classes ::: noun, Place,
children :::
branches ::: province

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object:province
word class:noun
class:Place

see also :::

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now begins generated list of local instances, definitions, quotes, instances in chapters, wordnet info if available and instances among weblinks


OBJECT INSTANCES [0] - TOPICS - AUTHORS - BOOKS - CHAPTERS - CLASSES - SEE ALSO - SIMILAR TITLES

TOPICS
SEE ALSO


AUTH

BOOKS
Heart_of_Matter
Modern_Man_in_Search_of_a_Soul
Plotinus_-_Complete_Works_Vol_01
Process_and_Reality
The_Divine_Milieu
The_Republic
The_Use_and_Abuse_of_History
Three_Books_on_Occult_Philosophy
Vishnu_Purana

IN CHAPTERS TITLE
1.22__-_Dominion_over_different_provinces_of_creation_assigned_to_different_beings

IN CHAPTERS CLASSNAME

IN CHAPTERS TEXT
0.00_-_INTRODUCTION
0.04_-_The_Systems_of_Yoga
01.03_-_Sri_Aurobindo_and_his_School
01.03_-_The_Yoga_of_the_King_-_The_Yoga_of_the_Souls_Release
0_1961-09-03
0_1962-07-21
0_1967-07-22
0_1968-06-03
0_1968-07-03
0_1970-07-18
0_1970-08-01
0_1971-05-15
0_1971-06-23
0_1971-12-29b
06.10_-_Fatigue_and_Work
1.00c_-_DIVISION_C_-_THE_ETHERIC_BODY_AND_PRANA
1.01_-_Adam_Kadmon_and_the_Evolution
1.01_-_Economy
1.01_-_Introduction
1.01_-_Our_Demand_and_Need_from_the_Gita
1.01_-_Tara_the_Divine
1.01_-_The_Ideal_of_the_Karmayogin
1.01_-_To_Watanabe_Sukefusa
1.02_-_BOOK_THE_SECOND
1.02_-_To_Zen_Monks_Kin_and_Koku
1.02_-_What_is_Psycho_therapy?
1.03_-_Sympathetic_Magic
1.03_-_The_Coming_of_the_Subjective_Age
1.03_-_To_Layman_Ishii
1.04_-_GOD_IN_THE_WORLD
1.04_-_Magic_and_Religion
1.04_-_THE_APPEARANCE_OF_ANOMALY_-_CHALLENGE_TO_THE_SHARED_MAP
1.04_-_The_Gods_of_the_Veda
1.04_-_To_the_Priest_of_Rytan-ji
1.05_-_CHARITY
1.05_-_Christ,_A_Symbol_of_the_Self
1.05_-_The_Ascent_of_the_Sacrifice_-_The_Psychic_Being
1.05_-_The_Belly_of_the_Whale
1.05_-_The_Destiny_of_the_Individual
1.05_-_The_Magical_Control_of_the_Weather
1.06_-_The_Ascent_of_the_Sacrifice_2_The_Works_of_Love_-_The_Works_of_Life
1.06_-_The_Four_Powers_of_the_Mother
1.07_-_Hui_Ch'ao_Asks_about_Buddha
1.07_-_THE_MASTER_AND_VIJAY_GOSWAMI
1.08a_-_The_Ladder
1.08_-_Independence_from_the_Physical
1.08_-_The_Gods_of_the_Veda_-_The_Secret_of_the_Veda
1.09_-_Fundamental_Questions_of_Psycho_therapy
11.07_-_The_Labours_of_the_Gods:_The_five_Purifications
1.10_-_Relics_of_Tree_Worship_in_Modern_Europe
11.15_-_Sri_Aurobindo
1.11_-_The_Reason_as_Governor_of_Life
1.12_-_The_Divine_Work
1.12_-_The_Superconscient
1.13_-_BOOK_THE_THIRTEENTH
1.13_-_Reason_and_Religion
1.14_-_Bibliography
1.14_-_The_Succesion_to_the_Kingdom_in_Ancient_Latium
1.14_-_The_Suprarational_Beauty
1.15_-_The_Suprarational_Good
1.16_-_The_Suprarational_Ultimate_of_Life
1.17_-_Legend_of_Prahlada
1.17_-_The_Burden_of_Royalty
1.19_-_Thought,_or_the_Intellectual_element,_and_Diction_in_Tragedy.
1.22__-_Dominion_over_different_provinces_of_creation_assigned_to_different_beings
1.24_-_The_Advent_and_Progress_of_the_Spiritual_Age
1.24_-_The_Killing_of_the_Divine_King
1.28_-_Supermind,_Mind_and_the_Overmind_Maya
1.28_-_The_Killing_of_the_Tree-Spirit
1.3.5.04_-_The_Evolution_of_Consciousness
1.37_-_Oriential_Religions_in_the_West
1.39_-_The_Ritual_of_Osiris
1.40_-_The_Nature_of_Osiris
1.45_-_The_Corn-Mother_and_the_Corn-Maiden_in_Northern_Europe
1.49_-_Ancient_Deities_of_Vegetation_as_Animals
1.49_-_Thelemic_Morality
1.57_-_Public_Scapegoats
1.62_-_The_Fire-Festivals_of_Europe
1.65_-_Balder_and_the_Mistletoe
1.66_-_Vampires
1.67_-_The_External_Soul_in_Folk-Custom
1914_09_28p
1954-03-24_-_Dreams_and_the_condition_of_the_stomach_-_Tobacco_and_alcohol_-_Nervousness_-_The_centres_and_the_Kundalini_-_Control_of_the_senses
1955-05-25_-_Religion_and_reason_-_true_role_and_field_-_an_obstacle_to_or_minister_of_the_Spirit_-_developing_and_meaning_-_Learning_how_to_live,_the_elite_-_Reason_controls_and_organises_life_-_Nature_is_infrarational
1956-06-06_-_Sign_or_indication_from_books_of_revelation_-_Spiritualised_mind_-_Stages_of_sadhana_-_Reversal_of_consciousness_-_Organisation_around_central_Presence_-_Boredom,_most_common_human_malady
1956-06-13_-_Effects_of_the_Supramental_action_-_Education_and_the_Supermind_-_Right_to_remain_ignorant_-_Concentration_of_mind_-_Reason,_not_supreme_capacity_-_Physical_education_and_studies_-_inner_discipline_-_True_usefulness_of_teachers
1f.lovecraft_-_Out_of_the_Aeons
1f.lovecraft_-_The_Case_of_Charles_Dexter_Ward
1f.lovecraft_-_The_Dreams_in_the_Witch_House
1f.lovecraft_-_The_Strange_High_House_in_the_Mist
1f.lovecraft_-_The_Unnamable
1f.lovecraft_-_The_Very_Old_Folk
1.jkhu_-_A_Visit_to_Hattoji_Temple
1.jk_-_Otho_The_Great_-_Act_I
1.jk_-_Otho_The_Great_-_Act_III
1.jk_-_Otho_The_Great_-_Act_IV
1.lb_-_South-Folk_in_Cold_Country
1.pbs_-_Marenghi
1.poe_-_Eureka_-_A_Prose_Poem
1.rb_-_Pippa_Passes_-_Part_III_-_Evening
1.rb_-_Rhyme_for_a_Child_Viewing_a_Naked_Venus_in_a_Painting_of_'The_Judgement_of_Paris'
1.rb_-_Sordello_-_Book_the_Fourth
1.rwe_-_Boston
1.rwe_-_May-Day
1.sfa_-_Exhortation_to_St._Clare_and_Her_Sisters
1.ww_-_Book_Second_[School-Time_Continued]
1.ww_-_Book_Sixth_[Cambridge_and_the_Alps]
1.ww_-_Book_Tenth_{Residence_in_France_continued]
1.ww_-_The_Excursion-_V-_Book_Fouth-_Despondency_Corrected
2.02_-_Indra,_Giver_of_Light
2.03_-_Karmayogin__A_Commentary_on_the_Isha_Upanishad
2.03_-_On_Medicine
2.04_-_Agni,_the_Illumined_Will
2.05_-_The_Cosmic_Illusion;_Mind,_Dream_and_Hallucination
2.06_-_Reality_and_the_Cosmic_Illusion
2.07_-_On_Congress_and_Politics
2.0_-_THE_ANTICHRIST
2.11_-_The_Boundaries_of_the_Ignorance
2.1.4_-_The_Lower_Vital_Being
2.1.5.2_-_Languages
2.15_-_Reality_and_the_Integral_Knowledge
2.17_-_December_1938
2.18_-_January_1939
2.19_-_Feb-May_1939
2.19_-_The_Planes_of_Our_Existence
2.2.03_-_The_Science_of_Consciousness
2.20_-_Nov-Dec_1939
2.20_-_The_Lower_Triple_Purusha
2.21_-_The_Order_of_the_Worlds
2.2.1_-_The_Prusna_Upanishads
2.22_-_Rebirth_and_Other_Worlds;_Karma,_the_Soul_and_Immortality
2.24_-_The_Evolution_of_the_Spiritual_Man
2.26_-_Samadhi
2.26_-_The_Ascent_towards_Supermind
2.2.7.01_-_Some_General_Remarks
2.27_-_The_Gnostic_Being
2.3.02_-_The_Supermind_or_Supramental
2.3.03_-_Integral_Yoga
2.3.08_-_The_Physical_Consciousness
31.01_-_The_Heart_of_Bengal
3.2.3_-_Dreams
3.4.03_-_Materialism
3.4.1_-_The_Subconscient_and_the_Integral_Yoga
3.7.1.01_-_Rebirth
3.7.2.04_-_The_Higher_Lines_of_Karma
3_-_Commentaries_and_Annotated_Translations
4.01_-_Introduction
4.01_-_The_Principle_of_the_Integral_Yoga
4.1.3_-_Imperfections_and_Periods_of_Arrest
4.20_-_The_Intuitive_Mind
4.2.4.11_-_Psychic_Intensity
4.25_-_Towards_the_supramental_Time_Vision
5.01_-_Message
5.04_-_Supermind_and_the_Life_Divine
5.07_-_Mind_of_Light
5.1.01.1_-_The_Book_of_the_Herald
5.4.01_-_Notes_on_Root-Sounds
5.4.02_-_Occult_Powers_or_Siddhis
9.99_-_Glossary
APPENDIX_I_-_Curriculum_of_A._A.
BOOK_I._-_Augustine_censures_the_pagans,_who_attributed_the_calamities_of_the_world,_and_especially_the_sack_of_Rome_by_the_Goths,_to_the_Christian_religion_and_its_prohibition_of_the_worship_of_the_gods
BOOK_II._-_A_review_of_the_calamities_suffered_by_the_Romans_before_the_time_of_Christ,_showing_that_their_gods_had_plunged_them_into_corruption_and_vice
BOOK_III._-_The_external_calamities_of_Rome
BOOK_II._--_PART_III._ADDENDA._SCIENCE_AND_THE_SECRET_DOCTRINE_CONTRASTED
BOOK_II._--_PART_II._THE_ARCHAIC_SYMBOLISM_OF_THE_WORLD-RELIGIONS
BOOK_I._--_PART_I._COSMIC_EVOLUTION
BOOK_I._--_PART_III._SCIENCE_AND_THE_SECRET_DOCTRINE_CONTRASTED
BOOK_I._--_PART_II._THE_EVOLUTION_OF_SYMBOLISM_IN_ITS_APPROXIMATE_ORDER
BOOK_IV._-_That_empire_was_given_to_Rome_not_by_the_gods,_but_by_the_One_True_God
Book_of_Imaginary_Beings_(text)
BOOK_VII._-_Of_the_select_gods_of_the_civil_theology,_and_that_eternal_life_is_not_obtained_by_worshipping_them
BOOK_VI._-_Of_Varros_threefold_division_of_theology,_and_of_the_inability_of_the_gods_to_contri_bute_anything_to_the_happiness_of_the_future_life
BOOK_XIX._-_A_review_of_the_philosophical_opinions_regarding_the_Supreme_Good,_and_a_comparison_of_these_opinions_with_the_Christian_belief_regarding_happiness
BOOK_XVI._-_The_history_of_the_city_of_God_from_Noah_to_the_time_of_the_kings_of_Israel
COSA_-_BOOK_VII
Gorgias
Liber
r1912_01_15
r1912_01_16
r1912_01_27
r1912_12_19
r1913_01_16
r1920_03_08
Sayings_of_Sri_Ramakrishna_(text)
Sophist
Symposium_translated_by_B_Jowett
Tablets_of_Baha_u_llah_text
Talks_With_Sri_Aurobindo_1
Talks_With_Sri_Aurobindo_2
The_Act_of_Creation_text
The_Book_of_Certitude_-_P2
The_Dwellings_of_the_Philosophers
the_Eternal_Wisdom
The_Garden_of_Forking_Paths_1
The_Garden_of_Forking_Paths_2
The_Golden_Sentences_of_Democrates
The_Logomachy_of_Zos
The_Poems_of_Cold_Mountain
The_Theologians
The_Waiting

PRIMARY CLASS

Place
SIMILAR TITLES
province

DEFINITIONS


TERMS STARTING WITH

province ::: n. --> A country or region, more or less remote from the city of Rome, brought under the Roman government; a conquered country beyond the limits of Italy.
A country or region dependent on a distant authority; a portion of an empire or state, esp. one remote from the capital.
A region of country; a tract; a district.
A region under the supervision or direction of any special person; the district or division of a country, especially an


provinces, a thousand types, stages, forms, paths, variations of the spiritual idea, degrees of spiritual advancement. It is from the basis of this truth that things regarding spirituality and its seekers must be Judged.

province ::: sphere or field of activity.


TERMS ANYWHERE

106 Olympic Provinces, Phalec has dominion over

10 ordinary dreams) are usually in the great mass experiences of the vital plane, a world of supraphysical life, full of variety and interest, with many provinces, luminous or obscure, beauti- ful or perilous, often extremely attractive, where we can get much knowledge loo both of our concealed pans of nature and of things happening to us behind the veil and of others which are of concern for the development of our parts of nature. The vital being in us then may get very much attracted to this range of experience, may want to live more in it and less in the outer life.

28 of the 196 Olympian provinces in which Heaven

35 of the 196 Olympian provinces. His day is Friday.

Achaiah is a Roman province. Paul visited the

adelantado ::: n. --> A governor of a province; a commander.

Ajahn Chah BodhiNAna. (1918-1992). A prominent Thai monk who was one of the most influential Thai forest-meditation masters (PHRA PA) of the twentieth century. Born in the village of Baan Gor in the northeastern Thai province of Ubon Ratchathani, he was ordained as a novice at his local temple, where he received his basic education and studied the Buddhist teachings. After several years of training, he returned to lay life to attend to the needs of his parents, but motivated by his religious calling, at the age of twenty, he took higher ordination (UPASAMPADA) as a BHIKsU and continued his studies of PAli scripture. His father's death prompted him to travel to other monasteries in an effort to acquire a deeper understanding of Buddhist teaching and discipline under the guidance of different teachers. During his pilgrimage, he met AJAHN MUN BHuRIDATTA, the premier meditation master of the Thai forest-dwelling (ARANNAVASI) tradition. After that encounter, Ajahn Chah traveled extensively throughout the country, devoting his energies to meditation in forests and charnel grounds (sMAsANA). As his reputation grew, he was invited to establish a monastery near his native village, which became known as Wat Pa Pong after the name of the forest (reputed to be inhabited by ghosts) in which it was located. Ajahn Chah's austere lifestyle, simple method of mindfulness meditation, and straightforward style of teaching attracted a large following of monks and lay supporters, including many foreigners. In 1966, he established Wat Pa Nanachat, a branch monastery specifically for Western and other non-Thai nationals, next to Wat Pa Pong. In 1976, he was invited to England, which led to the establishment of the first branch monastery of Wat Pa Pong there, followed by others in Switzerland, Australia, New Zealand, and Italy. He also visited the United States, where he spoke at retreats at the Insight Meditation Center in Barre, Massachusetts. Ajahn Chah died in 1992, after several years in a coma.

Ajahn Mun Bhuridatta. (1870-1949). Thai monk who revitalized the Thai forest-monk tradition (Thai PHRA PA), and the subject of a celebrated Thai hagiography by Ajahn MahA Boowa NAnasampanno (b. 1913). Born in 1870, in Ban Khambong village in the province of Ubon Ratchathani, Mun was ordained in 1893 at Wat Liab and began studying insight practice (VIPAsYANA) under the guidance of Ajahn Sao Kantasīla (1861-1941). Through developing the meditation on foulness (AsUBHABHAVANA), he eventually had an experience of calmness (sAMATHA), and in order to enhance his practice, he embarked on the life of asceticism (P. DHUTAnGA) as a forest dweller (P. ARANNAVASI) in northeast Thailand and southern Laos. After every rains' retreat (VARsA) was over, he would travel into the forests, staying just close enough to a few small villages in order to perform his alms round (PIndAPATA) each morning. According to the hagiography, after first experiencing the fruition of the state of the nonreturner (ANAGAMIN), he eventually achieved the stage of a worthy one (ARHAT) in Chiang Mai, an experience that he said shook the entire universe and brought a roar of accolades from the heavenly hosts. Ajahn Mun became a widely known and respected meditator and teacher, who was invited to dwell in monasteries throughout much of Thailand. The hagiography compiled by Ajahn MahA Boowa is filled with exuberantly told tales of his meditative visions, prophetic dreams, lectures and instructions, and encounters with other eminent monks, laypeople, and even with deceased arhats and divinities (DEVA) such as sAKRA with his 100,000 strong retinue. Ajahn Mun's many prominent disciples helped revive the Thai forest-monk tradition, especially in the northeast, and defined its austere practices (Thai, THUDONG; P. DHUTAnGA) in their contemporary context.

Alaungpaya. Burmese king (r. 1752-1760) and founder of the Konbaung dynasty (1752-1885), the last Burmese royal house before the British conquest. He was born the son of the village headman of Mokesoebo in Upper Burma in 1711. Originally named Aungzeyya, he succeeded his father as headman and early on showed charismatic signs of leadership. By this time, the then Burmese empire of Taungoo, which had been founded in 1531, was on the verge of collapse. The Mon of Lower Burma, whose capital was Pegu, rebelled and soon swept northward, eventually capturing the Burmese capital, AVA, and executing its king. When emissaries from the Mon king, Binnya-dala, demanded the allegiance of Mokesoebo, Aungzeyya beheaded them and organized a rebellion to restore Burmese sovereignty. Gathering around him a loyal cohort of local chiefs and soldiers from Ava, he crowned himself king and established Mokesoebo as his first capital, which he renamed Shwebo. A brilliant tactician and masterful propagandist, he assumed the title Alaungpaya, meaning "Future Buddha," and waged war on the Mon as a BODHISATTVA intent on restoring the purity of the Buddha's religion and ushering in a golden age. In 1753, he recaptured Ava and subdued the Shan chieftains on his northern flank. In 1755, he captured the strategic port town of Dagon, which he renamed Yangon (Rangoon), meaning "End of Strife." In 1757, after a protracted siege, he destroyed Pegu, the last stronghold of Mon resistance, executing its king, Binnya-dala, and massacring its population. After consolidating Burmese control over the central provinces, Alaungpaya marched his armies against the Hindu kingdom of Manipur, which had taken advantage of the civil war to pillage Burma's western territories. Having vanquished Manipur, in 1760, he moved against the Thai kingdom of AYUTHAYA in the east in retaliation for fomenting anti-Burmese rebellions along the border. The Burmese seized Moulmein, Tavoy, and Tenasserim, but Alaungpaya was mortally wounded during the siege of Ayuthaya and died during the subsequent Burmese retreat. The empire created by Alaungpaya expanded under his sons and their descendants, eventually bringing it into conflict with the British East India Company.

albanian ::: a. --> Of or pertaining to Albania, a province of Turkey. ::: n. --> A native of Albania.

Amdo (Tibetan) a mdo. The northeastern-most region of the Tibetan cultural area, roughly equivalent to the northeastern quarter of the present Chinese province of Tsinghai (Qinghai), including the area around the Koko Nor. Tsong-kha-pa was born here, in the locality of Tsong-kha, southeast of the Koko Nor. In the time of the third Dalai Lama the great monastery of Kumbum (Tibetan shu ’bum) was founded at Tsong-kha-pa’s birthplace.

A myes rma chen. (Amnye Machen). A mountain that stands beside a bend in the Yellow River in the Chinese province of Qinghai (which Tibetans call the A mdo region), the seat of the Tibetan mountain god RMA CHEN SPOM RA. This mountain is an important pilgrimage site in northeastern Tibet.

ankokuji. (安國寺). In Japanese, "temples for the pacification of the country." After the Ashikaga shogunate took over control of the capital of Kyoto from the rapidly declining forces of Emperor Godaigo (1288-1339) between the years 1336 and 1337, they sought to heal the scars of civil war by following the suggestions of the ZEN master MUSo SOSEKI and building pagodas and temples in every province of Japan. By constructing these temples, the shogunate also sought to subsume local military centers under the control of the centralized government, just as the monarch Shomu (r. 724-749) had once done with the KOKUBUNJI system. These pagodas were later called rishoto, and the temples were given the name ankokuji in 1344. Many of these temples belonged to the lineages of the GOZAN system, especially that of Muso and ENNI BEN'EN.

aracanese ::: a. --> Of or pertaining to Aracan, a province of British Burmah. ::: n. sing. & pl. --> A native or natives of Aracan.

Arathron: The Olympian Spirit (q.v.) governing Saturn, ruler of 49 Olympian Provinces of the universe; his day is Saturday.

archbishop ::: n. --> A chief bishop; a church dignitary of the first class (often called a metropolitan or primate) who superintends the conduct of the suffragan bishops in his province, and also exercises episcopal authority in his own diocese.

archbishopric ::: n. --> The jurisdiction or office of an archbishop; the see or province over which archbishop exercises archiepiscopal authority.

arendator ::: n. --> In some provinces of Russia, one who farms the rents or revenues.

asiarch ::: n. --> One of the chiefs or pontiffs of the Roman province of Asia, who had the superintendence of the public games and religious rites.

  A spiritual truth that is incomprehensible to reason and knowable only through divine revelation. 2. Something that is not fully understood or that baffles or eludes the understanding; an enigma. 3. A mysterious character or quality. 4. The skills, lore, practices and secret rites that are peculiar to a particular activity or group and are regarded as the special province of initiates. Mystery, mystery’s, Mystery’s, mysteries, mystery-altar’s. (Sri Aurobindo also employs the word as an adj.)

assamese ::: a. --> Of or pertaining to Assam, a province of British India, or to its inhabitants. ::: n. sing. & pl. --> A native or natives of Assam.

Baiyun Shouduan. (J. Hakuun Shutan; K. Paegun Sudan 白雲守端) (1025-1072). Chinese CHAN master of the LINJI ZONG. Baiyun was a native of Hengyang in present-day Hunan province. After studying with various teachers, Baiyun eventually became a disciple of the Chan master YANGQI FANGHUI (992-1049) and inherited his YANGQI PAI collateral lineage of the Linji school. Baiyun's illustrious career took him to such monasteries as Shengtian Chanyuan in Jiangzhou, Shongsheng Chanyuan in Yuantong, Zhengdao Chanyuan on Mt. Fahua, Ganming Chanyuan on Mt. Longmen, and Haihui Chanyuan on Mt. Baiyun, whence he acquired his toponym. The Yangqi lineage came to dominate the Chan tradition of the Song dynasty largely through the efforts of Baiyun and his disciples. Among Baiyun's disciples, WUZU FAYAN (1024?-1104) is most famous. His teachings can be found in the Baiyun Shouduan yulu, Baiyun Duan heshang guanglu, and Baiyun Duan heshang yuyao.

Bao'ensi. (報恩寺). In Chinese, "Requiting Kindness Monastery"; located in Jiangsu province. Sometime during the first half of the third century, the Sogdian monk KANG SENGHUI brought to the Wu dynasty (222-264) of the Chinese Three Kingdoms period (c. 220-280 CE) a relic (sARĪRA) of the Buddha. The Wu emperor ordered the construction of a monastery called JIANCHUSI (First Built Monastery), where he installed a legendary AsOKA STuPA to enshrine that relic. The monastery went through several renovations and relocations during the successive dynasties that had suzerainty over the region. The establishment of the Ming dynasty's capital in the nearby city of Nanjing helped the monastery regain imperial patronage. In 1412, the Yongle emperor of the Ming dynasty began repairs on the monastery in commemoration of his wife's death and renamed it Bao'ensi. He also ordered the construction of a new nine-story stupa there, now known as the "Porcelain Pagoda," which was decorated with white bricks, glazed tiles, and murals executed by leading artists of the day.

Baotang Wuzhu. (J. Hoto Muju: K. Podang Muju 保唐無住) (714-774). Chinese monk in the early CHAN school, who is considered the founder of the BAOTANG ZONG during the Tang dynasty. Baotang is the name of the monastery where Wuzhu resided (located in present-day Sichuan province). Wuzhu is said to have attained awakening through the influence of Chen Chuzhang (d.u.), a lay disciple of the monk Hui'an (582-799; a.k.a. Lao'an); Chen was thought to be an incarnation of the prototypical Buddhist layman VIMALAKĪRTI. According to the LIDAI FABAO JI, Wuzhu attended a mass ordination performed by the Korean monk CHoNGJONG MUSANG at Jingzhong monastery in the city of Chengdu. Upon hearing Musang's instructions to practice in the mountains, Wuzhu left for Baiyaishan, where he remained for the next seven years (759-766). He subsequently went to the monastery Konghuisi, until he finally moved to Baotangsi, where he passed away in the summer of 774. Wuzhu was famous for his antinomian teachings that rejected all devotional practices, and is remembered as the founder of the eponymous BAOTANG ZONG. Wuzhu's successor was a lay disciple by the name of Tu Hongjian, deputy commander-in-chief and vice president of the Imperial Chancellery.

Baotang zong. (J. Hotoshu; K. Podang chong 保唐宗). An important school of the early Chinese CHAN tradition, known for its radically antinomian doctrines. The school takes its name from the monastery (Baotangsi) where the school's putative founder, BAOTANG WUZHU, resided. The monastery was located in Jiannan (in modern-day Sichuan province), in the vicinity of the city of Chengdu. Until the recent discovery of the LIDAI FABAO JI at DUNHUANG, information on this school was limited to the pejorative comments found in the writings of the ninth-century CHAN historian GUIFENG ZONGMI. Owing perhaps to the antinomian teachings espoused by its members, the school was short-lived. The school rejected all soteriological practices and devotional activities. No images of the Buddha were enshrined in their monasteries, and they questioned the value of chanting scriptures and performing repentance rituals. Instead, they insisted on "simply sitting in emptiness and quietude" (zhikong xianzuo) and transmitting "no thought" (WUNIAN) in lieu of formal precepts. The Baotang lineage is often traced back to Hui'an (582-709; also known as Lao'an, "Old An," because of his long life), a disciple of the fifth patriarch HONGREN, and to Hui'an's lay disciple Chen Chuzhang (d.u.), through whose influence Baotang Wuzhu is said to have attained awakening. Although the author of the Lidai fabao ji, a disciple of Wuzhu, attempts to associate the Baotang lineage with that of CHoNGJONG MUSANG, the founder of the JINGZHONG ZONG, these schools are now considered to have been two distinct traditions. Like the Jingzhong school, the Baotang zong also seems to have exerted considerable influence on the development of Tibetan Buddhism, especially on the early teachings of RDZOGS CHEN (dzogchen).

beglerbeg ::: n. --> The governor of a province of the Ottoman empire, next in dignity to the grand vizier.

bengal ::: n. --> A province in India, giving its name to various stuffs, animals, etc.
A thin stuff, made of silk and hair, originally brought from Bengal.
Striped gingham, originally brought from Bengal; Bengal stripes.


Bethor: The Olympian Spirit (q.v.) governing Jupiter, ruler of 42 Olympian Provinces of the Universe; his day is Monday.

bey ::: n. --> A governor of a province or district in the Turkish dominions; also, in some places, a prince or nobleman; a beg; as, the bey of Tunis.

Bezeklik. In Uighur, "Place of Paintings"; an archeological site in Central Asia with more than seventy cave temples unique for their Uighur Buddhist wall paintings and inscriptions. Situated near the ruins of the ancient Uighur capital of Gaochang (Kharakhoja) and east of the modern city of TURFAN (in China's Xinjiang province), the Bezeklik caves were in use from roughly the fourth to the twelfth centuries CE. In addition to the extensive Buddhist presence in the caves, scholars have also found evidence of Manichaean Christian influence at the site. Nearby cave complexes include Toyuk and Sangim. In 1905, the German explorer Albert von Le Coq visited the site and removed many of its painted wall murals so that they could be sent back to Europe for study and safekeeping. Ironically, many of the murals von Le Coq removed were destroyed during the Allied bombing of Berlin during World War II. What remains of his collection is now housed in museums in Berlin.

Binglingsi. (J. Heireiji; K. Pyongnyongsa 炳靈寺). In Chinese, "Bright and Numinous Monastery"; site of a Buddhist cave complex, located fifty miles outside Lanzhou, the capital of the present-day Chinese province of Gansu, and accessible only by boat. The complex contains 183 caves with 694 stone and eighty-two clay statues. Binglingsi, along with MAIJISHAN, developed under the patronage of the Qifu rulers of the Western Qin dynasty (385-43). The carving of Buddhist caves at Binglingsi may have started as early as the late fourth century; however, the earliest inscription was found in cave 169 and is dated 420. Two novel features can be found in cave 169. One is the stylistic link of some of its sculptures with the Buddhist art of KHOTAN on the southern SILK ROAD. For example, five seated buddhas in niche 23 inside the cave are attired in their monastic robes and perform the meditation gesture (DHYANAMUDRA), backed by a large aureole. Second, numerous inscriptions identify the sculptures and painted images in this cave, which include AMITABHA Buddha, accompanied by AVALOKITEsVARA (GUANYIN) and MAHASTHAMAPRAPTA (Dashizi). This triad in niche 6 closely resembles the style of Liangzhou, and thus KUCHA. Among the painted images are the buddhas of the ten directions (see DAsADIs), members of the Qin dynastic house, and the state preceptor (GUOSHI) Tanmobi (Dharmapriya), cotranslator with ZHU FONIAN of the AstASAHASRIKAPRAJNAPARAMITA. The representations in cave 169 depict the content of then-newly translated scriptures such as the VIMALAKĪRTINIRDEsA, SADDHARMAPUndARĪKASuTRA, and the shorter SUKHAVATĪVYuHASuTRA (see also AMITABHASuTRA), which had been translated by KUMARAJĪVA in Chang'an around 400-410. The sculptures and paintings at Binglingsi serve as precedents for the subsequent Northern Wei sculpture found at YUNGANG and LONGMEN.

bka' 'gyur. (kangyur). In Tibetan, "translation of the word [of the Buddha]," one of the two traditional divisions of the Tibetan Buddhist canon, along with the BSTAN 'GYUR, the translation of the treatises (sASTRA). The bka' 'gyur comprises those SuTRAs and TANTRAs that were accepted by the tradition as spoken or directly inspired by the Buddha. The collection was redacted, primarily by the fourteenth-century polymath BU STON RIN CHEN GRUB, based upon earlier catalogues, lists, and collections of texts, particularly a major collection at SNAR THANG monastery. The four major editions of the bka' 'gyur presently in circulation (called the Co ne, SNAR THANG, SDE DGE, and Beijing editions after the places they were printed) go back to two earlier branches of the textual tradition, called Them spangs ma and 'Tshal pa in modern scholarship. The first xylographic print of the bka' 'gyur was produced in China in 1410; the Sde dge bka' 'gyur, edited by Si tu Gstug lag chos kyi 'byung gnas (1700-1774) was printed in the Tibetan kingdom of Sde dge (in present-day Sichuan province) in 1733. While the collection is traditionally said to include 108 volumes (an auspicious number), most versions contain somewhat fewer. The Snar thang edition holds ninety-two volumes, divided as follows: thirteen volumes of VINAYA, twenty-one volumes of PRAJNAPARAMITA, six volumes of the AVATAMSAKASuTRA, six volumes of the RATNAKutASuTRA, thirty volumes of other sutras, and twenty-two volumes of tantras. The BON tradition formulated its own bka' 'gyur, based on the Buddhist model, in the late fourteenth or early fifteenth century.

province ::: n. --> A country or region, more or less remote from the city of Rome, brought under the Roman government; a conquered country beyond the limits of Italy.
A country or region dependent on a distant authority; a portion of an empire or state, esp. one remote from the capital.
A region of country; a tract; a district.
A region under the supervision or direction of any special person; the district or division of a country, especially an


provinces, a thousand types, stages, forms, paths, variations of the spiritual idea, degrees of spiritual advancement. It is from the basis of this truth that things regarding spirituality and its seekers must be Judged.

province ::: sphere or field of activity.

brabantine ::: a. --> Pertaining to Brabant, an ancient province of the Netherlands.

