}. It had no {abstract data types} or {separate compilation}. {(}. (2007-04-24)

A like result may be obtained for the functional calculus of order omega (theory of types) by utilizing a representation of it within the Zermelo set theory. It is thus in a certain sense impossible to postulate the non-enumerable infinite: any set of postulates designed to do so will have an unintended interpretation within the enumerable. Usual sets of mathematical postulates for the real number system (see number) have an appearance to the contrary only because they are incompletely formalized (i.e., the mathematical concepts are formalized, while the underlying logic remains unformalized and indefinite).

Alpha Geek "job" The head {geek} or geek's geek. When no one else knows the answer, or several techno-types give conflicting advise, or the error message says "consult your administrator" and you *are* the administrator, you ask the Alpha Geek. (1997-06-25)

altered states ::: Also known as “nonordinary” states of consciousness. There are at least two major types of altered states: exogenous or “externally created” (e.g., drug induced, or near-death experiences) and endogenous or “self-created” (including trained states such as meditative states).

Amber "language" 1. A {functional programming} language which adds {CSP}-like {concurrency}, {multiple inheritance} and {persistence} to {ML} and generalises its type system. It is similar to {Galileo}. Programs must be written in two type faces, roman and italics! It has both {static types} and {dynamic types}. There is an implementation for {Macintosh}. ["Amber", L. Cardelli, TR Bell Labs, 1984]. 2. An {object-oriented} distributed language based on a subset of {C++}, developed at {Washington University} in the late 1980s. (1994-12-08)

anagoge ::: n. --> An elevation of mind to things celestial.
The spiritual meaning or application; esp. the application of the types and allegories of the Old Testament to subjects of the New.

Analogy: (in Scholasticism) Predication common to several inferiors of a name, which is accepted in different senses, in such a manner, nevertheless, that some principle warrants its common applicability. Accordingly as this principle is sought in the relations of cause and effect, proportion or proportionality there are distinguished various types of analogy.

Analysis: (Chemical) The identification and estimation of chemical individuals in a mixture; the identification and estimation of elements in a compound; the identification and estimation of types of substances in complex mixtures; the identification and estimation of isotopes In an "element". -- W.M.M.

Angirasah, Angiras rsis (the Angirasas, the Angirasa Rishis) ::: a clan of rsis that went by the name of Angiras, their progenitor; the seven sages, the seven lustres of Agni, his sons; burning powers of the Light; divine or human types of the seer-will.

Another solution -- which has recently been widely adopted -- is the simple theory of types (see Logic, formal, § 6). This was proposed as a modification of the ramified theory of types by Chwistek in 1921 and Ramsey in 1926, and adopted by Carnap in 1929.

Anschauung: A German term used in epistemology to mean intuition or perception with a quality of directness or immediacy. It is a basic term in Kant's philosophy, denoting that which presents materials to the intellect through the forms of space and time. These forms predetermine what types of objects (schemata) can be set up when the understanding applies its own forms to the facts of sense. Kant distinguished "empirical" intuitions (a posteriori) of objects through sensation, and "pure" intuitions (a priori) with space and time as the forms of sensibility. The characteristics and functions of Anschauung are discussed in the first division (Aesthetic) of the Critique of Pure Reason. Caird disputes the equivalence of the Kantian Anschauung with intuition; but it is difficult to find an English word more closely related to the German term. -- T.G.

ANSI C "language, standard" (American National Standards Institute C) A revision of {C}, adding {function prototypes}, {structure passing}, {structure assignment} and standardised library functions. {ANSI} X3.159-1989. {cgram} is a {grammar} for ANSI C, written in {Scheme}. {unproto} is a program for removing function prototypes to translate ANSI C to standard C. {lcc} is a {retargetable} {compiler} for ANSI C. (1995-11-26)

Apophansis: A Greek word for proposition involving etymologically a reference to its realist onto-logical background (Greek root of phaos, light). In this sense, a proposition expresses the illumination of its subject by its predicate or predicates; or again, It makes explicit the internal luminosity of its subject by positing against it as predicates its essential or accidental constituents. The Aristotelian apophansis or logosapopkantikos denotes the fundamental subject-predicate form, either as an independent propositlonal form or as a syllogistic conclusion, to which all other types of propositions may be reduced by analysis and deduction. It cannot be said that the controversies initiated by modern symbolic logic have destroyed the ontological or operational value of the Aristotelian apophantic form. -- T.G.

Application Executive "language" (AE) An {embeddable language}, written as a {C} {interpreter} by Brian Bliss at UIUC. AE is compiled with an {application} and thus exists in the same process and address space. It includes a {dbx} {symbol table} scanner to access compiled variables and routines, or you can enter them manually by providing a type/name declaration and the address. When the {interpreter} is invoked, {source code} fragments are read from the input stream (or a string), {parsed}, and evaluated immediately. The user can call compiled functions in addition to a few {built-in} intrinsics, declare new data types and data objects, etc. Different input streams can be evaluated in parallel on {Alliant} computers. AE has been ported to {SunOS} (cc or {gcc}), {Alliant FX} and {Cray YMP} (soon). {(}. {(}. (1992-04-21)

AQAL matrix ::: The configuration of all quadrants, levels, lines, states, and types at any given time in any given occasion.

AQAL ::: Pronounced “ah-qwul.” Short for “all-quadrants, all-levels,” which itself is short for “allquadrants, all-levels, all-lines, all-states, and all-types.” Developed by philosopher and author, Ken Wilber, AQAL appears to be the most comprehensive approach to reality to date. It is a supertheory or metatheory that attempts to explain how the most time-tested methodologies, and the experiences those methodologies bring forth, fit together in a coherent fashion. AQAL theory’s pragmatic correlate is a series of social practices called Integral Methodological Pluralism (IMP). The personal application of AQAL is called Integral Life Practice (ILP). “AQAL” is often used interchangeably with Integral Theory, the Integral approach, the Integral map, the Integral model, and Integral Operating System (IOS).

As an emergent materialist, he holds that everything happens by the blind combination of the elements of matter or energy, without any guidance, excluding the assumption of a non-material component. While he regards primary qualities as physical emergents, he yet considers secondary qualities, such as color, taste, and smell, as transphysical emergents. He favors the emergence of laws, qualities and classes. Psyche, physical in nature, combines with other material factors to make the life of the mind. Broad holds to a generative view of consciousness. Psyche persists after death for some time, floats about in cosmic space indefinitely, ready to combine with a material body under suitable conditions. He calls this theory the "compound theory of materialistic emergency." Sensa, he holds, are real, particular, short-lived existents. They are exclusively neither physical nor mental. He replaces the neo-realistic contrast between existents and subsistents, by a contrast between existents and substracta. Main works: Scientific Thought, 1923; The Mind and Its Place in Nature, 1925; Five Types of Ethical Theory, 1930. -- H.H.


As moral laws differ widely from logical and physical laws, the type of necessity which they generate is considerably different from the two types previous defined. Moral necessity is illustrated in the necessity of an obligation. Fulfillment of the obligation is morally necessary in the sense that the failure to fulfill it would violate a moral law, where this law is regarded as embodying some recognized value. If it is admitted that values are relative to individuals and societies, then the laws embodying these values will be similarly relative, and likewise the type of thing which these laws will render morally necessary.

ASpecT "language" Algebraic specification of {abstract data types}. A {strict} {functional language} that compiles to {C}. Versions of ASpecT are available for {Sun}, {Ultrix}, {NeXT}, {Macintosh}, {OS/2} 2.0, {Linux}, {RS/6000}, {Atari}, {Amiga}. {(}. (1996-03-25)

Association: (Lat. ad + socius, companion) The psychological phenomenon of connection or union between different items in consciousness. The term has been applied to two distinct types of connection: (a) the natural or original connection between sensations which together constitute a single perception and (b) the acquired connection whereby one sensation or idea tends to reinstate another idea. The first type of connection has sometimes been called simultaneous association and the second type successive association, but this terminology is misleading since successively apprehended sensations are often conjoined into the unity of a perception, e.g. the bell which I saw a moment ago and the sound which I now hear, while, on the other hand, an idea may in certain cases be contemporaneous with the sensation or idea by which it is revived. The dual application of the term association to both natural and acquired association was made by J. Locke: "Some of our ideas," says Locke "have a natural correspondence or connection with one another . . . Besides this there is another connection of ideas wholly owing to chance or custom." Essay Concerning Human Understanding (1690) Bk. II, ch. 33. The usage of later authors, however, tends to restrict the term association to acquired connection ((b) above) and to adopt some other expression such as cohesion, correlation (see Correlation, Sensory) or combination (see Combination) to designate natural connections ((a) above).

asura ::: (in the Veda) "the mighty Lord", an epithet of the supreme deva; a Titan (daitya); a kind of anti-divine being of the mentalised vital plane; the sixth of the ten types of consciousness (dasa-gavas) in the evolutionary scale: mind concentrated on the buddhi; (on page 1280) a being of a world of "might & glory".

Attention: (Lat. ad + tendere, to stretch) The concentration of the mind upon selected portions of the field of consciousness thereby conferring upon the selected items, a peculiar vividness and clarity. The field of attention may be divided into two parts: the focus of attention, where the degree of concentration of attention is maximal and the fringe of attention, where the degree of attention gradually diminishes to zero at the periphery. Attention considered with respect to its genesis, is of two types: involuntary, passive or spontaneous attention, which is governed by external stimulus or internal association of ideas and voluntary, controlled or directed attention which is guided by the subject's purpose or intention.

Aufklärung: In general, this German word and its English equivalent Enlightenment denote the self-emancipation of man from mere authority, prejudice, convention and tradition, with an insistence on freer thinking about problems uncritically referred to these other agencies. According to Kant's famous definition "Enlightenment is the liberation of man from his self-caused state of minority, which is the incapacity of using one's understanding without the direction of another. This state of minority is caused when its source lies not in the lack of understanding, but in the lack of determination and courage to use it without the assistance of another" (Was ist Aufklärung? 1784). In its historical perspective, the Aufklärung refers to the cultural atmosphere and contrlbutions of the 18th century, especially in Germany, France and England [which affected also American thought with B. Franklin, T. Paine and the leaders of the Revolution]. It crystallized tendencies emphasized by the Renaissance, and quickened by modern scepticism and empiricism, and by the great scientific discoveries of the 17th century. This movement, which was represented by men of varying tendencies, gave an impetus to general learning, a more popular philosophy, empirical science, scriptural criticism, social and political thought. More especially, the word Aufklärung is applied to the German contributions to 18th century culture. In philosophy, its principal representatives are G. E. Lessing (1729-81) who believed in free speech and in a methodical criticism of religion, without being a free-thinker; H. S. Reimarus (1694-1768) who expounded a naturalistic philosophy and denied the supernatural origin of Christianity; Moses Mendelssohn (1729-86) who endeavoured to mitigate prejudices and developed a popular common-sense philosophy; Chr. Wolff (1679-1754), J. A. Eberhard (1739-1809) who followed the Leibnizian rationalism and criticized unsuccessfully Kant and Fichte; and J. G. Herder (1744-1803) who was best as an interpreter of others, but whose intuitional suggestions have borne fruit in the organic correlation of the sciences, and in questions of language in relation to human nature and to national character. The works of Kant and Goethe mark the culmination of the German Enlightenment. Cf. J. G. Hibben, Philosophy of the Enlightenment, 1910. --T.G. Augustinianism: The thought of St. Augustine of Hippo, and of his followers. Born in 354 at Tagaste in N. Africa, A. studied rhetoric in Carthage, taught that subject there and in Rome and Milan. Attracted successively to Manicheanism, Scepticism, and Neo-Platontsm, A. eventually found intellectual and moral peace with his conversion to Christianity in his thirty-fourth year. Returning to Africa, he established numerous monasteries, became a priest in 391, Bishop of Hippo in 395. Augustine wrote much: On Free Choice, Confessions, Literal Commentary on Genesis, On the Trinity, and City of God, are his most noted works. He died in 430.   St. Augustine's characteristic method, an inward empiricism which has little in common with later variants, starts from things without, proceeds within to the self, and moves upwards to God. These three poles of the Augustinian dialectic are polarized by his doctrine of moderate illuminism. An ontological illumination is required to explain the metaphysical structure of things. The truth of judgment demands a noetic illumination. A moral illumination is necessary in the order of willing; and so, too, an lllumination of art in the aesthetic order. Other illuminations which transcend the natural order do not come within the scope of philosophy; they provide the wisdoms of theology and mysticism. Every being is illuminated ontologically by number, form, unity and its derivatives, and order. A thing is what it is, in so far as it is more or less flooded by the light of these ontological constituents.   Sensation is necessary in order to know material substances. There is certainly an action of the external object on the body and a corresponding passion of the body, but, as the soul is superior to the body and can suffer nothing from its inferior, sensation must be an action, not a passion, of the soul. Sensation takes place only when the observing soul, dynamically on guard throughout the body, is vitally attentive to the changes suffered by the body. However, an adequate basis for the knowledge of intellectual truth is not found in sensation alone. In order to know, for example, that a body is multiple, the idea of unity must be present already, otherwise its multiplicity could not be recognized. If numbers are not drawn in by the bodily senses which perceive only the contingent and passing, is the mind the source of the unchanging and necessary truth of numbers? The mind of man is also contingent and mutable, and cannot give what it does not possess. As ideas are not innate, nor remembered from a previous existence of the soul, they can be accounted for only by an immutable source higher than the soul. In so far as man is endowed with an intellect, he is a being naturally illuminated by God, Who may be compared to an intelligible sun. The human intellect does not create the laws of thought; it finds them and submits to them. The immediate intuition of these normative rules does not carry any content, thus any trace of ontologism is avoided.   Things have forms because they have numbers, and they have being in so far as they possess form. The sufficient explanation of all formable, and hence changeable, things is an immutable and eternal form which is unrestricted in time and space. The forms or ideas of all things actually existing in the world are in the things themselves (as rationes seminales) and in the Divine Mind (as rationes aeternae). Nothing could exist without unity, for to be is no other than to be one. There is a unity proper to each level of being, a unity of the material individual and species, of the soul, and of that union of souls in the love of the same good, which union constitutes the city. Order, also, is ontologically imbibed by all beings. To tend to being is to tend to order; order secures being, disorder leads to non-being. Order is the distribution which allots things equal and unequal each to its own place and integrates an ensemble of parts in accordance with an end. Hence, peace is defined as the tranquillity of order. Just as things have their being from their forms, the order of parts, and their numerical relations, so too their beauty is not something superadded, but the shining out of all their intelligible co-ingredients.   S. Aurelii Augustini, Opera Omnia, Migne, PL 32-47; (a critical edition of some works will be found in the Corpus Scriptorum Ecclesiasticorum Latinorum, Vienna). Gilson, E., Introd. a l'etude de s. Augustin, (Paris, 1931) contains very good bibliography up to 1927, pp. 309-331. Pope, H., St. Augustine of Hippo, (London, 1937). Chapman, E., St. Augustine's Philos. of Beauty, (N. Y., 1939). Figgis, J. N., The Political Aspects of St. Augustine's "City of God", (London, 1921). --E.C. Authenticity: In a general sense, genuineness, truth according to its title. It involves sometimes a direct and personal characteristic (Whitehead speaks of "authentic feelings").   This word also refers to problems of fundamental criticism involving title, tradition, authorship and evidence. These problems are vital in theology, and basic in scholarship with regard to the interpretation of texts and doctrines. --T.G. Authoritarianism: That theory of knowledge which maintains that the truth of any proposition is determined by the fact of its having been asserted by a certain esteemed individual or group of individuals. Cf. H. Newman, Grammar of Assent; C. S. Peirce, "Fixation of Belief," in Chance, Love and Logic, ed. M. R. Cohen. --A.C.B. Autistic thinking: Absorption in fanciful or wishful thinking without proper control by objective or factual material; day dreaming; undisciplined imagination. --A.C.B. Automaton Theory: Theory that a living organism may be considered a mere machine. See Automatism. Automatism: (Gr. automatos, self-moving) (a) In metaphysics: Theory that animal and human organisms are automata, that is to say, are machines governed by the laws of physics and mechanics. Automatism, as propounded by Descartes, considered the lower animals to be pure automata (Letter to Henry More, 1649) and man a machine controlled by a rational soul (Treatise on Man). Pure automatism for man as well as animals is advocated by La Mettrie (Man, a Machine, 1748). During the Nineteenth century, automatism, combined with epiphenomenalism, was advanced by Hodgson, Huxley and Clifford. (Cf. W. James, The Principles of Psychology, Vol. I, ch. V.) Behaviorism, of the extreme sort, is the most recent version of automatism (See Behaviorism).   (b) In psychology: Psychological automatism is the performance of apparently purposeful actions, like automatic writing without the superintendence of the conscious mind. L. C. Rosenfield, From Beast Machine to Man Machine, N. Y., 1941. --L.W. Automatism, Conscious: The automatism of Hodgson, Huxley, and Clifford which considers man a machine to which mind or consciousness is superadded; the mind of man is, however, causally ineffectual. See Automatism; Epiphenomenalism. --L.W. Autonomy: (Gr. autonomia, independence) Freedom consisting in self-determination and independence of all external constraint. See Freedom. Kant defines autonomy of the will as subjection of the will to its own law, the categorical imperative, in contrast to heteronomy, its subjection to a law or end outside the rational will. (Fundamental Principles of the Metaphysics of Morals, § 2.) --L.W. Autonomy of ethics: A doctrine, usually propounded by intuitionists, that ethics is not a part of, and cannot be derived from, either metaphysics or any of the natural or social sciences. See Intuitionism, Metaphysical ethics, Naturalistic ethics. --W.K.F. Autonomy of the will: (in Kant's ethics) The freedom of the rational will to legislate to itself, which constitutes the basis for the autonomy of the moral law. --P.A.S. Autonymy: In the terminology introduced by Carnap, a word (phrase, symbol, expression) is autonymous if it is used as a name for itself --for the geometric shape, sound, etc. which it exemplifies, or for the word as a historical and grammatical unit. Autonymy is thus the same as the Scholastic suppositio matertalis (q. v.), although the viewpoint is different. --A.C. Autotelic: (from Gr. autos, self, and telos, end) Said of any absorbing activity engaged in for its own sake (cf. German Selbstzweck), such as higher mathematics, chess, etc. In aesthetics, applied to creative art and play which lack any conscious reference to the accomplishment of something useful. In the view of some, it may constitute something beneficent in itself of which the person following his art impulse (q.v.) or playing is unaware, thus approaching a heterotelic (q.v.) conception. --K.F.L. Avenarius, Richard: (1843-1896) German philosopher who expressed his thought in an elaborate and novel terminology in the hope of constructing a symbolic language for philosophy, like that of mathematics --the consequence of his Spinoza studies. As the most influential apostle of pure experience, the posltivistic motive reaches in him an extreme position. Insisting on the biologic and economic function of thought, he thought the true method of science is to cure speculative excesses by a return to pure experience devoid of all assumptions. Philosophy is the scientific effort to exclude from knowledge all ideas not included in the given. Its task is to expel all extraneous elements in the given. His uncritical use of the category of the given and the nominalistic view that logical relations are created rather than discovered by thought, leads him to banish not only animism but also all of the categories, substance, causality, etc., as inventions of the mind. Explaining the evolution and devolution of the problematization and deproblematization of numerous ideas, and aiming to give the natural history of problems, Avenarius sought to show physiologically, psychologically and historically under what conditions they emerge, are challenged and are solved. He hypothesized a System C, a bodily and central nervous system upon which consciousness depends. R-values are the stimuli received from the world of objects. E-values are the statements of experience. The brain changes that continually oscillate about an ideal point of balance are termed Vitalerhaltungsmaximum. The E-values are differentiated into elements, to which the sense-perceptions or the content of experience belong, and characters, to which belongs everything which psychology describes as feelings and attitudes. Avenarius describes in symbolic form a series of states from balance to balance, termed vital series, all describing a series of changes in System C. Inequalities in the vital balance give rise to vital differences. According to his theory there are two vital series. It assumes a series of brain changes because parallel series of conscious states can be observed. The independent vital series are physical, and the dependent vital series are psychological. The two together are practically covariants. In the case of a process as a dependent vital series three stages can be noted: first, the appearance of the problem, expressed as strain, restlessness, desire, fear, doubt, pain, repentance, delusion; the second, the continued effort and struggle to solve the problem; and finally, the appearance of the solution, characterized by abating anxiety, a feeling of triumph and enjoyment.   Corresponding to these three stages of the dependent series are three stages of the independent series: the appearance of the vital difference and a departure from balance in the System C, the continuance with an approximate vital difference, and lastly, the reduction of the vital difference to zero, the return to stability. By making room for dependent and independent experiences, he showed that physics regards experience as independent of the experiencing indlvidual, and psychology views experience as dependent upon the individual. He greatly influenced Mach and James (q.v.). See Avenarius, Empirio-criticism, Experience, pure. Main works: Kritik der reinen Erfahrung; Der menschliche Weltbegriff. --H.H. Averroes: (Mohammed ibn Roshd) Known to the Scholastics as The Commentator, and mentioned as the author of il gran commento by Dante (Inf. IV. 68) he was born 1126 at Cordova (Spain), studied theology, law, medicine, mathematics, and philosophy, became after having been judge in Sevilla and Cordova, physician to the khalifah Jaqub Jusuf, and charged with writing a commentary on the works of Aristotle. Al-mansur, Jusuf's successor, deprived him of his place because of accusations of unorthodoxy. He died 1198 in Morocco. Averroes is not so much an original philosopher as the author of a minute commentary on the whole works of Aristotle. His procedure was imitated later by Aquinas. In his interpretation of Aristotelian metaphysics Averroes teaches the coeternity of a universe created ex nihilo. This doctrine formed together with the notion of a numerical unity of the active intellect became one of the controversial points in the discussions between the followers of Albert-Thomas and the Latin Averroists. Averroes assumed that man possesses only a disposition for receiving the intellect coming from without; he identifies this disposition with the possible intellect which thus is not truly intellectual by nature. The notion of one intellect common to all men does away with the doctrine of personal immortality. Another doctrine which probably was emphasized more by the Latin Averroists (and by the adversaries among Averroes' contemporaries) is the famous statement about "two-fold truth", viz. that a proposition may be theologically true and philosophically false and vice versa. Averroes taught that religion expresses the (higher) philosophical truth by means of religious imagery; the "two-truth notion" came apparently into the Latin text through a misinterpretation on the part of the translators. The works of Averroes were one of the main sources of medieval Aristotelianlsm, before and even after the original texts had been translated. The interpretation the Latin Averroists found in their texts of the "Commentator" spread in spite of opposition and condemnation. See Averroism, Latin. Averroes, Opera, Venetiis, 1553. M. Horten, Die Metaphysik des Averroes, 1912. P. Mandonnet, Siger de Brabant et l'Averroisme Latin, 2d ed., Louvain, 1911. --R.A. Averroism, Latin: The commentaries on Aristotle written by Averroes (Ibn Roshd) in the 12th century became known to the Western scholars in translations by Michael Scottus, Hermannus Alemannus, and others at the beginning of the 13th century. Many works of Aristotle were also known first by such translations from Arabian texts, though there existed translations from the Greek originals at the same time (Grabmann). The Averroistic interpretation of Aristotle was held to be the true one by many; but already Albert the Great pointed out several notions which he felt to be incompatible with the principles of Christian philosophy, although he relied for the rest on the "Commentator" and apparently hardly used any other text. Aquinas, basing his studies mostly on a translation from the Greek texts, procured for him by William of Moerbecke, criticized the Averroistic interpretation in many points. But the teachings of the Commentator became the foundation for a whole school of philosophers, represented first by the Faculty of Arts at Paris. The most prominent of these scholars was Siger of Brabant. The philosophy of these men was condemned on March 7th, 1277 by Stephen Tempier, Bishop of Paris, after a first condemnation of Aristotelianism in 1210 had gradually come to be neglected. The 219 theses condemned in 1277, however, contain also some of Aquinas which later were generally recognized an orthodox. The Averroistic propositions which aroused the criticism of the ecclesiastic authorities and which had been opposed with great energy by Albert and Thomas refer mostly to the following points: The co-eternity of the created word; the numerical identity of the intellect in all men, the so-called two-fold-truth theory stating that a proposition may be philosophically true although theologically false. Regarding the first point Thomas argued that there is no philosophical proof, either for the co-eternity or against it; creation is an article of faith. The unity of intellect was rejected as incompatible with the true notion of person and with personal immortality. It is doubtful whether Averroes himself held the two-truths theory; it was, however, taught by the Latin Averroists who, notwithstanding the opposition of the Church and the Thomistic philosophers, gained a great influence and soon dominated many universities, especially in Italy. Thomas and his followers were convinced that they interpreted Aristotle correctly and that the Averroists were wrong; one has, however, to admit that certain passages in Aristotle allow for the Averroistic interpretation, especially in regard to the theory of intellect.   Lit.: P. Mandonnet, Siger de Brabant et l'Averroisme Latin au XIIIe Siecle, 2d. ed. Louvain, 1911; M. Grabmann, Forschungen über die lateinischen Aristotelesübersetzungen des XIII. Jahrhunderts, Münster 1916 (Beitr. z. Gesch. Phil. d. MA. Vol. 17, H. 5-6). --R.A. Avesta: See Zendavesta. Avicehron: (or Avencebrol, Salomon ibn Gabirol) The first Jewish philosopher in Spain, born in Malaga 1020, died about 1070, poet, philosopher, and moralist. His main work, Fons vitae, became influential and was much quoted by the Scholastics. It has been preserved only in the Latin translation by Gundissalinus. His doctrine of a spiritual substance individualizing also the pure spirits or separate forms was opposed by Aquinas already in his first treatise De ente, but found favor with the medieval Augustinians also later in the 13th century. He also teaches the necessity of a mediator between God and the created world; such a mediator he finds in the Divine Will proceeding from God and creating, conserving, and moving the world. His cosmogony shows a definitely Neo-Platonic shade and assumes a series of emanations. Cl. Baeumker, Avencebrolis Fons vitae. Beitr. z. Gesch. d. Philos. d. MA. 1892-1895, Vol. I. Joh. Wittman, Die Stellung des hl. Thomas von Aquino zu Avencebrol, ibid. 1900. Vol. III. --R.A. Avicenna: (Abu Ali al Hosain ibn Abdallah ibn Sina) Born 980 in the country of Bocchara, began to write in young years, left more than 100 works, taught in Ispahan, was physician to several Persian princes, and died at Hamadan in 1037. His fame as physician survived his influence as philosopher in the Occident. His medical works were printed still in the 17th century. His philosophy is contained in 18 vols. of a comprehensive encyclopedia, following the tradition of Al Kindi and Al Farabi. Logic, Physics, Mathematics and Metaphysics form the parts of this work. His philosophy is Aristotelian with noticeable Neo-Platonic influences. His doctrine of the universal existing ante res in God, in rebus as the universal nature of the particulars, and post res in the human mind by way of abstraction became a fundamental thesis of medieval Aristotelianism. He sharply distinguished between the logical and the ontological universal, denying to the latter the true nature of form in the composite. The principle of individuation is matter, eternally existent. Latin translations attributed to Avicenna the notion that existence is an accident to essence (see e.g. Guilelmus Parisiensis, De Universo). The process adopted by Avicenna was one of paraphrasis of the Aristotelian texts with many original thoughts interspersed. His works were translated into Latin by Dominicus Gundissalinus (Gondisalvi) with the assistance of Avendeath ibn Daud. This translation started, when it became more generally known, the "revival of Aristotle" at the end of the 12th and the beginning of the 13th century. Albert the Great and Aquinas professed, notwithstanding their critical attitude, a great admiration for Avicenna whom the Arabs used to call the "third Aristotle". But in the Orient, Avicenna's influence declined soon, overcome by the opposition of the orthodox theologians. Avicenna, Opera, Venetiis, 1495; l508; 1546. M. Horten, Das Buch der Genesung der Seele, eine philosophische Enzyklopaedie Avicenna's; XIII. Teil: Die Metaphysik. Halle a. S. 1907-1909. R. de Vaux, Notes et textes sur l'Avicennisme Latin, Bibl. Thomiste XX, Paris, 1934. --R.A. Avidya: (Skr.) Nescience; ignorance; the state of mind unaware of true reality; an equivalent of maya (q.v.); also a condition of pure awareness prior to the universal process of evolution through gradual differentiation into the elements and factors of knowledge. --K.F.L. Avyakta: (Skr.) "Unmanifest", descriptive of or standing for brahman (q.v.) in one of its or "his" aspects, symbolizing the superabundance of the creative principle, or designating the condition of the universe not yet become phenomenal (aja, unborn). --K.F.L. Awareness: Consciousness considered in its aspect of act; an act of attentive awareness such as the sensing of a color patch or the feeling of pain is distinguished from the content attended to, the sensed color patch, the felt pain. The psychologlcal theory of intentional act was advanced by F. Brentano (Psychologie vom empirischen Standpunkte) and received its epistemological development by Meinong, Husserl, Moore, Laird and Broad. See Intentionalism. --L.W. Axiological: (Ger. axiologisch) In Husserl: Of or pertaining to value or theory of value (the latter term understood as including disvalue and value-indifference). --D.C. Axiological ethics: Any ethics which makes the theory of obligation entirely dependent on the theory of value, by making the determination of the rightness of an action wholly dependent on a consideration of the value or goodness of something, e.g. the action itself, its motive, or its consequences, actual or probable. Opposed to deontological ethics. See also teleological ethics. --W.K.F. Axiologic Realism: In metaphysics, theory that value as well as logic, qualities as well as relations, have their being and exist external to the mind and independently of it. Applicable to the philosophy of many though not all realists in the history of philosophy, from Plato to G. E. Moore, A. N. Whitehead, and N, Hartmann. --J.K.F. Axiology: (Gr. axios, of like value, worthy, and logos, account, reason, theory). Modern term for theory of value (the desired, preferred, good), investigation of its nature, criteria, and metaphysical status. Had its rise in Plato's theory of Forms or Ideas (Idea of the Good); was developed in Aristotle's Organon, Ethics, Poetics, and Metaphysics (Book Lambda). Stoics and Epicureans investigated the summum bonum. Christian philosophy (St. Thomas) built on Aristotle's identification of highest value with final cause in God as "a living being, eternal, most good."   In modern thought, apart from scholasticism and the system of Spinoza (Ethica, 1677), in which values are metaphysically grounded, the various values were investigated in separate sciences, until Kant's Critiques, in which the relations of knowledge to moral, aesthetic, and religious values were examined. In Hegel's idealism, morality, art, religion, and philosophy were made the capstone of his dialectic. R. H. Lotze "sought in that which should be the ground of that which is" (Metaphysik, 1879). Nineteenth century evolutionary theory, anthropology, sociology, psychology, and economics subjected value experience to empirical analysis, and stress was again laid on the diversity and relativity of value phenomena rather than on their unity and metaphysical nature. F. Nietzsche's Also Sprach Zarathustra (1883-1885) and Zur Genealogie der Moral (1887) aroused new interest in the nature of value. F. Brentano, Vom Ursprung sittlicher Erkenntnis (1889), identified value with love.   In the twentieth century the term axiology was apparently first applied by Paul Lapie (Logique de la volonte, 1902) and E. von Hartmann (Grundriss der Axiologie, 1908). Stimulated by Ehrenfels (System der Werttheorie, 1897), Meinong (Psychologisch-ethische Untersuchungen zur Werttheorie, 1894-1899), and Simmel (Philosophie des Geldes, 1900). W. M. Urban wrote the first systematic treatment of axiology in English (Valuation, 1909), phenomenological in method under J. M. Baldwin's influence. Meanwhile H. Münsterberg wrote a neo-Fichtean system of values (The Eternal Values, 1909).   Among important recent contributions are: B. Bosanquet, The Principle of Individuality and Value (1912), a free reinterpretation of Hegelianism; W. R. Sorley, Moral Values and the Idea of God (1918, 1921), defending a metaphysical theism; S. Alexander, Space, Time, and Deity (1920), realistic and naturalistic; N. Hartmann, Ethik (1926), detailed analysis of types and laws of value; R. B. Perry's magnum opus, General Theory of Value (1926), "its meaning and basic principles construed in terms of interest"; and J. Laird, The Idea of Value (1929), noteworthy for historical exposition. A naturalistic theory has been developed by J. Dewey (Theory of Valuation, 1939), for which "not only is science itself a value . . . but it is the supreme means of the valid determination of all valuations." A. J. Ayer, Language, Truth and Logic (1936) expounds the view of logical positivism that value is "nonsense." J. Hessen, Wertphilosophie (1937), provides an account of recent German axiology from a neo-scholastic standpoint.   The problems of axiology fall into four main groups, namely, those concerning (1) the nature of value, (2) the types of value, (3) the criterion of value, and (4) the metaphysical status of value.   (1) The nature of value experience. Is valuation fulfillment of desire (voluntarism: Spinoza, Ehrenfels), pleasure (hedonism: Epicurus, Bentham, Meinong), interest (Perry), preference (Martineau), pure rational will (formalism: Stoics, Kant, Royce), apprehension of tertiary qualities (Santayana), synoptic experience of the unity of personality (personalism: T. H. Green, Bowne), any experience that contributes to enhanced life (evolutionism: Nietzsche), or "the relation of things as means to the end or consequence actually reached" (pragmatism, instrumentalism: Dewey).   (2) The types of value. Most axiologists distinguish between intrinsic (consummatory) values (ends), prized for their own sake, and instrumental (contributory) values (means), which are causes (whether as economic goods or as natural events) of intrinsic values. Most intrinsic values are also instrumental to further value experience; some instrumental values are neutral or even disvaluable intrinsically. Commonly recognized as intrinsic values are the (morally) good, the true, the beautiful, and the holy. Values of play, of work, of association, and of bodily well-being are also acknowledged. Some (with Montague) question whether the true is properly to be regarded as a value, since some truth is disvaluable, some neutral; but love of truth, regardless of consequences, seems to establish the value of truth. There is disagreement about whether the holy (religious value) is a unique type (Schleiermacher, Otto), or an attitude toward other values (Kant, Höffding), or a combination of the two (Hocking). There is also disagreement about whether the variety of values is irreducible (pluralism) or whether all values are rationally related in a hierarchy or system (Plato, Hegel, Sorley), in which values interpenetrate or coalesce into a total experience.   (3) The criterion of value. The standard for testing values is influenced by both psychological and logical theory. Hedonists find the standard in the quantity of pleasure derived by the individual (Aristippus) or society (Bentham). Intuitionists appeal to an ultimate insight into preference (Martineau, Brentano). Some idealists recognize an objective system of rational norms or ideals as criterion (Plato, Windelband), while others lay more stress on rational wholeness and coherence (Hegel, Bosanquet, Paton) or inclusiveness (T. H. Green). Naturalists find biological survival or adjustment (Dewey) to be the standard. Despite differences, there is much in common in the results of the application of these criteria.   (4) The metaphysical status of value. What is the relation of values to the facts investigated by natural science (Koehler), of Sein to Sollen (Lotze, Rickert), of human experience of value to reality independent of man (Hegel, Pringle-Pattlson, Spaulding)? There are three main answers:   subjectivism (value is entirely dependent on and relative to human experience of it: so most hedonists, naturalists, positivists);   logical objectivism (values are logical essences or subsistences, independent of their being known, yet with no existential status or action in reality);   metaphysical objectivism (values   --or norms or ideals   --are integral, objective, and active constituents of the metaphysically real: so theists, absolutists, and certain realists and naturalists like S. Alexander and Wieman). --E.S.B. Axiom: See Mathematics. Axiomatic method: That method of constructing a deductive system consisting of deducing by specified rules all statements of the system save a given few from those given few, which are regarded as axioms or postulates of the system. See Mathematics. --C.A.B. Ayam atma brahma: (Skr.) "This self is brahman", famous quotation from Brhadaranyaka Upanishad 2.5.19, one of many alluding to the central theme of the Upanishads, i.e., the identity of the human and divine or cosmic. --K.F.L.

autotypy ::: n. --> The art or process of making autotypes.

ava ::: a fusion of the different types of relation (bhava) between the jiva and the isvara, who is perceived as "the perfect Personality capable of all relations even to the most human, concrete and intimate; for he is friend, comrade, lover, playmate, guide, teacher, master, ministrant of knowledge or ministrant of joy, yet in all relations unbound, free and absolute"; in the composite bhava, the various relations are unified in a "deepest many-sided relation" based on "love from which all things flow, love passionate, complete, seeking a hundred ways of fulfilment, every means of mutual possession, a million facets of the joy of union" çraddha

Bennett and Baylis, Formal Logic, New York. 1937: 6. THEORY OF TYPES. In the functional calculus of first order, variables which appear as arguments of propositional functions or which are bound by quantifiers must be variables which are restricted to a certain limited range, the kinds of propositions about propositional functions which cannot be expressed in the calculus. The uncritical attempt to remove this restriction, by introducing variables of unlimited range (the range covering both non-functions and functions of whatever kind) and modifying accordingly the definition of a formula and the lists of primitive formulas and primitive rules of inference, leads to a system which is formally inconsistent through the possibility of deriving in it certain of the logical paradoxes (q. v.). The functional calculus of first order may, however, be extended in another way, which involves separating propositional functions into a certain array of categories (the hierarchy of types), excluding. propositional functions which do not fall into one of these categories, and -- besides propositional and individual variables -- admitting only variables having a particular one of these categories as range.

Besides the Zermelo set theory and the functional calculus (theory of types), there is a third method of obtaining a system adequate for mathematics and at the same time -- it is hoped -- consistent, proposed by Quine in his book cited below (1940). -- The last word on these matters has almost certainly not yet been said.

best effort "networking" A classification of low priority network traffic, used especially the {Internet}. Different kinds of traffic have different priorities. {Videoconferencing} and other types of {real-time} communication, for example, require a certain minimum guaranteed {bandwidth} and {latency} and so must be given a high priority. {Electronic mail}, on the other hand, can tolerate an arbitrarily long delay and is classified as a "best-effort" service. [Scientific American, Nov. 1994, pp. 83-84]. (1995-04-04)

Bezier curve "graphics" A type of curve defined by mathematical formulae, used in {computer graphics}. A curve with coordinates P(u), where u varies from 0 at one end of the curve to 1 at the other, is defined by a set of n+1 "control points" (X(i), Y(i), Z(i)) for i = 0 to n. P(u) = Sum i=0..n [(X(i), Y(i), Z(i)) * B(i, n, u)] B(i, n, u) = C(n, i) * u^i * (1-u)^(n-i) C(n, i) = n!/i!/(n-i)! A Bezier curve (or surface) is defined by its control points, which makes it invariant under any {affine mapping} (translation, rotation, parallel projection), and thus even under a change in the axis system. You need only to transform the control points and then compute the new curve. The control polygon defined by the points is itself affine invariant. Bezier curves also have the variation-diminishing property. This makes them easier to split compared to other types of curve such as {Hermite} or {B-spline}. Other important properties are multiple values, global and local control, versatility, and order of continuity. [What do these properties mean?] (1996-06-12)

bhava ::: becoming; state of being (sometimes added to an adjective to bhava form an abstract noun and translatable by a suffix such as "-ness", as in br.hadbhava, the state of being br.hat [wide], i.e., wideness); condition of consciousness; subjectivity; state of mind and feeling; physical indication of a psychological state; content, meaning (of rūpa); spiritual experience, realisation; emotion, "moved spiritualised state of the affective nature"; (madhura bhava, etc.) any of several types of relation between the jiva and the isvara, each being a way in which "the transcendent and universal person of the Divine conforms itself to our individualised personality and accepts a personal relation with us, at once identified with us as our supreme Self and yet close and different as our Master, Friend, Lover, Teacher"; attitude; mood; temperament; aspect; internal manifestation of the Goddess (devi), in . her total divine Nature (daivi prakr.ti or devibhava) or in the "more seizable because more defined and limited temperament" of any of her aspects, as in Mahakali bhava; a similar manifestation of any personality or combination of personalities of the deva or fourfold isvara, as in Indrabhava or Aniruddha bhava; in the vision of Reality (brahmadarsana), any of the "many aspects of the Infinite" which "disclose themselves, separate, combine, fuse, are unified together" until "there shines through it all the supreme integral Reality"; especially, the various "states of perception" in which the divine personality (purus.a) is seen in the impersonality of the brahman, ranging from the "general personality" of sagun.a brahman to the "vivid personality" of Kr.s.n.akali. bh bhavasamrddhi

BibTeX "text, tool" A {Tex} extension package for bibliographic citations, distributed with {LaTeX}. BibTeX uses a style-independent bibliography database (.bib file) to produce a list of sources, in a customisable style, from citations in a Latex document. It also supports some other formats. BibTeX is a separate program from LaTeX. LaTeX writes information about citations and which .bib files to use in a ".aux" file. BibTeX reads this file and outputs a ".bbl" file containing LaTeX commands to produce the source list. You must then run LaTeX again to incorporate the source list in your document. In typeset documents, "BibTeX" is written in upper case, with the "IB" slightly smaller and with the "E" as a subscript. BibTeX is described in the {LaTeX} book by Lamport.

BiCapitalisation The act said to have been performed on trademarks (such as {PostScript}, {NeXT}, {NeWS}, {VisiCalc}, {FrameMaker}, {TK!solver}, {EasyWriter}) that have been raised above the ruck of common coinage by nonstandard capitalisation. Too many {marketroid} types think this sort of thing is really cute, even the 2,317th time they do it. Compare {studlycaps}. (1995-02-23)

binary file "file format" Any {file format} for {digital} {data} that does not consist of a sequence of printable {characters} ({text}). The term is often used for executable {machine code}. All digital data, including characters, is actually binary data (unless it uses some (rare) system with more than two discrete levels) but the distinction between binary and text is well established. On modern {operating systems} a text file is simply a binary file that happens to contain only printable characters, but some older systems distinguish the two file types, requiring programs to handle them differently. A common class of binary files is programs in {machine language} ("{executable} files") ready to load into memory and execute. Binary files may also be used to store data output by a program, and intended to be read by that or another program but not by humans. Binary files are more efficient for this purpose because the data (e.g. numerical data) does not need to be converted between the binary form used by the {CPU} and a printable (ASCII) representation. The disadvantage is that it is usually necessary to write special purpose programs to manipulate such files since most general purpose utilities operate on text files. There is also a problem sharing binary numerical data between processors with different {endian}ness. Some communications {protocols} handle only text files, e.g. most {electronic mail} systems before {MIME} became widespread in about 1995. The {FTP} utility must be put into "binary" mode in order to copy a binary file since in its default "ascii" mode translates between the different {newline} characters used on the sending and receiving computers. Confusingly, some {word processor} files, and {rich text} files, are actually binary files because they contain non-printable characters and require special programs to view, edit and print them. (2005-02-21)

(b) In axiology, two types of good, goodness, or value: intrinsic and extrinsic or instrumental.

(b) In epistemology: Epistemological dualism is the theory that in perception, memory and other types of non-inferential cognition, there is a numerical duality of the content or dntum immediately present to the knowing mind and (sense datum, memory image, etc.) and the real object known (the thing perceived or remembered) (cf. A. O. Lovejoy, The Revolt Against Dualism, pp. 15-6). Epistemological monism, on the contrary identifies the immediate datum and the cognitive object either by assimilating the content to the object (epistemological realism) or the object to the content (epistemological idealism). -- L.W.

block book ::: --> A book printed from engraved wooden blocks instead of movable types.

boustrophedonic "hardware" (From the Greek "boustrophe-don": turning like oxen in plowing; from "bous": ox, cow; "strephein": to turn) An ancient method of writing using alternate left-to-right and right-to-left lines. It used for an optimisation performed by some computer typesetting software and moving-head printers to reduce physical movement of the print head. The adverbial form "boustrophedonically" is also found. (1994-11-29)

B. Russell, Mathematical logic as based on the theory of types, American Journal of Mathematics, vol. 30 (1908), pp. 222- 262.

B. Russell, On some difficulties in the theory of transfinite numbers and order types. Proceedings of the London Mathematical Society, ser 2. vol. 4 (1906), pp 29-53.

typesetter ::: n. --> One who, or that which, sets type; a compositor; a machine for setting type.

typesetting ::: n. --> The act or art of setting type.

types ::: Horizontal styles available to any developmental level within the quadrants. Examples of types include Myers-Briggs, Enneagram, masculine and feminine in the Upper Left; body types in the Upper Right; cultural types in the Lower Left; and types of biomes in the Lower Right.

By way of connoting different types of society, many contemporary Marxists, especially in the U.S.S.R., building upon Marx's analysis of the two phases of "communist society" ("Gotha Program") designate the first or lower phase by the term socialism, the second or higher by the term communism (q.v.). The general features of socialist society (identified by Soviet thinkers with the present phase of development of the U.S.S.R.) are conceived as follows: Economic collective ownership of the means of production, such as factories, industrial equipment, the land, and of the basic apparatus of distribution and exchange, including the banking system; the consequent abolition of classes, private profit, exploitation, surplus value, (q.v.) private hiring and firing and involuntary unemployment; an integrated economy based on long time planning in terms of needs and use. It is held that only under these economic conditions is it possible to apply the formula, "from each according to ability, to each according to work performed", the first part of which implies continuous employment, and the second part, the absence of private profit. Political: a state based upon the dictatorship of the proletariat (q.v.) Cultural the extension of all educational and cultural facilities through state planning; the emancipation of women through unrestricted economic opportunities, the abolition of race discrimination through state enforcement, a struggle against all cultural and social institutions which oppose the socialist society and attempt to obstruct its realization. Marx and Engels held that socialism becomes the inevitable outgrowth of capitalism because the evolution of the latter type of society generates problems which can only be solved by a transition to socialism. These problems are traced primarily to the fact that the economic relations under capitalism, such as individual ownership of productive technics, private hiring and firing in the light of profits and production for a money market, all of which originally released powerful new productive potentialities, come to operate, in the course of time, to prevent full utilization of productive technics, and to cause periodic crises, unemployment, economic insecurity and consequent suffering for masses of people. Marx and Engels regarded their doctrine of the transformation of capitalist into socialist society as based upon a scientific examination of the laws of development of capitalism and a realistic appreciation of the role of the proletariat. (q.v.) Unlike the Utopian socialism (q.v.) of St. Simon, Fourier, Owen (q.v.) and others, their socialism asserted the necessity of mass political organization of the working classes for the purpose of gaining political power in order to effect the transition from capitalism, and also foresaw the probability of a contest of force in which, they held, the working class majority would ultimately be victorious. The view taken is that Marx was the first to explain scientifically the nature of capitalist exploitation as based upon surplus value and to predict its necessary consequences. "These two great discoveries, the materialist conception of history and the revelation of the secret of capitalist production by means of surplus value we owe to Marx. With these discoveries socialism became a science . . ." (Engels: Anti-Dühring, pp. 33-34.) See Historical materialism. -- J.M.S.

c2man "tool" An automatic {documentation} extraction tool by Graham Stoney. c2man extracts comments from {C} source code to generate functional interface documentation in the same format as sections 2 and 3 of the {Unix} Programmer's Manual. It looks for comments near the objects they document, rather than imposing a rigid {syntax} or requiring the programmer to use a typesetting language. Acceptable documentation can often be generated from existing code with no modifications. c2man supports both {K&R} and {ISO}/{ANSI C} coding styles. Output can be in {nroff} -man, {Texinfo} or {LaTeX} format. It {automagically} documents {enum} parameter and return values, it handles both {C} (/* */) and {C++} (//) style comments, but not C++ grammar (yet). It requires {yacc}, {byacc} or {bison} for syntax analysis; {lex} or {flex} for {lexical analysis} and {nroff}, {groff}, {texinfo} or {LaTeX} to format the output. It runs under {Unix}, {OS/2} and {MS-DOS}. Version 2.0 patchlevel 25 (1995-10-25). {Washington FTP (}. {Stuttgart FTP (}. {Patches (}. Patches posted to {Usenet} newsgroups {news:comp.sources.bugs} and {news:comp.sources.reviewed}. (2003-05-02)

c386 "tool" A {compiler} for {K&R C} plus {prototypes} and other {ANSI C} features by Matthew Brandt, Christoph van Wuellen, Keith and Dave Walker. c386 is targetted to several {68000} and {Intel 80386} {assemblers}, including {gas}. {floating-point} support is by {inline code} or {emulation}. It can produce lots of warnings and generates better code than {ACK}. {Version 4.2a (}. (2009-11-11)

capability "operating system, security" An {operating system} security or access control model where specific types of access to a specific object are granted by giving a process this data structure or {token}. The token may be unforgeable (typically by using {encryption} or hardware "tagged" memory). Capabilities are used in OSes such as {Hydra}, {KeyKOS}, {EROS}, {Chorus}/{Mix}, and the {Stanford V system}. Similar to {Kerberos}, but in an OS context. Compare {access control list}. (1998-03-08)

caryophyllaceous ::: a. --> Having corollas of five petals with long claws inclosed in a tubular, calyx, as the pink
Belonging to the family of which the pink and the carnation are the types.

Categorical Abstract Machine Language "language" (Originally "CAML" - Categorical Abstract Machine Language) A version of {ML} by G. Huet, G. Cousineau, Ascander Suarez, Pierre Weis, Michel Mauny and others of {INRIA} and {ENS}. CAML is intermediate between {LCF ML} and {SML} [in what sense?]. It has {first-class} functions, {static type inference} with {polymorphic} types, user-defined {variant types} and {product types}, and {pattern matching}. It is built on a proprietary run-time system. The CAML V3.1 implementation added {lazy} and {mutable} data structures, a "{grammar}" mechanism for interfacing with the {Yacc} {parser generator}, {pretty-printing} tools, high-performance {arbitrary-precision} arithmetic, and a complete library. CAML V3 is often nicknamed "heavy CAML", because of its heavy memory and CPU requirements compared to {Caml Light}. in 1990 Xavier Leroy and Damien Doligez designed a new implementation called {Caml Light}, freeing the previous implementation from too many experimental high-level features, and more importantly, from the old Le_Lisp back-end. Following the addition of a {native-code} compiler and a powerful {module} system in 1995 and of the {object} and {class} layer in 1996, the project's name was changed to {Objective Caml}. ["The CAML Reference Manual", P. Weis et al, TR INRIA-ENS, 1989]. (2003-04-12)

caturvarn.ya (chaturvarnya) ::: the ancient Indian system of the four caturvarnya orders (brahman.a, ks.atriya, vaisya, sūdra), representing four psychological types whose combination is necessary for the complete personality; these four types are symbolic of "four cosmic principles, the Wisdom that conceives the order and principle of things, the Power that sanctions, upholds and enforces it, the Harmony that creates the arrangement of its parts, the Work that carries out what the rest direct".

Causa sui: Cause of itself; necessary existence. Causa sui conveys both a negative and a positive meaning. Negatively, it signifies that which is from itself (a se), that which does not owe its being to something else; i.e., absolute independence of being, causelessness (God as uncaused). Positively, causa sui means that whose very nature or essence involves existence; i.e., God is the ground of his own being, and regarded as "cause" of his own being, he is, as it were, efficient cause of his own existence (Descartes). Since existence necessarily follows from the very essence of that which is cause of itself, causa sui is defined as that whose nature cannot be conceived as not existing (Spinoza). -- A.G.A.B. Causality: (Lat. causa) The relationship between a cause and its effect. This relationship has been defined as a relation between events, processes, or entities in the same time series, such that   when one occurs, the other necessarily follows (sufficient condition),   when the latter occurs, the former must have preceded (necessary condition),   both conditions a and b prevail (necessary and sufficient condition),   when one occurs under certain conditions, the other necessarily follows (contributory, but not sufficient, condition) ("multiple causality" would be a case involving several causes which are severally contributory and jointly sufficient); the necessity in these cases is neither that of logical implication nor that of coercion; a relation between events, processes, or entities in the same time series such that when one occurs the other invariably follows (invariable antecedence), a relation between events, processes, or entities such that one has the efficacy to produce or alter the other; a relation between events, processes, or entities such that without one the other could not occur, as in the relation between   the material out of which a product is made and the finished product (material cause),   structure or form and the individual embodying it (formal cause),   a goal or purpose (whether supposed to exist in the future as a special kind of entity, outside a time series, or merely as an idea of the pur-poser) and the work fulfilling it (final cause),   a moving force and the process or result of its action (efficient cause); a relation between experienced events, processes, or entities and extra-experiential but either temporal or non-temporal events, processes, or entities upon whose existence the former depend; a relation between a thing and itself when it is dependent upon nothing else for its existence (self-causality); a relation between an event, process, or entity and the reason or explanation for its being; a relation between an idea and an experience whose expectation the idea arouses because of customary association of the two in this sequence; a principle or category introducing into experience one of the aforesaid types of order; this principle may be inherent in the mind, invented by the mind, or derived from experience; it may be an explanatory hypothesis, a postulate, a convenient fiction, or a necessary form of thought. Causality has been conceived to prevail between processes, parts of a continuous process, changing parts of an unchanging whole, objects, events, ideas, or something of one of these types and something of another. When an entity, event, or process is said to follow from another, it may be meant that it must succeed but can be neither contemporaneous with nor prior to the other, that it must either succeed or be contemporaneous with and dependent upon but cannot precede the other, or that one is dependent upon the other but they either are not in the same time series or one is in no time series at all.

C-BC "language" A {strongly typed} version of {BC} by Mark Hopkins, with expanded {C}-like {syntax}, more base types and the ability to form {array} and {pointer} types of any dimension and to allocate/free arrays at {run time}. Most {POSIX-BC} features are supported, except that {functions} must be declared consistently and declared before first use. {String} handling is slightly different. It requires an {ANSI-C} compiler and runs under {MS-DOS} or {Unix}. Version: 1.1. Posted to {alt.sources} 1993-04-10. (1993-08-23)

Cecil AN {object-oriented} language combining {multi-methods} with a classless object model, object-based {encapsulation} and optional {static type checking}. It distinguishes between {subtyping} and {code inheritance}. Includes both explicit and implicit parameterisation of objects, types, and methods. {(}. ["The Cecil Language: Specification and Rationale", C. Chambers, TR 93-03-05, U Wash (Mar 1993)]. (1994-10-28)

Cedar A superset of {Mesa}, from {Xerox PARC}, adding {garbage collection}, {dynamic types} and a universal pointer type (REF ANY). Cedar is a large complex language designed for custom Xerox hardware and the Cedar {operating system}/environment. Data types are {atoms}, lists, ropes ("industrial strength" strings), conditions. Multi-processing features include {threads}, {monitors}, {signals} and catch phrases. It was used to develop the Cedar integrated programming environment. ["A Description of the Cedar Language", Butler Lampson, Xerox PARC, CSL-83-15 (Dec 1983)]. ["The Structure of Cedar", D. Swinehart et al, SIGPLAN Notices 20(7):230-244 (July 1985)]. (1995-01-26)

central processing unit "architecture, processor" (CPU, processor) The part of a computer which controls all the other parts. Designs vary widely but the CPU generally consists of the {control unit}, the {arithmetic and logic unit} (ALU), {registers}, temporary {buffers} and various other logic. The control unit fetches {instructions} from memory and decodes them to produce signals which control the other parts of the computer. These signals cause it to transfer data between memory and ALU or to activate {peripherals} to perform input or output. Various types of memory, including {cache}, {RAM} and {ROM}, are often considered to be part of the CPU, particularly in modern {microprocessors} where a single {integrated circuit} may contain one or more processors as well as any or all of the above types of memory. The CPU, and any of these components that are in separate chips, are usually all located on the same {printed circuit board}, known as the {motherboard}. This in turn is located in the {system unit} (sometimes incorrectly referred to as the "CPU"). A {parallel computer} has several CPUs which may share other resources such as memory and peripherals. The term "processor" has to some extent replaced "CPU", though RAM and ROM are not logically part of the processor. {List of processors (}. (2007-04-02)

cextract "programming, tool" A {C} {prototype} extractor by Adam Bryant "". cextract can generate {header files} for large multi-file C programs, and will automatically generate prototypes for all of the functions in such a program. It can also generate a sorted list of all functions and their locations. cextract version 1.7 works with both {ANSI C} and {K&R C} and runs under {Unix} and {VMS}. Posted to comp.sources.reviewed. (1992-11-03)

channel "chat" (Or "chat room", "room", depending on the system in question) The basic unit of group discussion in {chat} systems like {IRC}. Once one joins a channel, everything one types is read by others on that channel. Channels can either be named with numbers or with strings that begin with a "

Characterology: This name originally was used for types; thus in Aristotle and Theophrastus, and even much later, e.g. in La Bruyere. Gradually it came to signify something individual; a development paralleled by the replacement of "typical" figures on the stage by individualities. There is no agreement, even today, on the definition; confusion reigns especially because of an insufficient distinction between character, personality, and person. But all agree that character manifests itself in the behavior of a person. One can distinguish a merely descriptive approach, one of classification, and one of interpretation. The general viewpoints of interpretation influence also description and classification, since they determine what is considered "important" and lay down the rules by which to distinguish and to classify. One narrow interpretation looks at character mainly as the result of inborn properties, rooted in organic constitution; character is considered, therefore, as essentially unchangeable and predetermined. The attempts at establishing correlations between character and body-build (Kretschmer a.o.) are a special form of such narrow interpretation. It makes but little difference if, besides inborn properties, the influence of environmental factors is acknowledged. The rationalistic interpretation looks at character mainly as the result of convictions. These convictions are seen as purely intellectual in extreme rationalism (virtue is knowledge, Socrates), or as referring to the value-aspect of reality which is conceived as apprehended by other than merely intellectual operations. Thus, Spranger gives a classification according to the "central values" dominating a man's behavior. (Allport has devised practical methods of character study on this basis.) Since the idea a person has of values and their order may change, character is conceived as essentially mutable, even if far going changes may be unfrequent. Character-education is the practical application of the principles of characterology and thus depends on the general idea an author holds in regard to human nature. Character is probably best defined as the individual's way of preferring or rejecting values. It depends on the innate capacities of value-apprehension and on the way these values are presented to the individual. Therefore the enormous influence of social factors. -- R.A.

class 1. "programming" The prototype for an {object} in an {object-oriented language}; analogous to a {derived type} in a {procedural language}. A class may also be considered to be a set of objects which share a common structure and behaviour. The structure of a class is determined by the {class variables} which represent the {state} of an object of that class and the behaviour is given by a set of {methods} associated with the class. Classes are related in a {class hierarchy}. One class may be a specialisation (a "{subclass}") of another (one of its "{superclasses}") or it may be composed of other classes or it may use other classes in a {client-server} relationship. A class may be an {abstract class} or a {concrete class}. See also {signature}. 2. "programming" See {type class}. 3. "networking" One of three types of {Internet addresses} distinguished by their most significant bits. 3. "language" A language developed by the {Andrew Project}. It was one of the first attempts to add {object-oriented} features to {C}. (1995-05-01)

clipboard "operating system" A temporary memory area, used to transfer information within a document being edited or between documents or between programs. The fundamental operations are "cut" which moves data from a document to the clipboard, "copy" which copies it to the clipboard, and "paste" which inserts the clipboard contents into the current document in place of the current selection. Different {Graphical User Interfaces} vary in how they handle the different types of data which a user might want to transfer via the clipboard, some (e.g. the {X Window System}) support only plain text, others (e.g. {NEXTSTEP}) support arbitrarily typed data such as images. (1996-08-23)

Combination: (Lat. combinare, to join) The process of forming a new whole by the union of parts; also the product of such union. Two types of combination are distinguishable: Composition is a union of parts such that the component parts are discernible in the compound. Thus the visual and factual data which combine to form a total percept are recognizable in the resultant percept. Fusion is a union of parts into a whole in which the identity of the parts is obliterated. Thus the amalgamation of two sense images to form a new quality would, if this phenomenon were psychologically possible, be an instance of psychic fusion. See Psychic Fusion. -- L.W.

Commodore 64 "computer" (C64) An 8-bit {Commodore Business Machines} {personal computer} released around September 1981. Prototypes were (apparently) made before Christmas 1980 (and shown at some computer fair). The {CPU} was a {6510} from {MOS Technology} (who were a wholly owned subsiduary of Commodore at this time(?)). The C64 had 64 {kilobytes} of {RAM} as standard and a 40-column text, 320x200 {pixel} display generating {composite video}, usually connected to a television. {DMA}-based memory expanders for the C64 (and C128) allowed 128, 256, and 512 kb of RAM. Several third party manufacturers produce accelerators and RAM expanders for the C64 and C128. (Some, risking a {holy war}, compare this to putting a brick on roller-skates). Such accelerators come in speeds up to 20MHz (20 times the original) and RAM expanders to 16MB. The C64's {1541} 5.25 {floppy disk} drive had a {6502} processor as a {disk controller}. See also {Commodore 65}. ["Assembly language programming with the Commodore 64", Marvin L. De Jong]. (1996-06-05)

Common Lisp "language" A dialect of {Lisp} defined by a consortium of companies brought together in 1981 by the {Defence Advanced Research Projects Agency} (DARPA). Companies included {Symbolics}, {Lisp Machines, Inc.}, {Digital Equipment Corporation}, {Bell Labs}., {Xerox}, {Hewlett-Packard}, {Lawrence Livermore Labs}., {Carnegie-Mellon University}, {Stanford University}, {Yale}, {MIT} and {USC Berkeley}. Common Lisp is {lexically scoped} by default but can be {dynamically scoped}. Common Lisp is a large and complex language, fairly close to a superset of {MacLisp}. It features {lexical binding}, data structures using defstruct and setf, {closures}, multiple values, types using declare and a variety of numerical types. Function calls allow "&optional", keyword and "&rest" arguments. Generic sequence can either be a list or an {array}. It provides formatted printing using escape characters. Common LISP now includes {CLOS}, an extended LOOP {macro}, condition system, {pretty printing} and logical pathnames. Implementations include {AKCL}, {CCL}, {CLiCC}, {CLISP}, {CLX}, {CMU Common Lisp}, {DCL}, {KCL}, {MCL} and {WCL}. Mailing list: "". {ANSI Common Lisp draft proposal (}. ["Common LISP: The Language", Guy L. Steele, Digital Press 1984, ISBN 0-932376-41-X]. ["Common LISP: The Language, 2nd Edition", Guy L. Steele, Digital Press 1990, ISBN 1-55558-041-6]. (1994-09-29)

com "networking" (.com, "commercial") The {top-level domain} originally for American companies but, since the explosion of the {web}, used by most companies and for {vanity domains} of all types, whether in the US or not, often in addition to {country code} domains like The term "dot com" is now widely used to refer to any Internet business as in "My dot com turned into a dot bomb". (2007-02-18)

composition 1. {function composition}. 2. {typesetting}.

computer "computer" A machine that can be programmed to manipulate symbols. Computers can perform complex and repetitive procedures quickly, precisely and reliably and can store and retrieve large amounts of data. Most computers in use today are electronic {digital computers} (as opposed to {analogue computers}). The physical components from which a computer is constructed are known as {hardware}, which can be of four types: {CPU}, {memory}, {input devices} and {output devices}. The CPU ({central processing unit}) executes {software} {programs} which tell the computer what to do. Input and output (I/O) devices allow the computer to communicate with the user and the outside world. There are many kinds of memory or storage - fast, expensive, short term memory (e.g. {RAM}) to hold intermediate results, and slower, cheaper, long-term memory (e.g. {magnetic disk} and {magnetic tape}) to hold programs and data that are not being used immediately. Computers today are often connected to a {network} (which may be part of the {Internet}). This allows them to be accessed from elsewhere and to exchange data with other computers. (2018-06-25)

computer geek "jargon" (Or "turbo nerd", "turbo geek") One who eats (computer) {bugs} for a living. One who fulfils all the dreariest negative stereotypes about {hackers}: an asocial, malodourous, pasty-faced monomaniac with all the personality of a cheese grater. The term cannot be used by outsiders without implied insult to all {hackers}; compare black-on-black usage of "nigger". A computer geek may be either a fundamentally clueless individual or a proto-hacker in {larval stage}. See also {Alpha Geek}, {propeller head}, {clustergeeking}, {geek out}, {wannabee}, {terminal junkie}, {spod}, {weenie}. [{Jargon File}] (1997-06-26)

conceptualisation "artificial intelligence" The process or result of listing the types of objects, concepts and other entities that are assumed to exist in some area of interest and the relationships that hold among them. A conceptualisation is an {abstract}, simplified view of the world that we wish to represent. For example, we may conceptualise a family as the set of names, sexes and the relationships of the family members. Choosing a conceptualisation is the first stage of {knowledge representation}. A conceptualisation is a high-level {data model}. Every {knowledge base}, {knowledge-based system}, or {knowledge-level agent} is committed to some conceptualisation, explicitly or implicitly. (2013-04-17)

constructed type "types" A {type} formed by applying some {type constructor function} to one or more other types. The usual constructions are functions: t1 -" t2, products: (t1, t2), sums: t1 + t2 and lifting: lift(t1). (In {LaTeX}, the lifted type is written with a subscript {\perp}). See also {algebraic data type}, {primitive type}. (1995-02-03)

contract programmer "job, programming" A {programmer} who works on a fixed-length or temporary contract, and is often employed to write certain types of code or to work on a specific project. Despite the fact that contractors usually cost more than hiring a permanent employee with the same skills, it is common for organisations to employ them for extended periods, sometimes renewing their contracts for many years, due to lack of certainty about the future or simple lack of planning. A contract programmer may be independent or they may work in a supplier's {professional services} department, providing consultancy and programming services for the supplier's products. (2015-03-07)

copy and paste "text" (Or "cut and paste", after the paper, scissors and glue method of document production) The system supported by most document editing applications (e.g. {text editors}) and most {operating systems} that allows you to select a part of the document and then save it in a temporary buffer (known variously as the "clipboard", "cut buffer", "kill ring"). A "copy" leaves the document unchanged whereas a "cut" deletes the selected part. A "paste" inserts the data from the clipboard at the current position in the document (usually replacing any currently selected data). This may be done more than once, in more than one position and in different documents. More sophisticated {operating systems} support copy and paste of different data types between different applications, possibly with automatic format conversion, e.g from {rich text} to plain {ASCII}. {GNU Emacs} uses the terms "kill" instead of "cut" and "yank" instead of "paste" and data is stored in the "kill ring". [Origin? Macintosh? Xerox?] (1998-07-01)

coupling "programming, hardware" The degree to which components depend on one another. There are two types of coupling, "tight" and "loose". Loose coupling is desirable for good {software engineering} but tight coupling may be necessary for maximum performance. Coupling is increased when the data exchanged between components becomes larger or more complex. (1996-08-01)

cproto "programming, tool" A translator , written by Chin Huang at, that generates {ANSI C} {function prototypes} from {K&R} {C} function definitions. It can also translate function definition heads between {K&R} style and {ANSI C} style. Posted to {comp.sources}.misc, volume 29. Runs under {Unix}, {MS-DOS}. (1992-07-18)

crayon 1. Someone who works on {Cray} {supercomputers}. More specifically, it implies a programmer, probably of the {CDC} ilk, probably male, and almost certainly wearing a tie (irrespective of gender). Systems types who have a {Unix} background tend not to be described as crayons. 2. A {computron} that participates only in {number crunching}. 3. A unit of computational power equal to that of a single {Cray-1}. There is a standard joke about this usage that derives from an old Crayola crayon promotional gimmick: When you buy 64 crayons you get a free sharpener. [{Jargon File}] (1994-10-13)

Cyc "artificial intelligence" A large {knowledge-based system}. Cyc is a very large, multi-contextual {knowledge base} and {inference engine}, the development of which started at the {Microelectronics and Computer Technology Corporation} (MCC) in Austin, Texas during the early 1980s. Over the past eleven years the members of the Cyc team, lead by {Doug Lenat}, have added to the knowledge base a huge amount of fundamental human knowledge: {facts}, rules of thumb, and {heuristics} for reasoning about the objects and events of modern everyday life. Cyc is an attempt to do symbolic {AI} on a massive scale. It is not based on numerical methods such as statistical probabilities, nor is it based on {neural networks} or {fuzzy logic}. All of the knowledge in Cyc is represented {declaratively} in the form of logical {assertions}. Cyc presently contains approximately 400,000 significant assertions, which include simple statements of fact, rules about what conclusions to draw if certain statements of fact are satisfied, and rules about how to reason with certain types of facts and rules. The {inference engine} derives new conclusions using {deductive reasoning}. To date, Cyc has made possible ground-breaking pilot applications in the areas of {heterogeneous} database browsing and integration, {captioned image retrieval}, and {natural language processing}. In January of 1995, a new independent company named Cycorp was created to continue the Cyc project. Cycorp is still in Austin, Texas. The president of Cycorp is {Doug Lenat}. The development of Cyc has been supported by several organisations, including {Apple}, {Bellcore}, {DEC}, {DoD}, {Interval}, {Kodak}, and {Microsoft}. {(}. {Unofficial FAQ (}. (1999-09-07)

cyclic redundancy check "algorithm" (CRC or "cyclic redundancy code") A number derived from, and stored or transmitted with, a block of data in order to detect corruption. By recalculating the CRC and comparing it to the value originally transmitted, the receiver can detect some types of transmission errors. A CRC is more complicated than a {checksum}. It is calculated using division either using {shifts} and {exclusive ORs} or {table lookup} ({modulo} 256 or 65536). The CRC is "redundant" in that it adds no information. A single corrupted {bit} in the data will result in a one bit change in the calculated CRC but multiple corrupted bits may cancel each other out. CRCs treat blocks of input bits as coefficient-sets for {polynomials}. E.g., binary 10100000 implies the polynomial: 1*x^7 + 0*x^6 + 1*x^5 + 0*x^4 + 0*x^3 + 0*x^2 + 0*x^1 + 0*x^0. This is the "message polynomial". A second polynomial, with constant coefficients, is called the "generator polynomial". This is divided into the message polynomial, giving a quotient and remainder. The coefficients of the remainder form the bits of the final CRC. So, an order-33 generator polynomial is necessary to generate a 32-bit CRC. The exact bit-set used for the generator polynomial will naturally affect the CRC that is computed. Most CRC implementations seem to operate 8 bits at a time by building a table of 256 entries, representing all 256 possible 8-bit byte combinations, and determining the effect that each byte will have. CRCs are then computed using an input byte to select a 16- or 32-bit value from the table. This value is then used to update the CRC. {Ethernet} {packets} have a 32-bit CRC. Many disk formats include a CRC at some level. (1997-08-02)

CypherText "language" An interactive language for text formatting and typesetting. ["CypherText: An Extensible Composing and Typesetting Language", C.G. Moore et al, Proc FJCC 37, AFIPS (Fall 1970)]. (1995-05-10)

daguerreotypist ::: n. --> One who takes daguerreotypes.

dasa-gavas (dasha-gavas; dashagava) ::: the ten rays; the ten types or dasa-gavas forms of consciousness in the evolutionary scale: the pasu, vanara, pisaca, pramatha, raks.asa, asura, deva, sadhyadeva (or siddhadeva), siddhadeva (or siddhasura) and satyadeva (or siddha purus.a or siddhadeva).

data abstraction "data" Any representation of data in which the implementation details are hidden (abstracted). {Abstract data types} and {objects} are the two primary forms of data abstraction. [Other forms?]. (2003-07-03)

database management system "database" (DBMS) A suite of programs which typically manage large structured sets of persistent data, offering ad hoc query facilities to many users. They are widely used in business applications. A database management system (DBMS) can be an extremely complex set of software programs that controls the organisation, storage and retrieval of data (fields, records and files) in a database. It also controls the security and integrity of the database. The DBMS accepts requests for data from the application program and instructs the operating system to transfer the appropriate data. When a DBMS is used, information systems can be changed much more easily as the organisation's information requirements change. New categories of data can be added to the database without disruption to the existing system. Data security prevents unauthorised users from viewing or updating the database. Using passwords, users are allowed access to the entire database or subsets of the database, called subschemas (pronounced "sub-skeema"). For example, an employee database can contain all the data about an individual employee, but one group of users may be authorised to view only payroll data, while others are allowed access to only work history and medical data. The DBMS can maintain the integrity of the database by not allowing more than one user to update the same record at the same time. The DBMS can keep duplicate records out of the database; for example, no two customers with the same customer numbers (key fields) can be entered into the database. {Query languages} and {report writers} allow users to interactively interrogate the database and analyse its data. If the DBMS provides a way to interactively enter and update the database, as well as interrogate it, this capability allows for managing personal databases. However, it may not leave an audit trail of actions or provide the kinds of controls necessary in a multi-user organisation. These controls are only available when a set of application programs are customised for each data entry and updating function. A business information system is made up of subjects (customers, employees, vendors, etc.) and activities (orders, payments, purchases, etc.). Database design is the process of deciding how to organize this data into record types and how the record types will relate to each other. The DBMS should mirror the organisation's data structure and process transactions efficiently. Organisations may use one kind of DBMS for daily transaction processing and then move the detail onto another computer that uses another DBMS better suited for random inquiries and analysis. Overall systems design decisions are performed by data administrators and systems analysts. Detailed database design is performed by database administrators. The three most common organisations are the {hierarchical database}, {network database} and {relational database}. A database management system may provide one, two or all three methods. Inverted lists and other methods are also used. The most suitable structure depends on the application and on the transaction rate and the number of inquiries that will be made. Database machines are specially designed computers that hold the actual databases and run only the DBMS and related software. Connected to one or more mainframes via a high-speed channel, database machines are used in large volume transaction processing environments. Database machines have a large number of DBMS functions built into the hardware and also provide special techniques for accessing the disks containing the databases, such as using multiple processors concurrently for high-speed searches. The world of information is made up of data, text, pictures and voice. Many DBMSs manage text as well as data, but very few manage both with equal proficiency. Throughout the 1990s, as storage capacities continue to increase, DBMSs will begin to integrate all forms of information. Eventually, it will be common for a database to handle data, text, graphics, voice and video with the same ease as today's systems handle data. See also: {intelligent database}. (1998-10-07)

Data Communication Equipment "communications, hardware" (DCE) The devices and connections of a communications network that connect the communication circuit between the data source and destination (the {Data Terminal Equipment} or DTE). A {modem} is the most common kind of DCE. Before data can be transmited over a modem, the DTR (Data Terminal Ready) signal must be active. DTR tells the DCE that the DTE is ready to transmit and receive data. DCE and DTE are usually connected by an {EIA-232} {serial line}. It is necessary to distinguish these two types of device because their connectors must be wired differently if a "straight-through" cable (pin 1 to pin 1, pin 2 to pin 2 etc.) is to be used. DCE should have a female connector and should transmit on pin two and receive on pin three. It is a curious fact that many {modems} are "DTE" according to the original standard. (1995-02-28)

data dictionary "database" A data structure that stores {metadata}, i.e. data about {data}. The term "data dictionary" has several uses. Most generally it is a set of {data descriptions} that can be shared by several applications. Usually it means a {table} in a {database} that stores the names, {field} {types}, length, and other characteristics of the fields in the database tables. An active data dictionary is automatically updated as changes occur in the database. A passive data dictionary must be manually updated. In a {DBMS}, this functionality is performed by the {system catalog}. The data dictionary is a more general software utility used by designers, users, and administrators for {information resource management}. The data dictionary may maintain information on system hardware, software, documentation, users, and other aspects. Data dictionaries are also used to document the database design process itself and can accumulate metadata ready to feed into the system catalog. [Does anybody call them "codebooks"?] (2001-04-24)

data hierarchy The system of data objects which provide the {methods} for {information} storage and retrieval. Broadly, a data hierarchy may be considered to be either natural, which arises from the alphabet or syntax of the language in which the information is expressed, or machine, which reflects the facilities of the computer, both hardware and software. A natural data hierarchy might consist of {bits}, {characters}, words, phrases, sentences, paragraphs, and chapters. One might use components bound to an application, such as field, record, and file, and these would ordinarily be further specified by having {data descriptors} such as name field, address field, etc. On the other hand, a machine or software system might use {bit}, {byte}, {word}, {block}, {partition}, {channel}, and {port}. Programming languages often provide {types} or {objects} which can create data hierarchies of arbitrary complexity, thus allowing software system designers to model language structures described by the linguist to greater or lesser degree. The distinction between the natural form of data and the facilities provided by the machine may be obscure, because users force their needs into the molds provided, and programmers change machine designs. As an example, the natural data type "character" and the machine type "byte" are often used interchangeably, because the latter has evolved to meet the need of representing the former. (1995-11-03)

Data Terminal Equipment "communications, hardware" (DTE) A device which acts as the source and/or destination of data and which controls the communication channel. DTE includes terminals, computers, {protocol converters}, and {multiplexors}. DTE is usually connected via an {EIA-232} {serial line} to {Data Communication Equipment} (DCE), typically a {modem}. It is necessary to distinguish these two types of device because their connectors must be wired differently if a "straight-through" cable (pin 1 to pin 1, pin 2 to pin 2 etc.) is to be used. DTE should have a male connector and should transmit on pin three and receive on pin two. It is a curious fact that many {modems} are actually "DTE" according to the original standard. (1995-02-28)

decision support database A {database} from which data is extracted and analysed statistically (but not modified) in order to inform business or other decisions. This is in contrast to an {operational database} which is being continuously updated. For example, a decision support database might provide data to determine the average salary of different types of workers, whereas an operational database containing the same data would be used to calculate pay check amounts. Often, decision support data is extracted from operation databases. (1995-02-14)

delta reduction "theory" In {lambda-calculus} extended with constants, delta reduction replaces a function applied to the required number of arguments (a {redex}) by a result. E.g. plus 2 3 --" 5. In contrast with {beta reduction} (the only kind of reduction in the {pure lambda-calculus}) the result is not formed simply by textual substitution of arguments into the body of a function. Instead, a delta redex is matched against the left hand side of all delta rules and is replaced by the right hand side of the (first) matching rule. There is notionally one delta rule for each possible combination of function and arguments. Where this implies an infinite number of rules, the result is usually defined by reference to some external system such as mathematical addition or the hardware operations of some computer. For other types, all rules can be given explicitly, for example {Boolean} negation: not True = False not False = True (1997-02-20)

Delusion: (Lat. de + ludere, to play) Erroneous or non-veridical cognition. The term is properly restricted to perception, memory and other non-inferential forms of knowledge but is at times extended to include inferential beliefs and theories. See Veridical. The two principal types of delusion are (a) illusion or partially delusive cognition, e.g. the ordinary distortions of sense and memory which nevertheless have a basis in fact, and (b) hallucination or totally delusive cognition such as dreams, pseudo-memories, etc. to which nothing corresponds in fact. See Illusion; Hallucination. -- L.W.

depeditate /dee-ped'*-tayt/ [by (faulty) analogy with "decapitate"] Humorously, to cut off the feet of. When one is using some computer-aided typesetting tools, careless placement of text blocks within a page or above a rule can result in chopped-off letter descenders. Such letters are said to have been depeditated. [{Jargon File}]

derived type "programming" A {type} constructed from {primitive types} or other derived types using a {type constructor function}. This term is usually applied to {procedural languages} such as {C} or {Ada}. C's derived types are the {array}, {function}, {pointer}, {structure}, and {union}. Compare {derived class}. (2001-09-14)

Deustua, Alejandro: Born in Huancayo, Junin (Peru), 1849. Professor of Philosophy at the University of San Marcos in Lima, Peru. According to Deustua, there are two kinds of freedom, the Static and the Dynamic. The former accounts for the cosmic order and harmony of phenomena. Dynamic liberty, however, is, above all, creativity and novelty. The world, not as it is ontologically, but as we experience it, that is, as it comes within the area of consciousness, results from a Hegelian contraposition of the two types of freedom. In this contraposition, the synthesis is always more of the nature of dynamic freedom than it is static. With these presuppositions, Deustua finally works up a kind of practical philosophy leading up to an axiology which he himself finds implied in his concept of freedom. The following are among Deustua's most important works: Las Ideas de Orden Libertad en la Historia del Pensamiento Humano; Historia de las Ideas Esteticas; Estetica General; Estetica Aplicada. -- J.A.F.

deva ::: a god, a divinity; "a dynamic being manifested in Prakriti for the works of the plane to which he belongs"; any of the "cosmic godheads presiding over the action of cosmic principles", brahman "representing Itself in cosmic Personalities expressive of the one Godhead who, in their impersonal action, appear as the various play of the principles of Nature"; the Divine, the supreme and universal Deity (isvara, purus.a) "of whom all the gods are different Names and Powers"; the seventh of the ten types of consciousness (dasa-gavas) in the evolutionary scale: mind concentrated in vijñana, exceeding itself.