Budai. (J. Hotei; K. P'odae 布袋) (d. 916). A legendary Chinese monk, whose name literally means "Hemp Sack"; also occasionally referred to as Fenghua Budai, Changtingzi, and Budai heshang. He is said to have hailed from Fenghua county in Ningbo prefecture of Zhejiang province. Budai is often depicted as a short figure with an enormous belly and a staff or walking stick on which he has hung a hemp bag or sack (budai), whence derives his name. Budai wandered from one town to the next begging for food, some of which he saved in his sack. This jolly figure is remembered as a thaumaturge who was particularly famous for accurately predicting the weather. On his deathbed, Budai left the following death verse, which implied he was in fact a manifestation of the BODHISATTVA MAITREYA: "Maitreya, true Maitreya, / His thousands, hundreds, and tens of millions of manifestations, / From time to time appear among his fellow men, / But remain unrecognized by his fellow men." Budai is also associated in China with AnGAJA, the thirteenth of the sixteen ARHATs (see sOdAsASTHAVIRA) who serve as protector figures. Angaja had been a snake wrangler before he ordained, so whenever he went into the mountains, he carried a cloth bag with him to catch snakes, which he would release after removing their fangs so they would not injure people. For this reason, he earned the nickname "Cloth-Bag Arhat" (Budai luohan/heshang). In Zhejiang province, many images of Budai were made for worship, and an image of Budai installed in the monastery of MANPUKUJI on Mt. obaku in Japan is still referred to as that of the bodhisattva Maitreya. The local cult hero and thaumaturge Budai was quickly appropriated by the CHAN community as a trickster-like figure, leading to Budai often being as called the "Laughing Buddha." In Japan, Budai is also revered as one of the seven gods of virtue (see SHICHIFUKUJIN). It is Budai who is commonly depicted in all manner of kitschy knickknacks and called the "Fat Buddha." He has never been identified with, and is not to be mistaken for, sAKYAMUNI Buddha.

burgundy ::: n. --> An old province of France (in the eastern central part).
A richly flavored wine, mostly red, made in Burgundy, France.


Byang chub 'od. (Jangchup Ö) (late tenth century). Grandnephew of King YE SHES 'OD who successfully invited the Indian Buddhist monk and scholar ATIsA DĪPAMKARAsRĪJNANA to Tibet. During the second half of the tenth century, Ye shes 'od (also known as Song nge) became the king of Mnga' ris (Ngari), now the far western region of Tibet. He sent a number of Tibetans to Kashmir (see KASHMIR-GANDHARA) to study Buddhism, among them the translator RIN CHEN BZANG PO whose return to Tibet in 978 marks the beginning of the later spread of Buddhism (PHYI DAR). (Others date the beginning to the start of the second MuLASARVASTIVADA ordination line, which began at about the same period.) According to a well-known story, Ye shes 'od wanted to invite the foremost Indian Buddhist scholar of the day, Atisa, to Tibet and traveled to the Qarluq (T. gar log) kingdom (probably to KHOTAN in present-day Chinese Xianjiang province), to raise funds. He was captured by the chieftain and held for ransom. Ye shes 'od sent a letter to his nephew Byang chub 'od, saying that rather than use money for a ransom to free him, he should use any money collected for his release to invite Atisa. Ye shes 'od died in captivity, but Byang chub 'od succeeded in convincing Atisa to come to Tibet where he had a great influence, particularly on the earlier followers of the BKA' GDAMS sect. The history of this period becomes more important in later Tibetan history when TSONG KHA PA, the founder of the DGE LUGS sect, described Atisa as the perfect teacher in his seminal work the LAM RIM CHEN MO. In the seventeenth century, when the Dge lugs rose to political power under the fifth DALAI LAMA and his supporters, Byang chub 'od and Atisa were incorporated into a complex founding myth legitimating Dge lugs ascendancy and the DGA' LDAN PHO BRANG government.

canada ::: n. --> A British province in North America, giving its name to various plants and animals.

Caoshan Benji. (J. Sozan Honjaku; K. Chosan Ponjok 曹山本寂) (840-901). Chinese CHAN master and reputed cofounder of the CAODONG line of Chan; also known as Danzhang. Caoshan was a native of Quanzhou in present-day Fujian province. After leaving home at age eighteen and fully ordaining at twenty-five, Caoshan visited the Chan master DONGSHAN LIANGJIE and became his disciple. Caoshan was later invited to Mt. Heyu in Fuzhou (present-day Jiangxi province), and there he established his unique style of Chan. He later renamed the mountain Mt. Cao (or Caoshan) after the sixth patriarch HUINENG's own residence of CAOXISHAN. Caoshan's line of Chan came to be known as Caodong, which is derived eponymously from the first Sinograph in both Caoshan and Dongshan's names. One of the most emblematic teachings of the Caodong tradition is that of the "five ranks" (WUWEI), taught by Dongshan and further developed by Caoshan, a form of dialectical analysis that JUEFAN HUIHONG (1071-1128) considered to be the origin of "lettered Chan" (WENZI CHAN). Caoshan was later given the posthumous title Great Master Yunzheng. Although Caoshan had many disciples, his own lineage did not survive into the Song dynasty and the Caodong line was carried on by the lineage of Yunju Daoying (d. 902), a fellow student of Dongshan.

Caoxishan. [alt. Caoqishan] (J. Sokeizan; K. Chogyesan 曹溪山). A sacred mountain in the south of China, located in Shaozhou, present-day Guangdong province, and closely associated with the CHAN ZONG. According to legend, an Indian brAhmana who arrived at the mountain in 502 was so moved by the taste of its spring water that he suggested that a monastery be constructed there. The monastery was built and named Baolinsi, or Bejeweled Forest Monastery. The brAhmana also predicted that a great teacher would one day preach the DHARMA at the monastery and awaken beings as numerous as the trees in the forest. This tale may be attributed to followers of the legendary sixth patriarch (LIUZU) of the Chan school, HUINENG, who purportedly arrived at Baolinsi in 677. Upon his arrival, Huineng is also said to have established separate quarters for meditative practice within the monastery's compounds, which later came to be known as Huoguoyuan or NANHUASI. The mountain's name of Caoxi is sometimes also used as a toponym of Huineng, its most famous inhabitant. Caoxishan (in its Korean pronunciation of Chogyesan) is also an important Buddhist mountain in Korea and is the site of the famous practice monastery of SONGGWANGSA. See also CHOGYE CHONG.

Caoyuan Daosheng. (J. Sogen Dosho; K. Chowon Tosaeng 曹源道生) (d. 1192). A Chinese CHAN master of the LINJI ZONG. Caoyuan was a native of Nanjian in present-day Fujian province. He later became a student of the eminent Chan master MI'AN XIANJIE and made a name for himself at the monastery of Ruguosi in Jiangxi province. Caoyuan subsequently resided at such monasteries as Guifengsi and Qianfusi, also in Jiangxi province. Those in his lineage are sometimes specifically referred to as the Caoyuan branch of the Linji lineage. Caoyuan's teachings are found in his Caoyuan heshang yulu and Caoyuan Sheng chanshi yuyao.

cede ::: v. t. --> To yield or surrender; to give up; to resign; as, to cede a fortress, a province, or country, to another nation, by treaty.

champagne ::: n. --> A light wine, of several kinds, originally made in the province of Champagne, in France.

Changlu Zongze. (J. Choro Sosaku; K. Changno Chongsaek 長蘆宗賾) (d.u.; fl. c. late eleventh to early twelfth centuries). Chinese CHAN monk of the YUNMEN ZONG. Little is known about his life, but Changlu is said to have been a native of Yongnian in Luozhou, in present-day Henan province. Changlu also seems to have had a close relation to the disciples of Tianyi Yihuai (993-1064), himself a disciple of the Yunmen Chan master XUEDOU CHONGXUAN. Changlu eventually became a student of Tianyi's disciples Fayun Faxiu (1027-1090) and Changlu Yingfu (d.u.), and later inherited the latter's lineage. Changlu Zongze is most famous for his compilation of the influential text on Chan monastic regulations or "rules of purity" (QINGGUI), the CHANYUAN QINGGUI, during his tenure at the Chan monastery Hongji chanyuan in 1103. When a revised edition of the Chanyuan qinggui was published in 1202, the meditation manual ZUOCHAN YI, probably composed by Changlu or his colleagues, was included. Changlu is also remembered as a PURE LAND adept renowned for his rigorous practice of NIANFO, the recitation of the name of the buddha AMITABHA. He later moved to Changlu in present-day Jiangxi province, whence he acquired his toponym. Changlu was later given the title Chan master Cijue (Compassionate Enlightenment).

Chikchisa. (直指寺). In Korean, "Direct Pointing Monastery"; the eighth district monastery (PONSA) of the contemporary CHOGYE CHONG of Korean Buddhism, located on Mount Hwangak in North Kyongsang province. The monastery purports to have been founded in 418 CE by the Koguryo monk Ado (fl. c. 418). There are three different stories about how the monastery got its name. The first version states that the name originated when Ado pointed directly at Mount Hwangak and said, "At that place, a large monastery will be established." The second story says that a monk called Nŭngyo (fl. c. 936) laid out the monastery campus using only his hands and without using any other measuring devices; hence, the monastery was given the name "Direct Measuring" (chikchi). A third story connects the name to the famous line concerning the soteriological approach of the SoN or CHAN school: "direct pointing to the human mind" (K. chikchi insim; C. ZHIZHI RENXIN). With the support of the Koryo king Taejo (r. 918-943), Nŭngyo restored the monastery in 936; major renovations followed in the tenth century and again during the Choson dynasty. In 1595, during the Japanese Hideyoshi invasions, all its buildings except the Ch'onbul Chon (Thousand Buddhas Hall), Ch'onwang Mun (Heavenly Kings Gate), and Chaha Mun (Purple-Glow Gate) were burned to the ground. The monastery was rebuilt in a massive construction project that began in 1602 and lasted for seventy years. The monastery enshrines many treasures, including a seated figure of the healing buddha BHAIsAJYAGURU and a hanging picture of a Buddha triad (Samjonbul T'AENGHWA). Two three-story stone pagodas are located in front of the main shrine hall (TAEUNG CHoN) and other three-story pagodas are located in front of the Piro chon (VAIROCANA Hall).

Chinp'yo. (眞表) (fl. c. eighth century). Korean VINAYA master (yulsa) during the Silla dynasty. Chinp'yo was a native of Mangyong county in Wansan province (present-day Chonju). According to legend, Chinp'yo is said to have been a student of a certain dharma master named Sungje (d.u.) of the monastery of KŬMSANSA, and was himself responsible for a major expansion of the monastery that took place between 762 and 766. Sungje, who purportedly studied under the eminent Chinese monk SHANDAO, informed Chinp'yo of his vision of MANJUsRĪ on WUTAISHAN, after which Chinp'yo decided to devote himself to the practice of body-discarding repentance (mangsinch'am) at Pusaŭiam (Inconceivable Hermitage). In 740, after seven nights of ascetic repentance, Chinp'yo had a vision of the BODHISATTVA KsITIGARBHA. Chinp'yo continued his training at the monastery Yongsansa, where he had a vision of the bodhisattva MAITREYA. From Maitreya, Chinp'yo received the divination scripture, ZHANCHA SHANE YEBAO JING, and 189 divination sticks made of sandalwood, two of which were said to have been made of Maitreya's fingers. In 766, he began teaching at Kŭmsansa, where he installed six gilded images of Maitreya in the main shrine hall (TAEUNG CHoN). King Kyongdok (r. 742-764) later invited Chinp'yo to the palace and received the bodhisattva precepts (K. posal kye, C. PUSA JIE). Chinp'yo had many disciples, among whom Yongsim (d.u.) is most famous.

Chirisan. (智異山). In Korean, "Mountain of the Wise and Extraordinary [Bodhisattva]" (though the term more probably means "round mountain"; see below); a Buddhist sacred mountain and the second highest mountain in Korea (its highest peak is Ch'onwangbong at 5,745 ft./1,915 m.) after Hallasan. Chirisan is located on the southern end of the Paektu taegan, the marchmount that is regarded geographically and spiritually as the geomantic "spine" of the Korean peninsula, and is the widest and highest section of the Sobaeksan subrange. Chiri Mountain stretches across the three southernmost provinces of the Korean peninsula: North Cholla, South Cholla, and South Kyongsang and has been considered a place where the BODHISATTVA MANJUsRĪ is constantly preaching. Because of this association, Buddhists have traditionally interpreted the Chinese characters used to transcribe the mountain's name Chiri as deriving from the -ri in the Sino-Korean transcription of MaNjusrī's name (K. Munsusari) combined with the character chi(-ji) in his epithet "He of Great Wisdom" (Taeji); the near-homophone i ("extraordinary") was ultimately substituted for the character -ri to indicate that MaNjusrī represents himself in various "extraordinary" guises in order to save sentient beings. Recent research by historical linguists has, however, called this Buddhist parsing of the name into question. One of the earliest names found in Korean sources for the mountain is Turyu (lit. "Head Flowing"), which seems to be a transcription using Sinographs of the indigenous Korean word turu (now the adverb "widely" but previously used as an adjective meaning "round"), which in the local dialect changed from turuto turi, tŭri, tiri, to finally chiri. Hence, Chirisan is actually the transcription of an indigenous Korean word meaning "round mountain," referring to the many rounded peaks, punctuated by winding valleys, that dominate the massif. Chirisan's steepest summit is Ch'onwangbong Peak (5,745 ft/1,915 m) in the north, but its principal peaks include Songnisan (3,171 ft./1,057 m) in the south, Nogodan (4,521 ft/1,507 m) in the west, and Panyabong (5,271 ft/1,751 m) in the north central region of the massif. Chirisan has long been considered one of the "three spiritual mountains" (samsinsan) of Korea, along with KŬMGANGSAN and Hallasan, and has been a major center of Buddhist practice on the peninsula. There are currently 350 to 400 monasteries and hermitages on Chirisan, the three largest of which are HWAoMSA, SSANGGYESA, and CHoNŬNSA. Chiri Mountain is now protected as a national park, the first such designation made in Korea.

Ch'onch'aek. (天頙) (1206-?). The fourth patriarch of the Korean White Lotus Society (PAENGNYoN KYoLSA) during the middle of the Koryo dynasty; also known as State Preceptor Chinjong ("True Calmness" or "True Purity," using homophonous Sinographs). Ch'onch'aek was a descendent of a Koryo merit official, who devoted himself to Confucian studies from a young age and passed the civil-service examinations at the age of twenty. At twenty-three, he became a monk under the tutelage of State Preceptor WoNMYO YOSE (1163-1245), the founder of the White Lotus Society (cf. BAILIAN SHE) at Mount Mandok in T'amjin county (present-day Kangjin in South Cholla province), and subsequently assisted his teacher Yose in the Society's campaign. In 1244, Ch'onch'aek traveled to Mimyonsa on Mount Kongdok in Sangju county (present-day Mun'gyong in North Kyongsang province) to open and lead the society there at the request of the renowned magistrate of Sangju, Ch'oe Cha (1188-1260). The Kongdoksan branch of the society was called the East White Lotus; the Mandoksan branch was by contrast called the South White Lotus. In the late 1250s or early 1260s, Ch'onch'aek returned to Mandoksan to become the fourth patriarch of the White Lotus Society. He later retired to Yonghyoram (Dragon Cavity Hermitage) on Mount Tongnyong, south of Mandoksan, where he continued an active correspondence with literati. Indeed, Ch'onch'aek maintained close associations with several of the famous literati of his time and invited them to participate in the activities of the White Lotus Society. Ch'onch'aek's thought reflects the historical realities of Korea during the Mongol invasion. In his letters to civil and military officials, Ch'onch'aek opined that killing the invading Mongol army would be an appropriate act for a BODHISATTVA, because it would stop the invaders from performing evil actions that would lead them to endless suffering in the hells. His Haedongjon hongnok ("Extended Record of the Transmission [of Buddhism] in Korea"), a four-roll collection of miracle tales related to worship of the SADDHARMAPUndARĪKASuTRA ("Lotus Sutra") , sought to popularize that scripture also in order to help bring peace to the Korean peninsula. Ch'onch'aek's literary talent was so renowned that the famous Choson literatus Chong Yagyong (1762-1836) counted him among the three greatest writers of the Silla and Koryo dynasties. Ch'onch'aek's works, none of which are extant in full, include the Haedongjon hongnok and his literary collection, the Hosan nok ("Record of Lakes and Mountains"). Authorship of the SoNMUN POJANGNOK is attributed to Ch'onch'aek, although this attribution is still in question.

Ch'ongho Hyujong. (清虚休静) (1520-1604). Korean SoN master of the Choson dynasty; best known to Koreans by his sobriquet Sosan taesa (lit. the Great Master "West Mountain," referring to Mt. Myohyang near present-day P'yongyang in North Korea). Hyujong was a native of Anju in present-day South P'yongan province. After losing his parents at an early age, Hyujong was adopted by the local magistrate of Anju, Yi Sajŭng (d.u.), and educated at the Songgyun'gwan Confucian academy. In 1534, Hyujong failed to attain the chinsa degree and decided instead to become a monk. He was ordained by a certain Sungin (d.u.) on CHIRISAN in 1540, and he later received the full monastic precepts from Hyuong Ilson (1488-1568). Hyujong later became the disciple of the Son master Puyong Yonggwan (1485-1571). In 1552, Hyujong passed the clerical exams (SŬNGKWA) revived by HoŮNG POU, who later appointed Hyujong the prelate (p'ansa) of both the SoN and KYO traditions. Hyujong also succeeded Pou as the abbot of the monastery Pongŭnsa in the capital, but he left his post as prelate and spent the next few years teaching and traveling throughout the country. When the Japanese troops of Hideyoshi Toyotomi (1536/7-1598) invaded Korea in 1592, Hyujong's disciple Kiho Yonggyu (d. 1592) succeeded in retaking the city of Ch'ongju, but died shortly afterward in battle. Hyujong himself was then asked by King Sonjo (r. 1567-1608) to lead an army against the invading forces. His monk militias (ŭisŭnggun) eventually played an important role in fending off the Japanese troops. When the king subsequently gave Hyujong permission to retire, the master left his command in the hands of his disciple SAMYoNG YUJoNG; he died shortly thereafter. Hyujong is said to have had more than one thousand students, among whom Yujong, P'yonyang Ŭn'gi (1581-1644), Soyo T'aenŭng (1562-1649), and Chonggwan Ilson (1533-1608) are best known. Hyujong left a number of writings, including the SoN'GA KWIGAM, which is one of the most widely read works of the Korean Buddhist tradition. Other important works include the Samga kwigam, Son'gyo sok, Son'gyo kyol, and Solson ŭi. In these works, Hyujong attempted to reconcile the teachings of the Son and Kyo traditions of Buddhism, as well as the doctrines of Buddhism and Confucianism.

Chongjung Musang. (C. Jingzhong Wuxiang; J. Joshu Muso 淨衆無相) (680-756, alt. 684-762). Korean-Chinese CHAN master of the Tang dynasty; because he was of Korean heritage, he is usually called Musang in the literature, following the Korean pronunciation of his dharma name, or Master Kim (K. Kim hwasang; C. Jin heshang), using his Korean surname. Musang is said to have been the third son of a Silla king and was ordained in Korea at the monastery of Kunnamsa. In 728, he arrived in the Chinese capital of Chang'an (present-day Xi'an) and had an audience with the Tang emperor Xuanzong (r. 712-756), who appointed him to the monastery of Chandingsi. Musang subsequently traveled to Chu (in present-day Sichuan province) and became a disciple of the monk Chuji (alt. 648-734, 650-732, 669-736), who gave him dharma transmission at the monastery of Dechunsi in Zizhou (present-day Sichuan province). He later resided at the monastery of Jingzhongsi in Chengdu (present-day Sichuan province; later known as WANFOSI), which gave him his toponym Chongjung (C. Jingzhong). Musang became famous for his ascetic practices and meditative prowess. Musang also began conferring a unique set of precepts known as the three propositions (SANJU): "no recollection" (wuji), which was equated with morality (sĪLA); "no thought" (WUNIAN) with concentration (SAMADHI); and "no forgetting" (mowang) with wisdom (PRAJNA). He also taught a practice known as YINSHENG NIANFO, a method of reciting the name of the Buddha by extending the length of the intonation. Musang's prosperous lineage in Sichuan came to be known as the JINGZHONG ZONG line of Chan. Musang seems to have taught or influenced several renowned Chan monks, including HEZE SHENHUI (668-760), BAOTANG WUZHU (714-774), and MAZU DAOYI (707-786); he also played an important role in transmitting Chan to Tibet in the 750s and 760s.

Ch'ont'ae chong. (C. Tiantai zong; J. Tendaishu 天台宗). In Korean, "Altar of Heaven order"; a new order of Korean Buddhism, founded in 1966 by Won'gak Sangwol (1911-1974). Despite the order's name, which evokes that of the Chinese TIANTAI ZONG, the Ch'ont'ae chong is not heavily beholden to traditional Tiantai (K. Ch'ont'ae) doctrine and practice but is a thoroughly modern order, which seeks to respond to contemporary religious and social concerns. The school professes "aeguk Pulgyo" (patriotic Buddhism), which purports to contribute to the development of the nation through personal cultivation and social-welfare activities. Its primary method of spiritual cultivation involves the repetitive recitation of the name of Kwanseŭm posal (AVALOKITEsVARA bodhisattva), based in part on the constant-action SAMADHI (K. sanghaeng sammae; C. changxing sanmei), one of the four kinds of samAdhi attributed to the Chinese TIANTAI monk TIANTAI ZHIYI (538-597). The Ch'ont'ae order introduced a few distinctive elements that distinguish it from other Korean Buddhist orders, e.g., (1) all its followers, whether monks, nuns, or lay people, participate together in a one-month retreat each summer and winter, although monks and nuns have an additional fifty-five day retreat period that immediately follows the winter retreat; (2) monks observe the tradition of shaving their heads, while nuns keep their hair in a small chignon in order to distinguish themselves from laywomen. Since its inception, the order has emphasized lay activities: it encourages lay people to involve themselves in administrative affairs, such as temple finance; it founded the Kŭmgang Buddhist seminary, which offers a two-year program to educate lay people on Tiantai and general Buddhist doctrines and a one-year program to train lay propagators of Buddhism (p'ogyosa); finally, the order has also established Kŭmgang University (Geumgang Daehakkyo), which offers a full range of majors in both Buddhism and secular topics. The order is also active in social activities, such as the promotion of social welfare and environmental preservation. Its major temples are the Kuinsa headquarters founded by Sangwol in 1945 in North Ch'ungch'ong province; and Samgwangsa, founded in 1969 in Pusan. The school also has overseas branches in Canada, the United States, Denmark, and Mongolia.

Cieszanow ::: In August 1940 about 1,000 young men from Czestochowa between the ages of 18 and 25 were sent to the forced labor camp in Cieszanow (Lublin Province); almost none survived.

circar ::: n. --> A district, or part of a province. See Sircar.

colony ::: n. --> A company of people transplanted from their mother country to a remote province or country, and remaining subject to the jurisdiction of the parent state; as, the British colonies in America.
The district or country colonized; a settlement.
A company of persons from the same country sojourning in a foreign city or land; as, the American colony in Paris.
A number of animals or plants living or growing together, beyond their usual range.


comprovincial ::: a. --> Belonging to, or associated in, the same province. ::: n. --> One who belongs to the same province.

coquimbite ::: n. --> A mineral consisting principally of sulphate of iron; white copperas; -- so called because found in the province of Coquimbo, Chili.

Cosmology: A branch of philosophy which treats of the origin and structure of the universe. It is to be contrasted with ontology or metaphysics, the study of the most general features of reality, natural and supernatural, and with the philosophy of nature, which investigates the basic laws, processes and divisions of the objects in nature. It is perhaps impossible to draw or maintain a sharp distinction between these different subjects, and treatises which profess to deal with one of them usually contain considerable material on the others. Encyclopedia, section 35), are the contingency, necessity, eternity, limitations and formal laws of the world, the freedom of man and the origin of evil. Most philosophers would add to the foregoing the question of the nature and interrelationship of space and time, and would perhaps exclude the question of the nature of freedom and the origin of evil as outside the province of cosmology. The method of investigation has usually been to accept the principles of science or the results of metaphysics and develop the consequences. The test of a cosmology most often used is perhaps that of exhibiting the degree of accordance it has with respect to both empirical fact and metaphysical truth. The value of a cosmology seems to consist primarily in its capacity to provide an ultimate frame for occurrences in nature, and to offer a demonstration of where the limits of the spatio-temporal world are, and how they might be transcended.

Csoma de Kőros, Alexander. (1784-1842). Early European scholar of Tibet and its Buddhist culture. Csoma de Kőros was born in Transylvania, to a family descended from Magyar nobility. He developed an early interest in the origins of his Hungarian ancestry, which led him to dedicate himself to learning more about the history of the Hungarian language. Through his studies in Arabic, he eventually came to the conclusion that Hungarian had developed in the Tarim Basin of modern Xinjiang province in China, and so in 1819 he set out on foot for Yarkand in Turkestan. He crossed the mountains into Ladakh and reached KASHMIR in 1822. There, he spent a year travelling between Srinagar and Leh (the capital of Ladakh) in the hopes of finding a caravan to join in order to make his way to Yarkand. On one of these journeys, Csoma de Kőros met William Moorcroft, a veterinarian working for the British government. Moorcroft suggested that Csoma de Kőros' research might benefit more from traveling to LHA SA to learn about Tibetan language and literature. Although he never reached Lha sa, Csoma de Kőros spent nine years in monasteries in Ladakh and Zanskar learning Tibetan and studying Tibetan Buddhist texts. He devoted much of his research time to mastering Buddhist terminology. In 1830, he left for Calcutta, where he would live for eleven years. In Calcutta, Csoma de Kőros worked for the British East Indian Company through the Asiatic Society cataloguing Tibetan texts that were sent by BRIAN HOUGHTON HODGSON (1800-1894). He also published the first Tibetan grammar and dictionary in English, a translation of a ninth-century catalogue of Buddhist terminology, the MAHAVYUTPATTI, and a number of scholarly articles on the Tibetan canon. He died of malaria in Darjeeling (1842) as he continued his search for the ancestral homeland of the Hungarian people. Although Csoma de Kőros was not a Buddhist, he was declared a BODHISATTVA by Taisho University in Tokyo in 1933 and is often described as the "Father of Tibetology."

Daguan Zhenke. (J. Takkan Shinka; K. Talgwan Chin'ga 達觀眞可) (1543-1603). Chinese CHAN master of the Ming dynasty, also known as ZIBO. Daguan was a native of Jugu prefecture in Jiangsu province. He was ordained at age sixteen and is said to have attained awakening after reading the following verse by the layman Zhang Zhuo (d.u.), a disciple of the Chan master SHISHUANG QINGZHU: "Cutting off deluded thoughts increases maladies ever more,/ Heading out toward true suchness is also heresy" (duanji wangxiang zhongzeng bing,/ quxiang zhenru yishi xie). Like his influential contemporaries HANSHAN DEQING and YUNQI ZHUHONG, he was renowned for his advocacy of NIANFO Chan, in which Chan meditative practice was combined with the invocation or recitation of the name of the buddha AMITABHA. Daguan was known as one of the four great monks of the Ming dynasty along with Hanshan Deqing (1546-1623), Yunqi Zhuhong (1535-1615), and OUYI ZHIXU (1599-1655). Daguan's teachings are recorded in the Zibo zunzhe quanji and Zibo laoren shiji.

Dahong Bao'en. (J. Daiko Hoon; K. Taehong Poŭn 大洪報恩) (1058-1111). Chinese CHAN master of the CAODONG lineage. Dahong was a native of Liyang in present-day Henan province. Raised in a traditional family, he became an official at an early age, but later abandoned the position, with the court's permission, in order to ordain as a monk. He studied under the Chan master TOUZI YIQING and became his disciple. Dahong was later invited by the prime minister to lecture at the famed monastery of SHAOLINSI. In response to still another request, he moved to Mt. Dahong in Suizhou prefecture (present-day Hubei province), whence he acquired his toponym, and became the first Chan monk to convert a VINAYA monastery into a Chan center, which he named Chongning Baoshou Chanyuan. Dahong also became close friends with the powerful and outspoken statesman ZHANG SHANGYING (1043-1122). Dahong is known to have composed several texts including a history of the Caodong tradition, Caodong zongpai lu, and manuals for conferring the precepts, such as the Shou puti xinjie wen and Luofa shoujie yiwen; none of these texts are extant.

Dahong Shousui. (J. Daiko Shusui; K. Taehong Susu 大洪守遂) (1072-1147). Chinese CHAN master in the CAODONG lineage. Dahong was a native of Suining in present-day Sichuan province. He was ordained at the age of twenty-seven and became the student of DAHONG BAO'EN of Mt. Dahong and acquired the same toponym. In 1118, the title Great Master Jingyan (Pure and Strict) was bestowed upon him. After the invasion of Jin dynasty troops, Dahong moved south and became the abbot of the monastery Shuinan Chanyuan. Later he moved back to Mt. Dahong where he and his seven hundred disciples devoted themselves to its restoration.

Dahui Zonggao. (J. Daie Soko; K. Taehye Chonggo 大慧宗杲) (1089-1163). Influential Song-dynasty Chinese CHAN master in the LINJI ZONG; also known as Miaoxi, Yunmen, Tanhui, or more typically just Dahui (J. Daie; K. Taehye). Dahui was a native of Ningguo in Xuanzhou (present-day Anhui province). After studying at LUSHAN and Mt. Dong, Dahui became the student of the Chan master DANTANG WENZHUN; in 1115, aware of his impending death, Dantang encouraged Dahui to continue his studies under YUANWU KEQIN. Before approaching Yuanwu, Dahui visited the Chan master JUEFAN HUIHONG, at which time he also met the powerful statesman and layman ZHANG SHANGYING. In 1124, while Yuanwu was serving under imperial orders as abbot of the monastery of Tianningsi in Dongjing, Dahui became his disciple and later inherited his Linji lineage. At the recommendation of the current grand councilor, Dahui was given the title Fori Dashi (Great Master Buddha Sun). After Yuanwu returned to his home province of Sichuan, Dahui moved to the hermitage of Yunmen'an in Haihun (present-day Jiangxi province) to avoid the invading forces of the Jin dynasty. In 1134, Dahui moved again to the hermitage of Yangyuan in Fujian province, where he launched a harsh critique against the practice of "silent-illumination Chan" (MOZHAO CHAN), championing instead the "investigation of the meditative topic" (KANHUA CHAN) method of meditation. Dahui later served as abbot of the powerful monastery Nengren Chanyuan on Mt. Jing (see WANSHOUSI) and revitalized the teachings of the Chan master LINJI YIXUAN. While a truce with the rival Jin dynasty was being negotiated, Dahui was accused of collaborating with Jin forces, for which he was exiled to Hengzhou in present-day Hunan province. During this period, Dahui composed his magnum opus, ZHENGFAYANZANG. After he was absolved of his alleged crime of treason, Dahui began his residence on Mt. Ayuwang and befriended the CAODONG ZONG Chan master HONGZHI ZHENGJUE, who was the preemiment advocate of the "silent-illumination" technique that Dahui so harshly criticized, suggesting that this professional disagreement did not affect their personal ties. Dahui later returned to his post at Nengren Chanyuan and became the teacher of Emperor Xiaozong (r. 1162-1189), who gave him the title Chan Master Dahui (Great Wisdom). He was also given the posthumous title Chan Master Pujue (Universal Enlightenment), the name typically used in his publications. Dahui's teachings are recorded in his Dahui chanshi yulu, DAHUI PUJUE CHANSHI SHU, and DAHUI PUJUE CHANSHI ZONGMEN WUKU.

Đàm Lựu. (曇榴) (1933-1999). A prominent Vietnamese nun, born on April 8, 1933, in Hà Đông province (in northern Vietnam). At the age of two, she visited Cự Đà Temple with her parents but refused to leave and so spent her childhood there. In 1948, she took novice precepts and was sent to study Buddhism at various temples in North Vietnam. In 1951, she received full ordination as a nun and, in 1952, followed her teacher to South Vietnam when he was appointed abbot of Dược Sư Temple in Gò Váp. After completing her baccalaureate degree, she moved to Phước Hòa Temple in Saigon. In 1964, she earned a scholarship to study social work in West Germany. While in Freiburg, she divided her time between her studies and assisting Vietnamese orphans in Germany. After returning to South Vietnam in 1969, she was appointed director of Lumbini Orphanage in Saigon. In 1977, she escaped from Vietnam and, in 1979, settled in San José, California. In 1991, she founded Đức Vien Temple, which has subsequently served as a site for Buddhist practice and a center for many Vietnamese cultural activities. Until her death in 1999, Đàm Lựu oversaw the training of many young nuns and encouraged them to enroll in colleges and universities in North America, as well as in India and Taiwan. She also gave financial assistance to various Buddhist colleges in Vietnam.

DAnapAla. (C. Shihu; J. Sego; K. Siho 施護) (d.u.; fl. c. 980 CE). In Sanskrit, lit. "Protector of Giving"; one of the last great Indian translators of Buddhist texts into Chinese. A native of OddiyAna in the GANDHARA region of India, he was active in China during the Northern Song dynasty. At the order of the Song Emperor Taizhong (r. 960-997), he was installed in a translation bureau to the west of the imperial monastery of Taiping Xingguosi (in Yuanzhou, present-day Jiangxi province), where he and his team are said to have produced some 111 translations in over 230 rolls. His translations include texts from the PRAJNAPARAMITA, MADHYAMAKA, and tantric traditions, including the AstASAHASRIKAPRAJNAPARAMITA, SUVARnAPRABHASOTTAMASuTRA, SARVATATHAGATATATTVASAMGRAHA, HEVAJRATANTRA, NAGARJUNA's YUKTIsAstIKA and DHARMADHATUSTAVA, and KAMALAsĪLA's BHAVANAKRAMA, as well as several DHARAnĪ texts.

Daniel (Hebrew) Dāniyyē’l The Book of Daniel in the Old Testament has twelve chapters, the first six a historical narrative, the last six prophetic. According to the former, Daniel flourished about 600 b.c., was taken captive with the other Jews to Babylon by Nebuchadnezzar, and became a Magus. His skill in interpreting dreams procured him favor and the governorship of the province of Babylon. Later he became the first president of the whole Medo-Persian empire. Scholarship, however, finds difficulties in reconciling biblical data with information from other sources.