Digital Versatile Disk Random Access Memory "storage" (DVD-RAM) Rewritable {DVD} media that is recordable on both sides, giving up to 9.6{GB} of storage. A drive can record to disk and read from it at the same time, so the term {full duplex} is often used. There are two general types of media: traditional discrete disk in DVD or Jewel case, and one in a permanent case like a large floppy; the disk remains in the case, and the case goes into the drive. The former can sometimes be read by regular DVD drives; the latter obviously cannot. {Technical details, somewhat dated, at (}. (2005-01-26)

(d) In Locke: the simple mode of an idea is the manner of thinking in which one idea is taken several times over, e.g. a dozen; mixed modes of ideas are those types of ideation in which various non-similar simple ideas are combined by the mind so as to produce a complex idea which does not represent a substance: e.g. obligation, drunkenness.

D. Interpretations of Probability. The methods and results of mathematical probability (and of probability in general) are the subject of much controversy as regards their interpretation and value. Among the various theories proposed, we shall consider the following Probability as a measure of belief, probability as the relative frequency of events, probability as the truth-frequency of types of argument, probability as a primitive notion, probability as an operational concept, probability as a limit of frequencies, and probability as a physical magnitude determined by axioms. I. Probability as a Measure of Belief: According to this theory, probability is the measure or relative degree of rational credence to be attached to facts or statements on the strength of valid motives. This type of probability is sometimes difficult to estimate, as it may be qualitative as well as quantitative. When considered in its mathematical aspects, the measure of probable inference depends on the preponderance or failure of operative causes or observed occurrences of the case under investigation. This conception involves axioms leading to the classic rule of Laplace, namely: The measure of probability of any one of mutually exclusive and apriori equiprobable possibilities, is the ratio of the number of favorable possibilities to the total number of possibilities. In probability operations, this rule is taken as the definition of direct probability for those cases where it is applicable. The main objections against this interpretation are: that probability is largely subjective, or at least independent of direct experience; that equiprobability is taken as an apriori notion, although the ways of asserting it are empirical; that the conditions of valid equiprobability are not stated definitely; that equiprobability is difficult to determine actually in all cases; that it is difficult to attach an adequate probability to a complex event from the mere knowledge of the probabilities of its component parts, and that the notion of probability is not general, as it does not cover such cases as the inductive derivation of probabilities from statistical data. II. Probability as a Relative Frequency. This interpretation is based on the nature of events, and not on any subjective considerations. It deals with the rate with which an event will occur in a class of events. Hence, it considers probability as the ratio of frequency of true results to true conditions, and it gives as its measure the relative frequency leading from true conditions to true results. What is meant when a set of calculations predict that an experiment will yield a result A with probability P, is that the relative frequency of A is expected to approximate the number P in a long series of such experiments. This conception seems to be more concerned with empirical probabilities, because the calculations assumed are mostly based on statistical data or material assumptions suggested by past experiments. It is valuable in so far as it satisfies the practical necessity of considering probability aggregates in such problems. The main objections against this interpretation are: that it does not seem capable of expressing satisfactorily what is meant by the probability of an event being true; that its conclusions are more or less probable, owing to the difficulty of defining a proper standard for comparing ratios; that neither its rational nor its statistical evidence is made clear; that the degree of relevance of that evidence is not properly determined, on account of the theoretical indefinite ness of both the true numerical value of the probability and of the evidence assumed, and that it is operational in form only, but not in fact, because it involves the infinite without proper limitations. III. Probability as Truth-Frequency of Types of Arguments: In this interpretation, which is due mainly to Peirce and Venn, probability is shifted from the events to the propositions about them; instead of considering types and classes of events, it considers types and classes of propositions. Probability is thus the ability to give an objective reading to the relative tiuth of propositions dealing with singular events. This ability can be used successfully in interpreting definite and indefinite numerical probabilities, by taking statistical evaluations and making appropriate verbal changes in their formulation. Once assessed, the relative truth of the propositions considered can be communicated to facts expressed by these propositions. But neither the propositions nor the facts as such have a probability in themselves. With these assumptions, a proposition has a degree of probability, only if it is considered as a member of a class of propositions; and that degree is expressed by the proportion of true propositions to the total number of propositions in the class. Hence, probability is the ratio of true propositions to all the propositions of the class examined, if the class is finite, or to all the propositions of the same type in the long run, if the class is infinite. In the first case, fair sampling may cover the restrictions of a finite class; in the second case, the use of infinite series offers a practical limitation for the evidence considered. But in both cases, probability varies with the class or type chosen, and probability-inferences are limited by convention to those cases where numerical values can be assigned to the ratios considered. It will be observed that this interpretation of probability is similar to the relative frequency theory. The difference between these two theories is more formal than material in both cases the probability refers ultimately to kinds of evidence based on objective matter of fact. Hence the Truth-Frequency theory is open to the sime objections as the Relative-Frequency theory, with proper adjustments. An additional difficulty of this theory is that the pragmatic interpretation of truth it involves, has yet to be proved, and the situation is anything but improved by assimilating truth with probability.

display standard "hardware, standard" {IBM} and others have introduced a bewildering plethora of graphics and text display {standards} for {IBM PC}s. The standards are mostly implemented by plugging in a video display board (or "{graphics adaptor}") and connecting the appropriate monitor to it. Each new standard subsumes its predecessors. For example, an {EGA} board can also do {CGA} and {MDA}. With the {PS/2}, IBM introduced the {VGA} standard and built it into the main system board {motherboard}. VGA is also available as a plug-in board for PCs from third-party vendors. Also with the PS/2, IBM introduced the {8514} high-resolution graphics standard. An 8514 adaptor board plugs into the PS/2, providing a dual-monitor capability. Graphics software had to support the major IBM graphics standards and many non-IBM, proprietary standards for displays. Either software vendors provided {display drivers} or display vendors provided drivers for the software package. In either case, switching software or switching display systems was fraught with compatibility problems. Display  Resolution Colours Sponsor Systems MDA   720x350 T 2 IBM   PC CGA   320x200 4 IBM   PC EGA   640x350 16 IBM   PC PGA   640x480 256 IBM   PC Hercules 729x348 2 non-IBM PC MCGA   720x400 T   320x200 G 256 PS/2 VGA   720x400 T   640x480 G 16 SVGA   800x600 16 VESA XVGA 1024x768 256 (IBM name: 8514) T: text, G: graphics. More colours are available from third-party vendors for some display types. See also {MDA}, {CGA}, {EGA}, {PGA}, {Hercules}, {MCGA}, {VGA}, {SVGA}, {8514}, {VESA}. [What were the corresponding "mode" numbers"?] (2011-03-20)

Dissociation of Personality: A disorder of personality consisting in the loss of the normally stable and constant integration of the self. Two types of disintegration of personality are distinguishable: (a) The ideas and states dissociated from the central core of the self may float about as detached and depersonalized states. See Deperonalization. (b) The dissociated ideas and states may cohere into a secondary or split-off consciousness. -- L.W.

distribution ::: n. --> The act of distributing or dispensing; the act of dividing or apportioning among several or many; apportionment; as, the distribution of an estate among heirs or children.
Separation into parts or classes; arrangement of anything into parts; disposition; classification.
That which is distributed.
A resolving a whole into its parts.
The sorting of types and placing them in their proper

dithering "data, algorithm" A technique used in {quantisation} processes such as {graphics} and {audio} to reduce or remove the correlation between noise and signal. Dithering is used in {computer graphics} to create additional colors and shades from an existing {palette} by interspersing {pixels} of different colours. On a {monochrome} display, areas of grey are created by varying the proportion of black and white pixels. In colour displays and printers, colours and textures are created by varying the proportions of existing colours. The different colours can either be distributed randomly or regularly. The higher the {resolution} of the display, the smoother the dithered colour will appear to the eye. Dithering doesn't reduce resolution. There are three types: regular dithering which uses a very regular predefined pattern; random dither where the pattern is a random noise; and pseudo random dither which uses a very large, very regular, predefined pattern. Dithering is used to create patterns for use as backgrounds, fills and shading, as well as for creating {halftones} for printing. When used for printing is it very sensitive to paper properties. Dithering can be combined with {rasterising}. It is not related to {anti-aliasing}. (2003-07-20)

Ditto Drive "hardware, storage" The Ditto {tape drives} range in capacity from 120 {megabytes} to 1.6 {gigabytes} ({data compression} can roughly double these figures). The newer devices are designed for special tapes, though they will read standard tape types. The largest of tape stores up 3.2 {GB}. Using an enhanced {floppy drive} card the transfer rate approaches the claimed 19 {MB}/minute. External {parallel} port versions are also available. {Compatibility details (}. (1997-03-26)

domain theory "theory" A branch of mathematics introduced by Dana Scott in 1970 as a mathematical theory of programming languages, and for nearly a quarter of a century developed almost exclusively in connection with {denotational semantics} in computer science. In {denotational semantics} of programming languages, the meaning of a program is taken to be an element of a domain. A domain is a mathematical structure consisting of a set of values (or "points") and an ordering relation, "= on those values. Domain theory is the study of such structures. (""=" is written in {LaTeX} as {\subseteq}) Different domains correspond to the different types of object with which a program deals. In a language containing functions, we might have a domain X -" Y which is the set of functions from domain X to domain Y with the ordering f "= g iff for all x in X, f x "= g x. In the {pure lambda-calculus} all objects are functions or {applications} of functions to other functions. To represent the meaning of such programs, we must solve the {recursive} equation over domains, D = D -" D which states that domain D is ({isomorphic} to) some {function space} from D to itself. I.e. it is a {fixed point} D = F(D) for some operator F that takes a domain D to D -" D. The equivalent equation has no non-trivial solution in {set theory}. There are many definitions of domains, with different properties and suitable for different purposes. One commonly used definition is that of Scott domains, often simply called domains, which are {omega-algebraic}, {consistently complete} {CPOs}. There are domain-theoretic computational models in other branches of mathematics including {dynamical systems}, {fractals}, {measure theory}, {integration theory}, {probability theory}, and {stochastic processes}. See also {abstract interpretation}, {bottom}, {pointed domain}. (1999-12-09)

dpi Dots per inch. A measure of resolution for printers, scanners and displays. {Laser printers} typically reach 300 DPI, though 600 DPI is becoming more common. Commercial typesetters are usually around 1200 DPI. (1995-01-05)

driver 1. "operating system" {device driver}. 2. "programming" The {main loop} of an event-processing program; the code that gets commands and dispatches them for execution. 3. "tool" In the {TeX} world and the computerised typesetting world in general, a program that translates some device-independent or other common format to something a real device can actually understand. [{Jargon File}]

D-type 1. "hardware" A type of computer peripheral connector so named because one side is shorter (with one less pin) than the other giving a (squarish) "D" shape. The connectors have two rows of pins (or holes). Common types are 25-way (13+12 pins) and 9-way (5+4 pins). They are often used for serial lines, especially {EIA-232}. (1995-01-05) 2. {D-type flip-flop}.

duck typing "programming" A term coined by Dave Thomas for a kind of {dynamic typing} typical of some programming languages, such as {Smalltalk}, {Ruby} or {Visual FoxPro}, where a {variable}'s {run-time} value determines the operations that can be performed on it. The term comes from the "duck test": if it walks like a duck and quacks like a duck, it must be a duck. Duck typing considers the {methods} to which a value responds and the {attributes} it posesses rather than its relationship to a type hierarchy. This encourages greater {polymorphism} because types are enforced as late as possible. {(}. (2006-09-13)

dusty deck Old software (especially applications) which one is obliged to remain compatible with, or to maintain. {DP} types call this "legacy code", a term hackers consider smarmy and excessively reverent. The term implies that the software in question is a holdover from card-punch days. Used especially when referring to old scientific and {number crunching} software, much of which was written in Fortran and very poorly documented but is believed to be too expensive to replace. See {fossil}; compare {crawling horror}. [{Jargon File}]

E 1. An extension of {C++} with {database} types and {persistent} {objects}. E is a powerful and flexible {procedural} programming language. It is used in the {Exodus} database system. See also {GNU E}. {(}. ["Persistence in the E Language: Issues and Implementation", J.E. Richardson et al, Soft Prac & Exp 19(12):1115-1150 (Dec 1989)]. 2. "language" A {procedural language} by Wouter van Oortmerssen with {semantics} similar to {C}. E features lists, low-level {polymorphism}, {exception} handling, quoted expressions, {pattern matching} and {object} {inheritance}. {Amiga E} is a version for the {Amiga}. (1999-10-05)

editor "application" A program used to {edit} a {document}. Different types of document have different editors, e.g. a {text editor} for {text files}, an {image editor} for {images}, an {HTML editor} for {web pages}, etc. The term can be used for pretty much any kind of data modification, e.g. a {disk sector editor} which operates directly on the {hard disk}, bypassing the {filesystem}. (2007-07-11)

Eiffel "language" An {object-oriented} language produced by {Bertrand Meyer} in 1985. Eiffel has {classes} with {multiple inheritance} and {repeated inheritance}, {deferred class}es (like {Smalltalk}'s {abstract class}), and {clusters} of classes. Objects can have both {static types} and {dynamic types}. The dynamic type must be a descendant of the static (declared) type. {Dynamic binding} resolves {multiple inheritance} clashes. It has flattened forms of classes, in which all of the inherited features are added at the same level and {generic class}es parametrised by type. Other features are {persistent objects}, {garbage collection}, {exception} handling, {foreign language interface}. Classes may be equipped with {assertions} (routine preconditions and postconditions, class {invariants}) implementing the theory of "{Design by Contract}" and helping produce more reliable software. Eiffel is compiled to {C}. It comes with libraries containing several hundred classes: data structures and {algorithms} (EiffelBase), graphics and user interfaces (EiffelVision) and language analysis (EiffelLex, EiffelParse). The first release of Eiffel was release 1.4, introduced at the first {OOPSLA} in October 1986. The language proper was first described in a University of California, Santa Barbara report dated September 1985. Eiffel is available, with different libraries, from several sources including {Interactive Software Engineering}, USA (ISE Eiffel version 3.3); Sig Computer GmbH, Germany (Eiffel/S); and {Tower, Inc.}, Austin (Tower Eiffel). The language definition is administered by an open organisation, the Nonprofit International Consortium for Eiffel (NICE). There is a standard kernel library. An {Eiffel source checker} and compiler {front-end} is available. See also {Sather}, {Distributed Eiffel}, {Lace}, {shelf}. E-mail: "". ["Eiffel: The Language", Bertrand Meyer, P-H 1992]. (1998-11-15)

El Camino Bignum "humour" /el' k*-mee'noh big'nuhm/ The road mundanely called El Camino Real, a road through the San Francisco peninsula that originally extended all the way down to Mexico City and many portions of which are still intact. Navigation on the San Francisco peninsula is usually done relative to El Camino Real, which defines {logical} north and south even though it isn't really north-south many places. El Camino Real runs right past {Stanford University}. The Spanish word "real" (which has two syllables: /ray-al'/) means "royal"; El Camino Real is "the royal road". In the {Fortran} language, a "{real}" quantity is a number typically precise to seven significant digits, and a "{double precision}" quantity is a larger {floating-point} number, precise to perhaps fourteen significant digits (other languages have similar "real" types). When a {hacker} from {MIT} visited Stanford in 1976, he remarked what a long road El Camino Real was. Making a pun on "real", he started calling it "El Camino Double Precision" - but when the hacker was told that the road was hundreds of miles long, he renamed it "El Camino Bignum", and that name has stuck. (See {bignum}). [{Jargon File}] (1996-07-16)

electron tube "electronics" (Or tube, vacuum tube, UK: valve, electron valve, thermionic valve, firebottle, glassfet) An electronic component consisting of a space exhausted of gas to such an extent that {electrons} may move about freely, and two or more electrodes with external connections. Nearly all tubes are of the thermionic type where one electrode, called the cathode, is heated, and electrons are emitted from its surface with a small energy (typically a Volt or less). A second electrode, called the anode (plate) will attract the electrons when it is positive with respect to the cathode, allowing current in one direction but not the other. In types which are used for amplification of signals, additional electrodes, called grids, beam-forming electrodes, focussing electrodes and so on according to their purpose, are introduced between cathode and plate and modify the flow of electrons by electrostatic attraction or (usually) repulsion. A voltage change on a grid can control a substantially greater change in that between cathode and anode. Unlike {semiconductors}, except perhaps for {FETs}, the movement of electrons is simply a function of electrostatic field within the active region of the tube, and as a consequence of the very low mass of the electron, the currents can be changed quickly. Moreover, there is no limit to the current density in the space, and the electrodes which do dissapate power are usually metal and can be cooled with forced air, water, or other refrigerants. Today these features cause tubes to be the active device of choice when the signals to be amplified are a power levels of more than about 500 watts. The first electronic digital computers used hundreds of vacuum tubes as their active components which, given the reliability of these devices, meant the computers needed frequent repairs to keep them operating. The chief causes of unreliability are the heater used to heat the cathode and the connector into which the tube was plugged. Vacuum tube manufacturers in the US are nearly a thing of the past, with the exception of the special purpose types used in broadcast and image sensing and displays. Eimac, GE, RCA, and the like would probably refer to specific types such as "Beam Power Tetrode" and the like, and rarely use the generic terms. The {cathode ray tube} is a special purpose type based on these principles which is used for the visual display in television and computers. X-ray tubes are diodes (two element tubes) used at high voltage; a tungsten anode emits the energetic photons when the energetic electrons hit it. Magnetrons use magnetic fields to constrain the electrons; they provide very simple, high power, ultra-high frequency signals for radar, microwave ovens, and the like. Klystrons amplify signals at high power and microwave frequencies. (1996-02-05)

electrotyper ::: n. --> One who electrotypes.

electrotyping ::: p. pr. & vb. n. --> of Electrotype ::: n. --> The act or the process of making electrotypes.

E. L. Thorndike, Human Nature and the Social Order. See Freud, Gestalt, Introspection, Mind, Subconscious. Psychology of Religion: A scientific, descriptive study of mental life and behavior with special reference to religious activities. The aim of this study is not to criticize or evaluate religion (see Philosophy of Religion) but to describe its forms as they reflect the mental processes of men. As an extended chapter in the field of general psychology, psychology of religion reflects the various types of psychology now current. As a scientific study this subject began its fruitful career at the beginning of this century, making illuminating disclosures on the nature of conversion, varieties of religious experience, the origin and character of beliefs in God and immortality, the techniques of mystics, types of worship, etc. Due to the confused state of psychology-in-general and especially to the recent vogue of behaviorism this subject has fallen somewhat into an eclipse -- at least for the present. Cf. Wm. James: Varieties of Religious Experience, 1902. -- V.F.

Emerald An {object-oriented} distributed programming language and environment developed at the {University of Washington} in the early 1980s. Emeral was the successor to {EPL}. It is {strongly typed} and uses {signatures} and {prototypes} rather than {inheritance}. ["Distribution and Abstract Types in Emerald", A. Black et al, IEEE Trans Soft Eng SE-13(1):65-76 (Jan 1987)]. (1994-11-09)

enumerated type "programming" (Or "enumeration") A {type} which includes in its definition an exhaustive list of possible values for variables of that type. Common examples include {Boolean}, which takes values from the list [true, false], and day-of-week which takes values [Sunday, Monday, Tuesday, Wednesday, Thursday, Friday, Saturday]. Enumerated types are a feature of {strongly typed languages}, including {C} and {Ada}. Characters, (fixed-size) integers and even {floating-point} types could be (but are not usually) considered to be (large) enumerated types. (1996-11-28)

EOU "character, humour" The mnemonic of a mythical {ASCII} control character (End Of User) that would make an {ASR-33} {Teletype} explode on receipt. This construction parodies the numerous obscure {delimiter} and control characters left in ASCII from the days when it was associated more with wire-service teletypes than computers (e.g. {FS}, {GS}, {RS}, {US}, {EM}, {SUB}, {ETX}, and especially {EOT}). It is worth remembering that ASR-33s were big, noisy mechanical beasts with a lot of clattering parts; the notion that one might explode was nowhere near as ridiculous as it might seem to someone sitting in front of a {tube} or flatscreen today. [{Jargon File}] (1996-06-29)

Epistemological Realism: Theory that the object of knowledge enjoys an existence independent of and external to the knowing mind. The theory, though applied most commonlv to perception where it is designated perceptual realism, may be extended to other types of knowledge (for example memory and knowledge of other minds). Epistemological realism may be combined either with Epistemological Monism or Epistemological Dualism. See Epistemological Monism, Epistemological Dualism. -- L.W.

Epistemology. Theistic Platonism maintains that the archetypes of existent things are eternal ideas in the mind of God. Epistemological Idealism teaches that all entities other than egos or subjects of experience are exclusively noetic objects, i.e. have no existence or reality apart from the relation of being perceived or thought. Transcendental Idealism (Critical Idealism) is Kant's name for his doctrine that knowledge is a synthetic, relational product of the logical self (transcendental unity of apperception). Phenomenology is Husserl's name for the science that investigates the essences or natures of objects considered apart from their existential or metaphysical status.

EQLOG Equality, types and generic modules for logic programming. A language using Horn clauses. J.A. Goguen, J. Meseguer.

EQLog OBJ2 plus logic programming based on Horn logic with equality. "EQLog: Equality, Types and Generic Modules for Logic Programming", J. Goguen et al in Functional and Logic Programming, D. DeGroot et al eds, pp.295-363, P-H 1986.

Eqn Language for typesetting mathematics. "A System for Typesetting Mathematics", B.W. Kernighan and L.L. Cherry, CACM 18(3):151-157 (Mar 1975).

error correcting memory "storage" (ECM) {RAM} using some kind of {error detection and correction} (EDAC) scheme. The two types of memory errors in RAM (especially {DRAM}) are "soft" errors due to radiation-induced bit switching, and "hard" errors due to the unexpected deterioration of a memory chip. Soft errors do not indicate lasting damage to the memory board, but they do corrupt programs or data. Hard errors demand physical repairs. Single bit memory failures are the most common. A hard single bit failure, such as that caused by a completely dead chip can be corrected by EDAC if each chip supplies only one bit of each word. EDAC memory is the most common level of protection for {minicomputers} and {mainframes} whereas the cheaper parity protection is more common in {microcomputers}. [Clearpoint, "The Designer's Guide to Add-In Memory", Third Addition]. (1995-10-10)

Euclid "language" (Named after the Greek geometer, fl ca 300 BC.) A {Pascal} descendant for development of verifiable system software. No {goto}, no {side effects}, no global assignments, no functional arguments, no nested procedures, no floats, no {enumeration types}. Pointers are treated as indices of special arrays called collections. To prevent {aliasing}, Euclid forbids any overlap in the list of actual parameters of a procedure. Each procedure gives an imports list, and the compiler determines the identifiers that are implicitly imported. Iterators. Ottawa Euclid is a variant. ["Report on the Programming Language Euclid", B.W. Lampson et al, SIGPLAN Notices 12(2):1-79, Feb 1977]. (1998-11-23)

Evolutionism: This is the view that the universe and life in all of its manifestations and nature in all of their aspects are the product of development. Apart from the religious ideas of initial creation by fiat, this doctrine finds variety of species to be the result of change and modification and growth and adaptation rather than from some form of special creation of each of the myriads of organic types and even of much in the inorganic realm. Contrary to the popular notion, evolution is not a product of modern thought. There has been an evolution of evolutionary hypotheses from earliest Indian and Greek speculation down to the latest pronouncement of scientific theory. Thales believed all life to have had a marine origin and Anaximander, Anaximenes, Empedocles, the Atomists and Aristotle all spoke in terms of development and served to lay a foundation for a true theory of evolution. It is in the work of Charles Darwin, however, that clarity and proof is presented for the explanation of his notion of natural selection and for the crystallization of evolution as a prime factor in man's explanation of all phases of his mundane existence. The chief criticism leveled at the evolutionists, aside from the attacks of the religionists, is based upon their tendency to forget that not all evolution means progress. See Charles Darwin, Herbert Spencer, Thomas Hemy Huxley, Natural Selection, Evolutionary Ethics. Cf. A. Lalande, L'Idee de dissolution opposee a celle de l'evolution (1899), revised ed. (1930): Les Illusions evolutionistes. -- L.E.D.

eXperimental LISP "language" (xlisp) An experimental programming language combining a subset of {Common Lisp} with an {object-oriented} extension capability (Class and Object types). It was implemented by David Micheal Betz at Apple to allow experimentation with {object-oriented programming} on small computers. The {C} {source code} has been ported to {Unix}, {Microsoft Windows}, {Macintosh}, {Amiga}, {Atari}, and {MS-DOS}. Version 2.1 of the {interpreter}, by Tom Almy is closer to Common Lisp. {(}, {(}, {(}. E-mail: Tom Almy "". {Microsoft Windows version (}. {Macintosh version (}. {Usenet} newsgroup: {news:comp.lang.lisp.x}. (2000-08-14)

Explanation: In general: the process, art, means or method of making a fact or a statement intelligible; the result and the expression of what is made intelligible; the meaning attributed to anything by one who makes it intelligible; a genetic description, causal development, systematic clarification, rational exposition, scientific interpretation, intelligible connection, ordered manifestation of the elements of a fact or a statement. A. More technically, the method of showing discursively that a phenomenon or a group of phenomena obeys a law, by means of causal relations or descriptive connections, or briefly, the methodical analysis of a phenomenon for the purpose of stating its cause. The process of explanation suggests the real preformation or potential presence of the consequent in the antecedent, so that the phenomenon considered may be evolved, developed, unrolled out of its conditioning antecedents. The process and the value of a scientific explanation involve the question of the relation between cause and law, as these two terms may be identified (Berkeley) or distinguished (Comte). Hence modern theories range between extreme idealism and logical positivism. Both these extremes seem to be unsatisfactory: the former would include too much into science, while the latter would embrace a part of it only, namely the knowledge of the scientific laws. Taking into account Hume's criticism of causality and Mill's reasons for accepting causality, Russell proposes what seems to be a middle course, namely that regular sequences suggest causal relations, that causal relations are one special class of scientific generalization, that is one-way sequences in time, and that causal relations as such should not be used in the advanced stages of scientific generalization, functional relations being sufficient in all cases. However satisfactory in methodology, this view may not cover all the implications of the problem. B. There are three specific types of causal explanation, and their results may be combined: genetic or in terms of the direct and immediate conditions or causes producing a phenomenon (formal and efficient cause); descriptive, or in terms of the material elements of the phenomenon (material cause); teleological, or in terms of the ultimate end to be attained (final cause), either in accordance with the nature of the event or with the intention of the agent. The real causes of a phenomenon cannot be identified always, because the natural process of change or becoming escapes complete rationalization. But the attempt to rationalize the real by causal explanation, need not be abandoned in favor of a limited genetic description (postulational or functional) of the laws which may account for the particular phenomenon.

expression "programming" Any piece of program code in a {high-level language} which, when (if) its execution terminates, returns a value. In most programming languages, expressions consist of constants, variables, operators, functions, and {parentheses}. The operators and functions may be built-in or user defined. Languages differ on how expressions of different {types} may be combined - with some combination of explicit {casts} and implicit {coercions}. The {syntax} of expressions generally follows conventional mathematical notation, though some languages such as {Lisp} or {Forth} have their own idiosyncratic syntax. (2001-05-14)

Extensible Stylesheet Language "web" (XSL) A {standard} developed by the {World Wide Web Consortium} defining a language for transforming and formatting {XML (eXtensible Markup Language)} documents. An XSL {stylesheet} is written in {XML} and consists of instructions for tree transformation and formatting. The tree transformations describe how each XML {tag} relates to other data and the formatting instructions describe how to output the various types of data. {(}. See also {Extensible Stylesheet Language Transformations}. (2005-09-30)

Extension Language Kit "language" (Elk) A {Scheme} {interpreter} by Oliver Laumann "" and Carsten Bormann "" of the {Technical University of Berlin}. Elk was designed to be used as a general extension language. New {types} and {primitive} procedures can easily be added. It has {first-class environments}, {dynamic-wind}, {fluid-let}, {macros}, {autoload}ing and a {dump}. It provides interfaces to {Xlib}, {Xt} and various {widget} sets; {dynamic loading} of extensions and {object files}; almost all artificial limitations removed; {generational}/{incremental garbage collector}; {Unix} {system call} extensions; {Records} (structures) and {bit strings}. Version: 2.2 is mostly {R3RS} compatible and runs on {Unix}, {Ultrix}, {VAX}, {Sun-3}, {Sun-4}, {68000}, {i386}, {MIPS}, {IBM PC RT}, {RS/6000}, {HP700}, {SGI}, {Sony}, {MS-DOS} ({gcc}+{DJGPP} or {go32}). {Germany (}. {US (}. {US (}. (1994-12-15)

extrinsic value ::: One of three main types of value that holons possess, along with intrinsic and Ground value. Refers to the partness of a holon in relation to its larger whole(s), or communion value. The more networks and wholes of which a holon is a part, then the greater its extrinsic value. Thus, the more extrinsic value a holon has, the more fundamental it is, since its existence is instrumental to the existence of so many other holons. See intrinsic value and Ground value.

failure-directed testing "programming" (Or "heuristics testing") Software testing based on the knowledge of the types of {errors} made in the past that are likely for the system under test. (1996-05-16)

F. B. Fitch, The consistency of the ramified Principia, The Journal of Symbolic Logic, vol. 3 (1938), pp. 140-149. Ramsey, Frank Plumpton: (1903-1930) In the light of Wittgenstein's work, he proposed several modifications in the Principia Mathematica treatment of functions. These, he urged, made possible the omission of the Axiom of Reducibility, a simplification of the Theory of Types and an improved definition of identity. In stimulating philosophical papers he denied any ultimate distinction between particulars and universals, defended a Wittgensteinian interpretation of general propositions, proposed a subjective theory of probability and a pragmatic view of induction, and offered a theory of theories and a theory of the nature of causal propositions. Most of his work is included in The Foundations of Mathematics, London, Kegan Paul, 1931. -- C.A.B.

File Composition A typesetting language. ["File Composition System Reference Manual", No. 90388, Information Intl].

file type "file format" The kind of data stored in a file. Most modern {operating systems} use the {filename extension} to determine the file type though others store this information elsewhere in the {file system}. The file type is used to choose an appropriate icon to represent the file in a {GUI} and the correct {application} with which to view, edit, run, or print the file. Different operating systems support different sets of file types though most agree on a large common set and allow arbitrary new types to be defined. See also {MIME}. { - The File Extensions Resource (} (2009-03-27)

fill-out form "programming" A type of {user interface} used, for example, on the {web}, to organise a set of questions or options for the user so that it resembles a traditional paper form that is filled out. Typical query types are: fill-in-the-blank (text), menu of options, select zero or more, or select exactly one ("{radio buttons}"). Most {web browsers} support fill-out forms. {Overview (}. (1998-03-24)

First, each plane, in spite of Its connection with others aboie and below it, is yet a world in itself, with its own movements, forces, beings, types, forms existing as if for its and their own sake, under its ovs-n laws, for its own manifestation nithouf appa-

flip-flop "hardware" A digital logic circuit that can be in one of two states which it switches (or "{toggles}") between under control of its inputs. It can thus be considered as a one bit memory. Three types of flip-flop are common: the {SR flip-flop}, the {JK flip-flop} and the {D-type flip-flop} (or {latch}). Early literature refers to the "Eccles-Jordan circuit" and the "Eccles-Jordan binary counter", using two {vacuum tubes} as the active (amplifying) elements for each {bit} of information storage. Later implementations using {bipolar transistors} could operate at up to 20 million state transitions per second as early as 1963. (1995-11-11)

FL "language" Function Level. John Backus's successor to {FP}, developed ca. 1985. FL is {dynamically typed} and adds {higher-order functions}, {exceptions}, {user-defined types} and other features. ["FL Language Manual, Parts 1 & 2", J. Backus et al, IBM Research Report RJ 7100 (1989)]. (1994-10-20)

floating-point "programming, mathematics" A number representation consisting of a {mantissa}, M, an {exponent}, E, and a {radix} (or "base"). The number represented is M*R^E where R is the radix. In science and engineering, {exponential notation} or {scientific notation} uses a radix of ten so, for example, the number 93,000,000 might be written 9.3 x 10^7 (where ^7 is superscript 7). In computer hardware, floating point numbers are usually represented with a radix of two since the mantissa and exponent are stored in binary, though many different representations could be used. The {IEEE} specify a {standard} representation which is used by many hardware floating-point systems. Non-zero numbers are {normalised} so that the {binary point} is immediately before the most significant bit of the mantissa. Since the number is non-zero, this bit must be a one so it need not be stored. A fixed "bias" is added to the exponent so that positive and negative exponents can be represented without a sign bit. Finally, extreme values of exponent (all zeros and all ones) are used to represent special numbers like zero and positive and negative {infinity}. In programming languages with {explicit typing}, floating-point types are introduced with the keyword "float" or sometimes "double" for a higher precision type. See also {floating-point accelerator}, {floating-point unit}. Opposite: {fixed-point}. (2008-06-13)

font ::: n. --> A complete assortment of printing type of one size, including a due proportion of all the letters in the alphabet, large and small, points, accents, and whatever else is necessary for printing with that variety of types; a fount.
A fountain; a spring; a source.
A basin or stone vessel in which water is contained for baptizing.

fontology ({XEROX PARC}) The body of knowledge dealing with the construction and use of new {fonts} (e.g. for window systems and typesetting software). It has been said that fontology recapitulates file-ogeny. Unfortunately, this reference to the embryological dictum that "Ontogeny recapitulates phylogeny" is not merely a joke. On the Macintosh, for example, System 7 has to go through contortions to compensate for an earlier design error that created a whole different set of abstractions for fonts parallel to "files" and "folders" - ESR [{Jargon File}] (1994-12-01)

font "text" A set of {glyphs} ({images}) representing the {characters} from some particular {character set} in a particular size and {typeface}. The image of each character may be encoded either as a {bitmap} (in a {bitmap font}) or by a higher-level description in terms of lines and areas (an {outline font}). There are several different computer representations for fonts, the most widely known are {Adobe Systems, Inc.}'s {PostScript} font definitions and {Apple}'s {TrueType}. {Window systems} can display different fonts on the screen and print them. [Other types of font?] (2001-04-27)

Foonly 1. The {PDP-10} successor that was to have been built by the Super Foonly project at the {Stanford Artificial Intelligence Laboratory} along with a new operating system. The intention was to leapfrog from the old DEC {time-sharing} system SAIL was then running to a new generation, bypassing TENEX which at that time was the {ARPANET} {standard}. {ARPA} funding for both the Super Foonly and the new operating system was cut in 1974. Most of the design team went to DEC and contributed greatly to the design of the PDP-10 model KL10. 2. The name of the company formed by Dave Poole, one of the principal Super Foonly designers, and one of hackerdom's more colourful personalities. Many people remember the parrot which sat on Poole's shoulder and was a regular companion. 3. Any of the machines built by Poole's company. The first was the F-1 (a.k.a. Super Foonly), which was the computational engine used to create the graphics in the movie "TRON". The F-1 was the fastest PDP-10 ever built, but only one was ever made. The effort drained Foonly of its financial resources, and the company turned toward building smaller, slower, and much less expensive machines. Unfortunately, these ran not the popular {TOPS-20} but a TENEX variant called Foonex; this seriously limited their market. Also, the machines shipped were actually wire-wrapped engineering prototypes requiring individual attention from more than usually competent site personnel, and thus had significant reliability problems. Poole's legendary temper and unwillingness to suffer fools gladly did not help matters. By the time of the Jupiter project cancellation in 1983, Foonly's proposal to build another F-1 was eclipsed by the {Mars}, and the company never quite recovered. See the {Mars} entry for the continuation and moral of this story. [{Jargon File}]

For brevity and simplicity in the preceding account we have ignored complications introduced by the theory of types, which are considerable and troublesome. Modifications are also required if the account is to be incorporated into the Zermelo set theory. -- A.C. G.

For convenience of statement, we confine attention to the pure functional calculus of first order. The first step in the extension consists in introducing quantifiers such as (F1), (EF1), (F2), (EF3), etc., binding n-adic functional variables. Corresponding changes are made in the definition of a formula and in the lists of primitive formulas and primitive rules of inference, allowing for these new kinds of bound variables. The resulting system is the functional calculus of second order. Then the next step consists in introducing new kinds of functional variables; namely for every finite ordered set k, l, m, . . . , p of i non-negative integers (i = 1, 2, 3, . . .) an infinite list of functional variables Fklm . . .p, Gklm . . .p, . . . , each of which denotes ambiguously any i-adic propositional function for which the first argument may be any (k-1)-adic propositional function of individuals, the second argument any (l-1)-adic propositional function of individuals, etc. (if one of the integers k, l, m, . . . , p is 1 the corresponding argument is a proposition -- if 0, an individual). Then quantifiers are introduced binding these new kinds of functional variables; and so on. The process of alternately introducing new kinds of functional variables (denoting propositional functions which take as arguments propositional functions of kinds for which variables have already been introduced) and quantifiers binding the new kinds of functional variables, with appropriate extension at each stage of the definition of a formula and the lists of primitive formulas and primitive rules of inference, may be continued to infinity. This leads to what we may call the functional calculus of order omega, embodying the (so-called simple) theory of types.

Foreknowledge: Knowledge of the future of which two types may be distinguished: (a) anticipation or prescience which professes to be immediate and non-inferential and (b) expectation, which is inferential prediction of the future on the basis of the remembered or recorded past. See Anticipation, Prescience, Expectation. -- L.W.

formal review "project" A technical review conducted with the customer including the types of reviews called for in DOD-STD-2167A (Preliminary Design Review, Critical Design Review, etc.) (1996-05-15)

formats ::: plans, styles or types of arrangement; modes of procedure; organization.

Forsythe A descendent of {Algol 60}, intended to be as uniform and general as possible, while retaining the basic character of its progenitor. Forsythe features {higher-order procedures} and {intersection types}. {(}. ["Preliminary Design of the Programming Language Forsythe", J.C. Reynolds, CMU-CS-88-159, 1988].

Fortran 90 (Previously "Fortran 8x" and "Fortran Extended") An extensive enlargement of {Fortran 77}. Fortran 90 has {derived types}, {assumed shape arrays}, {array sections}, functions returning arrays, case statement, {module} subprograms and internal subprograms, optional and keyword subprogram arguments, {recursion}, and {dynamic allocation}. It is defined in ISO 1539:1991, soon to be adopted by {ANSI}. ["Fortran 90 Explained", M. Metcalf et al, Oxford University Press 1990]. (1994-12-16)

founder ::: n. --> One who founds, establishes, and erects; one who lays a foundation; an author; one from whom anything originates; one who endows.
One who founds; one who casts metals in various forms; a caster; as, a founder of cannon, bells, hardware, or types.
A lameness in the foot of a horse, occasioned by inflammation; closh.
An inflammatory fever of the body, or acute rheumatism;

FP2 Functional Parallel Programming. A {term rewriting} language which unifies {functional programming} and {parallel programming}. Every object is a term and every computation is done by rewriting. Rewrite rules are used to specify {algebraic data types} and parallel processes. ["Term Rewriting as a Basis for the Design of a Functional and Parallel Programming Language. A Case Study: The Language FP2", Ph. Jorrand in Fundamentals of Artificial Intelligence, LNCS 258, Springer 1986, pp. 221-276]. (1994-10-20)

Frequency Shift Keying "communications" (FSK) The use of {frequency modulation} to transmit digital data, i.e. two different {carrier} frequencies are used to represent zero and one. FSK was originally used to transmit {teleprinter} messages by radio ({RTTY}) but can be used for most other types of radio and land-line digital telegraphy. More than two frequencies can be used to increase transmission rates. (1997-07-14)

Fun A {typed lambda-calculus}, similar to {SOL}[2]. "On Understanding Types, Data Abstractions and Polymorphism", L. Cardelli et al, ACM Comp Surveys 17(4) (Dec 1985).

functor In {category theory}, a functor F is an operator on types. F is also considered to be a {polymorphic} operator on functions with the type F : (a -" b) -" (F a -" F b). Functors are a generalisation of the function "{map}". The type operator in this case takes a type T and returns type "list of T". The map function takes a function and applies it to each element of a list. (1995-02-07)

FunnelWeb A {literate-programming} tool by Ross Williams "". It emphasises simplicity and reliability. It provides a {macro} facility and assists in the production of typeset {documentation}. It is independent of the input programming language. Posted to comp.sources.unix volume 26 under {CopyLeft}. Runs on {Sun}, {Vax}, {Macintosh} and {IBM PC}. (1993-04-11)

FX-87 Effects. A {polymorphic} language based on {Scheme}, allowing {side effects} and {first-class} functions. It attempts to integrate functional and {imperative programming}. Expressions have types, side effects (e.g. reading, writing or allocating) and regions (stating where the effects may occur). Versions: FX-89, {FX-90}. {(}. ["The FX-87 Reference Manual", D.K. Gifford "" et al, MIT/LCS/TR-407, Oct 1987]. (1995-01-31)

G 1. "unit" The abbreviated form of {giga-}. 2. "language" ["G: A Functional Language with Generic Abstract Data Types", P.A.G. Bailes, Computer Langs 12(2):69-94, 1987]. 3. "language" A language developed at {Oregon State University} in 1988 which combines {functional programming}, {object-oriented programming}, relational, {imperative programming} and {logic programming} (you name it we got it). ["The Multiparadigm Language G", J. Placer, Computer Langs 16:235-258, 1991]. [{Jargon File}] (1996-08-12)

gandharva (gandharva; gundharva) ::: a kind of supernatural being, traditionally a celestial musician, belonging to a world of beauty and enjoyment; in the evolutionary scale, a sub-type of the deva type, imparting grace and refinement to lower types with which it is combined. gandharva-pasu

Gegenstandstheorie: (Ger. the theory of objects). It is the phenomenological investigation of various types of objects, existential and subsistential -- an object being defined in the widest sense as the terminus ad quem of any act of perceiving, thinking, willing or feeling. The theory was developed by H. Meinong under the influence of F. Brentano and is allied with the phenomonology of E. Husserl. See Phenomenology. -- L.W.

General Purpose Language (GPL) An {ALGOL 60} variant with user-definable types and operators. [Sammet 1969, p. 195]. ["The GPL Language", J.V. Garwick et al, TER-05, CDC, Palo Alto 1969].

genericity "programming" The possibility for a language to provided parameterised {modules} or types. E.g. List(of:Integer) or List(of:People). (1996-05-19)

generic programming "programming" A programming technique which aims to make programs more adaptable by making them more general. Generic programs often embody non-traditional kinds of {polymorphism}; ordinary programs are obtained from them by suitably instantiating their parameters. In contrast with normal programs, the parameters of a generic programs are often quite rich in structure. For example they may be other programs, {types} or {type constructors} or even programming {paradigms}. (1997-11-22)

generic type variable "programming" (Or "schematic type variable") In typed programming languages, a generic type variable is a {type variable} that may be instantiated to different types in different occurrences in a type expression. Thus, in the expression let id x = x in (id True, id 1) id's type is (for all a: a -" a). The universal {quantifier} "for all a:" means that a is a generic type variable. For the two uses of id, a is instantiated to Bool and Int. Compare this with let id x = x in let f g = (g True, g 1) in f id This looks similar but f has no legal {Hindley-Milner type}. If we say f :: (a -" b) -" (b, b) this would permit g's type to be any specific instance of (a -" b) rather than requiring it to be at least as general as (a -" b). Furthermore, it constrains both instances of g to have the same result type whereas they can not. The type variables a and b in the above are implicitly quantified at the top level: f :: for all a: for all b: (a -" b) -" (b, b) so instantiating them (removing the {quantifiers}) can only be done once, at the top level. To correctly describe the type of f requires that they be locally quantified: f :: ((for all a: a) -" (for all b: b)) -" (c, d) which means that each time g is applied, a and b may be instantiated differently. f's actual argument must have a type at least as general as ((for all a: a) -" (for all b: b)), and may not be some less general instance of this type. Type variables c and d are still implicitly quantified at the top level and, now that g's result type is a generic type variable, any types chosen for c and d are guaranteed to be instances of it. This type for f does not express the fact that b only needs to be at least as general as the types c and d. For example, if c and d were both Bool then any function of type (for all a: a -" Bool) would be a suitable argument to f but it would not match the above type for f. (2017-12-13)

Genres: Types of art to which special rules and independent developments were attributed. For example: in poetry -- epic, lyric, dramatic; in painting -- historic, portrait, landscape; in music -- oratorical, symphonic, operatic. -- L.V.

g file "messaging" (General file) A mid 1980s term for text files, usually short and unpublished found on {BBSs}. The g-files section on BBSs contain text files of general interest, viewable on-line; this is as opposed to files in the file transfer section, which are generally downloadable but not viewable on-line. When used on the {Internet}, this term generally refers to the types of file most often associated with old BBSs such as instructions on {phreak}ing or making bombs. (1996-06-20)

Glasgow Haskell Compiler "language" (GHC) A {Haskell} 1.2 compiler written in Haskell by the AQUA project at {Glasgow University}, headed by Simon Peyton Jones "" throughout the 1990's [started?]. GHC can generate either {C} or {native code} for {SPARC}, {DEC} {Alpha} and other platforms. It can take advantage of features of {gcc} such as global register variables and has an extensive set of optimisations. GHC features an extensible I/O system based on a "{monad}", in-line {C} code, fully fledged {unboxed} data types, incrementally-updatable {arrays}, {mutable reference types}, {generational garbage collector}, {concurrent} {threads}. Time and space {profiling} is also supported. It requires {GNU} gcc 2.1+ and {Perl}. GHC runs on {Sun-4}, {DEC Alpha}, {Sun-3}, {NeXT}, {DECstation}, {HP-PA} and {SGI}. {Glasgow FTP (}. {Yale (}. {Sweden (}. {Papers (}. ["Imperative functional programming", Peyton Jones & Wadler, POPL '93]. ["Unboxed data types as first-class citizens", Peyton Jones & Launchbury, FPCA '91]. ["Profiling lazy functional languages", Sansom & Peyton Jones, Glasgow workshop '92]. ["Implementing lazy functional languages on stock hardware", Peyton Jones, Journal of Functional Programming, Apr 1992]. E-mail: "". (1999-01-05)

Gnosis: (Gr. knowledge) Originally a generic term for knowledge, in the first and second centuries A.D. it came to mean an esoteric knowledge of higher religious and philosophic truths to be acquired by an elite group of intellectually developed believers. Philo Judaeus (30 B.C. to 50 A.D.) is a fore-runner of Jewish Gnosticism; the allegorical interpretation of the Old Testament, use of Greek philosophical concepts, particularly the Logos doctrine, in Biblical exegesis, and a semi-mystical number theory characterize his form of gnosis. Christian gnostics (Cerinthus, Menander, Saturninus, Valentine, Basilides, Ptolemaeus, and possibly Marcion) maintained that only those men who cultivated their spiritual powers were truly immortal, and they adopted the complicated teaching of a sphere of psychic intermediaries (aeons) between God and earthly things. There was also a pagan gnosis begun before Christ as a reformation of Greek and Roman religion. Philosophically, the only thing common to all types of gnosis is the effort to transcend rational, logical thought processes by means of intuition.

GNU assembler (GAS) A {Unix} {assembler} for the {GNU} project. Many {CPU} types are handled and {COFF} and {IEEE-695} formats are supported as well as standard {a.out}. Current version 2.2 ported to {Sun-3}, {Sun-4}, {i386}, {386BSD}, {BSD/386}, {Linux}, {PS/2-AIX}, {VAX}, {Ultrix}, {BSD}, {VMS}. The assembler has been merged with {GNU Binutils}. E-mail: "". (1995-04-18)

Gopher object type A character specifying how to display a {Gopher} document. Current types are: 0 document 1 menu 2 CSO phone book entity 3 error 4 binhex binary 5 DOS binary (deprecated) 6 UU binary (deprecated) 7 index search 8 telnet connection 9 binary + duplicate server for previous object I image M MIME document T tn3270 based telnet connection c cal g GIF image h HTML s binary u {Usenet} newsgroup (1999-10-14)

GRAF GRaphic Additions to Fortran. {Fortran} plus graphic data types. ["GRAF: Graphic Additions to Fortran", A. Hurwitz et al, Proc SJCC 30 (1967)]. [Sammet 1969, p. 674]. (1995-01-23)

Graphical Kernel System "graphics, standard" (GKS) The widely recognised standard {ANSI} X3.124 for graphical input/output. GKS is worked on by the {ISO}/{IEC} group {JTC1/SC24}. It provides applications programmers with standard methods of creating, manipulating, and displaying or printing computer graphics on different types of computer graphics {output devices}. It provides an abstraction to save programmers from dealing with the detailed capabilities and interfaces of specific hardware. GKS defines a basic two-dimensional graphics system with: uniform input and output {primitives}; a uniform interface to and from a {GKS metafile} for storing and transferring graphics information. It supports a wide range of graphics output devices including such as {printers}, {plotters}, {vector graphics} devices, {storage tubes}, {refresh displays}, {raster displays}, and {microfilm recorders}. (1999-04-01)

Great Runes Uppercase-only text or display messages. Some archaic {operating systems} still emit these. See also {runes}, {smash case}, {fold case}. Back in the days when it was the sole supplier of long-distance hardcopy transmision devices, the {Teletype Corporation} was faced with a major design choice. To shorten code lengths and cut complexity in the printing mechanism, it had been decided that {teletypes} would use a {monocase} {font}, either ALL UPPER or all lower. The Question Of The Day was therefore, which one to choose. A study was conducted on readability under various conditions of bad ribbon, worn print hammers, etc. Lowercase won; it is less dense and has more distinctive letterforms, and is thus much easier to read both under ideal conditions and when the letters are mangled or partly obscured. The results were filtered up through {management}. The chairman of Teletype killed the proposal because it failed one incredibly important criterion: "It would be impossible to spell the name of the Deity correctly." In this way (or so, at least, hacker folklore has it) superstition triumphed over utility. Teletypes were the major input devices on most early computers, and terminal manufacturers looking for corners to cut naturally followed suit until well into the 1970s. Thus, that one bad call stuck us with Great Runes for thirty years. (1994-12-02)

Greece. Homeric thought centered in Moira (Fate), an impersonal, immaterial power that distributes to gods and men their respective stations. While the main stream of pre-Socratic thought was naturalistic, it was not materialistic. The primordial Being of things, the Physis, is both extended and spiritual (hylozoism). Soul and Mind are invariably identified with Physis. Empedocles' distinction between inertia and force (Love and Hate) was followed by Anaxagoras' introduction of Mind (Nous) as the first cause of order and the principle of spontaneity or life in things. Socrates emphasized the ideological principle and introduced the category of Value as primary both in Nature and Man. He challenged the completeness of the mechanical explanation of natural events. Plato's theory of Ideas (as traditionally interpreted by historians) is at once a metaphysics, epistemology, and axiology. Ideas, forming a hierarchy and systematically united in the Good, are timeless essences comprising the realm of true Being. They are archetypes and causes of things in the realm of Non-Being (Space). Aristotle, while moving in the direction of common-sense realism, was also idealistic. Forms or species are secondary substances, and collectively form the dynamic and rational structure of the World. Active reason (Nous Poietikos), possessed by all rational creatures, is immaterial and eternal. Mind is the final cause of all motion. God is pure Mind, self-contained, self-centered, and metaphysically remote from the spatial World. The Stoics united idealism and hylozoistic naturalism in their doctrine of dynamic rational cosmic law (Logos), World Soul, Pneuma, and Providence (Pronoia).

Ground value ::: One of the three main types of value that holons possess, along with intrinsic and extrinsic value. Since all holons are equally perfect manifestations of Spirit, they all share an equal Ground value. See intrinsic value and extrinsic value.

Group 3 "protocol, compression" (G3) The {CCITT} fax {protocol} which uses data {compression} and allows a variety of file types (e.g. {electronic mail}, pictures, {PostScript}) to be transmitted over {analogue} telephone lines. The Group 3 protocol was published by {CCITT} in 1993. Full details of the protocol are available from {ITU-T}. See also {Group 4}. (1998-10-03)

Group 4 "protocol, compression" (G4) The {CCITT} fax {protocol} which uses data {compression} and allows a variety of file types (e-mail, pictures, {PostScript}, etc.) to be transmitted over digital ({ISDN}) telephone lines. The Group 4 protocol was published by {CCITT} in 1993. Full details of the protocol are available from {ITU-T}. See also {Group 3}. (1998-09-10)

Haskell "language" (Named after the logician {Haskell Curry}) A {lazy} {purely functional} language largely derived from {Miranda} but with several extensions. Haskell was designed by a committee from the {functional programming} community in April 1990. It features static {polymorphic} typing, {higher-order functions}, user-defined {algebraic data types}, and {pattern-matching} {list comprehensions}. Innovations include a {class} system, systematic operator {overloading}, a {functional I/O} system, functional {arrays}, and {separate compilation}. Haskell 1.3 added many new features, including {monadic I/O}, standard libraries, {constructor classes}, {labeled fields} in datatypes, {strictness} {annotations}, an improved {module} system, and many changes to the Prelude. {Gofer} is a cut-down version of Haskell with some extra features. {Filename extension}: .hs, .lhs ({literate programming}). {(}. ["Report on the Programming Language Haskell Version 1.1", Paul Hudak & P. Wadler eds, CS Depts, U Glasgow and Yale U., Aug 1991]. [Version 1.2: SIGPLAN Notices 27(5), Apr 1992]. {Haskell 1.3 Report (}. Mailing list: "". Yale Haskell - Version 2.0.6, Haskell 1.2 built on {Common Lisp}. {(}. Glasgow Haskell (GHC) - Version 2.04 for {DEC Alpha}/{OSF}2; {HPPA1.1}/{HPUX}9,10; {SPARC}/{SunOs} 4, {Solaris} 2; {MIPS}/{Irix} 5,6; {Intel 80386}/{Linux},{Solaris} 2,{FreeBSD},{CygWin} 32; {PowerPC}/{AIX}. GHC generates {C} or {native code}. {(}. E-mail: "". Haskell-B - Haskell 1.2 implemented in {LML}, generates {native code}. {(}. E-mail: "". (1997-06-06)

Hermes "language" An experimental, very high level, integrated language and system from the {IBM} {Watson Research Centre}, produced in June 1990. It is designed for implementation of large systems and distributed applications, as well as for general-purpose programming. It is an {imperative language}, {strongly typed} and is a {process-oriented} successor to {NIL}. Hermes hides distribution and heterogeneity from the programmer. The programmer sees a single {abstract machine} containing processes that communicate using calls or sends. The {compiler}, not the programmer, deals with the complexity of data structure layout, local and remote communication, and interaction with the {operating system}. As a result, Hermes programs are portable and easy to write. Because the programming paradigm is simple and high level, there are many opportunities for optimisation which are not present in languages which give the programmer more direct control over the machine. Hermes features {threads}, {relational tables}Hermes is, {typestate} checking, {capability}-based access and {dynamic configuration}. Version 0.8alpha patchlevel 01 runs on {RS/6000}, {Sun-4}, {NeXT}, {IBM-RT}/{BSD4.3} and includes a {bytecode compiler}, a bytecode-"C compiler and {run-time support}. {0.7alpha for Unix (}. E-mail: "", Andy Lowry "". {Usenet} newsgroup: {}. ["Hermes: A Language for Distributed Computing". Strom, Bacon, Goldberg, Lowry, Yellin, Yemini. Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ. 1991. ISBN: O-13-389537-8]. (1992-03-22)

Hierarchy of types: See Logic, formal, § 6. Hilbert, David, 1862-, German mathematician. Professor of mathematics at the University of Göttingen, 1895-. A major contributor to many branches of mathematics, he is regarded by many as the greatest mathematician of his generation. His work on the foundations of Euclidean geometry is contained in his Grundlagen der Geometrie (1st edn., 1899, 7th edn., 1930). Concerning his contributions to mathematical logic and mathematical philosophy, see the articles mathematics, and proof theory. -- A. C.

Histories of Ethics: H. Sidgwick, Outlines of the History of Ethics, Rev. Ed. 1931. Gives titles of the classical works in ethics in passing. C. D. Broad, Five Types of Ethical Theory, 1930.

Hocking, William Ernest: (1873) Professor in the Department of Philosophy at Harvard. Has endeavored to blend idealism vvith pragmatism while making some concessions to realism, even is in current theory he strives for a reconciliation between laissez faire liberalism and collectivism through a midground found in the worth of the individual in a "commotive union in the coagent state," a notion comparable to the "conjunct self" of George Herbert Palmer only with a more individualistic emphasis and a current flavor. Among his works are: The Meaning of God in Human Experience, Man and the State, Types of Philosophy, Lasting Elements of Individualism and Living Religions and a World Faith. -- L.E.D.

HPCode-Plus A descendant of {HPcode} with {data types}, developed to be an {ANDF} language. ["ANDF: Finally an UNCOL After 30 Years", M.E. Benitez, Jack Davidson "" et al, CS TR-91-05 U Virginia (Mar 1991)]. (1995-03-16)

Hylons: This name (combining the Greek words hyle matter and on being) was given by Mitterer to the heterogeneous subatomic and subelemental particles of matter (electrons, neutrons, protons, positrons) which enter into the composition of the elements without being elements themselves. The natural elements represent distinct types or species of natural bodies, while the hylons do not. These matter-particles have an important role in the exposition of the cosmological doctrine of hylosystemism. -- T.G.

IBM System/36 "computer" A mid-range {computer} introduced in 1983, which remained popular in the 1990s because of its low cost and high performance. Prices started in the $20k range for the small 5362 to $100+k for the expanded 5360. In 1994, IBM introduced the Advanced 36 for $9,000. The largest 5360 had 7MB of {RAM} and 1432MB of {hard disk}. The smallest 5362 had 256K of RAM and 30MB of hard disk. The Advanced 36 had 64MB of RAM and 4300MB of hard disk, but design issues limit the amount of storage that can actually be addressed by the {operating system}; underlying {microcode} allowed additional RAM to cache disk reads and writes, allowing the Advanced 36 to outperform the S/36 by 600 to 800%. There was only one operating system for the S/36: SSP ({System Support Product}). SSP consumed about 7-10MB of hard drive space. Computer programs on the S/36 reside in "libraries," and the SSP itself resides in a special system library called

ICI "language" An extensible, interpretated language by Tim Long with {syntax} similar to {C}. ICI adds high-level garbage-collected {associative} data structures, {exception} handling, sets, {regular expressions}, and {dynamic arrays}. Libraries provide additional types and functions to support common needs such as I/O, simple {databases}, character based screen handling, direct access to {system calls}, {safe pointers}, and {floating-point}. ICI runs on {Microsoft Windows}, {MS-DOS}, {Unix}, and {Linux} and in {embedded} environments. {(}. {(}. E-mail: Andy Newman "". Mailing list: (1999-12-07)

Icon "language" A descendant of {SNOBOL4} with {Pascal}-like syntax, produced by Griswold in the 1970's. Icon is a general-purpose language with special features for string scanning. It has dynamic types: records, sets, lists, strings, tables. If has some {object oriented} features but no {modules} or {exceptions}. It has a primitive {Unix} interface. The central theme of Icon is the generator: when an expression is evaluated it may be suspended and later resumed, producing a result sequence of values until it fails. Resumption takes place implicitly in two contexts: iteration which is syntactically loop-like ('every-do'), and goal-directed evaluation in which a conditional expression automatically attempts to produce at least one result. Expressions that fail are used in lieu of Booleans. Data {backtracking} is supported by a reversible {assignment}. Icon also has {co-expressions}, which can be explicitly resumed at any time. Version 8.8 by Ralph Griswold "" includes an {interpreter}, a compiler (for some {platforms}) and a library (v8.8). Icon has been ported to {Amiga}, {Atari}, {CMS}, {Macintosh}, {Macintosh/MPW}, {MS-DOS}, {MVS}, {OS/2}, {Unix}, {VMS}, {Acorn}. See also {Ibpag2}. {(}, {MS-DOS FTP ( norman/}. {Usenet} newsgroup: {news:comp.lang.icon}. E-mail: "", "". Mailing list: ["The Icon Programmming Language", Ralph E. Griswold and Madge T. Griswold, Prentice Hall, seond edition, 1990]. ["The Implementation of the Icon Programmming Language", Ralph E. Griswold and Madge T. Griswold, Princeton University Press 1986]. (1992-08-21)

Idea: (Gr. idea) This term has enjoyed historically a considerable diversity of usage. In pre-Platonic Greek: form, semblance, nature, fashion or mode, class or species. Plato (and Socrates): The Idea is a timeless essence or universal, a dynamic and creative archetype of existents. The Ideas comprise a hierarchy and an organic unity in the Good, and are ideals as patterns of existence and as objects of human desire. The Stoics: Ideas are class concepts in the human mind. Neo-Platonism: Ideas are archetypes of things considered as in cosmic Mind (Nous or Logos). Early Christianity and Scholasticism: Ideas are archetypes eternally subsistent in the mind of God. 17th Century: Following earlier usage, Descartes generally identified ideas with subjective, logical concepts of the human mind. Ideas were similarly treated as subjective or mental by Locke, who identified them with all objects of consciousness. Simple ideas, from which, by combination, all complex ideas are derived, have their source either in sense perception or "reflection" (intuition of our own being and mental processes). Berkeley: Ideas are sense objects or perceptions, considered either as modes of the human soul or as a type of mind-dependent being. Concepts derived from objects of intuitive introspection, such as activity, passivity, soul, are "notions." Hume: An Idea is a "faint image" or memory copy of sense "impressions." Kant: Ideas are concepts or representations incapable of adequate subsumption under the categories, which escape the limits of cognition. The ideas of theoretical or Pure Reason are ideals, demands of the human intellect for the absolute, i.e., the unconditioned or the totality of conditions of representation. They include the soul, Nature and God. The ideas of moral or Practical Reason include God, Freedom, and Immortality. The ideas of Reason cannot be sensuously represented (possess no "schema"). Aesthetic ideas are representations of the faculty of imagination to which no concept can be adequate.

IDEAL 1. Ideal DEductive Applicative Language. A language by Pier Bosco and Elio Giovannetti combining {Miranda} and {Prolog}. Function definitions can have a {guard} condition (introduced by ":-") which is a conjunction of equalities between arbitrary terms, including functions. These guards are solved by normal {Prolog} {resolution} and {unification}. It was originally compiled into {C-Prolog} but was eventually to be compiled to {K-leaf}. 2. A numerical {constraint} language written by Van Wyk of {Stanford} in 1980 for {typesetting} graphics in documents. It was inspired partly by {Metafont} and is distributed as part of {Troff}. ["A High-Level Language for Specifying Pictures", C.J. Van Wyk, ACM Trans Graphics 1(2):163-182 (Apr 1982)]. (1994-12-15)

Identity, law of: Given by traditional logicians as "A is A." Because of the various possible meanings of the copula (q.v.) and the uncertainty as to the range of the variable A, this formulation is ambiguous. The traditional law is perhaps best identified with the theorem x = x, either of the functional calculus of first order with equality, or in the theory of types (with equality defined), or in the algebra of classes, etc. It has been, or may be, also identified with either of the theorems of the propositional calculus, p ⊃ p, p ≡ p, or with the theorem of the functional calculus of first order, F(x) ⊃x F(x). Many writers understand, however, by the law of identity a semantical principle -- that a word or other symbol may (or must) have a fixed referent in its various occurrences in a given context (so, e.g., Ledger Wood in his The Analysis of Knowledge). Some, it would seem, confuse such a semantical principle with a proposition of formal logic. -- A.C.

If the psychologist, having isolated some instance of subjectivity, considers it only as a purely possible example of subjectivity in some possible world, he is effecting a further, so-called eidetic, reduction of the psychic and is in the position to develop an eidetically pure phenomenological psychology or (as Husserl also called it) an eidetic psychological phenomenology. He can discover, not merely empirical types but essential psychic possibilities, impossibilities, and necessities, in any possible world. Moieover, eidetic reduction can be performed, not only on the psychic but also on any other abstractive region of the world, e.g., the physical, the concretely psychophysical, the cultural. We can develop purely eidetic sciences of every material region (material ontologies), an eidetic science of the formally universal region, "something or other" (formal ontology, the formal logic of possible being), and finally in all-embracing science of the essential (formal and material) compossibilities and non-compossibilities in any possible concrete world. An eidetic psychological phenomenology would thus become coordinated in a universal eidetic science of worldly being.

Individual: In formal logic, the individuals form the first or lowest type of Russell's hierarchy of types. In the Principia Mathematica of Whitehead and Russell, individuals are "defined as whatever is neither a proposition nor a function." It is unnecessary, however, to give the word any such special significance, and for many purposes it is better (as is often done) to take the individuals to be an arbitrary -- or an arbitrary infinite -- domain, or any particular well-defined domain may be taken as the domain of individuals, according to the purpose in hand. When used in this way, the term domain of individuals may be taken as synonymous with the term universe of discourse (in the sense of Boole) which is employed in connection with the algebra of classes. See Logic, formal, §§ 3, 6, 7. -- A.C.

Individual Psychology: (a) In the widest sense, individual psychology is one of the major departments of psychology, comparable to such other major subdivisions as experimental psychology, abnormal psychology, comparative psychology, etc. It is the branch of psychology devoted to the investigation of mental variations among individuals and includes such topics as: character and temperament (see Characterology) mental types, genius, criminality, intelligence, testing, etc. Attention was frst directed to individual differences by Francis Galton (Hereditary Genius, 1869). Galton's method was applied to mental deficiency by Dugdale (The Jukes, 1877) and Galton himself extended the same type of inquiry to free association and imagery in Inquiries into Human Faculty, 1883. A more recent contribution to individual psychology is Cattell's American Men of Science (1906).

Information and Communication Technology "education" (ICT) The study of the technology used to handle information and aid communication. The phrase was coined by [?] Stevenson in his 1997 report to the UK government and promoted by the new National Curriculum documents for the UK in 2000. In addition to the subjects included in {Information Technology} (IT), ICT emcompasses areas such as {telephony}, {broadcast media} and all types of {audio} and {video} processing and transmission. {(}. (2008-09-19)

Initial Operational Test and Evaluation "testing" (IOT&E) The first phase of {operational test} and evaluation conducted on {pre-protectional} items, {prototypes}, or pilot production items and normally completed prior to the first major production decision. Conducted to provide a valid estimate of expected system operational effectiveness and suitability. (1996-12-27)

In legal philosophy (q.v.): That trend in Legal Philosophy which confines itself to positive law i.e. the law that actually is valid in a certain country at a certain time. It excludes any higher law such as natural law, sometimes even any evaluation of positive law. The Allgemeine Rechtslehre (general theory of law) in Germany, analytical jurisprudence in England, the "pure theory of law" and American legal realism are types of legal positivism. See Legal Philosophy. -- W.E.

In many (interpreted) logistic systems -- including such as contain, with their usual interpretations, the Zermelo set theory, or the simple theory of types with axiom of infinity, or the functional calculus of second order with addition of Peano's postulates for arithmetic -- it is impossible without contradiction to introduce the numerical name relation with its natural properties, because Grelling's paradox or similar paradoxes would result (see paradoxes, logical). The same can be said of the semantical name relation in cases where symbols for formulas are present.

In modern thought, two general types of usage are discernible. In the empirical tradition. the notion of thing and properties continues the meaning of independence as expressed in first substance. Under the impact of physical science, the notion of thing and its properties tends to dissolve. Substance becomes substratum as that in which properties and qualities inhere. The critique of Berkeley expressed the resultant dilemma: either sub-stratum is property-less and quality-less, and so is nothing at all, or else it signifies the systematic and specific coherence of properties and qualities, and so substance or sub-stratum is merely the thing of common sense. Within science 'first substance' persists as the ultimate discrete particle with respect to which spatial and temporal coordinates are assigned. Within empirical philosophical thought the element of meaning described as 'independence' tends to be resolved into the order and coherence of experience.

In particular, it is normally possible -- at least it does not obviously lead to contradiction in the case of such systems as the Zermelo set theory or the simple theory of types (functional calculus of order omega) with axiom of infinity -- to extend a system L1 into a system L2 (the semantics of L1 in the sense of Tarski), so that L2 shall contain symbols for the formulas of L1, and for the essential syntactical relations between formulas of L1, and for a relation which functions as a name relation as regards all the formulas of L1 (or, in the case of the theory of types, one such relation for each type), together with appropriate new primitive formulas. Then L2 may be similarly extended into L3, and so on through a hierarchy of systems each including the preceding one as a part.

instantiation "programming" Producing a more defined version of some object by replacing variables with values (or other variables). 1. In {object-oriented programming}, producing a particular {object} from its {class template}. This involves allocation of a structure with the types specified by the template, and initialisation of {instance variables} with either default values or those provided by the class's {constructor} function. 2. In {logic programming}, when {unification} binds a {logic variable} to some value. 3. In {type checking}, when {type inference} binds a {type variable} to some type. 4. "multimedia" A specific representation of an object or artifact. Examples of instantiations would be different images of an object, text translated into English and French or a {video} and a still image of a museum piece. (2015-02-08)

Integral Life Practice (ILP) ::: The practice of body, mind, and spirit in self, culture, and nature. The personal expression of the AQAL framework. A modular and scalable approach to personal and professional growth. ILP focuses on tailoring a customized approach to the quadrants, levels, lines, states, or types of one’s own potential.

(Integral) psychograph ::: A representation of the unique constellation of levels and lines (as well as states and types) within an individual. The AQAL matrix as it appears in an individual, with particular reference to the Upper-Left quadrant.

Internet Assigned Numbers Authority "body, networking" (IANA) The central registry for various "{assigned numbers}": {Internet Protocol} parameters, such as {port}, {protocol}, and {enterprise} numbers; and options, codes, and types. The currently assigned values are listed in the "Assigned Numbers" document {STD 2}. To request a number assignment, e-mail "". (1994-12-06)

In the Frege-Russell derivation of arithmetic from logic (see the article Mathematics) necessity for the postulates of Peano is avoided. If based on the theory of types, however, this derivation requires some form of the axiom of infinity -- which may be regarded as a residuum of the Peano postulates.