Dao'an. (J. Doan; K. Toan 道安) (312-385). In Chinese, "Peace of the Way"; monk-exegete and pioneer of Buddhism during the Eastern Jin dynasty. A native of Fuliu in present-day Hebei province, at the age of eleven he became a student of the famous Kuchean monk and thaumaturge FOTUDENG. Fleeing from the invasions of the so-called northern barbarians, Dao'an and his teacher relocated frequently, with Dao'an finally settling down in the prosperous city of Xiangyang in Hubei province, where he taught for fifteen years. Learning of Dao'an's great reputation, the Former Qin ruler Fu Jian (338-385) amassed an army and captured Xiangyang. After the fall of Xiangyang, Fu Jian invited Dao'an to the capital of Chang'an and honored him as his personal teacher. Dao'an later urged Fu Jian to invite the eminent Central Asian monk KUMARAJĪVA to China. In order to determine the authenticity and provenance of the various scriptural translations then being made in China, Dao'an compiled an influential catalogue of scriptures known as the ZONGLI ZHONGJING MULU, which was partially preserved in the CHU SANZANG JIJI. He also composed various prefaces and commentaries, and his exegetical technique of dividing a scripture into three sections (SANFEN KEJING)-"preface" (xufen), "text proper" (zhengzongfen), and "dissemination section" (liutongfen)-is still widely used even today in East Asian scriptural exegesis. In Dao'an's day, the Indian VINAYA recensions had not yet been translated into Chinese, so Dao'an took it upon himself to codify an early set of indigenous monastic regulations known as the Sengni guifan fofa xianzhang (no longer extant) as a guide for Chinese monastic practice. Also traced to Dao'an is the custom of monks and nuns abandoning their secular surnames for the surname SHI (a transcription of the Buddha's clan name sAKYA; J. Shaku; K. Sok; V. Thích), as a mark of their religious ties to the Buddha's lineage. Among his many disciples, LUSHAN HUIYUAN is most famous.

Daochuo. (J. Doshaku; K. Tojak 道綽) (562-645). Chinese monk and putative second patriarch of the JINGTU (pure land) tradition; also known as Chan Master Xihe (West River). Daochuo was a native of Bingzhou in present-day Shanxi province. He left home at an early age and studied the MAHAPARINIRVAnASuTRA. According to legend, in 609, Daochuo is said to have been inspired by TANLUAN's epitaph to continue the latter's efforts to further PURE LAND thought and practice. Daochuo is then said to have devoted himself to the practice of NIANFO, the invocation of the name of the buddha AMITABHA, and the daily recitation of the SUKHAVATĪVYuHASuTRA. Daochuo is perhaps more famous than even Tanluan for advocating the practice of recitation of the Buddha's name (NIANFO) over all other practices. He is also known for using small beans (xiaodou) to keep count of the number of recitations; some believe his habit of using counting beans is the origin of rosaries (JAPAMALA) in China. The influential pure land treatise ANLE JI is attributed to Daochuo.

Daosheng. (J. Dosho; K. Tosaeng 道生) (355-434). Influential Chinese monk during the Eastern Jin dynasty and renowned scholar of the MAHAPARINIRVAnASuTRA; also known as ZHU DAOSHENG. Daosheng was a native of Julu in present-day Hebei province. He became a student of the monk Zhu Fatai (320-387), changing his surname to Zhu in his honor. Daosheng received the full monastic precepts in his nineteenth year and took up residence at the monastery of Longguangsi in Jianye. Later, he moved to LUSHAN, where he studied under the eminent monk LUSHAN HUIYUAN. Daosheng also continued his studies under the famed translator and MADHYAMAKA scholar KUMARAJĪVA, and was later praised as one of KumArajīva's four great disciples. In 409, Daosheng returned to Jianye and made the controversial claim that even incorrigibles (ICCHANTIKA) may eventually attain enlightenment and that buddhahood is attained in an instant of awakening (DUNWU). For these claims, Daosheng was harshly criticized by the community of scholars in Jianye, which prompted Daosheng to return to Lushan once more. His interpretations were eventually corroborated in subsequent Chinese translations of the MAHAPARINIRVAnASuTRA and become emblematic of many important strands of indigenous Chinese Buddhism. Daosheng's teachings are quoted in many of his contemporaries' works and Daosheng himself is known to have composed numerous treatises and commentaries, including the Foxing dangyou lun ("Buddha Nature Perforce Exists"), Fashen wuse lun ("DHARMAKAYA Lacks Form"), Fo wu jingtu lun ("The Buddha has no Pure Land"), and Fahua jing yishu (a commentary on the SADDHARMAPUndARĪKASuTRA).

Daoxin. (J. Doshin; K. Tosin 道信) (580-651). Chan monk and reputed fourth patriarch of the CHAN tradition. Although Daoxin's birthplace is not certain, some sources say he was a native of Qizhou in present-day Hubei province, while others mention Henei in Henan province. Little is known of his early training, but early Chan sources such as the LENGQIE SHIZI JI and CHUAN FABAO JI claim that Daoxin studied under SENGCAN, the putative third patriarch of Chan and supposed successor to BODHIDHARMA and HUIKE, his connection to this dubious figure is tenuous at best, however, and is probably a retrospective creation. The earliest biography of Daoxin, recorded in the XU GAOSENG ZHUAN ("Supplementary Biographies of Eminent Monks"), not only does not posit any connection of Daoxin to the preceding three patriarchs but does not even mention their names. The Chuan fabao ji states that Daoxin was fully ordained in 607, after his purported period of study under Sengcan. Daoxin is subsequently known to have resided at the monastery of Dalinsi on LUSHAN in Jiangxi province for ten years. At the invitation of the inhabitants of his native Qizhou, Daoxin moved again to Mt. Shuangfeng in Huangmei (perhaps in 624), where he remained in seclusion for about thirty years. He is therefore sometimes known as Shuangfeng Daoxin. During his residence at Mt. Shuangfeng, Daoxin is claimed to have attracted more than five hundred students, among whom HONGREN, the fifth patriarch of Chan, is most famous. The lineage and teachings attributed to Daoxin and Hongren are typically called the East Mountain Teachings (DONGSHAN FAMEN) after the easterly peak of Mt. Shuangfeng, where Hongren dwelled. Daoxin was given the posthumous title Chan Master Dayi (Great Physician) by Emperor Daizong (r. 762-779) of the Tang dynasty. According to the Lengqie shizi ji, Daoxin composed the Pusajie zuofa ("Method of Conferring the BODHISATTVA Precepts"), which is no longer extant, and the Rudao anxin yaofangbian famen ("Essentials of the Teachings of the Expedient Means of Entering the Path and Pacifying the Mind"), which is embedded in the Lengqie shizi ji. This latter text employs the analogy of a mirror from the Banzhou sanmei jing (S. PRATYUTPANNABUDDHASAMMUKHAVASTHITASAMADHISuTRA) to illustrate the insubstantiality of all phenomena, viz., one's sensory experiences are no more substantial than the reflections in a mirror. The text then presents the "single-practice SAMADHI" (YIXING SANMEI) as a practical means of accessing the path leading to NIRVAnA, based on the Wenshushuo bore jing ("Perfection of Wisdom Sutra Spoken by Manjusrī"). Single-practice samAdhi here refers to sitting in meditation, the supreme practice that subsumes all other practices. In single-practice samAdhi, the meditator contemplates every single aspect of one's mental and physical existence until one realizes they are all empty, and "guards that one without deviation" (shouyi buyi).

Daoxuan. (J. Dosen; K. Toson 道宣) (596-667). Chinese VINAYA master and reputed patriarch of the Nanshan vinaya school (NANSHAN LÜ ZONG); also known as Fabian. Daoxuan was a native of Wuxing in present-day Zhejiang province (or, according to another report, Runzhou in Jiangsu province). Daoxuan became a monk at age fifteen and studied monastic discipline under the vinaya master Zhishou. He later moved to ZHONGNANSHAN and established the monastery of Nanquansi. Daoxuan was also a prolific writer. In 626, he composed the Sifen lü shanfan buque xingshi chao, one of the most influential commentaries on the SIFEN LÜ ("Four-Part Vinaya") of the DHARMAGUPTAKA school. The next year, he composed the Sifen lü shi pini yichao and the XU GAOSENG ZHUAN, Shijia fangzhi, JI GUJIN FODAO LUNHENG, and other texts in the following years. When the monastery XIMINGSI was established in 658 by Emperor Gaozong (r. 649-683) in the Tang capital of Chang'an, Daoxuan was invited to serve as its abbot. In 664, while at Ximingsi, Daoxuan compiled a comprehensive catalogue of scriptures known as the DA TANG NEIDIAN LU and, in continuation of his earlier Ji gujin fodao lunheng, wrote a collection of essays in defense of Buddhism entitled the GUANG HONGMING JI.

Daozhe Chaoyuan. (J. Dosha Chogen; K. Toja Ch'owon 道者超元) (1630-1698). Chinese CHAN and ZEN master in the LINJI lineage. Daozhe was a native of Xinghua prefecture in present-day Fujian province. He became a student of Gengxin Xingmi (1603-1659), a direct disciple of the Chan master FEIYIN TONGRONG and, after inheriting Gengxin's lineage, became a dharma cousin of the renowned Chan master YINYUAN LONGQI. In 1651, Daozhe traveled to Nagasaki, Japan, where he served as abbot of the monastery Sofukuji for the next five years. During his stay in Japan, a number of important Buddhist figures visited him for instruction, including the monks Dokuan Genko (1630-1698), Kengan Zen'etsu (1618-1690), EGOKU DoMYo, Choon Dokai (1628-1695), and BANKEI YoTAKU. Unlike his compatriot Yinyuan, who continued to reside in Japan, Daozhe returned to China in 1658 and died shortly thereafter. Daozhe played an important role in preparing the ground for Yinyuan's later establishment of the oBAKUSHu in Japan.

Daxiu Zhengnian. (J. Daikyu Shonen; K. Taehyu Chongnyom 大休正念) (1215-1289). Chinese CHAN master in the LINJI ZONG. A native of Wenzhou in present-day Zhejiang province, Daxiu began his training under the CAODONG master Donggu Miaoguang (d. 1253) of Linyinsi, and later became the disciple of Shiqi Xinyue (d. 1254). In 1269, Daxiu left for Japan, where he received the patronage of the powerful regent Hojo Tokimune (1251-1284). In Kamakura, Daxiu established the monastery Jochiji, which came to be ranked fourth in the Kamakura GOZAN system. Daxiu also served as abbot of the monasteries ZENKoJI, Juhukuji, and KENCHoJI. In 1288, Daxiu became the abbot of ENGAKUJI, but passed away the next year in 1289. He was given the posthumous title Zen Master Butsugen ("Source of the Buddhas"). His teachings can be found in the Daikyu osho goroku.

Dayang Jingxuan. (J. Taiyo Kyogen; K. Taeyang Kyonghyon 大陽警玄) (942-1027). Chinese CHAN master in the CAODONG ZONG. A native of Jiangxia in present-day Hubei province, Dayang was ordained at the monastery of Chongxiaosi in Jinleng by his uncle, who had also become a monk. After traveling throughout China, Dayang visited the Chan master Liangshan Yuanguan (d.u.) in Dingzhou prefecture (present-day Sichuan province) and became his disciple. Later, he became a student of the Caodong monk Huijian (d.u.) and took over his lecture seat on Mt. Dayang, which became his toponym. Before his death, Dayang entrusted his portrait (DINGXIANG), leather shoes, and patched robe to his friend Fushan Fayuan (991-1067) of the LINJI ZONG in hopes of continuing his Caodong lineage and the incumbent annual memorial services to the patriarchs in his line. Fushan in turn transferred these items to his student TOZI YIQING, who embraced Dayang's line and became a Caodong lineage holder. Dayang was bestowed the posthumous title Great Master Ming'an ("Illuminating Peace"). His teachings are recorded in the Dayang Ming'an dashi shibaban miaoyu.

Dazhu Huihai. (J. Daiju Ekai; K. Taeju Hyehae 大珠慧海) (d.u.). Chinese CHAN master of the Tang dynasty. Dazhu was a native of Jianzhou in present-day Fujian province, who was tonsured by a certain Daozhi at the monastery Dayunsi in Yuezhou (present-day Zhejiang province). He later studied under the eminent Chan master MAZU DAOYI for six years and inherited his HONGZHOU lineage. Dazhu then returned to Yuezhou where he devoted himself to teaching. Dazhu is most famous for his work the DUNWU RUDAO YAOMEN LUN, one of the definitive accounts in the CHAN ZONG of the notion of "sudden awakening" (DUNWU).

Dazu shike. (大足石刻). In Chinese, "Dazu rock carvings"; a series of Chinese religious sculptures and carvings located on the steep hillsides of Dazu County, in Sichuan province near the city of Chongqing. The Dazu grottoes are considered one of the four greatest troves of rock sculptures in China, along with the LONGMEN grottoes in LUOYANG, the MOGAO Caves in DUNHUANG, and the YUNGANG grottoes in Shanxi province. Listed by UNESCO as a World Heritage Site in 1999, the Dazu rock carvings consist of seventy-five sites, all under state protection, which contain some fifty thousand statues, along with epigraphs and inscriptions numbering over one hundred thousand inscribed Sinographs. There are five sites that are particularly large and well preserved: Baodingshan (Treasure Peak Mountain), Beishan (North Mountain), Nanshan (South Mountain), Shizhuanshan (Rock-Carving Mountain), and Shimenshan (Stone-Gate Mountain). Among the five major sites, the grottoes on Baodingshan and Nanshan are the largest in scale, the richest in content, and the most refined in artistic skill, although other sites are also noteworthy for their many statues integrating Buddhism, Confucianism, and Daoism. The earliest carvings of the Dazu grottoes were begun in the early seventh century during the Tang dynasty, but the main creative period began in the late ninth century, when Wei Junjing, the prefect of Changzhou, initiated the carvings on Beishan. Even after the collapse of the Tang dynasty, his example continued to be emulated by local gentry, government officials, Buddhist monks and nuns, and ordinary people. From the late Tang dynasty through the reign of the Song Emperor Gaozong (r. 1127-1131), some ten thousand sculptures of Buddhist figures were carved at the site in varied styles. The most famous carving on Beishan is a Song-dynasty statue of GUANYIN (AVALOKITEsVARA). In the twelfth century, during the Song dynasty, a Buddhist monk named Zhao Zhifeng began to work on the sculptures and carvings on Baodingshan, dedicating seventy years of his life to the project. He produced some ten thousand Buddhist statues, as well as many carvings depicting scenes from daily life that bear inscriptions giving religious rules of behavior, teaching people how to engage in correct moral action. Along with EMEISHAN, Baodingshan became one of the most sacred Buddhist sites in Sichuan. Although the Dazu grottoes primarily contain Buddhist statues, they also include Daoist, Confucian, and historical figures, as well as many valuable inscriptions describing people's daily lives, which make the Dazu grottoes unique. The Yungang grottoes, created during the fourth and fifth centuries, represent an early stage of Chinese cave art and were greatly influenced by Indian culture. The Longmen grottoes, begun in the fifth century, represent the middle period of cave art, blending Indian and Chinese characteristics. The Dazu grottoes represent the highest level of grotto art in China and demonstrate breakthroughs in both carving technique and subject matter. They not only provide outstanding evidence of the harmonious synthesis of Buddhism, Daoism, and Confucianism in Chinese local religious practice but also mark the completion of the localization process of China's grotto art, reflecting great changes and developments in China's folk religion and rock carvings. The Dazu grottoes are thus remarkable for their high aesthetic quality, their rich diversity of style and subject matter (including both secular and religious topics), and the light that they shed on everyday life in China.

department ::: v. i. --> Act of departing; departure.
A part, portion, or subdivision.
A distinct course of life, action, study, or the like; appointed sphere or walk; province.
Subdivision of business or official duty; especially, one of the principal divisions of executive government; as, the treasury department; the war department; also, in a university, one of the divisions of instruction; as, the medical department; the


Deshan Xuanjian. (J. Tokusan Senkan; K. Toksan Son'gam 德山宣鑑) (780/2-865). Chinese CHAN master of the Tang dynasty; famous for the fearsome "blows" (bang) through which he expressed his understanding of enlightenment, similar to the terrifying shouts (he) of Chan master LINJI YIXUAN (see BANGHE). A native of Jiannan in present-day Sichuan province, Deshan first studied the scriptures and the VINAYA, and became famous as a teacher of the VAJRACCHEDIKĀPRAJNĀPĀRAMITĀSuTRA ("Diamond Sutra"). According to his hagiography, he was determined to defeat the Chan masters of the south with his knowledge of the sutra, but on his way in Lizhou (present-day Hunan province), Deshan was rendered speechless by the following question from an old woman: "The 'Diamond Sutra' says that neither the past mind, present mind, nor future mind can be grasped; so which mind does the elder desire to refresh?" He later became a student of the Chan master Longtan Chongxin (d.u.) and inherited his lineage. After his thirty-year residence at Lizhou, Deshan was forced by Emperor Wuzong's (840-846) persecution of Buddhism (see HUICHANG FANAN) to hide on Mt. Dufu. He was later invited by the governor of Wuleng (present-day Hunan province) to reside on Deshan ("Mount Virtue"), whence he acquired his toponym. Deshan's most famous disciple was XUEFENG YICUN, and their joint lineage leads ultimately to the mature Chan schools of the YUNMEN ZONG and FAYAN ZONG.

Dewa sanzan. (出羽三山). In Japanese, the "three mountains of Dewa"; referring to Mount Haguro, Mount Gassan, and Mount Yudono in what was once known as Dewa province (in modern-day Yamagata prefecture). The region is particularly important in SHUGENDo and has long been a place of pilgrimage; it was visited by BASHo.

Dga' ldan phun tshogs gling. (Ganden Puntsok Ling). A Tibetan monastery located in Gtsang province, founded by TĀRANĀTHA in 1615, who named it Rtag brtan phun tshogs gling. It was also known as JO NANG PHUN TSHOGS GLING. He hired artists from Nepal to decorate it, eventually making it the most lavishly appointed monastery in central Tibet. Under Tāranātha, it became the primary seat of the JO NANG sect. After his death, the monastery was forcibly converted to a DGE LUGS establishment by order of the fifth DALAI LAMA, who opposed the Jo nang and is said to have had a personal animosity against Tāranātha. The monastery was thus renamed Dga' ldan phun tshogs gling and the printing of the Jo nang texts held there was banned; permission to print them was not granted until the late nineteenth century.

dictionary ::: n. --> A book containing the words of a language, arranged alphabetically, with explanations of their meanings; a lexicon; a vocabulary; a wordbook.
Hence, a book containing the words belonging to any system or province of knowledge, arranged alphabetically; as, a dictionary of medicine or of botany; a biographical dictionary.


dominican ::: a. --> Of or pertaining to St. Dominic (Dominic de Guzman), or to the religions communities named from him. ::: n. --> One of an order of mendicant monks founded by Dominic de Guzman, in 1215. A province of the order was established in England in 1221. The first foundation in the United States was made in 1807. The

Donglinsi. (J. Torinji; K. Tongnimsa 東林寺). In Chinese, "Eastern Grove Monastery"; located in the forest on the eastern side of LUSHAN, a Buddhist sacred mountain in Jiangxi province. The monastery was founded between 380 CE and 386 CE by the early advocate of PURE LAND visualization LUSHAN HUIYUAN (334-416 CE) and became an important early center of Buddhism in China, especially of the White Lotus retreat society (BAILIAN SHE). The monastery also hosted such monks as SaMghadeva, who translated important works of ABHIDHARMA and SARVĀSTIVĀDA scholasticism, and BUDDHABHADRA (359-429). Donglinsi continued to be a center of Buddhist activity during subsequent dynasties and its influence reached its zenith during the Tang dynasty, when it attracted both monks and leading literati, such as the renowned Tang poet BO JUYI (772-846 CE).

Dongshan famen. (J. Tozan homon; K. Tongsan pommun 東山法門). In Chinese, lit. "East Mountain Dharma Gate" or "East Mountain Teachings"; one of the principal early CHAN schools, which is associated with the putative fourth and fifth patriarchs of the tradition, DAOXIN (580-651) and HONGREN (602-675). The name of the school is a toponym for the location of Hongren's monastery, at Huangmei in Qizhou (present-day Hubei province). "East Mountain" refers to the easterly of the "twin peaks" of Mount Shuangfeng, where Hongren taught after the death of his master Daoxin, who had taught on the westerly peak; the term "East Mountain Teachings," however, is typically used to refer to the tradition associated with both masters. The designations Dongshan famen and Dongshan jingmen (East Mountain Pure Gate) first appear in the LENGQIE SHIZI JI ("Records of the Masters and Disciples of the Lankā[vatāra]") and were used in the Northern school of Chan (BEI ZONG) by SHENXIU (606?-706) and his successors to refer to the lineage and teachings that they had inherited from Daoxin and Hongren. ¶ Although later Chan lineage texts list Daoxin and Hongren as respectively the fourth and the fifth Chan patriarchs, succeeding BODHIDHARMA, HUIKE, and SENGCAN, the connection of the East Mountain lineage to these predecessors is tenuous at best and probably nonexistent. The earliest biography of Daoxin, recorded in the XU GAOSENG ZHUAN ("Supplementary Biographies of Eminent Monks"), not only does not posit any connection between Daoxin and the preceding three patriarchs, but does not even mention their names. This connection is first made explicit in the c. 713 CHUAN FABAO JI ("Annals of the Transmission of the Dharma-Jewel"), one of the earliest Chan "transmission of the lamplight" (CHUANDENG LU) lineage texts. Unlike many of the Chan "schools" that were associated with a single charismatic teacher, the "East Mountain Teachings" was unusual in that it had a single, enduring center in Huangmei, which attracted increasing numbers of students. Some five or six names of students who studied with Daoxin survive in the literature, with another twenty-five associated with Hongren. Although Hongren's biography in the Chuan fabao ji certainly exaggerates when it says that eight to nine out of every ten Buddhist practitioners in China studied under Hongren, there is no question that the number of students of the East Mountain Teachings grew significantly over two generations. ¶ The fundamental doctrines and practices of the East Mountain Teachings can be reconstructed on the basis of the two texts: the RUDAO ANXIN YAO FANGBIAN FAMEN ("Essentials of the Teachings of the Expedient Means of Entering the Path and Pacifying the Mind") and the XIUXIN YAO LUN ("Treatise on the Essentials of Cultivating the Mind"), ascribed respectively to Daoxin and Hongren. The Rudao anxin yao fangbian famen, which is included in the Lengqie shizi ji, employs the analogy of a mirror from the Banzhou sanmei jing (S. PRATYUTPANNABUDDHASAMMUKHĀVASTHITASAMĀDHISuTRA) to illustrate the insubstantiality of all phenomena, viz., one's sensory experiences are no more substantial than the reflections in a mirror. The text then presents the "single-practice SAMĀDHI" (YIXING SANMEI) as a practical means of accessing the path leading to NIRVĀnA, based on the Wenshushuo bore jing ("Perfection of Wisdom Sutra Spoken by MANJUsRĪ"). Single-practice samādhi here refers to sitting in meditation, the supreme practice that subsumes all other practices; it is not one samādhi among others, as it is portrayed in the MOHE ZHIGUAN ("Great Calming and Contemplation"). Single-practice samādhi means to contemplate every single aspect of one's mental and physical existence until one realizes they are all empty, just like the reflections in the mirror, and "to guard that one without deviation" (shouyi buyi). The Xiuxin yao lun, which is attributed to Hongren, stresses the importance of "guarding the mind" (SHOUXIN). Here, the relationship between the pure mind and the afflictions (KLEsA) is likened to that between the sun and clouds: the pure mind is obscured by afflictions, just as the sun is covered by layers of clouds, but if one can guard the mind so that it is kept free from false thoughts and delusions, the sun of NIRVĀnA will then appear. The text suggests two specific meditation techniques for realizing this goal: one is continuously to visualize the original, pure mind (viz., the sun) so that it shines without obscuration; the other is to concentrate on one's own deluded thoughts (the clouds) until they disappear. These two techniques purport to "guard the mind" so that delusion can never recur. The East Mountain Teachings laid a firm foundation for the doctrines and practices of later Chan traditions like the Northern school.

Dongshan Liangjie. (J. Tozan Ryokai; K. Tongsan Yanggae 洞山良价) (807-869). Chinese CHAN master of the Tang dynasty and reputed founder of the CAODONG lineage of Chan; also known as Xinfeng. Dongshan was a native of Yuezhou in present-day Zhejiang province. He left home at an early age and became the student of the Chan master Lingmo (747-818). Having received full monastic precepts from a certain VINAYA master Rui on SONGSHAN, Dongshan visited the Chan masters NANQUAN PUYUAN and GUISHAN LINGYOU and later continued his studies under Yunyan Tancheng (782-841). Dongshan is said to have attained awakening under Yunyan's guidance and eventually inherited his lineage. During the HUICHANG FANAN, Dongshan remained in hiding until the persecution ran its course, eventually reemerging at Xinfeng tong in Jiangxi province. With the support of his followers, Dongshan later established the monastery Guangfusi (later renamed Puli yuan) on Mt. Dong (Dongshan), whence he acquired his toponym. Among his many disciples, Yunju Daoying (d. 902) and CAOSHAN BENJI are most famous. Dongshan was renowned for his poetry and verse compositions and his teaching of the "five ranks" (WUWEI). His teachings are recorded in the Dongshan yulu ("The Record of Dongshan"), but the most famous of his works is the BAOJING SANMEI ("Jeweled-Mirror Samādhi"), a definitive verse on enlightenment and practice from the standpoint of the CAODONGZONG. The Baojing sanmei emphasizes the "original enlightenment" (BENJUE; cf. HONGAKU) of sentient beings and the futility of seeking that enlightenment through conscious thought. Instead, the song urges its audience to allow one's inherently pure, enlightened nature to "silently illuminate" itself through meditation (see MOZHAO CHAN), as the Buddha did under the BODHI TREE.

Dosho. (道昭) (629-700). Japanese monk and reputed founder of the Japanese Hosso (YOGĀCĀRA) school in the seventh century. A native of Kawachi province, Dosho became renowned for his strict adherence to the precepts while he was residing at the monastery of Gangoji. In 653, Dosho made a pilgrimage to China, where he studied under the Chinese monk-translator and Yogācāra scholar XUANZANG. In 660, Dosho returned to Gangoji and devoted the rest of his life to the dissemination of the Yogācāra teachings that he had brought back with him from China.

Dpal yul. (Payul). The Tibetan short name of a monastery in Khams (now part of the Chinese province of Sichuan). The name is an abbreviation of Dpal yul rnam rgyal byang chub chos gling, one of the four main RNYING MA monasteries in eastern Tibet, the others being KAḤ THOG, RDZOGS CHEN, and ZHE CHEN; founded in 1665 by Kun bzang shes rab (1636-1699). The monastery specializes in the GTER MA (treasure text) teachings of KARMA CHAGS MED; members of the monastery follow a set course of preliminary practices and engage in a three-year retreat. The monastery, destroyed during the Chinese Cultural Revolution (1966-76), has been rebuilt and currently houses about three hundred monks. The eleventh khri 'dzin (throne-holder) Thub bstan legs bshad chos kyi sgra dbyangs, Penor Rin po che (1932-2009), established a new monastery called Rnam grol gling with great success near Bylakuppe in South India; at present it is the largest Rnying ma institution outside Tibet, with perhaps as many as five thousand monks and nuns. The present throne-holder is the fifth Karma sku chen (b. 1970).

Dunhuang. (J. Tonko; K. Tonhwang 敦煌). A northwest Chinese garrison town on the edge of the Taklamakan desert in Central Asia, first established in the Han dynasty and an important stop along the ancient SILK ROAD; still seen written also as Tun-huang, followed the older Wade-Giles transcription. Today an oasis town in China's Gansu province, Dunhuang is often used to refer to the nearby complex of approximately five hunded Buddhist caves, including the MOGAO KU (Peerless Caves) to the southeast of town and the QIANFO DONG (Caves of the Thousand Buddhas) about twenty miles to the west. Excavations to build the caves at the Mogao site began in the late-fourth century CE and continued into the mid-fourteenth century CE. Of the more than one thousand caves that were hewn from the cliff face, roughly half were decorated. Along with the cave sites of LONGMEN and YUNGANG further east and BEZEKLIK and KIZIL to the west, the Mogao grottoes contain some of the most spectacular examples of ancient Buddhist sculpture and wall painting to be found anywhere in the world. Legend has it that in 366 CE a wandering monk named Yuezun had a vision of a thousand golden buddhas at a site along some cliffs bordering a creek and excavated the first cave in the cliffs for his meditation practice. Soon afterward, additional caves were excavated and the first monasteries established to serve the needs of the monks and merchants traveling to and from China along the Silk Road. The caves were largely abandoned in the fourteenth century. In the early twentieth century, Wang Yuanlu (1849-1931), self-appointed guardian of the Dunhuang caves, discovered a large cache of ancient manuscripts and paintings in Cave 17, a side chamber of the larger Cave 16. As rumors of these manuscripts reached Europe, explorer-scholars such as SIR MARC AUREL STEIN and PAUL PELLIOT set out across Central Asia to obtain samples of ancient texts and artwork buried in the ruins of the Taklamakan desert. Inside were hundreds of paintings on silk and tens of thousands of manuscripts dating from the fifth to roughly the eleventh centuries CE, forming what has been described as the world's earliest and largest paper archive. The texts were written in more than a dozen languages, including Chinese, Tibetan, Sanskrit, Sogdian, Uighur, Khotanese, Tangut, and TOCHARIAN and consisted of paper scrolls, wooden tablets, and one of the world's earliest printed books (868 CE), a copy of the VAJRACCHEDIKĀPRAJNĀPĀRAMITĀSuTRA ("Diamond Sutra"). In the seventh-century, a Tibetan garrison was based at Dunhuang, and materials discovered in the library cave also include some of the earliest documents in the Tibetan language. This hidden library cave was apparently sealed in the eleventh century. As a result of the competition between European, American, and Japanese institutions to acquire documents from Dunhuang, the material was dispersed among collections world-wide, making access to all the manuscripts difficult. Many items have still not been properly catalogued or conserved and there are scholarly disputes over what quantity of the materials are modern forgeries. In 1944 the Dunhuang Academy was established to document and study the site and in 1980 the site was opened to the public. In 1987 the Dunhuang caves were listed as a UNESCO World Heritage site and today are being preserved through the efforts of both Chinese and international groups.

Dushun. (J. Tojun; K. Tusun 杜順) (557-640). Chinese monk thaumaturge, meditator, and exegete who is recognized by tradition as the founder and putative first patriarch of the HUAYAN ZONG of East Asian Buddhism; also known as Fashun. Dushun was a native of Wengzhou in present-day Shaanxi province. He became a monk at the age of seventeen and is said to have studied meditation under a certain Weichen (d.u.) at the monastery of Yinshengsi. Later, he retired to the monastery of Zhixiangsi on ZHONGNANSHAN, where he devoted himself to study of the AVATAMSAKASuTRA. The monk ZHIYAN (602-668) is presumed to have studied under Dushun at Zhixiangsi and subsequently came to be recognized as Dushun's formal successor. Some fourteen different works have been ascribed to Dushun at various points in history, but it is now presumed that only two of these can definitively be associated with him: the Huayan yisheng shixuan men ("The Ten Arcane Gates of the One Vehicle of the AvataMsaka"), which was composed by Dushun's successor, Zhiyan, supposedly from his teacher's oral teachings; and the HUAYAN FAJIE GUANMEN, one of the foundational texts of the nascent Huayan school. (Some scholars have proposed that this text may have been excerpted from FAZANG's Fa putixin zhang, and only later attributed to Dushun, but this hypothesis is not widely accepted.) Dushun is also portrayed as an advocate of various Sui- and Tang-dynasty cults associated with MANJUsRĪ and AMITĀBHA that were popular among the laity. Because of the sweeping scope of his religious career, Dushun is sometimes considered to be emblematic of the emerging "new Buddhism" of sixth- and seventh-century China, which sought to remake Buddhism into forms that would be more accessible to an indigenous audience.

elamite ::: n. --> A dweller in Flam (or Susiana), an ancient kingdom of Southwestern Asia, afterwards a province of Persia.

emeer ::: n. --> Same as Emir.
An Arabian military commander, independent chieftain, or ruler of a province; also, an honorary title given to the descendants of Mohammed, in the line of his daughter Fatima; among the Turks, likewise, a title of dignity, given to certain high officials.


Emeishan. (C. 峨嵋山/峨眉山). In Chinese, lit. "Delicate Eyebrows Mountain," a mountain located in Sichuan province that is traditionally listed as one of the four sacred Buddhist mountains of China, along with JIUHUASHAN in Anhui province, PUTUOSHAN in Zhejiang, and WUTAISHAN in Shanxi. The name Emeishan is derived from its two peaks, which face each other and are said to look like the delicate eyebrows of a classic Chinese beauty. The mountain covers more than 58 square miles (150 square kilometers), and its tallest peak, Wanfo Ding (Myriad Buddhas Summit), is 10,167 feet (3,099 meters) high, over 3280 feet (1,000 meters) higher than the other three sacred Buddhist mountains of China. The charming scenery of Emeishan has won it since ancient times the name "the greatest beauty under heaven." The patron BODHISATTVA of Emeishan is SAMANTABHADRA (C. Puxian pusa), who was said to have resided in Emeishan. Because of this connection, most monasteries on Emeishan house a statue of Samantabhadra. Emeishan is of exceptional cultural significance because Chinese tradition assumes it was the place where Buddhism first became established on Chinese territory and whence it spread widely. The first Buddhist monastery in China is said to have been built on Emeishan in the first century CE during the Eastern Han dynasty (25-220). There were once more than a hundred monasteries and temples located on the mountain, but only about twenty remain today. These active monasteries include Baoguosi, Wanniansi, Fuhusi, Leiyinsi, Xianfengsi, Qianfosi, Huazangsi on the Golden Summit, and the Xixiangshi (Elephant Washing Pool) hermitage. At the foot of Emeishan, Baoguosi, built between 1573 and 1619 during the Ming dynasty, is the largest surviving monastery, and is the center of Buddhist activity on the mountain. Wanniansi, originally named Puxiansi, is one of the major monasteries and houses an exquisite copper statue of Samantabhadra riding a white elephant; made in 980 CE during the Song dynasty, the image is 24.11 feet (7.35 meters) high. The Jinding (Golden Summit), one of the mountain's main peaks, is 10,095 feet (3,077 meters) high and is the ideal place to view the sunrise, the sea of clouds, and strange atmospheric phenomena called Buddhist lights and sacred lamps. Emeishan is also a well-known nature preserve and is home to more than three thousand species of plants and two thousand species of animals, including groups of monkeys that often appear on the mountain roads. Near Emeishan is the remarkable Great Buddha of Leshan (C. LESHAN DAFO); the world's largest stone statue of MAITREYA, this image is 233 feet (71 meters) high and was carved out of a hillside in the eighth century during the Tang dynasty. In 1996, UNESCO listed Emeishan and the Great Buddha of Leshan as a World Heritage Site.

Enchin. (圓珍) (814-891). Japanese monk affiliated with the TENDAISHu (C. TIANTAI ZONG) and reputed founder of the Jimon branch of the school. Enchin was a native of Sanuki in present-day Kagawa and a cousin of the SHINGON master KuKAI. At age fourteen, Enchin became the student of GISHIN, the abbot of ENRYAKUJI, and four years later received the full monastic precepts from him. For the next twelve years, Enchin remained in retreat on HIEIZAN. In 853, Enchin traveled to Fuzhou, China, and stayed at the nearby monastery of Kaiyuansi. There he studied the Sanskrit SIDDHAM script under the Indian TREPItAKA Boredaluo (PrajNātāra?). Enchin later visited Yuezhou and Taizhou (present-day Zhejiang province), where he studied Tiantai doctrine and practice. In 855, Enchin entered the Chinese capital of Chang'an with his fellow Japanese monk Ensai (d. 877), where they are believed to have received the "dharma-transmission ABHIsEKA" (denbo kanjo) from Faquan (d.u.) at the monastery of Qinglongsi, as well as the secret of teachings of the "two realms" (RYoBU) from PrajNācakra (d.u.). Enchin then returned to Mt. Tiantai in Taizhou with the new translations of esoteric scriptures that he acquired in Chang'an. Enchin returned to Japan in 858 and resided at the monastery of Onjoji (see MIIDERA). In 866, Enchin became the fifth head (zasu) of Enryakuji and was given imperial permission to transform Onjoji into the official grounds of "dharma-transmission abhiseka." A schism between the lineages of Enchin and ENNIN over the issue of succession in 993 led to the split between Ennin's Sanmon branch of Hieizan and Enchin's Jimon branch of Onjoji. Enchin was later given the posthumous title Great Master Chisho (Realization of Wisdom).

Ennin. (C. Yuanren 圓仁) (794-864). Japanese monk of the TENDAISHu (C. TIANTAI ZONG), who wrote a classic account of his ninth-century pilgrimage to China. A native of Tochigi prefecture, Ennin lost his father when young, and became a student of the eminent Japanese monk SAICHo at the monastery of ENRYAKUJI on HIEIZAN. Ennin was ordained on Mt. Hiei in 814 and received the full monastic precepts three years later at the precepts platform (kaidan) on the grounds of the monastery of ToDAIJI. In 838, Ennin traveled to China with his companions Engyo (799-852) and Jokyo (d. 866), arriving in Yangzhou (present-day Jiangsu province) at the mouth of the Yangzi River. The next year, he visited the monastery of Kaiyuansi, where he received the teachings and rituals of the various KONGoKAI (vajradhātu) deities from the monk Quanya (d.u.). Ennin also studied the Sanskrit SIDDHAM script while in China. When adverse winds kept him from returning to Japan, he remained behind at the monastery of Fahuayuan on Mt. Chi in Dengzhou (present-day Shandong province). From there, Ennin made a pilgrimage to WUTAISHAN and studied Tiantai doctrine and practice. In 840, Ennin arrived in the capital of Chang'an, where he studied the kongokai MAndALA under Yuanzheng (d.u.) of the monastery of Daxingshansi. The next year, Ennin also studied the teachings of the TAIZoKAI (garbhadhātu) and *SUSIDDHIKARASuTRA under Yizhen (d.u.) of the monastery of Qinglongsi. In 842, Ennin furthered his studies of the taizokai under Faquan (d.u.) at the monastery of Xuanfasi, siddham under Yuanjian (d.u.) of Da'anguosi, and siddham pronunciation under the Indian ĀCĀRYA Baoyue (d.u.). In 845, Ennin fled from the Huichang persecution of Buddhism (see HUICHANG FANAN) that then raged in Chang'an, and arrived back in Japan in 847. Ennin kept a detailed record of his sojourn in China in his famed diary, the NITTo GUHo JUNREI GYoKI (translated into English as A Pilgrimage to China in Search of the Law). In 854, Ennin was appointed the head (zasu) of Enryakuji and three years later was allowed to perform the RYoBU ABHIsEKA for Emperor Buntoku (r. 850-858) in the palace. Ennin promoted the Tendai/Tiantai teachings of the four kinds of SAMĀDHI (sizhong sanmei), which he had brought back to Japan from China. He also made an effort to continue his teacher Saicho's attempt to implement the use of the bodhisattva precepts (see FANWANG JING) in Japan.

eparch ::: n. --> In ancient Greece, the governor or perfect of a province; in modern Greece, the ruler of an eparchy.

eparchy ::: n. --> A province, prefecture, or territory, under the jurisdiction of an eparch or governor; esp., in modern Greece, one of the larger subdivisions of a monarchy or province of the kingdom; in Russia, a diocese or archdiocese.

ethnarch ::: n. --> The governor of a province or people.

exarchate ::: n. --> The office or the province of an exarch.

extraprovincial ::: a. --> Not within of pertaining to the same province or jurisdiction.

eyalet ::: n. --> Formerly, one of the administrative divisions or provinces of the Ottoman Empire; -- now called a vilayet.

Fahua wenju. (J. Hokke mongu; K. Pophwa mun'gu 法華文句). In Chinese, "Words and Phrases of the 'Lotus Sutra'"; a major commentary on the SADDHARMAPUndARĪKASuTRA, taught by TIANTAI ZHIYI and put into writing by his disciple Guanding (561-632), in alt. ten or twenty rolls. Along with the MOHE ZHIGUAN and the FAHUA XUANYI, the Fahua wenju is considered one of Zhiyi's three great commentaries. The lectures that formed the basis of the Fahua wenju were delivered by Zhiyi in 587 at the monastery of Jinzhaisi in Jinling (present-day Jiangsu province), and they offered a thorough exegetical analysis of the Saddharmapundarīkasutra. The Fahua wenju was incorporated in the Song-dynasty Buddhist canon at the recommendation of the Tiantai monk Ciyun Zunshi (964-1032) in 1024. The treatise employs a fourfold exegetical technique (sishi) unique to Zhiyi and his TIANTAI ZONG, viz., exegesis via: (1) causes and conditions, (2) classification of the teachings (see JIAOXIANG PANSHI), (3) fundamentals and traces, and (4) contemplation on the mind. Throughout the Fahua wenju, the interpretations of other teachers, such as DAOSHENG, are critiqued. An influential commentary on the Fahua wenju known as the Fahua wenju ji was prepared by JINGXI ZHANRAN.

Fahua xuanyi. (J. Hokke gengi; K. Pophwa hyonŭi 法華玄義). In Chinese, "Profound Meaning of the 'Lotus Sutra,'" taught by the eminent Chinese monk TIANTAI ZHIYI and put into writing by his disciple Guanding (561-632). Along with the MOHE ZHIGUAN and FAHUA WENJU, the Fahua xuanyi is considered one of Zhiyi's three great commentaries. The lectures that form the basis of the Fahua xuanyi were delivered by Zhiyi in 593, perhaps at the monastery of Yuquansi in Jingzhou (present-day Hubei province), and they are concerned with the thorough analysis of the SADDHARMAPUndARĪKASuTRA. The treatise is divided into two broader methods of interpretation: general (tongshi) and specific (bieshi). The general interpretation further consists of seven subtypes, such as a listing of the chapters, citations, provenance, and so forth. The specific interpretation consists of five subtypes (see FAHUA WUCHONG XUANYI): the interpretation of the title, determination of its main theme, clarification of its main tenet, discussion of its purpose, and classification of its teachings (panjiao; see JIAOXIANG PANSHI). Nearly two-thirds of the treatise is dedicated to the first two characters in the title of the Chinese translation of the Saddharmapundarīka, "subtle" (miao) and "dharma" (fa).

Famensi. (法門寺). In Chinese, "Dharma-Gate Monastery," located approximately seventy miles outside the city of Chang'an (present-day Xi'an) in Shaanxi province, China. Though the exact dates of its construction are unknown, the monastery claims to have been built during the Eastern Han dynasty but more likely dates from the Northern Wei period (386-534). One of only four monasteries in China to house a relic (sARĪRA) of the Buddha, Famensi was particularly renowned for its four finger-bone relics, which were displayed in the Tang-dynasty capital several times during the seventh and eighth centuries. Famensi's renowned thirteen-story, octagonal brick pagoda (STuPA) collapsed in 1981 after a torrential rainfall, and excavations in 1987 revealed three secret stone chambers under the foundations, which had remained unopened since the ninth century. The chambers housed a large number of precious objects, including incense burners (see GANDHAGHAtIKĀ), jewelry, and textile items, as well as 122 gold and silver objects that are exhaustively inventoried in two stone tablets written in 874 and left with the cache. An exquisite, gilded reliquary casket containing a nested series of smaller reliquaries was also discovered in the chamber. One of the purported finger-bone relics of the Buddha was found intact within the innermost reliquary; the other three were located elsewhere in the chambers.

Fayan Wenyi. (J. Hogen Mon'eki; K. Poban Munik 法眼文益) (885-958). Chinese CHAN master and reputed founder of the FAYAN ZONG of Chan. Fayan was a native of Yuhang in present-day Zhejiang province. At the age of six, he was ordained by the monk Quanwei (d.u.) of the monastery Xinding Zhitongyuan and later received the full monastic precepts at the monastery of KAIYUANSI in Yuezhou. Fayan first visited the Chan master Changqing Huiling (854-932); later, while staying at the monastery Dizangyuan on Mt. Shi (present-day Fujian province), he met Luohan Guichen (867-928) and eventually became his disciple. Later, Fayan arrived in Linchuan (present-day Jiangxi province) where he was invited by the steward to serve as abbot of the monastery of Chongshouyuan. Admired by the local ruler, Fayan was again invited as the abbot of the monastery of BAO'ENSI in Jinling (present-day Jiangsu province) and was given the title Chan master Jinghui (Pure Wisdom). Fayan later moved to the monastery of Qingliangyuan in Shengzhou (present-day Jiangsu province), which flourished under his guidance and the support of the ruler of the state of Wuye. He was also given the posthumous title Chan master Dafayan (Great Dharma Eye). Fayan composed the ZONGMEN SHIGUI LUN ("Treatise on the Ten Rules of the Tradition"), which outlines ten defects of Chan practice; the text is also important for being the first to name the so-called five houses (wu jia), viz., schools or lineages, of the mature Chan tradition (see WU JIA QI ZONG).

Fayan zong. (J. Hogenshu; K. Poban chong 法眼宗). In Chinese, the "Dharma Eye School," one of the "five houses" (wu jia; see WU JIA QI ZONG), or distinct schools, that had developed with the mature Chinese CHAN lineage during the late Tang dynasty, c. ninth to tenth centuries CE. Chan genealogical histories (see CHUANDENG LU) speak of a lineage of monks that can be traced back to the eminent Chan master FAYAN WENYI (885-958), who himself inherited the lineage(s) of XUEFENG YICUN (822-908), XUANSHA SHIBEI (835-908), and their student Luohan Guichen (867-928). With the support of the ruler of the state of Wuyue, Fayan and his monastery of Qingliangyuan in Shengzhou (present-day Jiangsu province) flourished. Fayan's prominent students TIANTAI DESHAO (891-972), Baizhang Daoheng (d. 991), Guizong Yirou (d.u.), and Bao'en Fa'an (d.u.) firmly established Fayan's line in the area of Zhejiang and Fujian provinces. Chengtian Daoyuan (d.u.), the compiler of the influential genealogical history of Chan known as the JINGDE CHUANDENG LU, also belongs to the Fayan line of Chan through his teacher Tiantai Deshao.The Fayan line's interest in harmonizing the iconoclastic aspects of Chan with the exegetical tradition of HUAYAN and the recitative practices of PURE LAND (see NIANFO) is best exemplified in the Fanyan Chan master YONGMING YANSHOU's magnum opus ZONGJING LU. The works of Fayan masters also exerted much influence in Korean Son Buddhism. Although the Fayan zong did not survive into the Song dynasty as an active lineage, it remained an integral part of the retrospective imagining of the Chan tradition that took place during the Song.

Feilaifeng. (J. Hiraiho; K. Piraebong 飛来峰). In Chinese, "Flying-In Peak," site of Buddhist rock carvings and grottoes, located in front of LINGYINSI in Hangzhou, Zhejiang province. Feilaifeng houses the most important sculptural works of Tibetan Buddhism found in Han Chinese territory. The name of the peak was inspired by a legend, according to which Vulture Peak (GṚDHRAKutAPARVATA) flew to this location from India. There are more than three hundred carved images still in existence at the site, with eleven from the Five Dynasties period, more than two hundred from the Song dynasty, and around one hundred from the Yuan. The Song-dynasty images were mostly carved during the Xianping era (998-1003) under Emperor Zhenzong. Many of these figures are ARHATs (C. LUOHAN), but some works illustrate special themes, such as XUANZANG's pilgrimage to India or MAITREYA's "Hemp Sack" (BUDAI) form. The gilded, colorfully painted Yuan images are delicately carved and constitute a significant development in the history of Chinese sculpture. Nearly half of these images depict esoteric themes, with buddhas, bodhisattvas, female deities, and dharma protectors (DHARMAPĀLA). The image enshrined in Niche 25 is VAJRADHARA. Also found here are images of MANJUsRĪ, AVALOKITEsVARA, and VAJRASATTVA. The female deity SITĀTAPATLĀ is depicted in Niche 22; she was highly venerated by the Yuan rulers because she was believed to be able to destroy armies and overcome disasters.

Feiyin Tongrong. (J. Hiin Tsuyo; K. Piŭn T'ongyong 費隱通容) (1593-1661). Chinese CHAN master in the LINJI ZONG, who lived at the end of the Ming dynasty. Feiyin was a native of Min Prefecture in present-day Fujian province. After losing his father at age six and his mother at eleven, Feiyin entered the monastery two years later and became the student of a certain Huishan (d.u.) of Sanbaosi. Feiyin subsequently studied under the renowned Chan masters ZHANRAN YUANDENG, Wuming Huijing, and Wuyi Yuanlai. In 1622, he departed Jiangxi province for Mt. Tiantai, where he continued his studies under MIYUN YUANWU. Feiyin eventually became Miyun's disciple and inherited his lineage. In 1633, Feiyin served as abbot of Wanfusi on Mt. Huangbo. He subsequently resided at such monasteries as Tianningsi and WANSHOUSI in Zhejiang province. His disciple YINYUAN LONGQI edited Feiyin's teachings together in the Feiyin chanshi yulu. Feiyin himself composed several texts including the Chan primer ZUTING QIANCHUI LU and the Chan history Wudeng yantong.

friesic ::: a. --> Of or pertaining to Friesland, a province in the northern part of the Netherlands. ::: n. --> The language of the Frisians, a Teutonic people formerly occupying a large part of the coast of Holland and Northwestern Germany. The modern dialects of Friesic are spoken chiefly in the

frisian ::: a. --> Of or pertaining to Friesland, a province of the Netherlands; Friesic. ::: n. --> A native or inhabitant of Friesland; also, the language spoken in Friesland. See Friesic, n.

Fu dashi. (J. Fu daishi; K. Pu taesa 傅大士) (497-569). In Chinese, "Great Layman Fu," his secular name was Xi and he is also known as Shanhui, Conglin, and Dongyang dashi. Fu dashi was a native of Wuzhou in present-day Zhejiang province. At fifteen, he married and had two sons, Pujian and Pucheng. Originally a fisherman, he abandoned his fishing basket after hearing a foreign mendicant teach the dharma and moved to SONGSHAN (Pine Mountain). After attaining awakening beneath a pair of trees, he referred to himself as layman Shanhui (Good Wisdom) of Shuanglin (Paired Trees). While continuing with his severe ascetic practices, Fu and his wife hired out their services as laborers during the day and he taught at night, ultimately claiming that he had come from TUsITA heaven, where the future buddha MAITREYA was currently residing. He is said to have been summoned to teach at court during the reign of the Liang-dynasty emperor Wudi (r. 502-549). In 539, Fu dashi is said to have established the monastery Shuanglinsi at the base of Songshan. His collected discourses, verses, and poetry are preserved in the Shanhui dashi yulu, in four rolls, which also includes his own biography as well as those of four other monks who may have been his associates. Fu is also credited with inventing the revolving bookcase for scriptures, which, like a prayer wheel (cf. MA nI 'KHOR LO), could yield merit (PUnYA) simply by turning it. This invention led to the common practice of installing an image of Fu and his family in monastic libraries. In painting and sculpture, Fu dashi is typically depicted as a tall bearded man wearing a Confucian hat, Buddhist raiments, and Daoist shoes and accompanied by his wife and two sons.

Furong Daokai. (J. Fuyo Dokai; K. Puyong Tohae 芙蓉道楷) (1043-1118). Chinese CHAN master in the CAODONG ZONG, a native of Yizhou in present-day Shandong province. When he was young, Daokai is said to have trained to become a Daoist transcendent (shenxian). He later became a monk at the monastery Shushengyuan (or Shutaisi) in Jingshi, where he studied under a monk named Dexian (d.u.); and, in 1074, he received the full monastic precepts. Daokai later became a disciple of the Chan master TOUZI YIQING at the Chan monastery of Haihui Chansi on Mt. Baiyun in Shuzhou prefecture (present-day Anhui province). In 1082, he established himself on Mt. Xiantong in Yizhou and in 1103 became the second abbot of the influential Chan monastery of Baoshou Chanyuan on Mt. Dahong (present-day Hubei province). A year later he relocated to the Chan monastery of Shifang Jingyin Chanyuan in Dongjing (present-day Henan province) and again to the nearby Tianningsi in 1107. The emperor offered him a purple robe and the title Chan Master Dingzhao (DHYĀNA Illumination), but Daokai declined. Later, a prominent lay follower built a hermitage for him on Furong island (present-day Shandong province), whence he acquired his toponym. The community at Furong quickly grew into a prominent monastery. In 1117, Daokai's hermitage was given the official plaque Huayan Chansi, thereby elevating it to an official "monastery of the ten directions" (SHIFANGCHA). Inheriting his lineage were twenty-nine disciples, of whom the most famous was Danxia Zichun (1064-1117). Furong's teachings are recorded in the Furong Kai chanshi yuyao.

galilean ::: a. --> Of or pertaining to Galileo; as, the Galilean telescope. See Telescope.
Of or relating to Galilee. ::: n. --> A native or inhabitant of Galilee, the northern province of Palestine under the Romans.


Ganjin. (C. Jianzhen 鑑眞) (688-763). Chinese VINAYA master and reputed founder of the RISSHu and the monastery of ToSHoDAIJI in Japan; also known as Todai Wajo. Ganjin was a native of Guangling, Yangzhou, in present-day Jiangsu province. He studied TIANTAI thought and practice and the vinaya under the vinaya master Dao'an (654-717). Having returned to Yangzhou from his studies in Chang'an and Luoyang, he led an illustrious career at the monastery of Damingsi as a famous lecturer on the vinaya of the NANSHAN LÜ ZONG, and is credited with the establishment of many monasteries. In 733, two monks from Nara, Eiei (d. 748) and Fusho (d.u.), arrived in China. While studying in Chang'an, they learned of Ganjin and headed for Damingsi in 742 to meet him. The next year, Ganjin made his first attempt to go to Japan. After four more failed attempts, Ganjin was finally able to arrive in Japan in 754. During his earlier attempts, Ganjin had lost his eyesight and Eiei had lost his life. Upon his arrival, he was warmly welcomed by retired Emperor Shomu (r. 724-749) and the Buddhist community in Japan. In the summer of 754, an ordination platform was prepared at the great Nara monastery of ToDAIJI, where Ganjin conferred the precepts on Emperor Shomu and others. A precepts hall was constructed the next year in 755. In 756, Ganjin and RYoBEN (689-773), the abbot of Todaiji, were appointed to senior ecclesiastical positions at court. A year after Empress Koken (r. 749-758) abdicated the throne in 758, a new monastery, named Toritsu Shodaiji (alt. Toshodaiji), was built and granted to Ganjin. In 763, as death neared, Ganjin had a statue of himself made and installed in his quarters at Toshodaiji, which remains to this day.

Gaofeng Yuanmiao. (J. Koho Genmyo; K. Kobong Wonmyo 高峰原妙) (1238-1295). Yuan-dynasty Chinese CHAN monk in the YANGQI PAI of the LINJI ZONG. Gaofeng was a native of Suzhou in present-day Jiangsu province. He was ordained at the age of fourteen and two years later began his studies of TIANTAI thought and practice under Fazhu (d.u.) at the monastery of Miyinsi. He later continued his studies under Chan master WUZHUN SHIFAN's disciples Duanqiao Miaolun (1201-1261) and Xueyan Zuqin (1215-1287). Gaofeng trained in Chan questioning meditation (KANHUA CHAN), and Xueyan Zuqin taught him the necessity of contemplating his meditative topic (HUATOU) not just while awake, but also during dreams, and even in dreamless sleep. (In his own instructions on GONG'AN practice, Gaofeng eventually used the same question Zuqin had asked him: "Do you have mastery of yourself even in dreamless sleep?") In 1266, Gaofeng went into retreat at Longxu in the Tianmu mountains of Linan (in present-day Zhejiang province) for five years, after which he is said to have had a great awakening when the sound of a falling pillow shattered his doubt (YIQING). In 1274, he began his residence at a hermitage on Shuangji peak in Wukang (present-day Zhejiang province), and in 1279 he began teaching at Shiziyan on the west peak of the Tianmu mountains. He subsequently established the monasteries of Shizisi and Dajuesi, where he attracted hundreds of disciples, including the prominent ZHONGFENG MINGBEN (1263-1323). He was given the posthumous title Chan Master Puming Guangji (Universal Radiance and Far-reaching Salvation). Gaofeng is most renowned for his instruction on the "three essentials" (SANYAO) of kanhua Chan practice: the great faculty of faith, great fury, and great doubt. Gaofeng's teachings are recorded in his discourse record, the Gaofeng dashi yulu, and his GAOFENG HESHANG CHANYAO, better known as simply the Chanyao ("Essentials of Chan"; K. Sonyo), which has been a principal text in Korean monastic seminaries since at least the seventeenth century. Gaofeng is also known for his famous gong'an: "Harnessing the moon, the muddy ox enters the sea."

Gau ::: (Ger. Province) A territorial unit administered by the Nazis during WWII . Germany was divided into 42 Gau, and the Nazi official in charge of a Gau was known as a Gauleiter).

Genshin. (源信) (942-1017). Japanese TENDAISHu monk, scholar, and artist, popularly known as ESHIN SoZU (Head Monk of Eshin) because he spent much of his life at the monastery of Eshin at YOKAWA on HIEIZAN. Genshin was born in Yamato province (present-day Nara prefecture), but after losing his father at a young age, he was put in the care of the Tendai center on Mt. Hiei. It is believed that during his teens he formally joined the institution and became a student of the Tendai reformer RYoGEN (912-985). Genshin first gained a name for himself in 974 due to his sterling performance in an important debate at Mt. Hiei. Eventually, Genshin retired to the secluded monastery of Shuryogon'in in Yokawa, where he devoted the rest of his life primarily to scholarship. Genshin wrote on a wide array of Buddhist topics related to both Tendai and PURE LAND practices and is also regarded as the founder of the Eshin school of Tendai, which espoused the notion that everyone is inherently awakened (J. HONGAKU). While it is uncertain if any of his art is extant, Genshin was both a sculptor and painter, and his paintings of the buddha Amida (S. AMITĀBHA) welcoming believers into the PURE LAND, referred to as raigozu, helped to popularize this subject in Japan. The most influential of Genshin's works was the oJo YoSHu ("Collection of Essentials on Going to Rebirth" [in the pure land]), written in 985, one of the first Japanese treatises on the practice of nenbutsu (C. NIANFO) and the soteriological goal of rebirth in the pure land, playing an important role in laying the groundwork for an independent pure land tradition in Japan a century later. The ojo yoshu offers a systematic overview of pure land thought and practice, using extensive passages culled from various scriptures and treatises, especially the writings of the Chinese pure land monks DAOCHUO and SHANDAO. Genshin contends that the practice of nenbutsu is relatively easy for everyone and is appropriate for people during the dharma-ending age (mappo; see MOFA), especially as a deathbed practice. The ojo yoshu was also one of the few texts written in Japan that made its way to China, where it influenced the development of pure land Buddhism on the mainland. Japanese Buddhists have long debated whether Genshin should be primarily viewed as affiliated with either the Tendai or pure land schools. In fact, however, this distinction was not relevant during Genshin's own lifetime, since an independent pure land tradition did not yet exist at that point. Given the Tendai notion that all beings can attain buddhahood through a variety of means, an argument he supports in his Ichijo yoketsu ("Essentials of the One Vehicle"), Genshin asserts that nenbutsu (C. nianfo) practice is the best method for reaching this goal. Pure land practice for Genshin therefore fits under the larger umbrella of Tendai thought. Nonetheless, Genshin's presentation of pure land beliefs and practice offered a foundation for the development of pure land Buddhism in Japan, notably in its influence on HoNEN (1133-1212) and SHINRAN (1173-1263); for this reason, the JoDO SHINSHu school considers Genshin to be the sixth patriarch in its lineage.

germanize ::: v. t. --> To make German, or like what is distinctively German; as, to Germanize a province, a language, a society. ::: v. i. --> To reason or write after the manner of the Germans.

Gishin. (義眞) (781-833). Japanese monk who was the first head (zasu) of the TENDAISHu. At a young age, Gishin became the student of the Japanese monk SAICHo, who dwelled on HIEIZAN. He later went to the monastery of DAIANJI and studied the VINAYA under the Chinese vinaya master GANJIN. Gishin also studied Chinese under Jiken (d.u.) of ToDAIJI. In 804, the novice Gishin followed his teacher Saicho to China where he primarily served as an interpreter for his teacher. That same year, Saicho and Gishin arrived at the monastery of Guoqingsi on Mt. Tiantai (in present-day Zhejiang province). There, Gishin was ordained, receiving the full monastic precepts. The next year, both Saicho and Gishin received the "perfect teaching" (C. YUANJIAO) BODHISATTVA precepts (engyo bosatsukai) of the FANWANG JING from the reputed seventh patriarch of the TIANTAI tradition Daosui (d.u.) at the monastery of Longxingsi. Before their return to Japan that year, both Saicho and Gishin purportedly received initiation into the "two realms" (RYoBU) of the KONGoKAI (vajradhātu) and TAIZoKAI (garbadhātu) MAndALAs from a certain Shunxiao (d.u.) during their sojourn in Yuezhou (present-day Zhejiang province). After Saicho's death in 823, Gishin was given permission to construct a MAHĀYĀNA precepts platform (daijo kaidan) at his monastery of ENRYAKUJI. In 832, he was appointed the first head (zasu) of the Tendai school on Mt. Hiei.

gozan. (五山). In Japanese, "five mountains"; a medieval Japanese ranking system for officially sponsored ZEN monasteries, which may derive from Chinese institutional precedents. Large and powerful public monasteries in China known as "monasteries of the ten directions" (SHIFANGCHA) came under the control of the Chinese state during the Song dynasty and were designated either as VINAYA or CHAN monasteries. Government administration of these monasteries eventually ceased, but it is widely believed that five major Chan monasteries in Zhejiang province (ranked in the order of WANSHOUSI, Lingyinsi, Jingdesi, Jingci Bao'en Guangxiaosi, and Guanglisi) were selected to be protected and governed by the state, largely through the efforts of the Chan master DAHUI ZONGGAO and his disciples. Whether this is indeed the beginning of a "five-mountain ranking system" is unclear, but by the Yuan dynasty the term was clearly in use in China. The implementation of this system in Japan began under the rule of the Kamakura shogun Hojo Sadatoki (1271-1311). Five illustrious RINZAISHu monasteries in Kamakura, including KENCHoJI and ENGAKUJI, were granted gozan status and given a specific rank. A reordering of the gozan ranks occurred when Emperor Godaigo (1288-1339) came to power in 1333. The powerful Zen monasteries in Kyoto, NANZENJI and DAITOKUJI, replaced Kenchoji and Engakuji as the top-ranking monasteries, and the monastery of ToFUKUJI was added to the gozan system. The gozan ranks were changed again several times by the Ashikaga shogunate. By the Muromachi period, some three hundred official monasteries (kanji) were ranked either gozan, jissatsu (ten temples), or shozan (many mountains). The term gozan also came to denote the prosperous lineages of MUSo SOSEKI and ENNI BEN'EN, who populated the gozan monasteries; monks in these lineages were particularly renowned for their artistic and literary talents in classical Chinese and brushstroke art. There seems also to have been a five-mountain convent system (amadera gozan or niji gozan) for Japanese nuns, which paralleled the five-mountain monastery system of the monks, but little is known about it.

Great Revolt (66-73 CE) ::: The first of three major rebellions by the Jews of Judea Province against the Roman Empire (the second was the Kitos War in 115–117 AD, the third was Bar Kokhba's revolt, 132–135 CE). It began in the year 66, stemming from Greek and Jewish religious tension. It ended when legions under Titus besieged and destroyed Jerusalem, looted and burned Herod's Temple (in the year 70) and Jewish strongholds (notably Gamla in 67 and Masada in 73), and enslaved or massacred a large part of the Jewish population. The defeat of the Jewish revolts by the Roman Empire also contributed substantially to the numbers and geography of the Jewish diaspora, as many Jews were scattered or sold into slavery after losing their state.

Guangshengsi. (廣勝寺). In Chinese, "Monastery of Vast Triumph"; located in the Zhaocheng county seat in southern Shanxi province, the monastery's foundation legend traces its history back to 147 CE. The monastery is comprised of two monastic compounds, called the lower (xiasi) and upper (shangsi) Guangsheng monasteries. The upper monastery was rebuilt in 769 CE during the Tang, when the Taizong emperor (r. 762-779 CE) bestowed upon it the current name of Guangsheng or "Vast Triumph." Upper Guangsheng monastery was known for housing both Buddhist relics and two editions of the Buddhist canon (DAZANGJING), one dating from the Jin dynasty (1115-1234 CE), the other from the Yuan (1271-1368 CE). Lower Guangsheng monastery was originally an independent monastery. It is unique in that its main shrine hall, which dates from 1319 CE during the Yuan dynasty, was not specifically Buddhist or Daoist but was instead dedicated to a local god-Mingying Wang, the King of Righteous Response. The monastery was later subsumed by its neighbor, Upper Guangsheng monastery, and since the Ming dynasty (1368-1644 CE) has been known as Lower Guangsheng monastery.

Guifeng Zongmi. (J. Keiho Shumitsu; K. Kyubong Chongmil 圭峰宗密) (780-841). Chinese CHAN master and historian; putative fifth patriarch of the HUAYAN tradition and successor in the Heze school of CHAN; best known for positing the fundamental harmony between the scriptural teachings of Buddhism and Chan practice. Zongmi was a native of Xichong in present-day Sichuan province. Although little is known of his early life, Zongmi is said to have received a classical Confucian education. In 804, Zongmi encountered the monk Daoyuan (d.u.), purportedly a fourth-generation lineage holder of the Heze line of Chan (see HEZE SHENHUI), and became his student. During this period, Zongmi also carried on his studies of the YUANJUE JING. In 808, Zongmi received the full monastic precepts from Daoyuan, who then recommended the monk Nanyin Weizhong (d. 821) as a suitable teacher. In 810, Zongmi met the monk Lingfeng (d.u.), a disciple of the Huayan monk CHENGGUAN, at the monastery of Huijuesi. Two years later Zongmi began his studies of the AVATAMSAKASuTRA under CHENGGUAN in Chang'an. In 816, Zongmi began his residence at the monastery of Zhijusi on ZHONGNANSHAN and in 821 he retired to the temple Caotangsi on Gui peak (Guifeng), whence he acquired his toponym. There, Zongmi devoted himself to such works as his influential commentary on the Yuanjue jing, the Yuanjue jing dashu. In 828, Zongmi was invited to the palace and given a purple robe and the title Dade (Great Virtue). During his stay at the capital he met many important statesmen including Pei Xiu (787-860). Zongmi was a prolific writer whose works include commentaries on the AvataMsakasutra, VAJRACCHEDIKĀPRAJNĀPĀRAMITĀSuTRA, DASHENG QIXIN LUN, MAHĀPARINIRVĀnASuTRA, SIFEN LÜ ("Four-Part Vinaya"), and others. He also composed a massive, 100-roll history of the Chan school, the Chanyuan zhuquanji ("Collected Writings on the Source of Chan"), only the prolegomenon to which is extant (see CHANYUAN ZHUQUANJI DUXU). Zongmi's writings were extremely influential in the mature Korean SoN school and, especially, in the thought and practice of POJO CHINUL (1158-1210), who drew on Zongmi to advocate an accord between the traditions of Son (C. Chan; meditation) and Kyo (C. JIAO; doctrine). See also LINGZHI; FANZHAO.