In this broad sense contingency appears always to imply a reference to some basis in relation to which a given thing may be said to be contingent, and in view of the two referents most commonly employed it is possible to distinguish two chief types: (1) logical contingency, and (2) physical contingency. The first is contingency with respect to the laws of logic, the second contingency with respect to the laws of nature. A given state of affairs, e.g., the existence of a snowflake with a given shape, is logically contingent in that the laws of logic do not suffice to establish that such a thing does or does not exist. This same state of affairs would not ordinarily be held to be physically contingent, however, for, although the laws of nature alone do not suffice to determine that there is such a snowflake, still it would be held on the general hypothesis of determinism that, given the specific conditions under which the water was frozen, it was determined by physical laws that a snowflake would exist and that it would have this shape and no other.

intrinsic value ::: One of three main types of value that holons possess, along with extrinsic and Ground value. Refers to the wholeness of a holon. The greater the depth of a holon, the greater its intrinsic value and its significance. A deer, for example, due to a richer interior, has more intrinsic value than an atom and is therefore more significant than an atom. But the atom has a greater extrinsic value than the deer and is thus more fundamental. See extrinsic value and Ground value.

Introspection: (Lat. intro, within + spicere, to look) Observation directed upon the self or its mental states and operations. The term is the modern equivalent of "reflection" and "inner sense" as employed by Locke and Kant. Two types of introspection may be distinguished: (a) the direct scrutiny of conscious states and processes at the time of their occurrence (See Inspection), and (b) the recovery of past states and processes by a retrospective act. -- L.W.

ISO 9000 A set of international {standards} for both quality management and quality assurance that has been adopted by over 90 countries worldwide. The ISO 9000 standards apply to all types of organisations, large and small, and in many industries. The standards require: standard language for documenting quality processes; system to manage evidence that these practices are instituted throughout an organisation; and third-party auditing to review, certify, and maintain certification of organisations. The ISO 9000 series classifies products into generic product categories: hardware, software, processed materials, and services. Documentation is at the core of ISO 9000 conformance. In fact, the standards have been paraphrased as: "Say what you do. Do what you say. Write it down." In Britain it is associated with BS5750 which may become obsolete. ["The ISO 9000 Guide," c. 1993 Interleaf, Inc]. (1995-01-30)

isvara (ishwara) ::: the isvara in his four personalities, usually referred to in the Record of Yoga as Mahavira, Balarama, Pradyumna and Aniruddha, to whom correspond the four aspects of his sakti and the four psychological types of the caturvarn.ya; each of these personalities is not a separate deity, but an aspect of the isvara or Kr.s.n.a, "Four who are One, One who is Four", often combined with one or more of the other three aspects. Sri Aurobindo adapted the Vaishnava tradition of the caturvyūha (fourfold manifestation of the purus.ottama) in giving to the four aspects names associated with Kr.s.n.a as an avatara.Mahavira ("the great hero") designates Śrikr.s.n.a himself, Balarama was his elder brother, Pradyumna his son and Aniruddha his grandson; they figure together in the legend of Us.a and Aniruddha told in the Bhagavata Puran.a. Other names that are sometimes used in the Record of Yoga for these aspects of the isvara are Mahesvara or Śiva for the first aspect (Mahavira), Rudra2 for the second (Balarama) and Vis.n.u for the third (Pradyumna). full dras drasta

ISWIM "language" (If You See What I Mean) An influential but unimplemented computer programming language described in the article by {Peter J. Landin} cited below. Landin attempted to capture all known programming language concepts, including {assignment} and control operators such as {goto} and {coroutines}, within a single {lambda calculus} based framework. ISWIM is an {imperative language} with a functional core, consisting of {sugared} {lambda calculus} plus {mutable variables} and {assignment}. A powerful control mechanism, Landin's {J operator}, enables capture of the current {continuation} (the {call/cc} operator of {Scheme} is a simplified version). Being based on lambda calculus ISWIM had {higher order functions} and {lexically scoped} variables. The {operational semantics} of ISWIM are defined using Landin's {SECD machine} and use {call-by-value} ({eager evaluation}). To make ISWIM look more like mathematical notation, Landin replaced {ALGOL}'s semicolons and begin end blocks with the {off-side rule} and scoping based on indentation. An ISWIM program is a single {expression} qualified by "where" clauses (auxiliary definitions including equations among variables), conditional expressions and function definitions. With {CPL}, ISWIM was one of the first programming languages to use "where" clauses. New {data types} could be defined as a (possibly recursive) {sum of products} like the {algebraic data types} found in modern functional languages. ISWIM variables were probably {dynamically typed} but Landin may have planned some form of {type inference}. Concepts from ISWIM appear in Art Evan's {PAL} and John Reynold's {Gedanken}, Milner's {ML} and purely functional languages with lazy evaluation like {SASL}, {Miranda} and {Haskell}. [{"The Next 700 Programming Languages" (}, P.J. Landin, CACM 9(3):157-166, Mar 1966]. (2007-03-20)

Java Message Service "programming, messaging" (JMS) An {API} for accessing enterprise messaging systems from {Java} programs. Java Message Service, part of the {J2EE} suite, provides standard APIs that Java developers can use to access the common features of enterprise message systems. JMS supports the {publish/subscribe} and {point-to-point} models and allows the creation of message types consisting of arbitrary Java objects. JMS provides support for administration, security, error handling, and recovery, optimisation, distributed transactions, message ordering, message acknowledgment, and more. {(}. {Overview (}. (2001-06-22)

Java "programming, language" An {object-oriented}, {distributed}, {interpreted}, {architecture-neutral}, {portable}, {multithreaded}, dynamic, buzzword-compliant, general-purpose programming language developed by {Sun Microsystems} in the early 1990s (initially for set-top television controllers) and released to the public in 1995. Java was named after the Indonesian island, a source of {programming fluid}. Java first became popular as the earliest portable dynamic client-side content for the {web} in the form of {platform}-independent {Java applets}. In the late 1990s and into the 2000s it also became very popular on the server side, where an entire set of {APIs} defines the {J2EE}. Java is both a set of public specifications (controlled by {Oracle}, who bought {Sun Microsystems}, through the {JCP}) and a series of implementations of those specifications. Java is syntactially similar to {C++} without user-definable {operator overloading}, (though it does have {method} overloading), without {multiple inheritance} and extensive automatic {coercions}. It has automatic {garbage collection}. Java extends {C++}'s {object-oriented} facilities with those of {Objective C} for {dynamic method resolution}. Whereas programs in C++ and similar languages are compiled and linked to platform-specific binary executables, Java programs are typically compiled to portable {architecture-neutral} {bytecode} ".class" files, which are run using a {Java Virtual Machine}. The JVM is also called an {interpreter}, though it is more correct to say that it uses {Just-In-Time Compilation} to convert the {bytecode} into {native} {machine code}, yielding greater efficiency than most interpreted languages, rivalling C++ for many long-running, non-GUI applications. The run-time system is typically written in {POSIX}-compliant {ANSI C} or {C++}. Some implementations allow Java class files to be translated into {native} {machine code} during or after compilation. The Java compiler and {linker} both enforce {strong type checking} - procedures must be explicitly typed. Java aids in the creation of {virus}-free, tamper-free systems with {authentication} based on {public-key encryption}. Java has an extensive library of routines for all kinds of programming tasks, rivalling that of other languages. For example, the {} package supports {TCP/IP} {protocols} like {HTTP} and {FTP}. Java applications can access objects across the {Internet} via {URLs} almost as easily as on the local {file system}. There are also capabilities for several types of distributed applications. The Java {GUI} libraries provide portable interfaces. For example, there is an abstract {Window} class with implementations for {Unix}, {Microsoft Windows} and the {Macintosh}. The {java.awt} and {javax.swing} classes can be used either in web-based {Applets} or in {client-side applications} or {desktop applications}. There are also packages for developing {XML} applications, {web services}, {servlets} and other web applications, {security}, date and time calculations and I/O formatting, database ({JDBC}), and many others. Java is not related to {JavaScript} despite the name. {(}. (2011-08-21)

Johnson recognizes two fundamentally distinct types of continuant: physical and psychical, -- the "occupant" (of space), and the "experient". -- F.L.W.

Joint Photographic Experts Group "image, body, file format, standard" (JPEG) The original name of the committee that designed the standard {image} {compression} {algorithm}. JPEG is designed for compressing either {full-colour} or {grey-scale} {digital} images of "natural", real-world scenes. It does not work so well on non-realistic images, such as cartoons or line drawings. JPEG does not handle compression of black-and-white (1 bit-per-pixel) images or {moving pictures}. Standards for compressing those types of images are being worked on by other committees, named {JBIG} and {MPEG}. {(}. {Filename extension}: .jpg, .jpeg. See also {PJPEG}. (2000-09-11)

Joy "language" A {functional programming} language by Manfred von Thun. Joy is unusual because it is not based on {lambda calculus}, but on the {composition} of {functions}. Functions take a stack as argument, consume any number of parameters from it, and return it with any number of results on it. The concatenation of programs denotes the composition of functions. One of the datatypes of Joy is that of quoted programs, of which lists are a special case. {Joy Home (}. (2003-06-13)

Jung. C. G.: (1875-) Exponent of a type of psychoanalysis (see Psycho-analysis) known as "analytic psychology", which has close affinities with Freudianism (see Freud, Sigmund) and with individual psychology (see Adler, Alfred). Jung employed Freud's methods of free association and dream analysis but emphasized his own method of word-association. He differed from Freud in (a) minimizing the role of sex, and (b) emphasizing present conflict rather than childhood complexes in the explanation of neuroses. Jung is also known for his classification of psychological types as introverts and extroverts. Cf. Jung's Psychological Types. -- L.W.

karanajagat ::: the world of types and causes.

Knowbot Information Service "networking, information science" (KIS) Also known as netaddress. The Knowbot Information Service (KIS) provides a uniform user interface to a variety of {remote directory services} such as {whois}, {finger}, {X.500}, {MCIMail}. By submitting a single query to KIS, a user can search a set of remote {white pages} services and see the results of the search in a uniform format. There are several interfaces to the KIS service including {electronic mail} and {telnet}. Another KIS interface imitates the Berkeley {whois} command. KIS consists of two distinct types of modules which interact with each other (typically across a network) to provide the service. One module is a user agent module that runs on the KIS mail host machine. The second module is a remote server module (possibly on a different machine) that interrogates various database services across the network and provides the results to the user agent module in a uniform fashion. Interactions between the two modules can be via messages between Knowbots or by actual movement of Knowbots. There are electronic mail interfaces for KIS at the hosts and Send a message containing just the word "man" to "" or "". Telnet: port 185.

lambda-calculus "mathematics" (Normally written with a Greek letter lambda). A branch of mathematical logic developed by {Alonzo Church} in the late 1930s and early 1940s, dealing with the application of {functions} to their arguments. The {pure lambda-calculus} contains no constants - neither numbers nor mathematical functions such as plus - and is untyped. It consists only of {lambda abstractions} (functions), variables and applications of one function to another. All entities must therefore be represented as functions. For example, the natural number N can be represented as the function which applies its first argument to its second N times ({Church integer} N). Church invented lambda-calculus in order to set up a foundational project restricting mathematics to quantities with "{effective procedures}". Unfortunately, the resulting system admits {Russell's paradox} in a particularly nasty way; Church couldn't see any way to get rid of it, and gave the project up. Most {functional programming} languages are equivalent to lambda-calculus extended with constants and types. {Lisp} uses a variant of lambda notation for defining functions but only its {purely functional} subset is really equivalent to lambda-calculus. See {reduction}. (1995-04-13)

LaTeX "language, text, tool" (Lamport TeX) Leslie Lamport ""'s document preparation system built on top of {TeX}. LaTeX was developed at {SRI International}'s Computer Science Laboratory and was built to resemble {Scribe}. LaTeX adds commands to simplify typesetting and lets the user concentrate on the structure of the text rather than on formatting commands. {BibTeX} is a LaTeX package for bibliographic citations. Lamport's LaTeX book has an exemplary index listing every symbol, concept and example in the book. The index in the, now obsolete, first edition includes (on page 221) the mysterious entry "Gilkerson, Ellen, 221". The second edition (1994) has an entry for "{infinite loop}" instead. ["LaTeX, A Document Preparation System", Leslie Lamport, A-W 1986, ISBN 0-201-15790-X (first edition, now obsolete)]. (1997-11-17)

L. Chwistek, The theory of constructive types, Annales de la Societe Polonaise de Mathematique, vol. 2 (1924), pp. 9-48, and vol. 3 (1925), pp. 92-141.

lclint "tool, programming" A lint-like {ANSI C} source checker from {MIT}. If formal specifications are supplied (in a separate file), lclint can do more powerful checking to detect inconsistencies between specifications and code. Adding specifications enables further checking, types can be defined as {abstract} and lclint can detect inconsistent use of {global variables}; undocumented modification of client-visible state; inconsistent use of an uninitialised {formal parameter}; or failure to initialise an actual parameter. {(}. (1995-05-11)

LEDA {Library of Efficient Data types and Algorithms}

letterpress ::: n. --> Print; letters and words impressed on paper or other material by types; -- often used of the reading matter in distinction from the illustrations.

Liana "language" A {C}-like, interpretive, {object-oriented programming} language, {class} library, and integrated development environment designed specifically for development of {application programs} for {Microsoft Windows} and {Windows NT}. Designed by Jack Krupansky "" of {Base Technology}, Liana was first released as a commercial product in August 1991. The language is designed to be as easy to use as {BASIC}, as concise as {C}, and as flexible as {Smalltalk}. The {OOP} {syntax} of {C++} was chosen over the less familiar syntax of {Smalltalk} and {Objective-C} to appeal to {C} programmers and in recognition of C++ being the leading OOP language. The syntax is a simplified subset of {C/C++}. The {semantics} are also a simplified subset of C/C++, but extended to achieve the flexibility of Smalltalk. Liana is a typeless language (like {Lisp}, {Snobol} and {Smalltalk}), which means that the datatypes of variables, function parameters, and function return values are not needed since values carry the type information. Hence, variables are simply containers for values and function parameters are simply pipes through which any type of value can flow. {Single inheritance}, but not {multiple inheritance}, is supported. {Memory management} is automatic using {reference counting}. The library includes over 150 {classes}, for {dynamic arrays}, {associative lookup} tables, windows, menus, dialogs, controls, bitmaps, cursors, icons, mouse movement, keyboard input, fonts, text and graphics display, {DDE}, and {MDI}. Liana provides flexible OOP support for Windows programming. For example, a {list box} automatically fills itself from an associated {object}. That object is not some sort of special object, but is merely any object that "behaves like" an array (i.e., has a "size" member function that returns the number of elements, a "get" function that returns the ith element, and the text for each element is returned by calling the "text" member function for the element). A related product, C-odeScript, is an embeddable application scripting language. It is an implementation of Liana which can be called from C/C++ applications to dynamically evaluate expressions and statement sequences. This can be used to offer the end-user a macro/scripting capability or to allow the C/C++ application to be customized without changing the C/C++ source code. Here's a complete Liana program which illustrates the flexibility of the language semantics and the power of the class library: main {  // Prompt user for a string.  // No declaration needed for "x" (becomes a global variable.)  x = ask ("Enter a String");  // Use "+" operator to concatenate strings. Memory  // management for string temporaries is automatic. The  // "message" function displays a Windows message box.  message ("You entered: " + x);  // Now x will take on a different type. The "ask_number"  // function will return a "real" if the user's input  // contains a decimal point or an "int" if no decimal  // point.  x = ask_number ("Enter a Number");  // The "+" operator with a string operand will  // automatically convert the other operand to a string.  message ("You entered: " + x);  // Prompt user for a Liana expression. Store it in a  // local variable (the type, string, is merely for  // documentation.)  string expr = ask ("Enter an Expression");  // Evaluate the expression. The return value of "eval"  // could be any type. The "source_format" member function  // converts any value to its source format (e.g., add  // quotes for a string.) The "class_name" member function  // return the name of the class of an object/value.  // Empty parens can be left off for member function calls.  x = eval (expr);  message ("The value of " + expr + " is " + x.source_format +    " its type is " + x.class_name); } The author explained that the "Li" of Liana stands for "Language interpreter" and liana are vines that grow up trees in tropical forests, which seemed quite appropriate for a tool to deal with the complexity of MS Windows! It is also a woman's name. ["Liana for Windows", Aitken, P., PC TECHNIQUES, Dec/Jan 1993]. ["Liana: A Language For Writing Windows Programs", Burk, R., Tech Specialist (R&D Publications), Sep 1991]. ["Liana v. 1.0." Hildebrand, J.D., Computer Language, Dec 1992]. ["Liana: A Windows Programming Language Based on C and C++", Krupansky, J., The C Users Journal, Jul 1992]. ["Writing a Multimedia App in Liana", Krupansky, J., Dr. Dobb's Journal, Winter Multimedia Sourcebook 1994]. ["The Liana Programming Language", R. Valdes, Dr Dobbs J Oct 1993, pp.50-52]. (1999-06-29)

Library of Efficient Data types and Algorithms "library" (LEDA) A {class library} for {C++} of efficient data types (e.g. {graph} {classes}) and {algorithms} by Stefan N"aher "" of the {University of Saarbruecken}. Version 3.0 includes both {template} and non-template versions. {(}. (1996-04-15)

Lightweight Directory Access Protocol "protocol" (LDAP) A {protocol} for accessing on-line {directory services}. LDAP was defined by the {IETF} in order to encourage adoption of {X.500} directories. The {Directory Access Protocol} (DAP) was seen as too complex for simple {internet clients} to use. LDAP defines a relatively simple protocol for updating and searching directories running over {TCP/IP}. LDAP is gaining support from vendors such as {Netscape}, {Novell}, {Sun}, {HP}, {IBM}/Lotus, {SGI}, {AT&T}, and {Banyan} An LDAP directory entry is a collection of attributes with a name, called a distinguished name (DN). The DN refers to the entry unambiguously. Each of the entry's attributes has a {type} and one or more values. The types are typically mnemonic strings, like "cn" for common name, or "mail" for {e-mail address}. The values depend on the type. For example, a mail attribute might contain the value "". A jpegPhoto attribute would contain a photograph in binary {JPEG}/{JFIF} format. LDAP directory entries are arranged in a {hierarchical} structure that reflects political, geographic, and/or organisational boundaries. Entries representing countries appear at the top of the tree. Below them are entries representing states or national organisations. Below them might be entries representing people, organisational units, printers, documents, or just about anything else. {RFC 1777}, {RFC 1778}, {RFC 1959}, {RFC 1960}, {RFC 1823}. {LDAP v3 (}. [Difference v1, v2, v3?] (2003-09-27)

linear type 1. "theory, programming" An attribute of values which are used exactly once: they are neither duplicated nor destroyed. Such values require no {garbage collection}, and can safely be updated in place, even if they form part of a data structure. Linear types are related to the {linear logic} of J.-Y Girard. They extend Schmidt's notion of {single threading}, provide an alternative to Hudak and Bloss' {update analysis}, and offer a practical complement to Lafont and Holmström's elegant {linear languages}. ['Use-Once' Variables and Linear Objects - Storage Management, Reflection and Multi-Threading, Henry Baker. {(}]. ["Linear types can change the world!", Philip Wadler, "Programming Concepts and Methods", April 1990, eds. M. Broy, C. Jones, pub. North-Holland, IFIP TC2 Working Conference on Programming Concepts and Methods, Sea of Galilee, Israel]. (1995-03-03)

lines ::: Relatively independent streams or capacities that proceed through levels of development. Howard Gardner’s theory of Multiple Intelligences is one example of the study of developmental lines. There is evidence for over a dozen developmental lines, including cognitive, moral, self-identity, aesthetic, kinesthetic, linguistic, musical, and mathematical. Integral Theory generally classifies these lines according to one of three types: cognitive lines (as studied by Jean Piaget, Robert Kegan, Kurt Fischer, etc.); selfrelated lines (e.g., morals, self-identity, needs, etc.); and capacities or talents (e.g., musical capacity, kinesthetic capacity, introspective capacity). Cognitive development is necessary but not sufficient for development in the self-related lines and appears to be necessary for most of the capacities.

LISP 2 {LISP 1.5} with an {ALGOL 60}-like surface syntax. Also optional type declarations, new data types including integer-indexed {arrays} and character strings, partial-word extraction/insertion operators and {macros}. A {pattern-matching} facility similar to {COMIT} was proposed. Implemented for the {Q-32} computer. ["The LISP 2 Programming Language and System", P.W. Abrahams et al, Proc FJCC 29:661-676, AFIPS (Fall 1966).]

Lisp "language" LISt Processing language. (Or mythically "Lots of Irritating Superfluous Parentheses"). {Artificial Intelligence}'s mother tongue, a symbolic, {functional}, {recursive} language based on the ideas of {lambda-calculus}, variable-length lists and trees as fundamental data types and the interpretation of code as data and vice-versa. Data objects in Lisp are lists and {atoms}. Lists may contain lists and atoms. Atoms are either numbers or symbols. Programs in Lisp are themselves lists of symbols which can be treated as data. Most implementations of Lisp allow functions with {side-effects} but there is a core of Lisp which is {purely functional}. All Lisp functions and programs are expressions that return values; this, together with the high memory use of Lisp, gave rise to {Alan Perlis}'s famous quip (itself a take on an Oscar Wilde quote) that "Lisp programmers know the value of everything and the cost of nothing". The original version was {LISP 1}, invented by {John McCarthy} "" at {MIT} in the late 1950s. Lisp is actually older than any other {high level language} still in use except {Fortran}. Accordingly, it has undergone considerable change over the years. Modern variants are quite different in detail. The dominant {HLL} among hackers until the early 1980s, Lisp now shares the throne with {C}. See {languages of choice}. One significant application for Lisp has been as a proof by example that most newer languages, such as {COBOL} and {Ada}, are full of unnecessary {crocks}. When the {Right Thing} has already been done once, there is no justification for {bogosity} in newer languages. See also {Association of Lisp Users}, {Common Lisp}, {Franz Lisp}, {MacLisp}, {Portable Standard Lisp}, {Interlisp}, {Scheme}, {ELisp}, {Kamin's interpreters}. [{Jargon File}] (1995-04-16)

list comprehension "functional programming" An expression in a {functional language} denoting the results of some operation on (selected) elements of one or more lists. An example in {Haskell}: [ (x,y) | x "- [1 .. 6], y "- [1 .. x], x+y " 10] This returns all pairs of numbers (x,y) where x and y are elements of the list 1, 2, ..., 10, y "= x and their sum is less than 10. A list comprehension is simply "{syntactic sugar}" for a combination of applications of the functions, concat, map and filter. For instance the above example could be written: filter p (concat (map (\ x -" map (\ y -" (x,y)) [1..x]) [1..6])) where p (x,y) = x+y " 10 According to a note by Rishiyur Nikhil "", (August 1992), the term itself seems to have been coined by Phil Wadler circa 1983-5, although the programming construct itself goes back much further (most likely Jack Schwartz and the SETL language). The term "list comprehension" appears in the references below. The earliest reference to the notation is in Rod Burstall and John Darlington's description of their language, NPL. David Turner subsequently adopted this notation in his languages SASL, KRC and Miranda, where he has called them "{ZF expressions}", set abstractions and list abstractions (in his 1985 FPCA paper [Miranda: A Non-Strict Functional Language with Polymorphic Types]). ["The OL Manual" Philip Wadler, Quentin Miller and Martin Raskovsky, probably 1983-1985]. ["How to Replace Failure by a List of Successes" FPCA September 1985, Nancy, France, pp. 113-146]. (1995-02-22)

list "data" A data structure holding many values, possibly of different types, which is usually accessed sequentially, working from the head to the end of the tail - an "ordered list". This contrasts with a (one-dimensional) {array}, any element of which can be accessed equally quickly. Lists are often stored using a cell and pointer arrangement where each value is stored in a cell along with an associated pointer to the next cell. A special pointer, e.g. zero, marks the end of the list. This is known as a (singly) "linked list". A doubly linked list has pointers from each cell to both next and previous cells. An unordered list is a {set}. (1998-11-12)

Logical Interchange Format "file format, file system" (LIF) A {Hewlett-Packard} simple {file system} format used to {boot} {HP-PA} machines and to interchange files between older HP machines. A LIF file system is a header, containing a single directory, with 10-character {case sensitive} filenames and 2-byte {file types}, followed by the files. {LIF Utilities for linux (}. (2003-10-09)

logical relation A {relation} R satisfying f R g "=" For all a, b, a R b =" f a R g b This definition, by Plotkin, can be used to extend the definition of a relation on the types of a and b to a relation on functions.

logography ::: n. --> A method of printing in which whole words or syllables, cast as single types, are used.
A mode of reporting speeches without using shorthand, -- a number of reporters, each in succession, taking down three or four words.

LOOPN "language, simulation" A {compiler}, {simulator}, and associated {source} control for an {object-oriented} {Petri net} language developed by Charles Lakos "" at the {University of Tasmania}. In LOOPN, a Petri net is an extension of a {coloured timed Petri net}. The extension means firstly that token types are {class}es. In other words, they consist of both data fields and functions, they can be declared by inheriting from other token types, and they can be used {polymorphic}ally. The object-oriented extensions also mean that module or subnet types are classes. LOOPN has been developed over a period of about five years at the University of Tasmania, where it has been used in teaching computer simulation and the modelling of {network} {protocols}. {(}. (2000-09-02)

MacBinary "file format" An eight-bit wide representation of the data and {resource forks} of an {Macintosh} file and of relevant {Finder} information. MacBinary files are recognised as "special" by several MacIntosh {terminal emulators}. These emulators, using {Kermit} or {XMODEM} or any other file transfer protocol, can separate the incoming file into {forks} and appropriately modify the {Desktop} to display {icons}, types, creation dates, and the like. (1995-03-08)

Madhav: “… the perfect beings—the archetypes that project themselves in the form of Ideals on the mental horizons of man….” Readings in Savitri Vol. I.

magic number "jargon, programming" 1. In {source code}, some non-obvious constant whose value is significant to the operation of a program and that is inserted inconspicuously in-line ({hard-coded}), rather than expanded in by a symbol set by a commented "

magnetic disk "storage" A flat rotating disc covered on one or both sides with magnetisable material. The two main types are the {hard disk} and the {floppy disk}. Data is stored on either or both surfaces of discs in concentric rings called "{tracks}". Each track is divided into a whole number of "{sectors}". Where multiple (rigid) discs are mounted on the same axle the set of tracks at the same radius on all their surfaces is known as a "{cylinder}". Data is read and written by a {disk drive} which rotates the discs and positions the {read/write heads} over the desired track(s). The latter radial movement is known as "{seeking}". There is usually one head for each surface that stores data. To reduce {rotational latency} it is possible, though expensive, to have multiple heads at different angles. The head writes binary data by magnetising small areas or "zones" of the disk in one of two opposing orientations. It reads data by detecting current pulses induced in a coil as zones with different magnetic alignment pass underneath it. In theory, bits could be read back as a time sequence of pulse (one) or no pulse (zero). However, a run of zeros would give a prolonged absence of signal, making it hard to accurately divide the signal into individual bits due to the variability of motor speed. {Run Length Limited} is one common solution to this {clock recovery} problem. High speed disks have an {access time} of 28 {milliseconds} or less, and low-speed disks, 65 milliseconds or more. The higher speed disks also transfer their data faster than the slower speed units. The disks are usually aluminium with a magnetic coating. The heads "float" just above the disk's surface on a current of air, sometimes at lower than atmospheric pressure in an air-tight enclosure. The head has an aerodynamic shape so the current pushes it away from the disk. A small spring pushes the head towards the disk at the same time keeping the head at a constant distance from the disk (about two microns). Disk drives are commonly characterised by the kind of interface used to connect to the computer, e.g. {ATA}, {IDE}, {SCSI}. See also {winchester}. Compare {magnetic drum}, {compact disc}, {optical disk}, {magneto-optical disk}. {Suchanka's PC-DISK library (}. (2007-06-14)

Main works: The Religious Aspect of Philosophy, 1885; The Spirit of Modem Philosophy, 1892; The World and the Indidvidual, 1900; Lectures on Modem Idealism, 1919. Rule, ethical or moral: Any general ethical proposition enjoining a certain kind of action in a certain kind of situation, e.g., one who has made a promise should keep it. Rules figure especially in "dogmatic" types of deontological or intuitionstic ethics, and teleological ethics is often described as emphasizing ends rather than rules. Even a teleologist may, however, recommend certain rules, such as the above, as describing kinds of action which are generally conducive to good ends. -- W.K.F.

malware "security" Any {software} designed to do something that the user would not wish it to do, hasn't asked it to do, and often has no knowledge of until it's too late. Types of malware include {backdoor}, {ransomware}, {virus}, {worm}, {Trojan horse}. Malware typically affects the system on which it is run, e.g. by deleting or corrupting files on the local disks. Since Internet connections became common, malware has increasingly targeted remote systems. An early example was malware consisting of a malicious e-mail attachment that targeted security flaws in {Microsoft Outlook} (the most common {e-mail client}) to send itself to all the user's contacts. A more recent kind of malware "recruits" the infected computer to become part of a {botnet} consisting of thousands of infected computers that can then be remotely controlled and used to launch {DDoS} attacks. (2007-11-15)

MANTIS "language" A structured, full-function procedural {4GL} and application development system from {Cincom}. MANTIS enables the developer to design prototypes, create transaction screens and reports, define logical data views, write structured procedures, and dynamically test, correct, document, secure, and release applications for production in a single, integrated, interactive session. MANTIS applications can be enhanced with gOOi, the graphical object-oriented interface, which creates graphical Windows representations of existing MANTIS screens. {(}. (2003-08-08)

map 1. "mathematics" {function}. 2. "programming" In {functional programming}, the most common {higher-order function} over lists. Map applies its first argument to each element of its second argument (a list) and returns the list of results. map :: (a -" b) -" [a] -" [b] map f []   = [] map f (x:xs) = f x : map f xs This can be generalised to types other than lists. (1997-11-05)

marshalling "communications" (US -ll- or -l-) The process of packing one or more items of data into a message {buffer}, prior to transmitting that message buffer over a communication channel. The packing process not only collects together values which may be stored in non-consecutive memory locations but also converts data of different types into a standard representation agreed with the recipient of the message. (2000-06-09)

Mask Read-Only Memory "storage" (MROM) A kind of {ROM} in which the memory contents are determined by one of the masks used to manufacture the {integrated circuit}. MROM can give high storage density (bits per millimeter squared) making it a cheap solution for high volume applications. [Other ROM types?] (1995-04-22)

Matrix Math eXtensions "processor" (MMX) (NOT an acronym for "MultiMedia eXtension", according to Intel, but an Intel brand name) A set of 57 extra instructions built into some versions of {Intel}'s {Pentium} {microprocessors} for supporting {SIMD} operations on {multimedia} and communications data types. MMX-enhanced processors are due to be released early in 1997. They will be fully compatible with previous Intel processors and software but software will only benefit if it is written to use the new instructions. They can handle many common multimedia operations, such as {digital signal processing}, normally handled by a separate {sound card} or {video card}. (1996-12-21)

MDL (Originally "Muddle"). C. Reeve, {Carl Hewitt} and {Gerald Sussman}, Dynamic Modeling Group, MIT ca. 1971. Intended as a successor to Lisp, and a possible base for Planner-70. Basically LISP 1.5 with data types and arrays. Many of its features were advanced at the time (I/O, interrupt handling and coroutining), and were incorporated into later LISP dialects ("optional", "rest" and "aux" markers). In the mid 80's there was an effort to use bytecoding to make the language portable. CLU was first implemented in MDL. Infocom wrote Zork in MDL, and used it as the basis for the ZIL interpreter. Implementations exist for ITS, {TOPS-20}, BSD 4.3, Apollo Domain, SunOS and A/UX. ["The MDL Programming Language", S.W. Galley et al, Doc SYS.11.01, Project MAC, MIT (Nov 1975)].

Meaning: A highly ambiguous term, with at least four pivotal senses, involving intention or purpose, designation or reference, definition or translation, causal antecedents or consequences. Each of these provides overlapping families of cases generated by some or all of the following types of systematic ambiguity: -- Arising from a contrast between the standpoints of speaker and interpreter. arising from contrast between the meaning of specific utterances (tokens) and that of the general (type) symbol. arising from attention to one rather than another use of language (e.g., to the expressive rather than the evocative or referential uses). Some of these ambiguities are normally eliminated by attention to the context in which the term 'meaning' occurs. Adequate definition, would, accordingly, involve a detailed analysis of the types of context which are most common. The following is a preliminary outline. "What does X {some event, not necessarily linguistic) mean?" =   "Of what is X an index?"   "Of what is X a sign?" "What does S (a speaker) mean by X (an utterance)?" =   "What are S's interests, intentions, purposes in uttering X?"   "To whom (what) is he referring?"   "What effect does he wish to produce in the hearer?"   "What other utterance could he have used to express the same interest, make the same reference, or produce the same effect?" "What does X (an utterance of a speaker) mean to an interpreter?" =   "What does I take S to have meant by X (in any of the senses listed under B)?" "What does X (a type symbol) mean in language L?"   "What symbols (in L) can be substituted for X (in specified contexts) without appreciable loss of expressive, evocative or referential function?"   In a translation from L into another language M, either of X or of a more complex symbol containing X as part, what portion of the end-product corresponds to X?"   In addition to the above, relatively nontechnical senses, many writers use the word in divergent special ways based upon and implying favored theories about meaning.

media 1. "data" Any kind of {data} including {graphics}, {images}, {audio} and {video}, though typically excluding {raw text} or {executable code}. The term {multimedia} suggests a collection of different types of media or the ability to handle such collections. 2. "storage" The physical object on which {data} is stored, as opposed to the device used to read and write it. 3. "networking" The object at the {physical layer} that carries data, typically an electrical or optical cable, though, in a {wireless network}, the term refers to the space through which radio waves propagate. Most often used in the context of {Media Access Control} (MAC). (2010-01-07)

meditative states ::: Phenomenological experiences that result from specific types of attention-deployment or training. Meditative states can progress (see state-stages) from a basic Wakefulness of gross phenomena to subtle phenomena to causal phenomena to nondual.

memetic algorithm "algorithm" A {genetic algorithm} or {evolutionary algorithm} which includes a non-genetic local search to improve genotypes. The term comes from the Richard Dawkin's term "{meme}". One big difference between memes and genes is that memes are processed and possibly improved by the people that hold them - something that cannot happen to genes. It is this advantage that the memetic algorithm has over simple genetic or evolutionary algorithms. These algorithms are useful in solving complex problems, such as the "{Travelling Salesman Problem}," which involves finding the shortest path through a large number of nodes, or in creating {artificial life} to test evolutionary theories. Memetic algorithms are one kind of {metaheuristic}. {UNLP memetic algorithms home page (}. (07 July 1997)

Messaging Application Programming Interface "messaging" (MAPI) A messaging architecture and a {client} interface component for applications such as {electronic mail}, scheduling, calendaring and document management. As a messaging architecture, MAPI provides a consistent interface for multiple {application programs} to interact with multiple messaging systems across a variety of {hardware} {platforms}. MAPI provides better performance and control than {Simple MAPI}, {Common Messaging Calls} (CMC) or the {Active Messaging Library}. It has a comprehensive, open, dual-purpose interface, integrated with {Microsoft Windows}. MAPI can be used by all levels and types of client application and "service providers" - driver-like components that provide a MAPI interface to a specific messaging system. For example, a {word processor} can send documents and a {workgroup} application can share and store different types of data using MAPI. MAPI separates the programming interfaces used by the client applications and the service providers. Every component works with a common, {Microsoft Windows}-based user interface. For example, a single messaging client application can be used to receive messages from {fax}, a {bulletin board} system, a host-based messaging system and a {LAN}-based system. Messages from all of these systems can be delivered to a single "universal Inbox". MAPI is aimed at the powerful, new market of workgroup applications that communicate with such different messaging systems as fax, {DEC} {All-In-1}, {voice mail} and public communications services such as {AT&T} Easylink Services, {CompuServe} and {MCI} MAIL. Because workgroup applications demand more of their messaging systems, MAPI offers much more than basic messaging in the programming interface and supports more than {local area network} (LAN)-based messaging systems. Applications can, for example, format text for a single message with a variety of fonts and present to their users a customised view of messages that have been filtered, sorted or preprocessed. MAPI is built into {Windows 95} and {Windows NT} and can be used by 16-bit and 32-bit Windows applications. The programming interface and subsystem contained in the MAPI {DLL} provide objects which conform to the {Component Object Model}. MAPI includes standard messaging client applications that demonstrate different levels of messaging support. MAPI provides cross platform support through such industry standards as {SMTP}, {X.400} and Common Messaging Calls. MAPI is the messaging component of {Windows Open Services Architecture} (WOSA). [Correct expansion? Relatonship with Microsoft?] (1997-12-03)

Michigan Algorithm Decoder "language" (MAD) An early programming language, based on {IAL}, developed at the University of Michigan by R. Graham, Bruce Arden, and Bernard Galler in 1959. MAD was one of the first {extensible languages}: the user could define his own {operators} and {data types}. MAD ran on the {IBM 704}, {IBM 709} and {IBM 7090}. It was ported to the {IBM 7040} at the City College of New York by Robert Teitel and also to {Philco}, {Univac} and {CDC} computers. {Mad/1} was a later version. ["Michigan Algorithm Decoder (The MAD Manual)", U Michigan Computing Center, 1966]. [Sammet 1969, p. 205]. (2005-02-09)

MIME type "file format, protocol, multimedia" The unique identifier used for different file types when conveyed across a {MIME}-based {protocol} such as {MIME} {e-mail} or {HTTP}. Registration of MIME types is explained in {RFC 2048}. {Official MIME types (}. (1998-02-10)

Miranda "language" (From the Latin for "admirable", also the heroine of Shakespeare's "Tempest") A {lazy} {purely functional} programming language and {interpreter} designed by {David Turner} of the University of Kent in the early 1980s and implemented as a product of his company, {Research Software Limited}. Miranda combines the main features of {KRC} and {SASL} with {strong typing} similar to that of {ML}. It features terse {syntax} using the {offside rule} for indentation. The {type} of an expression is inferred from the {source} by the {compiler} but explicit type declarations are also allowed. It has nested {pattern-matching}, {list comprehensions} and {modules}. It uses {operator sections} rather than {lambda abstractions}. User types are algebraic, and in early versions could be constrained by {laws}. It is implemented using {SKI combinator} {reduction}. Originally implemented for {Unix}, there are versions for most UNIX-like platforms including {Intel PC} under {Linux}. The {KAOS} operating system is written entirely in Miranda. There are translators from Miranda to {Haskell} {mira2hs (/pub/misc/mira2hs)} and to {LML} {mira2lml (/pub/misc/mira2lml)}. Non-commercial near-equivalents of Miranda include {Miracula} and {Orwell}. {(}. [{"Miranda: A Non Strict Functional Language with Polymorphic Types" (}, D.A. Turner, in Functional Programming Languages and Computer Architecture, LNCS 201, Springer 1985]. [{"An Overview of Miranda" (}, D. A. Turner, SIGPLAN Notices, 21(12):158--166, December 1986]. ["Functional Programming with Miranda", Ian Holyer, Pitman Press 0-273-03453-7]. (2007-03-22)

Missing definition "introduction" First, this is an (English language) __computing__ dictionary. It includes lots of terms from related fields such as mathematics and electronics, but if you're looking for (or want to submit) words from other subjects or general English words or other languages, try {(}, {(}, {(}, {(} or {(}. If you've already searched the dictionary for a computing term and it's not here then please __don't tell me__. There are, and always will be, a great many missing terms, no dictionary is ever complete. I use my limited time to process the corrections and definitions people have submitted and to add the {most frequently requested missing terms (missing.html)}. Try one of the sources mentioned above or {(}, {(} or {(}. See {the Help page (help.html)} for more about missing definitions and bad cross-references. (2014-09-20)! {exclamation mark}!!!Batch "language, humour" A daft way of obfuscating text strings by encoding each character as a different number of {exclamation marks} surrounded by {question marks}, e.g. "d" is encoded as "?!!!!?". The language is named after the {MSDOS} {batch file} in which the first converter was written. {esoteric programming languages} {wiki entry (!!!Batch)}. (2014-10-25)" {double quote}

MODSIM "language" A general-purpose, modular, block-structured language from {CACI}, which provides support for {object-oriented programming} and {discrete event simulation}. It is intended for building large process-based discrete event simulation models through modular and object-oriented mechanisms similar to those of {Modula-2}. MODSIM is descended from {Modula-2} and {Simula}. It supports {multiple inheritance}, {templates}, {reference types}, {polymorphism}, and {process-oriented simulation} with synchronous and asynchronous activities using explicit simulation time. See also {MODSIM II}, {USAModSim}. (1994-11-11)

module ::: Any aspect of human capacity that can be trained (e.g., quadrants, levels, lines, states, and types).

monad "theory, functional programming" /mo'nad/ A technique from {category theory} which has been adopted as a way of dealing with {state} in {functional programming languages} in such a way that the details of the state are hidden or abstracted out of code that merely passes it on unchanged. A monad has three components: a means of augmenting an existing type, a means of creating a default value of this new type from a value of the original type, and a replacement for the basic application operator for the old type that works with the new type. The alternative to passing state via a monad is to add an extra argument and return value to many functions which have no interest in that state. Monads can encapsulate state, side effects, exception handling, global data, etc. in a purely lazily functional way. A monad can be expressed as the triple, (M, unitM, bindM) where M is a function on types and (using {Haskell} notation): unitM :: a -" M a bindM :: M a -" (a -" M b) -" M b I.e. unitM converts an ordinary value of type a in to monadic form and bindM applies a function to a monadic value after de-monadising it. E.g. a state transformer monad: type S a = State -" (a, State) unitS a = \ s0 -" (a, s0) m `bindS` k = \ s0 -" let (a,s1) = m s0    in k a s1 Here unitS adds some initial state to an ordinary value and bindS applies function k to a value m. (`fun` is Haskell notation for using a function as an {infix} operator). Both m and k take a state as input and return a new state as part of their output. The construction m `bindS` k composes these two state transformers into one while also passing the value of m to k. Monads are a powerful tool in {functional programming}. If a program is written using a monad to pass around a variable (like the state in the example above) then it is easy to change what is passed around simply by changing the monad. Only the parts of the program which deal directly with the quantity concerned need be altered, parts which merely pass it on unchanged will stay the same. In functional programming, unitM is often called initM or returnM and bindM is called thenM. A third function, mapM is frequently defined in terms of then and return. This applies a given function to a list of monadic values, threading some variable (e.g. state) through the applications: mapM :: (a -" M b) -" [a] -" M [b] mapM f []   = returnM [] mapM f (x:xs) = f x   `thenM` ( \ x2 -"         mapM f xs     `thenM` ( \ xs2 -"   returnM (x2 : xs2)     )) (2000-03-09)

MUMPS "language" (Or "M") Massachusetts General Hospital Utility Multi-Programming System. A programming language with extensive tools for the support of {database management systems}. MUMPS was originally used for medical records and is now widely used where multiple users access the same databases simultaneously, e.g. banks, stock exchanges, travel agencies, hospitals. Early MUMPS implementations for {PDP-11} and {IBM PC} were complete {operating systems}, as well as programming languages, but current-day implementations usually run under a normal host {operating system}. A MUMPS program hardly ever explicitly performs low-level operations such as opening a file - there are programming constructs in the language that will do so implicitly, and most MUMPS programmers are not even aware of the {operating system} activity that MUMPS performs. Syntactically MUMPS has only one data-type: strings. Semantically, the language has many data-types: text strings, {binary strings}, {floating point} values, {integer} values, {Boolean} values. Interpretation of strings is done inside functions, or implicitly while applying mathematical {operators}. Since many operations involve only moving data from one location to another, it is faster to just move uninterpreted strings. Of course, when a value is used multiple times in the context of arithmetical operations, optimised implementations will typically save the numerical value of the string. MUMPS was designed for portability. Currently, it is possible to share the same MUMPS database between radically different architectures, because all values are stored as text strings. The worst an implementation may have to do is swap pairs of bytes. Such multi-CPU databases are actually in use, some offices share databases between {VAX}, {DEC Alpha}, {SUN}, {IBM PC} and {HP} {workstations}. Versions of MUMPS are available on practically all {hardware}, from the smallest ({IBM PC}, {Apple Macintosh}, {Acorn} {Archimedes}), to the largest {mainframe}. MSM ({Micronetics Standard MUMPS}) runs on {IBM PC RT} and {R6000}; DSM (Digital Standard Mumps) on the {PDP-11}, {VAX}, {DEC Alpha}, and {Windows-NT}; {Datatree MUMPS} from {InterSystems} runs on {IBM PC}; and {MGlobal MUMPS} on the {Macintosh}. Multi-{platform} versions include {M/SQL}, available from {InterSystems}, {PFCS} "" and {MSM}. {Greystone Technologies}' GT/M runs on {VAX} and {DEC Alpha}. This is a compiler whereas the others are {interpreters}. {GT/SQL} is their {SQL} pre-processor. ISO standard 11756 (1991). ANSI standard: "MUMPS Language Standard", X11.1 (1977, 1984, 1990, 1995?). The MUMPS User's Group was the {M Technology Association}. {Usenet} newsgroups: {news:comp.lang.mumps}. (2003-06-04)

Musical Instrument Digital Interface "music, hardware, protocol, file format" (MIDI /mi'-dee/, /mee'-dee/) A {hardware} specification and {protocol} used to communicate note and effect information between synthesisers, computers, music keyboards, controllers, and other electronic music devices. It is basically a high-speed {serial} connection with separate connections for MIDI in, MIDI out and MIDI through (to allow devices to be chained). The basic unit of information is a "note on/off" event which includes a note number (pitch) and key velocity (loudness). There are many other message types for events such as pitch bend, patch changes and synthesizer-specific events for loading new patches etc. There is a file format for expressing MIDI data which is like a dump of data sent over a MIDI port. The {MIME} type "audio/midi" isn't actually registered so it should probably be "audio/x-midi". {Filename} {extension}: .mid or .midi {(}. {Usenet} newsgroups: {}, {}. (1998-06-27)

MuTeX "tool, music" An extension of {TeX} for typesetting music. {(}. (1995-02-06)

My Favourite Toy Language "jargon, language" (MFTL) Describes a talk on a {programming language} design that is heavy on {syntax} (with lots of {BNF}), sometimes even talks about {semantics} (e.g. {type systems}), but rarely, if ever, has any content (see {content-free}). More broadly applied to talks - even when the topic is not a programming language --- in which the subject matter is gone into in unnecessary and meticulous detail at the sacrifice of any conceptual content. "Well, it was a typical MFTL talk". 2. A language about which the developers are passionate (often to the point of prosyletic zeal) but no one else cares about. Applied to the language by those outside the originating group. "He cornered me about type resolution in his MFTL." The first great goal in the mind of the designer of an MFTL is usually to write a compiler for it, then bootstrap the design away from contamination by lesser languages by writing a compiler for it in itself. Thus, the standard put-down question at an MFTL talk is "Has it been used for anything besides its own compiler?". On the other hand, a language that *cannot* be used to write its own compiler is beneath contempt. {Doug McIlroy} once proposed a test of the generality and utility of a language and the {operating system} under which it is compiled: "Is the output of a {Fortran} program acceptable as input to the Fortran compiler?" In other words, can you write programs that write programs? Alarming numbers of (language, OS) pairs fail this test, particularly when the language is Fortran. Aficionados are quick to point out that {Unix} (even using Fortran) passes it handily. That the test could ever be failed is only surprising to those who have had the good fortune to have worked only under modern systems which lack OS-supported and -imposed "file types". See {break-even point}, {toolsmith}. (1995-03-07)

Natural Selection: This is the corner stone of the evolutionary hypothesis of Charles Darwin. He found great variation in and among types as a result of his extensive biological investigations and accounted for the modifications, not bvysome act of special creation or supernatural intervention, but by the descent, generation after generation, of modified species selected to survive and reproduce the more useful and the more successfully adapted to the environmental struggle for existence. He elaborated a corollary to this general theory in his idea of sexual selection. See Evolutionism, Charles Darwin, Herbert Spencer. -- L.E.D.

Necessity: A state of affairs is said to be necessary if it cannot be otherwise than it is. Inasmuch as the grounds of an assertion of this kind may in general be one of three very distinct kinds, it is customary and valuable to distinguish the three types of necessity affirmed as logical or mathematical necessity, physical necessity, and moral necessity. The distinction between these three was first worked out with precision by Leibniz in his Theodicee.

net 1. "networking" {network}. 2. "networking" {network, the}. 3. "architecture" {neural network}. 4. "networking" The {top-level domain} originally for networks, although it sees heavy use for {vanity domains} of all types. [{Jargon File}] (1999-01-26)

Netrek "games" A 16-player graphical {real-time} battle simulation with a Star Trek theme. The game is divided into two teams of eight (or less), who dogfight each other and attempt to conquer each other's planets. There are several different types of ships, from fast, fragile scouts up to big, slow battleships; this allows a great deal of variance in play styles. Netrek is played using a {client} to connect to one of several Netrek {servers} on the {Internet}. There is a metaserver which distributes details of games in progress on other servers. See also {ogg}. [Dates? Versions? Authors? Addresses?] (1998-02-01)

nroff "language" /N'rof/ [Unix, from "new {roff}"] A {text formatting language} and interpreter, companion to the Unix typesetter {troff}, accepting identical input but preparing output for terminals and line printers. See also {groff}. [{Jargon File}] (2012-12-14)

nslookup "networking" A {Unix} {utility program}, originally by Andrew Cherenson, for querying {Internet} {domain name servers}. The basic use is to find the {IP address} corresponding to a given {hostname} (or vice versa). By changing the query type (e.g. "set type=CNAME") other types of information can be obtained including CNAME - the {canonical name} for an alias; HINFO - the host {CPU} and {operating system} type; MINFO - mailbox or mail list information; {MX} - {mail exchanger} information; NS - the {name server} for the named zone; PTR - the hostname if the query is an IP address, otherwise the pointer to other information; SOA the domain's start-of-authority information; TXT - text information; UINFO - user information; WKS - supported {well-known services}. Other types (ANY, AXFR, MB, MD, MF, NULL) are described in {RFC 1035}. {(}. (1994-10-27)

Nuprl /nyu p*rl/ Nearly Ultimate PRL. A system for interactive creation of formal mathematics, including definitions and proofs. It has an extremely rich type system, including dependent functions, products, sets, quotients and universes. Types are first-class citizens. It is built on {Franz Lisp} and {Edinburgh ML}. ["Implementing Mathematics in the Nuprl Proof Development System", R.L. Constable et al, P-H 1986]. (1994-12-13)

Oaklisp "language" A portable {object-oriented} {Scheme} by K. Lang and Barak Perlmutter of {Yale}. Oaklisp uses a superset of Scheme {syntax}. It is based on generic operations rather than functions, and features {anonymous classes}, {multiple inheritance}, a strong error system, {setters} and {locators} for operations and a facility for {dynamic binding}. Version 1.2 includes an interface, {bytecode compiler}, {run-time system} and documentation. {(}, {for Amiga (}. ["Oaklisp: An Object-Oriented Scheme with First-Class Types", K. Lang et al, SIGPLAN Notices 21(11):30-37 (Nov 1986) (OOPSLA '86)]. (1992-05-01)

Oberon "language" A {strongly typed} {procedural} programming language and an operating environment evolved from {Modula-2} by {Nicklaus Wirth} in 1988. Oberon adds type extension ({inheritance}), extensible record types, multidimensional open arrays, and {garbage collection}. It eliminates {variant records}, {enumeration types}, {subranges}, lower array indices and {for loops}. A successor called Oberon-2 by H. Moessenboeck features a handful of extensions to Oberon including type-bound procedures ({methods}). Seneca is a variant of Oberon focussing on numerical programming under development by R. Griesemer in April 1993 (to be renamed). See also {Ceres workstation Oberon System}. {(}. {(}. {Free ETH Oberon (}. {MS-DOS (}. {Amiga (}. ["The Programming Language Oberon", N. Wirth, Soft Prac & Exp 18(7):671-690 July 1988]. ["Programming in Oberon: Steps Beyond Pascal and Modula", M. Reiser & N. Wirth, A-W 1992]. ["Project Oberon: the design of an operating system and compiler", N. Wirth & J. Gutknecht, ACM Press 1992]. ["The Oberon Companion: A Guide to Using and Programming Oberon System 3", André Fischer, Hannes Marais, vdf Verlag der Fachhochschulen, Zurich, 1997, ISBN 3-7281-2493-1. Includes CD-ROM for Windows, Linux, Macintosh and PC Native]. (1998-03-14)

Objective CAML "language" (Originally "CAML" - Categorical Abstract Machine Language) A version of {ML} by G. Huet, G. Cousineau, Ascander Suarez, Pierre Weis, Michel Mauny and others of {INRIA}. CAML is intermediate between {LCF ML} and {SML} [in what sense?]. It has {first-class} functions, {static type inference} with {polymorphic} types, user-defined {variant types} and {product types}, and {pattern matching}. It is built on a proprietary run-time system. The CAML V3.1 implementation added {lazy} and {mutable} data structures, a "{grammar}" mechanism for interfacing with the {Yacc} {parser generator}, {pretty-printing} tools, high-performance {arbitrary-precision} arithmetic, and a complete library. in 1990 Xavier Leroy and Damien Doligez designed a new implementation called {CAML Light}, freeing the previous implementation from too many experimental high-level features, and more importantly, from the old Le_Lisp back-end. Following the addition of a {native-code} compiler and a powerful {module} system in 1995 and of the {object} and {class} layer in 1996, the project's name was changed to Objective CAML. In 2000, Jacques Garrigue added labeled and optional arguments and anonymous variants. {Objective CAML Home (}. {Usenet} newsgroup: {}. ["The CAML Reference Manual", P. Weis et al, TR INRIA-ENS, 1989]. (2002-05-21)

Object Management Group "body" (OMG) A consortium aimed at setting {standards} in {object-oriented programming}. In 1989, this consortium, which included {IBM Corporation}, {Apple Computer Inc.} and {Sun Microsystems Inc.}, mobilised to create a cross-compatible distributed object standard. The goal was a common binary object with methods and data that work using all types of development environments on all types of platforms. Using a committee of organisations, OMG set out to create the first {Common Object Request Broker Architecture} (CORBA) standard which appeared in 1991. As of February 1998, the latest standard is CORBA 2.2. {(}. [David S. Linthicum, DBMS, January 1997] (1999-02-02)

object relational mapping "programming, database" (ORM) The software development activity that defines a correspondence between {objects} in a program and {rows} in a database {table}. {Atomic} object properties correspond to {columns} in the table, non-atomic data types and relations between objects are represented as {foreign keys} referring to other tables. An {object persistence} mechanism is responsible for maintaining the correspondence between objects and the database contents at run-time. (2014-12-03)

OBJ Joseph Goguen 1976. A family of declarative "ultra high level" languages. Abstract types, generic modules, subsorts (subtypes with {multiple inheritance}), pattern-matching modulo equations, E-strategies (user control over laziness), module expressions (for combining modules), theories and views (for describing module interfaces). For the massively parallel RRM (Rewrite Rule Machine). ["Higher-Order Functions Considered Unnecessary for Higher-Order Programming", J.A. Goguen, in Research Topics in Functional Programming].

occam "language" (Note lower case) A language based on {Anthony Hoare}'s {CSP} and {David May}'s {EPL}. Named after the English philosopher, William of Occam (1300-1349) who propounded {Occam's Razor}. The occam language was designed by David May of {INMOS} to easily describe {concurrent} processes which communicate via one-way channels. It was developed to run on the {INMOS} {transputer} but {compilers} are available for {VAX}, {Sun} and {Intel} {MDS}, inter alia. The basic entity in occam is the process of which there are four fundamental types, {assignment}, input, output, and wait. More complex processes are constructed from these using SEQ to specify sequential execution, PAR to specify parallel execution and ALT where each process is associated with an input from a channel. The process whose channel inputs first is executed. The fourth constructor is IF with a list of conditions and associated processes. The process executed is the one with the first true condition in textual order. There is no {operator precedence}. The original occam is now known as "occam 1". It was extended to {occam 2}. {Simulator for VAX (}. Tahoe mailing list: "". [David May et al, 1982. "Concurrent algorithms"]. ["Occam", D. May, SIGPLAN Notices 18(4):69-79, 1983]. (1994-11-18)

Omega 1. "programming" A {prototype}-based {object-oriented} language from Austria. ["Type-Safe Object-Oriented Programming with Prototypes - The Concept of Omega", G. Blaschek, Structured Programming 12:217-225, 1991]. 2. "text, tool" A successor to {TeX} extended to handle the {Unicode} character set. {(}. (1997-11-20)

one-dimensional array "types" An {array} with only one {dimension}; the simplest kind of array, consisting of a sequence of items ("elements"), all of the same type. An element is selected by an integer {index} that normally starts at zero for the first element and increases by one. The index of the last element is thus the length of the array minus one. A one-dimensional array is also known as a {vector}. It should not be confused with a {list}. In some languages, e.g. {Perl}, all arrays are one-dimensional and higher dimensions are represented as arrays of {pointers} to arrays (which can have different sizes and can themselves contain pointers to arrays and so on). A one-dimensional array maps simply to memory: the address of an element with index i is A(i) = A0 + i * s where A0 is the base address of the array and s is the size of storage used for each element, the "stride". Elements may be padded to certain {address boundaries}, e.g. {machine words}, to increase access speed, in which case the stride will be larger than the amount of data in an element. (2014-03-22)

Opal 1. A {DSP} language. ["OPAL: A High Level Language and Environment for DSP boards on PC", J.P. Schwartz et al, Proc ICASSP-89, 1989]. 2. The language of the {object-oriented database} {GemStone}. ["Making Smalltalk a Database System", G. Copeland et al, Proc SIGMOD'84, ACM 1984, pp.316- 325]. 3. A {simulation} language with provision for {stochastic variables}. An extension of {Autostat}. ["C-E-I-R OPAL", D. Pilling, Internal Report, C.E.I.R. Ltd. (1963)]. 4. A language for compiler testing said to be used internally by {DEC}. 5. A {functional programming} language designed at the {Technische Universitaet Berlin} as a testbed for the development of {functional programs}. OPAL integrates concepts from Algebraic Specification and Functional Programming, which favour the (formal) development of (large) production-quality software written in a {purely functional} style. The core of OPAL is a {strongly typed}, {higher-order}, {strict} applicative language which belongs to the tradition of {Hope} and {ML}. The algebraic flavour of OPAL is visible in the syntactical appearance and in the preference of {parameterisation} to {polymorphism}. OPAL supports: {information hiding} - each language unit is divided into an interface (signature) and an implementation part; selective import; {parameterised modules}; free constructor {views} on {sorts}, which allow pattern-based function definitions despite quite different implementations; full {overloading} of names; puristic scheme language with no {built-in} data types (except {Booleans} and denotations). OPAL and its predecessor OPAL-0 have been used for some time at the Technische Universitaet Berlin in CS courses and for research into optimising compilers for applicative languages. The OPAL compiler itself is writte entirely in OPAL. An overview is given in "OPAL: Design And Implementation of an Algebraic Programming Language". {(}. {(}. (1995-02-16)

originals ::: 1. Works that have been composed or created first-hand. 2. Primary forms or types.

Overlapping among all the above-mentioned fields is inevitable, as well as great differences in approach among individual writers. Some of these stress the nature and varieties of form in art, with attention to historic types and styles such as romanticism, the Baroque, etc., and in studying their evolution adopt the historian's viewpoint to some extent. Some stress the psychology of creation, appreciation, imagination, aesthetic experience, emotion, evaluation, and preference. Their work may be classed as "aesthetics", "aesthetic psychology", or "psychology of art". Within this psychological group, some can be further distinguished as laboratory or statistical psychologists, attempting more or less exact calculation and measurement. This approach (sometimes called "experimental aesthetics") follows the lead of Fechner, whose studies of aesthetic preference in 1876 helped to inaugurate modern experimental psychology as well as the empirical approach to aesthetics. It has dealt less with works of art than with preference for various arbitrary, simplified linear shapes, color-combinations and tone-combinations.

overloading "language" (Or "Operator overloading"). Use of a single symbol to represent operators with different argument types, e.g. "-", used either, as a {monadic} operator to negate an expression, or as a {dyadic} operator to return the difference between two expressions. Another example is "+" used to add either integers or {floating-point} numbers. Overloading is also known as ad-hoc {polymorphism}. User-defined operator overloading is provided by several modern programming languages, e.g. {C++}'s {class} system and the {functional programming} language {Haskell}'s {type class}es. Ad-hoc polymorphism (better described as {overloading}) is the ability to use the same syntax for objects of different types, e.g. "+" for addition of reals and integers or "-" for unary negation or diadic subtraction. Parametric polymorphism allows the same object code for a function to handle arguments of many types but overloading only reuses syntax and requires different code to handle different types. (2014-01-05)

PAGE A typesetting language. ["Computer Composition Using PAGE-1", J.L. Pierson, Wiley 1972].

palaeotype ::: n. --> A system of representing all spoken sounds by means of the printing types in common use.

Pascal-FC A {Pascal} derived from {Pascal-S} which provides several types of {concurrency}: {semaphores}, {monitors}, both {occam}/{CSP}-style and {Ada}-style {rendezvous}. ["The Teaching Language Pascal-FC", G.L. Davies et al, Computer J 33(2):147-154 (Apr 1990)]. (1994-11-02)

Pascal "language" (After the French mathematician {Blaise Pascal} (1623-1662)) A programming language designed by {Niklaus Wirth} around 1970. Pascal was designed for simplicity and for teaching programming, in reaction to the complexity of {ALGOL 68}. It emphasises {structured programming} constructs, data structures and {strong typing}. Innovations included {enumeration types}, {subranges}, sets, {variant records}, and the {case statement}. Pascal has been extremely influential in programming language design and has a great number of variants and descendants. ANSI/IEEE770X3.97-1993 is very similar to {ISO Pascal} but does not include {conformant arrays}. ISO 7185-1983(E). Level 0 and Level 1. Changes from Jensen & Wirth's Pascal include name equivalence; names must be bound before they are used; loop index must be local to the procedure; formal procedure parameters must include their arguments; {conformant array schemas}. An ALGOL-descended language designed by Niklaus Wirth on the CDC 6600 around 1967--68 as an instructional tool for elementary programming. This language, designed primarily to keep students from shooting themselves in the foot and thus extremely restrictive from a general-purpose-programming point of view, was later promoted as a general-purpose tool and, in fact, became the ancestor of a large family of languages including Modula-2 and {Ada} (see also {bondage-and-discipline language}). The hackish point of view on Pascal was probably best summed up by a devastating (and, in its deadpan way, screamingly funny) 1981 paper by Brian Kernighan (of {K&R} fame) entitled "Why Pascal is Not My Favourite Programming Language", which was turned down by the technical journals but circulated widely via photocopies. It was eventually published in "Comparing and Assessing Programming Languages", edited by Alan Feuer and Narain Gehani (Prentice-Hall, 1984). Part of his discussion is worth repeating here, because its criticisms are still apposite to Pascal itself after ten years of improvement and could also stand as an indictment of many other bondage-and-discipline languages. At the end of a summary of the case against Pascal, Kernighan wrote: 9. There is no escape This last point is perhaps the most important. The language is inadequate but circumscribed, because there is no way to escape its limitations. There are no casts to disable the type-checking when necessary. There is no way to replace the defective run-time environment with a sensible one, unless one controls the compiler that defines the "standard procedures". The language is closed. People who use Pascal for serious programming fall into a fatal trap. Because the language is impotent, it must be extended. But each group extends Pascal in its own direction, to make it look like whatever language they really want. Extensions for {separate compilation}, Fortran-like COMMON, string data types, internal static variables, initialisation, {octal} numbers, bit operators, etc., all add to the utility of the language for one group but destroy its portability to others. I feel that it is a mistake to use Pascal for anything much beyond its original target. In its pure form, Pascal is a toy language, suitable for teaching but not for real programming. Pascal has since been almost entirely displaced (by {C}) from the niches it had acquired in serious applications and systems programming, but retains some popularity as a hobbyist language in the {MS-DOS} and {Macintosh} worlds. See also {Kamin's interpreters}, {p2c}. ["The Programming Language Pascal", N. Wirth, Acta Informatica 1:35-63, 1971]. ["PASCAL User Manual and Report", K. Jensen & N. Wirth, Springer 1975] made significant revisions to the language. [BS 6192, "Specification for Computer Programming Language Pascal", {British Standards Institute} 1982]. [{Jargon File}] (1996-06-12)

Pascal-S Simplified Pascal. June, 1975. A strict subset of Pascal, omits scalar types, subranges, sets, files, pointers, packed structures, 'with' and 'goto. Source for a complete Pascal-S compiler is in "Pascal-S: A Subset and Its Implementation", N. Wirth in Pascal - The Language and Its Implementation, by D.W. Barron, Wiley 1979. {(}.

pasu (pashu) ::: animal; the human animal; the lowest of the ten types pasu of consciousness (dasa-gavas) in the evolutionary scale: mind concentrated on the bodily life; "the animal power in the body", which "might be divinely used for the greater purposes of the divinised Purusha".

patch "software" 1. A temporary addition to a piece of code, usually as a {quick-and-dirty} remedy to an existing {bug} or {misfeature}. A patch may or may not work, and may or may not eventually be incorporated permanently into the program. Distinguished from a {diff} or {mod} by the fact that a patch is generated by more primitive means than the rest of the program; the classical examples are instructions modified by using the front panel switches, and changes made directly to the binary executable of a program originally written in an {HLL}. Compare {one-line fix}. 2. To insert a patch into a piece of code. 3. [in the Unix world] A {diff}. 4. A set of modifications to binaries to be applied by a patching program. {IBM} systems often receive updates to the {operating system} in the form of absolute {hexadecimal} patches. If you have modified your OS, you have to disassemble these back to the {source code}. The patches might later be corrected by other patches on top of them (patches were said to "grow scar tissue"). The result was often a convoluted {patch space} and headaches galore. There is a classic story of a {tiger team} penetrating a secure military computer that illustrates the danger inherent in binary patches (or, indeed, any patches that you can't - or don't - inspect and examine before installing). They couldn't find any {trap doors} or any way to penetrate security of IBM's OS, so they made a site visit to an IBM office (remember, these were official military types who were purportedly on official business), swiped some IBM stationery, and created a fake patch. The patch was actually the trapdoor they needed. The patch was distributed at about the right time for an IBM patch, had official stationery and all accompanying documentation, and was dutifully installed. The installation manager very shortly thereafter learned something about proper procedures. 5. {Larry Wall}'s "patch" {utility program}, which automatically applies a patch to a set of {source code} or other text files. Patch accepts input in any of the four forms output by the {Unix} {diff} utility. When the files being patched are not identical to those on which the diffs were based, patch uses {heuristics} to determine how to proceed. Diff and patch are the standard way of producing and applying updates under {Unix}. Both have been ported to other {operating systems}. {Patch Home (}. [{Jargon File}] (2005-05-16)

Pebble A {polymorphic} language. ["A Kernel Language for Abstract Data Types and Modules", R.M. Burstall & B. Lampson, in Semantics of Data Types, LNCS 173, Springer 1984]. (1995-01-26)

Perl "language, tool" A {high-level} programming language, started by {Larry Wall} in 1987 and developed as an {open source} project. It has an eclectic heritage, deriving from the ubiquitous {C} programming language and to a lesser extent from {sed}, {awk}, various {Unix} {shell} languages, {Lisp}, and at least a dozen other tools and languages. Originally developed for {Unix}, it is now available for many {platforms}. Perl's elaborate support for {regular expression} matching and substitution has made it the {language of choice} for tasks involving {string manipulation}, whether for text or binary data. It is particularly popular for writing {CGI scripts}. The language's highly flexible syntax and concise regular expression operators, make densely written Perl code indecipherable to the uninitiated. The syntax is, however, really quite simple and powerful and, once the basics have been mastered, a joy to write. Perl's only {primitive} data type is the "scalar", which can hold a number, a string, the undefined value, or a typed reference. Perl's {aggregate} data types are {arrays}, which are ordered lists of {scalars} indexed by {natural numbers}, and hashes (or "{associative arrays}") which are unordered lists of scalars indexed by strings. A reference can point to a scalar, array, hash, {function}, or {filehandle}. {Objects} are implemented as references "{blessed}" with a {class} name. Strings in Perl are {eight-bit clean}, including {nulls}, and so can contain {binary data}. Unlike C but like most Lisp dialects, Perl internally and dynamically handles all memory allocation, {garbage collection}, and type {coercion}. Perl supports {closures}, {recursive functions}, {symbols} with either {lexical scope} or {dynamic scope}, nested {data structures} of arbitrary content and complexity (as lists or hashes of references), and packages (which can serve as classes, optionally inheriting {methods} from one or more other classes). There is ongoing work on {threads}, {Unicode}, {exceptions}, and {backtracking}. Perl program files can contain embedded documentation in {POD} (Plain Old Documentation), a simple markup language. The normal Perl distribution contains documentation for the language, as well as over a hundred modules (program libraries). Hundreds more are available from The {Comprehensive Perl Archive Network}. Modules are themselves generally written in Perl, but can be implemented as interfaces to code in other languages, typically compiled C. The free availability of modules for almost any conceivable task, as well as the fact that Perl offers direct access to almost all {system calls} and places no arbitrary limits on data structure size or complexity, has led some to describe Perl, in a parody of a famous remark about {lex}, as the "Swiss Army chainsaw" of programming. The use of Perl has grown significantly since its adoption as the language of choice of many {web} developers. {CGI} interfaces and libraries for Perl exist for several {platforms} and Perl's speed and flexibility make it well suited for form processing and on-the-fly {web page} creation. Perl programs are generally stored as {text} {source} files, which are compiled into {virtual machine} code at run time; this, in combination with its rich variety of data types and its common use as a glue language, makes Perl somewhat hard to classify as either a "{scripting language}" or an "{applications language}" -- see {Ousterhout's dichotomy}. Perl programs are usually called "Perl scripts", if only for historical reasons. Version 5 was a major rewrite and enhancement of version 4, released sometime before November 1993. It added real {data structures} by way of "references", un-adorned {subroutine} calls, and {method} {inheritance}. The spelling "Perl" is preferred over the older "PERL" (even though some explain the language's name as originating in the acronym for "Practical Extraction and Report Language"). The program that interprets/compiles Perl code is called "perl", typically "/usr/local/bin/perl" or "/usr/bin/perl". {(}. {Usenet} newsgroups: {news:comp.lang.perl.announce}, {news:comp.lang.perl.misc}. ["Programming Perl", Larry Wall and Randal L. Schwartz, O'Reilly & Associates, Inc. Sebastopol, CA. ISBN 0-93715-64-1]. ["Learning Perl" by Randal L. Schwartz, O'Reilly & Associates, Inc., Sebastopol, CA]. [{Jargon File}] (1999-12-04)

Persistent Functional Language "language, database" (PFL) A {functional database} language developed by Carol Small at Birkbeck College, London, UK and Alexandra Poulovassilis (now at {King's College London}). In PFL, functions are defined equationally and bulk data is stored using a special class of functions called selectors. PFL is a {lazy} language, supports {higher-order functions}, has a strong {polymorphic} {type inference} system, and allows new user-defined data types and values. All functions, types and values persist in a {database}. Functions can be written which update all aspects of the database: by adding data to selectors, by defining new equations, and by introducing new data types and values. PFL is "semi-{referentially transparent}", in the sense that whilst updates are referentially opaque and are executed {destructive}ly, all evaluation is referentially transparent. Similarly, {type checking} is "semi-static" in the sense that whilst updates are dynamically type checked at run time, expressions are type checked before they are evaluated and no type errors can occur during their evaluation. ["{A Functional Approach to Database Updates (}", C. Small, Information Systems 18(8), 1993, pp. 581-95]. (1995-04-27)

phase of the moon Used humorously as a random parameter on which something is said to depend. Sometimes implies unreliability of whatever is dependent, or that reliability seems to be dependent on conditions nobody has been able to determine. "This feature depends on having the channel open in mumble mode, having the foo switch set, and on the phase of the moon." See also {heisenbug}. True story: Once upon a time there was a {bug} that really did depend on the phase of the moon. There was a little subroutine that had traditionally been used in various programs at {MIT} to calculate an approximation to the moon's true phase. {GLS} incorporated this routine into a {Lisp} program that, when it wrote out a file, would print a timestamp line almost 80 characters long. Very occasionally the first line of the message would be too long and would overflow onto the next line, and when the file was later read back in the program would {barf}. The length of the first line depended on both the precise date and time and the length of the phase specification when the timestamp was printed, and so the bug literally depended on the phase of the moon! The first paper edition of the {Jargon File} (Steele-1983) included an example of one of the timestamp lines that exhibited this bug, but the typesetter "corrected" it. This has since been described as the phase-of-the-moon-bug bug. [{Jargon File}] (1995-02-22)

photogalvanography ::: n. --> The art or process of making photo-electrotypes.

phototypy ::: n. --> The art or process of producing phototypes.

PIC 1. "hardware" {programmable interrupt controller}. 2. A graphics language by {Brian Kernighan}, for textually describing pictures with {troff}. [Featured in "More Programming Pearls", Jon Bentley]. ["PIC - A Language for Typesetting Graphics", B.W. Kernighan, Soft Prac & Exp 12(1):1-21 (Jan 1982)]. ["PIC - A Graphics Language for Typesetting, Revised User Manual", Bell Labs TR 116, Dec 1984]. (1994-10-28) 3. {personal intelligent communicator}. (2001-04-30)

pisaca (pishacha; pisacha) ::: demon; a kind of anti-divine being of the pisaca lower vital plane; the third of the ten types of consciousness (dasagavas) in the evolutionary scale: mind concentrated on the senses and concerned with the knowledge of bodily life.

Platonism as a political philosophy finds its best known exposition in the theory of the ideal state in the Republic. There, Plato described a city in which social justice would be fully realized. Three classes of men are distinguished: the philosopher kings, apparently a very small group whose education has been alluded to above, who would be the rulers because by nature and by training they were the best men for the job. They must excel particularly in their rational abilities: their special virtue is philosophic wisdom; the soldiers, or guardians of the state, constitute the second class; their souls must be remarkable for the development of the spirited, warlike element, under the control of the virtue of courage; the lowest class is made up of the acquisitive group, the workers of every sort whose characteristic virtue is temperance. For the two upper classes, Plato suggested a form of community life which would entail the abolition of monogamous marriage, family life, and of private property. It is to be noted that this form of semi-communism was suggested for a minority of the citizens only (Repub. III and V) and it is held to be a practical impossibility in the Laws (V, 739-40), though Plato continued to think that some form of community life is theoretically best for man. In Book VIII of the Republic, we find the famous classification of five types of political organization, ranging from aristocracy which is the rule of the best men, timocracy, in which the rulers are motivated by a love of honor, oligarchy, in which the rulers seek wealth, democracy, the rule of the masses who are unfit for the task, to tyranny, which is the rule of one man who may have started as the champion of the people but who governs solely for the advancement of his own, selfish interests.

PL/I "language" Programming Language One. An attempt to combine the best features of {Fortran}, {COBOL} and {ALGOL 60}. Developed by George Radin of {IBM} in 1964. Originally named NPL and Fortran VI. The result is large but elegant. PL/I was one of the first languages to have a formal {semantic} definition, using the {Vienna Definition Language}. {EPL}, a dialect of PL/I, was used to write almost all of the {Multics} {operating system}. PL/I is still widely used internally at {IBM}. The PL/I standard is ANS X3.53-1976. PL/I has no {reserved words}. Types are fixed, float, complex, character strings with maximum length, bit strings, and label variables. {Arrays} have lower bounds and may be dynamic. It also has summation, multi-level structures, {structure assignment}, untyped pointers, {side effects} and {aliasing}. {Control flow} constructs include goto; do-end groups; do-to-by-while-end loops; external procedures; internal nested procedures and blocks; {generic procedures} and {exception handling}. Procedures may be declared {recursive}. Many implementations support {concurrency} ('call task' and 'wait(event)' are equivalent to {fork}/join) and compile-time statements. {LPI} is a PL/I {interpreter}. ["A Structural View of PL/I", D. Beech, Computing Surveys, 2,1 33-64 (1970)]. (1994-10-25)

plumbism ::: n. --> A diseased condition, produced by the absorption of lead, common among workers in this metal or in its compounds, as among painters, typesetters, etc. It is characterized by various symptoms, as lead colic, lead line, and wrist drop. See under Colic, Lead, and Wrist.

point 1. "unit, text" (Sometimes abbreviated "pt") The unit of length used in {typography} to specify text character height, {rule} width, and other small measurements. There are six slightly different definitions: {Truchet point}, {Didot point}, {ATA point}, {TeX point}, {Postscript point}, and {IN point}. In Europe, the most commonly used is Didot and in the US, the formerly standard ATA point has essentially been replaced by the PostScript point due to the demise of traditional typesetting systems and rise of desktop computer based systems running software such as {QuarkXPress}, {Adobe InDesign} and {Adobe Pagemaker}. There are 20 {twips} in a point and 12 points in a {pica} (known as a "Cicero" in the Didot system). {Different point systems (}. (2004-12-23) 2. "hardware" To move a {pointing device} so that the on-screen pointer is positioned over a certain object on the screen such as a {button} in a {graphical user interface}. In most {window systems} it is then necessary to {click} a (physical) button on the pointing device to activate or select the object. In some systems, just pointing to an object is known as "mouse-over" {event} which may cause some help text (called a "tool tip" in {Windows}) to be displayed. (2001-05-21)

Poly "language" 1. A {polymorphic}, {block-structured} language developed by D.C.J. Matthews at Cambridge in the early 1980s. ["An Overview of the Poly Programming Language", D.C.J. Matthews, in Data Types and Persistence, M.P. Atkinson et al eds, Springer 1988]. 2. A language developed at St Andrews University, Scotland. [Software Practice & Exp, Oct 1986]. 3. A {polymorphic} language used in the referenced book. ["Polymorphic Programming Languages", David M. Harland, Ellis Horwood 1984]. (2000-11-07)

polymorphic lambda-calculus "language, types" (Or "second order typed lambda-calculus", "System F", "Lambda-2"). An extension of {typed lambda-calculus} allowing functions which take types as parameters. E.g. the {polymorphic} function "twice" may be written: twice = /\ t . \ (f :: t -" t) . \ (x :: t) . f (f x) (where "/\" is an upper case Greek lambda and "(v :: T)" is usually written as v with subscript T). The parameter t will be bound to the type to which twice is applied, e.g.: twice Int takes and returns a function of type Int -" Int. (Actual type arguments are often written in square brackets [ ]). Function twice itself has a higher type: twice :: Delta t . (t -" t) -" (t -" t) (where Delta is an upper case Greek delta). Thus /\ introduces an object which is a function of a type and Delta introduces a type which is a function of a type. Polymorphic lambda-calculus was invented by Jean-Yves Girard in 1971 and independently by John C. Reynolds in 1974. ["Proofs and Types", J-Y. Girard, Cambridge U Press 1989]. (2005-03-07)

polymorphism "theory, programming" The ability to leave parts of a {type} in a {typed language} unspecified. The term has three distinct uses: * {Parametric polymorphism} refers to the use of type variables in a {strongly typed} language. * {Overloading}, sometimes called {ad-hoc polymorphism}, means using the same {syntax} for different types. * {object-oriented polymorphism} allows a {variable} to refer to objects whose {class} is not known at compile time. (2014-01-05)

polytype ::: n. --> A cast, or facsimile copy, of an engraved block, matter in type, etc. (see citation); as, a polytype in relief. ::: a. --> Of or pertaining to polytypes; obtained by polytyping; as, a polytype plate.

Ponder A {non-strict} {polymorphic}, {functional language} by Jon Fairbairn "". Ponder's type system is unusual. It is more powerful than the {Hindley-Milner type} system used by {ML} and {Miranda} and extended by {Haskell}. Ponder adds extra recursive 'mu' types to those of Girard's {System F}, allowing more general {recursion}. Surprisingly, the type system and {type inference} {algorithm} are still not completely understood. ["Ponder and its Type System", J. Fairbairn, TR 31, Cambridge U Computer Lab, Nov 1982]. [J. Fairbairn, "Design and Implementation of a Simple Typed Language based on the Lambda-Calculus", Technical Report No. 75, Computer Laboratory, University of Cambridge, May 1985]. [J. Fairbairn, "A New Type-Checker for a Functional Language", Technical Report No. 53, Computer Laboratory, University of Cambridge, 1984]. [J. Fairbairn, "Some Types with Inclusion Properties in \forall, \rightarrow, \mu", Technical Report No. 171, Computer Laboratory, University of Cambridge, Jun 1989]. [Valeria C. V. de Paiva, "Subtyping in Ponder (Preliminary Report)", Technical Report No. 203, Computer Laboratory, University of Cambridge, Aug 1990].

Pooling Agreement for Technical Assistance "business" (PATA) Written limitations on what types of technical information is shared when two companies (or departments) work together on a common project. Often because of security concerns rather than marketing concerns. (2010-02-20)

POSIX Threads "programming" (Pthreads) A {POSIX} {standard} {API} that defines a set of {C} programming language {types}, {functions} and {constants} for creating and manipulating {pre-emptive threads}. The standard's full name is "POSIX.1c, Threads extensions (IEEE Std 1003.1c-1995)". Implementations are available on many {Unix}-like POSIX-conformant {operating systems} such as {FreeBSD}, {NetBSD}, {OpenBSD}, {GNU/Linux}, {Mac OS X} and {Solaris} as well as {DR-DOS} and {Microsoft Windows}. Pthreads was designed and implemented in the {PART} Project (POSIX / Ada-Runtime Project). (2012-04-18)

pramatha ::: a kind of being on the lower vital plane, related to the pisaca; the fourth of the ten types of consciousness (dasa-gavas) in the evolutionary scale: mind concentrated on the heart and the emotional and aesthetic part of the citta.

pratikalpa (pratikalpa; prati-kalpa; prati kalpa) ::: a period of a hundred caturyugas, one tenth of a kalpa, also divided into fourteen manvantaras of several caturyugas each; each pratikalpa corresponds to one of the ten types or forms of consciousness (dasa-gavas) in the evolutionary scale, the present pratikalpa being regarded as the sixth in the current kalpa, the pratikalpa of the asura in which mind is concentrated on the buddhi.

Predicables: (Lat. praedicabilia) In Aristotle's logic the five types of predicates that may be affirmed or denied of a subject in a logical proposition, viz. definition, genus, differentia, property, and accident. The list of predicables as formulated by Porphyry and later logicians omits definition and includes species. See Definition: Genus; Species; Differentia; Property; Accident. -- G.R.M.

Predicament: (Ger. from Lat. praedicamentum, a category) The Kantian name for the innate a priori forms of the understanding, since each category is a way of predicating something of a subject, and since there are twelve types of judgment, Kant enumerated twelve praedicaments: totality, plurality, unity, reality, negation, limitation, substantiality-inherence, causality-dependence, reciprocity, possibility-impossibility, being and non-being, necessity-contingency. -- V.J.B.

prefigure ::: v. t. --> To show, suggest, or announce, by antecedent types and similitudes; to foreshadow.

Presentationism: The epistemological theory that the mind is in perception and perhaps also memory and other types of cognition directly aware of its object (see Epistemological Monism). Although the term is ordinarily applied to realistic theories of perception (see Epistemological Realism, Naive Realism), it is equally applicable to idealistic and phenomenalistic theories (see Epistemological Idealism). Presentationism, whether realistic or idealistic, is opposed to representationalism. See Representationalism. -- L.W.

principal type The most general {type} of an expression. For example, the following are all valid types for the {lambda abstraction} (\ x . x): Int -" Int Bool -" Bool (a-"b) -" (a-"b) but any valid type will be an instance of the principal type: a -" a. An instance is derived by substituting the same type expression for all occurences of some {type variable}. The principal type of an expression can be computed from those of its subexpressions by Robinson's {unification} {algorithm}. (1994-12-16)

printer ::: n. --> One who prints; especially, one who prints books, newspapers, engravings, etc., a compositor; a typesetter; a pressman.

printer "printer" A {peripheral} device for producing text and images on paper. There are many different types, broadly grouped into "{impact printers}" and "{non-impact printers}". Compare {plotter}. See also {Braille printer}, {tree-killer}. (1996-01-13)

printing ::: p. pr. & vb. n. --> of Print ::: n. --> The act, art, or practice of impressing letters, characters, or figures on paper, cloth, or other material; the business of a printer, including typesetting and presswork, with their adjuncts; typography; also, the act of producing photographic prints.

print ::: v. t. --> To fix or impress, as a stamp, mark, character, idea, etc., into or upon something.

To stamp something in or upon; to make an impression or mark upon by pressure, or as by pressure.
To strike off an impression or impressions of, from type, or from stereotype, electrotype, or engraved plates, or the like; in a wider sense, to do the typesetting, presswork, etc., of (a book or other publication); as, to print books, newspapers, pictures; to print

PROgrammed Graph REwriting Systems "language" (PROGRES) A very high level language based on {graph grammars}, developed by Andy Scheurr "" and Albert Zuendorf "" of {RWTH}, Aachen in 1991. PROGRES supports structurally {object-oriented specification} of {attributed graph} structures with {multiple inheritance} hierarchies and types of types (for {parametric polymorphism}). It also supports declarative/relational specification of derived attributes, node sets, binary relationships (directed edges) and {Boolean} {constraints}, rule-oriented/visual specification of parameterised graph rewrite rules with complex application conditions, {nondeterministic} and {imperative programming} of composite graph transformations (with built-in {backtracking} and cancelling arbitrary sequences of failing graph modifications). It is used for implementing {abstract data types} with graph-like internal structure, as a visual language for the {graph-oriented database} {GRAS}, and as a rule-oriented language for prototyping {nondeterministic}ally specified data/rule base transformations. PROGRES has a formally defined {semantics} based on "PROgrammed Graph Rewriting Systems". It is an almost {statically typed} language which additionally offers "down casting" operators for run time checked type casting/conversion (in order to avoid severe restrictions concerning the language's expressiveness). Version RWTH 5.10 includes an integrated environment. [A. Scheurr, "Introduction to PROGRES, an Attribute Graph Grammar Based Specification Language", in Proc WG89 Workshop on Graphtheoretic Concepts in Computer Science", LNCS 411, Springer 1991]. {(} for {Sun-4}. (1993-11-02)

provinces, a thousand types, stages, forms, paths, variations of the spiritual idea, degrees of spiritual advancement. It is from the basis of this truth that things regarding spirituality and its seekers must be Judged.

purus.a (purusha) ::: man; person; soul; spirit; the Self (atman) "as purusa originator, witness, support and lord and enjoyer of the forms and works of Nature" (prakr.ti); the conscious being, universal or individual, observing and upholding the activity of Nature on any plane of existence; the infinite divine Person (purus.ottama), "the Existent who .. transcends all definition by personality and yet is always that which is the essence of personality"; any of the ten types of consciousness (dasa-gavas) in the evolutionary scale. purusa purus

purus.a (siddha purusha) ::: a term for the highest of the ten types (dasa-gavas) in the evolutionary scale, also called siddhadeva or satyadeva.

Quest 1. A language designed for its simple denotational semantics. "The Denotational Semantics of Programming Languages", R. Tennent, CACM 19(8):437-453 (Aug 1976). 2. QUantifiers and SubTypes. Language with a sophisticated type system. Just as types classify values, "kinds" classify types and type operators. Explicit universal and existential quantification over types, type operators, and subtypes. Subtyping is defined inductively on all type constructions, including higher-order functions and abstract types. User-definable higher-order type operators. "Typeful Programming", Luca Cardelli "", RR 45, DEC SRC 1989. Implemented in Modula-3. {(}. 3. "tool, text" A {multimedia} {authoring} system. Quest has been available for {MS-DOS} for some time. Version 3.5 for {Microsoft Windows} was released around March 1995. It features an {Authorware}-style {flowchart} system with an {ANSI-C} {script language}. (1995-04-02)

raks.asa (rakshasa) ::: same as; giant, ogre; a kind of anti-divine raksasa being of the middle vital plane; the fifth of the ten types of consciousness (dasa-gavas) in the evolutionary scale: mind concentrated on the thinking manas (sensational mind). It is the raks.asa "who first begins really to think, but his thought is . . . egoistic & turned towards sensation", seeking "a gross egoistic satisfaction in all the life of the mind, prana & body"; the "divine use of the Rakshasa force" would come when it is "changed from a nervous egoism to a sort of powerful dynamic utility on that plane".

Ramified theory of types: See impredicative definition, and paradoxes, logical.

random 1. Unpredictable (closest to mathematical definition); weird. "The system's been behaving pretty randomly." 2. Assorted; undistinguished. "Who was at the conference?" "Just a bunch of random business types." 3. (pejorative) Frivolous; unproductive; undirected. "He's just a random loser." 4. Incoherent or inelegant; poorly chosen; not well organised. "The program has a random set of misfeatures." "That's a random name for that function." "Well, all the names were chosen pretty randomly." 5. In no particular order, though {deterministic}. "The I/O channels are in a pool, and when a file is opened one is chosen randomly." 6. Arbitrary. "It generates a random name for the scratch file." 7. Gratuitously wrong, i.e. poorly done and for no good apparent reason. For example, a program that handles file name defaulting in a particularly useless way, or an assembler routine that could easily have been coded using only three registers, but redundantly uses seven for values with non-overlapping lifetimes, so that no one else can invoke it without first saving four extra registers. What {randomness}! 8. A random hacker; used particularly of high-school students who soak up computer time and generally get in the way. 9. Anyone who is not a hacker (or, sometimes, anyone not known to the hacker speaking). "I went to the talk, but the audience was full of randoms asking bogus questions". 10. (occasional MIT usage) One who lives at Random Hall. See also {J. Random}, {some random X}. [{Jargon File}] (1995-12-05)

Read-Only Memory "storage" (ROM) A type of data storage device which is manufactured with fixed contents. In its most general sense, the term might be used for any storage system whose contents cannot be altered, such as a gramophone record or a printed book; however, the term is most often applied to {semiconductor} {integrated circuit} memories, of which there are several types, and {CD-ROM}. ROM is inherently {non-volatile storage} - it retains its contents even when the power is switched off, in contrast to {RAM}. ROM is often used to hold programs for {embedded systems} since these usually have a fixed purpose. ROM is also used for storage of the lowest level {bootstrap} software (firmware) in a computer. See also {Programmable Read-Only Memory}. (1995-05-09)

Realistic Idealism recognizes the reality of non-ideal types of being, but relegates them to a subordinate status with respect either to quantity of being or power. This view is either atheistic or theistic. Realistic theism admits the existence of one or more kinds of non-mental being considered as independently co-eternal with God, eternally dependent upon Deity, or as a divine creation. Platonic Idealism, as traditionally interpreted, identifies absolute being with timeless Ideas or disembodied essences. Thtse, organically united in the Good, are the archetypes and the dynamic causes of existent, material things. The Ideas are also archetypes of rational thought, and the goal of fine art and morality. Axiological Idealism, a modern development of Platonism and Kantianism, maintains that the category of Value is logically and metaphysically prior to that of Being.

Real Programmers Don't Use Pascal "humour" Back in the good old days - the "Golden Era" of computers, it was easy to separate the men from the boys (sometimes called "Real Men" and "Quiche Eaters" in the literature). During this period, the Real Men were the ones that understood computer programming, and the Quiche Eaters were the ones that didn't. A real computer programmer said things like "DO 10 I=1,10" and "ABEND" (they actually talked in capital letters, you understand), and the rest of the world said things like "computers are too complicated for me" and "I can't relate to computers - they're so impersonal". (A previous work [1] points out that Real Men don't "relate" to anything, and aren't afraid of being impersonal.) But, as usual, times change. We are faced today with a world in which little old ladies can get computers in their microwave ovens, 12-year-old kids can blow Real Men out of the water playing Asteroids and Pac-Man, and anyone can buy and even understand their very own Personal Computer. The Real Programmer is in danger of becoming extinct, of being replaced by high-school students with {TRASH-80s}. There is a clear need to point out the differences between the typical high-school junior Pac-Man player and a Real Programmer. If this difference is made clear, it will give these kids something to aspire to -- a role model, a Father Figure. It will also help explain to the employers of Real Programmers why it would be a mistake to replace the Real Programmers on their staff with 12-year-old Pac-Man players (at a considerable salary savings). LANGUAGES The easiest way to tell a Real Programmer from the crowd is by the programming language he (or she) uses. Real Programmers use {Fortran}. Quiche Eaters use {Pascal}. Nicklaus Wirth, the designer of Pascal, gave a talk once at which he was asked how to pronounce his name. He replied, "You can either call me by name, pronouncing it 'Veert', or call me by value, 'Worth'." One can tell immediately from this comment that Nicklaus Wirth is a Quiche Eater. The only parameter passing mechanism endorsed by Real Programmers is call-by-value-return, as implemented in the {IBM 370} {Fortran-G} and H compilers. Real programmers don't need all these abstract concepts to get their jobs done - they are perfectly happy with a {keypunch}, a {Fortran IV} {compiler}, and a beer. Real Programmers do List Processing in Fortran. Real Programmers do String Manipulation in Fortran. Real Programmers do Accounting (if they do it at all) in Fortran. Real Programmers do {Artificial Intelligence} programs in Fortran. If you can't do it in Fortran, do it in {assembly language}. If you can't do it in assembly language, it isn't worth doing. STRUCTURED PROGRAMMING The academics in computer science have gotten into the "structured programming" rut over the past several years. They claim that programs are more easily understood if the programmer uses some special language constructs and techniques. They don't all agree on exactly which constructs, of course, and the examples they use to show their particular point of view invariably fit on a single page of some obscure journal or another - clearly not enough of an example to convince anyone. When I got out of school, I thought I was the best programmer in the world. I could write an unbeatable tic-tac-toe program, use five different computer languages, and create 1000-line programs that WORKED. (Really!) Then I got out into the Real World. My first task in the Real World was to read and understand a 200,000-line Fortran program, then speed it up by a factor of two. Any Real Programmer will tell you that all the Structured Coding in the world won't help you solve a problem like that - it takes actual talent. Some quick observations on Real Programmers and Structured Programming: Real Programmers aren't afraid to use {GOTOs}. Real Programmers can write five-page-long DO loops without getting confused. Real Programmers like Arithmetic IF statements - they make the code more interesting. Real Programmers write self-modifying code, especially if they can save 20 {nanoseconds} in the middle of a tight loop. Real Programmers don't need comments - the code is obvious. Since Fortran doesn't have a structured IF, REPEAT ... UNTIL, or CASE statement, Real Programmers don't have to worry about not using them. Besides, they can be simulated when necessary using {assigned GOTOs}. Data Structures have also gotten a lot of press lately. Abstract Data Types, Structures, Pointers, Lists, and Strings have become popular in certain circles. Wirth (the above-mentioned Quiche Eater) actually wrote an entire book [2] contending that you could write a program based on data structures, instead of the other way around. As all Real Programmers know, the only useful data structure is the Array. Strings, lists, structures, sets - these are all special cases of arrays and can be treated that way just as easily without messing up your programing language with all sorts of complications. The worst thing about fancy data types is that you have to declare them, and Real Programming Languages, as we all know, have implicit typing based on the first letter of the (six character) variable name. OPERATING SYSTEMS What kind of operating system is used by a Real Programmer? CP/M? God forbid - CP/M, after all, is basically a toy operating system. Even little old ladies and grade school students can understand and use CP/M. Unix is a lot more complicated of course - the typical Unix hacker never can remember what the PRINT command is called this week - but when it gets right down to it, Unix is a glorified video game. People don't do Serious Work on Unix systems: they send jokes around the world on {UUCP}-net and write adventure games and research papers. No, your Real Programmer uses OS 370. A good programmer can find and understand the description of the IJK305I error he just got in his JCL manual. A great programmer can write JCL without referring to the manual at all. A truly outstanding programmer can find bugs buried in a 6 megabyte {core dump} without using a hex calculator. (I have actually seen this done.) OS is a truly remarkable operating system. It's possible to destroy days of work with a single misplaced space, so alertness in the programming staff is encouraged. The best way to approach the system is through a keypunch. Some people claim there is a Time Sharing system that runs on OS 370, but after careful study I have come to the conclusion that they were mistaken. PROGRAMMING TOOLS What kind of tools does a Real Programmer use? In theory, a Real Programmer could run his programs by keying them into the front panel of the computer. Back in the days when computers had front panels, this was actually done occasionally. Your typical Real Programmer knew the entire bootstrap loader by memory in hex, and toggled it in whenever it got destroyed by his program. (Back then, memory was memory - it didn't go away when the power went off. Today, memory either forgets things when you don't want it to, or remembers things long after they're better forgotten.) Legend has it that {Seymore Cray}, inventor of the Cray I supercomputer and most of Control Data's computers, actually toggled the first operating system for the CDC7600 in on the front panel from memory when it was first powered on. Seymore, needless to say, is a Real Programmer. One of my favorite Real Programmers was a systems programmer for Texas Instruments. One day he got a long distance call from a user whose system had crashed in the middle of saving some important work. Jim was able to repair the damage over the phone, getting the user to toggle in disk I/O instructions at the front panel, repairing system tables in hex, reading register contents back over the phone. The moral of this story: while a Real Programmer usually includes a keypunch and lineprinter in his toolkit, he can get along with just a front panel and a telephone in emergencies. In some companies, text editing no longer consists of ten engineers standing in line to use an 029 keypunch. In fact, the building I work in doesn't contain a single keypunch. The Real Programmer in this situation has to do his work with a "text editor" program. Most systems supply several text editors to select from, and the Real Programmer must be careful to pick one that reflects his personal style. Many people believe that the best text editors in the world were written at Xerox Palo Alto Research Center for use on their Alto and Dorado computers [3]. Unfortunately, no Real Programmer would ever use a computer whose operating system is called SmallTalk, and would certainly not talk to the computer with a mouse. Some of the concepts in these Xerox editors have been incorporated into editors running on more reasonably named operating systems - {Emacs} and {VI} being two. The problem with these editors is that Real Programmers consider "what you see is what you get" to be just as bad a concept in Text Editors as it is in women. No the Real Programmer wants a "you asked for it, you got it" text editor - complicated, cryptic, powerful, unforgiving, dangerous. TECO, to be precise. It has been observed that a TECO command sequence more closely resembles transmission line noise than readable text [4]. One of the more entertaining games to play with TECO is to type your name in as a command line and try to guess what it does. Just about any possible typing error while talking with TECO will probably destroy your program, or even worse - introduce subtle and mysterious bugs in a once working subroutine. For this reason, Real Programmers are reluctant to actually edit a program that is close to working. They find it much easier to just patch the binary {object code} directly, using a wonderful program called SUPERZAP (or its equivalent on non-IBM machines). This works so well that many working programs on IBM systems bear no relation to the original Fortran code. In many cases, the original source code is no longer available. When it comes time to fix a program like this, no manager would even think of sending anything less than a Real Programmer to do the job - no Quiche Eating structured programmer would even know where to start. This is called "job security". Some programming tools NOT used by Real Programmers: Fortran preprocessors like {MORTRAN} and {RATFOR}. The Cuisinarts of programming - great for making Quiche. See comments above on structured programming. Source language debuggers. Real Programmers can read core dumps. Compilers with array bounds checking. They stifle creativity, destroy most of the interesting uses for EQUIVALENCE, and make it impossible to modify the operating system code with negative subscripts. Worst of all, bounds checking is inefficient. Source code maintenance systems. A Real Programmer keeps his code locked up in a card file, because it implies that its owner cannot leave his important programs unguarded [5]. THE REAL PROGRAMMER AT WORK Where does the typical Real Programmer work? What kind of programs are worthy of the efforts of so talented an individual? You can be sure that no Real Programmer would be caught dead writing accounts-receivable programs in {COBOL}, or sorting {mailing lists} for People magazine. A Real Programmer wants tasks of earth-shaking importance (literally!). Real Programmers work for Los Alamos National Laboratory, writing atomic bomb simulations to run on Cray I supercomputers. Real Programmers work for the National Security Agency, decoding Russian transmissions. It was largely due to the efforts of thousands of Real Programmers working for NASA that our boys got to the moon and back before the Russkies. Real Programmers are at work for Boeing designing the operating systems for cruise missiles. Some of the most awesome Real Programmers of all work at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory in California. Many of them know the entire operating system of the Pioneer and Voyager spacecraft by heart. With a combination of large ground-based Fortran programs and small spacecraft-based assembly language programs, they are able to do incredible feats of navigation and improvisation - hitting ten-kilometer wide windows at Saturn after six years in space, repairing or bypassing damaged sensor platforms, radios, and batteries. Allegedly, one Real Programmer managed to tuck a pattern-matching program into a few hundred bytes of unused memory in a Voyager spacecraft that searched for, located, and photographed a new moon of Jupiter. The current plan for the Galileo spacecraft is to use a gravity assist trajectory past Mars on the way to Jupiter. This trajectory passes within 80 +/-3 kilometers of the surface of Mars. Nobody is going to trust a Pascal program (or a Pascal programmer) for navigation to these tolerances. As you can tell, many of the world's Real Programmers work for the U.S. Government - mainly the Defense Department. This is as it should be. Recently, however, a black cloud has formed on the Real Programmer horizon. It seems that some highly placed Quiche Eaters at the Defense Department decided that all Defense programs should be written in some grand unified language called "ADA" ((C), DoD). For a while, it seemed that ADA was destined to become a language that went against all the precepts of Real Programming - a language with structure, a language with data types, {strong typing}, and semicolons. In short, a language designed to cripple the creativity of the typical Real Programmer. Fortunately, the language adopted by DoD has enough interesting features to make it approachable -- it's incredibly complex, includes methods for messing with the operating system and rearranging memory, and Edsgar Dijkstra doesn't like it [6]. (Dijkstra, as I'm sure you know, was the author of "GoTos Considered Harmful" - a landmark work in programming methodology, applauded by Pascal programmers and Quiche Eaters alike.) Besides, the determined Real Programmer can write Fortran programs in any language. The Real Programmer might compromise his principles and work on something slightly more trivial than the destruction of life as we know it, providing there's enough money in it. There are several Real Programmers building video games at Atari, for example. (But not playing them - a Real Programmer knows how to beat the machine every time: no challenge in that.) Everyone working at LucasFilm is a Real Programmer. (It would be crazy to turn down the money of fifty million Star Trek fans.) The proportion of Real Programmers in Computer Graphics is somewhat lower than the norm, mostly because nobody has found a use for computer graphics yet. On the other hand, all computer graphics is done in Fortran, so there are a fair number of people doing graphics in order to avoid having to write COBOL programs. THE REAL PROGRAMMER AT PLAY Generally, the Real Programmer plays the same way he works - with computers. He is constantly amazed that his employer actually pays him to do what he would be doing for fun anyway (although he is careful not to express this opinion out loud). Occasionally, the Real Programmer does step out of the office for a breath of fresh air and a beer or two. Some tips on recognizing Real Programmers away from the computer room: At a party, the Real Programmers are the ones in the corner talking about operating system security and how to get around it. At a football game, the Real Programmer is the one comparing the plays against his simulations printed on 11 by 14 fanfold paper. At the beach, the Real Programmer is the one drawing flowcharts in the sand. At a funeral, the Real Programmer is the one saying "Poor George, he almost had the sort routine working before the coronary." In a grocery store, the Real Programmer is the one who insists on running the cans past the laser checkout scanner himself, because he never could trust keypunch operators to get it right the first time. THE REAL PROGRAMMER'S NATURAL HABITAT What sort of environment does the Real Programmer function best in? This is an important question for the managers of Real Programmers. Considering the amount of money it costs to keep one on the staff, it's best to put him (or her) in an environment where he can get his work done. The typical Real Programmer lives in front of a computer terminal. Surrounding this terminal are: Listings of all programs the Real Programmer has ever worked on, piled in roughly chronological order on every flat surface in the office. Some half-dozen or so partly filled cups of cold coffee. Occasionally, there will be cigarette butts floating in the coffee. In some cases, the cups will contain Orange Crush. Unless he is very good, there will be copies of the OS JCL manual and the Principles of Operation open to some particularly interesting pages. Taped to the wall is a line-printer Snoopy calendar for the year 1969. Strewn about the floor are several wrappers for peanut butter filled cheese bars - the type that are made pre-stale at the bakery so they can't get any worse while waiting in the vending machine. Hiding in the top left-hand drawer of the desk is a stash of double-stuff Oreos for special occasions. Underneath the Oreos is a flowcharting template, left there by the previous occupant of the office. (Real Programmers write programs, not documentation. Leave that to the maintenance people.) The Real Programmer is capable of working 30, 40, even 50 hours at a stretch, under intense pressure. In fact, he prefers it that way. Bad response time doesn't bother the Real Programmer - it gives him a chance to catch a little sleep between compiles. If there is not enough schedule pressure on the Real Programmer, he tends to make things more challenging by working on some small but interesting part of the problem for the first nine weeks, then finishing the rest in the last week, in two or three 50-hour marathons. This not only impresses the hell out of his manager, who was despairing of ever getting the project done on time, but creates a convenient excuse for not doing the documentation. In general: No Real Programmer works 9 to 5 (unless it's the ones at night). Real Programmers don't wear neckties. Real Programmers don't wear high-heeled shoes. Real Programmers arrive at work in time for lunch [9]. A Real Programmer might or might not know his wife's name. He does, however, know the entire {ASCII} (or EBCDIC) code table. Real Programmers don't know how to cook. Grocery stores aren't open at three in the morning. Real Programmers survive on Twinkies and coffee. THE FUTURE What of the future? It is a matter of some concern to Real Programmers that the latest generation of computer programmers are not being brought up with the same outlook on life as their elders. Many of them have never seen a computer with a front panel. Hardly anyone graduating from school these days can do hex arithmetic without a calculator. College graduates these days are soft - protected from the realities of programming by source level debuggers, text editors that count parentheses, and "user friendly" operating systems. Worst of all, some of these alleged "computer scientists" manage to get degrees without ever learning Fortran! Are we destined to become an industry of Unix hackers and Pascal programmers? From my experience, I can only report that the future is bright for Real Programmers everywhere. Neither OS 370 nor Fortran show any signs of dying out, despite all the efforts of Pascal programmers the world over. Even more subtle tricks, like adding structured coding constructs to Fortran have failed. Oh sure, some computer vendors have come out with Fortran 77 compilers, but every one of them has a way of converting itself back into a Fortran 66 compiler at the drop of an option card - to compile DO loops like God meant them to be. Even Unix might not be as bad on Real Programmers as it once was. The latest release of Unix has the potential of an operating system worthy of any Real Programmer - two different and subtly incompatible user interfaces, an arcane and complicated teletype driver, virtual memory. If you ignore the fact that it's "structured", even 'C' programming can be appreciated by the Real Programmer: after all, there's no type checking, variable names are seven (ten? eight?) characters long, and the added bonus of the Pointer data type is thrown in - like having the best parts of Fortran and assembly language in one place. (Not to mention some of the more creative uses for

record "data, database, programming" An {ordered set} of {fields}, usually stored contiguously. The term is used with similar meaning in several different contexts. In a file, a "record" probably has some fixed length, in contrast to a "line" which may have any length and is terminated by some {End Of Line} sequence). A {database} record is also called a "row". In a {spreadsheet} it is always called a "row". Some programming languages use the term to mean a type composed of fields of several other types ({C} calls this a "{struct}"). In all these cases, a record represents an entity with certain field values. Fields may be of a fixed width ({bits} or {characters}) or they may be separated by a {delimiter} character, often {comma} ({CSV}) or {HT} ({TSV}). In a database the list of values of a given field from all records is called a column. (2002-03-22)

recursive type A data type which contains itself. The commonest example is the list type, in {Haskell}: data List a = Nil | Cons a (List a) which says a list of a's is either an empty list or a {cons cell} containing an 'a' (the "head" of the list) and another list (the "tail"). Recursion is not allowed in {Miranda} or Haskell {synonym types}, so the following {Haskell} types are illegal: type Bad = (Int, Bad) type Evil = Bool -" Evil whereas the seeminly equivalent {algebraic data types} are acceptable: data Good = Pair Int Good data Fine = Fun (Bool-"Fine)

Reducibility, axiom of: An axiom which (or some substitute) is necessary in connection with the ramified theory of types (q.v.) if that theory is to be adequate for classical mathematics, but the admissibility of which has been much disputed (see Paradoxes, logical). An exact statement of the axiom can be made only in the context of a detailed formulation of the ramified theory of types -- which will not here be undertaken. As an indication or rough description of the axiom of reducibility, it may be said that it cancels a large part of ihe restrictive consequences of the prohibition against impredicative definition (q.v.) and, in approximate effect, reduces the ramified theory of types to the simple theory of types (for the latter see Logic, formal, § 6). -- A.C.

referential transparency "programming" An expression E is referentially transparent if any subexpression and its value (the result of evaluating it) can be interchanged without changing the value of E. This is not the case if the value of an expression depends on global state which can change value. The most common example of changing global state is assignment to a global variable. For example, if y is a global variable in: f(x) { return x+y; } g(z) {  a = f(1);  y = y + z;  return a + f(1); } function g has the "{side-effect}" that it alters the value of y. Since f's result depends on y, the two calls to f(1) will return different results even though the argument is the same. Thus f is not referentially transparent. Changing the order of evaluation of the statements in g will change its result. {Pure functional languages} achieve referential transparency by forbidding {assignment} to global variables. Each expression is a constant or a function application whose evaluation has no side-effect, it only returns a value and that value depends only on the definition of the function and the values of its arguments. We could make f above referentially transparent by passing in y as an argument: f(x, y) = x+y Similarly, g would need to take y as an argument and return its new value as part of the result: g(z, y) {  a = f(1, y);  y' = y+z;  return (a + f(1, y'), y'); } Referentially transparent programs are more amenable to {formal methods} and easier to reason about because the meaning of an expression depends only on the meaning of its subexpressions and not on the order of evaluation or side-effects of other expressions. We can stretch the concept of referential transparency to include input and output if we consider the whole program to be a function from its input to its output. The program as a whole is referentially transparent because it will always produce the same output when given the same input. This is stretching the concept because the program's input may include what the user types, the content of certain files or even the time of day. If we do not consider global state like the contents of files as input, then writing to a file and reading what was written behaves just like assignment to a global variable. However, if we must consider the state of the universe as an input rather than global state then any {deterministic} system would be referentially transparent! See also {extensional equality}, {observational equivalence}. (1997-03-25)

Representative Ideas, Theory of: Theory that the mind in perception, memory and other types of knowledge, does not know its objects directly but only through the mediation of ideas which represent them. The theory was advanced by Descartes and the expression, representative ideas, may have been suggested by his statement that our ideas more or less adequately "represent" their originals. See Meditations, III. Locke, Hobbes, Malebranche, Berkeley subscnbed to the theory in one form or another and the theory has supporters among contemporary epistemologists (e.g. Lovejoy and certain other Critical Reilists). The theory has been severely criticised ever since the time of Arnauld. (See Des vrais et de fausses idees) and has become one of reproach. See Epistemological Dualism. -- L.W.

ResEdit "programming, tool" A free {resource editor} for {Win32} programs. ResEdit can create {dialogs}, {icon}, {version information} or other types of resources. Output files can be compiled by any Win32 {compiler} like {MinGW} and Microsoft {Visual C++}. {(}. (2007-03-24)

restriction A {bug} or design error that limits a program's capabilities, and which is sufficiently egregious that nobody can quite work up enough nerve to describe it as a {feature}. Often used (especially by {marketroid} types) to make it sound as though some crippling bogosity had been intended by the designers all along, or was forced upon them by arcane technical constraints of a nature no mere user could possibly comprehend (these claims are almost invariably false). Old-time hacker Joseph M. Newcomer advises that whenever choosing a quantifiable but arbitrary restriction, you should make it either a power of 2 or a power of 2 minus 1. If you impose a limit of 17 items in a list, everyone will know it is a random number - on the other hand, a limit of 15 or 16 suggests some deep reason (involving 0- or 1-based indexing in binary) and you will get less {flamage} for it. Limits which are round numbers in base 10 are always especially suspect. [{Jargon File}]

RFC 2048 "messaging, file format, standard" The {RFC} explaining registration of {MIME types}. {(rfc:2048)}. (1998-02-11)

Rich Site Summary "web, standard" (RSS, blog, feed) A family of {standard} {web} document types containing regularly updated, short articles or news items. RSS documents (generally called "RSS feeds", "news feeds" or just "feeds") can be read with an RSS reader like {BottomFeeder} or {Feedly}. These are sometimes called "{aggregators}" because they combine multiple RSS feeds which the user can browse as a single list. The RSS reader tracks which articles the use has read, and is typically set to show only new articles, hence the idea of a "feed" or flow of new items. Most RSS feeds are based on {RDF}. {RDF} is a structured document format for describing textual resources such as news articles available on the web. RSS originally stood for "RDF Site Summary" as it was designed to provide short descriptions of (changes to) a {website}. Because it provides a standard way to deliver, or "syndicate", news or updates from one site to another, RSS is sometimes expanded as "Really Simple Syndication". It is closely associated with {blogs}, most of which provide an RSS feed of articles. (2013-08-15)

rig ::: n. --> A ridge.
The peculiar fitting in shape, number, and arrangement of sails and masts, by which different types of vessels are distinguished; as, schooner rig, ship rig, etc. See Illustration in Appendix.
Dress; esp., odd or fanciful clothing.
A romp; a wanton; one given to unbecoming conduct.
A sportive or unbecoming trick; a frolic.
A blast of wind.

RISCiX "operating system" /risk-icks/ (Or "RISC iX") {BSD}-based {Unix} developed by {Acorn Computers Ltd.} (Cambridge, UK) to run on 32-bit {ARM} {RISC} processors. RISCiX was launched circa 1989 for three production machines - the R140, R260, the discless R225; and other prototypes. (2003-09-24)

Romanticism: As a general philosophical movement, romanticism is best understood as the initial phase of German Idealism, serving as a transition from Kant to Hegel, and flourishing chiefly between 1775 and 1815. It is associated primarily with the Schlegel brothers, Novalis, Fried, Schelling, and Schleiermacher, with Schelhng as its culmination and most typical figure. The philosophical point of departure for romanticism is the Kantian philosophy, and romanticism shares with all German Idealism both the fundamental purpose of extending knowledge to the realm of noumena, and the fundamental doctrine that all reality is ultimately spiritual, derivative from a living spirit and so knowable by the human spirit. The essence of philosophical romanticism as expressed by Schelhng, that which differentiates it from other types of Idealism, resides in its conception of Spirit; upon this depend its metaphysical account of nature and man, and its epistemological doctrine of the proper method for investigating and understanding reality. Romanticism holds that Spirit, or the Absolute, is essentially creative; the ultimate ground of all things is primarily an urge to self-expression, and all that it has brought into being is but a means to its fuller self-realization. If the Absolute of Fichte is a moralist, and that of Hegel a logician, then that of the romanticists is primarily an artist. From this basic view there springs a metaphysic that interprets the universe in terms of the concepts of evolution, process, life, and consciousness. The world of nature is one manifestation of Spirit, man is another and a higher such manifestation, for in man Spirit seeks to become conscious of its own work. The metaphysical process is the process by which the Absolute seeks to realize itself, and all particular things are but phases within it. Hence, the epistemology of romanticism is exclusively emotional and intuitive, stressing the necessity for fullness of experience and depth of feeling if reality is to be understood. Reason, being artificial and analytical, is inadequate to the task of comprehending the Absolute; knowing is living, and the philosopher must approach nature through inspiration, longing, and sympathy.

RTL/2 Real Time Language. A small {real-time} language based on {ALGOL 68}, with {separate compilation} designed by J.G.P. Barnes of ICI in 1972 as a successor to {RTL/1}. A program is composed of separately compilable modules called "bricks" which may be datablocks, procedures or stack. A stack is a storage area for use as a workspace by a task. The language is {block-structured} and {weakly typed}. Simple types are byte, int, frac and real. There are no {Booleans}. Compound types may be formed from {arrays}, {records} and {refs} (pointers). There are no user-defined types. Control statements are if-then-elseif-else-end, for-to-by-do-rep, block-endblock, switch, goto, and label variables. ["RTL/2: Design and Philosophy", J.G.P. Barnes, Hayden & Son, 1976].

Ruby "language" 1. A {relational language} designed by Jones and M. Sheeran in 1986 for describing and designing circuits (a {hardware description language}). Ruby programs denote {binary relations} and programs are built-up inductively from primitive relations using a pre-defined set of {relational operators}. Ruby programs also have a geometric interpretation as networks of primitive relations connected by wires, which is important when layout is considered in circuit design. Ruby has been continually developed since 1986, and has been used to design many different kinds of circuits, including {systolic arrays}, {butterfly networks} and arithmetic circuits. {(}. E-mail: "". ["Ruby - A Language of Relations and Higher-Order Functions", M. Sheeran, Proc 3rd Banff Workshop on Hardware Verification, Springer 1990]. (1994-10-27) 2. One of five pedagogical languages based on {Markov algorithms}, used in Higman's report (below). The other languages are {Brilliant}, {Diamond}, {Nonpareil}, and {Pearl}. ["Nonpareil, a Machine Level Machine Independent Language for the Study of Semantics", B. Higman, ULICS Intl Report No ICSI 170, U London (1968)]. (1994-10-27) 3. A fully {object oriented} {interpreted} {scripting language} by Yukihiro Matsumoto "". Similar in scope to {Perl} and {Python}, Ruby has high-level {data types}, automatic {memory management}, {dynamic typing}, a {module} system, {exceptions}, and a rich standard library. Other features are {CLU}-style {iterators} for {loop abstraction}, {singleton classes}/{methods} and {lexical closures}. In Ruby, everything is an {object}, including the basic data types. For example, the number 1 is an instance of {class} Fixnum. Current version (stable): 1.6.7, as of 2002-03-01. {Ruby Home (}. {Ruby Central (}. ["Programming Ruby - The Pragmatic Programmer's Guide", David Thomas, Andrew Hunt, Yukihiro Matsumoto pub. Addison Wesley 2000]. (2002-06-19)

Russell "language" (After {Bertrand Russell}) A compact, {polymorphical}ly typed {functional language} by A. Demers & J. Donahue with {bignums} and {continuations}. {Types} are themselves {first-class} values and may be passed as {arguments}. {(}. ["An Informal Description of Russell", H. Boehm et al, Cornell CS TR 80-430, 1980]. ["Understanding Russell: A First Attempt", J.G. Hook in LNCS 173, Springer]. (1995-03-27)

Russell's solution of the paradoxes is embodied in what is now known as the ramified theory of types, published by him in 1908, and afterwards made the basis of Principia Mathematica. Because of its complication, and because of the necessity for the much-disputed axiom of reducibility, this has now been largely abandoned in favor of other solutions.

sadhyadeva ::: a term for the eighth of the ten types of consciousness (dasa-gavas) in the evolutionary scale, also called siddhadeva: mind raised to the plane of ananda.

sahaituka ::: having a cause (hetu); associated with a stimulus; (with reference to any kind of physical ananda or certain types of subjective ananda) awakened by a sensation or object; short for sahaituka ananda. sahaituka ananda

saptarci (saptarchi) ::: the seven rays or flames (of agni1, the principle of visible formation, or Agni2, the deity who supports this principle), identified with the seven types of akashic material.

Sather-K "language" Karlsruhe Sather. A sublanguage of {Sather} used for introductory courses in {object-oriented design} and {typesafe programming}. E-mail: "". (1994-11-11)

satyadeva ::: literally "true god"; a term used for the highest of the ten types of consciousness (dasa-gavas) in the evolutionary scale, also called siddhadeva or siddha purus.a: mind raised to the plane of sat.

scan design "electronics" (Or "Scan-In, Scan-Out") A electronic circuit design technique which aims to increase the controllability and observability of a digital {logic circuit} by incorporating special "{scan registers}" into the circuit so that they form a {scan path}. Some of the more common types of scan design include the {multiplexed register} designs and {level-sensitive scan design} (LSSD) used extensively by {IBM}. {Boundary scan} can be used alone or in combination with either of the above techniques. ["Digital Systems Testing and Testable Design" by Abramovici, Breuer, and Friedman, ISBN 0-7167-8179-4]. ["Design of Testable Logic Circuits" by R.G. Bennetts, (Brunel/Southhampton Universities), ISBN 0-201-14403-4]. (1995-02-23)

Scepticism: (1) a proposition about the limitations of knowledge: that no knowledge at all or that no absolute, unquestionable, trustworthy, certain, complete, or perfect knowledge (or rationally justifiable belief) is attainable by man; or that such is not attainable by any knower, or that none of these kinds of knowledge, if attained, would be recognizable as such; or that no such knowledge is attainable about certain subjects, e g , questions about cxistence, ultimate reality, certain religious beliefs, or the existence or nature of certain entities (e.g., God, one's self, other selves, values, an external world, or causal connections); or that one or more or all of these types of knowledge is not attainable by certain methods or media, e g, reason, infeience, revelation, any non-empirical method, direct observation, or immediate experience (hence identification of scepticism variously with inti-rationalism, anti-supernaturalism, or doctrines of relativity of the senses or relativity of all knowledge);

Scratchpad I "language" A general-purpose language originally for interactive {symbolic mathematics} by Richard Jenks, Barry Trager, Stephen M. Watt and Robert S. Sutor of {IBM Research}, ca 1971. It features abstract parametrised data types, {multiple inheritance} and {polymorphism}. There were implementations for {VM/CMS} and {AIX}. ["Scratchpad User's Manual", RA 70, IBM (June 1975)]. (1994-12-15)

search engine "web, tool, information science" A remotely accessible program that lets you do keyword searches for information on the {Internet}. There are several types of search engine; the search may cover titles of documents, {URLs}, headers, or the {full text}. {A list of search engines (

Second-Order Lambda-calculus "language" (SOL) A {typed lambda-calculus}. ["Abstract Types have Existential Type", J. Mitchell et al, 12th POPL, ACM 1985, pp. 37-51]. (1995-07-29)

Security Administrator's Integrated Network Tool "networking, security, tool" (SAINT, originally "Security Administrator Tool for Analyzing Networks", SATAN) A tool written by Dan Farmer and Wietse Venema which remotely probes systems via the {network} and stores its findings in a {database}. The results can be viewed with an {web browser}. SAINT requires {Perl} 5.000 or better. In its simplest mode, SAINT gathers as much information about remote hosts and networks as possible by examining such network services as {finger}, {NFS}, {NIS}, {FTP}, {TFTP}, {rexd}, and other services. The information gathered includes the presence of various network information services as well as potential security flaws - usually in the form of incorrectly setup or configured network services, well-known {bugs} in system or network utilities, or poor or ignorant policy decisions. It can then either report on this data or use a simple rule-based system to investigate any potential security problems. Users can then examine, query, and analyze the output with a {web browser}. While the program is primarily geared toward analysing the security implications of the results, a great deal of general network information can be gained when using the tool - network topology, network services running, and types of hardware and software being used on the network. SAINT can also be used in exploratory mode. Based on the initial data collection and a user configurable ruleset, it will examine the avenues of trust and dependency and iterate further data collection runs over secondary hosts. This not only allows the user to analyse his own network, but also to examine the real implications inherent in network trust and services and help them make reasonably educated decisions about the security level of the systems involved. {(}. {Old SATAN page (}. {Mailing list (}. (2000-08-12)

See also: Index, Sign, Types of Language.

See, apart from the works of the authors named, George Trumbull Ladd, The Philosophy of Religion; Edwin A. Burtt, Types of Religious Philosophy, Edgar S. Brightman, A Philosophy of Religion. -- K.F.L.

Self "language" A small, {dynamically typed} {object-oriented language}, based purely on {prototypes} and {delegation}. Self was developed by the Self Group at {Sun Microsystems Laboratories, Inc.} and {Stanford University}. It is an experimental {exploratory programming} language. Release 2.0 introduces full {source-level debugging} of optimised code, adaptive optimisation to shorten compile pauses, {lightweight threads} within Self, support for dynamically linking {foreign functions}, changing programs within Self and the ability to run the experimental Self graphical browser under {OpenWindows}. Designed for expressive power and malleability, Self combines a pure, {prototype}-based object model with uniform access to state and behaviour. Unlike other languages, Self allows objects to inherit state and to change their patterns of inheritance dynamically. Self's customising compiler can generate very efficient code compared to other dynamically-typed object-oriented languages. Version: 3.0 runs on {Sun-3} (no optimiser) and {Sun-4}. {(}. ["Self: The Power of Simplicity", David Ungar "" et al, SIGPLAN Notices 22(12):227-242, OOPSLA '87, Dec 1987]. (1999-06-09)

self-system ::: A third-person descriptor for the overall self. The self-system is the locus of identification, will, defenses, metabolism, and integration (i.e., balancing the various levels, lines, states, and types of consciousness).

SETL SET Language. A very high level language based on sets, designed by Jack Schwartz at the {Courant Institute} in the early 1970s. It was possibly the first use of {list comprehension} notation. Data types include sets (unordered collections), {tuples} (ordered collections) and maps (collections of ordered pairs). Expressions may include {quantifiers} ('for each' and 'exists'). The first {Ada} translator was written in SETL. See also {ISETL}, {ProSet}, {SETL2}. ["Programming With Sets - An Introduction to SETL", Jacob T. Schwartz et al, Springer 1986].

setter ::: n. --> One who, or that which, sets; -- used mostly in composition with a noun, as typesetter; or in combination with an adverb, as a setter on (or inciter), a setter up, a setter forth.
A hunting dog of a special breed originally derived from a cross between the spaniel and the pointer. Modern setters are usually trained to indicate the position of game birds by standing in a fixed position, but originally they indicated it by sitting or crouching.
One who hunts victims for sharpers.

Shift In "character" (SI, Control-O, {ASCII} 15) The character used on some ancient {teletypes} to start using an alternative {character set}. (1996-06-24)

Shift Out "character" (SO, Control-N, {ASCII} 14) The character which was used to "shift out" of an alternate character set on some ancient {teletypes}, reversing the effect of the {Shift In} (SI, ASCII 15) character. (1996-06-24)

Shockwave "tool" A program from {Macromedia} for viewing files created with {Macromedia Director}. Shockwave is freely available as a {plug-in} for the {Netscape Navigator} web {browser}. "Shocked" pages that incorporate documents created in Director can usually only be enjoyed by users with an {ISDN} or faster connection. {(}. [Filetypes? More detail?] (1998-07-07)

siddhadeva ::: literally "perfect god"; one of the ten types of consciousness (dasa-gavas) in the evolutionary scale (considered variously to be the eighth, ninth or tenth in this scale).

siddhasura ::: the ninth of the ten types (dasa-gavas) in the evolusiddhasura tionary scale, also called siddhadeva: mind raised to the plane of tapas.

simia ::: n. --> A Linnaean genus of Quadrumana which included the types of numerous modern genera. By modern writers it is usually restricted to the genus which includes the orang-outang.

single quote "character" "'" {ASCII} character 39. Common names include single quote; quote; {ITU-T}: apostrophe. Rare: prime; glitch; tick; irk; pop; {INTERCAL}: spark; {ITU-T}: closing single quotation mark; {ITU-T}: acute accent. Single quote is used in {C} and derived languages to introduce a single character {literal value} which is represented internally by its ASCII code. In the {Unix} {shells} and {Perl} single quote is used to delimit strings in which variable substitution is not performed (in contrast to {double-quote}-delimited strings). Single quote is often used in text for both open and close single quotation mark and apostrophe. Typesetters use two different symbols - open has a tail going up, close and apostrophe have tails hanging down (like a raised {comma}). Some people use {back quote} (`) for open single quotation mark. (1998-04-04)

S. K. Langer, An Introduction to Symbolic Logic, 1937. Appendix A. 3. THE FUNCTIONAL CALCULUS OF FIRST ORDER is the next discipline beyond the propositional calculus, according to the usual treatment. It is the first step towards the hierarchy of types (§ 6) and deals, in addition to unanalyzed propositions, with propositional functions (q. v.) of the lowest order. It employs the sentential connectives of § 1, and in addition the universal quantifier (q. v.), written (X) where X is any individual variable, and the existential quantifier, written (EX) where X is any individual variable. (The E denoting existential quantification is more often written inverted, as by Peano and Whitehead-Russell, but we here adopt the typographically more convenient usage, which also has sanction.)

SLANG 1. R.A. Sibley. CACM 4(1):75-84 (Jan 1961). 2. Set LANGuage. Jastrzebowski, ca 1990. C extension with set-theoretic data types and garbage collection. "The SLANG Programming Language Reference Manual, Version 3.3", W. Jastrzebowski "", 1990. 3. Structured LANGuage. Michael Kessler, IBM. A language based on structured programming macros for IBM 370 assembly language. "Project RMAG: SLANG (Structured Language) Compiler", R.A. Magnuson, NIH-DCRT-DMB-SSS-UG105, NIH, DHEW, Bethesda, MD 20205 (1980). 4. "SLANG: A Problem Solving Language for Continuous-Model Simulation and Optimisation", J.M. Thames, Proc 24th ACM Natl Conf 1969.

sloop ::: n. --> A vessel having one mast and fore-and-aft rig, consisting of a boom-and-gaff mainsail, jibs, staysail, and gaff topsail. The typical sloop has a fixed bowsprit, topmast, and standing rigging, while those of a cutter are capable of being readily shifted. The sloop usually carries a centerboard, and depends for stability upon breadth of beam rather than depth of keel. The two types have rapidly approximated since 1880. One radical distinction is that a slop may carry a centerboard. See Cutter, and Illustration in Appendix.

socket "networking" The {Berkeley Unix} mechansim for creating a virtual connection between processes. Sockets interface {Unix}'s {standard I/O} with its {network} communication facilities. They can be of two types, stream (bi-directional) or {datagram} (fixed length destination-addressed messages). The socket library function socket() creates a communications end-point or socket and returns a {file descriptor} with which to access that socket. The socket has associated with it a socket address, consisting of a {port} number and the local host's network address. {Unix manual page}: socket(2). (1995-01-31)

software "programming" (Or "computer program", "program", "code") The instructions executed by a computer, as opposed to the physical device on which they run (the "{hardware}"). The term was coined by the eminent statistician, {John Tukey}. Programs stored on {non-volatile storage} built from {integrated circuits} (e.g. {ROM} or {PROM}) are usually called {firmware}. Software can be split into two main types - {system software} and application software or {application programs}. System software is any software required to support the production or execution of application programs but which is not specific to any particular application. Examples of system software would include the {operating system}, {compilers}, editors and sorting programs. Examples of application programs would include an accounts package or a {CAD} program. Other broad classes of application software include {real-time} software, {business software}, scientific and engineering software, {embedded software}, personal computer software and {artificial intelligence} software. Software includes both {source code} written by humans and executable {machine code} produced by {assemblers} or {compilers}. It does not usually include the data processed by programs unless this is in a format such as {multimedia} which depends on the use of computers for its presentation. This distinction becomes unclear in cases such as {spread sheets} which can contain both instructions (formulae and {macros}) and data. There are also various intermediate compiled or {semi-compiled}, forms of software such as {library} files and {byte-code}. Some claim that {documentation} (both paper and electronic) is also software. Others go further and define software to be programs plus documentation though this does not correspond with common usage. The noun "program" describes a single, complete and more-or-less self-contained list of instructions, often stored in a single {file}, whereas "code" and "software" are uncountable nouns describing some number of instructions which may constitute one or more programs or part thereof. Most programs, however, rely heavily on various kinds of {operating system} software for their execution. The nounds "code" and "software" both refer to the same thing but "code" tends to suggest an interest in the implementation details whereas "software" is more of a user's term. (2002-07-21)

specialisation A reduction in generality, usually for the sake of increased efficiency. If a piece of code is specialised for certain values of certain variables (usually function arguments), this is known as "{partial evaluation}". In a language with {overloading} (e.g. {Haskell}), an overloaded function might be specialised to a non-overloaded instance at compile-time if the types of its arguments are known.

Spranger, Eduard: (1882) Developed Dilthey's thought, favoring like him, descriptive instead explanatory psychology. As leading exponent of the Verstehungspsychologie, he postulates ideal types representing ultimate categories of value. These types of personality represent merely "schemata of comprehensibility," theoretical guides or aids in understanding people. -- H.H.

SQL3 "database, standard, language" A draft {standard} for another extension of {SQL}. The latest SQL3 Working Draft addresses the requirement for {objects} and "object identifiers" in SQL and also specifies supporting features such as {encapsulation}, {subtypes}, {inheritance}, and {polymorphism}. In the USA, SQL3 is being processed as both an {ANSI} Domestic ("D") project and as an {ISO} project. It is expected to be complete in 1998. {November 1992 paper (}. {Working draft (}. [ISO/IEC SQL Revision. ISO-ANSI Working Draft Database Language SQL (SQL3), Jim Melton - Editor, document ISO/IEC JTC1/SC21 N6931, {ANSI}, July 1992]. [Current Status?] (2002-04-21)

SQL "language, database, standard" /S Q L/ An industry-standard language for creating, updating and, querying {relational database management systems}. SQL was developed by {IBM} in the 1970s for use in {System R}. It is the {de facto standard} as well as being an {ISO} and {ANSI} {standard}. It is often embedded in general purpose programming languages. The first SQL standard, in 1986, provided basic language constructs for defining and manipulating {tables} of data; a revision in 1989 added language extensions for {referential integrity} and generalised {integrity} {constraints}. Another revision in 1992 provided facilities for {schema} manipulation and {data administration}, as well as substantial enhancements for data definition and data manipulation. Development is currently underway to enhance SQL into a computationally complete language for the definition and management of {persistent}, complex objects. This includes: generalisation and specialisation hierarchies, {multiple inheritance}, user defined {data types}, {triggers} and {assertions}, support for {knowledge based systems}, {recursive query expressions}, and additional data administration tools. It also includes the specification of {abstract data types} (ADTs), object identifiers, {methods}, {inheritance}, {polymorphism}, {encapsulation}, and all of the other facilities normally associated with object data management. The emerging {SQL3} standard is expected to be complete in 1998. According to Allen G. Taylor, SQL does __not__ stand for "Structured Query Language". That, like "SEQUEL" (and its pronunciation /see'kw*l/), was just another unofficial name for a precursor of SQL. However, the IBM SQL Reference manual for DB2 and Craig Mullins's "DB2 Developer's Guide" say SQL __does__ stand for "Structured Query Language". {SQL Standards (}. {An SQL parser (} is described in "Lex & Yacc", by Levine, Mason & Brown published by O'Reilly. {The 1995 SQL Reunion: People, Projects, and Politics (}. ["A Guide to the SQL Standard", C.J. Date, A-W 1987]. ["SQL for Dummies", Allen G. Taylor, IDG Books Worldwide]. (2005-11-17)

Standard ML "language" (SML) Originally an attempt by Robin Milner "" ca. 1984 to unify the dialects of {ML}, SML has evolved into a robust general-purpose language. Later versions have been maintained by D. B. MacQueen, Lal George "", and J. H. Reppy "" at AT&T, and A. W. Appel "". SML is {functional}, with {imperative programming} features. It is environment based and {strict}. It adds to ML the {call-by-pattern} of {Hope}, {recursive data types}, {reference types}, typed {exceptions}, and {modules}. (The "core" language excludes the modules). Standard ML is {polymorphic}ally typed and its module system supports flexible yet secure large-scale programming. {Standard ML of New Jersey} is an optimising {native-code compiler} for Standard ML that is written in Standard ML. It runs on a wide range of architectures. The distribution also contains: an extensive library - The Standard ML of New Jersey Library, including detailed documentation; {Concurrent ML} (CML); {eXene} - an elegant interface to {X11} (based on {CML}); {SourceGroup} - a {separate compilation} and "{make}" facility. Implementations: {SML/NJ}, {POPLOG ML}, {Poly/ML}, {Edinburgh SML}, {ANU ML}, {Micro ML}, {lazy sml2c}. {sml2c} compiles to {C}. See also {ML Kit}. Version 0.93 runs on {68000}, {SPARC}, {MIPS}, {HPPA}, {RS/6000}, {Intel 386}, {Intel 486} and {Macintosh}. {Manual (}. {FTP from ATT (}. {FTP from Suny SB (}. Mailing list: ["A Proposal for Standard ML", R. Milner, ACM Symp on LISP and Functional Prog 1984, pp. 184-197]. (1995-12-24)

Stanford Artificial Intelligence Language "language" (SAIL) Dan Swinehart & Bob Sproull, Stanford AI Project, 1970. A large ALGOL 60-like language for the DEC-10 and DEC-20. Its main feature is a symbolic data system based upon an associative store (originally called LEAP). Items may be stored as unordered sets or as associations (triples). Processes, events and interrupts, contexts, backtracking and record garbage collection. Block- structured macros. "Recent Developments in SAIL - An ALGOL-based Language for Artificial Intelligence", J. Feldman et al, Proc FJCC 41(2), AFIPS (Fall 1972). (See MAINSAIL). The Stanford Artificial Intelligence Language used at {SAIL} (the place). It was an ALGOL 60 derivative with a coroutining facility and some new data types intended for building search trees and association lists. A number of interesting software systems were coded in SAIL, including early versions of {FTP} and {TeX} and a document formatting system called {PUB}. In 1978, there were half a dozen different operating systems for the PDP-10: WAITS (Stanford), ITS (MIT), TOPS-10 (DEC), CMU TOPS-10 (CMU), TENEX (BBN), and TOPS-20 (DEC, after TENEX). SAIL was ported from {WAITS} to {ITS} so that {MIT} researchers could make use of software developed at {Stanford University}. Every port usually required the rewriting of I/O code in each application. [{Jargon File}] (2001-06-22)

stereotypes ::: 1. A process, now often replaced by more advanced methods, for making metal printing plates by taking a mold of composed type or the like in papier-mâché or other material and then taking from this mold a cast in type metal. 2. Also fig. Of unchanging, habitually repeated things, set forms; conventions.

stereotyper ::: n. --> One who stereotypes; one who makes stereotype plates, or works in a stereotype foundry.

stringly typed "humour, programming" A humourous play on "{strongly typed}", coined by Mark Simpson, for an implementation that uses strings instead of more appropriate types, thus preventing {compile-time} {type checking}. [{Dodgy Coder (}]. (2012-06-25)

strong typing "programming" Strict enforcement of {type} rules with no exceptions. Incorrect type usage can be detected either at {run time} or at {compile time}. Strong typing catches more type errors than {weak typing}, resulting in fewer hard errors. In a strongly typed language, conversion between types requires the use of explicit conversion functions ("casts") as opposed to {implicit type coercion}. Typing strength is a continuum; {ML} is more strongly typed than {Java}, which is more strongly typed than {C}. Strong or weak typing is independent of the choice between {static typing} and {dynamic typing}. Among strongly typed languages, {Ada}, {Java}, {Haskell} and {ML} are statically typed, whereas {Python} and {Ruby} are dynamically typed. (2004-07-20)

struct "programming" A data type in {C} and {C++} corresponding to a {record} in {Ada} or {Pascal} or a {tuple} in {functional programming}. A struct has one or more members, each of which may have different types. It is used to group associated data together. (1995-02-14)

Summary Object Interchange Format "web, protocol" (SOIF) The attribute-value pair record format which {Harvest Brokers} use to exchange {Harvest} content summaries. SOIF provides a means of bracketing collections of summary objects, allowing {Harvest Brokers} to retrieve SOIF content summaries for many objects in a single, efficient compressed stream. Harvest Brokers provide support for querying SOIF data using structured attribute-value queries and many other types of queries. {(}. (1996-09-16)

Summum Bonum: (Lat. the supreme good) A term applied to an ultimate end of human conduct the worth of which is intrinsically and substantively good. It is some end that is not subordinate to anything else. Happiness, pleasure, virtue, self-realization, power, obedience to the voice of duty, to conscience, to the will of God, good will, perfection have been claimed as ultimate aims of human conduct in the history of ethical theory. Those who interpret all ethical problems in terms of a conception of good they hold to be the highest ignore all complexities of conduct, focus attention wholly upon goals towards which deeds are directed, restrict their study by constructing every good in one single pattern, center all goodness in one model and thus reduce all other types of good to their model. -- H.H.

sum of products 1. "mathematics, logic" Any mathematical {expression} in which an addition operator is applied to two or more subexpressions each of which is an application of a multiplication operator. The most common case would be scalar addition and multiplication, e.g. ab + cd but the term is used for other kinds of operators with similar properties, such as AND and OR in {Boolean algebra}, e.g. (a AND b) OR (c AND d) 2. "types" {algebraic data type}. (2008-02-04)

Super Pascal "language" A {Pascal} variant used in the reference below. Super Pascal adds non-numeric {labels}, a {return statement} and {expressions} as names of {types}. ["Data Structures and Algorithms", A. Aho, Hopcroft & Ullman, A-W 1983] (2004-08-25)

System Control Language "language" (SCL) The {command language} for the {VME/B} {operating system} on the {ICL2900}. SCL was {block structured} and supported strings, lists of strings ("superstrings"), {integer}, {Boolean}, and {array} types. You could trigger a {block} whenever a condition on a variable value occured. It supported {macros} and default arguments. Commands were treated like procedure calls. ["VME/B SCL Syntax", Intl Computers Ltd. 1980]. (2003-01-08)

System Management Bus "hardware, protocol" (SMBus, SMB) A simple two-wire {bus} used for communication with low-bandwidth devices on a motherboard, especially power related chips such as a laptop's rechargeable battery subsystem (see {Smart Battery Data}). Other devices might include temperature sensors and lid switches. A device can provide manufacturer information, indicate its model/part number, save its state for a {suspend} event, report different types of errors, accept control parameters, and return status. The SMB is generally not user configurable or accessible. The bus carries clock, data, and instructions and is based on {Philip's} {I2C} serial bus protocol. Support for SMBus devices is provided on {Windows 2000}. {Windows 98} does not support such devices. The {PIIX4} {chipset} provides SMBus functionality. Vendors using SMBus would be required to pay royalties. {SMBus website (}. {Software to interrogate a SMB motherboard (}. {SMB devices, Part 8 Kernel Mode Driver Design Guide, Win2000 DDK (}. (1999-08-08)

tagged types "programming" {Ada}'s type mechanism in which types can be extended via {single inheritance}. (2000-02-21)

talk "chat, tool, networking, messaging" A {Unix} program and {protocol} supporting conversation between two or more users who may be logged into the same computer or different computers on a network. Variants include {ntalk}, {ytalk}, and {ports} or {emulators} of these programs for other {platforms}. {Unix} has the {talk} program and {protocol} and its variants {xtalk} and {ytalk} for the {X Window System}; {VMS} has {phone}; {Windows for Workgroups} has {chat}. {ITS} also has a talk system. These split the screen into separate areas for each user. {Unix}'s {write} command can also be used, though it does not attempt to separate input and output on the screen. Users of such systems are said to be in {talk mode} which has many conventional abbreviations and idioms. Most of these survived into {chat} jargon, but many fell out of common use with the migration of {user} prattle from talk-like systems to {chat} systems in the early 1990s. These disused talk-specific forms include: "BYE?" - are you ready to close the conversation? This is the standard way to end a talk-mode conversation; the other person types "BYE" to confirm, or else continues the conversation. "JAM"/"MIN" - just a minute "O" - "over" (I have stopped talking). Also "/" as in x/y - x over y, or two newlines (the latter being the most common). "OO" - "over and out" - end of conversation. "\" - Greek {lambda}. "R U THERE?" - are you there? "SEC" - wait a second. "/\/\/" - laughter. But on a {MUD}, this usually means "earthquake fault". See also {talk bomb}. (1998-01-25)

TELOS 1. The {LeLisp} Version 16 Object System. Also used in {EuLisp}. The {object-oriented} {core} of {EuLisp}. Incorporates ideas from {CLOS}, {ObjVLisp} and {OakLisp}. Total merging of {types} with {class}es and message-passing with normal function {application}. 2. A {Pascal}-based {AI} language. ["Design Rationale for TELOS, a Pascal-based AI Language", Travis et al, SIGPLAN Notices 12(8) (Aug 1977)].

temporal logic "logic" An extension of {predicate calculus} which includes notation for arguing about *when* statements are true. Time is discrete and extends indefinitely into the future. Three {prefix} operators, represented by a circle, square and diamond mean "is true at the next time instant", "is true from now on" and "is eventually true". x U y means x is true until y is true. x P y means x precedes y. There are two types of formula: "state formulae" about things true at one point in time, and "path formulae" about things true for a sequence of steps. An example of a path formula is "x U y", and example of a state formula is "next x" or a simple atomic formula such at "waiting". "true until" in this context means that a state formula holds at every point in time up to a point when another formula holds. "x U y" is the "strong until" and implies that there is a time when y is true. "x W y" is the "weak until" in which it is not necessary that y holds eventually. There are two types of temporal logic used: branching time and linear time. The basic propositional temporal logic cannot differentiate between the two, though. Linear time considers only one possible future, in branching time you have several alternative futures. In branching temporal logic you have the extra operators "A" (for "all futures") and "E" (for "some future"). For example, "A(work U go_home)" means "I will work until I go home" and "E(work U go_home)" means "I may work until I go home". (1997-01-21)

termcap "operating system" (terminal capabilities) A {Unix} database listing different types of terminal (or {terminal emulation}) and the character {strings} to send to make the terminal perform certain functions such as move the {cursor} up one line or clear the screen. Programs written using termcap can work on any terminal in the database which supports the necessary functions. Typical programs are {text editors} or file viewers like {more}. The termcap routines look for an {environment variable} "TERM" to determine which terminal the user is using. {terminfo} is a later version of termcap. (1998-10-30)

terminal 1. "hardware" An electronic or electromechanical device for entering data into a computer or a communications system and displaying data received. Early terminals were called {teletypes}, later ones {VDUs}. Typically a terminal communicates with the computer via a {serial line}. 2. "electronics" The end of a {line} where signals are either transmitted or received, or a point along the length of a line where the signals are made available to apparatus. 3. "electronics" Apparatus to send and/or receive signals on a {line}. (1995-10-02)

Texinfo A {GNU} documentation system that uses a single source file to produce both on-line information and printed output. You can read the on-line information, known as an "{Info} file", with an Info documentation-reading program. By convention, Texinfo source file names end with a ".texi" or ".texinfo" extension. You can write and format Texinfo files into Info files within {GNU Emacs}, and read them using the Emacs Info reader. If you do not have Emacs, you can format Texinfo files into Info files using "{makeinfo}" and read them using "info". {TeX} is used to typeset Texinfo files for printing. Texinfo is available from your nearest {GNU archive site}. (1994-10-05)

TeX "publication" /tekh/ An extremely powerful {macro}-based text formatter written by {Donald Knuth}, very popular in academia, especially in the computer-science community (it is good enough to have displaced {Unix} {troff}, the other favoured formatter, even at many {Unix} installations). The first version of TeX was written in the programming language {SAIL}, to run on a {PDP-10} under Stanford's {WAITS} {operating system}. Knuth began TeX because he had become annoyed at the declining quality of the typesetting in volumes I-III of his monumental "Art of Computer Programming" (see {Knuth}, also {bible}). In a manifestation of the typical hackish urge to solve the problem at hand once and for all, he began to design his own typesetting language. He thought he would finish it on his sabbatical in 1978; he was wrong by only about 8 years. The language was finally frozen around 1985, but volume IV of "The Art of Computer Programming" has yet to appear as of mid-1997. (However, the third edition of volumes I and II have come out). The impact and influence of TeX's design has been such that nobody minds this very much. Many grand hackish projects have started as a bit of {toolsmithing} on the way to something else; Knuth's diversion was simply on a grander scale than most. {Guy Steele} happened to be at Stanford during the summer of 1978, when Knuth was developing his first version of TeX. When he returned to {MIT} that fall, he rewrote TeX's {I/O} to run under {ITS}. TeX has also been a noteworthy example of free, shared, but high-quality software. Knuth offers monetary awards to people who find and report a bug in it: for each bug the award is doubled. (This has not made Knuth poor, however, as there have been very few bugs and in any case a cheque proving that the owner found a bug in TeX is rarely cashed). Though well-written, TeX is so large (and so full of cutting edge technique) that it is said to have unearthed at least one bug in every {Pascal} system it has been compiled with. TeX fans insist on the correct (guttural) pronunciation, and the correct spelling (all caps, squished together, with the E depressed below the baseline; the mixed-case "TeX" is considered an acceptable {kluge} on {ASCII}-only devices). Fans like to proliferate names from the word "TeX" - such as TeXnician (TeX user), TeXhacker (TeX programmer), TeXmaster (competent TeX programmer), TeXhax, and TeXnique. Several document processing systems are based on TeX, notably {LaTeX} Lamport TeX - incorporates document styles for books, letters, slides, etc., {jadeTeX} uses TeX as a backend for printing from {James' DSSSL Engine}, and {Texinfo}, the {GNU} document processing system. Numerous extensions to TeX exist, among them {BibTeX} for bibliographies (distributed with LaTeX), {PDFTeX} modifies TeX to produce {PDF} and {Omega} extends TeX to use the {Unicode} character set. For some reason, TeX uses its own variant of the {point}, the {TeX point}. See also {Comprehensive TeX Archive Network}. {(}. E-mail: "" (TeX User's group, Oregon, USA). (2002-03-11)

texture "graphics" A measure of the variation of the intensity of a surface, quantifying properties such as smoothness, coarseness and regularity. It's often used as a {region descriptor} in {image analysis} and {computer vision}. The three principal approaches used to describe texture are statistical, structural and spectral. Statistical techniques characterise texture by the statistical properties of the grey levels of the points comprising a surface. Typically, these properties are computed from the grey level {histogram} or grey level {cooccurrence matrix} of the surface. Structural techniques characterise texture as being composed of simple primitives called "texels" (texture elements), that are regularly arranged on a surface according to some rules. These rules are formally defined by {grammars} of various types. Spectral techiques are based on properties of the Fourier spectrum and describe global periodicity of the grey levels of a surface by identifying high energy peaks in the spectrum. (1995-05-11)

The Method of Statistics. The basic principle of statistical method is that of simplification, which makes possible a concise and comprehensive knowledge of a mass of isolated facts by correlating them along definite lines. The various stages of this method are:   precise definition of the problem or field of inquiry;   collection of material required by the problem;   tabulation and measurement of material in a manner satisfying the purpose of the problem;   clear presentation of the significant features of tabulated material (by means of charts, diagrams, symbols, graphs, equations and the like),   selection of mathematical methods for application to the material obtained;   necessary conclusion from the facts and figures obtained;   general interpretation within the limits of the problem and the procedure used. The special methods of treating statistical data are: collecting, sampling, selecting, tabulating, classifying, totaling or aggregating, measuring, averaging, relating and correlating, presenting symbolically. Each one of these methods uses specialized experimental or mathematical means in its actual application. The special methods of interpreting statistical data already treated are: analyzing, estimiting, describing, comparing, explaining, applying and predicting. In order to be conclusive, the various stages and types of the statistical method must avoid   loose definitions,   cross divisions resulting ftom conflicting interpretations of the problem,   data which are not simultaneous or subject to similar conditions,   conclusions from poor oi incomplete data,   prejudices in judging, even when there is no conuption of evidence. The philosophy of statistics is concerned in general with the discussion and evaluation of the mathematical principles, methods and results of this science; and in particular with a critical analysis of the fitness of biological, psychological, educational, economic and sociological materials, for various types of statistical treatment. The purpose of such an inquiry is to integrate its results into the general problems and schemes of philosophy proper. Cf.. Richard von Mises, Statistics, Probability, and Truth.