Guishan Lingyou. [alt. Weishan Lingyou] (J. Isan Reiyu; K. Wisan Yongu 潙山靈祐) (771-853). Chinese CHAN master and cofounder of the GUIYANG ZONG of the mature Chan tradition. Guishan was a native of Fuzhou prefecture in present-day Fujian province. He was ordained at the age of fifteen and studied SuTRA and VINAYA at Longxingsi in Hangzhou prefecture (present-day Zhejiang province). Later, Guishan became the disciple of the eminent Chan master BAIZHANG HUAIHAI (720-814) of Hongzhou prefecture (present-day Jiangxi province). Along with HUANGBO XIYUN (d. 850?), Guishan became one of Baizhang's most prominent disciples and an emblematic teacher of Tang-dynasty Chan. He later moved to Guishan, whence he acquired his toponym, and taught more than forty close disciples. Among his disciples, the most important is YANGSHAN HUIJI (807-883). The names of the mountains on which Guishan and his student Yangshan resided were used collectively to refer to their prosperous Chan lineage, the Guiyang. He was later bestowed the title Chan master Dayuan (Great and Perfect). His teachings are recorded in the Tanzhou Guishan Lingyou chanshi yulu and GUISHAN JINGCE.

guoshi. (J. kokushi; K. kuksa 國師). In Chinese, "state preceptor," a high ecclesiastical office in East Asian Buddhist religious institutions. The first record of a "state preceptor" in China occurs during the reign of Emperor Wenxian (r. 550-559) of the Northern Qi dynasty, who is said to have appointed the monk Fachang (d.u.) as a guoshi after listening to his disquisition at court on the MAHĀPARINIRVĀnASuTRA. During the Tang dynasty, many renowned monks were appointed as guoshi, including FAZANG (643-712) as the Kangzang guoshi, CHENGGUAN (738-839) as the Qingliang guoshi, and NANYANG HUIZHONG (d. 775) as the Nanyang guoshi. In Japan, the term kokushi was used during the Nara period to refer to the highest ecclesiastical office accredited to each province (koku) by the central government. In Korea, kuksa were appointed from the Silla through early Choson dynasties and the term referred to a senior monk who served as a symbolic religious teacher and adviser to the state. The kuksa system appears to have become firmly established in Korea during the Koryo dynasty, which treated Buddhism as a virtual state religion. The first king of the Koryo dynasty, Wang Kon (T'aejo, r. 918-943), established a system of "royal preceptors" (wangsa) for his own religious edification, in distinction to the "state preceptors" who ministered to the government more broadly. The institution of ecclesiastical examinations (SŬNGKWA) during the reign of the king Kwangjong (r. 949-975) further systematized the appointments of both kuksa and wangsa. The kuksa and wangsa were compared to the parents of sentient beings and were thus placed at a status higher than even the king himself in state ceremonies. A monk could be posthumously appointed as a kuksa, and it was common during the Koryo dynasty for the king to reverentially appoint his wangsa as a kuksa following his spiritual adviser's death. Because Confucian ideologues during the late Koryo criticized the political roles played by kuksa and wangsa as examples of the corruption of Buddhism, the offices were eventually abolished during the reign of the third king of the Confucian-oriented Choson dynasty, T'aejong (r. 1400-1418).

habitant ::: v. t. --> An inhabitant; a dweller.
An inhabitant or resident; -- a name applied to and denoting farmers of French descent or origin in Canada, especially in the Province of Quebec; -- usually in plural.


Haedong kosŭng chon. (海東高僧傳). In Korean, "Lives of Eminent Korean Monks," putatively compiled in 1215 by the monk Kakhun (d.u.), abbot of the monastery of Yongt'ongsa, and the only such indigenous biographical collection of its kind (see GAOSENG ZHUAN) extant in Korea. A copy of the Haedong kosŭng chon was ostensibly discovered by the monk Hoegwang Sason (1862-1933; also known as Yi Hoegwang) amid a pile of old documents housed at a "certain" monastery in North Kyongsang province. A critical edition of this copy was published by Ch'oe Namson (1809-1957) in the magazine Pulgyo ("Buddhism") in 1927; the original document has never been seen again. The published recension of the Haedong kosŭng chon contains only the first two chapters, on yut'ong, or propagators of the religion. The first chapter is largely concerned with the history of the transmission of Buddhism from India to China and Korea. This roll contains the biographies of eight Korean monks and briefly mentions three others. The second roll contains the biographies of ten eminent Silla monks who made pilgrimages to India and China (e.g., WoN'GWANG and ANHAM) and also mentions the activities of eleven other figures; large portions of this roll are derived from the Chinese hagiographical anthology XU GAOSENG ZHUAN. There is also considerable overlap between the Haedong kosŭng chon and Iryon's (1206-1289) supposedly contemporaneous Buddhist history SAMGUK YUSA ("Memorabilia of the Three Kingdoms"). These several overlaps in material, as well as issues involving the provenance of the manuscript discovered by Yi Hoegwang, raise concerns about the authenticity of the Haedong kosŭng chon that have yet to be resolved.

Haeinsa. (海印寺). In Korean, "Ocean-Seal Monastery," or "Oceanic-Reflection Monastery"; the twelfth district monastery (PONSA) of the contemporary CHOGYE CHONG of Korean Buddhism, located on Kaya Mountain, in Hapch'on, South Kyongsang province. Along with SONGGWANGSA and T'ONGDOSA, Haeinsa is considered to be one of the "three-jewel monasteries" (SAMBO SACH'AL) which represent one of the three jewels of Buddhism (RATNATRAYA); Haeinsa is traditionally designated the "Dharma-Jewel Monastery" (Poppo sach'al) because of its pair of scriptural repositories, which house the woodblocks of the second Koryo-dynasty carving of the Buddhist canon (KORYo TAEJANGGYoNG; see also DAZANGJING). These paired halls are placed on top of a hill overlooking the main buddha hall in order to accentuate Haeinsa's role as a surrogate for the DHARMA. Haeinsa was established in 802 to celebrate the successful healing of King Aejang's (r. 800-808) queen by the two monks Sunŭng (d.u.) and Yijong (d.u.). The woodblock canon carved in the first half of the thirteenth century was moved to Haeinsa during the reign of King T'aejo (r. 1392-1398). In 1392, King T'aejo also repaired Haeinsa's old pagoda, and King Sejo (r. 1455-1468) later repaired the library halls housing the canon (Changgyonggak). The monastery went through extensive repairs again for three years from 1488 to 1490, but most of its treasures of old (with the fortunate exception of the woodblocks) were lost in a series of fires that broke out in the compounds between the years 1862 and 1874. Most of the buildings that stand today were rebuilt after those conflagrations.

Hagith: The Olympian Spirit (q.v.) governing Venus, ruler of 21 Olympian Provinces of the universe; his day is Friday.

Hakuin Ekaku. (白隱慧鶴) (1685-1768). Japanese ZEN master renowned for revitalizing the RINZAISHu. Hakuin was a native of Hara in Shizuoka Prefecture. In 1699, Hakuin was ordained and received the name Ekaku (Wise Crane) from the monk Tanrei Soden (d. 1701) at the nearby temple of Shoinji. Shortly thereafter, Hakuin was sent by Tanrei to the temple of Daishoji in Numazu to serve the abbot Sokudo Fueki (d. 1712). Hakuin is then said to have lost faith in his Buddhist training and devoted much of his time instead to art. In 1704, Hakuin visited the monk Bao Sochiku (1629-1711) at the temple Zuiunji in Mino province. While studying under Bao, Hakuin is said to have read the CHANGUAN CEJIN by YUNQI ZHUHONG, which inspired him to further meditative training. In 1708, Hakuin is said to have had his first awakening experience upon hearing the ringing of a distant bell. That same year, Hakuin met Doju Sokaku (1679-1730), who urged him to visit the Zen master Dokyo Etan (1642-1721), or Shoju Ronin, at the hermitage of Shojuan in Iiyama. During one of his begging rounds, Hakuin is said to have had another important awakening after an old woman struck him with a broom. Shortly after his departure from Shojuan, Hakuin suffered from an illness, which he cured with the help of a legendary hermit named Hakuyu. Hakuin's famous story of his encounter with Hakuyu was recounted in his YASENKANNA, Orategama, and Itsumadegusa. In 1716, Hakuin returned to Shoinji and devoted much of his time to restoring the monastery, teaching students, and lecturing. Hakuin delivered famous lectures on such texts as the VIMALAKĪRTINIRDEsA, SADDHARMAPUndARĪKASuTRA, VAJRACCHEDIKĀPRAJNĀPĀRAMITĀSuTRA, BIYAN LU, BAOJING SANMEI, DAHUI PUJUE CHANSHI SHU, and YUANREN LUN, and the recorded sayings (YULU) of LINJI YIXUAN, WUZU FAYAN, and XUTANG ZHIYU. He also composed a number of important texts during this period, such as the Kanzan shi sendai kimon, Kaian kokugo, and SOKKoROKU KAIEN FUSETSU. Prior to his death, Hakuin established the monastery of Ryutakuji in Mishima (present-day Shizuoka prefecture). Hakuin was a strong advocate of "questioning meditation" (J. kanna Zen; C. KANHUA CHAN), which focused on the role of doubt in contemplating the koan (GONG'AN). Hakuin proposed that the sense of doubt was the catalyst for an initial SATORI (awakening; C. WU), which had then to be enhanced through further koan study in order to mature the experience. The contemporary Rinzai training system involving systematic study of many different koans is attributed to Hakuin, as is the famous koan, "What is the sound of one hand clapping?" (see SEKISHU KoAN). Hakuin was a prolific writer who left many other works as well, including the Dokugo shingyo, Oniazami, Yabukoji, Hebiichigo, Keiso dokuzui, Yaemugura, and Zazen wasan. Hakuin also produced many prominent disciples, including ToREI ENJI, Suio Genro (1716-1789), and GASAN JITo. The contemporary Japanese Rinzai school of Zen traces its lineage and teachings back to Hakuin and his disciples.

Hanshan Deqing. (J. Kanzan Tokusei; K. Kamsan Tokch'ong 憨山德清) (1546-1623). In Chinese, "Crazy Mountain, Virtuous Clarity"; Ming-dynasty Chinese CHAN master of the LINJI ZONG; also known as Chengyin. Hanshan was a native of Quanjiao in Jinling (present-day Nanjing in Jiangsu province). He entered the monastery at age eleven and was ordained at the age of eighteen. Hanshan then studied under the monks Yungu Fahui (d.u.) and Fangguang (d.u.) of Mt. Funiu and later retired to WUTAISHAN. In 1581, Hanshan organized an "unrestricted assembly" (WUZHE DAHUI) led by five hundred worthies (DADE) on Mt. Wutai. In 1587, Hanshan received the patronage of the empress dowager, who constructed on his behalf the monastery Haiyinsi in Qingzhou (present-day Shandong province) and granted the monastery a copy of the Buddhist canon. Hanshan, however, lost favor with Emperor Shenzong (r. 1572-1620) and was sent to prison in Leizhou (present-day Guangdong province). In 1597, Hanshan reestablished himself on CAOXISHAN, where he devoted most of his time to restoring the meditation hall, conferring precepts, lecturing on scriptures, and restructuring the monastic regulations. In 1616, he established the Chan monastery of Fayunsi on LUSHAN's Wuru Peak. In 1622, Hanshan returned to Mt. Caoxi and passed away the next year. Hanshan was particularly famous for his cultivation of Chan questioning meditation (KANHUA CHAN) and recollection of the Buddha's name (NIANFO). Along with YUNQI ZHUHONG (1535-1615), DAGUAN ZHENKE (a.k.a. Zibo) (1542-1603), and OUYI ZHIXU (1599-1655), Hanshan was known as one of the four great monks of the Ming dynasty. Hanshan was later given the posthumous title Chan master Hongjue (Universal Enlightenment). His teachings are recorded in the Hanshan dashi mengyou quanji.

Hanshan. (J. Kanzan; K. Hansan 寒山) (d.u.; fl. mid-eighth century). In Chinese, "Cold Mountain"; sobriquet of a legendary Tang dynasty poet and iconoclast of near-mythic status within Chinese Buddhism. The HANSHAN SHI, one of the best-loved collection of poems in the Chinese Buddhist tradition, is attributed to this obscure figure. Hanshan (Cold Mountain) is primarily known as a hermit who dwelled on Mt. Tiantai, in present-day Zhejiang province. References to Hanshan are scattered throughout the discourse records (YULU) of various Chan masters and biographies of eminent monks (GAOSENG ZHUAN). Hanshan also became a favored object in brushstroke art (BOKUSEKI), in which he is often depicted together with SHIDE and FENGGAN. Together, these three iconoclasts are known as the "three recluses of Guoqing [monastery]."

Hanshan shi. (J. Kanzan shi; K. Hansan si 寒山詩). In Chinese, "Cold Mountain's Poems," attributed to the legendary Chinese iconoclast HANSHAN (Cold Mountain); also known as Hanshan shiji. Sometime between 766 and 779, Hanshan is presumed to have retired to Mt. Tiantai (in present-day Zhejiang province), where he composed his famous poetry. The poems of the legendary monks FENGGAN and SHIDE are also included at the end of Hanshan's poetry collection. During the Song dynasty, the Hanshan shi was also known as the Sanyin ji ("Collection of the Three Recluses"). The Hanshan shi was widely read for its sharp satire of his times and its otherworldliness. The earliest edition was published in 1189 at the monastery of Guoqingsi on Mt. Tiantai.

Helin Xuansu. (J. Kakurin Genso; K. Hangnim Hyonso 鶴林玄素) (668-752). Chinese CHAN master in the NIUTOU ZONG, also known as Daoqing or Masu (from his secular surname Ma). Helin was ordained at the monastery of Changshousi in present-day Jiangsu province, but later in his life moved to Youqisi, where he became a disciple of the fifth-generation Niutou successor Zhiwei (646-722). At another monk's request, Helin moved once again to the monastery of Helinsi on Mt. Huanghe in Yunzhou prefecture, whence he acquired his toponym. He died without any symptoms of illness in 752 at the age of eighty-four. He was subsequently given the posthumous title Chan master Dalü (Great Discipline). He claims among his disciples Jingshan Daoqin (714-792) and FAHAI, whom the Dunhuang edition of the LIUZU TAN JING ("Platform Sutra of the Sixth Patriarch") states is the compiler of the text.

Heze Shenhui. (J. Kataku Jinne; K. Hat'aek Sinhoe 荷澤神會) (684-758). Chinese CHAN master and reputed main disciple of the sixth patriarch HUINENG; his collateral branch of Huineng's lineage is sometimes referred to as the Heze school. Shenhui was a native of Xiangyang in present-day Hubei province. He became a monk under the master Haoyuan (d.u.) of the monastery of Kuochangsi in his hometown of Xiangyang. In 704, Shenhui received the full monastic precepts in Chang'an, and extant sources provide differing stories of Shenhui's whereabouts thereafter. He is said to have become a student of SHENXIU and later visited MT. CAOXI where he studied under Huineng until the master's death in 713. After several years of traveling, Shenhui settled down in 720 at the monastery of Longxingsi in Nanyang (present-day Henan province). In 732, during an "unrestricted assembly" (WUZHE DAHUI) held at the monastery Dayunsi in Huatai, Shenhui engaged a monk by the name of Chongyuan (d.u.) and publicly criticized the so-called Bei zong (Northern school) of Shenxiu's disciples PUJI and XIANGMO ZANG as being a mere collateral branch of BODHIDHARMA's lineage that upheld a gradualist soteriological teaching. Shenhui also argued that his teacher Huineng had received the orthodox transmission of Bodhidharma's lineage and his "sudden teaching" (DUNJIAO). In 745, Shenhui is said to have moved to the monastery of Hezesi in Luoyang, whence he acquired his toponym. He was cast out of Luoyang by a powerful Northern school follower in 753. Obeying an imperial edict, Shenhui relocated to the monastery of Kaiyuansi in Jingzhou (present-day Hubei province) and assisted the government financially by performing mass ordinations after the economic havoc wrought by the An Lushan rebellion in 755. He was later given the posthumous title Great Master Zhenzong (Authentic Tradition). Shenhui also plays a minor, yet important, role in the LIUZU TAN JING ("Platform Sutra of the Sixth Patriarch"). A treatise entitled the XIANZONGJI, preserved as part of the JINGDE CHUANDENG LU, is attributed to Shenhui. Several other treatises attributed to Shenhui were also discovered at DUNHUANG. Shenhui's approach to Chan practice was extremely influential in GUIFENG ZONGMI's attempts to reconcile different strands of Chan, and even doctrine, later in the Tang dynasty; through Zongmi, Shenhui's teachings also became a critical component of the Korean Son master POJO CHINUL's accounts of Chan soteriology and meditation.

Honen. (法然) (1133-1212). Japanese monk regarded as the founder of the JoDOSHu, or PURE LAND school. Honen was a native of Mimasaka province. After his father's violent death, Honen was entrusted to his uncle, a monk at the nearby monastery of Bodaiji. Honen later headed for HIEIZAN in 1147 to received ordination. He began his studies under the TENDAISHu (C. TIANTAI ZONG) monks Genko (d.u.) and Koen (d. 1169), but the corruption he perceived within the Tendai community at ENRYAKUJI led Honen to seek teachings elsewhere. In 1150, he visited the master Eiku (d. 1179), a disciple of the monk RYoNIN, in Kurodani on Mt. Hiei, where he remained for the next twenty years. Under Eiku's guidance, Honen studied GENSHIN's influential treatise, the oJo YoSHu and became a specialist in the practice of nenbutsu ("recollecting the Buddha's name"; see C. NIANFO). Honen is also said to have devoted himself exclusively to the practice of invoking the name of the buddha AMITĀBHA (a type of nenbutsu) after perusing the Chinese monk SHANDAO's influential commentary on the GUAN WULIANGSHOU JING, the Guan Wuliangshou jing shu. In 1175, Honen left Mt. Hiei and established himself in the district of Higashiyama Yoshimizu in the capital Kyoto. His fame grew after his participation in the ohara discussion of 1186, which explored how pure land beliefs and practices could help overcome human suffering. Honen soon attracted many followers, including such prominent figures as the regent Kujo Kanezane (1149-1207). In 1198, Honen compiled his influential treatise, SENCHAKUSHu. Due perhaps to his growing influence and his purported rejection of the Tendai teachings of original enlightenment (HONGAKU), the monks of Enryakuji began attacking Honen, banning his practice of nenbutsu in 1204. The monks of the Nara monastery of KoFUKUJI also petitioned the retired emperor Gotoba (r. 1183-1198) to ban the practice in 1205. A scandal involving two of Honen's disciples led to his exile to Shikoku in 1207 and the execution of four of his disciples. He was later pardoned and returned to Kyoto in 1211. Due to illness, he died the next year in what is now known as the Seishido in the monastery of Chion'in. Honen preached that, in the current degeneration age of the dharma (J. mappo; C. MOFA), the exclusive practice of nenbutsu was the only way through which salvation could be achieved. Due in part to Honen's advocacy, nenbutsu eventually became one of the predominant practices of Japanese Buddhism. Honen's preeminent disciple was SHINRAN (1173-1262), who further radicalized pure land practice by insisting that salvation was only possible through the grace of Amitābha, rather than through continuous nenbutsu practice.

Hongren. (J. Konin/Gunin; K. Hongin 弘忍) (601-674). Chinese Chan master and the reputed fifth patriarch of the Chan zong. Hongren was a native of Huangmei in Qizhou (present-day Hubei province). Little is known of his early life, but he eventually became the disciple of the fourth patriarch DAOXIN. After Daoxin's death in 651, Hongren succeeded his teacher and moved to Mt. Fengmao (also known as Dongshan or East Mountain), the east peak of Mt. Shuangfeng (Twin Peaks) in Huangmei. Hongren's teachings thus came to be known as the "East Mountain teachings" (DONGSHAN FAMEN), although that term is later applied also to the lineage and teachings of both Daoxin and Hongren. After his move to Mt. Fengmao, disciples began to flock to study under Hongren. Although Hongren's biography in the CHUAN FABAO JI certainly exaggerates when it says that eight to nine out of every ten Buddhist practitioners in China studied under him, there is no question that the number of students of the East Mountain teachings grew significantly over two generations. The twenty-five named disciples of Hongren include such prominent figures as SHENXIU, Zhishen (609-702), Lao'an (d. 708), Faru (638-689), Xuanze (d.u.), and HUINENG, the man who would eventually be recognized by the mature Chan tradition as the sixth, and last, patriarch. The legendary account of Hongren's mind-to-mind transmission (YIXIN CHUANXIN) of the DHARMA to Huineng can be found in the LIUZU TAN JING. Later, Emperor Daizong (r. 762-779) bestowed upon Hongren the title Chan master Daman (Great Abundance). The influential treatise XIUXIN YAO LUN ("Treatise on the Essentials of Cultivating the Mind") is attributed to Hongren; it stresses the importance of "guarding the mind" (SHOUXIN). In that text, the relationship between the pure mind and the afflictions (KLEsA) is likened to that between the sun and the clouds: the pure mind is obscured by afflictions just as the sun is covered by layers of clouds; but if one can guard the mind so that it is kept free from false thoughts and delusions, the sun of NIRVĀnA will then appear. The text suggests two specific meditation techniques for realizing this goal: one is continuously to visualize the original, pure mind (viz., the sun) so that it shines without obscuration; the other is to concentrate on one's own deluded thoughts (the clouds) until they disappear. These two techniques purport to "guard the mind" so that delusion can never recur.

Hongzhi Zhengjue. (J. Wanshi Shogaku; K. Koengji Chonggak 宏智正覺) (1091-1157). Chinese CHAN master in the CAODONG ZONG. Hongzhi was a native of Xizhou in present-day Shanxi province, and later came to be known as the "Old Buddha of Xizhou." At age ten, he entered the monastery of Jingmingsi under the monk Benzong (d.u.) and four years later received the full monastic precepts from Zhiqiong (d.u.) at Ciyunsi. Hongzhi then set out to visit various teachers throughout the country and first studied under the Chan master Kumu Facheng (1071-1128). Hongzhi eventually became a student of the Chan master Danxia Zichun (1064-1117) and inherited his Caodong lineage. In 1124, Hongzhi became the abbot of Puzhaosi in Sizhou (present-day Anhui province). After holding posts at various other monasteries, Hongzhi was finally invited to Mt. Tiantong (in present-day Zhejiang province) in 1129 and spent the next three decades restoring his monastery at that mountain site. The great SAMGHA hall (SENGTANG) that he constructed there is said to have housed more than twelve hundred monks. Hongzhi is thus often referred to as the reviver of Mt. Tiantong. Hongzhi is best known within the Chan tradition for teaching a style of meditation he called "silent-illumination chan" (MOZHAO CHAN). Hongzhi also maintained a lengthy and close relationship with his friend and rival, the eminent LINJI ZONG master DAHUI ZONGGAO, who was a virulent critic of mozhao Chan. Hongzhi composed the MOZHAO MING and his teachings can be found in the Hongzhi Jue chanshi yuyao, Hongzhi Jue chanshi yulu, and Hongzhi guanglu. Hongzhi's famous verse commentaries on a hundred "old cases" (see GONG'AN) can be found in the CONGRONG LU. Emperor Gaozong subsequently bestowed upon him the title Chan master Hongzhi (Expansive Wisdom).

Hongzhou zong. (J. Koshushu; K. Hongju chong 洪州宗). The Hongzhou school of Chinese CHAN derives its name from the Hongzhou region in Jiangxi province, where the Chan master MAZU DAOYI developed his unique style of Chan pedagogy. The name was first used by the Chan historian GUIFENG ZONGMI to refer primarily to those who traced their lineage back to Mazu and his immediate disciples. According to traditional accounts of their teachings, Chan masters in the Hongzhou line regarded all activities of everyday life as the very functioning of the buddha-nature (FOXING) itself. Since everything in the conditioned realm, therefore, was presumed to be a manifestation of the buddha-nature, Hongzhou adepts were said to claim that all actions, whether right or wrong, good or evil, and so forth, were equally the functioning of the enlightened mind. Zongmi criticized this view as promoting a dangerous antinomianism in Chan, which fostered unrestrained conduct (see WU'AI XING). Normative portrayals in Chan literature of iconoclastic masters striking their students, shouting, and pinching their students' noses derive from stereotypes fostered within the Hongzhou school. Largely through the efforts of Mazu's prominent disciples BAIZHANG HUAIHAI and NANQUAN PUYUAN, the Hongzhou line came to be the dominant Chan lineage in medieval China and eventually evolved into the GUIYANG ZONG and LINJI ZONG of the mature Chan tradition. The Hongzhou lineage was also extremely influential in Silla and Koryo-period Korea as well, where eight of the nine sites associated with the Korean Nine Mountains Son school (KUSAN SoNMUN) were founded during the ninth century by teachers who studied in China with Hongzhou masters.

Hsi-tsang (Chinese) [from hsi west + tsang (cf Tibet tsan) a central province of Tibet whose most important city is Shigatse] Blavatsky spells Si-dzang. The name for Tibet “mentioned in the MSS. of the sacred library of the province of Fo-Kien [Fu-chien], as the great seat of Occult learning from time immemorial, ages before Buddha” (SD 1:271n).

Huangbo Xiyun. (J. obaku Kiun; K. Hwangbyok Hŭiun 黄檗希運) (d. 850). Chinese CHAN master of the Tang dynasty. Huangbo was a native of Min in present-day Fujian province. Little is known of his early life, but he eventually became a monk on Mt. Huangbo in Fuzhou (present-day Fuzhou province). Huangbo later became the disciple of the eminent Chan master BAIZHANG HUAIHAI, a first-generation successor to MAZU DAOYI. After he left Baizhang's side, Huangbo became the abbot of the monastery of Da'ansi where he trained many students. At the invitation of the powerful minister of state Pei Xiu (787-860), Huangbo left for Zhongling (present-day Jiangxi province) and began to reside on a local mountain that he renamed Mt. Huangbo, whence he acquired his toponym. During this period, Huangbo acquired many more disciples and established himself as a major Chan master. In 842, Huangbo relocated to the monastery of Longxingsi and again to Kaiyuansi in Wanling (present-day Anhui province) in 848. His most famous disciple is LINJI YIXUAN (d. 867) whose lineage became the dominant Chan school in China, the eponymous LINJI ZONG. Huangbo's teachings focus on the notion of the "one mind" (YIXIN) that vivifies all things, including enlightened buddhas and unenlightened sentient beings. Chan practice therefore involves simply bringing an end to all discriminative thought so that the one mind will be made manifest. Pei Xiu compiled his notes of Huangbo's lectures, which he titled the CHUANXIN FAYAO. Huangbo received the posthumous title Chan master Duanji (Eradicating Limits).

Huanglong Huinan. (J. oryo/oryu Enan; K. Hwangnyong Hyenam 龍慧南) (1002-1069). Song-dynasty Chan monk who is regarded as the founder of the HUANGLONG PAI collateral lineage of the LINJI ZONG. He ordained as a monk at the age of eleven, eventually becoming a disciple of Shishuang Chuyuan (986-1039), a sixth-generation successor in the Linji school. He spent much of his life teaching at Mt. Huanglong in Xiushui county of Jiangxi province, whence he acquired his toponym. Huanglong was famous for employing three crucial questions to challenge his students and encourage their cultivation; these are known as "Huanglong's Three Checkpoints" (Huanglong sanguan): What conditioned your birth (viz., why were you born)? Why are my hands like the Buddha's? Why are my feet like a donkey's? His Huanglong lineage lasted for about one hundred fifty years, before being reabsorbed into the rival YANGQI PAI.

Huanglong pai. (J. oryoha/oryuha; K. Hwangnyong p'a 龍派). In Chinese, "Huanglong school"; collateral lineage of the CHAN school's LINJI ZONG, one of the five houses and seven schools (WU JIA QI ZONG) of the Chan during the Northern Song dynasty (960-1126). The school's name comes from the toponym of its founder, HUANGLONG HUINAN (1002-1069), who taught at Mt. Huanglong in present-day Jiangxi province; Huinan was a disciple of Shishuang Chuyuan (986-1039), himself a sixth-generation successor in the Linji school. The Huanglong school was especially known for "lettered Chan" (WENZI CHAN), a style of Chan that valorized belle lettres, and especially poetry, in Chan practice. Many of the most influential monks in the Huanglong school exemplified a period when Chan entered the mainstream of Chinese intellectual life: their practice of Chan was framed and conceptualized in terms that drew from their wide learning and profound erudition, tendencies that helped make Chan writings particularly appealing to wider Chinese literati culture. JUEFAN HUIHONG (1071-1128), for example, decried the bibliophobic tendencies in Chan that were epitomized in the aphorism that Chan "does not establish words and letters" (BULI WENZI) and advocated that Chan insights were in fact made manifest in both Buddhist sutras and the uniquely Chan genres of discourse records (YULU), lineage histories (see CHUANDENG LU), and public-case anthologies (GONG'AN). Huanglong and YUNMEN ZONG masters made important contributions to the development of the Song Chan literary styles of songgu ([attaching] verses to ancient [cases]) and niangu (raising [and analyzing] ancient [cases]). Because of their pronounced literary tendencies, many Huanglong monks became close associates of such Song literati-officials as Su Shi (1036-1101), Huang Tingjian (1045-1105), and ZHANG SHANGYING (1043-1122). After the founder's death, discord appeared within the Huanglong lineage: the second-generation master Baofeng Kewen (1025-1102) and his disciple Juefan Huihong criticized the practices of another second-generation master Donglin Changzong (1025-1091) and his disciples as clinging to silence and simply waiting for enlightenment; this view may have influenced the subsequent criticism of the CAODONG ZONG by DAHUI ZONGGAO (1089-1163), who trained for a time with the Huanglong master Zhantang Wenjun (1061-1115). The Huanglong pai was the first school of Chan to be introduced to Japan: by MYoAN EISAI (1141-1215), who studied with the eighth-generation Huanglong teacher Xu'an Huaichang (d.u.). The Huanglong pai did not survive as a separate lineage in either country long after the twelfth century, as its rival YANGQI PAI came to prominence; it was eventually reabsorbed into the Yangqi lineage.

Huiguo. (J. Keika; K. Hyegwa 惠果) (746-805). Tang-dynasty Chinese monk, reputed seventh patriarch of esoteric Buddhism (J. MIKKYo), and a master especially of the KONGoKAI and TAIZoKAI transmissions. Huiguo was a native of Shaanxi province. He became a monk at an early age and went to the monastery of Qinglongsi in the Chinese capital of Chang'an, where he became a student of the master (ĀCĀRYA) AMOGHAVAJRA's disciple Tanchen (d.u.). In 765, Huiguo received the full monastic precepts, after which he is said to have received the teachings on the VAJRAsEKHARASuTRA from Amoghavajra himself. Two years later, Huiguo is also said to have received instructions on the taizokai and the SUSIDDHIKARASuTRA from the obscure Korean monk Hyonch'o (d.u.), a purported disciple of ācārya sUBHAKARASIMHA. In 789, Huiguo won the support of Emperor Dezong (r. 779-805) by successfully praying for rain. Huiguo's renown was such that he received disciples from Korea, Japan, and even Java. In 805, Huiguo purportedly gave instructions on the kongokai and taizokai to the eminent Japanese pilgrim KuKAI during the three months prior to the master's death, and eventually performed the consecration ritual (ABHIsEKA) for his student. Kukai thus claimed that Huiguo was the Chinese progenitor of the Japanese SHINGONSHu. That same year, Huiguo passed away at his residence in the Eastern Pagoda cloister at Qinglongsi.

Huike. (J. Eka; K. Hyega 慧可) (c. 487-593). "Wise Prospect"; putative second patriarch of the CHAN ZONG. Huike (a.k.a. Sengke) was a native of Hulao (alt. Wulao) near Luoyang in present-day Henan province. When he was young, Huike is said to have mastered the Confucian classics and Daoist scriptures in addition to the Buddhist SuTRAs. He was later ordained by a certain Baojing (d.u.) on Mt. Xiang near Longmen, and received the full monastic precepts at Yongmusi. In 520, he is said to have made his famous visit to the monastery of SHAOLINSI on SONGSHAN, where he became the disciple of the Indian monk and founder of Chan, BODHIDHARMA. According to legend, Huike is said to have convinced the Indian master to accept him as a disciple by cutting off his left arm as a sign of his sincerity. (His biography in the GAOSENG ZHUAN tells us instead that he lost his arm to robbers.) Once Bodhidharma finally relented, Huike asked him to pacify his mind. Bodhidharma told him in response to bring him his mind, but Huike replied that he has searched everywhere for his mind but has not been able to find it anywhere. "Well, then," said Bodhidharma, in a widely quoted response, "I've pacified it for you." This brief encounter prompted Huike's awakening experience. Later, Huike taught at the capital Ye (present-day Henan province), where he is said to have amassed a large following. In 550, Huike ostensibly transmitted Bodhidharma's DHARMA to the obscure monk SENGCAN (the putative third patriarch of Chan) and later went into hiding during Emperor Wu's (r. 560-578) persecution of Buddhism (574-578).