The prohibition against impredicative definition was incorporated by Russell into his ramified theory of types (1908) and is now usually identified with the restriction to the ramified theorv of types without the axiom of reducibility. (Poincare, however, never made his principle exact and may have intended, vaguely, a less severe restriction than this -- as indeed some passages in later writings would indicate.) -- A. C.

There are two methods of devising such a system which (so at least it is widely held or conjectured) do not lead to any inconsistency. One of these involves the theory of types, which was set forth in § 6 above, explicitly for propositional functions, and by implication for classes (classes being divided into types according to the types of the monadic propositional functions which determine them). The other method is the Zermelo set theory, which avoids this preliminary division of classes into types, but imposes restrictions in another direction.

thermotypy ::: n. --> The art or process of obtaining thermotypes.

The subject of the philosophy of religion is regarded in conservative circles not as a discipline given to free philosophical inquiry but as a particular religion's philosophy. In this form it is a more or less disguised apologetics or defense of an already accepted religious faith. While the data for this subject include the so-called classical religions, philosophy of religion, in the genuinely philosophical sense, takes for its material religious expressions of all types, whether classical or not, together with all the psychological material available on the nature of the human spirit and man's whole cultural development. -- V.F.

The term vicious circle fallacy is used by Whitehead and Russell (1910) for arguments violating their ramified theory of types (q.v.). Similarly, the name circulus vitiosus is applied by Hermann Weyl (1918) to an argument involving impredicative definition (q.v). -- A.C.

The treatment of sets in the Zermelo set theory differs from that of the theory of types in that all sets are "individuals" and the relation ε (of membership in a set) is significant as between any two sets -- in particular, xεx is not forbidden. (We are here using the words set and class as synonymous.)

The word, furthermore, has been loosely used for esoteric, gnostic, theosophical types of "knowledge", not capable of verification. It has been used, too, for the whole area of psychic phenomena and occult happenings, borderland phenomena. The result of this confusion has been that in scientific laboratories the word mysticism often connotes spurious knowledge, occult lore or abnormal phenomena. The Germans use the word Mysticismus for this dubious type of knowledge and Mystik for the loftier types of experience.

third generation computer "architecture" A computer built with small-scale integration {integrated circuits}, designed after the mid-1960s. Third generation computers use {semiconductor} memories in addition to, and later instead of, {ferrite core memory}. The two main types of semiconductor memory are {Read-Only Memory} (ROM) and read-and-write memories called {random-access memory} (RAM). A technique called {microprogramming} became widespread and simplified the design of the {CPUs} and increased their flexibility. This also made possible the development of {operating systems} as {software} rather than as hard-wiring. A variety of techniques for improving processing efficiency were invented, such as {pipelining}, (parallel operation of {functional units} processing a single instruction), and {multiprocessing} (concurrent execution of multiple programs). As the execution of a program requires that program to be in memory, the concurrent running of several programs requires that all programs be in memory simultaneously. Thus the development of techniques for concurrent processing was matched by the development of {memory management} techniques such as {dynamic memory allocation}, {virtual memory}, and {paging}, as well as {compilers} producing {relocatable code}. The {LILLIAC IV} is an example of a third generation computer. The CTSS ({Compatible Time-Sharing System}) was developed at {MIT} in the early 1960s and had a considerable influence on the design of subsequent timesharing operating systems. An interesting contrasting development in this generation was the start of mass production of small low-cost "{minicomputers}".

This suggests the beginning of a simple hierarchy of types (see Logic, formal, § 6), but actually is not so, because no "third intentions" were separated out or distinguished from second. Thus the general concept of class is a second intention, although some particular classes may also be second intentions.

tilde "character" "~" {ASCII} character 126. Common names are: {ITU-T}: tilde; squiggle; {twiddle}; not. Rare: approx; wiggle; {swung dash}; enyay; {INTERCAL}: sqiggle (sic). Used as {C}'s prefix {bitwise negation} {operator}; and in {Unix} {csh}, {GNU Emacs}, and elsewhere, to stand for the current user's {home directory}, or, when prefixed to a {login name}, for the given user's home directory. The "swung dash" or "approximation" sign is not quite the same as {tilde} in typeset material but the ASCII tilde serves for both (compare {angle brackets}). [Has anyone else heard this called "tidal" (as in wave)?] (1996-10-18)

Tool Command Language "language" /tik*l/ (Tcl) An interpreted string processing language for issuing commands to {interactive} programs, developed by {John Ousterhout} at {UCB}. Each {application program} can extend tcl with its own set of commands. Tcl is like a text-oriented {Lisp}, but lets you write algebraic expressions for simplicity and to avoid scaring people away. Though originally designed to be a "scripting language" rather than for serious programming, Tcl has been used successfully for programs with hundreds of thousands of lines. It has a peculiar but simple {syntax}. It may be used as an embedded {interpreter} in application programs. It has {exceptions} and {packages} (called libraries), {name-spaces} for {procedures} and {variables}, and provide/require. It supports {dynamic loading} of {object code}. It is {eight-bit clean}. It has only three variable types: strings, lists and {associative arrays} but no {structures}. Tcl and its associated {GUI} {toolkit}, {Tk} run on all flavors of {Unix}, {Microsoft Windows}, {Macintosh} and {VMS}. Tcl runs on the {Amiga} and many other {platforms}. See also {expect} (control interactive programs and pattern match on their output), {Cygnus Tcl Tools}, {[incr Tcl]} (adds classes and inheritence to Tcl), {Scriptics} (John Ousterhout's company that is the home of Tcl development and the TclPro tool suite), {Tcl Consortium} (a non-profit agency dedicated to promoting Tcl), {tclhttpd} (an embeddable Tcl-based web server), {tclx} (adds many commands to Tcl), {tcl-debug}. {comp.lang.tcl FAQ at MIT (}. or {at (}. {Scriptics downloads (}. {Kanji (}. {Usenet} newsgroups: {news:comp.lang.tcl.announce}, {news:comp.lang.tcl}. ["Tcl: An Embeddable Command Language", J. Ousterhout, Proc 1990 Winter USENIX Conf]. (1998-11-27)

Trilogy "language" A {strongly typed} {logic programming} language with numerical {constraint}-solving over the {natural numbers}, developed by Paul Voda "" at {UBC} in 1988. Trilogy is syntactically a blend of {Prolog}, {Lisp}, and {Pascal}. It contains three types of {clauses}: {predicates} ({backtracking} but no assignable variables), procedures (if-then-else but no backtracking; assignable variables), and {subroutines} (like procedures, but with input and {system calls}; callable only from top level or from other subroutines). Development of Trilogy I stopped in 1991. Trilogy II, developed by Paul Voda 1988-92, was a {declarative} general purpose programming language, used for teaching and to write {CL}. {(}. ["The Constraint Language Trilogy: Semantics and Computations", P. Voda, Complete Logic Systems, 741 Blueridge Ave, North Vancouver BC, V7R 2J5]. (2000-04-08)

troff "text, tool" /T'rof/ or /trof/ The grey eminence of {Unix} text processing; a formatting and phototypesetting program, written originally in {PDP-11} {assembly code} and then in barely-structured early {C} by the late Joseph Ossanna, modelled after the earlier {ROFF} which was in turn modelled after {Multics}' {RUNOFF} by Jerome Saltzer (*that* name came from the expression "to run off a copy"). A companion program, {nroff}, formats output for terminals and line printers. In 1979, Brian Kernighan modified troff so that it could drive phototypesetters other than the Graphic Systems CAT. His paper describing that work ("A Typesetter-independent troff", AT&T CSTR

T'ung: Mere identity, or sameness, especially in social institutions and standards, which is inferior to harmony (ho) in which social distinctions and differences are in complete concord. (Confucianism). Agreement, as in "agreement with the superiors" (shang t'ung). The method of agreement, which includes identity, generic relationship, co-existence, and partial resemblance. "Identity means two substances having one name. Generic relationship means inclusion in the same whole. Both being in the same room is a case of co-existence. Partial resemblance means having some points of resemblance." See Mo chi. (Neo-Mohism). --W.T.C. T'ung i: The joint method of similarities and differences, by which what is present and what is absent can be distinguished. See Mo chi. --W.T.C. Tung Chung-shu: (177-104 B.C.) was the leading Confucian of his time, premier to two feudal princes, and consultant to the Han emperor in framing national policies. Firmly believing in retribution, he strongly advocated the "science of catastrophic and anomalies," and became the founder and leader of medieval Confucianism which was extensively confused with the Yin Yang philosophy. Extremely antagonistic towards rival schools, he established Confucianism as basis of state religion and education. His best known work, Ch-un-ch'iu Fan-lu, awaits English translation. --W.T.C. Turro y Darder, Ramon: Spanish Biologist and Philosopher. Born in Malgrat, Dec. 8 1854. Died in Barcelona, June 5, 1926. As a Biologist, his conclusions about the circulation of the blood, more than half a century ago, were accepted and verified by later researchers and theorists. Among other things, he showed the insufficiency and unsatisfactoriness of the mechanistic and neomechanistic explanations of the circulatory process. He was also the first to busy himself with endocrinology and bacteriological immunity. As a philosopher Turro combated the subjectivistic and metaphysical type of psychology, and circumscribed scientific investigation to the determination of the conditions that precede the occurrence of phenomena, considering useless all attempt to reach final essences. Turro does not admit, however, that the psychical series or conscious states may be causally linked to the organic series. His formula was: Physiology and Consciousness are phenomena that occur, not in connection, but in conjunction. His most important work is Filosofia Critica, in which he has put side by side two antagonistic conceptions of the universe, the objective and the subjectne conceptions. In it he holds that, at the present crisis of science and philosophy, the business of intelligence is to realize that science works on philosophical presuppositions, but that philosophy is no better off with its chaos of endless contradictions and countless systems of thought. The task to be realized is one of coming together, to undo what has been done and get as far as the original primordial concepts with which philosophical inquiry began. --J.A.F. Tychism: A term derived from the Greek, tyche, fortune, chance, and employed by Charles Sanders Peirce (1839-1914) to express any theory which regards chance as an objective reality, operative in the cosmos. Also the hypothesis that evolution occurs owing to fortuitous variations. --J.J.R. Types, theory of: See Logic, formal, § 6; Paradoxes, logical; Ramified theory of types. Type-token ambiguity: The words token and type are used to distinguish between two senses of the word word.   Individual marks, more or less resembling each other (as "cat" resembles "cat" and "CAT") may (1) be said to be "the same word" or (2) so many "different words". The apparent contradiction therby involved is removed by speaking of the individual marks as tokens, in contrast with the one type of which they are instances. And word may then be said to be subject to type-token ambiguity. The terminology can easily be extended to apply to any kind of symbol, e.g. as in speaking of token- and type-sentences.   Reference: C. S. Peirce, Collected Papers, 4.517. --M.B. Tz'u: (a) Parental love, kindness, or affection, the ideal Confucian virtue of parents.   (b) Love, kindness in general. --W.T.C. Tzu hua: Self-transformation or spontaneous transformation without depending on any divine guidance or eternal agency, but following the thing's own principle of being, which is Tao. (Taoism). --W.T.C. Tzu jan: The natural, the natural state, the state of Tao, spontaneity as against artificiality. (Lao Tzu; Huai-nan Tzu, d. 122 B.C.). --W.T.C. U

tuple "programming" In {functional languages}, a data object containing two or more components. Also known as a product type or pair, triple, quad, etc. Tuples of different sizes have different types, in contrast to lists where the type is independent of the length. The components of a tuple may be of different types whereas all elements of a list have the same type. Examples of tuples (in {Haskell} notation) are: (1,2), ("Tuple",True), (w,(x,y),z). The degenerate tuple type with zero components, written (), is known as the unit type since it has only one possible value which is also written (). The implementation of tuples in a language may be either "{lifted}" or not. If tuples are lifted then (bottom, bottom) /= bottom (where {bottom} represents non-termination) and the evaluation of a tuple may fail to terminate. E.g. in Haskell: f (x, y) = 1  --"  f bottom = bottom     f (bottom, bottom) = 1 With lifted tuples, a tuple pattern is refutable. Thus in Haskell, {pattern matching} on tuples is the same as pattern matching on types with multiple constructors ({algebraic data types}) - the expression being matched is evaluated as far as the top level constructor, even though, in the case of tuples, there is only one possible constructor for a given type. If tuples are unlifted then (bottom, bottom) = bottom and evaluation of a tuple will never fail to terminate though any of the components may. E.g. in {Miranda}: f (x, y) = 1  --"  f bottom = 1     f (bottom, bottom) = 1 Thus in Miranda, any object whose type is compatible with a tuple pattern is assumed to match at the top level without evaluation - it is an {irrefutable} pattern. This also applies to user defined data types with only one constructor. In Haskell, patterns can be made irrefutable by adding a "~" as in f ~(x, y) = 1. If tuple constructor functions were {strict} in all their arguments then (bottom, x) = (x, bottom) = bottom for any x so matching a refutable pattern would fail to terminate if any component was bottom. (2012-03-25)

typal ::: a. --> Relating to a type or types; belonging to types; serving as a type; typical.

type ::: 1. A number of people or things having in common traits or characteristics that distinguish them as a group or class. 2. A person or thing having the features of a group or class. 3. An example or a model having the ideal features of a group or class; an embodiment. types.

type assignment "theory" A mapping of the {free variables} of some expression E to types. This is used in {type inference} to deduce the type of E and its subexpressions. (2002-02-22)

type class A set of types for which certain operations or {methods} are defined. E.g. the class Number might have methods for addition and subtraction. {Class}es are a feature of {object oriented languages} and of the {functional programming} language {Haskell}. See also {inheritance}.

typed lambda-calculus "theory" (TLC) A variety of {lambda-calculus} in which every term is labelled with a {type}. A {function application} (A B) is only synctactically valid if A has type s --" t, where the type of B is s (or an {instance} or s in a {polymorphic} language) and t is any type. If the types allowed for terms are restricted, e.g. to {Hindley-Milner types} then no term may be applied to itself, thus avoiding one kind of non-terminating evaluation. Most {functional programming} languages, e.g. {Haskell}, {ML}, are closely based on variants of the typed lambda-calculus. (1995-03-25)

type inference "programming" An {algorithm} for ascribing types to expressions in some language, based on the types of the constants of the language and a set of type inference rules such as f :: A -" B, x :: A --------------------- (App)    f x :: B This rule, called "App" for application, says that if expression f has type A -" B and expression x has type A then we can deduce that expression (f x) has type B. The expressions above the line are the premises and below, the conclusion. An alternative notation often used is: G |- x : A where "|-" is the turnstile symbol ({LaTeX} \vdash) and G is a type assignment for the free variables of expression x. The above can be read "under assumptions G, expression x has type A". (As in Haskell, we use a double "::" for type declarations and a single ":" for the {infix} list constructor, cons). Given an expression plus (head l) 1 we can label each subexpression with a type, using type variables X, Y, etc. for unknown types: (plus :: Int -" Int -" Int) (((head :: [a] -" a) (l :: Y)) :: X) (1 :: Int) We then use {unification} on {type variables} to match the {partial application} of plus to its first argument against the App rule, yielding a type (Int -" Int) and a substitution X = Int. Re-using App for the application to the second argument gives an overall type Int and no further substitutions. Similarly, matching App against the application (head l) we get Y = [X]. We already know X = Int so therefore Y = [Int]. This process is used both to infer types for expressions and to check that any types given by the user are consistent. See also {generic type variable}, {principal type}. (1995-02-03)

Types of illnesses ::: An illness which comes in the ordinary course as the result of physical causes — even though adverse universal forces are the first cause — is an ordinary illness. One brought by the forces hostile to yoga to upset the system and prevent or disturb progress — without any adequate physical reason — is a hostile attack. It may have the appearance of a cold or other illness, but to the eye which sees the action of the forces and not only the outward symptoms or results, the diHerence is clear.

Types of life ::: The ordinary life is that of the average human consciousness separated from its own true self and from the

type "theory, programming" (Or "data type") A set of values from which a {variable}, {constant}, {function}, or other {expression} may take its value. A type is a classification of data that tells the {compiler} or {interpreter} how the programmer intends to use it. For example, the process and result of adding two variables differs greatly according to whether they are integers, floating point numbers, or strings. Types supported by most programming languages include {integers} (usually limited to some range so they will fit in one {word} of storage), {Booleans}, {floating point numbers}, and characters. {Strings} are also common, and are represented as {lists} of characters in some languages. If s and t are types, then so is s -" t, the type of {functions} from s to t; that is, give them a term of type s, functions of type s -" t will return a term of type t. Some types are {primitive} - built-in to the language, with no visible internal structure - e.g. Boolean; others are composite - constructed from one or more other types (of either kind) - e.g. {lists}, {arrays}, {structures}, {unions}. {Object-oriented programming} extends this with {classes} which encapsulate both the structure of a type and the operations that can be performed on it. Some languages provide {strong typing}, others allow {implicit type conversion} and/or {explicit type conversion}. (2003-12-22)

typographical ::: a. --> Of or pertaining to the act or act of representing by types or symbols; emblematic; figurative; typical.

Of or pertaining to typography or printing; as, the typographic art.

typography ::: n. --> The act or art of expressing by means of types or symbols; emblematical or hieroglyphic representation.

The art of printing with types; the use of types to produce impressions on paper, vellum, etc.

typology ::: n. --> A discourse or treatise on types.
The doctrine of types.

Uniform Resource Locator "web" (URL, previously "Universal") A {standard} way of specifying the location of an object, typically a {web page}, on the {Internet}. Other types of object are described below. URLs are the form of address used on the {World-Wide Web}. They are used in {HTML} documents to specify the target of a {hypertext link} which is often another HTML document (possibly stored on another computer). Here are some example URLs:

union 1. "theory" An operation on two {sets} which returns the set of all elements that are a member of either or both of the sets; normally written as an infix upper-case U symbol. The operator generalises to zero or more sets by taking the union of the current partial result (initially the empty set) with the next argument set, in any order. For example, (a, b, c) U (c, d, e) = (a, b, c, d, e) 2. "programming" A {type} whose values may be of one of a number of other types, the current type depending on conditions that are only known at {run-time}. A {variable} of union type must be allocated sufficient storage space to hold the largest component type. Some unions include extra information to say which type of value the union currently has (a "tagged union"), others rely on the program to keep track of this independently. A union contrasts with a {structure} or {record} which stores values of all component types at once. 3. "database" An {SQL} {operator} that concatenates two result sets, that must have the same number and types of {columns}. The operator may be followed by the word "ALL" to indicate that results that appear in both sets should appear twice in the output. (2002-02-26)

Unipathy: (Ger. Einsfühlung) Is a form of emotional identification, seems close to the teim "participation" of Levy-Bruhl. There are two types of unipathy: idiopathic and heteropathic. In the one the alter is absorbed by the ego, and in the other the ego is absorbed by the alter. See Sympathy. -- H.H.

Unlike the ramified theory of types, the simple theory of types and the Zermelo set theory both require the distinction (first made by Ramsey) between the paradoxes which involve use of the name relation (q.v.) or the semantical concept of truth (q.v.), and those which do not. The paradoxes of the first kind (Epimenides, Grelling's, König's, Richard's) are solved by the supposition that notations for the name relation and for truth (having the requisite formal properties) do not occur in the logistic system set up -- and in principle, it is held, ought not to occur. The paradoxes of the second kind (Burali-Forti's, Russell's) are solved in each case in another way. -- Alonzo Church

User Network Interface "communications, networking" (UNI) An interface point between {ATM} end users and a private {ATM switch}, or between a private ATM switch and the {public carrier} ATM network. The physical and {protocol} specifications for UNIs are defined by the {ATM Forum}'s UNI documents, which allow for various types of physical interfaces. See also: {NNI} (1999-01-23)

utility software "tool" (Or utility program, tool) Any {software} that performs some specific task that is secondary to the main purpose of using the computer (the latter would be called {application programs}) but is not essential to the operation of the computer ({system software}). Many utilities could be considered as part of the {system software}, which can in turn be considered part of the {operating system}. The following are some broad categories of utility software, specific types and examples. * Disks {disk formatter}: {FDISK}, {format} {defragmenter} {disk checker}: {fsck} {disk cleaner} {system profiler} {backup} {file system compression} * Files and directories list directory: {ls}, {dir} copy, move, remove: {cp}, {mv}, {rm}, {xcopy} {archive}: {tar} {compression}: {zip} format conversion: {atob} comparison: {diff} sort: {sort} * Security {authentication}: {login} {antivirus software}: {avast}, {Norton Antivirus} {firewall}: {Zone Alarm}, {Windows firewall} {encryption}: {gpg}) * Editors for general-purpose formats (as opposed to specific formats like a {word processing} document) {text editor}: {Emacs} {binary editor}, {hex editor} * Communications {mail transfer agent}: {sendmail} e-mail notification: {biff} file transfer: {ftp}, {rcp}, {Firefox} file synchronisation: {unison}, {briefcase} chat: {Gaim}, {cu} directory services: {bind}, {nslookup}, {whois} network diagnosis: {ping}, {traceroute} remote access: {rlogin}, {ssh} * Software development {compiler}: {gcc} build: {make}, {ant} {codewalker} {preprocessor}: {cpp} {debugger}: {adb}, {gdb} {installation}: {apt-get}, {msiexec}, {patch} {compiler compiler}: {yacc} * Hardware device configuration: {PCU}, {devman}, {stty} (2007-02-02)

Values, Hierarchy of: (in Max Scheler) A scale of values and of personal value-types, based on "essences" (saint, genius, hero, leading spirit, and virtuoso of the pleasures of life, in descending scale). -- P.A.S.

vanara ::: ape; "man with the Ape nature"; the second of the ten vanara types of consciousness (dasa-gavas) in the evolutionary scale: mind concentrated on the pran.a.

variable "programming" (Sometimes "var" /veir/ or /var/) A named memory location in which a program can store intermediate results and from which it can read it them. Each {programming language} has different rules about how variables can be named, typed, and used. Typically, a value is "assigned" to a variable in an {assignment} statement. The value is obtained by evaluating an expression and then stored in the variable. For example, the assignment x = y + 1 means "add one to y and store the result in x". This may look like a mathematical equation but the mathematical equality is only true in the program until the value of x or y changes. Furthermore, statements like x = x + 1 are common. This means "add one to x", which only makes sense as a state changing operation, not as a mathematical equality. The simplest form of variable corresponds to a single-{word} of {memory} or a {CPU} {register} and an assignment to a {load} or {store} {machine code} operation. A variable is usually defined to have a {type}, which never changes, and which defines the set of values the variable can hold. A type may specify a single ("atomic") value or a collection ("aggregate") of values of the same or different types. A common aggregate type is the {array} - a set of values, one of which can be selected by supplying a numerical {index}. Languages may be {untyped}, {weakly typed}, {strongly typed}, or some combination. {Object-oriented programming} languages extend this to {object} types or {classes}. A variable's {scope} is the region of the program source within which it represents a certain thing. Scoping rules are also highly language dependent but most serious languages support both {local variables} and {global variables}. {Subroutine} and {function} {formal arguments} are special variables which are set automatically by the language runtime on entry to the subroutine. In a {functional programming} language, a variable's value never changes and change of state is handled as recursion over lists of values. (2004-11-16)

varnasankara ::: confusion of the great types (varnas) .

vaxocentrism /vak"soh-sen"trizm/ [analogy with "ethnocentrism"] A notional disease said to afflict C programmers who persist in coding according to certain assumptions that are valid (especially under Unix) on {VAXen} but false elsewhere. Among these are: 1. The assumption that dereferencing a null pointer is safe because it is all bits 0, and location 0 is readable and 0. Problem: this may instead cause an illegal-address trap on non-VAXen, and even on VAXen under OSes other than BSD Unix. Usually this is an implicit assumption of sloppy code (forgetting to check the pointer before using it), rather than deliberate exploitation of a misfeature. 2. The assumption that characters are signed. 3. The assumption that a pointer to any one type can freely be cast into a pointer to any other type. A stronger form of this is the assumption that all pointers are the same size and format, which means you don't have to worry about getting the casts or types correct in calls. Problem: this fails on word-oriented machines or others with multiple pointer formats. 4. The assumption that the parameters of a routine are stored in memory, on a stack, contiguously, and in strictly ascending or descending order. Problem: this fails on many RISC architectures. 5. The assumption that pointer and integer types are the same size, and that pointers can be stuffed into integer variables (and vice-versa) and drawn back out without being truncated or mangled. Problem: this fails on segmented architectures or word-oriented machines with funny pointer formats. 6. The assumption that a data type of any size may begin at any byte address in memory (for example, that you can freely construct and dereference a pointer to a word- or greater-sized object at an odd char address). Problem: this fails on many (especially RISC) architectures better optimised for {HLL} execution speed, and can cause an illegal address fault or bus error. 7. The (related) assumption that there is no padding at the end of types and that in an array you can thus step right from the last byte of a previous component to the first byte of the next one. This is not only machine- but compiler-dependent. 8. The assumption that memory address space is globally flat and that the array reference "foo[-1]" is necessarily valid. Problem: this fails at 0, or other places on segment-addressed machines like Intel chips (yes, segmentation is universally considered a {brain-damaged} way to design machines (see {moby}), but that is a separate issue). 9. The assumption that objects can be arbitrarily large with no special considerations. Problem: this fails on segmented architectures and under non-virtual-addressing environments. 10. The assumption that the stack can be as large as memory. Problem: this fails on segmented architectures or almost anything else without virtual addressing and a paged stack. 11. The assumption that bits and addressable units within an object are ordered in the same way and that this order is a constant of nature. Problem: this fails on {big-endian} machines. 12. The assumption that it is meaningful to compare pointers to different objects not located within the same array, or to objects of different types. Problem: the former fails on segmented architectures, the latter on word-oriented machines or others with multiple pointer formats. 13. The assumption that an "int" is 32 bits, or (nearly equivalently) the assumption that "sizeof(int) == sizeof(long)". Problem: this fails on {PDP-11s}, {Intel 80286}-based systems and even on {Intel 80386} and {Motorola 68000} systems under some compilers. 14. The assumption that "argv[]" is writable. Problem: this fails in many embedded-systems C environments and even under a few flavours of Unix. Note that a programmer can validly be accused of vaxocentrism even if he or she has never seen a VAX. Some of these assumptions (especially 2--5) were valid on the {PDP-11}, the original {C} machine, and became endemic years before the VAX. The terms "vaxocentricity" and "all-the-world"s-a-VAX syndrome' have been used synonymously. [{Jargon File}]

Veronica "information science" Very Easy Rodent-Oriented Net-wide Index to Computerized Archives. Veronica offers a keyword search of most {gopher} menu titles in the entire gopher web. As {archie} is to {FTP} archives, Veronica is to {Gopherspace}. A Veronica search produces a menu of Gopher items, each of which is a direct pointer to a Gopher data source. Because Veronica is accessed through a Gopher Client, it is easy to use, and gives access to all types of data supported by the Gopher {protocol}. To try Veronica, select it from the "Other Gophers" menu on Minnesota's gopher server, or point your gopher at: Name=veronica (search menu items in most of GopherSpace) Type=1 Port=70 Path=1/veronica {(gopher://}.

video "graphics" Moving images presented as a sequence of {static images} (called "frames") representing snapshots of the scene, taken at regularly spaced time intervals, e.g. 50 frames per second. Apart from the frame rate, other important properties of a video are the {resolution} and {colour depth} of the individual images. Digital video data is typically stored and transmitted in a format like {MPEG} or {H.264} that includes synchoronised {sound}. Unlike broadcast {television}, digital video on a computer or network uses {compression}. Compression is even more important for video that for static images due to the large amount of data involved in even a short video. Furthermore, compression allows video to be transmitted via a channel whose bandwidth is less than the raw data rate implied by the resolution and frame rate. This allows the recipient to start displaying the video before the transmission is complete, a process known as {streaming}. Compression can be relatively slow but decompression is done in {real-time} with the picture quality and {frame rate} varying with the processing power available and the size and scaling of the picture. There are many types of software for displaying video on computers including {Windows Media Player} from {Microsoft}, {QuickTime} from {Apple Computer}, {DivX}, {VLC}, {RealPlayer} and {Acorn Computers}' {Replay}. (2011-01-04)

virus "security" (By analogy with biological viruses, via science fiction) A program or piece of code, a type of {malware}, written by a {cracker}, that "infects" one or more other programs by embedding a copy of itself in them, so that they become {Trojan horses}. When these programs are executed, the embedded virus is executed too, thus propagating the "infection". This normally happens invisibly to the user. A virus has an "engine" - code that enables it to propagate and optionally a "payload" - what it does apart from propagating. It needs a "host" - the particular hardware and software environment on which it can run and a "trigger" - the event that starts it running. Unlike a {worm}, a virus cannot infect other computers without assistance. It is propagated by vectors such as humans trading programs with their friends (see {SEX}). The virus may do nothing but propagate itself and then allow the program to run normally. Usually, however, after propagating silently for a while, it starts doing things like writing "cute" messages on the terminal or playing strange tricks with the display (some viruses include {display hacks}). Viruses written by particularly antisocial {crackers} may do irreversible damage, like deleting files. By the 1990s, viruses had become a serious problem, especially among {IBM PC} and {Macintosh} users (the lack of security on these machines enables viruses to spread easily, even infecting the operating system). The production of special {antivirus software} has become an industry, and a number of exaggerated media reports have caused outbreaks of near hysteria among users. Many {lusers} tend to blame *everything* that doesn't work as they had expected on virus attacks. Accordingly, this sense of "virus" has passed into popular usage where it is often incorrectly used for other types of {malware} such as {worms} or {Trojan horses}. See {boot virus}, {phage}. Compare {back door}. See also {Unix conspiracy}. [{Jargon File}] (2003-06-20)

Visual Display Unit "hardware" (VDU, or "video terminal", "video display terminal", VDT, "display terminal") A device incorporating a {cathode ray tube} (CRT) display, a keyboard and a {serial port}. A VDU usually also includes its own display electronics which store the received data and convert it into electrical waveforms to drive the CRT. VDUs fall into two categories: {dumb terminals} and {intelligent terminals} (sometimes called "programmable terminals"). Early VDUs could only display characters in a single preset {font}, and these were confined to being layed out in a rectangular grid, reproducing the functionality of the paper-based {teletypes} they were designed to replace. Later models added graphics facilities but were still driven via serial communications, typically with several VDUs attached to a single multi-user computer. This contrasts with the much faster single {bitmap displays} integrated into most modern single-user {personal computers} and {workstations}. The term "Display Screen Equipment" (DSE) is used almost exclusively in connection with the health and safety issues concerning VDUs. {Working with VDUs - UK Heath and Safety Executive (}. (2002-11-09)

weak typing "programming" Strict enforcement of {type} rules but with well-defined exceptions or an explicit type-violation mechanism. Weak typing is "friendlier" to the programmer than {strong typing}, but catches fewer errors at compile time. {C} and {C++} are weakly typed, as they automatically {coerce} many types e.g. {ints} and {floats}. E.g. int a = 5; float b = a; They also allow ignore {typedefs} for the purposes of type comparison; for example the following is allowed, which would probably be disallowed in a strongly typed language: typedef int Date;  /* Type to represent a date */ Date a = 12345; int b = a;   /* What does the coder intend? */ C++ is stricter than C in its handling of enumerated types: enum animal {CAT=0,DOG=2,ANT=3}; enum animal a = CAT; /* NB The enum is optional in C++ */ enum animal b = 1;  /* This is a warning or error in C++ */ (2000-07-04)

wedged 1. To be stuck, incapable of proceeding without help. This is different from having crashed. If the system has crashed, it has become totally non-functioning. If the system is wedged, it is trying to do something but cannot make progress; it may be capable of doing a few things, but not be fully operational. For example, a process may become wedged if it {deadlocks} with another (but not all instances of wedging are deadlocks). See also {gronk}, {locked up}, {hosed}. 2. Often refers to humans suffering misconceptions. "He's totally wedged - he's convinced that he can levitate through meditation." 3. [Unix] Specifically used to describe the state of a TTY left in a losing state by abort of a screen-oriented program or one that has messed with the line discipline in some obscure way. There is some dispute over the origin of this term. It is usually thought to derive from a common description of recto-cranial inversion; however, it may actually have originated with older "hot-press" printing technology in which physical type elements were locked into type frames with wedges driven in by mallets. Once this had been done, no changes in the typesetting for that page could be made. [{Jargon File}]

What You See Is All You Get "jargon" (WYSIAYG) /wiz'ee-ayg/ Describes a user interface under which "What You See Is *All* You Get"; an unhappy variant of {WYSIWYG}. Visual, "{point-and-drool interfaces}" are easy to learn but often lack depth; they often frustrate advanced users who would be better served by a command-style interface. When this happens, the frustrated user has a WYSIAYG problem. This term is most often used of editors, {word processors}, and document formatting programs. WYSIWYG "{desktop publishing}" programs, for example, are a clear win for creating small documents with lots of fonts and graphics in them, especially things like newsletters and presentation slides. When typesetting book-length manuscripts, on the other hand, scale changes the nature of the task; one quickly runs into WYSIAYG limitations, and the increased power and flexibility of a command-driven formatter like {TeX} or {Unix}'s {troff} becomes not just desirable but a necessity. Compare {YAFIYGI}. (1999-03-03)

While all three functions are normally distinguishable in any given utterance, type-sentences (and, derivatively, words) may be classified according as one or the other of the functions normally predominates in the occurrence of the corresponding tokens. (Thus exclamations are predominantly expressive, commands evocative, scientific generalizations referential.) Such distinctions may, in turn, be made the basis for distinguishing different types of linguistic systems.

While not abandoning its interest in beauty, artistic value, and other normative concepts, recent aesthetics has tended to lay increasing emphasis on a descriptive, factual approach to the phenomena of art and aesthetic experience. It differs from art history, archeology, and cultural history in stressing a theoretical organization of materials in terms of recurrent types and tendencies, rather than a chronological or genetic one. It differs from general psychology in focusing upon certain selected phases in psycho-physical activity, and on their application to certain types of objects and situations, especially those of art. It investigates the forms and characteristics of art, which psychology does not do. It differs from art criticism in seeking a more general, theoretical understanding of the arts than is usual in that subject, and in attempting a more consistently objective, impersonal attitude. It maintains a philosophic breadth, in comparing examples of all the arts, and in assembling data and hypotheses from many sources, including philosophy, psychology, cultural history, and the social sciences. But it is departing from traditional conceptions of philosophy in that writing labelled "aesthetics" now often includes much detailed, empirical study of particular phenomena, instead of restricting itself as formerly to abstract discussion of the meaning of beauty, the sublime, and other categories, their objective or subjective nature, their relation to pleasure and moral goodness, the purpose of art, the nature of aesthetic value, etc. There has been controversy over whether such empirical studies deserve to be called "aesthetics", or whether that name should be reserved for the traditional, dialectic or speculative approach; but usage favors the extension in cases where the inquiry aims at fairly broad generalizations.

While these three types of necessity are generally recognized by philosophers, the weighting of the distinctions is a matter of considerable divergence of view. Those who hold that the distinctions are all radical, sharply distinguish between logical statements, statements of fact, and so-called ethical or value statements. On the other hand, the attempt to establish an a priori ethics may be regarded as an attempt to reduce moral necessity to logical necessity; while the attempt to derive ethical evaluations from the statements of science, e.g. from biology, is an attempt to reduce moral necessity to physical or causal necessity. -- F.L.W.

Windows Registry "operating system" The database used by {Microsoft} {Windows 95} and later to store all sorts of configuration information such as which program should be used to open a .doc file, {DLL} registration information, application-specific settings and much more. The Registry is stored in .dat files, one in the user's profile containing their per-user settings and one in the Windows directory containing settings that are global to all users. These are loaded into memory at login. The loaded data appears as a tree with five main branches: HKEY_CLASSES_ROOT, HKEY_CURRENT_USER, HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE, HKEY_USERS, HKEY_CURRENT_CONFIG. HKEY_CLASSES_ROOT defines file types and actions, HKEY_CURRENT_USER is an alias for one of the sub-trees of HKEY_USERS and contains user settings that override the global defaults in HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE. The branches of the tree are called "keys" and are identified by paths like HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SOFTWARE\Microsoft\Windows\CurrentVersion. Any node in the tree can have zero or more "values" which are actually bindings of a name and a value, e.g. "Logon User Name" = "Denis". The value can be of type string, binary, dword (long integer), multi-string value or expandable string value. Windows includes a Registry Editor (regedit.exe). (2008-01-20)

With reference to the approach to the central reality of religion, God, and man's relation to it, types of the Philosophy of Religion may be distinguished, leaving out of account negative (atheism), skeptical and cynical (Xenophanes, Socrates, Voltaire), and agnostic views, although insertions by them are not to be separated from the history of religious consciousness. Fundamentalism, mainly a theological and often a Church phenomenon of a revivalist nature, philosophizes on the basis of unquestioning faith, seeking to buttress it by logical argument, usually taking the form of proofs of the existence of God (see God). Here belong all historic religions, Christianity in its two principal forms, Catholicism with its Scholastic philosophy and Protestantism with its greatly diversified philosophies, the numerous religions of Hinduism, such as Brahmanism, Shivaism and Vishnuism, the religion of Judaism, and Mohammedanism. Mysticism, tolerated by Church and philosophy, is less concerned with proof than with description and personal experience, revealing much of the psychological factors involved in belief and speculation. Indian philosophy is saturated with mysticism since its inception, Sufism is the outstanding form of Arab mysticism, while the greatest mystics in the West are Plotinus, Meister Eckhart, Tauler, Ruysbroek, Thomas a Kempis, and Jacob Bohme. Metaphysics incorporates religious concepts as thought necessities. Few philosophers have been able to avoid the concept of God in their ontology, or any reference to the relation of God to man in their ethics. So, e.g., Plato, Spinoza, Leibniz, Schelling, and especially Hegel who made the investigation of the process of the Absolute the essence of the Philosophy of Religion.

WonderPop "language" (WPOP) An implementation of {POP} for the {PDP-10} made by Robert Rae "" in Edinburgh in 1976. WonderPop used "cages" for different {data types} and introduced {processes}, {properties} and some {typed identifiers}. (2016-12-24)

WOOL Window Object Oriented Language. A small {Common Lisp}-like extension language. It claims to be the fastest interpreted language in {C} with {run-time types}. Colas Nahaboo "". Version 1 is used as the kernel language of the {GWM} window manager. Version 2 has an object system. {(}.

workflow 1. "operating system" The {scheduling} of independent jobs on a computer. See also {time-sharing}, {WFL}. 2. "job" The set of relationships between all the activities in a project, from start to finish. Activities are related by different types of trigger relation. Activities may be triggered by external events or by other activities. 3. The movement of documents around an organisation for purposes including sign-off, evaluation, performing activities in a process and co-writing. [Stef Joosten "An empirical study about the practice of workflow management", {WA-12} report, 1994]. (1995-03-27)

Xy-pic "graphics, publication" A package for {typesetting} graphs and diagrams using {TeX}. It is structured as several modules, each defining a custom notation for a particular kind of graphical object or structure. Example objects are arrows, curves, and frames. These can be organised in matrix, {directed graph}, path, polygon, knot, and 2-cell structure. Xy-pic works with {LaTeX}, {AMS-LaTeX}, {AMS-TeX}, and {plain TeX}, and has been used to typeset complicated diagrams from many application areas including {category theory}, {automata} theory, {algebra}, {neural networks} and {database} theory. {(}. (1997-11-20)

Yellow Book, Jargon "publication" The print version of the {Jargon File}, titled "The New Hacker's Dictionary". It includes essentially all the material the File, plus a Foreword by {Guy L. Steele, Jr.} and a Preface by Eric S. Raymond. Most importantly, the book version is nicely typeset and includes almost all of the infamous Crunchly cartoons by the Great Quux, each attached to an appropriate entry. The first, second, and third editions correspond to versions 2.9.6, 3.0.0, and 4.0.0 of the File, respectively. ["The New Hacker's Dictionary", 3rd edition, MIT Press, 1996 (ISBN 0-262-68092-0)]. (1996-12-03)

Zed 1978. Software Portability Group, U Waterloo. {Eh}, with types added. Similar to {C}. Implementation language for the {Thoth} realtime operating system. Added a few simple types for greater efficiency on byte-addressed machines. String constants in case statements. Enforces the naming convention: MANIFESTS, Externals and locals. "Porting the Zed Compiler", G.B. Bonkowski et al, SIGPLAN Notices 14(8):92-97 (Aug 1979).

zeroth "jargon" First. Since zero is the lowest value of an {unsigned} {integer}, which is one of the most fundamental types in programming and {hardware} design, it is often natural to count from zero rather than one, especially when the integer is actually an {index} or {offset}, as used when addressing {hardware} and {arrays}. Hackers, computer scientists and pure mathematicians often like to call the first chapter of a publication "Chapter 0", especially if it is of an introductory nature (one of the classic instances was in the First Edition of {K&R}). Zero-based numbering tends to reduce {fencepost errors}, though it cannot eliminate them entirely. Logically, the next item after the zeroth should be the "oneth" but this is never used. [Dijkstra, "Why Numbering Should Start at Zero" {(}]. [{Jargon File}] (2010-02-28)

Zilog Z80 "processor" An 8-bit {microprocessor}. It was released in July 1976 with a 2.5 MHz {clock rate}. The Z80 was a much improved {Intel 8080} (as was the {Intel 8085}). It also used 8-bit data and 16-bit addressing, and could execute all of the {8080} {op codes} as well as 80 new ones, instructions that included 1, 4, 8 and 16-bit operations and even block move and block I/O instructions. The {register set} was doubled, with two banks of registers (including A and F) that could be switched between. This allowed fast {operating system} or {interrupt} {context switch}es. It features 3 types of interrupt mode. The Z80 also added two {index registers} (IX and IY) and relocatable {vectored interrupts} (via the 8-bit IV register). Like many processors (including the {8085}), the Z80 featured many undocumented op codes. Chip area near the edge was used for added instructions, but fabrication made the failure of these high. Instructions that often failed were just not documented, increasing chip yield. Later fabrication made these more reliable. The thing that really made the Z80 popular was the memory interface - the CPU generated it's own {RAM} {refresh} signals, which meant easier design and lower system cost. That and its {8080} compatibility and {CP/M}, the first standard {microprocessor} {operating system}, made it the first choice of many systems. In addition to the original Z80 (2.5 MHz) there are the {Zilog Z80A} (4 MHz), {Zilog Z80B} (6MHz) and {Zilog Z80H} (8 MHz) versions. The popular {Hitachi HD64180} processor family adds peripherals and an {MMU} to the Z80. The {Zilog Z280} was an enhanced version with an {MMU} and many new {op codes}. The Z80 was used in the first {Nintendo} {Game Boy}. A {Sharp} Z80 work-alike was used in the {GameBoy Color}, running at 4 MHz for GameBoy software or at 8 MHz for Game Boy Color software. The Z80 was used in the {Sega Master System} and the {Game Gear}. It was also used in the {Sega Genesis} for hardware reverse compatibility with the Sega Master System through a special cartridge. {Gaby Chaudry site (}. (2004-06-10)

Zuse "language" (After {Konrad Zuse}) A descendant of {Ada}, {Modula-2}, {Mesa} and {Oberon-1}, described by Christian Collberg "" in his PhD thesis 1991. Zuse supports several levels of information hiding. The Zuse type system includes fully hidden types (similar to {Modula-2} {opaque types} but without any implementation restriction), semi-open pointer types (same as {Modula-2} {opaque types}), extensible {record types} (similar to {Oberon-1} public projection types but without the compiler hint), {enumeration} types, extensible enumeration types, and extensible {subrange types}. A type can also be protected by specifying the operations that particular modules may perform (similar to {C++} {friend classes} and {Ada} {private types}). Zuse also includes hidden and extensible constants and hidden inline procedures. In order to support the higher levels of information hiding the implementation employs partial intermediate code linking. A version for {Sun-3} is available. (1999-02-18)

QUOTES [18 / 18 - 1500 / 2464]

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   2 Sri Aurobindo
   1 William James
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   1 Stephen King
   1 Sri Ramana Maharshi
   1 Sayyiduna Uthman
   1 Namkhai Norbu Rinpoche
   1 John Milton
   1 Jalaluddin Rumi
   1 Howard Gardner
   1 Gyatrul Rinpoche
   1 Gary Gygax
   1 Dion Fortune
   1 Chatral Rinpoche
   1 Carl Jung
   1 Alfred North Whitehead
   1 The Mother


   45 Anonymous
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   16 Carl Jung
   14 Haruki Murakami
   6 Terry Pratchett
   6 Jo Nesb
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   5 Bill Bryson
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   4 Friedrich Nietzsche
   4 Camille Paglia
   4 Bill Gates

1:Friends are three types, I'll tell you: The user, the faker, and the true! ~ Jalaluddin Rumi, @Sufi_Path
2:Up to a better covenant; disciplined From shadowy types to truth; from flesh to spirit; From imposition of strict laws to free Acceptance of large grace; from servile fear To filial; works of law to works of faith. ~ John Milton,
3:There are four types of oceans; passions are oceans of sins, the self (nafs) is the ocean of lust, death is the ocean of life, and the grave is the ocean of distress. ~ Sayyiduna Uthman, @Sufi_Path
4:Apr 20 Do not publicize ur spiritual life by beating drums. Practice ur disciplines secretly so that people may not know about them. There are various types of people in this world. Some may destroy ur spiritual mood thro criticism, & some may inflate ur ego by praising ur efforts.~ Swami Brahmananda,
5:Connectedness is of the essence of all things of all types. It is of the essence of types, that they be connected. Abstraction from connectedness involves the omission of an essential factor in the fact considered. No fact is merely itself. The penetration of literature and art at their height arises from our dumb sense that we have passed beyond mythology; namely, beyond the myth of isolation. ~ Alfred North Whitehead, Modes of Thought
6:All of the various types of teachings and spiritual paths are related to the different capacities of understanding that different individuals have. There does not exist, from an absolute point of view, any teaching which is more perfect or effective than another. A teaching's value lies solely in the inner awakening which an individual can arrive at through it. If a person benefits from a given teaching, for that person that teaching is the supreme path, because it is suited to his or her nature and capacities. ~ Namkhai Norbu Rinpoche,
7:The 3 types of terror: The Gross-out: the sight of a severed head tumbling down a flight of stairs, it's when the lights go out and something green and slimy splatters against your arm. The Horror: the unnatural, spiders the size of bears, the dead waking up and walking around, it's when the lights go out and something with claws grabs you by the arm. And the last and worse one: Terror, when you come home and notice everything you own had been taken away and replaced by an exact substitute. It's when the lights go out and you feel something behind you, you hear it, you feel its breath against your ear, but when you turn around, there's nothing there...
   ~ Stephen King,
8:Our normal waking consciousness, rational consciousness as we call it, is but one special type of consciousness, whilst all about it, parted from it by the filmiest of screens, there lie potential forms of consciousness entirely different. We may go through life without suspecting their existence; but apply the requisite stimulus, and at a touch they are there in all their completeness, definite types of mentality which probably somewhere have their field of application and adaptation.
No account of the universe in its totality can be final which leaves these other forms of consciousness quite discarded. How to regard them is the question,--for they are so discontinuous with ordinary consciousness ~ William James,
9:During this degenerate age in the outer world, there are many natural disasters due to the upsetting of the four elements. Also, demonic forces come with their many weapons to incite the fighting of wars. All of those forces have caused the world to come to ruin and led all to tremble - so terrified that their hair stands up on end. Still, the demonic forces find it necessary to come up with new types of weapons. If we were called on to confront them, there is no way we Dharma practitioners could defeat them. That is why we make supplication prayers to the three jewels, do the aspiration prayers, the offering prayers and the prayers of invocation. We are responsible for those activities. This is what I urge you to do. ~ Chatral Rinpoche,
10:The three states come and go, but you are always there. It is like a cinema. The screen is always there but several types of pictures appear on the screen and then disappear. Nothing sticks to the screen, it remains a screen. Similarly, you remain your own Self in all the three states. If you know that, the three states will not trouble you, just as the pictures which appear on the screen do not stick to it. On the screen, you sometimes see a huge ocean with endless waves; that disappears. Another time, you see fire spreading all around; that too disappears. The screen is there on both occasions. Did the screen get wet with the water or did it get burned by the fire? Nothing affected the screen. In the same way, the things that happen during the wakeful, dream and sleep states do not affect you at all; you remain your own Self. ~ Sri Ramana Maharshi,
11:There are two Paths to the Innermost: the Way of the Mystic, which is the way of devotion and meditation, a solitary and subjective path; and the way of the occultist, which is the way of the intellect, of concentration, and of trained will; upon this path the co-operation of fellow workers is required, firstly for the exchange of knowledge, and secondly because ritual magic plays an important part in this work, and for this the assistance of several is needed in most of the greater operations. The mystic derives his knowledge through the direct communion of his higher self with the Higher Powers; to him the wisdom of the occultist is foolishness, for his mind does not work in that way; but, on the other hand, to a more intellectual and extrovert type, the method of the mystic is impossible until long training has enabled him to transcend the planes of form. We must therefore recognize these two distinct types among those who seek the Way of Initiation, and remember that there is a path for each. ~ Dion Fortune, Esoteric Orders and Their Work and The Training and Work of the Initiate,
The Actual Practice:The Yoga of Meditative Equipoise
Part II

The Yoga of the Speech Recitation
The next section explains the yoga of vajra recitation in seven parts:
(1) general understanding, (2) the particular necessity for practice, (3) the actual nature of the recitation, (4) different types of recitation, (5) the manner of reciting the mantra, (6) number of recitations and (7) activity upon completion.
General Understanding
A general understanding of the yoga of vajra recitation is approached by considering the object that needs to be purified by the yoga, the means of purification and the result. The object that needs to be purified through the yoga of speech is the habit of perceiving all sounds-names, words, syllables and anything that is spoken-as merely ordinary sounds with ordinary meanings.
Simply stated, the object to purify is your present, obscured experience of speech and the habitual instincts that accompany it.
The practice of mantra recitation purifies this impure experience and results in pure, vajra-like speech. One achieves the Sambhogakaya and becomes imbued with the sixty qualities of the Buddha's speech. All of one's words become pleasing, meaningful and helpful. The means of purification is to recite the mantra, the pure sounds which the buddhas have given to us, over and over until they are like a spinning wheel of sound. ~ Gyatrul Rinpoche, Generating the DeityZ,
13:What is "the heavenly archetype of the lotus"?
It means the primal idea of the lotus.
   Each thing that is expressed physically was conceived somewhere before being realised materially.
   There is an entire world which is the world of the fashioners, where all conceptions are made. And this world is very high, much higher than all the worlds of the mind; and from there these formations, these creations, these types which have been conceived by the fashioners come down and are expressed in physical realisations. And there is always a great distance between the perfection of the idea and what is materialised. Very often the materialised things are like caricatures in comparison with the primal idea. This is what he calls the archetype. This takes place in worlds... not always the same ones, it depends on the things; but for many things in the physical, the primal ideas, these archetypes, were in what Sri Aurobindo calls the Overmind.
   But there is a still higher domain than this where the origins are still purer, and if one reaches this, attains this, one finds the absolutely pure types of what is manifested upon earth. And then it is very interesting to compare, to see to what an extent earthly creation is a frightful distortion. And moreover, it is only when one can reach these regions and see the reality of things in their essence that one can work with knowledge to transform them here; otherwise on what can we take our stand to conceive a better world, more perfect, more beautiful than the existing one? It can't be on our imagination which is itself something very poor and very material. But if one can enter that consciousness, rise right up to these higher worlds of creation, then with this in one's consciousness one can work at making material things take their real form. ~ The Mother, Questions And Answers 1955, 121,
14:This is the real sense and drive of what we see as evolution: the multiplication and variation of forms is only the means of its process. Each gradation contains the possibility and the certainty of the grades beyond it: the emergence of more and more developed forms and powers points to more perfected forms and greater powers beyond them, and each emergence of consciousness and the conscious beings proper to it enables the rise to a greater consciousness beyond and the greater order of beings up to the ultimate godheads of which Nature is striving and is destined to show herself capable. Matter developed its organised forms until it became capable of embodying living organisms; then life rose from the subconscience of the plant into conscious animal formations and through them to the thinking life of man. Mind founded in life developed intellect, developed its types of knowledge and ignorance, truth and error till it reached the spiritual perception and illumination and now can see as in a glass dimly the possibility of supermind and a truthconscious existence. In this inevitable ascent the mind of Light is a gradation, an inevitable stage. As an evolving principle it will mark a stage in the human ascent and evolve a new type of human being; this development must carry in it an ascending gradation of its own powers and types of an ascending humanity which will embody more and more the turn towards spirituality, capacity for Light, a climb towards a divinised manhood and the divine life.
   In the birth of the mind of Light and its ascension into its own recognisable self and its true status and right province there must be, in the very nature of things as they are and very nature of the evolutionary process as it is at present, two stages. In the first, we can see the mind of Light gathering itself out of the Ignorance, assembling its constituent elements, building up its shapes and types, however imperfect at first, and pushing them towards perfection till it can cross the border of the Ignorance and appear in the Light, in its own Light. In the second stage we can see it developing itself in that greater natural light, taking its higher shapes and forms till it joins the supermind and lives as its subordinate portion or its delegate.
   ~ Sri Aurobindo, Essays In Philosophy And Yoga, Mind of Light, 587,
15:The Godhead, the spirit manifested in Nature appears in a sea of infinite quality, Ananta-guna. But the executive or mechanical prakriti is of the threefold Guna, Sattwa, Rajas, Tamas, and the Ananta-guna, the spiritual play of infinite quality, modifies itself in this mechanical nature into the type of these three gunas. And in the soul-force in man this Godhead in Nature represents itself as a fourfold effective Power, caturvyuha , a Power for knowledge, a Power for strength, a Power for mutuality and active and productive relation and interchange, a Power for works and labour and service, and its presence casts all human life into a nexus and inner and outer operation of these four things. The ancient thought of India conscious of this fourfold type of active human personality and nature, built out of it the four types of the Brahmana, Kshatriya, Vaishya and Sudra, each with its spiritual turn, ethical ideal, suitable upbringing, fixed function in society and place in the evolutionary scale of the spirit. As always tends to be the case when we too much externalise and mechanise the more subtle truths of our nature, this became a hard and fast system inconsistent with the freedom and variability and complexity of the finer developing spirit in man. Nevertheless the truth behind it exists and is one of some considerable importance in the perfection of our power of nature; but we have to take it in its inner aspects, first, personality, character, temperament, soul-type, then the soul-force which lies behind them and wears these forms, and lastly the play of the free spiritual shakti in which they find their culmination and unity beyond all modes. For the crude external idea that a man is born as a Brahmana, Kshatriya, Vaishya or Sudra and that alone, is not a psychological truth of our being. The psychological fact is that there are these four active powers and tendencies of the Spirit and its executive shakti within us and the predominance of one or the other in the more well-formed part of our personality gives us our main tendencies, dominant qualities and capacities, effective turn in action and life. But they are more or less present in an men, here manifest, there latent, here developed, there subdued and depressed or subordinate, and in the perfect man will be raised up to a fullness and harmony which in the spiritual freedom will burst out into the free play of the infinite quality of the spirit in the inner and outer life and in the self-enjoying creative play of the Purusha with his and the world's Nature-Power. ~ Sri Aurobindo, The Synthesis Of Yoga, 4:15 - Soul-Force and the Fourfold Personality,
16:The Examiners
The integral yoga consists of an uninterrupted series of examinations that one has to undergo without any previous warning, thus obliging you to be constantly on the alert and attentive.

   Three groups of examiners set us these tests. They appear to have nothing to do with one another, and their methods are so different, sometimes even so apparently contradictory, that it seems as if they could not possibly be leading towards the same goal. Nevertheless, they complement one another, work towards the same end, and are all indispensable to the completeness of the result.

   The three types of examination are: those set by the forces of Nature, those set by spiritual and divine forces, and those set by hostile forces. These last are the most deceptive in their appearance and to avoid being caught unawares and unprepared requires a state of constant watchfulness, sincerity and humility.

   The most commonplace circumstances, the events of everyday life, the most apparently insignificant people and things all belong to one or other of these three kinds of examiners. In this vast and complex organisation of tests, those events that are generally considered the most important in life are the easiest examinations to undergo, because they find you ready and on your guard. It is easier to stumble over the little stones in your path, because they attract no attention.

   Endurance and plasticity, cheerfulness and fearlessness are the qualities specially needed for the examinations of physical nature.

   Aspiration, trust, idealism, enthusiasm and generous self-giving, for spiritual examinations.

   Vigilance, sincerity and humility for the examinations from hostile forces.

   And do not imagine that there are on the one hand people who undergo the examinations and on the other people who set them. Depending on the circumstances and the moment we are all both examiners and examinees, and it may even happen that one is at the same time both examiner and examinee. And the benefit one derives from this depends, both in quality and in quantity, on the intensity of one's aspiration and the awakening of one's consciousness.

   To conclude, a final piece of advice: never set yourself up as an examiner. For while it is good to remember constantly that one may be undergoing a very important examination, it is extremely dangerous to imagine that one is responsible for setting examinations for others. That is the open door to the most ridiculous and harmful kinds of vanity. It is the Supreme Wisdom which decides these things, and not the ignorant human will. ~ The Mother, Words Of The Mother II,
17:Wake-Initiated Lucid Dreams (WILDS)
In the last chapter we talked about strategies for inducing lucid dreams by carrying an idea from the waking world into the dream, such as an intention to comprehend the dream state, a habit of critical state testing, or the recognition of a dreamsign. These strategies are intended to stimulate a dreamer to become lucid within a dream.
This chapter presents a completely different set of approaches to the world of lucid dreaming based on the idea of falling asleep consciously. This involves retaining consciousness while wakefulness is lost and allows direct entry into the lucid dream state without any loss of reflective consciousness. The basic idea has many variations.
While falling asleep, you can focus on hypnagogic (sleep onset) imagery, deliberate visualizations, your breath or heartbeat, the sensations in your body, your sense of self, and so on. If you keep the mind sufficiently active while the tendency to enter REM sleep is strong, you feel your body fall asleep, but you, that is to say, your consciousness, remains awake. The next thing you know, you will find yourself in the dream world, fully lucid.
These two different strategies for inducing lucidity result in two distinct types of lucid dreams. Experiences in which people consciously enter dreaming sleep are referred to as wake-initiated lucid dreams (WILDs), in contrast to dream-initiated lucid dreams (DILDs), in which people become lucid after having fallen asleep unconsciously. 1 The two kinds of lucid dreams differ in a number of ways. WILDs always happen in association with brief awakenings (sometimes only one or two seconds long) from and immediate return to REM sleep. The sleeper has a subjective impression of having been awake. This is not true of DILDs. Although both kinds of lucid dream are more likely to occur later in the night, the proportion of WILDs also increases with time of night. In other words, WILDs are most likely to occur the late morning hours or in afternoon naps. This is strikingly evident in my own record of lucid dreams. Of thirty-three lucid dreams from the first REM period of the night, only one (3 percent) was a WILD, compared with thirteen out of thirty-two (41 percent) lucid dreams from afternoon naps. 2 Generally speaking, WILDs are less frequent than DILDs; in a laboratory study of seventy-six lucid dreams, 72 percent were DILDs compared with 28 percent WILDs. 3 The proportion of WILDs observed in the laboratory seems, by my experience, to be considerably higher than the proportion of WILDs reported at home.
To take a specific example, WILDs account for only 5 percent of my home record of lucid dreams, but for 40 percent of my first fifteen lucid dreams in the laboratory. 4 Ibelieve there are two reasons for this highly significant difference: whenever I spentthe night in the sleep laboratory, I was highly conscious of every time I awakened andI made extraordinary efforts not to move more than necessary in order to minimizeinterference with the physiological recordings.
Thus, my awakenings from REM in the lab were more likely to lead toconscious returns to REM than awakenings at home when I was sleeping with neitherheightened consciousness of my environment and self nor any particular intent not tomove. This suggests that WILD induction techniques might be highly effective underthe proper conditions.
Paul Tholey notes that, while techniques for direct entry to the dream staterequire considerable practice in the beginning, they offer correspondingly greatrewards. 5 When mastered, these techniques (like MILD) can confer the capacity toinduce lucid dreams virtually at will. ~ Stephen LaBerge, Exploring the World of Lucid Dreaming, 4 - Falling Asleep Consciously,
   Can a Yogi attain to a state of consciousness in which he can know all things, answer all questions, relating even to abstruse scientific problems, such as, for example, the theory of relativity?

Theoretically and in principle it is not impossible for a Yogi to know everything; all depends upon the Yogi.

   But there is knowledge and knowledge. The Yogi does not know in the way of the mind. He does not know everything in the sense that he has access to all possible information or because he contains all the facts of the universe in his mind or because his consciousness is a sort of miraculous encyclopaedia. He knows by his capacity for a containing or dynamic identity with things and persons and forces. Or he knows because he lives in a plane of consciousness or is in contact with a consciousness in which there is the truth and the knowledge.

   If you are in the true consciousness, the knowledge you have will also be of the truth. Then, too, you can know directly, by being one with what you know. If a problem is put before you, if you are asked what is to be done in a particular matter, you can then, by looking with enough attention and concentration, receive spontaneously the required knowledge and the true answer. It is not by any careful application of theory that you reach the knowledge or by working it out through a mental process. The scientific mind needs these methods to come to its conclusions. But the Yogi's knowledge is direct and immediate; it is not deductive. If an engineer has to find out the exact position for the building of an arch, the line of its curve and the size of its opening, he does it by calculation, collating and deducing from his information and data. But a Yogi needs none of these things; he looks, has the vision of the thing, sees that it is to be done in this way and not in another, and this seeing is his knowledge.

   Although it may be true in a general way and in a certain sense that a Yogi can know all things and can answer all questions from his own field of vision and consciousness, yet it does not follow that there are no questions whatever of any kind to which he would not or could not answer. A Yogi who has the direct knowledge, the knowledge of the true truth of things, would not care or perhaps would find it difficult to answer questions that belong entirely to the domain of human mental constructions. It may be, he could not or would not wish to solve problems and difficulties you might put to him which touch only the illusion of things and their appearances. The working of his knowledge is not in the mind. If you put him some silly mental query of that character, he probably would not answer. The very common conception that you can put any ignorant question to him as to some super-schoolmaster or demand from him any kind of information past, present or future and that he is bound to answer, is a foolish idea. It is as inept as the expectation from the spiritual man of feats and miracles that would satisfy the vulgar external mind and leave it gaping with wonder.

   Moreover, the term "Yogi" is very vague and wide. There are many types of Yogis, many lines or ranges of spiritual or occult endeavour and different heights of achievement, there are some whose powers do not extend beyond the mental level; there are others who have gone beyond it. Everything depends on the field or nature of their effort, the height to which they have arrived, the consciousness with which they have contact or into which they enter.

   Do not scientists go sometimes beyond the mental plane? It is said that Einstein found his theory of relativity not through any process of reasoning, but through some kind of sudden inspiration. Has that inspiration anything to do with the Supermind?

The scientist who gets an inspiration revealing to him a new truth, receives it from the intuitive mind. The knowledge comes as a direct perception in the higher mental plane illumined by some other light still farther above. But all that has nothing to do with the action of Supermind and this higher mental level is far removed from the supramental plane. Men are too easily inclined to believe that they have climbed into regions quite divine when they have only gone above the average level. There are many stages between the ordinary human mind and the Supermind, many grades and many intervening planes. If an ordinary man were to get into direct contact even with one of these intermediate planes, he would be dazzled and blinded, would be crushed under the weight of the sense of immensity or would lose his balance; and yet it is not the Supermind.

   Behind the common idea that a Yogi can know all things and answer all questions is the actual fact that there is a plane in the mind where the memory of everything is stored and remains always in existence. All mental movements that belong to the life of the earth are memorised and registered in this plane. Those who are capable of going there and care to take the trouble, can read in it and learn anything they choose. But this region must not be mistaken for the supramental levels. And yet to reach even there you must be able to silence the movements of the material or physical mind; you must be able to leave aside all your sensations and put a stop to your ordinary mental movements, whatever they are; you must get out of the vital; you must become free from the slavery of the body. Then only you can enter into that region and see. But if you are sufficiently interested to make this effort, you can arrive there and read what is written in the earth's memory.

   Thus, if you go deep into silence, you can reach a level of consciousness on which it is not impossible for you to receive answers to all your questions. And if there is one who is consciously open to the plenary truth of the supermind, in constant contact with it, he can certainly answer any question that is worth an answer from the supramental Light. The queries put must come from some sense of the truth and reality behind things. There are many questions and much debated problems that are cobwebs woven of mere mental abstractions or move on the illusory surface of things. These do not pertain to real knowledge; they are a deformation of knowledge, their very substance is of the ignorance. Certainly the supramental knowledge may give an answer, its own answer, to the problems set by the mind's ignorance; but it is likely that it would not be at all satisfactory or perhaps even intelligible to those who ask from the mental level. You must not expect the supramental to work in the way of the mind or demand that the knowledge in truth should be capable of being pieced together with the half-knowledge in ignorance. The scheme of the mind is one thing, but Supermind is quite another and it would no longer be supramental if it adapted itself to the exigencies of the mental scheme. The two are incommensurable and cannot be put together.

   When the consciousness has attained to supramental joys, does it no longer take interest in the things of the mind?

The supramental does not take interest in mental things in the same way as the mind. It takes its own interest in all the movements of the universe, but it is from a different point of view and with a different vision. The world presents to it an entirely different appearance; there is a reversal of outlook and everything is seen from there as other than what it seems to the mind and often even the opposite. Things have another meaning; their aspect, their motion and process, everything about them, are watched with other eyes. Everything here is followed by the supermind; the mind movements and not less the vital, the material movements, all the play of the universe have for it a very deep interest, but of another kind. It is about the same difference as that between the interest taken in a puppet-play by one who holds the strings and knows what the puppets are to do and the will that moves them and that they can do only what it moves them to do, and the interest taken by another who observes the play but sees only what is happening from moment to moment and knows nothing else. The one who follows the play and is outside its secret has a stronger, an eager and passionate interest in what will happen and he gives an excited attention to its unforeseen or dramatic events; the other, who holds the strings and moves the show, is unmoved and tranquil. There is a certain intensity of interest which comes from ignorance and is bound up with illusion, and that must disappear when you are out of the ignorance. The interest that human beings take in things founds itself on the illusion; if that were removed, they would have no interest at all in the play; they would find it dry and dull. That is why all this ignorance, all this illusion has lasted so long; it is because men like it, because they cling to it and its peculiar kind of appeal that it endures.

   ~ The Mother, Questions And Answers 1929-1931, 93?