Huineng. (J. Eno; K. Hyenŭng 慧能) (638-713). Chinese Chan master and reputed sixth patriarch (LIUZU) of the CHAN ZONG. While little is known of the historical figure, the legendary Huineng of the LIUZU TAN JING ("Platform Sutra of the Sixth Patriarch") is an ubiquitous figure in Chan literature. According to his hagiography, Huineng was born in Xinzhou (present-day Guangdong province). As a youth, he cared for his poor mother by gathering and selling firewood. One day at the market he heard someone reciting the famous VAJRACCHEDIKĀPRAJNĀPĀRAMITĀSuTRA ("Diamond Sutra") and immediately decided to enter the monastery. Huineng subsequently visited HONGREN, the fifth Chan patriarch, on East Mountain in Qizhou (present-day Hubei province). After spending eight years in the threshing room, the illiterate Huineng heard a monk reciting a verse that had just been posted on a wall of the monastery, a verse written secretly by Hongren's senior disciple, SHENXIU: "The body is the BODHI TREE, / The mind is like a bright mirror's stand. / Be always diligent in polishing it, / Do not let any dust alight." Immediately recognizing that the writer's understanding was deficient, Huineng in response composed a verse reply, which he asked a colleague to write down for him: "BODHI fundamentally has no tree, / The bright mirror also has no stand. / Fundamentally there is not a single thing, / Where could any dust alight?" After reading the verse the next day, Hongren secretly called Huineng to his room in the middle of the night and recited a line from the "Diamond Sutra," which prompted in Huineng a great awakening. Hongren then secretly transmitted the robe and bowl of Chan's founder and first patriarch, BODHIDHARMA, to Huineng, making him the sixth (and ultimately last) patriarch of the Chan school; but he ordered his successor to go into hiding, lest he be harmed by followers of Shenxiu. Huineng then fled south. In 677, he received the full monastic precepts from the dharma master Yinzong (d.u.) at the monastery of Faxingsi in Nanhai (present-day Guangdong province). The next year, Huineng relocated to the monastery of Baolinsi on CAOXISHAN, the mountain that remains forever associated with him, where he attracted many students and followers. In 815, Emperor Xianzong (r. 805-820) bestowed upon him the posthumous title Chan master Dajian (Great Speculum). The monks QINGYUAN XINGSI, NANYUE HUAIRANG, HEZE SHENHUI, and YONGJIA XUANJUE are said to have been Huineng's preeminent disciples. Huineng is claimed to have been the founder of the so-called "Southern school" (NAN ZONG) of Chan, and to have instructed his students in the "sudden teachings" (DUNJIAO), the explication of which prompted much of the Chan school's subsequent soteriological developments and intrasectarian polemics. Although we have little historical evidence about either Huineng the person or his immediate disciples, all the various strands of the mature Chan tradition retrospectively trace their pedigrees back to him, making the legend of the sixth patriarch one of the most influential in the development of the Chan school.

Huyèn Quang. (玄光) (1254-1334). Third patriarch of the TRÚC LM school of the Vietnamese THIỀN (C. Chan) tradition; his personal name was Lý Đạo Tái and he was a native of Giang Hạ (present-day Hà Bắc province). After passing the civil-service examination and serving as a scholar-official, he left home to become a monk in 1305, when he was already fifty-one years old. He first studied under Chan master Bão Phác of Lẽ Vĩnh monastery and then became a follower of Tràn Nhan Tông and, after the latter's death, of Pháp Loa, who was thirty years his junior. After a short stint as abbot of Van Yen monastery on Mount Yen Tử, he moved to Côn Sơn monastery. Huyèn Quang was already seventy-seven years old when he succeeded Pháp Loa as the third patriarch of the Trúc Lam school in 1331 but seems never to have had the ambition to lead the Buddhist order. He died at Côn Sơn in 1334. Huyèn Quang was a talented poet, who left behind more than twenty poems, most of which deal with the beauty of the natural world.

Huyin Daoji. (J. Koin Dosai; K. Hoŭn Toje 湖隱道濟) (1150-1209). Chinese monk and thaumaturge who is associated with the YANGQI PAI of the LINJI ZONG of CHAN school; he is most commonly known in Chinese as JIGONG (Sire Ji) and sometimes as Jidian (Crazy Ji). A popular subject in vernacular Chinese fiction and plays, it has become difficult to separate the historical Jigong from the legend. Jigong is said to have been a native of Linhai in present-day Zhejiang province. He later visited the Chan master Xiatang Huiyuan (1103-1176), received the full monastic precepts at his monastery of Lingyinsi (present-day Jiangsu province), and became his disciple. After he left Xiatang's side, Jigong is said to have led the life of an itinerant holy man. During this period, Jigong's antinomian behavior, most notably his drinking and meat eating, along with his accomplishments as a trickster and wonderworker, became the subject of popular folklore. His unconventional behavior seems to have led to his ostracism from the SAMGHA. Jigong later moved to the monastery of Jingcisi, where he died in 1209. His teachings are recorded in the Jidian chanshi yulu (first printed in 1569).

Hwansong Chian. (喚醒志安) (1664-1729). Korean monk from the mid-Choson dynasty. Hwansong Chian was a disciple of Woltam Solche (1632-1704) and of Moun Chinon (1622-1703), at the time was the most respected Hwaom (HUAYAN) scholar in the kingdom. At Chinon's request, Hwansong Chian began to lecture on the AVATAMSAKASuTRA in Chinon's place. Chinon eventually entrusted his disciples to Chian, and Chian thus acquired a name for himself as a Hwaom master. In 1725, he held a grand Hwaom lecture and attracted more than fourteen hundred listeners. Given the suspicion Buddhist activities engendered during this time of the religion's persecution, the government was deeply concerned about the potentially seditious impact of his lectures and consequently had him arrested and imprisoned. Chian was released after it was eventually revealed that he was falsely accused. Subsequently, a high Confucian official from Cholla province petitioned for his arrest, and he was sent into exile on Cheju island, where he died seven days later on July 7, 1729. His writings include the Sonmun ojong kangyo and the Hwansong chip.

hyrcan ::: a. --> Of or pertaining to Hyrcania, an ancient country or province of Asia, southeast of the Caspian (which was also called the Hyrcanian) Sea.

imwotko. (C. shi shenme; J. kore ikan; K. /si simma 是甚麼). In vernacular Korean (and specifically the dialect of Kyongsang province), "What is this?"; the foundational contemplative question (K. hwadu; C. HUATOU) used within the Korean SoN (C. CHAN) tradition. This hwadu was taught by both KYoNGHo SoNGU (1849-1912) and YONGSoNG CHINJONG (1864-1940) as part of their attempts to revive Korean kanhwa Son (C. KANHUA CHAN) practice at the turn of the twentieth century. Imwotko is a dialectical contraction of the standard vernacular Korean phrase "Igosi muosin ko" ("What is this?"), which is the translation of the classical Chinese question "What is this?" (C. SHI SHENME; K. si simma) that was frequently raised by teachers in the Chinese Chan tradition. For example, the sixth patriarch HUINENG (638-713) is said to have asked, "There is this one thing that supports the heavens above and opens the earth below. It is as bright as the sun and moon and as dark as a lacquer barrel. It is constantly inside all my activities. What is that thing?" And MAZU DAOYI (709-788) asked, "It is not mind, not buddha, not a thing. So, what is it?" Imwotko differs from the enigmatic expressions of the enlightenment experience that appear in many of the Son exchanges between master and disciple; it is instead presumed to ask the fundamental question about what existence itself means, such as what is my original face (K. pollae myonmok; C. BENLAI MIANMU). By asking this most basic of existential questions, imwotko is thought to generate the sensation of doubt (K. ŭijong; C. YIJING) more readily than might the standard Son GONG'AN and is often thus the first hwadu given to beginning meditators, and especially laypersons, in Korean Son training. But because the doubt generated by imwotko may not be as intense and sustained as that generated by the standard kongan, monks and nuns will typically shift from imwotko to one of those cases as their meditation progresses.

indict ::: v. t. --> To write; to compose; to dictate; to indite.
To appoint publicly or by authority; to proclaim or announce.
To charge with a crime, in due form of law, by the finding or presentment of a grand jury; to find an indictment against; as, to indict a man for arson. It is the peculiar province of a grand jury to indict, as it is of a house of representatives to impeach.


In the Ideen and in later works, Husserl applied the epithet "transcendental" to consciousness as it is aside from its (valid and necessary) self-apperception as in a world. At the same time, he restricted the term "psychic" to subjectivity (personal subjects, their streams of consciousness, etc.) in its status as worldly, animal, human subjectivity. The contrast between transcendental subjectivity and worldly being is fundamental to Husserl's mature concept of pure phenomenology and to his concept of a universal phenomenological philosophy. In the Ideen, this pure phenomenology, defined as the eidetic science of transcendental subjectivity, was contrasted with psychology, defined as the empirical science of actual subjectivity in the world. Two antitheses are involved, however eidetic versus factual, and transcendental versus psychic. Rightly, they yield a four-fold classification, which Husserl subsequently made explicit, in his Formale und Transzendentale Logik (1929), Nachwort zu meinen Ideen (1930), and Meditations Cartesiennes (1931). In these works, he spoke of psychology as including all knowledge of worldly subjectivity while, within this science, he distinguished an empirical or matter-of-fact pure psychology and an eidetic pure psychology. The former is "pure" only in the way phenomenology, as explicitly conceived in the first edition of the Logische Untersuchungen, is pure: actual psychic subjectivity is abstracted as its exclusive theme, objects intended in the investigated psychic processes are taken only as the latter's noematic-intentional objects. Such an abstractive and self-restraining attitude, Husserl believed, is necessary, if one is to isohte the psychic in its purity and yet preserve it in its full intentionality. The instituting and maintaining of such an attitude is called "psychological epoche"; its effect on the objects of psychic consciousness is called "psychological reduction." As empiricism, this pure psychology describes the experienced typical structures of psychic processes and of the typical noematic objects belonging inseparably to the latter by virtue of their intrinsic intentionality. Description of typical personalities and of their habitually intended worlds also lies within its province. Having acquired empirical knowledge of the purely psychic, one may relax one's psychological epoche and inquire into the extrapsychic circumstances under which, e.g., psychic processes of a particulai type actually occur in the world. Thus an empirical pure intentional psychology would become part of a concrete empirical science of actual psychophysical organisms.

'Jam dbyangs bzhad pa'i rdo rje Ngag dbang brtson 'grus. (Jamyang Shepe Dorje Ngawang Tsondrü) (1648-1722). The originator, and first in the line of 'JAM DBYANGS BZHAD PA SPRUL SKU (incarnations) that are the head lamas of BLA BRANG BKRA SHIS DKYIL monastery in A mdo, northeastern Tibet, now part of Gansu province in northwest China. He arrived in LHA SA in 1668 and entered Sgo mang grwa tshang (monastic college) of 'BRAS SPUNGS monastery. He received both his sRĀMAnERA and BHIKsU ordinations from the fifth DALAI LAMA. In 1676, he entered the tantric college of RGYUD SMAD. A prolific writer, his collected works (gsung 'bum) in fifteen volumes include commentaries on the GUHYASAMĀJATANTRA and VAJRABHAIRAVATANTRA, and long and detailed commentaries on ABHIDHARMA, PRAJNĀPĀRAMITĀ, VINAYA, and a range of issues in MADHYAMAKA and YOGĀCĀRA philosophy; these works replaced those of Gung ru Chos kyi 'byung gnas as the authoritative standard works (yig cha) studied in the Sgo mang college of 'Bras spungs monastery, and in the network of provincial monasteries associated with it. Among his most famous works is his doxography of the Indian philosophical schools, both Buddhist and non-Buddhist, known as Grub mtha' chen mo. In the political turmoil that followed the death of the fifth DALAI LAMA in 1682 and the rule of SDE SRID SANGS RGYAS RGYA MTSHO in his name, 'Jam dbyangs bzhad pa was appointed abbot of Sgo mang in 1700. However, he came into conflict with the Sde srid over the latter's attempt to force a change in the monastic curriculum at 'Bras spungs, stepping down from the abbacy. He developed a friendship with Lha bzang Khan, the military ruler of central Tibet, accepting from him the hermitage of Pha bong kha located above SE RA monastery. He apparently sought to pacify the strained relations between the Sde srid and the Lha bzang Khan, but after the execution of the Sde srid by Mongolian forces in 1705, he left central Tibet for A mdo in 1709 where he founded Bla brang bkra shis dkyil. It grew into a huge monastery and a center of scholarship in its own right. The monastery attracted many Mongolian students and its influence was instrumental in consolidating the power of the DGE LUGS sect and the new DGA' LDAN PHO BRANG government over the A mdo regions.

'Jam dbyangs bzhad pa. (Jamyang Shepa). The name of a line of SPRUL SKU (incarnations) that are the head lamas of BLA BRANG BKRA SHIS DKYIL monastery in A mdo in northeastern Tibet, now part of the Chinese province of Gansu. The first, 'JAM DBYANGS BZHAD PA'I RDO RJE NGAG DBANG BRTSON 'GRUS, founded Bla brang; the second, Dkon mchog 'jig med dbang po (Konchok Jigme Wangpo, 1728-1791), was a prolific scholar and writer. There have been a total of six incarnations.

jieshe. (J. kessha; K. kyolsa 結社). In Chinese, "retreat society"; a generic designation for various religious reform movements that were especially popular during Song-dynasty China and Koryo-dynasty Korea. These fraternal societies had their antecedents in the AMITĀBHA society of LUSHAN HUIYUAN (334-416) during the Eastern Jin dynasty and were widespread by the ninth century. By the Song dynasty, such communities were pervasive throughout China, especially in the south. These societies were typically involved in TIANTAI, HUAYAN, and PURE LAND practice, though some were dedicated to the worship of a specific BODHISATTVA, such as SAMANTABHADRA. These societies were typically founded outside the ecclesiastical establishment and, by encouraging both lay and ordained adepts to train together, they fostered some measure of religious egalitarianism within East Asian Buddhism. The jieshe movement was especially influential in Koryo-dynasty Korea, where some fourteen separate kyolsa sites are mentioned in the Koryosa ("History of Koryo"), from Kangwon province in the north to South Cholla province in the south. The best known is the CHoNGHYE KYoLSA (Samādhi and PrajNā Society) initiated in 1180 by POJO CHINUL (1158-1210) and formally established in 1188, which was dedicated to SoN (Chan) cultivation. In 1197, the community had grown so large that it was relocated to Kilsangsa on Mt. Songgwang, the site of the major present-day monastery of SONGGWANGSA. The residents of the society are said to have gathered together to recite sutras, train in meditation, and engage in group work activity. Chinul's first composition, the Kwon su Chonghye kyolsa mun ("Encouragement to Practice: The Compact of the Samādhi and PrajNā Society"), written in 1290, provided the rationale behind the establishment of the community and critiqued pure land adepts who claim that buddhahood cannot be achieved in the present lifetime. Chinul was joined at his community by the Ch'ont'ae (TIANTAI) adept WoNMYO YOSE (1163-1240), who subsequently founded the Paengnyon kyolsa (White Lotus Society) in 1211 at Mandoksan in the far southwest of the peninsula, which was engaged in Ch'ont'ae practice.

Jingxi Zhanran. (J. Keikei Tannen; K. Hyonggye Tamyon 荊溪湛然) (711-782). Chinese monk who is the putative ninth patriarch of the TIANTAI ZONG; also known as Great Master Miaole (Sublime Bliss) and Dharma Master Jizhu (Lord of Exegesis). Zhanran was a native of Jingqi in present-day Jiangsu province. At age nineteen, Zhanran became a student of the monk Xuanlang (673-754), who had revitalized the community on Mt. Tiantai. After Xuanlang's death, Zhanran continued his efforts to unify the disparate regional centers of Tiantai learning under the school's banner; for his efforts, Zhanran is remembered as one of the great revitalizers of the Tiantai tradition. A gifted exegete who composed numerous commentaries on the treatises of TIANTAI ZHIYI, Zhanran established Zhiyi's MOHE ZHIGUAN, FAHUA XUANYI, and FAHUA WENJU as the three central texts of the Tiantai exegetical tradition. His commentary on the Mohe zhiguan, the MOHE ZHIGUAN FUXING ZHUANHONG JUE, is the first work to correlate ZHIGUAN (calmness and insight) practice as outlined by Zhiyi with the teachings of the SADDHARMAPUndARĪKASuTRA ("Lotus Sutra"), the central scripture of the Tiantai tradition. In his JINGANG PI ("Adamantine Scalpel"), Zhanran argued in favor of the controversial proposition that insentient beings also possess the buddha-nature (FOXING). Zhanran's interpretation of Tiantai doctrine and the distinction he drew between his own tradition and the rival schools of the HUAYAN ZONG and CHAN ZONG set the stage for the internal Tiantai debates during the Song dynasty between its on-mountain (shanjia) and off-mountain (shanwai) branches (see SHANJIA SHANWAI). Zhanran lectured at various monasteries throughout the country and was later invited by emperors Xuanzong (r. 712-756), Suzong (r. 756-762), and Daizong (r. 762-779) to lecture at court, before retiring to the monastery Guoqingsi on Mt. Tiantai.

Jingying Huiyuan. (J. Joyo Eon; K. Chongyong Hyewon 浄影慧遠) (523-592). Chinese monk and putative DI LUN exegete during the Sui dynasty. Huiyuan was a native of DUNHUANG. At an early age, he entered the monastery of Guxiangusi in Zezhou (present-day Shanxi province) where he was ordained by the monk Sengsi (d.u.). Huiyuan later studied various scriptures under the VINAYA master Lizhan (d.u.) in Ye, the capital of the Eastern Wei dynasty. In his nineteenth year, Huiyuan received the full monastic precepts from Fashang (495-580), ecclesiastical head of the SAMGHA at the time, and became his disciple. Huiyuan also began his training in the DHARMAGUPTAKA "Four-Part Vinaya" (SIFEN LÜ) under the vinaya master Dayin (d.u.). After he completed his studies, Huiyuan moved back to Zezhou and began his residence at the monastery Qinghuasi. In 577, Emperor Wu (r. 560-578) of Northern Zhou began a systematic persecution of Buddhism, and in response, Huiyuan is said to have engaged the emperor in debate; a transcript of the debate, in which Huiyuan defends Buddhism against criticisms of its foreign origins and its neglect of filial piety, is still extant. As the persecution continued, Huiyuan retreated to Mt. Xi in Jijun (present-day Henan province). Shortly after the rise of the Sui dynasty, Huiyuan was summoned by Emperor Wen (r. 581-604) to serve as overseer of the saMgha (shamendu) in Luozhou (present-day Henan). He subsequently spent his time undoing the damage of the earlier persecution. Huiyuan was later asked by Emperor Wen to reside at the monastery of Daxingshansi in the capital. The emperor also built Huiyuan a new monastery named Jingyingsi, which is often used as his toponym to distinguish him from LUSHAN HUIYUAN. Jingying Huiyuan was a prolific writer who composed numerous commentaries on such texts as the AVATAMSAKASuTRA, MAHĀPARINIRVĀnASuTRA, VIMALAKĪRTINIRDEsA, SUKHĀVATĪVYuHASuTRA, sRĪMĀLĀDEVĪSIMHANĀDASuTRA, SHIDI JING LUN (VASUBANDHU's commentary on the DAsABHuMIKASuTRA), DASHENG QIXIN LUN, and others. Among his works, the DASHENG YI ZHANG ("Compendium of the Purport of Mahāyāna"), a comprehensive encyclopedia of Mahāyāna doctrine, is perhaps the most influential and is extensively cited by traditional exegetes throughout East Asia. Jingying Huiyuan also plays a crucial role in the development of early PURE LAND doctrine in East Asia. His commentary on the GUAN WULIANGSHOU JING, the earliest extant treatise on this major pure land scripture, is critical in raising the profile of the Guan jing in East Asian Buddhism. His commentary to this text profoundly influenced Korean commentaries on the pure land scriptures during the Silla dynasty, which in turn were crucial in the the evolution of Japanese pure land thought during the Nara and Heian periods. Jingying Huiyuan's concept of the "dependent origination of the TATHĀGATAGARBHA" (rulaizang yuanqi)-in which tathāgatagarbha is viewed as the "essence" (TI) of both NIRVĀnA and SAMSĀRA, which are its "functioning" (YONG)-is later adapted and popularized by the third HUAYAN patriarch, FAZANG, and is an important precursor of later Huayan reconceptualizations of dependent origination (PRATĪTYASAMUTPĀDA; see FAJIE YUANQI).

Jingzhong zong. (J. Joshushu; K. Chongjung chong 淨衆宗). A branch of the early CHAN ZONG that flourished at the monastery Jingzhongsi in Chengdu (present-day Sichuan province). The history of the Jingzhong line is documented in the LIDAI FABAO JI. According to this text, the Jingzhong line is derived from the Chan master Zhishen (609-702), a disciple of the fifth patriarch HONGREN. Zhishen is also said to have received the purple robe of the Chan founder BODHIDHARMA from Empress Dowager WU ZETIAN, which was ostensibly transmitted to Zhishen's disciple Chuji (648-734/650-732/669-736) and then to CHoNGJUNG MUSANG (C. Jingzhong Wuxiang) and BAOTANG WUZHU. The Lidai fabao ji, authored by a disciple of Wuzhu, claims that the Jingzhong lineage is eventually absorbed into the BAOTANG ZONG, though the two seem in fact to have been distinct lineages. The eminent Chan masters MAZU DAOYI and GUIFENG ZONGMI are also known to have once studied under teachers of the Jingzhong line of Chan. The school is most closely associated with the so-called three propositions (sanju), a unique set of Chan precepts that were equated with the traditional roster of the three trainings (TRIsIKsĀ): "no recollection" (wuyi), which was equated with morality (sĪLA); "no thought" (WUNIAN) with concentration (SAMĀDHI); and "no forgetting" (mowang) with wisdom (PRAJNĀ). These three propositions are associated most closely with Musang, but other texts attribute them instead to Musang's putative successor, Wuzhu. The portrayal in the literature of the teachings of the Jingzhong school divides along the fault line of these two great teachers, with Musang's Chan adaptation of mainstream Buddhist teachings contrasting markedly with Wuzhu's more radical, even antinomian approach, deriving from HEZE SHENHUI. The Jingzhong masters are also said to have had some influence in Tibet (see BSAM YAS DEBATE), including on the development of MAHĀYOGA and RDZOGS CHEN.

Jiuhuashan. (九華山). In Chinese, "Nine Florate Mountain"; located in southeastern China, in Qingyang county, Anhui province. Jiuhuashan is one of the four Buddhist sacred mountains of China, along with PUTUOSHAN in Zhejiang, EMEISHAN in Sichuan, and WUTAISHAN in Shanxi. Each mountain is said to be the residence of a specific BODHISATTVA, with Jiuhuashan considered the holy mountain of KsITIGARBHA (DIZANG PUSA), a revered bodhisattva in China, who is regarded as the redeemer of the denizens of the hells (NĀRAKA). Jiuhuashan, the major mountain center in southeastern China, covers more than sixty square miles (one hundred square kilometers) and is famous for its spectacular peaks, perilous cliffs, huge boulders, ancient caves, and myriads of springs, streams, waterfalls, ancient pines, and bamboo forests. Jiuhuashan was originally known as Jiuzifeng (lit. Nine Children Mountain) because its nine major peaks had the shape of children; it was renamed Jiuhuashan after a description of the mountain in a poem by Li Bo (701-762 CE), the renowned Tang-dynasty poet. Jiuhuashan is said to have been the residence of a Korean monk named CHIJANG (C. Dizang; S. Ksitigarbha), also known as KIM KYOGAK (628-726). Chijang was a scion of the royal family of the Silla dynasty, who ended up spending some seventy-five years meditating at Jiuhuashan. He is said to have survived by eating only rice that had been cooked together with white soil (perhaps lime or gypsum) dug from between the rocks. The laity were so moved by his asceticism that they built the monastery of Huachengsi for him. When Chijang passed away, his body did not decay and people came to believe that he was the manifestation of his namesake, Ksitigarbha. A shrine hall named Dizang dian was built on the site where he died, which could only be reached by pulling oneself by rope up eighty-one precarious stone steps. Because of this connection to Chijang, by at least the Ming dynasty, Jiuhuashan was considered the sacred site of Ksitigarbha. Jiuhuashan at one time housed more than three hundred monasteries and four thousand monks. The grand scale of its monastic architecture and the large numbers of pilgrims it attracted throughout the year led to its recognition as a Buddhist sacred mountain.

Jizang. (J. Kichizo; K. Kilchang 吉藏) (549-623). In Chinese, "Storehouse of Auspiciousness"; Chinese Buddhist monk of originally Parthian descent and exegete within the SAN LUN ZONG, the Chinese counterpart of the MADHYAMAKA school of Indian thought. At a young age, he is said to have met the Indian translator PARAMĀRTHA, who gave him his dharma name. Jizang is also known to have frequented the lectures of the monk Falang (507-581) with his father, who was also ordained monk. Jizang eventually was ordained by Falang, under whom he studied the so-called Three Treatises (SAN LUN), the foundational texts of the Chinese counterpart of the Madhyamaka school: namely, the Zhong lun (MuLAMADHYAMAKĀRIKĀ), BAI LUN (*sATAsĀSTRA), and SHI'ERMEN LUN (*Dvādasamukhasāstra). At the age of twenty-one, Jizang received the full monastic precepts. After Falang's death in 581, Jizang moved to the monastery of Jiaxiangsi in Huiji (present-day Zhejiang province). There, he devoted himself to lecturing and writing and is said to have attracted more than a thousand students. In 598, Jizang wrote a letter to TIANTAI ZHIYI, inviting him to lecture on the SADDHARMAPUndARĪKASuTRA. In 606, Emperor Yang (r. 604-617) constructed four major centers of Buddhism around the country and assigned Jizang to one in Yangzhou (present-day Jiangsu province). During this period, Jizang composed his influential overview of the doctrines of the Three Treatises school, entitled the SAN LUN XUANYI. Jizang's efforts to promote the study of the three treatises earned him the name "reviver of the San lun tradition." Jizang was a prolific writer who composed numerous commentaries on the three treatises, the Saddharmapundarīkasutra, MAHĀPARINIRVĀnASuTRA, VIMALAKĪRTINIRDEsA, SUKHĀVATĪVYuHASuTRA, etc., as well as an overview of Mahāyāna doctrine, entitled the Dasheng xuan lun.

Kashmir-Gandhāra. [alt. Kāsmīra-Gandhāra]. A district in northwest India corresponding to modern Kashmir. According to Pāli tradition, this area was the destination of one of the nine Buddhist missions dispatched from Pātaliputta (S. PĀtALIPUTRA) to adjacent lands (paccantadesa) by the elder MOGGALIPUTTATISSA; this mission is said to have occurred during the reign of the Mauryan king AsOKA, following the third Buddhist council (see COUNCIL, THIRD) in the third century BCE. The elder Majjhantika (S. MADHYĀNTIKA) was said to have been in charge of the mission to this region. The third council at Pātaliputta and the nine Buddhist missions are known only in Pāli sources and are first recorded in the fifth century CE DĪPAVAMSA. Burmese chroniclers instead identify Kashmir-Gandhāra with the kingdom of Nanchao in what is the modern Chinese province of Yunnan. See also GANDHĀRA.

Kha ba dkar po. (Kawagarbo). A famous mountain on the Tibetan plateau and the toponym of the deity embodied there; currently located in the Chinese province of Yunnan on the border with the Tibet Autonomous Region, close to Bde chen (Diqin). It is one of the eight famous mountains and mountain ranges, including Mount KAILĀSA in western Tibet and Dag pa shel ri (the Crystal Mountain) in the TSA RI, on the borders of eastern Nepal on the pilgrimage circuit (see GNAS SKOR BA). The mountain (22,113 ft) is an important site for a two-week pilgrimage circuit.

Khotan. (C. Yutian; J. Uten; K. Ujon 于闐). Indo-European oasis kingdom at the southern edge of the Taklamakhan Desert in Central Asia, along the northern slope of the Kunlun Mountains, which served as a major center of Buddhism in Central Asia and an important conduit for the transmission of Buddhism from India to China. Buddhist sources claim that Khotan was colonized first by Indians, when Kunāla, the eldest son of King AsOKA, is said to have left the northwest Indian city of TAKsAsILĀ (Taxila) for Khotan in the third century BCE. From at least the third through the tenth centuries CE, Khotan was a major Buddhist and trade center along the southern SILK ROAD through Central Asia, where MAHĀYANA traditions associated with northwestern Indian Buddhism predominated. Indeed, through about the tenth century CE, Khotan was essentially a bastion of Indian urban culture in the Tarim Basin, which used GĀNDHĀRĪ PRAKRIT (in the KHAROstHĪ script) in much of its written communications until the relatively late rise in the use of indigenous vernacular Khotanese (probably sometime after the sixth century CE). The Khotanese language, which no longer survives, belonged to the Middle Iranian branch of the Indo-European language family, and fragments of Buddhist texts translated into Khotanese were discovered by SIR MARC AUREL STEIN (1862-1943) during his excavations in the region. Already by the third century CE, Chinese monks were traveling to Khotan to learn Buddhist doctrine and acquire Buddhist scriptures, and Khotanese scholars and monks were making their way to China to transmit and translate Buddhist texts (including such important Mahāyāna scriptures as the AVATAMSAKASuTRA, which was brought from Khotan early in the fifth century). The pilgrimage reports of FAXIAN and XUANZANG attest that Khotan was the home of at least four major monasteries and several smaller ones, with several tens of thousands of monks in residence. The Chinese occupied Khotan during both the first and seventh centuries CE, but throughout the first millennium they maintained close economic and cultural ties with the kingdom. By the eighth century, the continued incursions of Arabs, Turks, and Mongols inexorably led to the demise of Buddhism in the region and the people's conversion to Islam; Khotan was finally converted to Islam in 1004. Since the mid-eighteenth century, during the Qing dynasty (1644-1912), Khotan has been under the political control of China and currently is located in the Uighur Autonomous Region of Xinjiang province. See also KUCHA.

Khuông Viẹt. (匡越) (933-1011). Prominent Vietnamese monk and royal advisor, a native of Thửờng Lạc (nowadays Thanh Hóa Province, in northern Vietnam). His personal name was Ngô Chan Lưu. According to the THIỀN UYỂN T̤P ANH, he was a descendent of Ngô Thuận Đé. As a young man, he studied Confucianism but later turned to Buddhism, receiving full ordination from CHAN Master Van Phong. Khuông Việt was widely read in the Buddhist scriptures and diligently investigated the teachings of Chan. When he was in his forties, his fame reached the royal court, and King Đinh Tien Hoàng (r. 968-979), the founder of the Đinh dynasty (968-980), summoned him to the capital city and honored him with the rank General Supervisor of Monks. The king also granted him the sobriquet Khuông Việt Thái Sư (Great Master Who Brings Order to Việt). King Le Đại Hành (r. 980-1005), the founder of the former Le dynasty (980-1009), invited him to participate in all military, administrative, and diplomatic affairs, and he was often appointed to receive Chinese envoys. Khuông Việt was particularly famed for his exchange of couplets and poems with the Song-dynasty envoy Li Jue, who reported favorably on Vietnam to the Song-dynasty Emperor.

Kihwa. (己和) (1376-1433). Korean SoN master of the Choson dynasty, also known as Hamho Tŭkt'ong and Mujun. Kihwa was a native of Ch'ungju in present-day North Ch'ungch'ong province. The son of a diplomat, Kihwa entered the Songgyun'gwan academy and received a traditional Confucian education, although even there he already showed strong interests in Buddhism. In 1396, after the death of a close friend, Kihwa decided to become a monk, eventually becoming a disciple of the eminent Son master MUHAK CHACH'O (1327-1405) at the monastery of Hoeamsa. After studying kanhwa Son (see KANHUA CHAN) under Chach'o, Kihwa is said to have attained his first awakening at a small hut near his teacher's monastery. Kihwa devoted the next few years to teaching and lecturing at various monasteries around the Korean peninsula. In 1412, Kihwa began a three-year retreat at a small hermitage named Hamhodang near the monastery of Yonbongsa on Mt. Chamo in P'yongsan. In 1420, he made a pilgrimage to Mt. Odae, and the following year he was invited to the royal monastery of Taejaoch'al. In 1424, King Sejong (r. 1419-1450) forcibly consolidated the different schools of Korean Buddhism into the two branches of Son (CHAN; Meditation) and KYO (Doctrine), reduced the number of officially recognized monasteries, and limited the number of monks allowed to ordain. Perhaps in reaction to this increasing persecution of Buddhism, Kihwa left the royal monastery that same year. In response to the growing criticisms of Buddhism by the Confucian scholars at court, Kihwa composed his HYoNJoNG NON. Kihwa also composed influential commentaries on the VAJRACCHEDIKĀPRAJNĀPĀRAMITĀSuTRA ("Diamond Sutra") and the YUANJUE JING ("Perfect Enlightenment Sutra"). In 1431, he began restorations on a monastery known as Pongamsa on Mt. Hŭiyang in Yongnam and died at the monastery two years later in 1433.

kingdom ::: 1. A territory, state, people, or community ruled or reigned over by a king or queen. 2. Fig. The eternal spiritual sovereignty of God; the realm of this sovereignty. 3. A realm or sphere in which one thing is dominant or supreme. 4. Anything conceived as constituting a realm or sphere of independent action or control. 5. A realm or province of nature, especially one of the three broad divisions of natural objects: the animal, vegetable, and mineral kingdoms. 6. Rarely, in reference to the realm and rule of evil forces. kingdom"s, kingdoms.