1:All types of knowledge, ultimately mean self knowledge. ~ bruce-lee, @wisdomtrove
2:Pornography is a theatre of types, never of individuals. ~ susan-sontag, @wisdomtrove
3:There are only two types of women - goddesses and doormats. ~ pablo-picasso, @wisdomtrove
4:Some types of nothing are more fun than other types of nothing. ~ frederick-lenz, @wisdomtrove
5:There are two types of mistakes: mistakes of ambition and mistakes of sloth. ~ tim-ferris, @wisdomtrove
6:There are only two types of speakers in the world. 1. The nervous and 2. Liars. ~ mark-twain, @wisdomtrove
7:There are ways of dying that don't end in funerals. Types of death you can't smell. ~ haruki-murakami, @wisdomtrove
8:Skill in concentrating and steadying the mind is the basis for all types of meditation. ~ jack-kornfield, @wisdomtrove
9:I learned about the benefits and the vast limitations of such types of exploration, as did all my generation. ~ frederick-lenz, @wisdomtrove
10:In all love stories the theme is love and tragedy, so by writing these types of stories, I have to include tragedy. ~ nicholas-sparks, @wisdomtrove
11:There are two types of people in the business community: those who produce results and those who give you reasons why they didn't. ~ peter-drucker, @wisdomtrove
12:There are two types of relationships: nourishing and toxic. Do not keep the toxic. What interaction does light have with darkness? None! ~ les-brown, @wisdomtrove
13:I walk into the kitchen, look at the typer down there on the floor. It's a dirty floor. It's a dirty typer that types dirty stories ~ charles-bukowski, @wisdomtrove
14:The types of thoughts that you think create a state of mind. The reason you think the thoughts you do results from your level of power. ~ frederick-lenz, @wisdomtrove
15:I have only got down on to paper, really, three types of people: the person I think I am, the people who irritate me, and the people I'd like to be. ~ e-m-forster, @wisdomtrove
16:I deal with two types of students. Those who have a very deep-seated knowledge of love, which are few, or those in all their lives have ignored love. ~ frederick-lenz, @wisdomtrove
17:There are basically two types of people. People who accomplish things, and people who claim to have accomplished things. The first group is less crowded. ~ mark-twain, @wisdomtrove
18:Of course, there are the old hardcore teacher types like me who sit around and tell jokes, realizing, what's the difference anyway - it's all timeless. ~ frederick-lenz, @wisdomtrove
19:It may be true that the only reason the comic book industry now exists is for this purpose, to create characters for movies, board games and other types of merchandise. ~ alan-moore, @wisdomtrove
20:There are two types of poor people, those who are poor together and those who are poor alone. The first are the true poor, the others are rich people out of luck. ~ jean-paul-sartre, @wisdomtrove
21:There are three types of men in the world. One type learns from books. One type learns from observations. And one type just has to urinate on the electric fence himself. ~ will-rogers, @wisdomtrove
22:Spirituality, as expounded by the great saints and sages of the past, is a very broad path. It accommodates all types of belief systems. You need to satisfy everyone. ~ mata-amritanandamayi, @wisdomtrove
23:I was very drawn to music of all types, from Beethoven to Jimi Hendrix. There were musicians and composers who obviously were expressing a vision that was beyond the mundane. ~ frederick-lenz, @wisdomtrove
24:At that time two opposing concepts of the Game called forth commentary and discussion. The foremost players distinguished two principal types of Game, the formal and the psychological. ~ hermann-hesse, @wisdomtrove
25:Two types of voices command your attention today. Negative ones fill your mind with doubt, bitterness, and fear. Positive ones purvey hope and strength. Which one will you choose to heed? ~ max-lucado, @wisdomtrove
26:A teacher had two types of students. One type of student is a close student. The other is also a close student, but not in the sense of physical proximity. The close students rotate a lot. ~ frederick-lenz, @wisdomtrove
27:Chaos theory simply suggests that what appears to most people as chaos is not really chaotic, but a series of different types of orders with which the human mind has not yet become familiar. ~ frederick-lenz, @wisdomtrove
28:There is two types of Larceny, Petty and Grand. They are supposed to be the same in the eyes of the law, but judges always put a little extra on you for Petty, which is kind of a fine for stupidness. ~ will-rogers, @wisdomtrove
29:There are two types of laws: there are just laws and there are unjust laws... What is the difference between the two?... An unjust law is a man-made code that is out of harmony with the moral law. ~ martin-luther-king, @wisdomtrove
30:If there was one thing life had taught her it was that there are times when you do not go back for your bag and times when you do. It had yet to teach her to distinguish between the two types of occasion. ~ douglas-adams, @wisdomtrove
31:You have to be very, very careful not to pick up too much of the lower energies, the toxic energies, because they'll make you very ill. They can kill you. They can cause cancer, debilitative diseases of all types. ~ frederick-lenz, @wisdomtrove
32:There are two types of people who never achieve very much in their lifetimes. One is the person who won't do what he or she is told to do, and the other is the person who does no more than he or she is told to do. ~ andrew-carnegie, @wisdomtrove
33:Artists are useful to society because they are so sensitive. They are supersensitive. They keel over like canaries in coal mines filled with poison gas, long before more robust types realize that any danger is there. ~ kurt-vonnegut, @wisdomtrove
34:In the world of power, people will come looking for you. If you're a movie star, you know what I am saying. People will come around you, little groupie types. They think that being around you they can get something. ~ frederick-lenz, @wisdomtrove
35:He who first shortened the labor of Copyists by device of Movable Types was disbanding hired armies and cashiering most Kings and Senates, and creating a whole new Democratic world: he had invented the Art of printing. ~ thomas-carlyle, @wisdomtrove
36:Unfortunately, in self-discovery, you get the culty types who want the father figure or mother figure to tell them everything to do. They don't want to do any work. They want to hang on your energy and try to drain it. ~ frederick-lenz, @wisdomtrove
37:Imagination is potentially infinite. Though actually we are limited to the types of experience for which we possess organs, those organs are somewhat plastic. Opportunity will change their scope and even their center. ~ george-santayana, @wisdomtrove
38:The buildup of negative auric vibrations initially impairs our ability to perceive psychically. They can eventually cause us to become ill. Most serious illnesses, including many types of cancer, are the result of auric toxicity. ~ frederick-lenz, @wisdomtrove
39:The sad truth is that certain types of things can't go backward. Once they start going forward, no matter what you do, they can't go back the way they were. If even one little thing goes awry, then that's how it will stay forever. ~ haruki-murakami, @wisdomtrove
40:I am a lot of different things to a lot of different people. Aren't we all? I teach meditation to many different types of people, you mentioned celebrities. I also teach meditation to many people who are not famous, but are, in my eyes, very important. ~ frederick-lenz, @wisdomtrove
41:I think certain types of processes don’t allow for any variation. If you have to be part of that process, all you can do is transform or perhaps distort yourself through that persistent repetition, and make that process a part of your own personality. ~ haruki-murakami, @wisdomtrove
42:There are two types of seeds in the mind: those that create anger, fear, frustration, jealousy, hatred and those that create love, compassion, equanimity and joy. Spirituality is germination and sprouting of the second group and transforming the first group. ~ amit-ray, @wisdomtrove
43:Il n'y a que deux sortes d'hommes: les uns justes, qui se croient pe cheurs; les autres pe  cheurs, qui se croient justes. There are only two types of people: the virtuous who believe themselves to be sinners and the sinners who believe themselves to be virtuous. ~ blaise-pascal, @wisdomtrove
44:There are only three types of people; those who have found God and serve him; those who have not found God and seek him, and those who live not seeking, or finding him. The first are rational and happy; the second unhappy and rational, and the third foolish and unhappy. ~ blaise-pascal, @wisdomtrove
45:Subpersonalities can exist at different levels or memes, however, so that one can indeed have a purple subpersonality, a blue subpersonality, and so on. These often are context-triggered, so that one can have quite different types of moral responses, affects, needs, etc., in different situations. ~ ken-wilber, @wisdomtrove
46:There are two types of mind . . . the mathematical, and what might be called the intuitive. The former arrives at its views slowly, but they are firm and rigid; the latter is endowed with greater flexibility and applies itself simultaneously to the diverse lovable parts of that which it loves. ~ blaise-pascal, @wisdomtrove
47:I always rewrite each day up to the point where I stopped. When it is all finished, naturally you go over it. You get another chance to correct and rewrite when someone else types it, and you see it clean in type. The last chance is in the proofs. You're grateful for these different chances. ~ ernest-hemingway, @wisdomtrove
48:The idea of the industrial fishing affects everyone. Those factory ships play this game of hit and run with the international fishing limits, and somebody said it's like hunting squirrels with a bulldozer. They pull everything in and they are only looking for certain types of fish and everything else dies and they just throw it back. It's like chumming. ~ robin-williams, @wisdomtrove
49:The explanation of types of structure in classes - as resulting from the will of the Deity, to create animals on certain plans - is no explanation. It has not the character of a physical law and is therefore utterly useless. It foretells nothing because we know nothing of the will of the Deity, how it acts and whether constant or inconstant like that of man. ~ charles-darwin, @wisdomtrove
50:In today's world, people experience two types of poverty: the poverty caused by lack of food, clothing and shelter, and the poverty caused by lack of love and compassion. Of these two, the second type needs to be considered first because if we have love and compassion in our hearts, then we will wholeheartedly serve those who suffer from lack of food, clothing and shelter. ~ mata-amritanandamayi, @wisdomtrove
51:So we down-to-earth, gutsy, tough, realistic, and practical types have just been squandering billions of dollars and unimaginable amounts of energy, nerve-work, and materials in whizzing off to the moon to discover, as astronomers knew before, that it was just a dreary slag heap. This is the true, original and scientifically etymological meaning of being lunatics.  Crying for the moon. ~ alan-watts, @wisdomtrove
52:I am a man who believes with all fervor and intensity in moderate progress. Too often men who believe in moderation believe in it only moderately and tepidly and leave fervor to the extremists of the two sides - the extremists of reaction and the extremists of progress. Washington, Lincoln . . . are men who, to my mind, stand as the types of what wide, progressive leadership should be. ~ theodore-roosevelt, @wisdomtrove
53:When we reverence anything in the mature, it is their virtues or their wisdom, and this is an easy matter. But we reverence the faults and follies of children. We should probably come considerably nearer to the true conception of things if we treated all grown-up persons, of all titles and types, with precisely that dark affection and dazed respect with which we treat the infantile limitations. ~ g-k-chesterton, @wisdomtrove
54:All types of knowledge ultimately lead to self-knowledge. So, therefore, these people are asking me to teach them, not so much how to defend themselves or how to do somebody in. Rather, they want to learn to express themselves through some movement, be it anger, be it determination or whatever. So, in other words, they're paying me to show them, in combative form, the art of expressing the human body. ~ bruce-lee, @wisdomtrove
55:The immigrant must not be allowed to drift or to be put at the mercy of the exploiter. Our object is not to imitate one of the older racial types, but to maintain a new American type and then to secure loyalty to this type. We cannot secure such loyalty unless we make this a country where men shall feel that they have justice and also where they shall feel that they are required to perform the duties imposed upon them. ~ theodore-roosevelt, @wisdomtrove
56:Death is unimportant to a yogi; he does not mind when he is going to die. What happens after death is immaterial to him. He is only concerned with life-with how he can use his life for the betterment of humanity. Having undergone various types of pain in his life and having acquired a certain mastery over pain, he develops compassion to help society and maintains himself in purity and holiness. The yogi has no interest beyond that. ~ b-k-s-iyengar, @wisdomtrove
57:I mean, they were getting the mortgage of some guy in Omaha, you know, securitized a couple of times. I mean he had all these - they had all these types from Wall Street, you know, and they had advanced degrees, and they look very alert, and they came with these - they came with these things that said gamma and alpha and sigma and all that. And all I can say is beware of geeks, you know, bearing formulas. They've heard that in Europe. ~ warren-buffet, @wisdomtrove
58:Twenty thousand thieves landed at Hastings. These founders of the House of Lords were greedy and ferocious dragoons, sons of greedy and ferocious pirates... Such, however, is the illusion of antiquity and wealth, that decent and dignified men now existing, boast their descent from these filthy thieves, who showed a far juster conviction of their own merits, by assuming for their types the swine, goat, jackal, leopard, wolf, and snake, which they severally resembled. ~ lewis-carroll, @wisdomtrove
59:Leadership is a word and a concept that has been more argued than almost any other I know. I am not one of the desk-pounding types that likes to stick out his jaw and look like he is bossing the show. I would far rather get behind and, recognizing the frailties and the requirements of human nature, would rather try to persuade a man to go along, because once I have persuaded him, he will stick. If I scare him, he will stay just as long as he is scared, and then he is gone. ~ dwight-eisenhower, @wisdomtrove
60:Enough! we're tired, my heart and I. We sit beside the headstone thus, And wish that name were carved for us. The moss reprints more tenderly The hard types of the mason's knife, As Heaven's sweet life renews earth's life With which we're tired, my heart and I ... . In this abundant earth no doubt Is little room for things worn out: Disdain them, break them, throw them by! And if before the days grew rough We once were loved, used, - well enough, I think, we've fared, my heart and I. ~ elizabeth-barrett-browning, @wisdomtrove
61:In ancient times, people weren't just male or female, but one of three types: male/male, male/female, female/female. In other words, each person was made out of the components of two people. Everyone was happy with this arrangement and never really gave it much a thought. But then God took a knife and cut everybody in half, right down the middle. So after that the world was divided just into male and female, the upshot being that people spend their time running around trying to locate their missing other half. ~ haruki-murakami, @wisdomtrove
62:Incapacity to appreciate certain types of beauty may be the condition sine qua non for the appreciation of another kind; the greatest capacity both for enjoyment and creation is highly specialized and exclusive, and hence the greatest ages of art have often been strangely intolerant. The invectives of one school against another, perverse as they are philosophically, are artistically often signs of health, because they indicate a vital appreciation of certain kinds of beauty, a love of them that has grown into a jealous passion. ~ george-santayana, @wisdomtrove
63:There are two types of empathy: the positive empathy and the negative empathy. When we are fully carried away by the unaware activities of the mirror neurons, we are under the trap of negative empathy. The negative empathy generates attachments. Out of these attachments suffering follows. Negative empathy is a kind of reaction to a situation, whereas positive empathy is internal response of peace love and tranquility... . In positive empathy, your deep tranquility, joy and peace activates the mirror neurons of the others, whereas in negative empathy your mirror neurons are activated by the disturbance of others. ~ amit-ray, @wisdomtrove

*** NEWFULLDB 2.4M ***

1:I love all types of music myself. ~ DJ Khaled,
2:I like playing dark, broody types. ~ Kit Harington,
3:The world needs all types of minds. ~ Temple Grandin,
4:These dreamer types do live, don't they? ~ P G Wodehouse,
5:There are two types of speakers: those that ~ Mark Twain,
6:... nets, grids, and other types of calculus. ~ Alan Watts,
7:All types of riches should be amassed by all means. ~ Chanakya,
8:The first thing the secretary types is the boss. ~ Donald Trump,
9:There are only two types of cinema - good or bad. ~ Yash Chopra,
10:I give women two types of orgasms. Fake and none. ~ Adam Carolla,
11:All types of knowledge, ultimately mean self knowledge. ~ Bruce Lee,
12:Different times need different types of leadership. ~ Park Geun hye,
13:What you call types of mind are only mental ages. ~ Fran oise Sagan,
14:expenditure,40 lower risk of various types of cancer.41 ~ Jason Fung,
15:I'm a little different from all those conservation types. ~ Jim Fowler,
16:Me and my sisters all have such different body types. ~ Kim Kardashian,
17:There are two types of sacrifices: correct ones and mine ~ Mikhail Tal,
18:Any types of auditions will be posted in trade magazines. ~ Paula Abdul,
19:Cancers of all types among women are increasing ~ Gro Harlem Brundtland,
20:Pornography is a theatre of types, never of individuals. ~ Susan Sontag,
21:There are two types of sacrifices: correct ones, and mine. ~ Mikhail Tal,
22:two types of business organizations—profit and nonprofit. ~ Daniel H Pink,
23:I was constantly being around artists and Bohemian types. ~ Spencer Dryden,
24:There are only two types of women: goddesses and doormats. ~ Pablo Picasso,
25:There are two types of stories: public and private. ~ Antonio Munoz Molina,
26:A limited number of types,good and bad serve for all ages. ~ Romain Rolland,
27:There are only two types of women - goddesses and doormats. ~ Pablo Picasso,
28:There are as many types of non-dualities as there are dualities. ~ David Loy,
29:I'm sure everyone has many types of music that they enjoy. ~ Freddie Highmore,
30:There are only three types of citizenship: hero, villain, nobody. ~ Toba Beta,
31:he pours three types of blood into the hole—cat, rat, and human. ~ Dean Koontz,
32:My mom did a good job exposing me to different types of music. ~ Diana DeGarmo,
33:I've been lucky to listen to lots of different types of music. ~ Elvis Costello,
34:There are only two types of leaders: effective and ineffective. ~ Jocko Willink,
35:There're two types of people in the world—and you ain't one of 'em. ~ Anonymous,
36:Of all types of birds, birds of prey have always fascinated people. ~ Jim Knight,
37:Some types of nothing are more fun than other types of nothing. ~ Frederick Lenz,
38:There are many types of love. But there is nothing like a sister. ~ Rena Rossner,
39:There are two types of people in the world, and I'm one of them. ~ Aaron Allston,
40:We get high on all types of drugs when, all you really need is Love ~ Talib Kweli,
41:You need a lot of different types of people to make the world better. ~ Joe Louis,
42:some types of neurons may be found only in specific species. ~ Michael S Gazzaniga,
43:Branches or types are characterized by the plan of their structure, ~ Louis Agassiz,
44:For me, there are two types of people: the young and the experienced. ~ Abdul Kalam,
45:There are lots of people who are red-carpet types, but that's not me. ~ Megyn Kelly,
46:Talking of white supremacist violent types, I was in America, recently. ~ Bill Bailey,
47:There are three types of lies -- lies, damn lies, and statistics. ~ Benjamin Disraeli,
48:Artists of many diverse types began using simple forms to their own ends. ~ Sol LeWitt,
49:In or orchestra we have many nationalities, types, and temperaments. ~ Artur Rodzinski,
50:Awareness in our society has flipped all types of injustice on its head. ~ Serj Tankian,
51:I believe there are certain types of movements which cannot be married. ~ Bayard Rustin,
52:There are two types of football - there's physical football and football talent. ~ Xavi,
53:Having different types of stocks in your portfolio can enhance returns. ~ Kenneth Fisher,
54:How my needs for certain types of release would freak her the fuck out. ~ Pepper Winters,
55:The prostitute is the sum of all types of feminine slavery at once. ~ Simone de Beauvoir,
56:consider four types or “castes”—oracles, genies, sovereigns, and tools—and ~ Nick Bostrom,
57:In art there are only two types of people: revolutionaries and plagiarists ~ Paul Gauguin,
58:I never set out to be part of a genre, because I listen to all types of music. ~ Skrillex,
59:Thus the total armada amounted to 5,333 ships and craft of all types, ~ Stephen E Ambrose,
60:Everyone is a mass of contradictions. There are no "types" of people, ~ Mary Louise Parker,
61:How does it happen that the most intractable types always rise to the top? ~ Jack McDevitt,
62:I like to play different types roles, but I'd like to do a comedy next. ~ Jonny Lee Miller,
63:There are two types of mistakes: mistakes of ambition and mistakes of sloth. ~ Tim Ferriss,
64:There are two types of pain: pain that hurts you and pain that changes you. ~ Brett Hoebel,
65:There are two types of people ... the scrutinizers and the scrutinized ~ John Gregory Dunne,
66:We try to do different types of projects and last time was a fun event . ~ Henrik Lundqvist,
67:If you want to explore, go do it. If you want to try different types of art, do it. ~ Lights,
68:My mom listened to the Beatles and Elvis, a lot of different types of music. ~ Travis Barker,
69:Now there is no place you can go where you don't hear certain types of music. ~ Jerry Garcia,
70:Only three types of people tell the truth: Kids, the drunk, and the angry. ~ Elizabeth Reyes,
71:There are only two types of speakers in the world. 1. The nervous and 2. Liars. ~ Mark Twain,
72:Certain types of films will never test well. My films never seem to test well. ~ Terry Zwigoff,
73:George Lucas puts those types of characters in for the kids. Same with Jar Jar. ~ Peter Mayhew,
74:I want to get away from the high school thing and do other types of roles. ~ Shannon Elizabeth,
75:My Panasonic typewriter can make graphs. It types in four different colors. ~ Heather O Rourke,
76:One works in this business - if one works. You do different types of movies. ~ George Hamilton,
77:The more different types of plants you eat, the more diverse your microbiome. ~ Michael Mosley,
78:there are no inferior types of fiction, only inferior practitioners
of them ~ David Morrell,
79:Musical types tend to combine the burden of the author with the burden of the actor. ~ Iggy Pop,
80:There are two types of people in the world, those who say 'there are two types ~ Gloria Steinem,
81:I like writing different types of music. I don't like being stuck into one thing. ~ Sky Ferreira,
82:I love the adventure of telling all types of stories and trying to conquer each one. ~ Jon M Chu,
83:I really enjoy making different types of music than I do with the Backstreet Boys. ~ Nick Carter,
84:there are two types of the male species of Homo sapiens: men, and Italian men. ~ Letitia Baldrige,
85:Usually the most we feared from humans was either running into crazy slayer types ~ Richelle Mead,
86:Certain types of loudmouthism should be a capital offense among decent people. ~ Robert A Heinlein,
87:There are two types of forwards. Scorers and bangers. Scorers score and bangers bang. ~ Ken Dryden,
88:There are two types of people in the world, the bright lights and the quite shadows. ~ Emma Wildes,
89:If you look at the types of directors out there, I'm not as weird as most of them. ~ Benjamin Lewin,
90:There are only two types of people in this world; people who hate clowns, and clowns. ~ D J MacHale,
91:Those spineless types who talk about abolishing the apostrophe are missing the point. ~ Lynne Truss,
92:Two types of people laugh at the law: those that break it and those that make it. ~ Terry Pratchett,
93:I listen to all types of different music. I go to different festivals. I'm around music. ~ Rico Love,
94:There are two types of change: the change we choose and the change that chooses us. ~ Linda Ellerbee,
95:Never trust in theories, m’lad, if they’re thought up by types who work in offices. ~ Gregory Benford,
96:There are ways of dying that don't end in funerals. Types of death you can't smell. ~ Haruki Murakami,
97:Two types of avoidance cause problems for people: avoiding pleasure and avoiding pain. ~ Todd Kashdan,
98:As you get older, there are different types of roles in people's lives at certain ages. ~ Logan Lerman,
99:Like they say, it takes all types to make the world. But sometimes you wish it didn't. ~ Gloria Naylor,
100:There are two types of risk in life: the danger of trying and the danger of not trying. ~ Nick Vujicic,
101:God, I hate it when people even say there are types, like people come in flavors. ~ Huntley Fitzpatrick,
102:In other words, they belong to types that could fall in love, but couldn't live together. ~ E M Forster,
103:Maybe that was strange. Maybe it was sad. Maybe it was what literary types called irony. ~ Stephen King,
104:Skill in concentrating and steadying the mind is the basis for all types of meditation. ~ Jack Kornfield,
105:The best character types are the ones you can be creative with and totally delve into... ~ Noah Hathaway,
106:There are two types of people on social media: people who want more followers, and liars. ~ Guy Kawasaki,
107:Why is it you intense political types insist on living entirely in the symbolic world? ~ Bill Willingham,
108:There are two types of fools. The one who delivers the message, and the one who believes it. ~ K F Breene,
109:Throughout hip-hop people have been putting different elements with different types of music. ~ Girl Talk,
110:What stories are new? All types of all characters march through all fables. ~ William Makepeace Thackeray,
111:I enjoy working on new, different types of characters. Playing a range is what excites me. ~ Juliet Landau,
113:types: frumpy graduate students, disheveled professors, too busy or distracted to bother ~ Krassi Zourkova,
114:Most of those people who saw themselves as literary types at university became bank managers. ~ Simon Mawer,
115:Prisons are fascinating places, especially when the inmates are educated white-collar types. ~ John Grisham,
116:There are two types of people in the world: those who can extrapolate from incomplete data..... ~ Anonymous,
117:There are two types of secrets. There are secrets of the mouth and secrets of the heart. ~ Patrick Rothfuss,
118:We not-much-of-anything types don't worry about the cost of leaving a light on unnecessarily. ~ Dean Koontz,
119:I didnt know any actors growing up. My dad was a builder, and we didnt know any arty types. ~ Stephen Mangan,
120:I think there are two types of people. Ones who have a scream inside them and ones who don’t. ~ Wendy Walker,
121:She grinned at me. 'You got types?' 'Only you darling - lanky brunettes with wicked jaws. ~ Dashiell Hammett,
122:I enjoy doing all different types of movies even though I am the most comfortable with comedy. ~ Adam Sandler,
123:There are two types of claims: those based on hard numbers and those based on slippery numbers. ~ Simon Sinek,
124:there are two types of people in the world-those who matter to his story and those who don't. ~ Alison Gaylin,
125:To me, there's two types of songs, good and bad. And I just like to stick with the good ones. ~ Reba McEntire,
126:Every nation has to follow a certain policy: Commercial, trade, various other types of policies. ~ Abdul Kalam,
127:In the best classrooms, grades are only one of many types of feedback provided to students. ~ Douglas B Reeves,
128:It even contains rules on what types of blows are permissible when a husband beats his wife. ~ Ayaan Hirsi Ali,
129:There are only 10 types of people in the world. Those who understand binary, and those who don't. ~ Penny Reid,
130:There is a bit of arrogance with 'Hollywood' types that doesn't sit well with game developers. ~ Wesley Snipes,
131:She grinned at me. 'You got types?'
'Only you darling - lanky brunettes with wicked jaws. ~ Dashiell Hammett,
132:The three types of misery are the misery of suffering, the misery of change, and pervasive misery. ~ Dalai Lama,
133:two types of business organizations—profit and nonprofit. One makes money, the other does good. ~ Daniel H Pink,
134:A name doesn't make the music. It's just called that to differentiate it from other types of music. ~ Art Blakey,
135:I don't have a hand in a lot of my own beats. I like all types of music and all types of beats though. ~ Juicy J,
136:The perfumer fakes nature by blending different types of materials to reproduce their scent. ~ Francis Kurkdjian,
137:There are two types of actors: those who say they don't want to be famous and those who are liars. ~ Kevin Bacon,
138:There are two types of people in this world. People who hate clowns...and clowns. -Bobby Pendragon ~ D J MacHale,
139:there are two types of secrets. There are secrets of the mouth and secrets of the heart. Most ~ Patrick Rothfuss,
140:There's 3 types of people in this world: there's talkers, there's watchers, and there's doers. ~ Jeremy Stephens,
141:When young we are faithful to individuals, when older we grow loyal to situations and to types. ~ Cyril Connolly,
142:Carrying a proper sword, is he? Those well-fed types do tend to crowd their breeches, or so I hear. ~ Scott Lynch,
143:...people demonize certain types of crime - it's a way of distancing ourselves from the monsters... ~ John Geddes,
144:There are two types of knowledge. One is knowing a thing. The other is knowing where to find it. ~ Samuel Johnson,
145:There are two types of people in this world. People who hate clowns...and clowns. (Bobby Pendragon) ~ D J MacHale,
146:Vegetables and fruits protect against all types of cancers if consumed in large enough quantities. ~ Joel Fuhrman,
147:I like all types of bombshells from super big tits and ass, to no tits and lots of personality. ~ Paz de la Huerta,
148:I think the gay community, just like anybody, should be represented in all forms and all types. ~ Cameron Monaghan,
149:Name the different types of laughter that are available to us and that’s what life is all about. ~ William Shatner,
150:women, all of whom come in two types: those who are totally batshit crazy, and those who are liars. ~ Jenny Mollen,
151:You know, IBM was almost knocked out of the box by other types of computer software and manufacturing. ~ Roy Romer,
152:My favourite types of cuisine are Asian and Caribbean, and I love cooking new recipes for my family. ~ Jourdan Dunn,
153:The people who are behind the curve of the Catholic future are the institutional-maintenance types. ~ George Weigel,
154:There's only two types of people in the world: the ones that entertain, and the ones that observe. ~ Britney Spears,
155:All the Frank O'Hara types seem to have very little sound stuff going... it's so chatty or something. ~ Tom Verlaine,
156:Also, we're all actually different blood types and we have one represented by each guy in the band. ~ Anthony Kiedis,
157:EQ is so critical to success that it accounts for 58 percent of performance in all types of jobs. ~ Travis Bradberry,
158:I've had to deal with all different types of situations - positive and negative and extremes of both. ~ Shia LaBeouf,
159:Mark Twain said, “There are two types of speakers: those that are nervous and those that are liars. ~ Keith Ferrazzi,
160:Multihoming occurs when users engage in similar types of interactions on more than one platform. ~ Geoffrey G Parker,
161:My husband had an education. He had a degree in Literature. I married into a camp of literary types. ~ Joni Mitchell,
162:There are two basic types of resources that any CEO needs to allocate: financial and human. ~ William N Thorndike Jr,
163:True up-bringing is restricted to two types of welfare; the welfare of the body and that of the mind. ~ Ameen Rihani,
164:As a politician, you only meet two types of people. People with problems, and people who are right. ~ Gyles Brandreth,
165:I was brought up,' Freddy informed him, 'not to suffer anxiety about decisive initiative of all types. ~ Mark Helprin,
166:There are two types of people in this world: Gypsy and Gadge. Which one am I? Neither. I'm a writer. ~ Allison Mackie,
167:Good readers are flexible in their thinking and use different strategies for different types of reading. ~ Cris Tovani,
168:There's no type of music I don't like. I think it's important to be able to make fun of all types. ~ Eugene Chadbourne,
169:I move very well. Being able to go at different types of players, that's where I have an advantage. ~ LaMarcus Aldridge,
170:I've rebelled against all types of conformity throughout my life, not just Utah's conservative culture ~ Bert McCracken,
171:I want to try and work in different genres with different types of actors, on small movies and big movies. ~ Sam Mendes,
172:Perceived self-efficacy influences the types of causal attributions people make for their performances ~ Albert Bandura,
173:There are two types of people in this world: those whose look for opportunity and those who make it happen. ~ Jay Samit,
174:I like doing all different types of comedy - stand-up, sketch, movies, TV. I like to try everything. ~ Michael Showalter,
175:In the U.S. there are two types of hipsters: those who know how to program and those who serve coffee. ~ C sar A Hidalgo,
176:It's quite nice to see that I didn't have to change who I was to reach two very different types of people. ~ Marc Jacobs,
177:Me and Kendrick [Lamar] have different types of music. He from a different coast; we ain't in the same lane. ~ Meek Mill,
178:two types of stuffer reactions: stuffers who build barriers and stuffers who collect retaliation rocks. ~ Lysa TerKeurst,
179:Agentic capacity is now seen as differentially distributed across a wider range of ontological types. This ~ Jane Bennett,
180:From a programmer's point of view, the user is a peripheral that types when you issue a read request. ~ Pharrell Williams,
181:I will learn fifteen types of wind and know the weight of tomorrow's rain by the rustle in the sycamores. ~ Claire Keegan,
182:Prefects. I had learned this one. Student council types, but with superpowers. They who must be obeyed. ~ Maureen Johnson,
183:These gang types were hilarious to me with their secret handshakes and bullshit nickel-and-dime schemes. ~ Sister Souljah,
184:The South is a great driving destination for tourism - heritage, cultural and many other types of tourism. ~ Sonny Perdue,
185:We have to stop the propaganda, the shameful propaganda used by Kremlin to rehabilitate these old types. ~ Garry Kasparov,
186:Well, people who are blues purist types are usually the most vocal and the ones that pop up on the websites. ~ Jonny Lang,
187:The best bet for overall health is to significantly limit or eliminate all types of meat—red and white. Dr. ~ Joel Fuhrman,
188:Because there were two types of guys: the ones that would break your heart, and the ones that would treasure it. ~ M Clarke,
189:There are only two types of motorists: the idiots who drive slower than me, and the lunatics who go faster. ~ George Carlin,
190:Working with green screen, you really rely on the director in a way that you don't on different types of films. ~ Amy Adams,
191:I want to do all types of music, music for all people. I want my music to be encouraging, to help people. ~ Fantasia Barrino,
192:There are three types of gurus in the financial markets: market cycle gurus, magic method gurus, and dead gurus. ~ Anonymous,
193:There are two types of education. One should teach us how to make a living and the other how to live. John Adams ~ Anonymous,
194:There are two types of teachers in the world: there are those who play school and teachers that teach school ~ Matthew Dicks,
195:Banking types should take their cue from Gordon Gekko. Or pick the best-looking banker in their firm and copy him. ~ Tom Ford,
196:I know two types of law because I know two types of men, those who are with us and those who are against us. ~ Hermann Goring,
197:Im a transactional lawyer; I negotiate all types of things, but with a particular focus in software licenses. ~ Keith Rothfus,
198:Superior to all the religions is the Love of God and superior to all types of worship is seeing God. ~ Riaz Ahmed Gohar Shahi,
199:There are two types of people: The ones who give you 50 reasons it can't be done ... and the ones who just do it. ~ Hoda Kotb,
200:I learned about the benefits and the vast limitations of such types of exploration, as did all my generation. ~ Frederick Lenz,
201:This wasn’t about an infraction, but dictating a philosophy of life: certain types of people must be overseen. ~ Victor LaValle,
202:We're merely one tree with various types, shapes and sizes of leaves that all wave differently in the breeze ~ Rasheed Ogunlaru,
203:There are two types of dreams: one to realise, the other is to be there only to create hope, a direction, a reason. ~ Sara Alexi,
204:There are two types of people in the world: those who think everyone needs therapy, and those who have never been. ~ Jenny Mollen,
205:What stirs my passion is making cinema, and that means doing different things, making different types of films. ~ Patrice Leconte,
206:I’ve always been uninterested in boundaries or quarantines between tastes and types, between mediums and genres. ~ Jonathan Lethem,
207:no better way to improve breed. Certain types of loudmouthism should be a capital offense among decent people. ~ Robert A Heinlein,
208:There are four types: the cretin, the imbecile, the stupid and the mad. Normality is a balanced mixture of all four. ~ Umberto Eco,
209:There are two different types of people in the world, those who want to know, and those who want to believe. ~ Friedrich Nietzsche,
210:The school system only recognizes one type of intelligence. There are so many different types of intelligence. ~ Bruce Springsteen,
211:When I think of nu-metal, I think of Linkin Park, Limp Bizkit, Slipknot and even Chevelle - those types of bands. ~ Austin Carlile,
212:Certainly, it has shown me the importance of inclusivity and acceptance (not merely tolerance) for diverse body types. ~ Roxane Gay,
213:Graffiti is only dangerous in the mind of three types of people; politicians, advertising executives and graffiti writers. ~ Banksy,
214:I figured if you’re a man who knows his books, you can deal with the literary types who come out when the moon is full. ~ Ivan Doig,
215:There are two types of women in the world, Beattie, those who do things and those who have things done to them. ~ Kimberley Freeman,
216:Of creatures who inhabit the darkness, there are two types. Those who revel in it, and those who fight to escape it. ~ Bella Forrest,
217:The Never Trumpers, many of them are establishment types or - and very important here - wannabe establishment types. ~ Rush Limbaugh,
218:I'd always wanted to do these types of things - pieces of magic I could put out not as illusions, but really doing it. ~ David Blaine,
219:I like to stand near ATM machines, and when somebody types in their pin number, I go, 'Got it!' And then I run away. ~ Demetri Martin,
220:I listened to all types of music, and obviously when I got to Seattle I was very much aware of the music scene there. ~ Randy Johnson,
221:In all love stories the theme is love and tragedy, so by writing these types of stories, I have to include tragedy. ~ Nicholas Sparks,
222:Most of the reggae awareness is still among music industry people and people who are already into all types of music. ~ Billy Gibbons,
223:When communicating results to non-technical types there is nothing better than a clear visualization to make your point. ~ John Tukey,
224:Development is the solution to all problems. All other types of caste, communal and dynasty politics will not do good. ~ Narendra Modi,
225:No religion can be considered in abstraction from its followers, or even from its various types of followers. ~ Alfred North Whitehead,
226:consider merely that all types of awareness are trance states... consciousness is the direction in which the self looks. ~ Jane Roberts,
227:He was one of those who looked like a genius. I looked like a dishwasher so these types always pissed me just a bit. ~ Charles Bukowski,
228:I thought about how there are two types of secrets: the kind you want to keep in, and the kind you don't dare to let out. ~ Ally Carter,
229:She shouldn’t have looked for the dreamers. She should have found a man who knows all the different types of motor oil. ~ Kristen Ashley,
230:There are only two types of player-those who keep their nerves under control and win championships, and those who do not. ~ Harry Vardon,
231:There are two types of people: those who try to win and those who try to win arguments. They are never the same. ~ Nassim Nicholas Taleb,
232:There are two very different types of hope in this world. One is hoping for something, and the other is hoping in Someone. ~ Pete Wilson,
233:My favorite types of movies definitely aren't thrillers, but at the same time you can't deny the genius of Hitchcock's films. ~ Aaron Yoo,
234:Personality is a real aphrodisiac, when somebody is charming or funny. I think certain jobs attract certain types of people. ~ Boy George,
235:There are two types of depreciation. There is one where you're manipulating currencies. And that's not what Japan is doing. ~ Jamie Dimon,
236:Tribal Leadership focuses on two things, and only two things: the words people use and the types of relationships they form. ~ Dave Logan,
237:I love the idea of doing totally different types of guys for different projects. I love that I get to do this. It's so fun. ~ Ben Schwartz,
238:there are two types of people in the world: those who prefer to be sad among others, and those who prefer to be sad alone. ~ Nicole Krauss,
239:There is a definite argument to be made that videogames are becoming an art form put together by artists of different types. ~ John Romero,
240:There will be two types of businesses in the next 5 years, those that are on the Internet, and those that are out of business ~ Bill Gates,
241:We religious types, even those who detest organized religion, pray for deeper faith and a greater sense of oneness with God. ~ Anne Lamott,
242:There are only two types of people in this world - the people who do the DOING, and the people who have stuff done to them. ~ Cherie Currie,
243:Brian and Lizzie were both really smart. Really quick. Plain basic types like Janie and Reeve could always get cornered. ~ Caroline B Cooney,
244:Humanism is not alive and well in Texas. Different colors and types of Texans do not like one another, nor do they pretend to. ~ Molly Ivins,
245:I fell in love with flora of all types, especially ferns. Loved the sparse structure and repetition of shape - almost fractal. ~ Jack Dorsey,
246:I love lots of different types of music, but it's music that has this up-swelling of beauty and emotion that is most important to me. ~ Moby,
247:Mathematics, in its widest significance, is the development of all types of formal, necessary, deductive reasoning. ~ Alfred North Whitehead,
248:My God, these Feeling types! ... Sensitive people are just tyrannical people - everybody else has to adapt to them. ~ Marie Louise von Franz,
249:People say that [i'm a celebrity], but I've only had to sign autographs for "civ-libs" types. And I autograph court orders. ~ Edward Snowden,
250:There are three main types of cyberattacks today: attacks on a network’s confidentiality, availability, and integrity. Attacks ~ Alec J Ross,
251:"The types have, apparently, quite a random distribution. In the same family one child is introverted, and another extraverted." ~ Carl Jung,
252:I'm into all types of stuff. I might have on Pumas one day, Givenchy the next. I'd wear this John Elliott sweat suit to the club. ~ Meek Mill,
253:That's the trouble with you sad-city types: a place has to be miserable and dull as ditchwater before you believe it's real. ~ Salman Rushdie,
254:The are two types of vegetarians: (1) those who have beef with chicken; and (2) those who are too chicken to have beef. ~ Mokokoma Mokhonoana,
255:The purpose of dialogue,” Bohm suggests, “is to reveal the incoherence in our thought.” There are three types of incoherence. ~ Peter M Senge,
256:"The two types are so essentially different, presenting so striking a contrast, that their existence . . . [is] an obvious fact." ~ Carl Jung,
257:Being with Ky, being with Xander -both things feel like standing in the light. Different types of light, but neither feels dark. ~ Ally Condie,
258:Privilege, which just means “private law.” Two types of people laugh at the law; those that break it and those that make it. ~ Terry Pratchett,
259:Since you types wouldn't be happy unless you're unhappy, I wouldn't dare try to take your joy away by solving your problems. ~ Bill Willingham,
260:There are two types of people: you have people that like psychological horror and you have those that like everything in their face. ~ Tom Six,
261:These dwell among the blackest souls,loaded down deep by sins of differing types.If you sink far enough,you'll see them all. ~ Dante Alighieri,
262:You can’t trust these corporate types. They’ll chew you up and spit you out without a second thought if it makes them more money. ~ D M Pulley,
263:A rich sense of confidence comes from three different types of belief: confidence in yourself, trust in others, and faith in God. ~ Tim Sanders,
264:I'm a geek of all general types. I like a little bit of everything, I love comic books, I love pro-wrestling, I love video games. ~ Ron Funches,
265:I'm an adventurer and I enjoy all types of things, and eating is a part of that. It's just too bad we have to watch what we eat. ~ Lynda Carter,
266:I walk into a kids' store, and it's amazing, the types of instruments - little squeaky things, rattling things, spinning tops. ~ Evelyn Glennie,
267:The music does a lot for me. I'm one of those types of artists who the music really inspires my delivery, my cadence, and what I hear. ~ LeCrae,
268:There are two types of drinkers: those who drink to enhance their personalities, and those who sought to take something away. ~ Haruki Murakami,
269:Why can't all different types of women be considered beautiful? Why can't we can't we all be considered possible love interests? ~ Margaret Cho,
270:All the remedies for all the types of conflicts are alike in that they begin by finding the facts rather than by starting a fight. ~ Glenn Frank,
271:I don't really look for specific types of projects any more. I'm not taking care of a career anymore. I'm just having fun acting. ~ Kurt Russell,
272:Nutty people don't rat on you. Nice, friendly, ordinary next-door neighbor types--they would rat on you and think nothing of it. ~ John Bellairs,
273:organizations of all types use tools called personas—fictional representations of people who fit their target audiences ~ Sara Wachter Boettcher,
274:Psychotherapy works, and some types of therapy have been shown to be much more effective than antidepressants over the long run. ~ Irving Kirsch,
275:... some important factor doesn't lose its "share of force" just because some "expert" can better measure other types of force. ~ Charlie Munger,
276:There are two types of teachers. Those who tell you what you want to hear and those who tell you what you don't want to hear. ~ T K V Desikachar,
277:There's a place for all types of country music as long as there is honesty and realness and a real human experience for the fans. ~ Wynonna Judd,
278:He types his labored column - weary drudge! Senile fudge and solemn: spare, editor, to condemn these dry leaves of his autumn. ~ Robertson Davies,
279:There are three types of baseball players: Those who make it happen, those who watch it happen and those who wonder what happens. ~ Tommy Lasorda,
280:There were times, Sham felt, when the captains regretted there being only two types of limb they could lose to their obsessions. ~ China Mi ville,
281:These dwell among the blackest souls, loaded down deep by sins of differing types. If you sink far enough, you'll see them all. ~ Dante Alighieri,
282:We Queerfolk are big-picture types. You have to be, to see how the Queerness of the World works itself through everything. ~ Catherynne M Valente,
283:I like when people question if the characters are really villains or protagonists. These types are very interesting to write about. ~ Jack Higgins,
284:It's hard to imagine that there are people in the country that have types of hateful, inexcusable, racist, white supremacist views. ~ Sean Hannity,
285:There are two types of people in the business community: those who produce results and those who give you reasons why they didn't. ~ Peter Drucker,
286:There are two types of poets: People who write poetically about their lives, and poets that live poetically and write about it. ~ Daniel Radcliffe,
287:Two types of prophecies exist. Those that will happen no matter what, and those that can be prevented. We can't know which is which. ~ Emlyn Chand,
288:I always thought that dads in the old days where rather macho types who wouldn't get close to a baby, let alone change nappies. ~ Bernie Ecclestone,
289:The dynamo of our economic system is self-interest which may range from mere petty greed to admirable types of self-expression. ~ Felix Frankfurter,
290:the most habit-forming products and services utilize one or more of the three variable rewards types: the tribe, the hunt, and the self. ~ Nir Eyal,
291:There are two types of people in the business community: those who produce results and those who give you reasons why they didn’t. ~ John C Maxwell,
292:Dressing up is inevitably a substitute for good ideas. It is no coincidence that techincally inept business types are known as "suits. ~ Paul Graham,
293:Have you ever thought about toothpaste? Ellen has! And she makes a point about all of the types of toothpaste that Colgate offers! ~ Ellen DeGeneres,
294:...he blinks and says that there are two types of people: Those who want to cry, and those who are crying already and want to stop. ~ Patrick deWitt,
295:Representing the first of two types of hybrid organizations, eBay is a centralized company that decentralizes the customer experience. ~ Ori Brafman,
296:Some problems were generational; you just had to wait for the relevant elders to die off and be replaced with more progressive types. ~ Iain M Banks,
297:Still. Being with Ky, being with Xander—both things feel like standing in the light. Different types of light, but neither feels dark. ~ Ally Condie,
298:The effect of modern war is to eliminate retrogressive types, while sparing the technocracy and increasing its hold upon public affairs. ~ C S Lewis,
299:There are bad types and good types, and the whole science and art of typography begins after the first category has been set aside. ~ Beatrice Warde,
300:The world doesn't really care too much about what you do sometimes - as long as you let certain types carry on en masse without you. ~ Matthew Quick,
301:We just can't trust the American people to make those types of choices.... Government has to make those choices for people. ~ Hillary Rodham Clinton,
302:I didn't know what types of movies I wanted to do. I want to do things that are different. I want to take my time with each role. ~ Leonardo DiCaprio,
303:I have discovered that there are two types of command interfaces in the world of computing: good interfaces and user interfaces. ~ Daniel J Bernstein,
304:I thought about how there are two types of secrets: the kind you want to keep in, and the kind you don't dare to let out. ~ Ally Carter,
305:There are different types of readers. People draw lines at which three things intersect: the character, the author, and the reader. ~ David Bezmozgis,
306:There are two types of people in this world, good and bad. The good sleep better, but the bad seem to enjoy the waking hours much more. ~ Woody Allen,
307:three types of effective treatment for depression: antidepressant medications, individual and group psychotherapy, and bibliotherapy. ~ David D Burns,
308:You think too much. That's the problem with you intellectual types. You spend so much time thinking about life that you can't live. ~ Chet Williamson,
309:As another philosopher, Myisha Cherry, has recently argued, “I want to convince you that there are types of anger that are not bad. ~ Rebecca Traister,
310:Human nature is always interesting, Sir Henry. And it's curious to see how certain types always tend to act in exactly the same way. ~ Agatha Christie,
311:I also think there's something about dance, music and the arts that transcends all other types of communication and expression. ~ Rachele Brooke Smith,
312:I walk into the kitchen, look at the typer down there on the floor. It's a dirty floor. It's a dirty typer that types dirty stories ~ Charles Bukowski,
313:Man, I love the Lord of the Rings movies. Some people would say I'm weird for liking those types of movies, but they are so cool. ~ Robert Griffin III,
314:There are two types of girls: those that can make cheap clothes look expensive and those that make designer clothes look cheap. ~ Lauren Santo Domingo,
315:There are two types of people. One walks into the room and announces, ‘Here I am!’ The other walks in and says, ‘Oh, there you are! ~ Brendon Burchard,
316:You want to make sure you have many different types of stock funds (large-, mid-, and small-cap, as well as growth and value) represented. ~ Suze Orman,
317:Bloated budgets are ruining Hollywood - these pictures are squeezing all the other types of movies out of Hollywood. It's disastrous. ~ Steven Spielberg,
318:Isn’t that weird?” I said. “All the different types of sentient species in the universe, and we’re all different, but we all drink coffee. ~ John Scalzi,
319:There are only two types of people who can be totally honest with each other, lovers and strangers. Everyone else is just negotiating. ~ James Grippando,
320:There are so many different areas to explore. There are so many different types of people. It can crush your dreams or help them come true. ~ Emma Stone,
321:There were two types of drinkers: those who drank to enhance their personalities, and those who sought to rid themselves of something. ~ Haruki Murakami,
322:The types of thoughts that you think create a state of mind. The reason you think the thoughts you do results from your level of power. ~ Frederick Lenz,
323:Works that have a certain imperfection to them have an appeal for that very reason—or at least they appeal to certain types of people. ~ Haruki Murakami,
324:Beginners think that there is no documentation in agile, which is not true. It’s about choosing the types of documentation that are useful. ~ Gojko Adzic,
325:There are really only three types of people: those who make things happen, those who watch things happen, and those who say, What happened? ~ Ann Landers,
326:Works that have a certain imperfection to them have an appeal for that very reason –or at least they appeal to certain types of people. ~ Haruki Murakami,
327:For a driver to be driven by somebody else is an ordeal, for there are only three types of drivers: the too fast, the timid and oneself. ~ Virginia Graham,
328:Here I am referring to the types of books that thirtyish women devour at private swim clubs, often to the dismay of their drowning children. ~ Joe Queenan,
329:I've learnt new scales through playing different types of music, like Indian raga scales, gipsy scales and harmonically-based jazz scales. ~ Nigel Kennedy,
330:of the local and remote SSTA evolution following different types of WWEs, and conclude by connecting these results to the dynamical mechanisms ~ Anonymous,
331:There are several types of fluorescent lights. The one in our garage has a neon tube, and like many, it flickers before finally switching on. ~ Jay McLean,
332:We must not decide how to pray based on what types of prayer are the most effective for producing the experiences and feelings we want. ~ Timothy J Keller,
333:works that have a certain imperfection to them have an appeal for that very reason – or at least they appeal to certain types of people. ~ Haruki Murakami,
334:I'd like to make music for a long time, and all different types of music. Maybe I'll start my own label to get other artists off the ground. ~ Jamie Cullum,
335:I guess I'm lucky that I've been able to play a wide range of parts and a wide range of types of productions - I haven't felt much typecasting. ~ Kali Hawk,
336:In relationship there are always two types of person: one weaker and the other stronger one. It's never easier to live being as weaker one! ~ Chetan Bhagat,
337:Seuls deux types de personnes vivent dans la métropole : les super-héros ratés et les vieux messieurs qui vivent dans l’appartement du dessus. ~ Charles Yu,
338:SUMMARY CHART OF THE AMEN CLINICS 6 TYPES OF ADDICTS TYPE 1. Compulsive Addicts SYMPTOMS Overfocused, worrying, trouble letting go of hurts ~ Daniel G Amen,
339:There are many types of silence. There is a silence before the note, there is a silence at the end and there is a silence in the middle. ~ Daniel Barenboim,
340:There are two types of humans in this world: those who function so they can get something and those who function so they can give something. ~ Sarah Noffke,
341:When I lost my weight, I went and bought about 15 different types of underwear to see what would look good on my new body. It's exciting! ~ Richard Simmons,
342:Abraham Maslow even believed that self-actualizing types are “those who make the growth choice instead of the fear choice a dozen times a day. ~ Gregg Levoy,
343:Flipping the gains to losses flips the types of behavior. When losses are likely, reckless gambles become acceptable (lower left cell). ~ William Poundstone,
344:People are, generally speaking, either dead certain or totally indifferent (Both types are crawling around deep down in the rabbit's fur!) ~ Jostein Gaarder,
345:The Midwest is full of these types of people: the nice-enoughs. Nice enough but with a soul made of plastic—easy to mold, easy to wipe down. ~ Gillian Flynn,
346:There is a vast need for all types of protest today, whether it be civil disobedience, or whether it be on a - more conventional variety. ~ William Kunstler,
347:Time blunts the pain and creates a mist over one’s memory — at least in the case of death and sorrow. Other types of pain linger longer. ~ Melanie Dickerson,
348:However, it does have nearly every element of Ruby, including classes, blocks, many builtin types, all sorts of method calls, and much much more. ~ Anonymous,
349:In my ideal world, no child would suffer. Charitable instincts would prevail. There would be global acceptance of all different types of people. ~ Clay Aiken,
350:The Midwest is full of these types of people: the nice-enoughs. Nice enough but with a soul made of plastic--easy to mold, easy to wipe down. ~ Gillian Flynn,
351:There's only two types of people who are against drugs: the people who have never done drugs and the people who really sucked at doing drugs. ~ Doug Stanhope,
352:cultivation theorists make no distinction between genres or types of violence; they view cartoon violence in the same light as realistic violence. ~ Anonymous,
353:I've been very fortunate in the things I've had in my life. But, at the same time, I wish I had the same types of memories as everyone else. ~ Alfonso Ribeiro,
354:I was kind of a floater [in high school]. I got along with different types of people but I just was not cool, and definitely a late bloomer. ~ Tyler Blackburn,
355:He wore a tiny turquoise stud earring I always associated with Dungeons and Dragons types. Men who own ferrets and think magic tricks are cool. ~ Gillian Flynn,
356:In one of the strangest types of synesthesia—there are at least three dozen—people see a word and immediately experience a taste on their tongue. ~ John Medina,
357:It's got to be weird to sit in an office all day and deal with these creative types without having any idea of what they do or how they do it. ~ Ron Livingston,
358:There are two types of limitations: those others place on us, and those we place on ourselves. One is more subtle. Both are equally dangerous. ~ Andrena Sawyer,
359:When you don't have those types of things, fashion and all that stuff, it helps you find yourself because you don't have those things to rely on. ~ Nick Cannon,
360:A myth is a hypothesis about the personality of reality itself and not the personalities of individual persons, character types, or nations. ~ Robert Bringhurst,
361:There are only two types of girls: the type that you marry and the type that you play around with and then break up with. But you're somewhere in between. ~ Joo,
362:There are two types of genius; one which above all begets and wants to beget, and another which prefers being fertilized and giving birth. ~ Friedrich Nietzsche,
363:Like those proverbial bookish men who could not even tell types of grains apart, they do not labor with their hands, and know nothing practical. They ~ Liu Cixin,
364:The left dismisses talk about the collapse of family life and talks instead about the emergence of the growing new diversity of family types. ~ Christopher Lasch,
365:To enable type inference for a function, we can use the decorator form of infer types: cimport cython @cython.infer types(True) def more inference(): ~ Anonymous,
366:When people say ‘I quote’ and pause, they come across as scary-level intellectuals. Let’s face it, nobody wants to mess with the ‘I quote’ types. ~ Chetan Bhagat,
367:I distinguish two types of human beings, Love people, who love the sky and the flowers, and Power People, who are essentially sold on naked power. ~ Richard Adams,
368:I have only got down on to paper, really, three types of people: the person I think I am, the people who irritate me, and the people I'd like to be. ~ E M Forster,
369:I listened to many different types of instruments and music, and have always tried to look at the bass as an instrument as opposed to only a bass. ~ Billy Sheehan,
370:I suspect that someday in a world with legal marijuana for adults, you will probably have branding that occurs for different types of the product. ~ Jared Huffman,
371:There are many types of participation. One can observe so intensely that one becomes part of the action, but without being an active participant. ~ Jerzy Kosinski,
372:There are two types of people. People who have accomplished things and people who have claimed to accomplish things. The first group is less crowded. ~ Mark Twain,
373:Contemporary ramen is totally different than what most Americans think ramen should be. Ramen is not one thing; there are many, many different types. ~ David Chang,
374:Each of us is sometimes a cretin, a fool, a moron, or a lunatic. A normal person is just a reasonable mix of these components, these four ideal types. ~ Umberto Eco,
375:He who nurtures benevolence for all creatures within his heart overcomes all difficulties and will be the recipient of all types of riches at every step. ~ Chanakya,
376:Honestly, I don't even like my type of girl that much, let alone other types. Not that I'm asexual or something - I just find Romance Drama unbearable. ~ John Green,
377:Maslow’s hierarchy of needs, which was the order in which people optimally satisfied different types of desires (food-safety-love-status-enlightenment). ~ Max Barry,
378:several tech-types; heavily idealistic about total access they all sailed close to anarchistic beliefs, believing all information should be free. ~ Peter F Hamilton,
379:There are two types of panicking: standing still and not saying a word, and leaping all over the place babbling anything that comes into your head. ~ Daniel Handler,
380:We pass by common objects or persons without noticing them; but the keen eye detects and notes types everywhere and among all classes. ~ William Makepeace Thackeray,
381:Plenty of philosophical men live in abstract regions, debating types and shadows. The rarer sort is the reader and thinker who can see the world whole. ~ Jon Meacham,
382:That's the way it was. Privilege, which just means 'private law.' Two types of people laugh at the law; those that break it and those that make it. ~ Terry Pratchett,
383:There are two types of person in the world. The first are those who create expectations and the second are those who have to fulfil the expectations. ~ Awdhesh Singh,
384:Flexibility is an essential part of Jazz. It's what gives Jazz music the ability to combine with all other types of music and not lose its identity. ~ Wynton Marsalis,
385:I deal with two types of students. Those who have a very deep-seated knowledge of love, which are few, or those in all their lives have ignored love. ~ Frederick Lenz,
386:I've dated many different types. I was all over the map. For me, it was learning about being attracted to the right things in a person, not the wrong things. ~ Fergie,
387:There are basically two types of people. People who accomplish things, and people who claim to have accomplished things. The first group is less crowded. ~ Mark Twain,
388:"There are certain types of women who seem to be made by nature to attract #anima #projections; indeed one could almost speak of a definite 'anima type.'" ~ Carl Jung,
389:There are many types of marriage relationships and all of them can work, but none is sadder than the one that doesn't represent peace in your heart. ~ Shannon L Alder,
390:There are two types of people in this world: people who want to be desired, and people who want to be desired so much that they pretend they don’t. ~ Rabih Alameddine,
391:Every letter
that she types;
every keystroke
that she strikes-

To spell your name
again and again,
is all she ever
wants to write. ~ Lang Leav,
392:I'll be getting all types of crazy fans, from the hoodest dude to the straight-up dude in a business suit. It's dope. I have a crazy wide-range fan base. ~ Danny Brown,
393:Most info-Web-media-newspaper types have a hard time swallowing the idea that knowledge is reached (mostly) by removing junk from peoples heads ~ Nassim Nicholas Taleb,
394:Poetry is something to make us wiser and better, by continually revealing those types of beauty and truth, which God has set in all men's souls. ~ James Russell Lowell,
395:Science cannot describe individuals, but only types. If human societies cannot be classified, they must remain inaccessible to scientific description. ~ Emile Durkheim,
396:There are two types of pain you will go through in life, the pain of discipline and the pain of regret. Discipline weighs ounces while regret weighs tonnes. ~ Jim Rohn,
397:There are two types of people. Those we who come into a room and say, "Well, here I am!" and those who come in and say, "Ah, there you are." ~ Archie Frederick Collins,
398:There are two types of visions. Those that will happen no matter what, and those that can be stopped. Now more than ever, I wish I could tell them apart. ~ Emlyn Chand,
399:The “some college,” “four-year college graduate,” and “no college” types who have high incomes often had a head start on many well-educated workers. ~ Thomas J Stanley,
400:At the bat of your lashes peacocks preen. Peacocks preen, elephants remember, camels go for days without water, and dinosaurs of all types become extinct. ~ Tom Robbins,
401:Of course, there are the old hardcore teacher types like me who sit around and tell jokes, realizing, what's the difference anyway - it's all timeless. ~ Frederick Lenz,
402:Pitta types need to remain flexible and soft throughout their lives because if excess Pitta is not softened, it can become stiff, hot, and too tight. It ~ David Frawley,
403:Autumn is the most beautiful time of the year in Ann Arbor because hundreds of different types of trees are filled with crisp orange and yellow leaves. ~ Jennifer Coburn,
404:All these types of love come out of duty, respect, and gratitude. Most of them, as the women in my county know, are sources of sadness, rupture, and brutality. ~ Lisa See,
405:I listen to so much, I listen to a lot of reggae. Obviously I listen to hip-hop, that's what I make. I listen to soul. I love jazz. I love all types of music. ~ DJ Khaled,
406:I pointed out the different types of clouds and what they told of the weather to come. She showed me the shapes they held: a rose, a harp, a waterfall. ~ Patrick Rothfuss,
407:There are three types of actions : purposeful, habitual, and gratuitous. Characters , to be immediate and apprehensible, must be presented by all three. ~ Samuel R Delany,
408:Different types of chicken come at different price points. Filets are going to be more expensive. If it's bone-in and skin-on it's going to be less expensive. ~ Sandra Lee,
409:Do-gooders are easily overlooked. We're supposed to be soft, touchy-feely types, who wear Birkenstocks, compost everything, and write poetry by candlelight. ~ Nancy Lublin,
410:eleven types of magic found in the real world that are in Harry Potter, including divination, outer-body experience, and traveling through space and time. ~ Melissa Anelli,
411:...the argument from absence of transitional types boils down to the striking fact that such types are always lacking unless they have been found. ~ George Gaylord Simpson,
412:There really are three types of religious movies: the ones that make fun of it, the ones that vilify it and the ones that literally preach to the converted. ~ Vera Farmiga,
413:Emotional labor is what you get paid to do, and one of the most difficult types of emotional labor is staring into the abyss of choice and picking a path. Your ~ Seth Godin,
414:I've got two young children, so holidays are not the same as they used to be. There are now two types: family holidays and holidays you need from that holiday. ~ Diego Luna,
415:There are two types of people: those who are easy to be with but also easy to be without, and who are difficult to be with, but impossible to be without. ~ Ernest Hemingway,
416:When I perform outside, the major problem that could arise is strong wind.I spend months preparing for the types of wind that occur in different locations. ~ Philippe Petit,
417:When you have abandoned all past and future, it is as if you have come alive. You are here, mindful...the nature of all types of consciousness reveals itself. ~ Ajahn Brahm,
418:When you talking about funk music you just talking about a collage of a lot of different types of music. They used strings, they had brass, they had vocalist. ~ Killer Mike,
419:A revolution which can transform modes of production but not types of speech, social relations but not styles of architecture, remains radically incomplete. ~ Terry Eagleton,
420:But I just really think there is a natural extension into other types of media because it's an excellent system for reliably locating and retrieving content. ~ Shawn Fanning,
421:HTML 4.01 has three document types: Strict, Transitional, and Frameset. Both HTML5 and XHTML 1.1 have one document type, but XHTML 1.0, like HTML 4.01, has three ~ Anonymous,
422:They seemed to be quiet types, the women and men in rubber-soled shoes. Their favorite word, after literacy, was privacy--for their patrons and themselves. ~ Marilyn Johnson,
423:When you're in the eye of the hurricane, you're making the show - you just want the show to be good, you want it to be appreciated and those types of things. ~ Larry Wilmore,
424:If a monkey types long enough, he will eventually write “to be or not to be.” If a person types long enough, she will eventually write “penistrian. ~ Seth Stephens Davidowitz,
425:What if you love knowledge for its own sake, not necessarily as a blueprint to action? What if you wish there were more, not fewer reflective types in the world? ~ Susan Cain,
426:Do you like foreign films?”
“With subtitles?”
“I hate those types of films.”
“Me too,” Cliff says. “Mostly because - “
“No happy endings. ~ Matthew Quick,
427:If you call a cat, he may not come. Which doesn't happen with dogs. They're different types of animals. Cats are very sexy I think too in the way they move. ~ Antonio Banderas,
428:I'm always looking for an opportunity to bring progressive Democrats together with some conservative libertarian types, because there are places where we can agree. ~ Ron Paul,
429:In addition to executives, we can also include, for example, certain types of salesmen and lobbyists, for whom constant connection is their most valued currency. ~ Cal Newport,
430:Mel Bochner was able to give me the tools to look at those types of experiences, register them with my own, but also hold them far enough away to see them 360. ~ Kehinde Wiley,
431:There are two types of people in this world,” Pete volunteers helpfully, “those who think there are only two types of people in the world, and everybody else. ~ Charles Stross,
432:. . . to the Bleekmen, we Earthmen may very well be hypomanic types, whizzing about at enormous velocity, expending huge amounts of energy over nothing at all. ~ Philip K Dick,
433:you think she could have yelled a bit less for the sensitive types like me who need to be told they are wonderful every half hour to accomplish anything at all ~ Anna Kendrick,
434:In all my years here, no one’s been able to remember my name when I’m introduced. No one has bothered. They usually see us as types, not as individuals.” His ~ Abraham Verghese,
435:In ramp skating, theres this guy Alex Perelson whos really coming into his own and doing some amazing new stuff we havent seen before. Just different types of spin. ~ Tony Hawk,
436:There are two types of people in the world: people who are passionate about things, and people who've had their passion punched, beaten, or whatever out of them. ~ Kevyn Aucoin,
437:Getting to do different genres of movies means you're gonna have different types of situations. So I want to try and do every type of genre there is out there. ~ Josh Hutcherson,
438:Some literary types subscribe to the notion that being a writer like Salinger entitles a person to remain free of the standards that might apply to mere mortals. ~ Joyce Maynard,
439:The future that I see celebrates those types of like-minded ideals and ideas. I don't know what's coming, but I know that we're not going to get knocked out so easy. ~ J H Wyman,
440:When I get those types, the men who just need to control everything, to tell everybody else what to do, I stick it in and break it off. I’m fighting for freedom. ~ Larry Correia,
441:[My half-sister] Ella and I always were much closer as basic types; we're dominant people, and [my other half-sister] Mary has always been mild and quiet, almost shy. ~ Malcolm X,
442:people who can’t stay tidy can be categorized into just three types: the “can’t-throw-it-away” type, the “can’t-put-it-back” type, and the “first-two-combined” type. ~ Marie Kond,
443:There are two types of people: One strives to control his environment, the other strives not to let his environment control him. I like to control my environment. ~ George Carlin,
444:The state dinner is almost a formula, but you try to make it interesting. You try not to overload it with too many political types. You try to get a cross section. ~ Barbara Bush,
445:I always wished the Lord had created a humanity that doesn't have to waste so much of their precious time sleeping… and fighting different types of software bugs. ~ Sahara Sanders,
446:TF: Decide beforehand—and not reactively when emotions run high—what types of findings are worth acting upon or ignoring, and what your “if/then” actions will be ~ Timothy Ferriss,
447:The guy who sits at the keyboard and types is so much smarter than I am. I think I got into writing so that I could spend as much time with that guy as possible. ~ Marc Guggenheim,
448:Funny how the most beautiful people in the world aren't always the types to gloss the covers of magazines and yet most people spend their lives trying to turn heads. ~ Marilyn Grey,
449:I crave the diversity because I'm an actor and it's more fun to play different types of characters, but I'm pretty spontaneous as well, so I don't rule anything out. ~ Kristen Bell,
450:Some types of simplicity were cheap, born of necessity. Other types of simplicity were very expensive, born out of a desire for tools that would last forever. “Will ~ Glynn Stewart,
451:That’s the problem with you nearly immortal types,” I said. “You couldn’t spot a pop culture reference if it skittered up and implanted an embryo down your esophagus. ~ Jim Butcher,
452:You always make a film with the hope that all types of people will want to see your work and that it doesn't matter about your color, but unfortunately it still does. ~ Regina King,
453:In organic chemistry there exist certain types which are conserved even when, in place of hydrogen, equal volumes of chlorine, of bromine, etc. are introduced. ~ Jean Baptiste Dumas,
454:It may be true that the only reason the comic book industry now exists is for this purpose, to create characters for movies, board games and other types of merchandise. ~ Alan Moore,
455:She [was] . . . one of those convenient types who don't keep you explaining --minds with doors as numerous as the many-tongued clusters of confessionals at St. Peters. ~ Henry James,
456:Their types were familiar enough to Ralph, who had taken their measure in former wanderings, and come across their duplicates in every scene of continental idleness. ~ Edith Wharton,
457:There are two types of poor people, those who are poor together and those who are poor alone. The first are the true poor, the others are rich people out of luck. ~ Jean Paul Sartre,
458:We’ll see one use case for new when we study metaclasses in Chapter 40; though rare, it is sometimes also used to customize creation of instances of immutable types. ~ Mark Lutz,
459:We’re all fools together,” he replied. “It’s just that a few people know it; others don’t. You seem to be one of the latter types. Hand me that small wrench, will you? ~ Dan Millman,
460:Hippie types who hadn’t a clue about makeup, knew how to start a fire, and weren’t afraid to get their hands dirty in the garden. I’d missed these people. My people. ~ Stephanie Land,
461:I don't know of any way to control the subject of one's dreams although I'm fairly certain there are more than a few types of psychoanalysis dedicated to the topic. ~ Mallory Ortberg,
462:If I had a type, I guess you could say I liked brunettes the best, and I kind of liked librarian types, you know, their outer appearance hiding smoldering heat inside…. ~ David Lynch,
463:I'm not working class anymore,' he said. 'I'm lower-middle. I use three types of oil in my kitchen. Admittedly one of them is WD-40, but that counts, doesn't it? ~ Christopher Fowler,
464:One of the most important types of decision making is deciding what you are not going to do, what you need to eliminate in order to make room for strategic investments. ~ Henry Cloud,
465:There aren't twelve types of people in the universe--there are two... The ones that stand still and try to fit in... and the ones that go seek out where they belong. ~ Romina Russell,
466:The scriptures do not present us with a series of Christian types to be imitated according to choice; they preach to us in every situation the one Jesus Christ. ~ Dietrich Bonhoeffer,
467:Grace was one of those types who never changed but only aged and had no apparent expectations or ambitions other than the wish that her life should remain the same. ~ Candace Bushnell,
468:On one hand, humans and computers do very different types of thinking, so comparing them is like comparing apples and oranges.
On the other hand, apples are better ~ Randall Munroe,
469:There are two types of teachers. The ones who teach you to use the text to find answers, and the ones who teach you to use the text to find another whole world of answers. ~ Anonymous,
470:Warner Bros. is really open-minded, as far as studios go, when it comes to the types of movies they'll entertain, even with animated movies. It's a great place to be. ~ Doug Sweetland,
471:Human nature is always interesting... And it's curious to see how certain types always tend to act in exactly the same way." - Miss Marple, The Herb of Death, Pg. 167 ~ Agatha Christie,
472:On one hand, humans and computers do very different types of thinking, so comparing them is like comparing apples and oranges.
On the other hand, apples are better. ~ Randall Munroe,
473:Skills can be taught. Character you either have or don't have. Bigfoot understood that there are two types of people in the world: those who do what they say they're ~ Anthony Bourdain,
474:There are two types of guys in this world,” she says. “Guys who know that ‘So It Goes’ is a Kurt Vonnegut reference, and guys who I want absolutely nothing to do with. ~ Matthew Norman,
475:There are two types of people in this world: one who opens a packet of biscuits, has one and puts the rest back in the cupboard, and one who eats the whole packet in one go. ~ Jo Brand,
476:Do not envy those who seem to be naturally gifted; it is often a curse, as such types rarely learn the value of diligence and focus, and they pay for this later in life. ~ Robert Greene,
477:Fines are preferable to imprisonment and other types of punishment because they are more efficient. With a fine, the punishment to offenders is also revenue to the State. ~ Gary Becker,
478:Since these early days, I have seen and have experienced many types of discrimination and all of them were rooted in the fear of people that were different than the majority. ~ Tim Cook,
479:There are many, many types of books in the world, which makes good sense, because there are many, many types of people, and everybody wants to read something different. ~ Daniel Handler,
480:There are two objectionable types of believers: those who believe the incredible and those who believe that 'belief' must be discarded and replaced by 'the scientific method. ~ Max Born,
481:Totalitarianism spells simplification: an enormous reduction in the variety of aims, motives, interests, human types, and, above all, in the categories and units of power. ~ Eric Hoffer,
482:What you need to learn are basic types of concentration, bringing more energy into your life, plugging up the holes where you lose energy, the basics of self-discovery. ~ Frederick Lenz,
483:There are two types of people in life: enemies and those who will become enemies. It’s sometimes better just to kill them all and worry about sorting out the pieces later. ~ Tim Marquitz,
484:In art, there are only two types of people: revolutionaries and plagiarists. And in the end, doesn't the revolutionary's work become official, once the State takes it over? ~ Paul Gauguin,
485:There are deeper types of symbolism, in a sense artificial, and yet such that we could not get on without them.  Language, written or spoken, is such a symbolism. ~ Alfred North Whitehead,
486:All witches who'd lived in her cottage were bookish types. They thought you could see life through books but you couldn't, the reason being that the words got in the way. ~ Terry Pratchett,
487:And when he finally plotted it all up, there it was: the number of cell types in an organism did indeed scale roughly as the square root of the number of genes it had. ~ M Mitchell Waldrop,
488:I always tell my mom I don't have regular problems. I have problems, like, what type of girl is going to say they're pregnant by me today? Those are the types of issues I have. ~ Fetty Wap,
489:If a hit came along, I wouldn't be unhappy about that. But I'm a bit too old for that now-doing videos and all those types of TV shows. I've kind of done all that, in the '70s. ~ Nick Lowe,
490:Is it not the worst pain to know there is a cure for your child's illness and then not be able to obtain it? Oh it must be the one of the worst types of pain in the world. ~ Nnedi Okorafor,
491:Among the types of thoughts that affect action, none is more central or pervasive than people's judgments of their capabilities to deal effectively with different realities ~ Albert Bandura,
492:First, Darwinian theory tells us how a certain amount of diversity in life forms can develop once we have various types of complex living organisms already in existence. ~ Phillip E Johnson,
493:Name three types of olives."

"Olives! I wouldn't know one type!"

"Well, there are three. You can get green ones, you can get black ones, or you can get stuffed. ~ John Marsden,
494:Spirituality, as expounded by the great saints and sages of the past, is a very broad path. It accommodates all types of belief systems. You need to satisfy everyone. ~ Mata Amritanandamayi,
495:The assertion that Americans love violence and bathe in it daily is a self-serving lie promulgated by fundamentalist religious types and America’s propaganda-savvy gun-pimps. ~ Stephen King,
496:There are but two types of men who desire war: those who haven't the slightest intention of fighting it themselves, and those who haven't the slightest idea what it is. ~ Seth Grahame Smith,
497:There are but two types of men who desire war: those who haven’t the slightest intention of fighting it themselves, and those who haven’t the slightest idea what it is. ~ Seth Grahame Smith,
498:Is it not the worst pain to know there is a cure for your child's illness and then not be able to obtain it? Oh it must be the one of the worst types of pain in the world... ~ Nnedi Okorafor,
499:The mathematics and science that developed in Europe after the Renaissance became much more dependent upon quantitative results and hence upon the use of all types of numbers. ~ Morris Kline,
500:While I was into many different types of music, and played with many different local groups, I really didn't have a band to call my own until Dire Straits was formed in 1977. ~ Mark Knopfler,
501:I was very drawn to music of all types, from Beethoven to Jimi Hendrix. There were musicians and composers who obviously were expressing a vision that was beyond the mundane. ~ Frederick Lenz,
502:The most beautiful part is the traveling, and getting to know different cultures and different types of people and to perform in very, very important venues in each country. ~ Alfonso Herrera,
503:There are different types of soldier. Some men are trained to stand under fire, waiting for their turn to inflict death. Others are like hunters, slipping from cover to cover. ~ Miles Cameron,
504:Yes, thought Vimes. That’s the way it was. Privilege, which just means “private law.” Two types of people laugh at the law; those that break it and those that make it. Well, ~ Terry Pratchett,
505:analysis (Reynolds and Smith 1994), I have composited the SSTA changes following the three equatorial types of WWEs (W, C and E), between 1986 and 1998. These changes were compared ~ Anonymous,
506:Growing up, I went to many schools, and I had to fit in to many different types of environments with totally different social groups. It helps me out as I move from job to job. ~ Toby Stephens,
507:The way I see it there are two types of people. Those stupid enough to get ripped off by people selling ringtones and those sensible enough to set up ringtone selling services. ~ Claire Weekes,
508:This is why successful network businesses rarely get started by MBA types: the initial markets are so small that they often don’t even appear to be business opportunities at all. ~ Peter Thiel,
509:To make our meetings more effective, we need to have multiple types of meetings, and clearly distinguish between the various purposes, formats, and timing of those meetings. ~ Patrick Lencioni,
510:There are really only two types of people. Either you're running scared or you're running free. I choose to run free, and you can, too, no matter what your circumstances in life. ~ Tavis Smiley,
511:There's been so many different types of musicals and it's a funny genre because there's a fine line between clever and stupid. It really takes a genius to know how to do it. ~ Melissa Etheridge,
512:any parameter passed during navigation must be supported for serialization by the Frame class, which limits the parameter to basic types such as string, char, numeric and GUID types. ~ Anonymous,
513:Democracy today, especially in the English-speaking world, is a political system that specialises in positioning inadequate, unqualified and dubious types in leadership positions. ~ Gilad Atzmon,
514:My position has always been that there's two types of people opposed to pornography: those who don't know what they're talking about, and those who don't know what they're missing. ~ Larry Flynt,
515:Occasionally people ask me how it is I write different types of things, and my answer to that is it's very natural. You get bored writing one kind of thing all the time. ~ Matthew Tobin Anderson,
516:They seemed to be quiet types, the women and men in rubber-soled shoes. Their favorite word, after literacy, was privacy--for their patrons and themselves. ~ Marilyn Johnson,
517:why did we build something so fragile to these types of events?” Not seeing a tsunami or an economic event coming is excusable; building something fragile to them is not. ~ Nassim Nicholas Taleb,
518:Altogether, there are eight types of illusions. Magic, a dream, a bubble, a rainbow, lightning, the moon reflected in water, a mirage, and a city of celestial musicians.” Vernon ~ Janet Evanovich,
519:He [ the son]'s grown up listening to all types of music, and the natural form of rebellion is to find the one genre that maybe he hasn't listened to and to make that his thing. ~ Solange Knowles,
520:I fucking love all types of sex and I’m open to new things; threesome, foursome, orgy, kinky or vanilla, dirty or clean, slow or hard. As long as I come, I’m open to give it all a go. ~ Ker Dukey,
521:I have so many songs, it's ridiculous. I love so many different types of music and tend to write all over the map, style-wise. R&B, rock 'n' roll, screamers, pop, good-time songs. ~ Taryn Manning,
522:I like to keep a broad scope and read lots of different things with lots of different types of characters. Doing that is going to help develop me as an actor; you push yourself. ~ Asa Butterfield,
523:In the case of Michael Moore, having a deep, I'd even say passionate, understanding of other types of people in America who might be progressive thinkers without even realizing it. ~ Jello Biafra,
524:Introverts listen better, they assess risks more carefully, they can be wiser managers. It's not for nothing that the Silicon Valley billionaires are so often the retiring types. ~ Jeffrey Kluger,
525:That is the physics that all fearless types discover at some point—an appropriate ratcheting up of self-belief and energy when facing negative or even impossible circumstances. Fearless ~ 50 Cent,
526:There are different types of action depending on the motivation behind them. The motivation may be self-preservation, self-propagation, self-actualization or self-realization. ~ Devdutt Pattanaik,
527:it follows that there are two different types of change: one that occurs within a given system which itself remains unchanged, and one whose occurrence changes the system itself. ~ Paul Watzlawick,
528:There are three types of friends: those like food without which you can't live those like medicine which you need occasionally and those like an illness which you never want. ~ Solomon Ibn Gabirol,
529:When making a point, there are 2 types of people who may disagree with you: those who can support their reasons, and the childish ones who are too worried about being told what to do. ~ Criss Jami,
530:Examining 15 types of legal gambling, the researchers came to a striking conclusion: Casino gambling had by far the most harmful effects on people at the lower end of the income ladder. ~ Anonymous,
531:I’ve known a good many sufferers from conviction mania … Of many different types … And in the last analysis, those who talk about justice seem to be the maddest of the lot! ~ Louis Ferdinand C line,
532:There are essentially three types of people: those who love life more than they fear it, those who fear life more than they love it, and those who have no clue what I'm talking about. ~ Neel Burton,
533:Astronauts tend to be resilient, low-drama types. On top of these qualities, she wanted sociability—a thick skin, a long fuse, an optimistic outlook, and a tolerance for low stimulation. ~ Anonymous,
534:Cell phones have changed us from a nation of self-reliant pioneer types into a bunch of men standing alone in supermarkets saying, ‘Okay, I’m in the tampon aisle, but I don’t see it.' ~ John Gierach,
535:'Elect the Dead' is a rock record that takes you on a journey with different types of genres integrated, different lyrical themes digested, and many fun and colorful moments to enjoy. ~ Serj Tankian,
536:If food did not exist it would be well-nigh impossible to get certain types off the phone, as one would be unable to say, 'Look, I've got to run but let's have dinner sometime soon.' ~ Fran Lebowitz,
537:I never put myself in a box. I like to have various different types of songs and different genres and situational songs. No matter is going on, I have something for that time or era. ~ Adrian Marcel,
538:It's no more normal to be a bank-manager or a bus-conductor, than to be Baudelaire or Genghis Khan,’ Moreland had once remarked. ‘It just happens there are more of the former types. ~ Anthony Powell,
539:It’s no more normal to be a bank-manager or a bus-conductor, than to be Baudelaire or Genghis Khan,’ Moreland had once remarked. ‘It just happens there are more of the former types. ~ Anthony Powell,
540:Larry better get a mason to take care of the wall, Bruce thought. Then again, they’ll probably have to bring in one of those artsy-types from Mystic since this is a ‘historic’ building. ~ Ron Ripley,
541:researchers have found that three types of situation signal threat and elicit a massive physiological stress response—those characterized by novelty, uncertainty and uncontrollability. ~ John Coates,
542:The second season is generally easier do because you know the actors better and they know the characters better and if everybody likes each other you can really go all types of places. ~ Denis Leary,
543:We live in a world where there is a need for pluralistic institutions and for recognizing different types of freedom, economic, social, cultural, and political, which are interrelated. ~ Amartya Sen,
544:You have two types of writers: one like Proust who was locked in his room and wrote the masterpiece. And the other type was Hemingway who celebrated life and also wrote a masterpiece. ~ Paulo Coelho,
545:Introverted feeling types have a wealth of warmth and enthusiasm, but they may not show it until they know someone well. They wear their warm side inside, like a fur-lined coat. ~ Isabel Briggs Myers,
546:Psychology teaches us at every step that though two types of activity can have the same external manifestation, whether in origin or essence, their nature may differ most profoundly. ~ Lev S Vygotsky,
547:there are two types of people in this world: those who make excuses and those who get the job done. No excuses. You are 100 percent responsible for anything that has your name on it. ~ Keith Ferrazzi,
548:Types are abstractions. Nature presents an apparent endless variety of living things which man, from his earliest days, has observed and classified. ~ James Grier Miller, The Nature of Living Systems,
549:At that time two opposing concepts of the Game called forth commentary and discussion. The foremost players distinguished two principal types of Game, the formal and the psychological. ~ Hermann Hesse,
550:How to save the old that's worth saving, whether in landscape, houses, manners, institutions, or human types, is one of our greatest problems, and the one that we bother least about. ~ John Galsworthy,
551:People have kind of latched on with my personality and how I play golf and how I carry myself. It seems like every town we go to, I'm experiencing newer things with these types of fans. ~ Jason Dufner,
552:People who ask a lot of questions often find themselves at odds with other people, and even institutions and governments. Sometimes questioning types don't fare very well within religion. ~ Jim Palmer,
553:She discovered Carl Jung’s book Psychological Types and it became the theoretical foundation for a lifetime’s work, later taken up by her daughter (who became Isabel Briggs Myers). ~ Tom Butler Bowdon,
554:There are certain types of genres that are impossible in China. Ghost stories, something too graphic, too violent, and of course if it's too political. Other than that, it will be fine. ~ Wong Kar wai,
555:Time perception is very much about how you sequence your activities, how many activities you layer overtop of others, and the types of gaps, if any, you leave in between activities. ~ Douglas Coupland,
556:Two types of voices command your attention today. Negative ones fill your mind with doubt, bitterness, and fear. Positive ones purvey hope and strength. Which one will you choose to heed? ~ Max Lucado,
557:You are too young to understand, solange, but there are many different types of love in this world. There are lovers of the flesh, lovers of the mind, and lovers sustained by family.: ~ Alyson Richman,
558:I always listen to music, my passion and vice is music, I will be denied access to heaven because of the number of CDs I own, and I have gluttony for all types and colours of music. ~ Anthony Minghella,
559:If you hunger for certain types of clothes, for which you have little use, put yourself on a diet. Just as you resist too much whipped cream and French pastry to keep your figure in shape, ~ Edith Head,
560:I have seen good nurses and bad nurses. They existed along a continuum: from hard-working, kind and competent people, to office-hugging, bone-idle types, to apathetic, disengaged automatons. ~ Jo Brand,
561:I'm, like, everybody's friend. I'm one of those dudes. I can be friends with anybody. Any race of person, any personality, I can kind of deal with them. I accept different types of people. ~ J B Smoove,
562:Do you really have the ability to control all types of undead?" Magnus asked. "Can you really make a hundred shoes in a single night?" I asked. Magnus smiled. "Wrong kind of fairie. ~ Laurell K Hamilton,
563:In forty years of medical practice, I have found only two types of non-pharmaceutical ‘therapy’ to be vitally important for patients with chronic neurological diseases: music and gardens. ~ Oliver Sacks,
564:I think my work shows that I love women. I understand where these types of criticisms are coming from because black people have been so dogged out in the media, they're just extra sensitive. ~ Spike Lee,
565:The immune systems goal is to protect the body against invaders either from without, such as microbes, or from within, such as cancers and different types of neoplastic transformation. ~ Anthony S Fauci,
566:Do your people have racists? People who believe they are inherently superior to all other types of intelligent people?” “We have some,” Sorvalh said. “They’re generally agreed to be idiots. ~ John Scalzi,
567:I'm interested in avoiding two types of behaviour [in my children]: one is the sense of guilt and the other is a sense of entitlement. If these two are avoided, then the rest is up to them. ~ John Elkann,
568:I was afraid you'd turn into one of those literary types who say books can change the world when they're feeling good about themselves and it's only a book when anybody challenges them. ~ G Willow Wilson,
569:My mother always took my brothers and me to music lessons. There were six children. Our parents attended our concerts and encouraged us to study and enjoy many different types of music. ~ Wynton Marsalis,
570:No one likes the fellow who is all rogue, but we'll forgive him almost anything if there is warmth of human sympathy underneath his rogueries. The immortal types of comedy are just such men. ~ W C Fields,
571:There's nothing fragile about this one. That ain't a fragile nose or mouth or chin, and yet it's female, more female than them fragile-pretty types who look more like ornaments than girls. ~ David Goodis,
572:There were two types of strong men: those like Uncle Monty and Abe Steinheim, remorseless about their making money, and those like my father, ruthlessly obedient to their idea of fair play. ~ Philip Roth,
573:Type production has gone mad, with its senseless outpouring of new types... only in degenerate times can personality (opposed to the nameless masses) become the aim of human development. ~ Jan Tschichold,
574:Is it possible faith in God over our future must outweigh our feelings in the things of today? And maybe there are lots of types of forgiveness just like there are lots of kinds of love. ~ Cindy Woodsmall,
575:I think audiences are a lot more intelligent than what we give them credit for and understand that an actor is playing a role and that doesn't mean he can't play different types of roles. ~ Cillian Murphy,
576:It's not that I find it hard to meet girls - they do come up and chat me up from time to time. Sometimes I'm interested, I tend not to go for the prettier ones. I prefer the quirkier types. ~ Rupert Grint,
577:Somebody like Mailer brings to that role everything that he stands for. The types of characters that I gravitate towards, the types of icons, tend to have a heavy physicality in that way. ~ Matthew Barney,
578:We tend to value military heroes and Schwarzenegger types who are physically courageous. The heroics of doing the right thing every day even when it is dull and inconvenient are undervalued. ~ Mary Pipher,
579:A teacher had two types of students. One type of student is a close student. The other is also a close student, but not in the sense of physical proximity. The close students rotate a lot. ~ Frederick Lenz,
580:It bothers me to read the comments of leaders of the Hamas and others who hate America that their goal is to have more weaponry capable of delivering all types of weapons of mass destruction. ~ Don Nickles,
581:I think that could be a very compromising situation where people naturally may do things that may not be in the interest of the mission because of other types of emotions that are involved. ~ Rick Santorum,
582:Software has two types of value: the value of its behavior and the value of its structure. The second of these is the greater of the two because it is this value that makes software soft. ~ Robert C Martin,
583:Some women are naturally thin. But there needs to be an appreciation for a variety of types of women because we don't all come in one package. We're not pre-destined to all be a size six. ~ Andie MacDowell,
584:Verbs come in two types, active and passive. With an active verb, the subject of the sentence is doing something. With a passive verb, something is being done to the subject of the sentence. ~ Stephen King,
585:Also expressionistic filmmaking - making the audience feel like they were inside the characters' heads. And so we create all these different types of techniques to put the audience there. ~ Darren Aronofsky,
586:But we were girls once, which is to say, we have all loved an ain’t-shit man. No Christian way of putting it. There are two types of men in the world: men who are and men who ain’t about shit ~ Brit Bennett,
587:I think one of the great things about a football season is that you see teams play in all types of environments, and if you can't handle one of them, you probably don't deserve to win anyway. ~ Bill Simmons,
588:I've noticed a lot of younger artists have less fear of doing different sorts of things, whether it's various types of music, or gallery artists moving between video and sculpture and drawing. ~ David Byrne,
589:I wanted to do a summary of my life and career. There’s been so many different looks, and so many types of songs that have become iconic, so it was just kind of fun to look back on everything ~ Shania Twain,
590:Jeremy Bentham, the great utilitarian philosopher, once spiked this argument. He said, ‘There are two types of people in the world, those who divide people into two types, and those who do not. ~ Bren Brown,
591:There is no more "front" and "rear" where Fobbit-types would go to hide out in safer locations. In Iraq and Afghanistan, you engaged in a theater of operations that's 360 degrees at all times. ~ Dave Abrams,
592:But we were girls once, which is to say, we have all loved an ain’t-shit man. No Christian way of putting it. There are two types of men in the world: men who are and men who ain’t about shit. ~ Brit Bennett,
593:Chaos theory simply suggests that what appears to most people as chaos is not really chaotic, but a series of different types of orders with which the human mind has not yet become familiar. ~ Frederick Lenz,
594:Hispanics speak Spanish or Portuguese, which are languages we Americans are familiar with, so it doesn't seem to pose the same types of problems as Arabic-speaking Muslims do in Europe. ~ Samuel P Huntington,
595:I am impressed by the way Annie Kevans captured the different types of beauties that have been my inspiration and my muses from my grandmother to artists like David Bowie and Boy George. ~ Jean Paul Gaultier,
596:In order to have real inner confidence and lasting self-esteem you must know, feel and believe that you are enough because this realisation is very much at the heart of confidence of all types. ~ Marisa Peer,
597:I thought it was funny. I always thought Star Wars and Indiana Jones were basically comedies. The humour came out of their relationships; it came out of the fact that we were basically types. ~ Harrison Ford,
598:My decision to register women confirms what is already obvious throughout our society-that women are now providing all types of skills in every profession. The military should be no exception. ~ Jimmy Carter,
599:“Really, there are two types of people who go bowling. There are people who really, really love bowling. Then there are the people that are like: wouldn’t it be hysterical if we went bowling?” ~ Jim Gaffigan,
600:That's when the bear in me came out-and not like those internet picture types of furry chests needing to shed the winter pounds...more the grizzly that eats crazy climbers for lunch species. ~ James Buchanan,
601:The "European Union" happens to be composed of people who hate our guts. It is the continent where lunatics are the friendly, pro-American types and the rest are crazy Muslims. ~ Ann Coulter,
602:The question is: Would there be a market in Germany for certain types of employment if one were to allow the employed person to earn less than is necessary to maintain his standard of living? ~ Angela Merkel,
603:This type of discourse in the campaign is just unwarranted. But it was started by Ms.[Hillary] Clinton. Ms. Clinton has started the idea of calling Donald Trump those types of names [bigot]. ~ Chris Christie,
604:Do you really have the ability to control all types of undead?" Magnus asked.
"Can you really make a hundred shoes in a single night?" I asked.
Magnus smiled. "Wrong kind of fairie. ~ Laurell K Hamilton,
605:In my early writing, all of my characters were exactly the same person. They all spoke the same, made the same types of jokes, reacted the same, etc. I think they were all just me in disguise. ~ James Dashner,
606:We believe that every relationship is unique unto itself, and thus even an attempt to think in types and forms is not going to express the essential truths of what happens when we love people. ~ Dossie Easton,
607:He studied the people of Moscow at the theaters, in the clubs, in the streets, looking for the types he needed. A great many of his fictional characters, if not all of them, had real-life models. ~ Leo Tolstoy,
608:I've had the same, full-time assistant and typist for eight or nine years now. She's read everything I've written, she types everything and does a good job, translates it and makes comments. ~ Kevin J Anderson,
609:There are different pathways - be it Zen, tantra, karma yoga, or jnana yoga. Different ways have been devised to do the same thing for different types of people according to their temperament. ~ Frederick Lenz,
610:A semantic definition of a particular set of command types, then, is a rule for constructing, for any command of one of these types, a verification condition on the antecedents and consequents. ~ Robert W Floyd,
611:Being in good shape is my lifestyle, and I can't remember a time when I was out of shape. I try to live an active lifestyle and mix up all types of activities like fighting, running and swimming. ~ Urijah Faber,
612:But we were girls once, which is to say, we have all loved an ain’t-shit man. No Christian way of putting it. There are two types of men in the world: men who are and men who ain’t about shit. As ~ Brit Bennett,
613:cutting shapes or letters into the blade so that it leaves a unique pattern on the subjects skin, and using special or rare types of wood to enhance the weight, strength or beauty of the paddle. ~ Michael Makai,
614:I have different routines for different types of chaos. When I find myself swamped with work and surrounded by people, I try to carve out time to walk my dog alone so I can organize my thoughts. ~ Amanda Schull,
615:I don't want to be the funny girl or the serious girl. I would hope to touch on all different genres and all different types of characters, which I think I've been lucky enough to do, so far. ~ Yvonne Strahovski,
616:I keep it real normal, like I don't try to act like a celebrity, or say that just because I'm on a TV show I can do other types of TV. I take it very seriously and I respect the art of acting. ~ Vinny Guadagnino,
617:The flow of people into the United States into slavery, it follows the other types of immigration into the United States, so people who are trying to build new lives, trying to build a better life. ~ Kevin Bales,
618:There are so many types of sorrow. Sorrow for a loss. Sorrow for a tragedy. Sorrow for the way things are. Sorrow for the ways things could have been. But the worse sorrow is for what can never be. ~ Dan Skinner,
619:there were two types of cosmologies in religion, the first based on a single moment when God created the universe, the second based on the idea that the universe always was and always will be. They ~ Michio Kaku,
620:With few exceptions, those who dress outrageously are robust or even antifragile in reputation; those clean-shaven types who dress in suits and ties are fragile to information about them. ~ Nassim Nicholas Taleb,
621:After all, if ignorance were the problem, well-meaning leaders would quickly learn what types of policies increased their citizens’ incomes and welfare, and would gravitate toward those policies. ~ Daron Acemo lu,
622:I dont often meet people who want to suffer cardiovascular disease or whatever, and we get those things as a result of the lifelong accumulation of various types of molecular and cellular damage. ~ Aubrey de Grey,
623:Sometimes," she said, "it seems to me there's just these certain types of people that come around and around in our lives, know what I mean? Easy types and hard types; we run into them over and over. ~ Anne Tyler,
624:There are two types of people in the world. There are the people who understand instinctively that the story of The Flood and the story of The Tower of Babel are the same thing, and those who don't. ~ Steven Hall,
625:and all the ministers of the various types of local Baptists had declined to participate in retribution for Monroe’s failure to believe in a God with severe limitations on His patience and mercy. ~ Charles Frazier,
626:Because being witness to all types of human experience is important to understanding the world, but also to understanding myself. To define what is important to me, and who is important, and why. ~ Nina Sankovitch,
627:I read romance because it’s fun to fall in love. And with romance books, I get to do it over and over. I get to be different types of lovers, I get to feel the heartbreak of love and the successes. ~ Kandi Steiner,
628:The thing to me that's fun is trying to make the characters seem believable, or realistic. And it's especially challenging when you're doing fantasy stories, when you're doing superhero types of things. ~ Stan Lee,
629:I don't really believe in writer's block or anything like that. If I'm not feeling words, I may pick up an instrument and play with sounds or delve into different types of creativity and expression. ~ Saul Williams,
630:Perhaps as good a classification as any of the main types is that of the three lusts distinguished by traditional Christianity - the lust of knowledge, the lust of sensation, and the lust of power. ~ Irving Babbitt,
631:The more that I can work in different mediums, the more I can grow, and learn from different actors and different types of actors and directors and different styles of acting and build a tool box. ~ Christina Ricci,
632:There are many types of preventive health care services that are covered, things like blood pressure medication, for example. And women are merely asking that their health be taken just as seriously. ~ Sandra Fluke,
633:For these types of changes, I’ll have my staff generate some reports on the changes’ success rates and any associated downtime. This will help the business make more informed decisions around the changes. ~ Gene Kim,
634:The original Upper Paleolithic people would, if they appeared among us today, be called Caucasoid, in the sense that they lacked the particular traits we associate with Negroid and Mongoloid types. ~ Raymond Cattell,
635:The study of butterflies-creatures selected as the types of airiness and frivolity-instead of being despised, will some day be valued as one of the most important branches of Biological science. ~ Henry Walter Bates,
636:This aesthetic quality, then, is what politics is all about. It's authenticity that separates winners from losers, good politics from bad, and he-man leader-types from consultant-directed puppet-boys. ~ Thomas Frank,
637:Affirmation of life even in its strangest and sternest problems; the will to life rejoicing in its own inexhaustibility through the sacrifice of its highest types - that is what I call dionysian ~ Friedrich Nietzsche,
638:I'm not sure that I want my life to consist of Hollywood franchises, to be honest. There are other types of work that I'm interested in, like theater and just more serious drama and I just don't know. ~ Taron Egerton,
639:I was scared, because I knew that in the political arena, you have to satisfy so many different types of people at once, and I wasn't sure that I could speak for everybody and be politically correct. ~ Camryn Manheim,
640:Spiritual education is not a distinct and separate discipline; it is part and parcel of all types and levels of education, In fact, it is the very foundation on which a lasting edifice can be built. ~ Sathya Sai Baba,
641:As an actor, if I just did sci-fi, I think it would get limiting, like if you just play lawyers or doctors, over and over. It's a lot more fun, if you get to play lots of different types of characters. ~ Tricia Helfer,
642:At least for soccer players, it comes down to a blend of two types of fitness - your base endurance, which comes from longer distance running, and your speed, which comes from sprint-based workouts. ~ Heather O Reilly,
643:Beyond this world there are myriad worlds, thousands of inter-dimensional planes with different types of beings going through other cycles of existence. Beyond all beings is something that is eternal. ~ Frederick Lenz,
644:I know that collector types can be a pain in the neck and seem perpetually frozen in time - or at least in their parents' basement - but someone has to look out for the past, lest it slip away forever. ~ Henry Rollins,
645:Self-esteem. That's one of those catch-all terms that means nothing at all, but the mere mention of it leaves all the socially conscious liberal types nodding sagely and scratching their chins. ~ Jordan Castillo Price,
646:Skills can be taught. Character you either have or don't have. Bigfoot understood that there are two types of people in the world: those who do what they say they're going to do — and everyone else. ~ Anthony Bourdain,
647:There are two types of producing deals, and I've had both. I've produced over 20 movies now. You are either watching in horror, as the cars take the curve in the grand prix, or you're enjoying it. ~ Guillermo del Toro,
648:What galled him most was the presumption of these writer types, as if there weren’t actual people in the world, with jobs to do, appointments to keep, wives to appease, but only so much material. ~ Garth Risk Hallberg,
649:Conventional money is supposed to be doing everything. By adding in complementary currencies, you actually get different types of things and different outcomes from different complementary currencies. ~ Bernard Lietaer,
650:genius is much more than high intelligence, innate talent, extraordinary work ethic, or uncanny luck, but rather a composite manifestation; a synthesis of very specific types of worldviews and behaviors. ~ Sean Patrick,
651:I think that you will see different types of content emerging, just the same as new media generates new content in the physical world. TV created new content, but it didn't mean that radio disappeared. ~ Donna Dubinsky,
652:changes the performance of the propulsion system compared to other types of thrusters and modifies the conventional way of calculating some of the thruster parameters, such as specific impulse and efficiency ~ Anonymous,
653:I started thinking about the endless bullshit about quotas, and how certain types of character are fine "as long as it's important to the story," and so on, started thinking about the absence of the abject. ~ Hal Duncan,
654:Music and fashion go hand in hand. I think music inspires all types of arts; it inspires life, emotion, mood, and all of those things are reflected in my fashion and my style. One doesn’t go without the other. ~ Rihanna,
655:Our major universities are now stuck with an army of pedestrian, toadying careerists, Fifties types who wave around Sixties banners to conceal their record of ruthless, beaver-like tunneling to the top. ~ Camille Paglia,
656:There are two types of laws: there are just laws and there are unjust laws... What is the difference between the two?...An unjust law is a man-made code that is out of harmony with the moral law. ~ Martin Luther King Jr,
657:Any food products made from flour, especially whole-wheat flour, form gas when broken down in the large intestine. Beware of eating these types of food before bedtime to avoid feeling inflated in the morning. ~ Mehmet Oz,
658:I checked out all types of tobacco trying to find one that would be easiest to live with, I ended up using pipe tobacco. It burned slower, and it wasn't as harsh on my throat... It also smelled better. ~ David Strathairn,
659:If there was one thing life had taught her it was that there are times when you do not go back for your bag and times when you do. It had yet to teach her to distinguish between the two types of occasion. ~ Douglas Adams,
660:Some cats don't like different types of kitty litter. So might try different types of kitty litter sometimes that works. You know, they don't like one type that sticks to the paws and they don't like it. ~ Temple Grandin,
661:There are two types of patience. One is exercised in hard work and the other in idleness. Patience with hard work is the one that moves mountains. Patience in idleness moves nothing, not even cobwebs. ~ Israelmore Ayivor,
662:Corporate types love to pretend their life is exciting. The whispers, fist-pumping and animated hand gestures are all designed to lift our job description from what it really is - that of an overpaid clerk ~ Chetan Bhagat,
663:I believe that women are many different types of people. There are brave women, there are cowardly women, there are altruistic women, there are selfish women. Most people are a combination of the same. ~ George R R Martin,
664:Everyone living under the social contract we call democracy has a duty to act responsibly, to obey the laws, and to abandon certain types of self-interested behaviors that conflict with the general good. ~ Simon Mainwaring,
665:Perhaps it is a fault of the species who thrive in peace, mutual help, aspirations for more of the same -- to forget that outside these borders dwell very different types of mind, feeding on different fuel. ~ Doris Lessing,
666:You have only recently been introduced to the types of silences that exist in a home with one occupant, and emotionally you stagger about this new reality like a sailor returned to land after decades at sea. ~ Mohsin Hamid,
667:And Danny got it: she was playing herself. A character: He liked these types because they pretty much told you what reactions they wanted you to have, and they liked Danny because he went ahead and had them. ~ Jennifer Egan,
668:It's hard because I seek out strong female roles. I turn down a lot of stuff, not because it's not good, but because I don't want to play certain types of characters. I don't like to just play the pretty girl. ~ Gina Holden,
669:There are two types of people-anchors and motors. You want to lose the anchors and get with the motors because the motors are going somewhere and they're having more fun. The anchors will just drag you down. ~ Robert Wyland,
670:Brackets come in various shapes, types and names: 1 round brackets (which we call brackets, and the Americans call parentheses) 2 square brackets [which we call square brackets, and the Americans call brackets] ~ Lynne Truss,
671:In my films quite often, paranoia usually leads to the truth so it is kind of a psychological state of mind to think that what you fear may come true, and those are the types of stories that I like to tell. ~ Larry Fessenden,
672:In organic chemistry, we have learnt to derive from compounds containing only carbon and hydrogen, i.e. from the hydrocarbons, all other types of combinations, such as alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, acids, etc. ~ Otto Wallach,
673:In short, it is about the multiple health benefits of consuming plant-based foods, and the largely unappreciated health dangers of consuming animal-based foods, including all types of meat, dairy and eggs. ~ T Colin Campbell,
674:There are lots of good cops around. Dumb guys who are good cops. Inflexible, limited, tough, self-satisfied types who are all good cops. It would be better if there were a few more good guys who were cops.” His ~ Maj Sj wall,
675:There are several types of movie space, the three most important being: (1) the field of the screen, (2) the psychological space of the actor, and (3) the area of experience and geography that the film covers. ~ Manny Farber,
676:Why is grief, when inspired by certain types of loss, considered something to surmount, to get over, while when inspired by other types of loss it’s given a pass, allowed and even encouraged to go on forever? ~ Ron Currie Jr,
677:You are wrong when you say there is no power in being a woman. When I think of my mother and the women in my tribe, and even the hidden women in the harem, I know there are many types of power in this world. ~ Alison Goodman,
678:As all types and figures in the Law were but empty shadows without the coming of Christ, so the New Testament is but a dead letter without the Holy Spirit in redeemed men as the living power of a full salvation. ~ William Law,
679:I certainly do all sorts of work. I'm very, very blessed to do drama and other types of television, and things like that, but I always go back to sci-fi, whenever possible, because that's really exciting for me. ~ Gina Holden,
680:If animal abusers aren't going to stop perpetrating these types of atrocities, they ought to be stopped using whatever means necessary. What we're starting to see is the implementation of that type of strategy. ~ Jerry Vlasak,
681:If you surveyed a hundred typical middle-aged Americans, I bet you'd find that only two of them could tell you their blood types, but every last one of them would know the theme song from the Beverly Hillbillies. ~ Dave Barry,
682:I guess there were two types of people in the world, those who sat around a fire, staring into the flames, and those who started the fire.
Seth and I started the fire, and then we danced around it. ~ Jennifer L Armentrout,
683:It does feel like the middle ground has fallen out. I'm only saying that from personal experience, saying, "I'd like to make that movie" and hearing, "Oh, they're not making those types of movies anymore." ~ Leonardo DiCaprio,
684:Life in general was cruel and offered only different types of voids and chaos. The only way to tolerate it, to have any hope of escaping it, I reasoned, was to know my own strength, to defy life by surviving it. ~ Lucy Grealy,
685:We need a language that lets us scribble and smudge and smear, not a language where you have to sit with a teacup of types balanced on your knee and make polite conversation with a strict old aunt of a compiler. ~ Paul Graham,
686:I don't know, I like to go on really different types of dates. Going someplace new or some new part of the city, something that's not your average thing. Something where you just go have an adventure together. ~ Rachel McAdams,
687:Learn not to be attached to other people, to certain types of experiences. Allow the flow of life to guide you wherever it is supposed to and accept with equanimity, with balance, with poise, whatever happens. ~ Frederick Lenz,
688:For the better part of the 1990s, it seemed like the only Americans who publicly described themselves as patriots were scary militia types hiding out in the backwoods of Michigan and Montana, cleaning their guns. ~ Sarah Vowell,
689:I don't sleep with that many chicks, and if I did, so what? There's nuthin' wrong with sex. It's you religious types who have a problem with it, slut-shaming people who enjoy what your so-called God gave them. ~ Marita A Hansen,
690:I listen to a lot of alternative types of music: I listen to a lot of Chinese music, I listen to a lot of Asian music. It might surprise you, but I listen to a lot of Arabic music. And I don't care - music is music. ~ Timbaland,
691:My whole thing was, just being me. Now, you look around the NBA and all of them have tattoos, guys wearing cornrows. Now you see the police officers with the cornrows. I took a beating for those types of things. ~ Allen Iverson,
692:Punk's really cool because it's very inclusive of all types, which I like. And I would submit that even though people talk about punk as being thuggish, I think it can be more creative than other types of music. ~ Milo Aukerman,
693:The Jews are not an ethnos, but they are a nationality, they are diversified types, it is true, but what nation is not diversified? What makes a people is not unity of origin, but unity of sentiments, ideas, ethics. ~ Anonymous,
694:Compared with more emotional types, Vermonters seem to have few passions. But those they have are great and burning. The greatest is their conviction that without freedom human life is not worth living. ~ Dorothy Canfield Fisher,
695:Apparently the pro-choice types who jump up and down in the street demanding that you keep your rosaries off their ovaries are entirely relaxed about the government getting its bureaucratics all over your lymphatics. ~ Mark Steyn,
696:Football fans share a universal language that cuts across many cultures and many personality types. A serious football fan is never alone. We are legion, and football is often the only thing we have in common. ~ Hunter S Thompson,
697:I fought linotype and montype for some time because it would not justify as well as handset could be made to do; but at last, as always happens, the machine outdid the hand, and got all the best types on it. ~ George Bernard Shaw,
698:I like food because you can change it. I mean, there is no such thing as a perfect lamb chop; you can make all types of lamb chops. And that's true of everything. And people eat it and it changes and disappears. ~ Claes Oldenburg,
699:summarize the SSTA evolution in the absence of equatorial WWEs, followed by a summary of the local and remote SSTA evolution following different types of WWEs, and conclude by connecting these results to the dynamical ~ Anonymous,
700:The idea that religious beliefs but not others should receive special protection is bizarre: all types of belief should be open to scrutiny, criticism, parody, and potentially ridicule in a free society. Indeed, ~ Nigel Warburton,
701:Though Trish and her bad boy types weren't exactly Kindra's style, she had to agree that Violet went for quiet and uninteresting. Sort of like mild salsa. Why even bother? You'd be better off just biting a tomato. ~ Erin McCarthy,
702:When we want to engage, believe me, we can. And not only will we then make fewer mistakes of perception, but we will become the types of focused, observant people that we may have thought we were incapable of becoming ~ Anonymous,
703:Brackets come in various shapes, types and names:
1 round brackets (which we call brackets, and the Americans call parentheses)
2 square brackets [which we call square brackets, and the Americans call brackets] ~ Lynne Truss,
704:I believe he collects different types of stationery,' said Vetinari. 'I have sometimes speculated that he might change his life for the better should he meet a young lady willing to dress up as a manila envelope. ~ Terry Pratchett,
705:I don't particularly enjoy those types of interviews, because I have a great respect for Senator McCain, and I hate the idea that our conversation became just two people sort of talking over each other, at one point. ~ Jon Stewart,
706:The human organism inherits so delicate an adjustment to climate that, in spite of man's boasted ability to live anywhere, the strain of the frozen North eliminates the more nervous and active types of mind. ~ Ellsworth Huntington,
707:There was always the allure of another, better house. There were always distractions, always so many things to do—and the writer’s block and insecurity that plagues creative types traveled with him wherever he went. ~ Ryan Holiday,
708:The richest people in the world build networks. Everyone else is trained to look for work, that's why there are two types of people today. Those who build their own dreams and those who build someone else dreams. ~ Robert Kiyosaki,
709:Who's that little brunette?" Suzanne asked. "I hate little petite types. Gregory doesn't look right with someone petite. Little face, little hands, little dainty feet."
"Big boobs," Beth said, glancing up. ~ Elizabeth Chandler,
710:You have to be very, very careful not to pick up too much of the lower energies, the toxic energies, because they'll make you very ill. They can kill you. They can cause cancer, debilitative diseases of all types. ~ Frederick Lenz,
711:As described, the most habit-forming products and services utilize one or more of the three variable rewards types: the tribe, the hunt, and the self. In fact, many habit-forming products offer multiple variable rewards. ~ Nir Eyal,
712:In New York, you are forced into having very public lives and observing all types of people, what they sound like, what they're reading, what they smell like, what they are listening to, how they talk to their friends. ~ Nick Kroll,
713:Most teachers of self-discovery have two types of students. They have students they deal with in a more exoteric way than the esoteric students. Esoteric truths are presented to usually a smaller group of students. ~ Frederick Lenz,
714:Radioactivity is shown to be accompanied by chemical changes in which new types of matter are being continually produced. .... The conclusion is drawn that these chemical changes must be sub-atomic in character. ~ Ernest Rutherford,
715:There are two types of people who never achieve very much in their lifetimes. One is the person who won't do what he or she is told to do, and the other is the person who does no more than he or she is told to do. ~ Andrew Carnegie,
716:Vegetarians and vegans tend to weigh less and have lower blood pressure, lower blood cholesterol, and, in turn, a lowered risk of heart disease than people whose diets include some or all types of animal products; ~ Thich Nhat Hanh,
717:In the world of power, people will come looking for you. If you're a movie star, you know what I am saying. People will come around you, little groupie types. They think that being around you they can get something. ~ Frederick Lenz,
718:The difference is staggering, by a factor of 10. In the human gut alone, there are usually around 100 trillion bacteria, while in one entire human being there are only about 10 trillion cells, counting all types. ~ Ant nio R Dam sio,
719:Two types of films: those that employ the resources of the theater (actors, direction, etc...) and use the camera in order to reproduce; those that employ the resources of cinematography and use the camera to create ~ Robert Bresson,
720:Types really don't matter. I have been accused of preferring blondes. But I have known some mighty attractive redheads, brunettes, and yes, women with grey hair. Age, height, weight haven't anything to do with glamour. ~ Clark Gable,
721:Your worth? Christ, Iris! Never look to a job for that, okay? You can’t trust these corporate types. They’ll chew you up and spit you out without a second thought if it makes them more money. Fuck ’em! Do what you want. ~ D M Pulley,
722:A lot of comics are kind of vampire types; we do our shows and disappear into the night. My philosophy was, this is like politics, and if I want people to know about my campaign, I'm going to go out there and shake hands. ~ Dane Cook,
723:An era that I specifically like is sort of late 50's, early 60's. I guess mid 50's too. I like these types of films that deal with post WWII America and this more complex leading man that kind of emerges from that. ~ Alden Ehrenreich,
724:I can think and play stuff in classical music that possibly violinists who didn't have access to other types of music could never do. It means I'm more flexible within classical music, to be a servant to the composer. ~ Nigel Kennedy,
725:Out of the thirty thousand types of edible plants thought to exist on Earth, just eleven—corn, rice, wheat, potatoes, cassava, sorghum, millet, beans, barley, rye, and oats—account for 93 percent of all that humans eat, ~ Bill Bryson,
726:A common way to compute density is, of course, to take the ratio of an object's mass to its volume. But other types of densities exist, such as the resistance of somebody's brain to the imparting of common sense. ~ Neil deGrasse Tyson,
727:Basically, the body does have a vast amount of inbuilt anti-ageing machinery; it's just not 100% comprehensive, so it allows a small number of different types of molecular and cellular damage to happen and accumulate. ~ Aubrey de Grey,
728:F5 Future Store (a Chinese startup that creates a shopping experience comparable to the Amazon Go supermarket), or Toutiao (the algorithmic news app that employs no editors) are prime examples of these types of companies. ~ Kai Fu Lee,
729:People who are involved in self-discovery lead different types of lives. The lives they lead are not necessarily the lives of renunciation. Rather, it is a structuring of the elements in your life in a particular way. ~ Frederick Lenz,
730:there is at least as much, and probably much more, variation on these matters among the Protestants of various types included in these merged ‘Protestant’ groups, than between the ‘average’ Protestants and the Catholics ~ Rodney Stark,
731:An (emotional) vampire goes in for the kill by stirring up your emotions. Pushing your buttons throws you off center, which renders you easier to drain. Of all the emotional types, empaths are often the most devestated. ~ Judith Orloff,
732:But perhaps it is always so, that men form their conceptions from fictitious, conventional types, and then—all the combinations made—they are tired of the fictitious figures and begin to invent more natural, true figures. ~ Leo Tolstoy,
733:Going to a grammar school, you mixed with all sorts of different types and I used to listen to how they talked. When I did my imitations, I could sound like someone really rough, or I could sound like a cabinet minister. ~ Steve Coogan,
734:He who first shortened the labor of Copyists by device of Movable Types was disbanding hired armies and cashiering most Kings and Senates, and creating a whole new Democratic world: he had invented the Art of printing. ~ Thomas Carlyle,
735:I had no intention of getting involved with a tattooed, spikey-haired rock dude who wore his waistband under his ass cheeks, slept around and had commitment issues. Those were the types that had me running from the hills. ~ Cora Hawkes,
736:In 1968 I frequently would sit in a photo booth and practice self mirror images which I then documented photographically. Curious types would always open the curtains and chase me away. Today I work with a photographer. ~ Arnulf Rainer,
737:It feels good to be with Xander, in a different way than it feels good to be with Ky. Still. Being with Ky, being with Xander- both things feel like standing in the light. Different types of light, but neither feels dark. ~ Ally Condie,
738:I've acted with all types, I've directed all types. What you want to understand as a director, is what actors have to offer. They'll get at it however they get at it. If you can understand that, you can get your work done. ~ Ron Howard,
739:There are three types of biomimicry - one is copying form and shape, another is copying a process, like photosynthesis in a leaf, and the third is mimicking at an ecosystem's level, like building a nature-inspired city. ~ Janine Benyus,
740:Unfortunately, in self-discovery, you get the culty types who want the father figure or mother figure to tell them everything to do. They don't want to do any work. They want to hang on your energy and try to drain it. ~ Frederick Lenz,
741:You find three types of love in your lifetime. The first will show you all that you did wrong. The second will show you how you should be loved, but the third will show you what it feels like to die while still being alive. ~ Amo Jones,
742:A leader must be able to identify these types of situations and not shy away from removing malcontents from the organization. It takes true character to stay with an organization when things seem to be at their bleakest. It ~ Bill Walsh,
743:And you see his blue eyes, the blue eyes of all the family
whom you used to know, grow narrow and glisten,
his hand types out the details
and he wants them all
but the hysteria in your voice pleases him best. ~ Adrienne Rich,
744:Culture is partly made out of information. There are at least two main types of this information. One is a set of shared beliefs and values. The other is shared knowledge of how to do things. Culture consists of both. ~ Roy F Baumeister,
745:Imagination is potentially infinite. Though actually we are limited to the types of experience for which we possess organs, those organs are somewhat plastic. Opportunity will change their scope and even their center. ~ George Santayana,
746:I was trying not to think about ho acutely aware I was that there were two types of people -- the type who could talk to anyone and make friends with them, and the type who spent parties hiding and sitting against trees. ~ Morgan Matson,
747:The American man is a very simple and cheap mechanism. The American woman I find a complicated and expensive one. Contrasts of feminine types are possible. I am not absolutely sure that there is more than one American man. ~ Henry Adams,
748:There are two types of people who never achieve very much in their lifetimes. One is the person who won't do what s/he is told to do. And the other is the person who does no more than s/he is told to do. - Andrew Carnegie ~ Mark Sanborn,
749:they [thinkers] can remember how feeling types respond to sympathy and appreciation; a little of either will greatly tone down a necessary criticism, but the thinker must express the sympathy or appreciation first. ~ Isabel Briggs Myers,
750:31 Get rid of all bitterness, rage, anger, harsh words, and slander, as well as all types of evil behavior. 32 Instead, be kind to each other, tenderhearted, forgiving one another, just as God through Christ has forgiven you. ~ Anonymous,
751:I really do listen to all types of music, not only rock, but everything from good pop music - which is usually older pop music - to RB and indie rock. I love indie rock more than a lot of the commercial stuff that you'd expect. ~ Amy Lee,
752:True love is a blinding thing, it can color the experiences of even the worst events with a rosy tint, it can turn men and women into the best types of people—ones who will sacrifice the world for a shared moment of bliss. ~ Tod Goldberg,
753:We should like to have some towering geniuses, to reveal us to ourselves in colour and fire, but of course they would have to fit into the pattern of our society and be able to take orders from sound administrative types. ~ J B Priestley,
754:carrot-and-stick reinforcement’ the behaviorists are telling us is needed for this bird to carry out these operations, thirteen different types of construction jobs? B. F. Skinner did a very good thing: in World War ~ William Peter Blatty,
755:For my understanding depends not only on my expectation and experience of possible types of music, but also on my knowledge of possible types of painting-in other words, on the mental set with which I approach the Mondrian. ~ E H Gombrich,
756:I can see myself retiring from rapping, but I don't think from music. After that, I think I'd just go into some other kind of music, 'cuz I'm a worldwide fan of music, all types of music, all cultures, so I'll always be involved. ~ Redman,
757:In a short amount of time, I've lived so much, had so many experiences and met so many different types of people and even lived in so many countries. If I had been in school, I'd be learning about the world from books. ~ Jennifer Lawrence,
758:The relationships you form in the trenches, though? The people who intersect your life during your moments of brokenness and stay around to fight with you and for you, I think those are the sticking types of relationships. ~ Megan Squires,
759:As I got further into my career, as a character of color, if I was going to have the types of opportunities I felt I deserved, and continue to have them, I was going to have to start creating those opportunities for myself. ~ Lance Reddick,
760:People huddle together in doctrinaire herds, and the same jackasses who, without the slightest risk, now scream against racism are the same conformist personality types who would have carried torches in lynch mobs a century ago. ~ Jim Goad,
761:. . . there are two types of fighters, the former strike all over the place hoping one would land, the latter, assured of their prowess and capabilities, hit once and destroy the opponent's desire to continue the fight ~ Soke Behzad Ahmadi,
762:The wisest man would be the one richest in contradictions, who has, as it were, antennae for all types of men---as well as his great moments of grand harmony---a rare accident even in us! A sort of planetary motion--- ~ Friedrich Nietzsche,
763:Don't mistake your Masters kindness for a weak spirit. He has killed more men than you've probably ever known in your young life. There are different types of evil in this world , Cricket. Some,more openly displayed then others ~ M S Willis,
764:I'm always thinking about story, and the development of ideas or images, so with all types of media, I'm simply trying to communicate the feelings and ideas in the story or characters in the most appropriate and effective way. ~ Dave McKean,
765:The information that the Secret Service shared with the White House included hotel records and firsthand accounts - the same types of evidence the agency and military relied on to determine who in their ranks was involved. ~ Carol D Leonnig,
766:God, he even knew their names. Rhage. Phury. And that scary-ass Zsadist guy.
Yeah, no Tom, Dick, and Harry names for the vampire types.
But come on, could you actually imagine some lethal bloodsucker named Howard?
Eugene? ~ J R Ward,
767:I like showing different types of comedy - showing that I could tell a story, or showing that I could do a one-liner, showing I could do stuff about music - so just trying to be versatile and talking about different topics. ~ Hannibal Buress,
768:It's really kind of a luxury for an actor to have the opportunity to show such different types of characters. I actually left 'Cowboys & Aliens' and went straight into 'The Change-Up.' It was kind of a funny change of pace. ~ Olivia Wilde,
769:There are different types of art, and you just have to follow where things take you. It helps me with my desire to perform live. That's something that a lot of actors and actresses don't get to experience on a regular basis. ~ Natasha Leggero,
770:... there are two types of happiness and I have chosen that of the murderers. For I am happy. There was a time when I thought I had reached the limit of distress. Beyond that limit, there is a sterile and magnificent happiness. ~ Albert Camus,
771:Yes! “Books,” she answers. “What kind of books?” “Oh, you know. The usual. The classics. British literature, mainly.” British literature? The Brontës and Austen, I bet. All those romantic hearts-and-flowers types. That’s not good. ~ Anonymous,
772:Bosses should sanction the nap rather than expect workers to power on all day without repose. They might even find that workers' happiness - or what management types refer to as "employee satisfaction results" - might improve. ~ Tom Hodgkinson,
773:Grief helps you come to grips with the loss of a loved one. Guilt helps you make better moral decisions or bring you to apologise for a wrongdoing. In proper doses, these types of negative emotions are necessary and healthy. ~ Stephen Richards,
774:The factors that have been holding farmers back are similar to those that threaten other types of growth in Africa. Infrastructure and transport are in many cases quite poor, resulting in the losses of huge amounts of produce. ~ Richard Attias,
775:What the fuck, Dexter,” Deborah said accusingly, as if it were my fault the two blood types were different. “I’m sorry,” I said, not at all sure what I was apologizing for, but quite certain from her tone of voice that I should. ~ Jeff Lindsay,
776:I'm often surprised that, you know, you encounter all types of humanity. And very often, there are some very decent people who don't stereotype even when you might, in your own mind, have stereotyped them to think that they will. ~ Mohsin Hamid,
777:scruff of the neck and seat of the pants, and ran him out the door to the accompaniment of appropriate old-time remarks about seedy little army types who failed to acknowledge the natural superiority of their overlords, the Marines. ~ Glen Cook,
778:The bourgeoisie is very fond of so-called practical types and novels with happy endings, since they soothe it with the idea that one can both accumulate capital and preserve innocence, be a beast and at the same time be happy... ~ Anton Chekhov,
779:There are four types of environments; the one that can help destroy you, the one that can help improve you, the one that can destroy the improved you and the one that can improve the destroyed you. Watch out and be vigilant! ~ Israelmore Ayivor,
780:Who are the executives, and what are the stories that are being released? Not just in movie theaters but online. When you watch Master of None, you're like, yes, this is real life to me. These are refreshing types of stories. ~ Daniel Radcliffe,
781:Humor of all types is notoriously subjective. That's true not only between different people but even within an individual at different times. This subjectivity is often masked when your in a group because laughter is contagious. ~ Robert Mankoff,
782:It's very strange what happens when I start working for a film. In my life I've done a lot of stuff - I did a lot of dance music, a lot of TV shows and lots of different types of films - and every time it is a new experience. ~ Claudio Simonetti,
783:Musically, New York is a big influence on me. Walk down the street for five minutes and you'll hear homeless punk rockers, people playing Caribbean music and reggae, sacred Islamic music and Latino music, so many different types of music. ~ Moby,
784:Some types of environmental restoration projects are well-known; restored wetlands, for instance, or coal mine reclamation projects. Recently though, larger dam removal projects have started, a number of them in Washington state. ~ Matt Gonzalez,
785:There are four types of people who join the military. For some, it's a family trade. Others are patriots, eager to serve. Next, you have those who just need a job. Than there's the kind who want a legal means of killing other people. ~ Lee Child,
786:Viv used to say there were two types of person in life, past tense and present tense. Viv had seen herself as a present-tense person, which gave her an excuse never to discuss what she felt about a thing that had already happened. ~ Jonathan Lee,
787:Women are much more discriminating. I think both types of people are equally interested in having an attractive partner. But women essentially give the thumbs up to only half as many guys as guys giving the thumbs up to women. ~ Christian Rudder,
788:EQ is so critical to success that it accounts for 58 percent of performance in all types of jobs. It’s the single biggest predictor of performance in the workplace and the strongest driver of leadership and personal excellence. ~ Travis Bradberry,
789:The bourgeoisie loves so-called " positive " types and novels with happy endings since they lull one into thinking that it is fine to simultaneously acquire capital and maintain one's innocence , to be a beast and still be happy . ~ Anton Chekhov,
790:The buildup of negative auric vibrations initially impairs our ability to perceive psychically. They can eventually cause us to become ill. Most serious illnesses, including many types of cancer, are the result of auric toxicity. ~ Frederick Lenz,
791:There are two very different types of artists: those I call Old Masters, who work by trial and error and tend to improve with age, and conceptual people, or Young Geniuses, who generally do their best work early in their careers. ~ David Galenson,
792:There is a special department of Hell for students of probability. In this department there are many typewriters and many monkeys. Every time that a monkey walks on a typewriter, it types by chance one of Shakespeare's sonnets. ~ Bertrand Russell,
793:Unlike many other types of starship in the fleet, Constitution-class vessels had no ready rooms for their captains. Most days, Pike didn’t miss having a ready room—except for those occasions when he received a classified transmission ~ David Mack,
794:I like to play complex characters and the duality, and trying to reach for the light, it's more interesting really. I've gotten to play so many types of guys and I just try to find the humanity in each one of them the best I can. ~ Forest Whitaker,
795:What makes Jessica Jones series so unique is that it really is an allegory for many different types of abuse, whether it be sexual abuse, physical abuse, or psychological abuse. That's what makes this such an incredibly bold show. ~ Rachael Taylor,
796:When I was in Africa, this voice came to me and said, "Richard, what do you see?" I said, "I see all types of people." The voice said, "But do you see any niggers?" I said, "No." It said, "Do you know why? 'Cause there aren't any." ~ Richard Pryor,
797:When you ask the question, “Who are they?” you’ll find that there are three answers you can have. Because when it comes to the “they” in your life, you’ll find three different types of people: “For You,” “Use You,” and “With You” types. ~ Ed Young,
798:Being an entrepreneur is really exciting for me. Whether it's creating something or just building a company and giving others the opportunity to build a career, I think it's exciting to be at the helm of these types of activities. ~ Anousheh Ansari,
799:In fact, type itself derives from object, and object derives from type, even though the two are different objects — a circular relationship that caps the object model and stems from the fact that types are classes that generate classes: ~ Mark Lutz,
800:Just for you non-sea-god types out there, don't go swimming in New York Harbor. It may not be as filthy as it was in my mom's day, but that water will still probably make you grow a third eye or have mutant children when you grow up. ~ Rick Riordan,
801:Just for you non-sea-god types out there, don’t go swimming in New York Harbor. It may not be as filthy as it was in my mom’s day, but that water will still probably make you grow a third eye or have mutant children when you grow up. ~ Rick Riordan,
802:she also tended to see strangers not as individuals but as representatives of types. It was as though people did not walk around in the world as themselves, but as examples of kinds of people, the majority of whom they had never met. ~ David Rhodes,
803:There are two types of people, two types of performers: Performers who know how to keep a show going literally when the power is gone and performers who haven't had that much experience and will panic and freak out and don't know what to do. ~ El P,
804:The sad truth is that certain types of things can't go backward. Once they start going forward, no matter what you do, they can't go back the way they were. If even one little thing goes awry, then that's how it will stay forever. ~ Haruki Murakami,
805:The subjective element in geological studies accounts for two characteristic types that can be distinguished among geologists. One considering geology as a creative art, the other regarding geology as an exact science. ~ Reinout Willem van Bemmelen,
806:This is an exciting time for farmers and ranchers of all types and sizes as agriculture is a bright spot in the American economy. In 2011, agricultural exports hit a record high and producers saw their best incomes in nearly 40 years. ~ Tom Vilsack,
807:Where the environment is too soft and luxurious and no strife is required for survival, not only are weak strains and individuals allowed to survive and encouraged to breed but the strong types also grow fat mentally and physically. ~ Madison Grant,
808:A stupid person can make only certain, limited types of errors; the mistakes open to a clever fellow are far broader. But to the one who knows how smart he is compared to everyone else, the possibilities for true idiocy are boundless. ~ Steven Brust,
809:...most entrepreneurial types are free-wheelers who like to do a variety of things and do not enjoy routine tasks. But a smart entrepreneur will eventually learn that while ideas start businesses, organization makes them successful. ~ Larry Burkett,
810:There's always a tricky issue when you get into stolen material or pornography. The laws for online publishing the same as for print-based publishing, where if you're hosting certain types of things and somebody notifies you about that. ~ Bill Gates,
811:To really know life you've got to be part of life. You must get down and look, you must get into the nooks and crannies of existence. You have to rub elbows with all kinds and types of men before you can finally establish what he is. ~ L Ron Hubbard,
812:Different types of sex work are differently supportive. If I were working in a strip club, I would be competing with my colleagues, and while there would be support, there would be financial motivation not to offer too much support. ~ Molly Crabapple,
813:Follow your curiosity and serve yourself a unique blend of books that no one else is reading. Read for variety. The more different types of voices you read, the more your brain will get the message that it’s okay to be who you are. ~ Phoebe Kitanidis,
814:It's very hard to describe to people sometimes the way I grew up, because it wasn't like my parents were irresponsible. They weren't necessarily reckless, but they were bringing all types of energy into the house, all kinds of people. ~ Courtney Love,
815:like abstract mathematics. Scientists have studied “brain plasticity,” the ability of the brain to reorganize neural pathways based on new experiences. It appears that different types of plasticity are dominant at different ages. ~ John Elder Robison,
816:In my experience, there were two kinds of men. One type—no matter how plain or how poor he might be—is always willing to at least try his luck with an attractive girl. The other type looks upon all of those first types with envy. ~ Therese Anne Fowler,
817:In the ideal world we would just say that Haskell types are sets and Haskell functions are mathematical functions between sets. There is just one little problem: A mathematical function does not execute any code — it just knows the answer. ~ Anonymous,
818:Luther glanced at the framed prints on the nightstand and wryly observed the twenty-something “little woman” next to the seventy-something husband. There were many types of lotteries in the world and not all of them state-run. Several ~ David Baldacci,
819:Modern society includes three types of men who can never think very highly of the world--the priest, the physician, and the attorney-at-law. They all wear black, too, for are they not in mourning for every virtue and every illusion? ~ Honore de Balzac,
820:Similarly, there are two types of men. There is the magnetized man who is full of confidence and faith. He knows that he is born to win and to succeed. Then, there is the type of man who is demagnetized. He is full of fears and doubts. ~ Joseph Murphy,
821:Funny, she had always thought that thin, bespectacled, intellectual types like Brian attracted her. Lora had to smile at her own naivete. Who would have guessed that she, Lora Harding, would buckle at the knees over a hunk of male beef? ~ Karen Robards,
822:If you boys are psychologist types and you’ve been listening to my endless debriefings with Hank, what the hell is Donna’s handle? How do I get next to her? I mean, how is it done? With that kind of sweet, unique, stubborn little chick? ~ Philip K Dick,
823:There are only two types of content of any value online: conversation, and the things about which the conversation takes place. Stop making Electric Age media - start doing Digital Age stuff. Stop making records, start having conversations. ~ Anonymous,
824:You could call it that [urban Western], I guess, you could certainly call it that. A lot of these types of films are, really, if you get down to the core most suspense thrillers in this genre, the Western is sort of the birth of it all. ~ Antoine Fuqua,
825:A list of the thirteen types of photograph (plus an afterthought): Aide-memoire Reportage Work of art Topography Erotica/Pornography Advertisement Abstract image Literature Text Autobiography Compositional Functional illustration Snapshot ~ William Boyd,
826:La langue anglais fait la distinction entre deux types de nudité: alors que "nude" implique le recul, le regard qui cadre et met à distance, "naked" fait sentir toute la vulnérabilité d'un corps dévêtu, exposé, intime ou intimidé. (p.170) ~ Nancy Huston,
827:On average the total walking of an American these days--that's walking of all types: from car to office, from office to car, around the supermarket and shopping malls--adds up to 1.4 miles a week, barely 350 yards a day. That's ridiculous. ~ Bill Bryson,
828:We all use cash in our everyday life, but we don't use hundred-dollar bills. We're not using 500-euro notes. And yet these account for mountains of cash out there. I think they're being used in tax evasion and by criminals of all types. ~ Kenneth Rogoff,
829:Avant-garde theatre, with its distrust of the individual (that bourgeois invention), tends to go beyond [character] and the psychological approach in search of a syntax of types and characters which are "deconstructed and post-individual. ~ Patrice Pavis,
830:I am drawn to writing books about magic and the supernatural because those are the types of books I like to read. I've written many short stories with realistic settings, and I certainly wouldn't rule out realistic novels in the future! ~ Cassandra Clare,
831:In my experience, there were two types of guys. One type asked you every five minutes what was on your mind and then got pissy when you didn’t feel like sharing. The other type never asked and you got pissy when they didn’t seem to care. ~ Kristen Ashley,
832:The biggest challenge of being a pastry chef is that, unlike other types of chefs, you can't throw things together at a farmer's market. When you're working with baking powder and a formula, you have to be exact. If not, things can go wrong. ~ Carla Hall,
833:As you build up a complex situation step by step, it appears that thresholds of complexity can be reached that herald the appearance of new structures and new types of behaviour which were not present in the building blocks of that complexity. ~ Anonymous,
834:Awesome. What types of books do you review?” I hated this part of telling people from work about my blog. I never knew if the attorneys would raise their noses in the air and judge my taste in “literature.” Here goes nothing. “Chick lit, ~ Meredith Schorr,
835:I think it's a tribute to the artistic importance of hip-hop culture and what hip-hop has brought into music and fashion and jewelry that it is being adapted or imitated or is inspiring variations or new types of art or new types of music. ~ Simon de Pury,
836:Knock knock. There’s no stopping the smile that comes to my face as I write back. Who’s there? Amos. I glance up at Marek, who is now back at the squat rack getting ready to spot Holt. Amos who? A mosquito, she types back, followed by the ~ Sawyer Bennett,
837:There are two types of people: One strives to control his environment, the other strives not to let his environment control him. I like to control my environment, because I feel if I have my physical space in order, then I'm free to dream. ~ George Carlin,
838:All over the world great writers were dying young: Italo Calvino, Raymond Carver, and now here was Angela wrestling with the Reaper. A fatwa was not the only way to die. There were older types of death sentence that still worked very well. ~ Salman Rushdie,
839:Did you know that there is growing scientific consensus that one of the most common types of sugar, fructose, can be toxic to the liver, just like alcohol? And unfortunately, this is the same type of sugar that you find in most sports drinks. ~ Lee Labrada,
840:I suspect you of being one of those dangerous types who innocently give good body language to everyone. The type of girl who should have someone walking 10 paces in front of her with a red flashing light and a clanging bell. Just my type. ~ Neal Stephenson,
841:It had been another night of restlessness for him and, as is often the case with certain types of men, he’d decided that being angry in general was the best way to deal with whatever was going on in his heart that he didn’t understand. “What’s ~ Jason Mott,
842:Set aside the many competing explanations of the big bang; something made an entire cosmos out of nothing. It is this realization - that something transcendent started it all - which has hard-science types... using terms like "miracle." ~ Gregg Easterbrook,
843:That was the damnedest thing about these demonic collaborator types. Even though they didn't work out and practice, they still got to run faster than we dedicated roadsters who actually sweated and strained for our ability to haul ass. Jerks. ~ Jim Butcher,
844:The very foundation of private property and free contracting wears away in a nation in which its most vital, most concrete, most meaningful types of private property and free contracting disappear from the moral horizon of the people. ~ Joseph A Schumpeter,
845:What people want to read often seems incongruous. A pair of biker-types taking away Thoughts of the Dalai Lama. People without access to instruments requesting sheet music. Aspiring poets sharing their work and then borrowing horror stories. ~ Alan Bennett,
846:Each year, every city in the world that can should have a multiday festival. More people meeting each other, digging new types of music, new foods, new ideas. You want to stop having so many wars? This could be a step in the right direction. ~ Henry Rollins,
847:He slipped into the hall, then nearly tripped over a man sitting in the middle. It was his friend Dr. Roget, whose project of grouping words by their types absorbed his every hour these days. Anthony tried to sneak past, but no such luck. ~ Sabrina Jeffries,
848:My joke is a picture of David Bowie on his balcony in the '70s in a suit in Paris, and unless that's you, I'm not interested. There are very few aesthetic types that I have, and people who look like that are not always necessarily good for me. ~ Jen Kirkman,
849:There are different categories of madmen, and different types of asylums! I know absolutely nothing about the asylums that house the madman who thinks he is a space man. Would you believe that 90% of madmen are treated in outside clinics? ~ Stephen Richards,
850:The world is not divided into two types of being, one superior and the other merely surrounding it. Being, nature, the universe - they are all one infinitely complex and mysterious metaorganism of which we are but a part, though a unique one. ~ Vaclav Havel,
851:By developing individual strengths, guarding against weaknesses, and appreciating the strengths of other types, life will be more amusing, more interesting, and more of a daily adventure than it could possibly be if everyone were alike. ~ Isabel Briggs Myers,
852:I think it's pretty obvious to most people that Napster is not media specific, but I could see a system like Napster evolving into something that allows users to locate and retrieve different types of data other than just MP3s or audio files. ~ Shawn Fanning,
853:What I've been surprised by is not how different people are, but how similar they are. There are certain types of Airbnb people, and they are in every city in the world - it's just that in some cultures, there is more of a generational divide. ~ Brian Chesky,
854:In the meantime, most noble Sir, you have assigned this question to the geometry of position, but I am ignorant as to what this new discipline involves, and as to which types of problem Leibniz and Wolff expected to see expressed in this way. ~ Leonhard Euler,
855:When I look at music, everything is blurred, and I like it that way. I grew up like that, hanging out with different types of people who listened to so many different types of music. I never wanted to be part of any one clique. I loved it all. ~ Travis Barker,
856:are two types of the mentally deficient in this world. The first type mistake their lack of understanding for bold perception. This type of deficiency is often found in urologists and presidential candidates and is as dangerous as the plague. ~ William Lashner,
857:As a kid I understood that people were different colors, but in my head white and black and brown were like types of chocolate. Dad was the white chocolate, mom was the dark chocolate, and I was the milk chocolate. But we were all just chocolate. ~ Trevor Noah,
858:If there is nothing new on the earth, still the traveler always has a resource in the skies. They are constantly turning a new page to view. The wind sets the types on this blue ground, and the inquiring may always read a new truth there. ~ Henry David Thoreau,
859:I’m somebody who, as a child, had a lot of insecurity about stable housing, where I was going to be living, if I was going to have a roof over my head, all those types of things. And I know the impact it can have on you psychologically and emotionally. ~ Jewel,
860:Lord Kṛṣṇa declares in Bhagavad-gītā, sarva-yoniṣu … ahaṁ bīja-pradaḥ pitā: “I am the father of all.” Of course there are all types of living entities according to their various karmas, but here the Lord claims that He is the father of all of them. ~ Anonymous,
861:Observing certain types of behavior which they believed to be characteristic of the human species, instinct theorists decided that the causes of such behavior are innate, unchosen, and unlearned tendencies which drive man to act as he does. ~ Nathaniel Branden,
862:Some of these types, like the Persians and Ottoman Turks, are largely white; others, like the southern Indians and Yemenite Arabs, are largely black; while still others, like the Himalayan and Central Asian peoples, have much yellow blood. ~ T Lothrop Stoddard,
863:The chopping block was not confined to one era, nor one form or country. There were many types of martyrdoms, spiritual as well as physical ones; visible and invisible, the block took on many forms and could be encountered anywhere, any time. ~ E A Bucchianeri,
864:There are two types of films - one made by the big-time producers, the other is low budget stuff made by some producers who make films for the heck of it, they complete their films for small amounts, sell it at low costs with almost no publicity. ~ Ajay Devgan,
865:2.4) On Absence of Pure Types"I've met men who were extremely feminine..&..who asserted most their masculine rights..(&) women wanting to take part in feminism...tried to look as masculine as they could. But they were deplorably feminine.." ~ The Mother,
866:I still am of the opinion that the establishment types and the left, they still don't know what they're dealing with here. They're still trying their time-honored blueprint for destroying political figures they don't like, primarily Republicans. ~ Rush Limbaugh,
867:I think there are three types of actors. There are the ones that do the ego thing, which is "I'm never going to look bad in a movie, ever." This is mostly the action film dudes, like, "Nah, hell no. He ain't punchin' me! I'd whoop his ass!" ~ Michelle Rodriguez,
868:Librarians, to Melanie, were somewhat on a par with God—who else could be bothered with, and better yet, know the answers to so many different types of questions? Knowledge was power, but a good librarian did not hoard the gift. She taught others ~ Jodi Picoult,
869:People are interested in pro football because it provides them with an emotional oasis; they don't want football to get involved in the same types of court cases, racial problems and legislative issues they encounter in the rest of American life. ~ Pete Rozelle,
870:There are three types of people in this world. The first type learns by making mistakes; the second type keeps making mistakes but never learns; and finally, the third is the most intelligent type – they learn from the mistakes of others. ~ Radhakrishnan Pillai,
871:As part of the process, there are a lot of different ways to evaluate players. There are a number of different companies and things out there that do different things; that have different ways of evaluating and those types of tests and so forth. ~ Bill Belichick,
872:I believe the future will reflect different body types, ethnicities, cultures and sexual orientations. I've been working with a lot of young artists who really project an androgynous and inclusive approach to the world. I'm very inspired by that. ~ Nelly Furtado,
873:The most interesting biofuel efforts avoid using land that's expensive and has high opportunity costs. They do this by getting onto other types of land, or taking advantage of byproducts that aren't used in the food chain today, or by intercropping. ~ Bill Gates,
874:Bloggers aren’t interested in building up consistent, loyal readerships via RSS or paid subscriptions, because what they really need are the types of stories that will do hundreds of thousands or millions of pageviews. They need stories that will sell. ~ Anonymous,
875:To stay vigorous, a company needs to provide a stimulating and challenging environment for all these types: the dreamer, the entrepreneur, the professional manager, and the leader. If it doesn't, it risks becoming yet another mediocre corporation. ~ Howard Schultz,
876:A lot of my friends are gangsters. Not like gangsters - well, yeah, all sorts of levels of criminality - but not the types that are preying on innocent people. I have no interest in the type of criminality that has no respect for collateral damage. ~ Charlie Hunnam,
877:from the head honcho to the person who scraped shit from the toilets. He always saw the individual person rather than the job. There were only two types of people that mattered for Tom. Good guys and wanks. That was the only measure he took of anyone. ~ Mark Wilson,
878:Je suis seul au milieu de ces voix joyeuses et raisonnables. Tous ces types passent leur temps à s’expliquer, à reconnaître avec bonheur qu’ils sont du même avis. Quelle importance ils attachent, mon Dieu, à penser tous ensemble les mêmes choses. ~ Jean Paul Sartre,
879:When you've been around as long as me, Lucy, you'll know that there are three types of sex... One - brand-new, kitchen-table sex. Two - bedroom sex. Then number three - hallway sex, when you pass each other in the hallway and say 'Fuck you.'" - Lockie ~ Kathy Lette,
880:As soon as we notice that certain types of events 'like' to cluster together at certain times, we begin to understand the Chinese, whose theories of medicine, philosophy, and even building are based on a 'science' of meaningful coincidences. ~ Marie Louise von Franz,
881:In the match questions, the site’s gay users show the same rates of drug use, racial prejudice, and horniness as the straights, and gays want the same types of relationships. In fact, for sexual attitudes, if any group is an outlier, it’s straight women. ~ Anonymous,
882:I think it's terribly important to reach out and understand all the different types of life and the different types of challenges that are present around the world. And I think the more people who can do that the better our planet will probably be. ~ Stuart Franklin,
883:United States, your banner wears Two emblems--one of fame; Alas! the other that it bears Reminds us of your shame. Your banner's constellation types White freedom with its stars, But what's the meaning of the stripes? They mean your negroes' scars. ~ Thomas Campbell,
884:Development consists of the removal of various types of unfreedoms that leave people with little choice and little opportunity of exercising their reasoned agency. The removal of substantial unfreedoms, it is argued here, is constitutive of development. ~ Amartya Sen,
885:[From uranium] there are present at least two distinct types of radiation one that is very readily absorbed, which will be termed for convenience the α radiation, and the other of a more penetrative character, which will be termed the β radiation. ~ Ernest Rutherford,
886:I intend more of a kinship with silent films than more modern film. I like the old cinema. My films are more of a hybrid - a different style of filmmaking to what I call talking head movies. Some people don't get it. Especially the more academic types. ~ George Lucas,
887:it is quite impossible for us men clothed about with this dense covering of flesh to understand or speak of the divine and lofty and immaterial energies of the Godhead, except by the use of images and types and symbols derived from our own life(7). ~ John of Damascus,
888:One key point is that different people may benefit from different types of meditation, as well as other interventions. This question of optimal matching between the form of practice and the type of person has not received much scientific attention. ~ Richard Davidson,
889:The closer you get to real matter, rock air fire and wood, boy, the more spiritual life is. All these people thinking they're hardheaded materialistic practical types, they don't know shit about matter, their heads are full of dreamy ideas and notions. ~ Jack Kerouac,
890:there are several distinct types of networks of exchange, each with its own typical range and characteristics. The main types that they identify are bulk-goods networks, prestige-goods networks, political/military networks, and information networks. ~ David Christian,
891:there were two types of people in this world: those who belong to the soil and the good, rich earth, planting their seeds to blossom, and those who belong to the road and the endless horizons, carrying their home on their shoulders wherever they go. ~ Marieke Nijkamp,
892:There were two types of survivors in life: those, like her, who found the requisite strength in having once been loved with great intensity; and those who, having not been loved, learned to thrive on hatred, suspicion, and the meager rewards of revenge. ~ Dean Koontz,
893:You’ll run into girls who respond to “Guess” with something like, “I don’t want to play games and guess.” This translates to, “I want you to answer in a way I desire.” Not only do these types of girls want their needs met first, but in the way they dictate. ~ Roosh V,
894:Bravery is the ability to endure, even unto death, all types of terrible, terrifying and painful situations and we live in a time when people do all that they can to avoid hardship and pain, never realizing that strength and courage is found in both. ~ Donna Lynn Hope,
895:In my experience, the ex-military guys came in two types. The first grew long hair, sprouted beards, and indulged in all the things they hadn't been able do while they'd been in the armed forces. The second did their best to pretend they never got out. ~ Ilona Andrews,
896:I am a lot of different things to a lot of different people. Aren't we all? I teach meditation to many different types of people, you mentioned celebrities. I also teach meditation to many people who are not famous, but are, in my eyes, very important. ~ Frederick Lenz,
897:I still don't think it's sunk in that I won the Heisman. I'll be able to reflect back on the season, appreciate those types of things and realize that although I wanted to 'be like Mike' when I was growing up, now I get to go out and be in the NFL. ~ Robert Griffin III,
898:I think certain types of processes don’t allow for any variation. If you have to be part of that process, all you can do is transform—or perhaps distort—yourself through that persistent repetition, and make that process a part of your own personality. ~ Haruki Murakami,
899:It's time that we finally admitted that we can see the love that's everywhere, filial and romantic and platonic and shared by all different types of people, in all different combinations. This is the future. All we have to do is open our eyes, and see. ~ Seanan McGuire,
900:Someday, their story would be a chapter in one of those sleazy, mass-market, true-crime paperbacks that were shelved in the cobwebbed corners of used bookstores—the types of paperbacks that boasted about the number of crime-scene photographs inside. ~ Stephanie Perkins,
901:So, what is my prescription for good health? In short, it is about the multiple health benefits of consuming plant-based foods, and the largely unappreciated health dangers of consuming animal-based foods, including all types of meat, dairy and eggs. ~ T Colin Campbell,
902:The closer you get to real matter, rock air fire and wood, boy, the more spiritual the world is. All these people thinking they're hardheaded materialistic practical types, they don't know shit about matter, their heads are full of dreamy ideas and notions. ~ Anonymous,
903:The movement that appears to be put together and led by Trump actually existed before Trump came along. The people fed up with the Republican Party, the Tea Party types, the people fed up with the Republican Washington establishment, Democrats included. ~ Rush Limbaugh,
904:There are two types of seeds in the mind: those that create anger, fear, frustration, jealousy, hatred and those that create love, compassion, equanimity and joy. Spirituality is germination and sprouting of the second group and transforming the first group. ~ Amit Ray,
905:The studios are never going to make $200 million a picture with those types of movies. It's not familiar to them, and it's not a model that can necessarily be sustained. Now, if they go back to making movies about people ... well, I hope they do that. ~ Vilmos Zsigmond,
906:It doesn't upset me when people are annoyed or bothered by what may seem to them as a redundancy of topics about blacks and Latinos. As a reporter I welcome those types of conversations and dialogues. Even when it's uncomfortable, it's still necessary. ~ Soledad O Brien,
907:Kahneman believes that two types of thinking exist. The first kind is intuitive, automatic and direct. The second is conscious, rational, slow, laborious and logical. Unfortunately, intuitive thinking draws conclusions long before the conscious mind does. ~ Rolf Dobelli,
908:genes and fetal environment are relevant. But most important, recall the logic of collapsing different types of trauma into a single category. What counts is the sheer number of times a child is bludgeoned by life and the number of protective factors. ~ Robert M Sapolsky,
909:I think certain types of processes don't allow for any variation. If you have to be part of that process all you can do is transform - or perhaps distort - yourself through that persistent repetition and make that process a part of your own personality. ~ Haruki Murakami,
910:There are certain types of slightly hysterical human characters who, rather than creating, walk around with a sense of their own potential - it's as if they themselves were art objects. They feel as if their lives are written narratives, or pieces of music. ~ Rachel Cusk,
911:The superior types, he points out, are also sinners. Of course, they are nice church members. They don’t let all their dirty laundry hang out. No, their sins are vegetarian sins. Compared with the really nasty people, they appear good in their own eyes. ~ George R Knight,
912:I think there are two types of photographers, those who want to document the world and those who want to create their own world. I am more interested in documenting the world and presenting it to people with the question attached, 'Does this make any sense to you?' ~ Moby,
913:I went through various phases of different accents - I get ridiculously obsessed with different accents, different regional ways of using the voice, different types of singing. It's all tied together. Speaking is a kind of singing, as are crying and laughing. ~ Jenny Hval,
914:People who have certain types of mental illness have different wiring in their brain. And part of that having a different kind of wiring so to speak could in some sense be related to having a different way of thinking which could produce genius type thoughts. ~ H A Berlin,
915:Understanding men or ideas or movements, or the outlooks of individuals or groups, is not reducible to a sociological classification into types of behaviour with predictions based on scientific experiment and carefully tabulated statistics of observations. ~ Isaiah Berlin,
916:If you have 50 different plug types, appliances wouldn't be available and would be very expensive. But once an electric outlet becomes standardized, many companies can design appliances, and competition ensues, creating variety and better prices for consumers. ~ Bill Gates,
917:I'm just different. There are a handful of different types of genre of music that I would love to just jump into and people don't realize that I'm really good at those things. They just know me as Tony Sunshine, the guy that sang the hooks for Terror Squad. ~ Tony Sunshine,
918:I read at least one periodical every month by a political group I dislike - to keep some sense of balance. The overwhelming stupidity of political movements is caused by the fact that political types never read anything but their own gang's agit-prop. ~ Robert Anton Wilson,
919:It isn't about the looks; gorgeous women get dumped every day. It isn't about intelligence. Women of all types, from brilliant women to women with the IQ equivalent of plant life, pull it off every day. It's about mystery and learning how to create intrigue. ~ Sherry Argov,
920:While I was in prison, I was indulging in all types of vice, right within the prison. And I never was ostracized as much by the penal authorities while I was participating in all of the evils of the prison, as they tried to ostracize me after I became a Muslim. ~ Malcolm X,
921:Works that have a certain imperfection to them have an appeal for that very reason - or at least they appeal to certain types of people... You discover something about that work that tugs at your heart - or maybe we should say that the work discovers you. ~ Haruki Murakami,
922:I think certain types of processes don't allow for any variation. If you have to be part of the process, all you can do is transform -- or perhaps distort -- yourself through that persistent repetition, and make that process a part of your own personality. ~ Haruki Murakami,
923:I've always worked on all different types of music, some with specific project goals and deadlines and some not. Sometimes I would write a piece of music that is almost like a film score or weird electro pieces, wherever the muse took me, and I still do that. ~ Serj Tankian,
924:I've tried many different types of alarm apps, but the tried and true is the iPhone alarm. I like it because you can label your alarms. For my personal amusement, I've labeled them 3 a.m. for 'ridiculously early,' 3:30 is just 'early,' and 4 is 'slacker.' ~ Savannah Guthrie,
925:I was always considered the athletic one, and that translated into big. I was the big one. Thankfully, so many more body types are accepted these days. What I've been trying to do, and I'm seeing more now with my girlfriends, too, is celebrate other people. ~ Brooke Shields,
926:Maybe you just can't protect people from certain specialized types of folly with any sane amount of regulation, and the correct response is to give up on the high social costs of inadequately protecting people from themselves under certain circumstances. ~ Eliezer Yudkowsky,
927:Nobody seems more obsessed by diet than our antimaterialist, otherworldly, New Age, spiritual types. But if the material world is merely illusion, an honest guru should as content with Budweiser and bratwurst as with raw carrot juice, tofu, and seaweed slime. ~ Edward Abbey,
928:One can be deceived by three types of laziness: of indolence, which is the wish to procrastinate; the laziness of inferiority, which is doubting your capabilities; and the laziness that is attachment to negative actions, or putting great effort into non-virtue. ~ Dalai Lama,
929:The obvious types of American fascists are dealt with on the air and in the press. These demagogues and stooges are fronts for others. Dangerous as these people may be, they are not so significant as thousands of other people who have never been mentioned. ~ Henry A Wallace,
930:This is not to deny that there are versions of theism that do conflict with evolutionary biology. Young Earth Creationism is an example; it claims that God created life on earth within the past 10,000 to 50,000 years. But other types of theism are different. ~ Elliott Sober,
931:I like the bad-boy types. Generally the guy I'm attracted to is the guy in the club with all the tattoos and nail polish. He's usually the lead singer in a punk band and plays guitar. But my serious boyfriends are relatively clean-cut, nice guys. So it's strange. ~ Megan Fox,
932:I love dark humor. I love things that are so grounded in life, but just happen to be just a little bit twisted because my sense of humor is a little bit twisted. I love jokes that shouldn't be funny, but are. Those types of things just really make me laugh. ~ Rockmond Dunbar,
933:The assertion that Americans love violence and bathe in it daily is a self-serving lie promulgated by fundamentalist religious types and America's propaganda-savvy gun-pimps. It's believed by people who don't read novels, play video games, or go to many movies ~ Stephen King,
934:Which Rewards Should You Offer? Fundamentally, variable reward systems must satisfy users’ needs, while leaving them wanting to re-engage. The most habit-forming products and services utilize one or more of the three variable rewards types of tribe, hunt and self. ~ Nir Eyal,
935:For the protection of state and welfare of the people, a ruler shold collect all types of wealth. By suing devices of sama, dama , danda, bheda , he shold increase income of the state, strong administration helps in collecting different type of taxes fro exchequer. ~ Chanakya,
936:I see battlefields that are under 24-hour real or near-real time surveillance of all types. I see battlefields on which we can destroy anything we can locate through instant communications and almost instantaneous application of highly lethal firepower. ~ William Westmoreland,
937:I was so anxious about what kind of kiss it would be-because my friends back home described so many types-and it turned out to be the beautiful kind. You didn't shove your tongue down my throat. You didn't grab my butt. We just held our lips together...and kissed. ~ Jay Asher,
938:Middle-class and more affluent blacks are also disproportionately the targets of subprime mortgage loans, paying much higher rates of interest than comparable white borrowers, and are subjected, according to the available evidence, to racial profiling of all types. ~ Tim Wise,
939:1. Trigger A trigger is the actuator of behavior — the spark plug in the engine. Triggers come in two types: external and internal.[viii] Habit-forming products start by alerting users with external triggers like an email, a website link, or the app icon on a phone. ~ Nir Eyal,
940:Actually, there are people from all ove - not just Latin America, certainly not just Cuba, but all over Europe, all over the United States. I like that. I like knowing a lot of different types of people. And I can afford to live in a relatively safe part of Miami. ~ Dave Barry,
941:Certain types of decisions can be safely ignored. Some issues will go away with the passage of time, others will be so slow developing that the decision-makers will depart before the results of their neglect becomes manifest. Which brings us to the environment. ~ Jack McDevitt,
942:It was Roland who taught us that there are two types of prayer. One, he said, is the dozing pussycat prayer, purring by the warm fire of God’s presence. The other is the yappy dog prayer, scratching at the door of heaven, imploring God’s help in our lives. ~ John Philip Newell,
943:I would love to hear all types of Christian artists played all over the world. I'd love to hear good, positive mainstream music played all over the place. I'd love to be able to bring music together. But I have not deserted Christ. I have not deserted my faith. ~ Stacie Orrico,
944:Americans of all ages, all stations of life, and all types of disposition are forever forming associations. In democratic countries knowledge of how to combine is the mother of all other forms of knowledge; on its progress depends that of all the others. ~ Alexis de Tocqueville,
945:character-driven idea fascinated Barrios. It suggested that genius is much more than high intelligence, innate talent, extraordinary work ethic, or uncanny luck, but rather a composite manifestation; a synthesis of very specific types of worldviews and behaviors. ~ Sean Patrick,
946:Even though it's still, annoyingly, something everybody feels the need to bring up to anybody who doesn't look like a model, there are more women now who are super successful and have different body types. You know, like men do. That feels like progress to me. ~ Melanie Lynskey,
947:One of the reasons I like to hang out with scholarly types is they can do a broad reach conceptualization of things that is astonishing to me. I'm really good at the particulars but I have to do an immense amount of critical thinking to make something larger of it. ~ Lucy Corin,
948:There are a lot of people who are successful and have a lot of money, but you can almost see their limitations because they have these walls around them. Harmony Korine exceeds those walls, and those are the types of people who go on to exceed people's expectations. ~ Riff Raff,
949:There are three types of people in this world: those who make things happen, those who watch things happen and those who wonder what happened. We all have a choice. You can decide which type of person you want to be. I have always chosen to be in the first group. ~ Mary Kay Ash,
950:There are two types of people, you see. One type keep their heads straight, and look around as they walk. The others look up - at the tops of houses, at the eaves and the lintels and the roofs, which can tell you when they were built - and I've always done that. ~ Peter Ackroyd,
951:Tolkien was such a brilliant writer in so many ways. He was truly an inspiration. Many people don't realize just how much he researched and how much he based his stories and characters on mythology of various types. He was very deep and in many ways a genius. ~ Raymond Buckland,
952:I also decided I want to have a meaningful relationship. But only with one person. And then stay with that person for a long time. Like, uh, monography."
Stephen types a few keys in a quick rhythm. "It's shame your epiphany wasn't accompanied by a thesaurus. ~ Valerie Z Lewis,
953:I saw that six-figure women have two specific types of support that underearners seemed to lack—True Believers, people who recognize their potential and offer encouragement, and Way Showers, people who provide the map and serve as proof that success is possible. ~ Barbara Stanny,
954:Reacher knocked on the door, and the voices fell silent. He opened the door, and saw a break room, very municipal, full of inoffensive colors and low chairs with fabric upholstery. In the chairs were five people, two men, three women, different ages, different types. ~ Lee Child,
955:The people of the various provinces are strictly forbidden to have in their possession any swords, bows, spears, firearms or other types of arms. The possession of these elements makes difficult the collection of taxes and dues, and tends to permit uprising. ~ Toyotomi Hideyoshi,
956:There are but two types of men who desire war: those who haven’t the slightest intention of fighting it themselves, and those who haven’t the slightest idea what it is. … Any man who has seen the face of death knows better than to seek him out a second time. ~ Seth Grahame Smith,
957:Humans are gloriously flawed, and some types of love are never truly unconditional. A lot of my mistake was expecting our love to stay perfect, because a lot of the time, it was. It’s wanting our love even after we’ve seen the imperfections that makes or breaks us. ~ Kate Stewart,
958:Il n'y a que deux sortes d'hommes: les uns justes, qui se croient pe cheurs; les autres pe cheurs, qui se croient justes. There are only two types of people: the virtuous who believe themselves to be sinners and the sinners who believe themselves to be virtuous. ~ Blaise Pascal,
959:“The collective attitude hinders the recognition and evaluation of a psychology different from the subject's, because the mind that is collectively oriented is quite incapable of thinking and feeling in any other way than by projection." ~#CGJung, Psychological Types, CW6, par 12,
960:To mitigate these types of problems, we strive to reduce the number of handoffs, either by automating significant portions of the work or be reorganizing teams so they can deliver value to the customer themselves, instead of having to be constantly dependent on others. ~ Gene Kim,
961:Is she all right?”
“She seems to be, just washed off the blood and wrapped a bandage around her hand, but with Risa it’s always hard to tell. You know these law enforcement types. Can’t show any pain unless you’re actually dead, and then, well, what’s the point? ~ Moira J Moore,
962:Kay himself has conceded that technological wizards generally fall into two categories: the Michelangelo types who dream of Sistine Chapels and then actually spend years building them, and the da Vincis, who have a million ideas but seldom finish anything themselves. ~ Steven Levy,
963:She always told us there were two types of women. Those who are lit from the outside and those who are lit from within. The first needs the shimmer of a diamond to maker her sparkle, but for the other, her beauty is illuminated through the sheer light of her soul. ~ Alyson Richman,
964:There are just so many different types of people that come into my studio, and secondarily, there's the idea of ideation, like, "Who are you and what do you see in yourself in this other person?" So many different people that you would see so many different things. ~ Kehinde Wiley,
965:Your Life’s Task does not always appear to you through some grand or promising inclination. […] Do not envy those who seem to be naturally gifted; it is often a curse, as such types rarely learn the value of diligence and focus, and they pay for this later in life. ~ Robert Greene,
966:And I want to thank all the women that support me. I have wonderful support systems from women of all types who seem dedicated to the notion that Terence McKenna can always be improved. I'm extremely grateful for that. The frontiers are enormous in that dimension. ~ Terence McKenna,
967:Anxiety afflicts intellectual types in w/ overdevelopment of rationality such that intellectual development has become out of balance with needs of the larger psyche. One feels, in this condition, that one must conquer everything by thinking, reading, learning, analyzing. ~ LeGrice,
968:Martin Scorsese is doing a 3D movie (Hugo Cabret). A lot of amazing filmmakers are. Not just the obvious of Jim Cameron, but Spielberg is doing it and Peter Jackson has worked in it. In the hands of those types of people, it will just keep getting better and better. ~ Rob Letterman,
969:she is one of those great observer types. You’ve no doubt met some, though you might not know it. These people see everything, and they record everything, and they have insight into the motives of people they’ve never spoken a word to. That is Roan’s secret power. ~ Steve Brezenoff,
970:Children with multiple ACEs are more likely to struggle with anxiety and depression, to suffer from heart disease and obesity, and to contract certain types of cancers. They’re also more likely to underperform in school and suffer from relationship instability as adults. ~ J D Vance,
971:The Internet has long been heralded as an unprecedented instrument of democratization and liberalization, even emancipation. But in the eyes of the US government, this global network and other types of communications technology threaten to undermine American power. ~ Glenn Greenwald,
972:The reason we are doing these types of pat downs and using the advanced imagery technology is trying to take the latest intelligence and how we know al Qaeda and affiliates want to hurt us, they want to bring down whether it is passenger air craft or cargo aircraft. ~ John S Pistole,
973:We were to equally strong types [with my husband], equally pigheaded - neither of us wanted to give in. And...I like to think those quarrels made us better, that they enlivened our life, because without them we would have had a normal life, yes, but banal and boring. ~ Indira Gandhi,
974:Being on Oprah? You realize that there are a couple of types of audience members. There are like the cult people in the audience who are just crying before she gets on. And then there are the people who are playing it cool. I definitely was somewhere in the middle. ~ Genevieve Gorder,
975:Few sciences are as rooted in shame, infamy, and bad PR as human anatomy. The troubles began in Alexandrian Egypt, circa 300 B.C. King Ptolemy I was the first leader to deem it a-okay for medical types to cut open the dead for the purpose of figuring out how bodies work. ~ Mary Roach,
976:I got a lot of Ph.D.-types and smart people around me who come into the Oval Office and say, 'Mr. President, here's what's on my mind.' And I listen carefully to their advice. But having gathered the device, I decide, you know, I say, 'This is what we're going to do.' ~ George W Bush,
977:I love food, all types of food. I love Korean food, Japanese, Italian, French. In Australia, we don't have a distinctive Australian food, so we have food from everywhere all around the world. We're very multicultural, so we grew up with lots of different types of food. ~ Hugh Jackman,
978:It had maroon paint and exposed brick and scarred wood, and a chalkboard menu about ninety percent full of things that don’t really belong in coffee, like dairy products of various types and temperatures, and weird nut-based flavorings, and many other assorted pollutants. ~ Lee Child,
979:I've been lucky enough to have made enough of these types of children's books that while I don't necessarily know what works, I know what doesn't work. I've got a sense of the rhythm and the form. With this series, I get to play with ideas that I would never have myself. ~ Mo Willems,
980:The way you blunder from one catastrophe to the next, it's a wonder the whole galaxy doesn't hate you.