Kizil. [alt. Qizil]. A complex of some 230 Buddhist caves from the ancient Central Asian kingdom of KUCHA, located about seventy kilometers northwest of the present-day city of Kucha on the bank of the Muzat River in Baicheng County, in the Uighur Autonomous Region of China's Xinjiang province. The Kizil caves represent some of the highest cultural achievements of the ancient Indo-European petty kingdom of Kucha, an important oasis along the northern SILK ROAD connecting China to the bastions of Buddhist culture in the greater Indian cultural sphere. Construction at the site perhaps began as early as the third century CE and lasted for some five hundred years, until the region succumbed in the ninth century to Islamic control. Given the importance of the Kucha region in the development and transmission of Buddhism along the ancient Silk Road, scholars believe that the DUNHUANG murals were influenced by the art of Kizil. Although no statuary remains at the Kizil site, many wall paintings are preserved depicting events from the life of the Buddha; indeed, Kizil is second only to the Mogao caves of Dunhuang in the number of wall paintings it contains. The layout of many of the intact caves includes a central pillar, forming both a front chamber and a rear chamber, which often contains a PARINIRVĀnA scene. The first modern studies of the site were conducted in the early twentieth century by the German explorers Alfred Grünwedel and Alfred von Le Coq. The nearby site of Kumtura contains over a hundred caves, forty of which contain painted murals or inscriptions. Other cave sites near Kucha include Subashi, Kizilgaha, and Simsim.

kokubunji. (國分寺). In Japanese, lit. "nationally distributed monasteries"; a network of centrally controlled provincial monasteries established during the Nara and Heian periods in Japan. During the reign of Emperor Shomu (r. 724-749), he ordered that monasteries be established in every province of Japan, which would each have seven-story pagodas enshrining copies of the SADDHARMAPUndARĪKASuTRA ("Lotus Sutra"). In 741, these provincial monasteries were organized into a national network as a means of bringing local power centers under the control of a centralized state government. The nunneries or convents that were also established as part of this same strategy were known as kokubunniji. The first headquarters of this kokubunji system was DAIANJI, which was based on the capital of Nara; the headquarters later moved to the major Kegon (HUAYAN) monastery of ToDAIJI, which was constructed at Shomu's behest. By the time of Shomu's death in 756, there were at least twenty of these provincial monasteries already established.

Kounsa. (孤雲寺). In Korean, "Solitary Cloud Monastery"; the sixteenth district monastery (PONSA) of the contemporary CHOGYE CHONG of Korean Buddhism, located on Mount Tŭngun in North Kyongsang province. The monastery was founded in 681 by great Hwaom (C. HUAYAN) master ŬISANG (625-702), during the reign of the Silla king Sinmun (r. 681-692). The original Chinese characters for Kounsa meant "High Cloud Monastery," but during the Unified Silla period, the monastery adopted the homophonous name "Solitary Cloud," after the pen name of the famous literatus Ch'oe Ch'iwon (b. 857). During the reign of King Hon'gang (r. 875-886), a famous stone image of BHAIsAJYAGURU was enshrined at the monastery. During the Koryo dynasty, the monk Ch'onhae (fl. c. 1018) is said to have seen a Kwanŭm (AVALOKITEsVARA) statue in a dream; later, he found an identical image on Mount Taehŭng in Songdo and enshrined it in the Kŭngnak chon at Kounsa. The monastery was rebuilt and repaired several times during the Choson period. The large-scale rebuilding project that began in 1695 and continued through the eighteenth century helped raise the monastery's overall status within the ecclesia. Kounsa suffered severe damage from fires that broke out in 1803 and 1835, but the monastery was soon reconstructed. During the Japanese colonial period (1910-1945), Kounsa became one of thirty-one head monasteries (ponsa) and managed fifty-four branch monasteries (MALSA).

Ksitigarbha. (T. Sa yi snying po; C. Dizang; J. Jizo; K. Chijang 地藏). In Sanskrit, lit. "Earth Store," an important BODHISATTVA who has the power to rescue beings who have the misfortune to be reborn in the hells. Although Ksitigarbha is known in all Mahāyāna countries through his inclusion in the widely known grouping of eight great bodhisattvas (MAHOPAPUTRA; AstAMAHOPAPUTRA), he was apparently not the object of individual cultic worship in India or Tibet. It was in East Asian Buddhism that Ksitigarbha came into his own and became widely worshipped. In China, the cult of Ksitigarbha (C. Dizang) gained popularity by at least the fifth century, with the translation of the Dasheng daji Dizang shilun jing ("Mahāyāna Mahāsannipāta Sutra on Ksitigarbha and the Ten Wheels"), first in the Northern Liang dynasty and subsequently again by XUANZANG in 651 CE. The eponymous KsITIGARBHASuTRA, translated at the end of the seventh century, specifically relates the bodhisattva's vow to rescue all beings in the six realms of existence before he would attain buddhahood himself and tells the well-known prior-birth story of the bodhisattva as a young woman, whose filial piety after the death of her heretical mother saved her mother from rebirth in the AVĪCI hell. It was his ability to rescue deceased family members from horrific rebirths that became Dizang's dominant characteristic in China, where he took on the role of the Lord of Hell, opposite the Jade Emperor of native Chinese cosmology. This role may possibly have resulted from Dizang's portrayal as the Lord of Hell in the apocryphal (see APOCRYPHA) Foshuo Dizang pusa faxin yinlu shiwang jing and reflects Buddhist accommodations to the medieval Chinese interest in the afterlife. This specialization in servicing the denizens of hell seems also to have evolved alongside the emergence of Dizang's portrayal as a monk, whom the Chinese presume to reside on the Buddhist sacred mountain of JIUHUASHAN in Anhui province. (See also CHIJANG; KIM KYUGAK.) Ksitigarbha is easily recognizable in Chinese iconography because he is the only bodhisattva who wears the simple raiments of a monk and has a shaved head rather than an ornate headdress. In Japan, where Ksitigarbha is known as Jizo, the bodhisattva has taken on a different significance. Introduced to Japan during the Heian period, Jizo became immensely popular as a protector of children, patron of travelers, and guardian of community thresholds. Jizo is typically depicted as a monk carrying a staff in his left hand and a chaplet or rosary in his right. The boundaries of a village beyond which children should not wander were often marked by a stone statue of Jizo. Japanese fisherman also looked to Jizo for protection; statues of the bodhisattva erected by early Japanese immigrants to Hawaii are still found today at many popular shoreline fishing and swimming sites in the Hawaiian Islands. In modern Japan, Jizo continues to be regarded as the special protector of children, including the stillborn and aborted. In memory of these children, and as a means of requesting Jizo's protection of them, statues of Jizo are often dressed in a bib (usually red in color), sometimes wearing a knit cap or bonnet, with toys placed nearby (see MIZUKO KUYo). Tibetan iconography typically has Ksitigarbha seated on a lotus flower, holding a CINTĀMAnI in his right hand and displaying the VARADAMUDRĀ with his left.

Kucha. (S. *Kucīna; C. Qiuzi; J. Kiji; K. Kuja 龜茲). Indo-European oasis kingdom at the northern edge of the Taklamakhan Desert, which served as a major center of Buddhism in Central Asia and an important conduit for the transmission of Buddhism from India to China; the name probably corresponds to *Kucīna in Sanskrit. Indian Buddhism began to be transmitted into the Kuchean region by the beginning of the Common Era; and starting at least by the fourth century CE, Kucha had emerged as a major Buddhist and trade center along the northern SILK ROAD through Central Asia. Both mainstream and MAHĀYĀNA traditions are said to have coexisted side by side in Kucha, although the Chinese pilgrim XUANZANG, who visited Kucha in 630, says that SARVĀSTIVĀDA scholasticism predominated. Xuanzang also reports that there were over one hundred monasteries in Kucha, with some five thousand monks in residence. The indigenous Kuchean language, which no longer survives, belongs to Tocharian B, one of the two dialects of TOCHARIAN, the easternmost branch of the western Indo-European language family. In the fourth and fifth centuries CE, many Kuchean monks and scholars began to make their way to China to transmit Buddhist texts, including the preeminent translator of Buddhist materials into Chinese, KUMĀRAJĪVA. To the west of Kucha are the KIZIL caves, a complex of some 230 Buddhist caves that represent some of the highest cultural achievements of Central Asian Buddhism. Construction at the site perhaps began as early as the third century CE and lasted for some five hundred years, until Kucha came under Muslim control in the ninth century. Since the mid-eighteenth century, during the Manchu Qing dynasty (1644-1912), Kucha has been under the political control of China, and the present-day city of Kucha is located along the banks of the Muzat River in Baicheng County, in the Uighur Autonomous Region of China's Xinjiang province. In East Asia, monks from Kucha were given the ethnikon BO, the Chinese transcription of the surname of the reigning family of Kucha. See also KHOTAN.

Kukai. (空海) (774-835). In Japanese, "Sea of Emptiness"; monk who is considered the founder of the tradition, often referred to as the SHINGONSHu, Tomitsu, or simply MIKKYo. He is often known by his posthumous title KoBo DAISHI, or "Great Master Who Spread the Dharma," which was granted to him by Emperor Daigo in 921. A native of Sanuki province on the island of Shikoku, Kukai came from a prominent local family. At the age of fifteen, he was sent to Nara, where he studied the Chinese classics and was preparing to become a government official. However, he seems to have grown disillusioned with this life. At the age of twenty, Kukai was ordained, perhaps by the priest Gonso, and the following year he took the full precepts at ToDAIJI. He is claimed to have experienced an awakening while performing the Kokuzo gumonjiho, a ritual dedicated to the mantra of the BODHISATTVA ĀKĀsAGARBHA. While studying Buddhist texts on his own, Kukai is said to have encountered the MAHĀVAIROCANĀBHISAMBODHISuTRA and, unable to find a master who could teach him to read its MANTRAs, decided to travel to China to learn from masters there. In 804, he was selected as a member of a delegation to China that set sail in four ships; SAICHo was aboard another of the ships. Kukai eventually traveled to the Tang capital of Chang'an, where he studied tantric MIJIAO Buddhist rituals and theory under HUIGUO and Sanskrit under the Indian monk PRAJNA. Under the direction of his Chinese master, Kukai was initiated into the two realm (ryobu) MAndALA lineages of YIXING, sUBHAKARASIMHA, VAJRABODHI, and AMOGHAVAJRA. In 806, Kukai returned to Japan; records of the texts and implements he brought with him are preserved in the Shorai mokuroku. Little is known about his activities until 809, when he moved to Mt. Takao by imperial request. Kukai described his new teachings as mikkyo, or "secret teachings," VAJRAYĀNA (J. kongojo), and MANTRAYĀNA (J. shingonjo). At the core of Kukai's doctrinal and ritual program was the belief that all acts of body, speech, and mind are rooted in, and expressions of, the cosmic buddha MAHĀVAIROCANA (see VAIROCANA), as the DHARMAKĀYA. Kukai argued that the dharmakāya itself teaches through the artistic and ritual forms that he brought to Japan. Once his teachings gained some renown, Kukai conducted several ABHIsEKA ceremonies, including one for the TENDAI patriarch SAICHo and his disciples. However, Kukai and Saicho's relationship soured when Kukai refused to transmit the highest level of initiation to Saicho. In 816, Emperor Saga granted Kukai rights to KoYASAN, to serve as a training center for his Shingon mikkyo tradition. In early 823, Kukai was granted the temple of ToJI in Kyoto, which became a second center for the Shingon tradition. In the summer of 825, Kukai built a lecture hall at Toji, and in 827 he was promoted to senior assistant high priest in the Bureau of Clergy. In 829, he built an abhiseka platform at Todaiji. In early 834, he received permission to establish a Shingon chapel within the imperial palace, where he constructed a mandala altar. Kukai passed into eternal SAMĀDHI (J. nyujo) in 835 on Mt. Koya, and it is said that he remains in his mausoleum in meditation waiting for the BODHISATTVA MAITREYA to appear. Kukai authored a number of important texts, including the BENKENMITSU NIKYoRON, a treatise outlining the inherent differences of kengyo (revealed) and mikkyo (inner) teachings; Sokushin jobutsugi, a treatise on the doctrine of attainment of buddhahood in "this very body" (J. SOKUSHIN JoBUTSU); Unjigi, a text describing the contemplation of Sanskrit syllables (S. BĪJA, J. shuji); Shojijissogi, a text outlining Kukai's theory of language in which all sounds and letters are themselves full embodiments of the dharmakāya's teachings; and his magnum opus, the HIMITSU MANDARA JuJuSHINRON, in which Kukai makes his case for recognizing Shingon mikkyo as the pinnacle of Buddhist wisdom. Kukai was an accomplished calligrapher, poet, engineer, and sculptor and is also said to have invented kana, the Japanese syllabary.

Kŭmgangsan. (C. Jingangshan; J. Kongosan; 金剛山). In Korean, "Diamond (S. VAJRA) Mountains," Buddhist sacred mountains and important Korean pilgrimage site. The mountains are located in Kangwon Province, North Korea, on the east coast of the Korean peninsula in the middle of the Paektu Taegan, the mountain range that is regarded geographically and spiritually as the geomantic "spine" of the Korean peninsula. The mountains are known for their spectacular natural beauty, and its hundreds of individual peaks have been frequent subjects of both literati and folk painting. During the Silla dynasty, Kŭmgangsan began to be conceived as a Buddhist sacred site. "Diamond Mountains," also known by its indigenous name Hyollye, is listed in the Samguk sagi ("History of the Three Kingdoms") and SAMGUK YUSA ("Memorabilia of the Three Kingdoms") as one of the three mountains (samsan) and five peaks (o'ak) that were the objects of cultic worship during the Silla period; scholars, however, generally agree that this refers to another mountain closer to the Silla capital of KYoNGJU rather than what are now known as the Diamond Mountains. The current Diamond Mountains have had several names over the course of history, including Pongnae, P'ungak, Kaegol, Yolban, Kidal, Chunghyangsong, and Sangak, with "Kŭmgang" (S. VAJRA) becoming its accepted name around the fourteenth century. The name "Diamond Mountains" appears in the AVATAMSAKASuTRA as the place in the middle of the sea where the BODHISATTVA DHARMODGATA (K. Popki posal) resides, preaching the dharma to his congregation of bodhisattvas. The Huayan exegete CHENGGUAN (738-839), in his massive HUAYAN JING SHU, explicitly connects the AvataMsakasutra's mention of the Diamond Mountains to Korea (which he calls Haedong, using its traditional name). The AstASĀHASRIKĀPRAJNĀPĀRAMITĀ also says that the Dharmodgata (K. Tammugal; J. Donmuketsu; C. Tanwujian) preaches the PRAJNĀPĀRAMITĀ at GANDHAVATĪ (K. Chunghyangsong; C. Zhongxiangcheng; J. Shukojo, "City of Multitudinous Fragrances"), one of the alternate names of the Diamond Mountains and now the name of one of its individual peaks. According to the Koryo-period Kŭmgang Yujomsa sajok ki by Minji (1248-1326), on a visit to the Diamond Mountains made by ŬISANG (625-702), the vaunt-courier of the Hwaom (C. Huayan) school in Korea, Dharmodgata appeared to him and told him that Kŭmgangsan was the place in Korea where even people who do not practice could become liberated, whereas only religious virtuosi would be able to get enlightened on the Korean Odaesan (cf. C. WUTAISHAN). For all these reasons, Popki Posal is considered to be the patron bodhisattva of Kŭmgangsan. Starting in the late-Koryo dynasty, the Diamond Mountains became a popular pilgrimage site for Korean Buddhists. Before the devastation of the Korean War (1950-1953), it is said that there were some 108 monasteries located on Kŭmgangsan, including four primary ones: P'YOHUNSA, CHANGANSA, SIN'GYESA, and Mahayonsa. Mahayonsa, "Great Vehicle Monastery," was built by Ŭisang in 676 beneath Dharmodgata Peak (Popkibong) and was considered one of the ten great Hwaom monasteries (Hwaom siptae sach'al) of the Silla dynasty. Currently, the only active monasteries are P'yohunsa and its affiliated branch monasteries, a few remaining buildings of Mahayonsa, and Sin'gyesa, which was rebuilt starting in 2004 as a joint venture of the South Korean CHOGYE CHONG and the North Korean Buddhist Federation. In the late twentieth century, the Diamond Mountains were developed into a major tourist site, with funding provided by South Korean corporate investors, although access has been held hostage to the volatile politics of the Korean peninsula. ¶ In Japan, Diamond Mountains (KONGoSAN) is an alternate name for KATSURAGISAN in Nara, the principal residence of EN NO OZUNU (b. 634), the putative founder of the SHUGENDo school of Japanese esoterism, because he was considered to be a manifestation of the bodhisattva Dharmodgata.

Kŭmsansa. (金山寺). In Korean, "Gold Mountain Monastery," the seventeenth district monastery (PONSA) of the contemporary CHOGYE order of Korean Buddhism; located on Moak Mountain near Kimje in North Cholla province. The monastery was founded in 600 CE and grew quickly. The Silla monk CHINP'YO (fl. c. 800), one of the early figures associated with the transmission of the monastic regulations (VINAYA) to Korea, was responsible for a major expansion of the monastery that took place between 762 and 766. Chinp'yo dedicated the monastery to the BODHISATTVA MAITREYA and built a three-story main shrine hall, or TAEUNG CHoN, which is dominated by the golden 39-ft. high statue of Maitreya, standing in the gesture of fearlessness (ABHAYAMUDRĀ) between two attendants who are both 29-ft. high. The south wall of the hall is decorated with a T'AENGHWA painting of Maitreya conferring the monastic rules (vinaya) on Chinp'yo. The monastery was expanded again in 1079 by the Koryo YOGĀCĀRA monk Hyedok Sohyon (1038-1096), who added several additional hermitages and sanctuaries; a STuPA reputed to enshrine his sARĪRA is located on the monastery grounds. In 1596, the Japanese burned the monastery, whose monks had organized a 1,500-man force to resist the Hideyoshi invasion force. The oldest buildings currently on the site date to 1635, when the monastery was reconstructed under the leadership of the monk Sumun (d.u.). The scriptural repository (Taejang chon) at Kŭmsansa was built in 1652 but moved to its current site in 1922; inside can be found images of sĀKYAMUNI and the two ARHATs MAHĀKĀsYAPA and ĀNANDA. The wooden building is quite ornate and is one of the best-preserved examples of its type from the Choson period. There are various other items of note on the monastery campus, including a hexagonal stone pagoda made from slate capped by granite, another five-story pagoda, and a stone bell resembling those at T'ONGDOSA and Silluksa. Carvings on the bell date it to the Koryo dynasty and depict buddhas, dharma protectors (DHARMAPĀLA), and lotus flowers (PADMA).

Lanxi Daolong. (J. Rankei Doryu; K. Nan'gye Toryung 蘭溪道隆) (1213-1278). Chinese CHAN monk in the Mi'an collateral branch of the LINJI ZONG. Lanxi was a native of Fujiang in present-day Sichuan province. At a young age, he became a monk at the nearby monastery of Dacisi in Chengdu and later visited the Chan masters WUZHUN SHIFAN (1178-1249) and Chijue Daochong (1169-1250). Lanxi eventually became the disciple of Wuming Huixing (1162-1237), who in turn was a disciple of the eminent Chan master Songyuan Chongyue (1132-1202). In 1246, Lanxi departed for Japan, eventually arriving in Hakata (present-day Kyushu) with his disciple Yiweng Shaoren (1217-1281). At the invitation of the powerful regent Hojo Tokiyori (1227-1263), Lanxi served as abbot of the monastery Jorakuji in Kamakura. In 1253, Tokiyori completed the construction of a large Zen monastery named KENCHoJI in Kamakura and appointed Lanxi its founding abbot (kaisan; C. KAISHAN). Lanxi soon had a large following at Kenchoji where he trained students in the new SAMGHA hall (C. SENGTANG) according to the Chan monastic regulations (C. QINGGUI) that he brought from China. In 1265, he received a decree to take up residence at the powerful monastery of KENNINJI in Kyoto, but after three years in Kyoto, he returned to Kenchoji. Lanxi also became the founding abbot of the temple of Zenkoji in Kamakura. Retired emperor Kameyama (r. 1259-1274) bestowed upon him the title Zen Master Daikaku (Great Enlightenment); Lanxi's lineage in Japan thus came to be known as the Daikaku branch of the Japanese Rinzai Zen tradition (RINZAISHu).

legate ::: n. --> An ambassador or envoy.
An ecclesiastic representing the pope and invested with the authority of the Holy See.
An official assistant given to a general or to the governor of a province.
Under the emperors, a governor sent to a province.


letts ::: n. pl. --> An Indo-European people, allied to the Lithuanians and Old Prussians, and inhabiting a part of the Baltic provinces of Russia.

Lha sa. In Tibetan, "place of the gods"; capital city of Tibet and location of some of the country's most important Buddhist institutions. According to traditional histories, the Tibetan king SRONG BTSAN SGAM PO moved his capital from the Yar klungs Valley to its current location when he founded the original edifice underlying the PO TA LA Palace in 637, a structure completed in its present form only during the seventeenth century under the direction of the fifth DALAI LAMA, NGA DBANG BLO BZANG RGYA MTSHO, and his regent. At about the same time, Srong bstan sgam po began work on the central JO KHANG temple. As goats were used as work animals during the construction, the area became known as Ra sa (lit. "place of the goats"). Following the temple's consecration in 647, it is said that the city's name was then changed to Lha sa ("place of the gods"). These two structures, together with the RA MO CHE temple, form the core of Lha sa's religious and sacred architecture. Over the centuries, many other institutions were added, including the medical college of Lcags po ri (Chakpori), the Dalai Lama's summer palace at the NOR BU GLING KHA, and numerous small monasteries, temples, and shrines. Around the city's periphery, a number of important monasteries were established, including the three great DGE LUGS monasteries of DGA' LDAN, 'BRAS SPUNGS, and SE RA (known collectively as the GDAN SA GSUM, or "three seats"), as well as GNAS CHUNG monastery, the seat of Tibet's state oracle. A series of three ritual circumambulation routes around the city's sacred centers developed: (1) the nang bskor (nangkor, "inner circuit"), skirting the Jo khang temple's inner sanctum; (2) the BAR BSKOR (barkor, "middle circuit"), circling the outer walls of the Jo khang and its neighboring buildings; and (3) the gling bskor (lingkor, "sanctuary circuit") circumnavigating the entire city, including the Po ta la Palace and Lcag po ri. Lha sa has long been considered the spiritual center of Tibet, and chief pilgrimage destination. Some devotees would travel the immense distance from their homeland to Lha sa while performing full-length prostrations, literally covering the ground with their bodies the entire way. Although the far eastern and western provinces of Tibet traditionally maintained a large degree of regional independence, after the seventeenth century Tibet's central government, the DGA' LDAN PHO BRANG, operated from Lha sa in the Po ta la Palace.

Liẽu Quán. (了觀) (1667-1742). Vietnamese monk who is considered the second patriarch of a branch of the Linji school (LINJI ZONG) of CHAN, which was brought to Vietnam by the Chinese Chan Master Nguyen Thieều (Yuanshao). He was born in Phú Yen Province (Central Vietnam), and his personal name was Le Thiẹt Diẹu. When he was six years old, his father sent him at his request to Hội Tôn Monastery to study under the Venerable Té Vien, a Chinese monk. After his teacher passed away, he went to Bảo Quốc Monastery in Hué to study under another Chinese monk, the Venerable Giác Phong. In 1695, he went to Hué to receive novice ordination under the Chinese Chan Master Thạch Liem and received full ordination in 1697 from another Chinese monk, the Venerable Từ Lam. In 1702, he traveled to Đông Sơn Monastery to receive instructions on the practice of Chan from the Chinese monk Tử Dung, an eminent Buddhist teacher of the time, and received the "mind seal" of the Chan transmission from him in 1708. In 1735, Liẽu Quán returned to Hué and until 1735 presided over numerous precept ceremonies. He was invited to the royal court several times, but he declined each invitation. Liẽu Quán founded the Thièn Tôn (Chan School) Monastery in Hué and was traditionally considered to be the thirty-fifth generation successor in the Linji lineage. Liẽu Quán was particularly credited with reforming some of the Chinese Linji Chan rituals and practices, making them more palatable to Vietnamese Buddhists.

Lingyinsi. (靈隱寺). In Chinese, "Numinous Seclusion Monastery"; located in Zhejiang province northwest of Hangzhou. In 326 CE, an Indian monk with the Chinese name Huili (d.u.) is supposed to have come to Hangzhou, where he was awestruck by the sight of Feilai Feng (lit. "Peak that Flew Hither") and built a monastery there that he named Lingyin. The monastery is the largest of several that are located in the Wulin Mountains, which also features a large number of grottoes and religious rock carvings. The monastery was destroyed in 771 CE during the Tang dynasty and later rebuilt. In 1007 CE, during the Song dynasty, it was renamed Lingyin Chan Monastery but was subsequently destroyed as the result of war and rebuilt again. In 1359, during the Ming dynasty, it was given its present name of Lingyinsi.

Linji Yixuan. (J. Rinzai Gigen; K. Imje Ŭihyon 臨濟義玄) (d. 867). Chinese CHAN master of the Tang dynasty and putative founder of the eponymous LINJI ZONG. Linji was a native of Nanhua in present-day Shandong province. He is said to have begun his career as a monk by training in Buddhist doctrine and VINAYA, but he abandoned this scholastic path and headed south to study under the Chan master HUANGBO XIYUN (d. 850). Linji is also known to have visited Gao'an Dayu (d.u.) with whom he discussed the teachings of Huangbo. Having received certification of his attainment (see YINKE) from Huangbo, Linji returned north to Zhenzhou (in present-day Hebei province) and resided in a small hermitage near the Hutuo River that he named Linji'an, whence derives his toponym. There, with the help of the monk Puhua (d. 861), Linji was able to attract a large following. Linji is most famous for his witty replies and iconoclastic style of teaching. Like the Chan master DESHANM XUANJIAN's "blows" (bang), Linji was particularly famous for his "shouts" (he) in response to students' questions (see BANGHE). He was posthumously given the title Chan Master Huizhao (Illumination of Wisdom). The thriving descendents of Linji came to be known collectively as the Linji zong. Linji's teachings are recorded in his discourse record (YULU), the LINJI LU.

lisbon ::: n. --> A sweet, light-colored species of wine, produced in the province of Estremadura, and so called as being shipped from Lisbon, in Portugal.

Liuzu tan jing. (J. Rokuso dangyo; K. Yukcho tan kyong 六祖壇經). In Chinese, "Platform Sutra of the Sixth Patriarch," the written transcription of the sermons of the sixth patriarch (LIUZU) HUINENG (638-713); the composition is attributed to the monk FAHAI; also known as the Nan zong dunjiao zuishang dasheng mohe bore boluomi jing, Liuzu dashi fabao tan jing, Fabao tan jing, or simply Tan jing ("Platform Sutra"). The Liuzu tan jing is one of the most influential texts of the CHAN tradition. The text is ostensibly a record of the lectures delivered by the reputed sixth patriarch Huineng at the monastery of Dafansi in Shaozhou (present-day Guangdong province). The lectures contain the famous story of Huineng's verse competition with his rival SHENXIU, which wins Huineng the Chan patriarchy (see ZUSHI), in which Huineng distinguished his own "sudden teachings" (DUNJIAO) of a so-called Southern school (NAN ZONG) of Chan from the "gradual teachings" (jianjiao) of Shenxiu's Northern school (BEI ZONG). As Huineng defines the term later in this sermon, the "sudden teaching" involves an approach to Buddhist training that is free from all dualistic forms of practice (see ADVAYA) and that correspondingly rejects any and all expedient means (UPĀYA) of realizing truth. This sudden teaching comes to be considered emblematic of the so-called Southern school (Nan zong) of Chan, which retrospectively comes to be considered the mainstream of the Chan tradition. The teachings of the text also focus on the unity of concentration (SAMĀDHI) and wisdom (PRAJNĀ), in which concentration is conceived to be the essence (TI) of wisdom and wisdom the functioning (YONG) of concentration; "no-thought" (WUNIAN), which the text defines as "not to think even when involved in thought"; seeing one's own nature (JIANXING); and the conferral of the formless precepts (WUXIANG JIE). Indeed, the "platform" in the title refers to the ordination platform (jietan; cf. SĪMĀ) where Huineng conferred these formless precepts. Although the Liuzu tan jing has been traditionally heralded as the central scripture of the Nan zong, and certainly is beholden to the teachings of the Southern-school champion HEZE SHENHUI, the text seems to have been influenced as well by the teachings of both the Northern and Oxhead schools (NIUTOU ZONG). Within the Chan tradition, a Yuan-dynasty edition of the Liuzu tan jing, which included an important preface by FORI QISONG, was most widely disseminated. SIR MARC AUREL STEIN's rediscovery in the DUNHUANG manuscript cache of a previously unknown, and quite different, recension of the text, dating to the mid-ninth century, did much to launch the modern scholarly reappraisal of the received history of the Chan school. See also DUNWU.

Longmen. (龍門). In Chinese, lit. "Dragon Gate," an important Buddhist cave site located 7.5 miles south of the ancient Chinese capital of Luoyang in China's Henan province. Spanning over half a mile along a cliff above the Yi River, the Longmen grottoes contain some of the most spectacular examples of stone sculpture in China, together with the MOGAO KU near DUNHUANG, the YUNGANG grottoes at Datong, and the Dazu caves (DAZU SHIKE) outside the city of Chongqing. The first grotto at Longmen was excavated in 495 CE when the Northern Wei capital was moved from Datong to Luoyang. Construction at the site continued until the site was abandoned in 755 because of civil strife and reflects a period of intense Buddhist activity in China that lasted through the Tang and Northern Song dynasties. A total of 2,345 grottoes were excavated and carved, which include more than one hundred thousand Buddhist images, some three thousand inscribed tablets, and over forty pagodas. Although largely an imperial site, some of the individual caves and niches were commissioned by the local Buddhist laity. Fengxiansi, the largest of the Longmen grottoes, dates to the Tang dynasty. When that chapel was first constructed, a roof is thought to have enclosed the entire cliff face. Today, the roof no longer remains and the sculptures stand unprotected in the open air. In 2000, the Longmen grottoes were placed on the list of UNESCO World Heritage sites. See also BINGLINGSI.

Lushan Huiyuan. (J. Rozan Eon; K. Yosan Hyewon 盧山慧遠) (334-416). Chinese monk during the Six Dynasties period, who was an important early advocate of PURE LAND cultic practices. Huiyuan was a native of Yanmen in present-day Shanxi province. In 345, he is said to have visited the prosperous cities of Xuchang and Luoyang, where he immersed himself in the study of traditional Confucian and Daoist scriptures. In 354, Huiyuan met the translator and exegete DAO'AN on Mt. Heng (present-day Hebei province), where he was ordained, and became his student. Huiyuan seems to have primarily studied PRAJNĀPĀRAMITĀ thought under Dao'an. In 381, Huiyuan headed south for LUSHAN, a mountain widely known as the abode of Daoist perfected and an ideal site for self-cultivation. There, he established the monastery DONGLINSI (Eastern Grove Monastery), which soon became the center of Buddhist activity in the south. Huiyuan is also known to have attracted a large lay following, consisting largely of educated members of the local gentry. He also began corresponding with the eminent monk KUMĀRAJĪVA to clarify certain issues (e.g., the nature of the DHARMAKĀYA) in MAHĀYĀNA doctrine. These correspondences were later edited together as the DASHENG DAYI ZHANG. In 402, together with 123 other monks and laymen, Huiyuan is said to have contemplated on an image of the buddha AMITĀBHA in order to seek rebirth in his pure land of SUKHĀVATĪ. This gathering is known as the beginning of the White Lotus Society (BAILIAN SHE). He should be distinguished from the commentator JINGYING HUIYUAN.

Lushan. (J. Rozan; K. Yosan 廬山). A Chinese sacred mountain located near Poyang Lake in present-day Jiangxi province. Lushan, or Cottage Mountain, is a scenic place that was long frequented by Daoist practitioners and known as the abode of Daoist perfected. AN SHIGAO, the early Parthian translator of Chinese Buddhist texts, is also said to have resided on the mountain during the Eastern Han dynasty. At the end of the fourth century CE, the Chinese monk DAO'AN is known to have established the monastery Xilinsi (Western Grove Monastery) on the mountain. A decade or so later, his famed disciple LUSHAN HUIYUAN also came to the mountain and established the influential monastery DONGLINSI (Eastern Grove Monastery). On a peak named the "PRAJNĀ Terrace," Huiyuan enshrined an image of the buddha AMITĀBHA for worship and contemplation. Together with 123 colleagues, Huiyuan established the White Lotus Society (BAILIAN SHE), which was dedicated to Amitābha worship. Due especially to Huiyuan's influence, Lushan emerged as an important site for the cult of Amitābha and his PURE LAND (see SUKHĀVATĪ). During the Song dynasty, Lushan became the home of the CHAN master HUANGLONG HUINAN (1002-1069) and his disciples in the HUANGLONG PAI of the LINJI ZONG. In 1147, Donglin Changcong (1025-1091), one of Huanglong's chief disciples and recipient of the imperial purple robe, was appointed by the court to assume to abbotship of Donglinsi, which had been officially recognized as a public Chan cloister (chanyuan) in 1079. During his visit to Lushan, the renowned poet Su Shi (1037-1101) is said to have attained awakening under Changcong's guidance. In 1616, the Chan master HANSHAN DEQING established the monastery Fayunsi on Lushan's Wuru peak. Lushan continues to serve today as an important pilgrimage site for Chinese Buddhists.