The galaxy is a big place, General. You provincial military types don't get far enough out to really see that.
-General Tagon & Captain Kevyn Andreyasn ~ Howard Tayler,
981:At least 15 percent of human females possess a genetic mutation that gives them an extra (fourth) type of color photoreceptor—and this allows them to discriminate between colors that look identical to the majority of us with a mere three types of color photoreceptors. ~ David Eagleman,
982:Guys have four personalities: the one they use with their parents, the one they use around other adults, the one they use for talking to girls, and the one they use for hanging with their friends. Leakage between the various personality types can cause serious problems. ~ Pete Hautman,
983:I have been influenced by the greatest artists in jazz, pop, reggae, traditional, ballards, pop, and all types of music, taking the best from each to represent my own personality. Whitney Houston, George Michaels, Sade, Phil Collins, and many others have influenced me. ~ Laura Pausini,
984:I think that, back in the day, there used to be a lot of horror films that kind of had a checklist of what went into making the 'perfect horror film', and I think now people are raising the bar in the industry, as far as the types of horror films that are being made. ~ Elisha Cuthbert,
985:The young folks that are coming into each of your services are anywhere from 17 to 22 or 23. Gee whiz, the hormone level created by nature sets in place the possibility for these types of things to occur. So we've got to be very careful how we address it on our side. ~ Saxby Chambliss,
986:It is the cruelest of all ironies that moderns imagine themselves to be (abstractly understood) "individuals," because in actuality moderns are "types," abstracted and self-abstractive victims of a process of stereotyping that afflicts even would-be rebels and anarchists. ~ Kenny Smith,
987:There are only three types of people; those who have found God and serve him; those who have not found God and seek him, and those who live not seeking, or finding him. The first are rational and happy; the second unhappy and rational, and the third foolish and unhappy. ~ Blaise Pascal,
988:We draft mostly high school kids and we have one of the finest, if not the finest, player development programs and coaching staffs and we teach our players the right way to play. We also have a game plan in scouting, and there are certain types of players that we look for. ~ Roy Clarke,
989:And while I'm sure you feel that your particular mistake is extraordinarily big, insurmountable even, contrary to what you might think, these types of things can always be undone, and oftentimes aren't nearily as lethal as we think—or, should I say, as we allow them to be. ~ Alyson Noel,
990:At least 15 percent of human females possess a genetic mutation that gives them an extra (fourth) type of color photoreceptor - and this allows them to discriminate between colors that look identical to the majority of us with a mere three types of color photoreceptors. ~ David Eagleman,
991:Most of these university types are total phonies. They’re scared to death somebody’s gonna find out they don’t know something. They all read the same books and they all throw around the same words, and they get off listening to John Coltrane and seeing Pasolini movies. ~ Haruki Murakami,
992:Not that incentives are always so easy to figure out. Different types of incentives—financial, social, moral, legal, and others—push people’s buttons in different directions, in different magnitudes. An incentive that works beautifully in one setting may backfire in another. ~ Anonymous,
993:Somebody is born.
Somebody goes to school.
Somebody learns to conform.
Somebody types a CV.
Somebody gets a job.
Somebody follows orders.
Somebody gets a golden watch.
And then, eventually,
Somebody dies.
And, a Nobody is buried. ~ Mokokoma Mokhonoana,
994:The individual links of the chain are small molecules called nucleotides, which come in four types denoted by the letters A, C, G, and T. Your genome is the entire sequence of nucleotides in your DNA, or equivalently a long string of letters drawn from this four-letter ~ Sebastian Seung,
995:The women look each other over as they chat, measuring thighs, bellies, hips, and asses, taking into account body types and recent pregnancies. They silently evaluate and pass judgment, realigning themselves in the pecking order. It’s a brutal business, being a woman. ~ Jonathan Tropper,
996:For me, the concept of design is more than object-oriented; it encompasses the design of processes, systems and institutions as well. Increasingly, we need to think about designing the types of institutions we need to get things done in this rapidly accelerating world. ~ John Seely Brown,
997:Librarians were somewhat on a par with God-who else could be bothered with, and better yet, know the answers to so many different types of questions? Knowledge was power, but a good librarian did not hoard the gift. She taught others how to find, where to look, how to see. ~ Jodi Picoult,
998:Most of us have been taught to think that we are either intelligent or we are not. But the definitions of intelligence we learned at school were built around the specific types of intelligence that are most valued at school –verbal intelligence and numerical intelligence. ~ Kevin Horsley,
999:People ought to work out for themselves, and through their own study, the determination of their best interest rather than accept such so-called information as may be handed out to them by certain types of self-constituted leaders who decide what is best for them. ~ Franklin D. Roosevelt,
1000:Sexual energy is divided into three distinct types. First: the energy having to do with the reproduction of the species. Second: the energy having to do with the spheres of thought, feeling and will. Third: the energy that is found related with the world of pure Spirit. ~ Samael Aun Weor,
1001:Tech-savvy types had figured out how to get around the system. With radios it was easy—open up the set, cut the conveyor belt attached to the dial, and replace it with a rubber band that could turn the dial wherever you liked. Television required a little more expertise. ~ Barbara Demick,
1002:There are people who are really good managers, people who can manage a big organization, and then there are people who are very analytic or focused on strategy. Those two types don't usually tend to be in the same person. I would put myself much more in the latter camp. ~ Mark Zuckerberg,
1003:When it comes to resistance, there are two types of no. The first is “No, I wouldn’t have sex with you, even if the continuation of the human species depended on it,” and the second is “No, I don’t want to have sex you yet.” The former can never be overcome, but the latter can. ~ Roosh V,
1004:further research has shown that there is or may well be a bacterial component in all kinds of other disorders46 – heart disease, asthma, arthritis, multiple sclerosis, several types of mental disorders, many cancers, even, it has been suggested (in Science no less), obesity. ~ Bill Bryson,
1005:I put out a good 10 different types of drinks for them and they just said, "Oh, okay, so it's just one choice." One choice? I gave you Coke, Pepsi, Ginger Ale, Sprite. They saw that as one choice. Now why was that one choice? Because they felt, well, it was just all soda. ~ Sheena Iyengar,
1006:Just because you can build a machine that is better than a person at something doesn't mean that it is going to have the ability to learn new domains or connect different types of information or context to do superhuman things. This is critically important to appreciate. ~ Mark Zuckerberg,
1007:Most of us have been taught to think that we are either intelligent or we are not. But the definitions of intelligence we learned at school were built around the specific types of intelligence that are most valued at school – verbal intelligence and numerical intelligence. ~ Kevin Horsley,
1008:Not everyone gets a true ending. There are two types of endings because most people give up at the part of the story where things are the worst, where the situation feels hopeless. But that's when hope is needed most. Only those who persevere can find their true ending. ~ Stephanie Garber,
1009:Not everyone gets a true ending. There are two types of endings because most people give up at the part of the story where things are the worst, where the situation feels hopeless. But that’s when hope is needed most. only those who persevere can find their true ending. ~ Stephanie Garber,
1010:Please don't think that I am one of those squishy types who can't handle reality. I have plenty of real-world things to deal with all the time. I have deadlines, meetings, I answer the phone, I get turned down, I wait in lines and am forced to pass for normal all the time. ~ Henry Rollins,
1011:So, the emerging church is about a re-imagining: re-imagining our preaching, our evangelism, and our worship services. A re-imagining of new types of churches and an opportunity to be rethinking all we do because we recognize that the next generation is at stake if we don't. ~ Dan Kimball,
1012:The ad world used to be something of a refuge for literary types. But I feared for myself at J.W.T. It seemed to be entirely peopled by blocked dramatists, likeably shambling poets, and one-off novelists. The whole place felt like a clubworld sunset home for literary talent. ~ Martin Amis,
1013:There were the usual types of things that happen, in a production, like logistical bullshit, and this and that and the other. That's the sort of stuff that happened. But I never felt, in a creative sense, that we were ever veering into a place that I hadn't signed on for. ~ Ben Mendelsohn,
1014:Cancer is really a slew of rare diseases. Lung cancer has 700 sub-types, breast cancer has 30,000 mutations which means that every cancer in its own right is a rare disease. Sharing data globally in this context is really important from a life-threatening perspective. ~ Patrick Soon Shiong,
1015:Nietzsche himself was a great moralist; his writings abound with value judgments about individuals, character types, modes of thinking, and national traits. It is as if he develops immoralist psychology in order to tame his own nature, to keep his own greatest vice in check. ~ John Carroll,
1016:These seats are for family and they fit the bill. Dad always said there were three types of family, the ones you were born into, the ones you choose for yourself and the ones who choose you. These people chose Dad, they chose us, and they’re as close as any family can be. ~ Eddie Cleveland,
1017:two types of survivors: the ones who did not die, and the ones who live. There will be those who will always remember and be the victim, and ones who just won’t. You have to go on, you have to learn, and you have to heal. Resentment and holding on to the past is so toxic. ~ Elizabeth Smart,
1018:(...) but no, ends must not be permitted to precede beginnings and middles, even if recent scientific experiments have shown us that within certain types of closed systems, under intense pressure, time can be persuaded to run backwards, so that effects precede their causes. ~ Salman Rushdie,
1019:But the problem was that the program was designed to protect itself against ignorant computer users who don’t know the first thing about anything other than sending an email and playing solitaire — the types of people that can generally be found working in government offices. ~ Nick Thacker,
1020:It never occurred to them that God may have provided the world with a vast array of very brainy medical types for the very reason of solving problems such as theirs. However, there is one thing that the medical profession cannot do and that is save people from being idiots. ~ Craig Ferguson,
1021:One can be deceived by three types of laziness: the laziness of indolence, which is the wish to procrastinate; the laziness of inferiority, which is doubting your capabilities; and the laziness that is attachment to negative actions, or putting great effort into non-virtue. ~ Dalai Lama XIV,
1022:Our culture difinitely takes an egocentric dominator view. The fear of the psychedelic experience is quite literally the fear of losing control. Dominator types today don't understand that it's not important to maintain control if you are not in control in the first place. ~ Terence McKenna,
1023:There are many types of emotional abuse but most is done in an attempt to control or subjugate another person. Emotional abuse is like brainwashing in that it systematically wears away at the victim's self-confidence, sense of self, trust in her perceptions and self-concept. ~ Beverly Engel,
1024:There are really two types of laughter on the part of the spectator. There is the laughter of recognition - which means seeing things you're familiar with and laughing at yourself. But there's also hysterical laughter - a way of dealing with the things we see that upset us. ~ Michael Haneke,
1025:we live in a world of excess: too many kinds of coffee, too many magazines, too many types of bread, too many digital recordings of Beethoven's Ninth, too many choices of rearview mirrors on the latest Renault. Sometimes you say to yourself: It's too much, it's all too much. ~ Corinne Maier,
1026:A lot of people went underground with their spiritual life in the seventies, but they're out there in little nooks and crannies and in the countryside, people who look and dress straight, insurance salesmen types, but they're really meditators and chanters, closet devotees. ~ George Harrison,
1027:For better or worse, I'm interested in just about everything: every different type of music I can imagine. I can never see a reason to choose just one type of music at the exclusion of everything else. Different types of music are capable of being rewarding in different kinds of ways. ~ Moby,
1028:For every stone that [Pablo Escobar] threw, he would get many thrown back at him and us, his family, because we were the most vulnerable. In these types of extreme situations, we learned about the consequences of violence and that is why we did not go down the same path. ~ Juan Pablo Escobar,
1029:I think 12-step programs really work, rehab really works, certain types of therapies and talking to other addicts really work. There are a lot of things that work - that isn't the problem. The problem is getting the addicts to say they're addicts. The problem is admitting it. ~ Susan Cheever,
1030:The love, support, and respect the members of the theater community have for one another is unparalleled. Say what you want about us wacky drama-types, but one thing that makes our business special is our loyalty, our fierce commitment to one another, and our mutual respect. ~ Monica Raymund,
1031:Everyday I feel more and more like a full-fledged adult. Even though it was (metaphorically) only yesterday I was sloshing in the door at four a.m. after Dollar Beer Night, I find myself with a mortgage, four types of insurance, and a non-laundry-quarter-based retirement fund. ~ Jen Lancaster,
1032:Patients with various other types of movement disorders may also be able to pick up the rhythmic movement or kinetic melody of an animal, so, for example, equestrian therapy may have startling effectiveness for people with parkinsonism, Tourette’s syndrome, chorea, or dystonia. ~ Oliver Sacks,
1033:There are different types of talents and intelligences, and traditional schools sometimes ignore the creative ones. It is important for us to give kids every platform for them to find what they are good at and what they love. The arts also provide a space for newfound creativity. ~ Caity Lotz,
1034:There are two types of projects, however, that deserve at least some sort of planning activity: (1) those that still have your attention even after you’ve determined their next actions, and (2) those about which potentially useful ideas and supportive detail just show up ad hoc. ~ David Allen,
1035:Better to believe that sane people were sane and crazy people were crazy and you could put the two types of people on opposite sides of a wall and keep them separate, clean and tidy. Without that, where did the lunatics go? Where had they gone? Were they among us? Were they us? ~ Claire Messud,
1036:Digital technologies can replicate valuable ideas, insights, and innovations at very low cost. This creates bounty for society and wealth for innovators, but diminishes the demand for previously important types of labor, which can leave many people with reduced incomes. The ~ Erik Brynjolfsson,
1037:Although the masculine form of appellation is typically used when listing the level titles of the various types of characters, these names can easily be changed to the feminine if desired. This is fantasy--what's in a name? In all but a few cases sex makes no difference to ability! ~ Gary Gygax,
1038:Throughout my career, I've realized that there are a lot of great opportunities out there to be associated with programming. It may have started elsewhere, as Crimson Petal did in the UK. So, our main strategy for Encore is to go through those types of partnership acquisitions. ~ Chris Albrecht,
1039:If you make good music, people believe in you, but you have to have your websites poppin', you got to be on these blogs, you got to be at all these types of events. You got to be everywhere, and doing everything, and the more they see and hear you, the more chance you have at success. ~ Jadakiss,
1040:We are all far less rational in our decision-making than standard economic theory assumes. Our irrational behaviors are neither random nor senseless: they are systematic and predictable. We all make the same types of mistakes over and over, because of the basic wiring of our brains. ~ Dan Ariely,
1041:As architects we are often involved in the concrete-steel-and-glass aspect of it, but cities are social structures, and to be involved in imagining the future of cities and the type of relationships and the types of places that we're making is something that intrigues me very much. ~ Michael Arad,
1042:As scientists the two men were contrasting types—Einstein all calculation, Rutherford all experiment ... There was no doubt that as an experimenter Rutherford was a genius, one of the greatest. He worked by intuition and everything he touched turned to gold. He had a sixth sense. ~ Chaim Weizmann,
1043:I looked, for example, to certain types of literature to which I would like to refer, like The Peregrine by J. A. Baker, and I mention a book, "read this, read it, read it if you are serious of being in any type of art or into filmmaking," or films that I should quote as examples. ~ Werner Herzog,
1044:It is the very strangeness of nature that makes science engrossing. That ought to be at the center of science teaching. There are more than seven-times-seven types of ambiguity in science, awaiting analysis. The poetry of Wallace Stevens is crystal-clear alongside the genetic code. ~ Lewis Thomas,
1045:The world is full of people who write poorly but passionately, and others who can put a sentence together but have no feeling behind it. All they have in common is that they don’t give up when people say they’re talentless hacks. And both of those types of writers have audiences. ~ Kameron Hurley,
1046:When we reached the lobby outside the office, moving like a pair of power walkers--no running in the halls of Green Pastures because there was too much chance of knocking over one of the many ethereal, artistic types wandering around in hip glasses with the wrong prescription... (39) ~ Susan Juby,
1047:You now have learned enough to see That Cats are much like you and me And other people whom we find Possessed of various types of mind. For some are sane and some are mad And some are good and some are bad And some are better, some are worse — But all may be described in verse. ~ Garrison Keillor,
1048:If sign and image are central to the New Testament, then it has to be read as a kind of narrative poetry. In the Scripture, we encounter types and symbols and emblems of transfiguration, and that is how the early Church, which created the New Testament, understood its own creation. ~ Leonard Sweet,
1049:I think scent is sensual. I guess evoking a mood or a spirit is key, and I think with the women's fragrances we have evoked different types, moods or sensibilities of a woman - whether it's Daisy with the sweetness and the innocence or Lola which is more provocative, sexy and sultry. ~ Marc Jacobs,
1050:Magic ran in the family. Even her mother's second cousin, who was adopted, did small spells on the side. She sold these from a stall in Kota Bharu. Her main wares were various types of fruit fried in batter, but if you bought five pisang or cempedak goreng, she threw in a jampi for free. ~ Zen Cho,
1051:My nephew Marty has a T-shirt that says on the front: “There are 10 types of people in the world…” If you read these words and are trying to think of what the ten types are, you’ve already typed yourself. The back of the shirt reads: “Those that understand binary, and those that don’t. ~ Ian Ayres,
1052:The great success stories of chemotherapy were always in relatively obscure types of cancer. Childhood leukemia constitutes less than two percent of all cancers and many of chemotherapy's other successes were in diseases so rare that many clinicians had never even seen a single case ~ Ralph W Moss,
1053:The same system that once gave us subprime mortgage collateralized debt obligations no investor could possibly truly understand now gave us stock market trades that occurred at fractions of a penny at unsafe speeds using order types that no investor could possibly truly understand. ~ Michael Lewis,
1054:Captain Fantastic touches on that [division]. You meet this family that lives off the grid in the woods and you go, "Oh, it's some kind of liberal utopian fantasy. The enemy is gonna be all these conservative types that they'll probably run into, and that's going to be the story." ~ Viggo Mortensen,
1055:Dogwalker is a book of fiction, with characters based on the types of people who truly exist in the world. I've seen them and know them - some of them I know really well. Although the stories are sometimes gritty and unsettling, my hope is that in the end they hit a positive note. ~ Arthur Bradford,
1056:Librarians, to Melanie, were somewhat on par wit God- who else could be bothered with, and better yet, know the answers to so many different types of questions? Knowledge was power, but a good librarian did not hoard the gift. She taught others how to find, where to look, how to see. ~ Jodi Picoult,
1057:To all you writers, artists, musicians, creative types who want to give up: It's okay to walk away for a bit. Get your second wind. But your writing, art, music will be there, lurking over your shoulder, and it will call to you, and you will answer. And come back even stronger. ~ Kathleen M Rodgers,
1058:You can look in every direction and find a competition or an event going on. Even if you're not involved in playing one of the sports being offered, you can find anything you want to do. There's shopping, entertainment, all different types of people ... it's really a great atmosphere. ~ Dawn Staley,
1059:But the personality that finally emerges is largely formed by the environment in which a man happens to find himself during his development, by the structure of the society in which he grows up, by the tradition of that society, and by its appraisal of particular types of behavior. ~ Albert Einstein,
1060:Europe historically was populated by two types of people. The first type all followed the rules, worked together, and kept order. The second type all liked to go their own way, take risks, and test boundaries. Then one day, the second group all got on a boat and sailed to America. ~ Timothy P Carney,
1061:Het is al met al niet zo dat het slecht met mij gaat. Het is eerder dat ik een hele tijd zo moe werd van alles, dat je het gewoon niet meer aan kunt horen, het ongeneeslijke geouwehoer van al die types die je met zo'n veel te eerlijk gezicht staan te vertellen wat het beste voor je is. ~ Herman Koch,
1062:In Psychological Types, Jung suggested two contrasting ways in which people saw the world. Some people can appreciate reality only through their five senses (“sensing” types), while others wait for internal confirmation of what is true or real, relying on their unconscious. These ~ Tom Butler Bowdon,
1063:Love is the kind of thing that's already happening by the time you notice it, that's how it works, and no matter how old you get, that doesn't change. Except that you can break it up into two entirely distinct types -- love where there's an end in sight and love where there isn't. ~ Banana Yoshimoto,
1064:Through the years I've accumulated this big bag of songs. When I go out I do close to two hours, and it's all just attitude - and up-tempo. I've accumulated so many of those types of songs now that the show just gets off with a bang, and I'll only do two or three ballads the whole show. ~ Toby Keith,
1065:Frank [Zappa] always wanted to do a sound library - he sampled so many great musicians. For piano, for example, he sampled every octave, not just one (that you could just transpose electronically), and he did all different types of attack, with and without pedals, all that kind of stuff. ~ Gail Zappa,
1066:Lander, one of the leaders of the Human Genome Project, says it may be time to turn pilot projects like those Regev is leading into a wider effort to create a definitive atlas—one cataloguing all human cell types by gene activity and tracking them from the embryo all the way to adulthood. ~ Anonymous,
1067:Organizations are about putting ideas through one or more types of gating procedures. In this way, ideas go from being a whim to becoming a project, from being a "skunk works" effort to becoming an official, mainstream effort, from being an unfounded program to a funded process, and so on. ~ John Kao,
1068:The sense of differentiation is so acute in Yiddish that a word like, say, paskudnyak has no peer in any language I know for the vocal delineation of a nasty character. And Yiddish coins new names with ease for new personality types: a nudnik is a pest; a phudnik is a nudnik with a Ph.D. ~ Leo Rosten,
1069:Four types of psychological distance can separate you from your goals: social (between yourself and other people), temporal (between the present and the future), spatial (between your physical location and faraway places), and experiential (between imagining something and experiencing it). ~ Anonymous,
1070:Librarians, to Melanie, were somewhat in a par with god -- who else could be bothered with, and better yet, know the answers to so many diffrent types of questions? Knowledge was power, but a good librarian did not hoard the gift. She taught others how to fknd, where to look, how to see ~ Jodi Picoult,
1071:When I was a Hollywood press agent, I learned how the Hollywood casting system worked. There was a roster of actors who were always perfect as doctors or lawyers or laborers, and the directors just picked the types they needed and stuffed them into film after film. I do the same [with ~ Richard Condon,
1072:When I was in my 20s and 30s, there was such a variety and diversity of types of films that you could see. So many of them were really more about the human condition and about relationships between people, and they were smaller films that had a much greater impact on me as a human being. ~ Karen Allen,
1073:A range of different types of consciousness is available to human beings. It’s a kind of anomaly that postmodern Western culture has narrowed the range of that what we are encouraged to have. Maybe it’s not so much a transformation we are speaking of, but an opening. It’s a reclaiming.32 ~ Ervin Laszlo,
1074:genius is much more than high intelligence, innate talent, extraordinary work ethic, or uncanny luck, but rather a composite manifestation; a synthesis of very specific types of worldviews and behaviors. The more he looked at data through this lens, the more things started to make sense. ~ Sean Patrick,
1075:I envy those old Greek bathers, into whose hands were delivered Pericles, and Alcibiades, and the perfect models of Phidias. They had daily before their eyes the highest types of Beauty which the world has ever produced; for of all things that are beautiful, the human body is the crown. ~ Bayard Taylor,
1076:I have to represent. I feel proud to have a culture that's different and proud to be a Latina. We're not all categorized as one type of person there's people from everywhere doing different things who have different types of cultures. Being Latina for me is also being a strong woman. ~ Natalie Martinez,
1077:It's interesting in this day and age to do a film about political espionage and wiretapping. I don't think that those types of secrets that J. Edgar Hoover was able to obtain and keep for such a long period of time would be possible in today's world, with the Internet and WikiLeaks. ~ Leonardo DiCaprio,
1078:It’s unlikely that any of those natural hazards will do us in within the next 100 years if we’ve already survived 100,000. By contrast, we are introducing, through human activity, entirely new types of dangers by developing powerful new technologies. We have no record of surviving those. ~ Nick Bostrom,
1079:Silent films are fairytales. All stories are more or less fairytales, and removing speech makes everything more universal. It makes specific characters stand in for everybody, so actions take on fairytale significance. And the writing has to be pared down to represent people as types, too. ~ Guy Maddin,
1080:There are black men who are madly in love with white women. God bless them, if that's what works for them. I just hope that we can strike a balance that portrays black folks and the black family in a light that's not extreme. Those are the types of characters that I find myself attracted to. ~ Nia Long,
1081:We've tried to create something that's much more like being at a mountain resort. Many of these types of facilities done in the past paid little regard to structure or the environment and just focused on the sport of skiing. We've gone a step further and provided an immersive environment. ~ Phil Taylor,
1082:When [Steven Lerner] says that unions and so forth are "dead," he's talking about clout. He's talking about power. But "community organizations," the ACORN types, these are the groups that can successfully organize a strike - a strike meaning people just stop paying back on their loans. ~ Rush Limbaugh,
1083:As a journalist you have to think quickly, you're exposed to all types of people and situations and you've got to synthesize your thoughts in a very clear and concise way and write them down quickly. Those were all things that have proven really useful in my life as a television writer. ~ Frank Spotnitz,
1084:I had thought for years, probably 30 or 40 years, that it would be a lot of fun to try my hand at a classic English mystery novel... I love that form very much because the reader is so familiar with all of the types of characters that are in there that they already identify with the book. ~ Alan Bradley,
1085:Out of the thirty thousand types of edible plants thought to exist on Earth, just eleven—corn, rice, wheat, potatoes, cassava, sorghum, millet, beans, barley, rye, and oats—account for 93 percent of all that humans eat, and every one of them was first cultivated by our Neolithic ancestors. ~ Bill Bryson,
1086:And there are two types of stories. One type is one's own story. The other type is telling the stories of others. Thanks to this genre, writers of nonfiction can now use the tools of the reporter, the points of view and ear for dialog of a novelist, and the passion and wordplay of the poet. ~ Lee Gutkind,
1087:In order to be an actor you really have to be one of those types of people who are risk-takers and have what is considered an actor's arrogance, which is not to say an arrogance in your personal life. But you have to be the type of person who wants the ball with seconds left in the game. ~ Bryan Cranston,
1088:I often say we have a lot to learn from men regarding friendships. They tend to be less crazy about their friendships. They don't care if you don't call them back. They don't get hung up on who you're dating. I love men! But I also love women. There is richness in both types of friendships. ~ Kerry Cohen,
1089:There are two types of pain, the one that breaks you and the one that changes you. In the gym, pain is felt as a result of weakness leaving the body. Physical pain is the glue of transformation and the pain of progress. The more you endure the harder it gets to accept the thought of failure. ~ Greg Plitt,
1090:We are dealing with three types of phenomena in these cases. The first is the winged man; the second is a giant bird, so huge it is a biological impossibility; third, we have a monstrous demon with red eyes, bat’s wings, and a body closely human in form. All three are probably interrelated. ~ John A Keel,
1091:I’ve never been very keen on women who hang their sex round their neck like baubles. I think it should be discovered. It’s more interesting to discover the sex in a woman than it is to have it thrown at you, like a Marilyn Monroe or those types. To me they are rather vulgar and obvious. ~ Alfred Hitchcock,
1092:Life'd be a lot easier if it were like a fairy tale," said Cassandra, "if people belonged to stock character types."
"Oh, but people do, they only think they don't. Even the person who insists such things don't exist is a cliché: the dreary pedant who insists on his own uniqueness! ~ Kate Morton,
1093:Today, the need to avoid confusing marriage with other types of unions based on weak love is especially urgent. It is only the rock of total, irrevocable love between a man and a woman that can serve as the foundation on which to build a society that will become a home for all mankind. ~ Pope Benedict XVI,
1094:I love all types of music. Jazz, classical, blues, rock, hip-hop. I often write scripts to instrumentals like a hip-hop artist. Music inspires me to write. It's either music playing or completely silent. Sometimes distant sound fuels you. In New York there's always a buzzing beneath you. ~ Chadwick Boseman,
1095:My reason for arguing against abolishing these types of sports isn't some kind of lofty, philosophical rationale. It's just that I did it and I liked it. It comes down to a libertarian issue for me. I feel that if I know the risks and I want to take them, I should be allowed to do so. ~ Jonathan Gottschall,
1096:No type has everything. The introverts and thinkers, though likely to arrive at the most profound decisions, may have the most difficulty in getting their conclusions accepted. The opposite types are best at communicating, but not as adept at determining the truths to be communicated. ~ Isabel Briggs Myers,
1097:One problem with the way the educational system is set up is that it only recognizes a certain type of intelligence, and it’s incredibly restrictive - very, very restrictive. There’s so many types of intelligence, and people who would be at their best outside of that structure get lost. ~ Bruce Springsteen,
1098:When we look at these types of things it echoes to lessons we haven't learned from the past. We still don't see Rome as a negative thing; we glorify the Roman Empire. It was a fascist state under the control of an incredibly authoritarian militant pre-emptive striking genocidal regime. ~ Immortal Technique,
1099:All at once I began dreading to look at them as they passed. I saw the close moonlit space where they would surge by, and had curious thoughts about the irredeemable pollution of that space. They would perhaps be the worst of all Innsmouth types--something one would not care to remember. The ~ H P Lovecraft,
1100:If I am reading the stiffer and the more difficult books, or the more directly theological books in the morning, I read the other types at night. It is good that the mind should not be too much exercised or stimulated before you go to bed, if you want to avoid the problem of insomnia. ~ D Martyn Lloyd Jones,
1101:There were other refugees around him experiencing the same fears and helplessness, but Litvinoff didn't find any comfort in this because there are two types of people in the world: those who prefer to be sad among others, and those who prefer to be sad alone. Litvinoff preferred to be alone. ~ Nicole Krauss,
1102:There are two types of people in the world. Only two. Sheep and wolves. Court was a wolf, and he knew it. The past few months had weakened him somewhat, but a wolf was always a wolf, and it had never been more evident to him than it was here at the bar, surrounded as he was by a hundred sheep. ~ Mark Greaney,
1103:The theoretically interesting category-mistakes are those made by people who are perfectly competent to apply concepts, at least in the situations with which they are familiar, but are still liable in their abstract thinking to allocate those concepts to logical types to which they do not belong) ~ Anonymous,
1104:Well, there's the type of person who says there are certain types of people and then tries to be one type or the other. And then there are others who say bananas to the whole concept of types and won't allow themselves to be filed neatly away under some sort of ridiculously limiting category. ~ Matthew Quick,
1105:Bing Crosby and I weren't the types to go around kissing each other. We always had a light jab for each other. One of our stock lines used to be "There's nothing I wouldn't do for Bing, and there's nothing he wouldn't do for me." And that's the way we go through life - doing nothing for each other! ~ Bob Hope,
1106:Even as a child, Alma innately comprehended that there were two types of silent men in the world: one type was meek and deferential; the other type was Dick Yancey. His eyes were a pair of slowly circling sharks, and as he stared at Alma now, those eyes were clearly saying: "Bring the rum. ~ Elizabeth Gilbert,
1107:FOX said the Dragon had been set loose by ISIS, using spores that had been invented by the Russians in the 1980s. MSNBC said sources indicated the ’scale might’ve been created by engineers at Halliburton and stolen by culty Christian types fixated on the Book of Revelation. CNN reported both sides. ~ Joe Hill,
1108:If the sum of the masses of the types of quark that make up a proton were changed by as little as 10 percent, there would be far fewer of the stable atomic nuclei of which we are made; in fact, the summed quark masses seem roughly optimized for the existence of the largest number of stable nuclei. ~ Anonymous,
1109:If we allow the celebrity rock-star model of leadership to triumph, we will see the decline of corporations and institutions of all types. The twentieth century was a century of greatness, but we face the very real prospect that the next century will see very few enduring great institutions. ~ James C Collins,
1110:Subpersonalities can exist at different levels or memes, however, so that one can indeed have a purple subpersonality, a blue subpersonality, and so on. These often are context-triggered, so that one can have quite different types of moral responses, affects, needs, etc., in different situations. ~ Ken Wilber,
1111:There are two types of mind . . . the mathematical, and what might be called the intuitive. The former arrives at its views slowly, but they are firm and rigid; the latter is endowed with greater flexibility and applies itself simultaneously to the diverse lovable parts of that which it loves. ~ Blaise Pascal,
1112:I always rewrite each day up to the point where I stopped. When it is all finished, naturally you go over it. You get another chance to correct and rewrite when someone else types it, and you see it clean in type. The last chance is in the proofs. You're grateful for these different chances. ~ Ernest Hemingway,
1113:MOSFETs can be constructed as either NMOS or PMOS types, based on the arrangement of doped silicon used. Silicon doped with boron is called P-type (positive) because it lacks electrons, whereas silicon doped with phosphorus is called N-type (negative) because it has an excess of free electrons. ~ Scott Mueller,
1114:Since we think we understand when we know the explanation, and there are four types of explanation (one, what it is to be a thing; one, that if certain things hold it is necessary that this does; another, what initiated the change; and fourth, the aim), all these are proved through the middle term. ~ Aristotle,
1115:The 5 × 5 RULE You’re the average of the 5 people you spend time with. You’re the average of the 5 thoughts you most have. You’re the average of the 5 types of food you eat. You’re the average of the 5 things you are most grateful for. You are the average of the 5 things you are reading today. ~ James Altucher,
1116:As a whole, humanity doesn’t lend itself to generalizations. But as I see it, there are two types of people: the comprehensive-vision type and the limited-perspective type. Me, I seem to be the latter. Not that I ever had much problem justifying my limits. A person has to draw lines somewhere. ~ Haruki Murakami,
1117:If you live in a material universe where acquiring things is very important to you, then family is an absolute deterrent to maintaining that sort of a world, because family involves values like affection, and sympathy, and passion, and types of pleasure that lead nowhere in a material sense. ~ John Taylor Gatto,
1118:I've just been very excited that over the years I've constantly had those types of different experiences. I like staying a little bit like acting school, not experimental, necessarily, but just fun. I have the best job in the world: I pretend for a living. You can't get too precious about that. ~ Rosario Dawson,
1119:I get hired to be a certain character, but I cannot change my look especially since I have been in the business this long. I can't gain 20 pounds and wonder why I am not working anymore or I'd have to transition into other types of roles. You have to take care of yourself and be vigilant. ~ Vanessa Bell Calloway,
1120:He went on, but I tuned him out. I made eye contact and nodded occasionally, but I didn’t hear what he was saying. I had heard it all before. Even men who should’ve known better–overeducated progressive types who probably considered themselves feminists–had no compunction explaining things to me. ~ Alexis M Smith,
1121:I suppose in the end what shift occurred - is that at Yale I began to become more materially and conceptually aware of the mechanisms that gave rise to those types of patterns and paintings. And so the copying that happened in the childhood was a much more conscious type of copying in later years. ~ Kehinde Wiley,
1122:P) The 5 × 5 RULE You’re the average of the 5 people you spend time with. You’re the average of the 5 thoughts you most have. You’re the average of the 5 types of food you eat. You’re the average of the 5 things you are most grateful for. You are the average of the 5 things you are reading today. ~ James Altucher,
1123:When I started coming to do shows in New York, New York had a pretty electric energy then. It was the early-nineties, and there was a lot of really fun theatrical types that were designing, and so the runway kind of became this stage for all of these mega model personalities to flaunt their stuff. ~ Shalom Harlow,
1124:As a kid I understood that people were different colors, but in my head white and black and brown were like types of chocolate. Dad was the white chocolate, mom was the dark chocolate, and I was the milk chocolate. But we were all just chocolate. I didn’t know any of it had anything to do with “race. ~ Trevor Noah,
1125:Each form of the acting is different. I think it keeps your mind active. TV, film and theater are different disciplines, as are independent films, opposed to studio films. There are differences in the size and the genre, or a period drama as opposed to a contemporary drama, or the types of characters. ~ Luke Evans,
1126:Most of these university types are total phonies. They’re scared to death somebody’s gonna find out they don’t know something. They all read the same books and they all throw around the same words, and they get off listening to John Coltrane and seeing Pasolini movies. You call that ‘revolution’? ~ Haruki Murakami,
1127:New product and new types of service are generated, not by asking the consumer, but by knowledge, imagination, innovation, risk, trial and error on the part of the producer, backed by enough capital to develop the product or service and to stay in business during the learn months of introduction. ~ W Edwards Deming,
1128:The kind of people claiming to be in
communication with God today . . . they are enough to drive a real Christian crazy! And how about these evangelical types, performing miracles for money? Oh, there's big bucks in interpreting the gospel for idiots-or in having idiots interpret the gospel for you ~ John Irving,
1129:There are three types of buildings in Istanbul,” he used to say: (1) those full of devout families where people say their daily prayers and leave their shoes outside, (2) rich and Westernized homes where you can go in with your shoes on, (3) new high-rise blocks where you can find a mix of both sorts. ~ Orhan Pamuk,
1130:I like all of the early relationship strips that were collected in 'Love Is Hell,' where I pretended to be an expert in relationships and did comics like 'The Nine Types of Boyfriends,' 'Sixteen Ways to End a Relationship,' 'Twenty-Four Things Not to Say in Bed,' and other arbitrarily numbered lists. ~ Matt Groening,
1131:Look for people who are “anchored” over time. Don’t go for flashy, intense, addictive types. A Ford that will be there tomorrow is a lot better than a Maserati that might be gone. There are stable Maseratis. But it’s best to drive them awhile, that is, test out the relationship over time, to make sure. ~ Henry Cloud,
1132:loved the energy of the young engineers but not their methodology. “It was being done like a bunch of kids in Silicon Valley would do software,” Worden said. “They would stay up all night and try this and try that. I’d seen hundreds of these types of operations, and it struck me that it wouldn’t work. ~ Ashlee Vance,
1133:One of the easiest ways to discover if someone is compatible with you is to gauge their emotional intelligence. Are they a kind and sensitive person? Will they be respectful towards your sensitivities? Or, are they emotionally stunted? Remember, we tend to attract narcissistic types who lack empathy. ~ Aletheia Luna,
1134:Unfortunately, the only place that carries the one I need is the psycho household store. Have you ever been in that store? Talk about insanity. They've taken vertical storage to a whole new limit. There are fifty million types of garlic presses, stacked to the ceiling. I almost started crying. ~ Rachel Devenish Ford,
1135:And she said that, in life, she believes there are two types of people. The people who bring us down, who make us someone we don't want to be. And the people who bolster us, who make us more of who we already are - an even better version of ourselves. And with those people you can never lose yourself. ~ Pittacus Lore,
1136:honesty and dishonesty are based on a mixture of two very different types of motivation. On the one hand, we want to benefit from cheating (this is the rational economic motivation), while on the other, we want to be able to view ourselves as wonderful human beings (this is the psychological motivation). ~ Dan Ariely,
1137:If you're doing something in the city, then hopefully you're speaking to somebody who has an open mind who is walking by. And you're also speaking to a community of other people who do similar types of work. I like to think that the outdoor community is broad and able and open for anybody to see. ~ Margaret Kilgallen,
1138:But you should know that love sometimes wears away under the stress of being married. Someone you think you love now, you might start to hate when he couldn't provide for you. And if you couldn't take care of your children, it'd be even worse. Love doesn't always survive under those types of circumstances ~ Kiera Cass,
1139:Most of us have been taught to think that we are either intelligent or we are not. But the definitions of intelligence we learned at school were built around the specific types of intelligence that are most valued at school – verbal intelligence and numerical intelligence.” ~ Kevin Horsley Paul McKenna ~ Kevin Horsley,
1140:The only thing I heard Speaker [Paul] Ryan say that made sense was, we actually really need to look at this and see what makes sense and what doesn`t, because electronic detection in those kind of - and drones and other types of border protecting devices seem to be much more effective in certain places. ~ John Yarmuth,
1141:The pressure to perform is relentless in today's workplace - regardless of where you work. We are all being asked to do more with less. I think what we could borrow from the culture of Silicon Valley is "eat your own dog food ." That is an expression used by tech types to mean using what you make or sell. ~ Willow Bay,
1142:We're interested in complex characters and he's a complex character, [J. Edgar] Hoover. I like these types of dramas. I've made a few of them and I'm also interested in power structures so it just has elements that fascinate me, and the more you learn about Hoover, the more polarizing you realize he is. ~ Brian Grazer,
1143:I was really psyched about crooner types like Frank Sinatra or Scott Walker. Something that comes more from the stomach than the throat. There's an emotional thrust to singing that way that I wanted to try on my own. I can't really sing deep and strong like that, but I wanted to just aim in that direction. ~ Panda Bear,
1144:Society really seems to have developed an unquestioning obedience towards spooky types… Did we get to where we are today via a slippery slope that was entirely within our control to stop? Or was it a relatively instantaneous sea change that sneaked in undetected because of pervasive government secrecy? ~ Edward Snowden,
1145:There are a couple of different types of food I eat a lot. I was raised in the South, in Tennessee, so I’m going to go with comfort food, soul food. I would probably start with collard greens and candied baby carrots and then have some biscuits and white gravy - and for dessert, probably blackberry cobbler. ~ Megan Fox,
1146:Considering that the modern and contemporary literature taught in most universities is largely bleak, cynical, morbid, pessimistic, misanthropic dogmatism, often written by suicidal types who sooner or later kill themselves with alcohol or drugs, or shotguns, Professor Takuda was a remarkably cheerful man. ~ Dean Koontz,
1147:I went to my first national convention in 1976, when my family supported [Ronald] Reagan over [Gerald] Ford, so we've always been Republicans, but we've always wanted the Republican Party to be the party of fiscally conservative, limited-government types. And I think, sometimes, we haven't done that as well. ~ Rand Paul,
1148:Science is intimately integrated with the whole social structure and cultural tradition. They mutually support one other-only in certain types of society can science flourish, and conversely without a continuous and healthy development and application of science such a society cannot function properly. ~ Talcott Parsons,
1149:There's two types of hecklers. If someone says something really funny it's normally them heckling as part of the show. They're trying to add onto one of your jokes. If someone says something really funny, I've never seen a comedian abuse them, you always sort of tip your hat a little bit if they nail it. ~ Jim Jefferies,
1150:There are two types of actors. There's the actors who can acknowledge that they could never do standup comedy. Then there's the pretentious ones, who believe that acting is harder than standup comedy. I definitely don't think it is. I also think making a comedy is substantially harder than making a drama. ~ Jim Jefferies,
1151:when we compare these types of nations, we see that the religiosity/secularity correlation holds true the world over: the poorer, more chaotic, more troubled countries tend to be among the most religious, while the wealthier, more stable, more well-functioning countries tend to be among the most secular. ~ Phil Zuckerman,
1152:Emotions are like nutrients such as vitamins, proteins, carbohydrates, minerals or fats that fulfil different types of emotional needs. There is no single relationship, which can take care of all our emotional needs. Hence, we have many types of relationships and each relationship is important in our life. ~ Awdhesh Singh,
1153:I spent much of my college life prepping for other careers, but I was always drawing and painting whenever I had free time. Eventually, thanks to the internet, I started noticing that there were such things as art schools, and professional artists, and people making a living doing a variety of types of art. ~ Julie Dillon,
1154:The civil liberties types who are fighting this issue have to fight it, owing to the nature of the laws, as a matter of freedom of speech and stifling of free expression and so on. But we know what's really involved, dirty books are fun. That's all there is to it. But you can't get up in a court and say that. ~ Tom Lehrer,
1155:There are other types of neglect and deprivation. To deny what unfolds inside someone, to forbid the magic that comes unbidden, to impose ignorance in a way that invites danger, to say to a child, ‘You must not be what you are.’ That is wrong.” His voice was gentle but the condemnation was without compassion. ~ Robin Hobb,
1156:We must not decide how to pray based on what types of prayer are the most effective for producing the experiences and feelings we want. We pray in response to God himself. God’s Word to us contains this range of discourse—and only if we respond to his Word will our own prayer life be as rich and varied. ~ Timothy J Keller,
1157:When visitors came to the fine state of Texas, they expected a dry, rolling plain studded with longhorn cattle, oil derricks, and an occasional cowboy in a huge hat. According to them, that plain had only one type of weather: scorching. That wasn’t true at all. In fact, we had two types, drought and flood. ~ Ilona Andrews,
1158:Many of the customers here are traveling all over the world so they need multiple types of clothes. That's one thing about Urban Zen - it is seasonless and it is timeless. So it's not about the fashion of a moment saying, "I have to have it now." It's something that you become a part of...sort of like a sari. ~ Donna Karan,
1159:There are two types of courage involved with what I did. When it comes to picking up a rifle, millions of people are capable of doing that, as we see in Iraq or Vietnam. But when it comes to risking their careers, or risking being invited to lunch by the establishment, it turns out that's remarkably rare. ~ Daniel Ellsberg,
1160:Not to sound like a jerk, but Jane isn't really my type. Her hair's kinda disastrously curly and she mostly hangs out with guys. My type's a little girlier. And honestly, I don't even like my type of girl that much, let alone other types. Not that I'm asexual or something - I just find Romance Drama unbearable. ~ John Green,
1161:There are 4 types of relationships. We generally know people who guide and help us like a parent or teacher; those who need our wisdom or help like a child or student; people with similar knowledge and experience on our life path who want to offer unconditional support; and those who do not wish to support us. ~ John Friend,
1162:Growing up in D.C. there are so many different types of educational and professional levels. They call D.C. 'Chocolate City' but just because we're all chocolate doesn't mean we're all the same. In D.C., everyone co-exists harmoniously but the lines are still drawn. And people don't really step over those lines. ~ Laz Alonso,
1163:It is folly to imagine that the aggressive types, whether individuals or nations, can be bought off ... since the payment of danegeld stimulates a demand for more danegeld. But they can be curbed. Their very belief in force makes them more susceptible to the deterrent effect of a formidable opposing force. ~ B H Liddell Hart,
1164:The best way to do that is to pick up a new instrument or an instrument that you don't typically write on and see where it takes you. Whether it's using an acoustic guitar, or piano, or electronics as tools, all of these lead to creating different types of songs and I used all of these methods for this record. ~ Serj Tankian,
1165:To all you writers, artists, musicians, creative types who want to give up: It's okay to walk away for a bit. Get your second wind. But your writing, art, music will be there, lurking over your shoulder, and it will call to you, and you will answer. And come back even stronger.”
― Kathleen M. Rodgers ~ Kathleen M Rodgers,
1166:Even if it doesn't work out, the experience is so valuable to so many employers that your worst case scenario is, 'Ok, so that was a bust, I'll get a six-figure job at whatever company.' Risk is this outmoded idea - your parents might not understand that, but taking these types of risks doesn't have a downside. ~ Drew Houston,
1167:In the same way that Morse code reduces written language to dots and dashes, the spoken version of the code reduces speech to just two vowel sounds. The key word here is two. Two types of blinks, two vowel sounds, two different anything, really, can with suitable combinations convey all types of information. ~ Charles Petzold,
1168:Looking back, I imagine that I was very odd, that I spoke too loudly, or that I said nothing when things of popular culture were mentioned; I think I responded strangely to ordinary types of humor that were unknown to me. I think I didn’t understand the concept of irony at all, and that confused people. When ~ Elizabeth Strout,
1169:Why are there so many words that sound exactly the same, only one of them is right and one of them is wrong, and if you use the wrong one everyone looks at you like you're stupid and then you need to stab somebody to make the point that there are a lot of different types of intelligence and anyway English is hard. ~ Mira Grant,
1170:In every case the nature of the prayer is determined by the character of God, who is at once our friend, father, lover, shepherd and king. We must not decide how to pray based on what types of prayer are the most effective for producing the experiences and feelings we want. We pray in response to God himself. ~ Timothy J Keller,
1171:I was really lucky to grow up in an extremely diverse neighborhood. I grew up in a city called Southfield, and it's one of the most diverse cities in the country. Just from the different socio-economic statuses and racial and ethnic groups I was around, I was around all different types of music from the beginning. ~ Mike Posner,
1172:Listen, I think movies serve many different purposes, from those movies that are frivolous and just an entertainment, to movies that just go to exploring the complexities of the human soul. Everything is valid if it's done with honesty and dignity, and I actually do both of those types of movies in my career. ~ Antonio Banderas,
1173:Of course, as I’ve pointed out numerous times in this book, type checking is usually the wrong thing to do in Python programs (we code to object interfaces, not object types), and the more general isinstance built-in is more likely what you’ll want to use in the rare cases where instance class types must be queried. ~ Mark Lutz,
1174:Remember that the problem is bigger than the car you drive or the types of lightbulbs in city hall. We need a fundamental shift away from dirty fossil fuels that spew carbon pollution. To make that happen, we need to put pressure on our leaders to take the bold actions necessary to move us off dirty sources of energy. ~ Al Gore,
1175:The glial-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) that he referred to is a brain growth factor. It functions like a growth-promoting fertilizer in the brain. GDNF is made by glial cells, one of the major types of cells in the brain. Fifteen percent of our brain cells are neurons; the other 85 percent are glial cells. ~ Norman Doidge,
1176:There is a latent fairy in all women, but look how carefully we have to secrete her in order to be taken seriously. And fairies come in all shapes, colours, sizes and types, they don't have to be fluffy. They can be demanding and furious if hey like. They do, however, have to wear a tiara. That much is compulsory. ~ Dawn French,
1177:we find in the characters of the Elizabethan drama not types and qualities, but individuals strongly projected, with all their idiosyncrasies and contradictions. These dramas touch our sympathies at all points, and are representative of human life today, because they reflected the human life of their time. ~ William Shakespeare,
1178:In principle, there’s nothing wrong with the concept of an infographic. What concerns me is the types of things that people are doing with them. They get far off topic, or the fact checking is really poor. The infographic may be neat, but if the information it’s based on is simply wrong, then it’s misleading people. ~ Matt Cutts,
1179:In the early 1940s, as a young teenager, I was utterly appalled by the racist and jingoist hysteria of the anti-Japanese propaganda. The Germans were evil, but treated with some respect: They were, after all, blond Aryan types, just like our imaginary self-image. Japanese were mere vermin, to be crushed like ants. ~ Noam Chomsky,
1180:Sorry, Mr. Richardson. Caught me off guard.” “No, no, I’m the one who’s sorry. I didn’t mean to wake you. Didn’t know you cop types ever slept.” “Yeah, we’re regular vampires.” He laughed. “Seriously, I figured you’d want to talk to me as soon as you could. I can’t believe this has come up again. And call me Frank. ~ J T Ellison,
1181:still, if it’s hot enough I’ll lie in the sun and feel at least three types of despair: despair that life is mostly gone and I’ve wasted it; despair that I cannot feel now what I thought I would if I saw all my struggles through; and despair that, because I don’t know any other course to take, nothing will change. ~ Mark Helprin,
1182:Every language is a vast pattern-system, different from others, in which are culturally ordained the forms and categories by which the personality not only communicates, but also analyzes nature, notices or neglects types of relationship and phenomena, channels his reasoning, and builds the house of his consciousness. ~ Takeo Doi,
1183:The only thing going on is the progression of words and sentences across page after page and so suddenly we see this immersive kind of very attentive thinking, whether you are paying attention to a story or to an argument, or whatever. And what we know about the brain is the brain adapts to these types of tools. ~ Nicholas G Carr,
1184:There are responsibilities which are parental responsibilities and those are the types of things we prepare the next generation for, but no one tells you how to answer the kids' questions in the backseat of the car when they want to know what the world is for or where they came from or why any of this is happening. ~ Maggie Smith,
1185:They were a most unusual group of colonists. Instead of noblemen, craftsmen, and servants - the types of people who had founded Jamestown in Virginia - these were, for the most part, families - men, women, and children who were willing to endure almost anything if it meant they could worship as they pleased. ~ Nathaniel Philbrick,
1186:An interest rate is the cost of borrowing or the
price paid for the rental of funds (usually expressed as a percentage of the rental of $100
per year). Many types of interest rates are found in the economy—mortgage interest
rates, car loan rates, and interest rates on many different types of bonds. ~ Frederic S Mishkin,
1187:God has decided the rules of life, whereby you don't trespass on anybody else's rights, and sin is something that upsets the balance of things. There are three types of sin: sin against yourself; sin against other people; and sin against God. People often sin against themselves and others and misbehave with God, too. ~ Cat Stevens,
1188:I love macaroni and cheese. I could eat it every meal of the day. It used to be sushi, but these days I cannot stop eating mac and cheese. I haven't had it from a box in a long time, but I'll make it homemade style with four types of cheeses, lots of milk, maybe a little ketchup. I don't know, I'm crazy like that. ~ Cobie Smulders,
1189:JS, constructors are just functions that happen to be called with the new operator in front of them. They are not attached to classes, nor are they instantiating a class. They are not even special types of functions. They’re just regular functions that are, in essence, hijacked by the use of new in their invocation. ~ Kyle Simpson,
1190:They [sensing types] will not skim in reading, and they hate to have people skim in conversation. Believing that matters inferred are not as reliable as matters explicitly stated, they are annoyed when you leave things to their imagination. (Intuitives are often annoyed—if not actually bored—when you do not.) ~ Isabel Briggs Myers,
1191:According to Chinese medicine, each of our organs relates to a specific emotion—the liver relates to anger, the kidneys to fear, the lungs to sadness, and the spleen to worry—and there are specific types of cleanses for the different organs. Some experts recommend doing regular cleanses at the change of each season. ~ Marci Shimoff,
1192:Remember, a twin flame relationship is not better or more superior than other relationships. All types of relationships, twin flame or not, have their own spiritual value. The twin flame connection may appear more attractive than other types of relationships due to its intensity, but it’s not for the faint of heart. ~ Aletheia Luna,
1193:The establishment of the Republican Party, which I've been watching all my life. They always seem to win. I mean, there was the exception, of course, with Goldwater back in '64, which turned out to be a catastrophe. But it always seems that the Mitt Romneys and the East Coast types always end up winning the fights. ~ Chris Matthews,
1194:There were two types of mourning. There was the type when a person opened up his heart to the world, never taking anything for granted, and lived each day to the fullest. Then there was the type of mourning where a person closed off his heart to the world and lived in his own world, unable to connect to others. ~ Brittainy C Cherry,
1195:You know, there are two types of people-ones who live their lives, and ones whose lives live them. You need to be the former, not the latter. And right now, you are letting your life live you. It's crushing you and completely out of control. You can't just let life happen, not if you want some say in what happens to you. ~ H M Ward,
1196:But you know, if you live an affluent lifestyle, there are all types of trappings that are there that you have to be cognizant of, and you've got to try and communicate freely and gain understanding about and then keep moving on, because you know, sometimes lifestyles are chosen for us as opposed to us choosing them. ~ Julius Erving,
1197:It's not like I don't want to play the guy next door. But sometimes they're not the best written or the most complicated. But I am very, very particular about my bad boys. There are certain types of characters I will not play. I've said no so many times to so many parts that are just way too dark. You have to be careful. ~ Kim Coates,
1198:I do think that if you were to be scrupulous and research into it you would find that certain types of natural psychedelics have, if anything, anti-addictive properties. And all the evidence really points towards that. But you have the people who are running these drug rehab situations, they demonized all the drugs. ~ Daniel Pinchbeck,
1199:When I first started working, I was very aware of the fact that I'd been to university and studied Russian and French and not acting. So when I started working, I'd started working quite young, I felt like it was important to treat myself kind of like an apprentice and do as many different types of things as I could. ~ Kate Beckinsale,
1200:THE CONDUCT OF extraverts is based on the outer situation. If they are thinkers, they tend to criticize or analyze or organize it; feeling types may champion it, protest against it, or try to mitigate it; sensing types may enjoy it, use it, or good naturedly put up with it; and intuitives tend to try to change it. ~ Isabel Briggs Myers,
1201:There are three types of intelligent persons: the first so intelligent that being called very intelligent must seem natural and obvious; the second sufficiently intelligent to see that he is being flattered, not described; the third so little intelligent that he will believe anything. I knew I belonged to the second kind. ~ John Fowles,
1202:the thinker’s natural process is inappropriate when used in personal relations with feeling types, because it includes a readiness to criticize. Criticism is of great value when thinkers apply it to their own conduct or conclusions, but it has a destructive effect upon feeling types, who need a harmonious climate. ~ Isabel Briggs Myers,
1203:an advertising-based system will tend to drive out of existence or into marginality the media companies and types that depend on revenue from sales alone. With advertising, the free market does not yield a neutral system in which final buyer choice decides. The advertisers’ choices influence media prosperity and survival. ~ Noam Chomsky,
1204:I was always attracted to the type of cinema hero as an adolescent growing up in Ireland. Robert Mitchum springs to mind. Later on, it was Steve McQueen to a certain extent and Charles Bronson. They're these types of grizzled characters who had one foot on the side of law and order and the other foot in the bad guy's camp. ~ Liam Neeson,
1205:Superheroes are mostly aimed at young teen-age males concerned with their manhood. The medium will have to address itself more to content. . . . I see 22 year olds draw massive Schwarzenegger types, outfitted with metal studs, pressing a mostly naked woman to their breastplates. And I think Poor girl, thats got to be cold. ~ Will Eisner,
1206:Gradle distinguishes two types of plugins: script plugins and object plugins. A script plugin is nothing more than a regular Gradle build script that can be imported into other build scripts. With script plugins, you can do everything you’ve learned so far. Object plugins need to implement the interface org.gradle.api.Plugin. ~ Anonymous,
1207:There are two types of bands - there are the ones that are basically solo projects anyways, where there's clearly the one guy who's driving the ship and everyone else is just along for the ride. And then there was my band, where you have a few very disparate-taste, creative people who kind of meet in the middle somewhere. ~ Patrick Stump,
1208:You talking about computer weaknesses?"
"Yes. But also human weaknesses."
"Meaning what?"
"Meaning the types of weaknesses that make humans let down their guard. Trust people they shouldn't trust."
"You're talking about manipulating people."
"Yes." Dexter and Lester were staring at each other. "I guess I am. ~ Chris Pavone,
1209:In 1945, out of 52 million American adult women only 19.5 million held jobs. Among married women, only a quarter did.[364] Though the image of Rosie the Riveter dominated propaganda, its link to reality was tenuous. In metal-working plants of all types, male workers outnumbered female ones more than three to one.[365] ~ Martin van Creveld,
1210:For Kundera, the weight of living is found in all types of restriction, in the dense network of public and private restrictions that ultimately envelops every life in ever-tighter bonds. His novel shows us how everything in life that we choose and value for its lightness quickly reveals its own unbearable heaviness. Perhaps ~ Italo Calvino,
1211:Look at systematic patterns of cultural variation as they pertain to the best and worst of our behaviors. Explore how different types of brains produce different culture and different types of culture produce different brains. In other words, how culture and biology coevolve.3 See the role of ecology in shaping culture. ~ Robert M Sapolsky,
1212:There are two types of approval: one is from people, and the other is from God. We want people to approve of us, but if we become addicted to their approval, if we have to have it and are ready to do whatever they demand to get it, we lose our freedom. If we trust God for approval, we are freed from the addiction of approval. ~ Joyce Meyer,
1213:The strongest proof that in the name of “science” we pursue unworthy and sometimes even harmful things is the existence of a science of punishment, which in itself is one of the most ignorant and offensive types of action known to man, a vestige of the lowest level of human development, lower than that of a child or a madman. ~ Leo Tolstoy,
1214:The United States today needs to move back toward greater awareness of community and interdependence. Socially, economically, and ecologically, we need to engage in a responsible reassembly of the parts so that we enjoy the benefits that arise when communities are healthy—all types of communities, social, cultural, and natural. ~ Anonymous,
1215:Two types of choices seem to me to have been crucial in tipping the outcomes [of the various societies' histories] towards success or failure: long-term planning and willingness to reconsider core values. On reflection we can also recognize the crucial role of these same two choices for the outcomes of our individual lives. ~ Jared Diamond,
1216:David Brooks’s “moral bucket list” column is meant to explore how “deeply good people got that way.” But little in the column helps to explain this. One way to understand why people become more moral is to explore “moral opportunity.” What types of societal structures and personality variables help to create a very moral person? ~ Anonymous,
1217:I'm just a music fan. I like pretty much all types of music, and I feel like I can get something out of everything. It just makes work a lot more fun whenever you're working on different things all the times and usually once I work with a band I usually will want to work with them again, just because we become good friends. ~ John Congleton,
1218:The best I ever got was that woman who kept having me come up to fix her TV. There was a lot of bending involved. I felt used and dirty.
It’s the price you pay for being one of those weedy but good-looking types, Scarlett said.
Weedy? You hurt me. I prefer tall and scrawny. Unlike my partner, who’s right behind you. ~ Maureen Johnson,
1219:There are advances in technology and enabling voices, but there are issues with the stories themselves. I think people of color are still not seen as human beings. They're still associated with types, with comedy, but we're in a crisis right now, with things like Black Lives Matter. We need films that address these issues. ~ Charles Burnett,
1220:In her time Nor Tigelaar had faced insurrectionists and collaborationists and war profiteers. She'd endured abduction and prison and self-mutilation. She'd sold herself in sex not for cash but for military information that might come in handy to the resistance, and in so doing she'd come across a rum variety of human types. ~ Gregory Maguire,
1221:Natural sociability can be overridden by the development of new institutions that provide incentives for other types of behavior (for example, favoring a qualified stranger over a genetic relative), but it constitutes a form of social relationship to which humans always revert when such alternative institutions break down. ~ Francis Fukuyama,
1222:The overall arrow from subatomic particles through prokaryotic cells thus made use several times over of this sequence: parts combine into wholes; these wholes engender new types of relations, giving rise to the possibility that the wholes become parts in turn for still larger wholes. ~ Tyler Volk, Metapatterns - Across Space, Time, and Mind,
1223:I think some love you can stand to let go of because it's ultimately for the best, but other types you have to stick with until the day you die even when it's hard.You have to think about that before you run away from wherever you are. And then when you know, you either stay or you go and pray thatyou're making the right decision. ~ Nick Burd,
1224:It is particularly appropriate that we unveil this campaign on this first day of the annual international coastal clean-up effort. Beach cleanups are something each of us can do any time of the year. I'm proud to be participating in the cleanup efforts today and I encourage everyone to make the time for these types of activities. ~ Ted Danson,
1225:It’s a fucking pharmaceutical conspiracy, Eve. We’ve wiped out just about every known plague, disease, and infection. Oh, we come up with a new one every now and again, to give the researchers something to do. But none of these bright-eyed medical types, none of the medi-computers can figure out how to cure the common fucking cold. ~ J D Robb,
1226:I used to go to this store called Draeger's and you had a little bit of that same feeling because this was a store that offered you so many varieties, things you'd never contemplated before, you know like 250 mustards and vinegars and over 500 different kinds of fruits and vegetables, or over 2 dozen different types of water. ~ Sheena Iyengar,
1227:Bad acting, like bad writing, has a remarkable uniformity, whether seen on the French, German, or English stages; it all seems modeled after two or three types, and those the least like types of good acting. The fault generally lies less in the bad imitation of a good model, than in the successful imitation of a bad model. ~ George Henry Lewes,
1228:In our society, there are only two respectable types of people: the proletariat—the avant-garde of our society, the beacon of the revoluation—and the peasantry, faithful ally of the proletariat in its struggle for the construction of socialism. The rest is nothing. The merchants, the petty tradespeople, they're only exploiters. ~ D ng Thu H ng,
1229:Study the Opposites In addition to studying his competition in tech and early-stage investing, Marc studies value investors on the completely opposite side of the spectrum, such as Warren Buffett and Seth Klarman. This doesn’t mean they invest in the same types of companies; rather, the synergy is related to first principles. ~ Timothy Ferriss,
1230:Those were the girls she’d been most jealous of, growing up—not just the thin, fashionable ones, but the types who surfed or rock climbed, who lived in such obvious peace with their bodies. Took joy in using their bodies. Mastered them. Merry’s had always felt like a bully. A great, heavy oaf pinning her to the ground, taunting. ~ Cara McKenna,
1231:Various epochs of the past have had their own characteristic struggles and interests. Each of these great epochs has left behind itself a kind of cultural deposit, like a geologic stratum. These deposits have found their way into educational institutions in the form of studies, distinct courses of study, distinct types of schools. ~ John Dewey,
1232:A nature wise With finding in itself the types of all, With watching from the dim verge of the time What things to be are visible in the gleams Thrown forward on them from the luminous past, Wise with the history of its own frail heart, With reverence and sorrow, and with love, Broad as the world, for freedom and for man. ~ James Russell Lowell,
1233:Basically there are two types of animals: animals, and animals that have no brains; they are called plants. They don't need a nervous system because they don't move actively, they don't pull up their roots and run in a forest fire! Anything that moves actively requires a nervous system; otherwise it would come to a quick death. ~ Rodolfo Llinas,
1234:Every state university runs one or more large operations called Extension Units, full of experts qualified to give advice and encouragement to citizen gardeners, tree owners, and nature enthusiasts of all types. Call around: these researchers are obligated to provide free consultations to interested civilians regarding your trees, ~ Hope Jahren,
1235:As I write, we now consider nature to have given rise to three or four foundational types of living things, or domains of life. I’m going with four. We have Bacteria, Archaea (microbes that are fundamentally different from bacteria), Eukarya (that’s us, animals and plants together), and Vira. You could also call that last one Viruses. ~ Bill Nye,
1236:First-half-of-life religion is almost always about various types of purity codes or “thou shalt nots” to keep us up, clear, clean, and together, like good Boy and Girl Scouts. A certain kind of “purity” and self-discipline is also “behovely,” at least for a while in the first half of life, as the Jewish Torah brilliantly presents. ~ Richard Rohr,
1237:I am interested in people, and I am interested enough in people that I want to be friends with a lot of people and know about their lives. So I'm not a hermit. I'm also interested in writing about other things. It goes on and on. I sometimes wish that I had a different personality. But then I would write different types of books. ~ Lynne Tillman,
1238:Never before in history have basically fifty mostly men, mostly twenty to thirty-five, mostly white engineer designer types within fifty miles of where we are right now, had control of what a billion people think and do when they wake up in the morning and turn their phone over . . . Who’s the Jane Jacobs of this attention city? ~ Clive Thompson,
1239:Honestly, I think it's dumb luck that I'm able to kind of get away doing different types of films in different genres. There's always a tendency to kind of stick with what works, or stick with one particular kind of brand or movie. But so far I've been getting away with it, so I'm going to continue to do that for as long as I can. ~ Ryan Reynolds,
1240:Most of the things that really matter require faith. How do I know that my wife loves me? How do I know that Mozarts Jupiter Symphony is sublime and beautiful? There are all sorts of things which come at a more lowly level than that - How do I know that two plus two equals four? There are different layers, different types of knowing. ~ N T Wright,
1241:Our children remind us, if we let them, that there are not only many types of dreams but many levels of dreaming, that we do not have to go to sleep in order to dream and that when we imagine something vividly we are doing far more than 'making things up': we may be punching a hole in the world, opening a path into a larger reality. ~ Robert Moss,
1242:The most important thing to having a long career, as an actor, is diversity and being able to play different types of characters in different types of movies. I want to keep acting, all my life. In order to do that, I think it is important to go and do the bigger tentpole box office movies, and then also do more character roles. ~ Josh Hutcherson,
1243:We found a table. Nora said: "She's pretty."
"If you