Magoksa. (麻谷寺). In Korean, "Hemp Valley Monastery"; the sixth district monastery (PONSA) of the contemporary CHOGYE CHONG of Korean Buddhism, located on T'aehwasan (Exalted Splendor Mountain) outside the city of Kongju in South Ch'ungch'ong province. The origins of the monastery and its name are obscure. One record claims that Magoksa was established by the Silla VINAYA master CHAJANG (fl. c. 590-658) in 643; because so many people attended Chajang's dharma lecture at the monastery's founding, the audience was said to have been "as dense as hemp stalks," so the Sinograph for "hemp" (ma) was given to the name of the monastery. This claim is, however, suspect since the monastery is located in what was then the territory of Silla's rival Paekche. A second theory is that the monastery was founded in 845 by Muju Muyom (799-888), founder of the Songjusan school of the Nine Mountains school of Son (KUSAN SoNMUN). When Muyom returned to Silla in 845 from his training in China, he is said to have named the monastery after his Chinese CHAN teacher Magu Baoche (K. Magok Poch'ol; b. 720?). Finally, it is also said that the monastery's name simply derives from the fact that hemp was grown in the valley before the monastery's establishment. In 1172, during the Koryo dynasty, Magoksa was significantly expanded in scope by POJO CHINUL (1158-1210) and his disciple Suu (d.u.), who turned it into a major monastery in the region. Following the Japanese Hideyoshi invasions of 1592-1598, the monastery sat destroyed for some sixty years until several of its shrine halls were reconstructed by Kakch'ong (d.u.) in 1651 and the monastery returned to prominence. The Taegwang pojon (Basilica of Great Brightness) is Magoksa's central sanctuary and enshrines an image of the buddha VAIROCANA; the building was reconstructed in 1172 by Pojo Chinul and again in 1651. In front of the basilica is a juniper tree planted by the independence fighter Kim Ku (1876-1949), who later lived at the monastery as a monk. Magoksa's main buddha hall (taeung pojon; see TAEUNG CHoN) enshrines a sĀKYAMUNI Buddha statue that is flanked by AMITĀBHA and BHAIsAJYAGURU, and the calligraphy hanging outside this hall is reported to be that of Kim Saeng (711-790/791), one of Silla's most famous calligraphers. One of Magoksa's unique structures is its five-story, Koryo-era stone pagoda, which is built upon a two-story-high stone base; its bronze cap suggests Tibetan influences that may have entered Korea via the Mongol Yuan dynasty. It is one of only three STuPAs of similar style known to exist worldwide. The Yongsan chon (Vulture Peak Hall) is decorated with paintings of the eight stereotypical episodes in the life of the Buddha (p'alsang; see C. BAXIANG); it is also called the Ch'onbul chon, or Thousand Buddhas Hall, for the many buddha statues enshrined around the inside perimeter of the hall. The building, which was reconstructed by Kakch'ong in 1651, is today's Magoksa's oldest extant building, with a plaque that may display the calligraphy of King Sejo (r. 1455-1468).

Maijishan. (J. Bakusekizan; K. Maekchoksan 麥積山). In Chinese, "Haystack Mountain"; a cave monastery site located southeast of Tianshui in the northwest Chinese province of Gansu, located on a hill some 466 feet (142 meters) high. Situated on the edge of the Qinling Mountains, Maijishan was once an important stop along the ancient SILK ROAD. Based on an inscription dated to 407 CE in cave no. 76, construction of the Maijishan cave sites is presumed to have been initiated by the Yao Xin family (396-416) during the Later Qin dynasty and to have continued for centuries. Close to two hundred caves have been preserved, which include more than seven thousand terracotta sculptures and countless painted murals. Many of the caves and wooden structures at the site have been damaged or destroyed due to natural disasters. While the paintings at the site are heavily damaged, the sculptures are well preserved and feature smooth modeling and flat planes devoid of naturalism. The dignified facial expressions with foreign features (e.g., round, open eyes and pronounced noses) are similar to those of the BINGLINGSI images. The arrangement of cave no. 78 consists of three large seated buddhas, which probably represent the buddhas of the past, present, and future. Two small niches at the rear wall feature the pensive bodhisattva MAITREYA and SIDDHĀRTHA in the pensive pose (see MAITREYĀSANA).The two standing bodhisattvas in cave no. 74 are characterized by their smooth bodies and scarves that elegantly frame their bodies; these features, along with the three-disk crown, derive from the Silk Road cave site of KIZIL. The cave temple sites of Binglingsi and Maijishan reflect the artistic synthesis of different Central Asian styles, which heavily influenced the development of the later Northern Wei artistic styles at LONGMEN and YUNGANG. Both sites also display a range of iconographies derived from sutras that were newly translated during the Liang and Qin dynasties, whose rulers used Buddhism to enhance their political prestige.

malaga ::: n. --> A city and a province of Spain, on the Mediterranean. Hence, Malaga grapes, Malaga raisins, Malaga wines.

mandala ::: circle, a "book" of the Rg-veda; [a district or province of a large kingdom].

Man'gong Wolmyon. (滿空月面) (1871-1946). In Korean, "Replete in Emptiness, Moon-Face"; the cognomen and ordination name of an important SoN (C. Chan) monk of the late Choson and Japanese colonial periods. Man'gong was born in T'aein county, North Cholla province, and became a novice monk in 1884. After enlightenment experiences in 1895 and 1901, he became in 1904 a dharma heir of KYoNGHo SoNGU (1849-1912), the preeminent Son master of his generation who was renowned for his efforts to revitalize Korean Son practice. Like Kyongho, Man'gong was also a well-known iconoclast, who practiced an "unconstrained practice" (K. muae haeng; C. WU'AI XING) that was not bound by the customary restrictions of monastic discipline. After 1905, Man'gong often resided at SUDoKSA on Mt. Toksung in South Ch'ungch'ong province, and he and his lineage are closely associated with that monastery. Man'gong also collaborated with such contemporary Buddhist leaders as HAN YONGUN (1879-1944) and Soktu Pot'aek (1882-1954) in attempting to rejuvenate Korean Buddhist practice. Man'gong established the Sonhagwon (Cloister for Son Learning) in 1921 in order to promote Korean Son meditation training. Man'gong emphasized training in "questioning meditation" (K. kanhwa Son; C. KANHUA CHAN), using the meditative topic (K. hwadu; C. HUATOU) "no" (K. mu; C. WU; see WU GONG'AN; GOUZI WU FOXING). Man'gong was also publicly critical of the Japanese colonial government. There is a well-known anecdote that, at a conference of abbots from the thirty-one Korean head monasteries (PONSA) in 1937, he chided the Japanese governor-general by telling him that only Korean Buddhists would be able to save him once he had fallen into hell for destroying their tradition. In his later years, Man'gong retreated to the hermitage of Chonwolsa, near Sudoksa on Mt. Toksung. Man'gong had several renowned disciples who constitute the Toksung transmission lineage, including the monks Kobong (1890-1961), Ch'unsong (1891-1977), and Pyokch'o (1899-1986), and the nuns KIM IRYoP (1896-1971) and Pophŭi (1887-1975); Sungsan Haengwon (1927-2004), a major propagator of the Korean Son tradition in the West, was Man'gong's dharma successor through Kobong.

MaNjusrī. (T. 'Jam dpal; C. Wenshushili; J. Monjushiri; K. Munsusari 文殊師利). In Sanskrit, "Gentle Glory," also known as MANJUGHOsA, "Gentle Voice"; one of the two most important BODHISATTVAs in MAHĀYĀNA Buddhism (along with AVALOKITEsVARA). MaNjusrī seems to derive from a celestial musician (GANDHARVA) named PaNcasikha (Five Peaks), who dwelled on a five-peaked mountain (see WUTAISHAN), whence his toponym. MaNjusrī is the bodhisattva of wisdom and sometimes is said to be the embodiment of all the wisdom of all the buddhas. MaNjusrī, Avalokitesvara, and VAJRAPĀnI are together known as the "protectors of the three families" (TRIKULANĀTHA), representing wisdom, compassion, and power, respectively. Among his many epithets, the most common is KUMĀRABHuTA, "Ever Youthful." Among MaNjusrī's many forms, the most famous shows him seated in the lotus posture (PADMĀSANA), dressed in the raiments of a prince, his right hand holding a flaming sword above his head, his left hand holding the stem of a lotus that blossoms over his left shoulder, a volume of the PRAJNĀPĀRAMITĀ atop the lotus. MaNjusrī plays a major role in many of the most renowned Mahāyāna sutras. MaNjusrī first comes to prominence in the VIMALAKĪRTINIRDEsA, which probably dates no later than the first century CE, where only MaNjusrī has the courage to visit and debate with the wise layman VIMALAKĪRTI and eventually becomes the interlocutor for Vimalakīrti's exposition of the dharma. In the SADDHARMAPUndARĪKASuTRA, only MaNjusrī understands that the Buddha is about to preach the "Lotus Sutra." In the AVATAMSAKASuTRA, it is MaNjusrī who sends SUDHANA out on his pilgrimage. In the Ajātasatrukaukṛtyavinodana, it is revealed that MaNjusrī inspired sĀKYAMUNI to set out on the bodhisattva path many eons ago, and that he had played this same role for all the buddhas of the past; indeed, the text tells us that MaNjusrī, in his guise as an ever-youthful prince, is the father of all the buddhas. He is equally important in tantric texts, including those in which his name figures in the title, such as the MANJUsRĪMuLAKALPA and the MANJUsRĪNĀMASAMGĪTI. The bull-headed deity YAMĀNTAKA is said to be the wrathful form of MaNjusrī. Buddhabhadra's early fifth-century translation of the AvataMsakasutra is the first text that seemed to connect MaNjusrī with Wutaishan (Five-Terrace Mountain) in China's Shaanxi province. Wutaishan became an important place of pilgrimage in East Asia beginning at least by the Northern Wei dynasty (424-532), and eventually drew monks in search of a vision of MaNjusrī from across the Asian continent, including Korea, Japan, India, and Tibet. The Svayambhupurāna of Nepal recounts that MaNjusrī came from China to worship the STuPA located in the middle of a great lake. So that humans would be able worship the stupa, he took his sword and cut a great gorge at the southern edge of the lake, draining the water and creating the Kathmandu Valley. As the bodhisattva of wisdom, MaNjusrī is propiated by those who wish to increase their knowledge and learning. It is considered efficacious to recite his mantra "oM arapacana dhīḥ" (see ARAPACANA); Arapacana is an alternate name for MaNjusrī.

Manpukuji. (萬福寺). In Japanese, "Myriad Blessings Monastery"; located in Uji, outside Kyoto, Japan. Currently, Manpukuji is the headquarters (honzan) of the oBAKUSHu of the ZEN tradition. The monastery was founded by the émigré CHAN (Zen) master YINYUAN LONGXI with the support of the shogun Tokugawa Ietsuna (1639-1680). Construction began in 1661 and the dharma hall was completed the next year with the help of the grand counselor Sakai Tadakatsu (1587-1662). In 1664, Yinyuan left his head disciple MU'AN XINGTAO in charge and retired to his hermitage at Manpukuji. Mu'an thus became the second abbot of Manpukuji and oversaw the construction of the buddha hall, the bell tower, the patriarchs' hall, and so forth. For several generations, émigré Chinese monks dominated the abbacy of Manpukuji. The construction of Manpukuji was modeled after Yinyuan's old monastery of Wanfusi (which is pronounced Manpukuji in Japanese) in Fuzhou (present-day Fujian province). The major icons were also prepared by émigré Chinese artists and, along with the famous portrait of Yinyuan, are now considered important cultural artifacts. Mu'an's disciple Tetsugen Doko (1630-1682) led a project to carve a complete set of xylographs of the Ming dynasty edition of the Buddhist canon, which is now housed at Manpukuji; this edition, commonly called the obaku canon, is one of the few complete xylographic canons still extant in East Asia (cf. the second carving of the Korean Buddhist canon, KORYo TAEJANGGYoNG).

Mathura (Sanskrit) Mathurā The birthplace of Krishna, situated in the province of Agra on the right bank of the Yamuna River.

matriarchs, rulers of a province in Heaven re¬

Matsuo Basho. (松尾芭蕉) (1644-1694). A renowned Japanese Buddhist author of the Edo period. Although famous in the West especially for his haiku poetry, Basho is also known for his renga, or linked verse, prose works, literary criticism, diaries, and travelogues, which also contain many famous poems. His most celebrated work is his travel diary, a work in mixed prose and verse entitled Oku no Hosomichi ("Narrow Road to the Deep North"), published posthumously in 1702. He was born in Iga Province (present-day Mie prefecture) to a family of the samurai class, but abandoned that life in favor of living as a Buddhist monk, much like the Heian period (794-1185) SHINGONSHu monk SAIGYo (1118-1190), with whom he is often compared. Basho received instruction from the RINZAISHu master Butcho (1643-1715), and his work is commonly regarded as conveying a ZEN aesthetic, as in the famous haiku poem he wrote at his moment of awakening: "A timeless pond, the frog jumps, a splash of water" (J. furuike ya, kawazu tobikomu, mizu no oto).

Mazu Daoyi. (J. Baso Doitsu; K. Majo Toil 馬祖道一) (709-788). Chinese CHAN master of the Tang dynasty and retrospective patriarch of the HONGZHOU ZONG of the broader Chan tradition. Mazu was a native of Hanzhou in present-day Sichuan province. At an early age, he became a student of the Chan master Chuji (alt. 648-734, 650-732, 669-736) of Zizhou (also in present-day Sichuan province) and received the full monastic precepts later from the VINAYA master Yuan (d.u.) at nearby Yuzhou. Mazu is said to have later visited the sixth patriarch HUINENG's disciple NANYUE HUAIRANG (677-744), under whom he attained awakening. According to the famous story, which is frequently recited in Chan literature, Mazu was awakened when his teacher Nanyue likened Mazu's sitting in meditation to the act of polishing of a roof tile: just as a roof tile cannot be polished to make a mirror, sitting meditation, says Nanyue, cannot lead to buddhahood. In his thirties, Mazu began teaching at various monasteries in the southern regions of Fujian and Jiangxi province. In 769, he began his residence at the monastery of Kaiyuansi (also known as Youqingsi) in Zhongling (in present-day Jiangsu province) and attracted many students. Emperor Xianzong (r. 805-820) later gave him the posthumous title Chan Master Daji (Great Serenity). His teachings are recorded in the Mazu Daoyi chanshi guanglu. Mazu developed the idea of "original enlightenment" (BENJUE) from the DASHENG QIXIN LUN ("Awakening of Faith According to the Mahāyāna") in a radical direction. He asserted that "everyday mind is the way" (pingchangxin shi dao) and that "mind itself is the Buddha" (zixin shi fo), arguing that sentient beings have never in fact been deluded but have always been awakened buddhas. Although Mazu did not intend to advocate maintaining a deluded state of mind but wanted instead to recognize the value of the ordinary life as the ground of enlightenment, his emphasis on the inseparable relationship of enlightenment and ignorance drew severe criticisms, especially from GUIFENG ZONGMI (780-841), who believed that Mazu's teachings fostered antinomianism for suggesting that practice was not necessary in order to awaken.

Menzan Zuiho. (面山瑞方) (1683-1769). Japanese reformer of the SoToSHu of ZEN during the Tokugawa period (1600-1867), who is largely responsible for establishing DoGEN KIGEN (1200-1253) as the font of orthodoxy for the Soto school and, during the modern and contemporary periods, as an innovative religious thinker. Born in Higo province in the Kumamoto region, Menzan studied with MANZAN DoHAKU (1636-1715) and later Sonno Soeki (1649-1705). At a thousand-day retreat Menzan led following Sonno's death, Menzan read texts by Dogen that had been neglected for centuries and subsequently used them as the scriptural authority from which he forged an entirely new vision of the Sotoshu; he then deployed this revisioning of Dogen to justify a reformation of long-held practices within the school. Menzan was a prolific author, with over a hundred works attributed to him, sixty-five of which have been published in modern Soto school collections; these works include everything from detailed philological commentaries to extended discussions of monastic rules and regulations. He remains best known for his Shobogenzo shotenroku, an eleven-roll encyclopedic commentary to Dogen's magnum opus, the SHoBoGENZo.

metalogical ::: a. --> Beyond the scope or province of logic.

metempirical ::: a. --> Related, or belonging, to the objects of knowledge within the province of metempirics.

metropolitan ::: a. --> Of or pertaining to the capital or principal city of a country; as, metropolitan luxury.
Of, pertaining to, or designating, a metropolitan or the presiding bishop of a country or province, his office, or his dignity; as, metropolitan authority. ::: n.


Mindon Min. (r. 1853-1878). Tenth king of the Konbaung dynasty and penultimate Burmese king to rule Burma (Myanmar) before the imposition of complete British rule. His reign is known for its reforms and cultural renaissance. He usurped the throne from his brother Pagan Min (r. 1846-1853), during whose reign Great Britain declared war on Burma for a second time in 1852. Upon becoming king, Mindon Min sued for peace and was compelled to surrender Burma's remaining coastal provinces to Britain in exchange for a cessation of hostilities. In 1857 he built a new capital, MANDALAY, and sought to make it into a center for Buddhist learning. In 1871, he summoned scholar-monks from throughout the country to convene a Buddhist council for the purpose of revising the Pāli TIPItAKA and its commentaries. By Burmese reckoning, this conclave was the fifth Buddhist council (see COUNCIL, FIFTH). The revised texts were inscribed on stone tablets and erected in the Kuthodaw Pagoda compound at the base of Mandalay Hill, where they can still be seen today. In the secular sphere, Mindon promoted a number of reforms. He assessed a land tax and fixed the salaries for government officials. He standardized the country's weights and measures, built roads and a telegraph system, and was the first Burmese king to issue coinage. In 1872, he sent his chief minister, Kinwun Mingyi U Gaung, to London, Paris, and Rome to secure recognition of his kingdom as an independent country. Despite his efforts to revitalize his country culturally and politically, contemporary records indicate that many within the Burmese sangha (S. SAMGHA) regarded British conquest of the Burmese kingdom as inevitable and imminent. Fundamentalist reform factions arose within the Burmese order that resisted the directives of the king's monastic council and organized themselves into independent self-governing congregations (see GAING). After the British destruction of the Burmese monarchy in 1885, these reformed congregations were to play an important role in shaping Burmese monastic culture in the twentieth century.

mistral ::: n. --> A violent and cold northwest wind experienced in the Mediterranean provinces of France, etc.

Miyun Yuanwu. (J. Mitsuun Engo; K. Mirun Wono 密雲圓悟) (1566-1642). Chinese CHAN master of the LINJI ZONG; also known as Tiantong. Miyun was a native of Changzhou prefecture in present-day Jiangsu province. He is said to have decided to become a monk after reading the LIUZU TAN JING and was formally ordained by Huanyou Zhengzhuan (1549-1614) at the age of twenty-eight. In 1602, Miyun followed Huanyou to the monastery of Longchiyuan in Changzhou and served as its prior (JIANYUAN). In 1611, Miyun received Huanyou's robes and bowls as a mark of transmission. Three years later, Miyun succeeded Huanyou's seat at Longchiyuan. In 1623, Miyun moved to the monastery Tongxuansi on TIANTAISHAN and again to Guanghuisi in Fuzhou prefecture (Zhejing province) a year later. In 1630, Miyun restored the monastery Wanfusi on Mt. Huangbo. He subsequently served as abbots of the monasteries Guanglisi on Mt. Yuwang, Jingdesi on Mt. Tiantong, and Dabao'ensi in Jinleng. His teachings are recorded in the Miyun chanshi yulu.

Modern Period. In the 17th century the move towards scientific materialism was tempered by a general reliance on Christian or liberal theism (Galileo, Bacon, Descartes, Hobbes, Gassendi, Toland, Hartley, Priestley, Boyle, Newton). The principle of gravitation was regarded by Newton, Boyle, and others, as an indication of the incompleteness of the mechanistic and materialistic account of the World, and as a direct proof of the existence of God. For Newton Space was the "divine sensorium". The road to pure modern idealism was laid by the epistemological idealism (epistemological subjectivism) of Campanella and Descartes. The theoretical basis of Descartes' system was God, upon whose moral perfection reliance must be placed ("God will not deceive us") to insure the reality of the physical world. Spinoza's impersonalistic pantheism is idealistic to the extent that space or extension (with modes of Body and Motion) is merely one of the infinity of attributes of Being. Leibniz founded pure modern idealism by his doctrine of the immateriality and self-active character of metaphysical individual substances (monads, souls), whose source and ground is God. Locke, a theist, gave chief impetus to the modern theory of the purely subjective character of ideas. The founder of pure objective idealism in Europe was Berkeley, who shares with Leibniz the creation of European immaterialism. According to him perception is due to the direct action of God on finite persons or souls. Nature consists of (a) the totality of percepts and their order, (b) the activity and thought of God. Hume later an implicit Naturalist, earlier subscribed ambiguously to pure idealistic phenomenalism or scepticism. Kant's epistemological, logical idealism (Transcendental or Critical Idealism) inspired the systems of pure speculative idealism of the 19th century. Knowledge, he held, is essentially logical and relational, a product of the synthetic activity of the logical self-consciousness. He also taught the ideality of space and time. Theism, logically undemonstrable, remains the choice of pure speculative reason, although beyond the province of science. It is also a practical implication of the moral life. In the Critique of Judgment Kant, marshalled facts from natural beauty and the apparent teleological character of the physical and biological world, to leave a stronger hint in favor of the theistic hypothesis. His suggestion thit reality, as well as Mind, is organic in character is reflected in the idealistic pantheisms of his followers: Fichte (abstract personalism or "Subjective Idealism"), Schellmg (aesthetic idealism, theism, "Objective Idealism"), Hegel (Absolute or logical Idealism), Schopenhauer (voluntaristic idealism), Schleiermacher (spiritual pantheism), Lotze ("Teleological Idealism"). 19th century French thought was grounder in the psychological idealism of Condillac and the voluntaristic personalism of Biran. Throughout the century it was essentially "spiritualistic" or personalistic (Cousin, Renouvier, Ravaisson, Boutroux, Lachelier, Bergson). British thought after Hume was largely theistic (A. Smith, Paley, J. S. Mill, Reid, Hamilton). In the latter 19th century, inspired largely by Kant and his metaphysical followers, it leaned heavily towards semi-monistic personalism (E. Caird, Green, Webb, Pringle-Pattison) or impersonalistic monism (Bradley, Bosanquet). Recently a more pluralistic personalism has developed (F. C. S. Schiller, A. E. Taylor, McTaggart, Ward, Sorley). Recent American idealism is represented by McCosh, Howison, Bowne, Royce, Wm. James (before 1904), Baldwin. German idealists of the past century include Fechner, Krause, von Hartmann, H. Cohen, Natorp, Windelband, Rickert, Dilthey, Brentano, Eucken. In Italy idealism is represented by Croce and Gentile, in Spain, by Unamuno and Ortega e Gasset; in Russia, by Lossky, in Sweden, by Boström; in Argentina, by Aznar. (For other representatives of recent or contemporary personalism, see Personalism.) -- W.L.

moodir ::: n. --> The governor of a province in Egypt, etc.

Mu'an Xingtao. (J. Mokuan Shoto; K. Mogam Songdo 木菴性瑫) (1611-1684). Chinese CHAN master, calligrapher, and pioneer of the oBAKUSHu in Japan. He was a native of Quanzhou in present-day Fujian province. After his novice ordination at the age of eighteen, Mu'an received the full monastic precepts from the monk Yongjue Yuanxian (1578-1657) on Mt. Gu (present-day Fujian province). Mu'an visited the eminent Chan master MIYUN YUANWU before he returned to Yongjue, under whom he is said to have attained awakening. Later, Mu'an continued his studies under FEIYIN TONGRONG and his disciple YINYUAN LONGQI at the monastery of Wanfusi on Mt. Huangbo (present-day Fujian province). Mu'an eventually became Yinyuan's disciple and inherited his lineage. In 1655, Mu'an arrived in Nagasaki, Japan, and began his residence at the monastery of Fukusaiji. In 1661, Mu'an followed Yinyuan to his new monastery of MANPUKUJI in Uji. Three years later, Mu'an succeeded Yinyuan as the abbot of the monastery, and the next year he oversaw the ordination of monks at the triple-precept platform ceremony (sandan kaie). In 1670, he received the purple robe, and later with the support of the shogun Tokugawa Ietsuna (1639-1680), he established the monastery of Zuishoji in Edo. In 1675, he turned over the administration of Zuishoji to his disciple Tetsugyu Doki (1628-1700) and that of Manpukuji to Huilin Xingji (1609-1681).

Muhak Chach'o. (無學自超) (1327-1405). A Korean SoN monk and pilgrim during the transition from the Koryo to the Choson dynasty; Muhak was a native of Samgi (present-day South Kyongsang province). After his ordination in 1344, Muhak traveled to different monasteries to study. In 1353, he went to China, where he met the Indian ĀCĀRYA ZHIKONG CHANXIAN (d. 1363; K. Chigong Sonhyon; S. *sunyadisya-Dhyānabhadra) and studied under his Korean student NAONG HYEGŬN at the Yuan-dynasty capital of Yanjing. Muhak returned to Korea in 1356. When Naong returned two years later, Muhak continued his studies under him at the hermitage of Wonhyoam on Mt. Ch'onsong. In 1392, shortly after the establishment of the Choson dynasty, Muhak was invited to the palace as the king's personal instructor (wangsa) and given the title Venerable Myoom (Subtle Adornment). He was also asked to reside at the royal monastery of Hoeamsa. In 1393, Muhak assisted the Choson-dynasty founder, King T'aejo (r. 1392-1398), in deciding on the location for the new capital in Hanyang (present-day Seoul). Among his writings, Muhak's history of the Korean Son tradition, Pulcho chongp'a chido, is still extant.

Mukan Fumon. (無關普門) (1212-1291). Japanese proper name of RINZAISHu monk and first abbot of NANZENJI; also known as Gengo. Mukan was born in Hoshina in Shinano province (present-day Nagano prefecture) and received the BODHISATTVA precepts around 1230 at a monastery affiliated with MYoAN EISAI's (1141-1215) lineage. He became versed at Japanese exoteric and esoteric Buddhist teachings, and traveled around the eastern part of Japan, especially the Kanto and Tohoku regions, to lecture. Between 1243 and 1249, Mukan studied under ENNI BEN'EN (1202-1280). Mukan traveled to China in 1251, where he received transmission from Duanqiao Miaolun (1201-1261), the tenth-generation master in the YANGQI PAI collateral lineage of the LINJI ZONG, before returning to Japan in 1263. Mukan became the third abbot of Tohukuji in 1281 and was later appointed in 1291 by the cloistered Emperor Kameyama (r. 1260-1274) to be the founding abbot (J. kaisan; C. KAISHAN) of Nanzenji. There is a well-known story about his appointment as the Nazenji abbot. The monastery was originally built as a royal palace, but soon after the emperor moved there, ghosts began to haunt it. After several other monks failed to exorcise the ghosts, the emperor finally invited Mukan to try. Mukan succeeded in removing the ghosts by conducting Zen meditation with his disciples. In gratitude, the emperor turned the palace into a Rinzai monastery and appointed Mukan its abbot.

Myoan Eisai. (明庵榮西) (1141-1215). Japanese monk associated with the TENDAISHu (C. TIANTAI ZONG) and ZENSHu (C. CHAN ZONG) traditions; a successor in the HUANGLONG PAI collateral lineage of the Chinese LINJI ZONG, he was also the first monk to introduce the Chan school to Japan. Eisai became a monk at a young age and received the full monastic precepts on HIEIZAN, studying the Tendai teachings at the monastery of MIIDERA. In 1168, he left for China and made a pilgrimage to Mt. Tiantai and Mt. Ayuwang in present-day Zhejiang province. He returned to Japan that same year with numerous Tiantai texts of and made an effort to revitalize the Tendai tradition in Japan. In 1187, Eisai set out on another trip to China. This second time, he stayed for five years and studied under the Chan master Xu'an Huaichang (d.u.) on Mt. Tiantai. Eisai followed Xu'an to the monastery of Jingdesi on Mt. Tiantong when the latter was appointed its abbot in 1189. After receiving dharma transmission from Xu'an, Eisai returned to Japan in 1191. Eisai's efforts to spread the teachings of Zen was suppressed by his fellow Tendai monks of ENRYAKUJI despite his claim that the denial of Chan meant the denial of the teachings of SAICHo, the spiritual progenitor of Tendai. In 1198, Eisai composed his KoZEN GOKOKURON, wherein he defended Zen and argued for its usefulness in governing the nation and protecting Japan from foreign invasion. In 1199, he traveled to Kamakura where he won the support of the new shogunate and became the founding abbot (J. kaisan; C. KAISHAN) of the monastery of Jufukuji. Three years later, the shogun Minamoto Yoriie (1182-1204) established KENNINJI and appointed Eisai as its founding abbot. In 1214, he composed his treatise on tea, the KISSA YoJoKI, for Minamoto Sanetomo (1192-1219) who suffered from ill health. At Kenninji, Eisai taught a form of Zen that reflected his training in the esoteric (MIKKYo) teachings of Tendai.

Myoe Koben. (明慧高弁) (1173-1232). A Japanese SHINGONSHu monk who sought to revitalize the Kegonshu (C. HUAYAN ZONG) in Japan; commonly known as Myoe Shonin. Koben promoted traditional Buddhist values over the newer approaches of so-called Kamakura Buddhism. Against the prevailing tide of belief that the world was in terminal decline (J. mappo; C.MOFA), he took a positive stance on Buddhist practice by arguing that salvation could still be attained through traditional means. Koben was born in Kii province (present-day Wakayama Prefecture) and orphaned at the age of eight when both parents died in separate incidents. He went to live under the care of his maternal uncle Jogaku Gyoji, a Shingon monk at Jingoji on Mt. Takao, northwest of Kyoto. In 1188, at the age of sixteen, he was ordained by Jogaku at ToDAIJI. He took the ordination name Joben and later adopted the name Koben. After ordination, he studied Shingon, Kegon, and esoteric Buddhism (MIKKYo) at one of Todaiji's subtemples, Sonshoin. Koben tried twice to travel on pilgrimage to India, first in the winter of 1202-1203 and second in the spring of 1205, but was unsuccessful. On his first trip, Kasuga, a spirit (KAMI) associated with the Fujiwara family shrine in Nara, is said to have possessed the wife of Koben's uncle, Yuasa Munemitsu, and insisted that Koben not leave Japan. In the second attempt, he fell ill before he set out on his trip. In both instances, Koben believed that the Kasuga deity was warning him not to go, and he consequently abandoned his plans. These portents were supported by Fujiwara opposition to his voyage. In 1206, the retired emperor Gotoba gave Koben a plot of land in Toganoo. Gotoba designated the temple there as Kegon, renamed it Kozanji, and requested that Koben revive the study of Kegon doctrine. A year later, Gotoba appointed him headmaster of Sonshoin with the hope of further expanding Koben's promotion of the Kegon school. Despite this generous attention, Koben focused little of his efforts on this mission. He initially built a hermitage for himself at Toganoo, and it was not until 1219 that he constructed the Golden Hall at Kozanji. Koben dismissed the newer schools of Buddhism in his day, particularly HoNEN's (1122-1212) reinterpretation of pure land practice in the JoDOSHu. In 1212, he denounced Honen's nenbutsu (C. NIANFO) practice in Zaijarin ("Refuting the False Vehicle"), a response to Honen's earlier work, Senchaku hongan nenbutsu shu ("Anthology of Selections on the Nenbutsu and the Original Vow"; see SENCHAKUSHu). In contrast to the Jodoshu's exclusive advocacy of the single practice of reciting the Buddha's name, Koben defended the traditional argument that there were many valid methods for reaching salvation. Koben spent the last several decades of his life experimenting with ways to make Kegon doctrine accessible to a wider audience. In the end, however, his efforts were largely unsuccessful. He was unable to garner popular support, and his disciples never founded institutionally independent schools, as did the disciples of the other teachers of Kamakura Buddhism. Koben was fascinated by his dreams and recorded many of them in a well-known text known as the Yume no ki, or "Dream Diary." Like most Japanese of his day, Koben regarded many of these dreams to be portents coming directly from the buddhas, bodhisattvas, and gods.

mystery ::: 1. A spiritual truth that is incomprehensible to reason and knowable only through divine revelation. 2. Something that is not fully understood or that baffles or eludes the understanding; an enigma. 3. A mysterious character or quality. 4. The skills, lore, practices and secret rites that are peculiar to a particular activity or group and are regarded as the special province of initiates. Mystery, mystery"s, Mystery"s, mysteries, mystery-altar"s. (Sri Aurobindo also employs the word as an adj.)

nabob ::: n. --> A deputy or viceroy in India; a governor of a province of the ancient Mogul empire.
One who returns to Europe from the East with immense riches: hence, any man of great wealth.


Nanhuasi. (南華寺). In Chinese, "Southern Florate Monastery"; located in present-day Guangdong province close to Nanhua Mountain and facing the Caoqi River. The monastery was built by an Indian monk in 502 CE during the Liang dynasty and was originally named Baolinsi (Bejeweled Forest Monastery). It went through several name changes until it was renamed Nanhuasi in 968 CE during the Song dynasty, and it has carried that name ever since. In 677 CE, during the Tang dynasty, HUINENG, the so-called sixth patriarch (LIUZU) of the CHAN school, is said to have come to Nanhuasi, where he founded the so-called "Southern school" (NAN ZONG) of Chan. From that point on, the monastery became an important center of the Chan school, and Huineng's remains are enshrined there, as are those of the Ming-dynasty Chan monk HANSHAN DEQING (1546-1623 CE). The monastery contains a stone slab that supposedly displays indentations left by Huineng's constant prostrations during his devotional services. The monastery is also famous for housing a bell named the Nanhua Bell, which weighs six tons and can be heard up to ten miles away.

Nanquan Puyuan. (J. Nansen Fugan; K. Namch'on Powon 南泉普願) (748-834). Chinese CHAN master in the HONGZHOU ZONG; a native of Xinzheng in present-day Henan province. In 777, Nanquan received the full monastic precepts from a certain VINAYA master Hao (d.u.) at the nearby monastery of Huishansi in Songyue. Along with studying such important MAHĀYĀNA scriptures as the LAnKĀVATĀRASuTRA and AVATAMSAKASuTRA, Nanquan also explored the major texts of the SAN LUN ZONG, the Chinese counterpart of the MADHYAMAKA school of Buddhist philosophy. He later became the disciple of the eminent Chan master MAZU DAOYI (709-788) and eventually one of his dharma successors. In 795, he began his long-time residence on Mt. Nanquan in Chiyang (present-day Anhui province), whence he acquired his toponym. He remained on the mountain for thirty years, where he devoted himself to teaching his students. Among his immediate disciples, ZHAOZHOU CONGSHEN (778-897) is most famous. Nanquan is renowned for his enigmatic sayings and antinomian behavior. Many of his noteworthy conversations with other masters are quoted in public case collections, such as the BIYAN LU and CONGRONG LU. Nanquan's teaching style is perhaps best captured in the (in)famous public case (GONG'AN) "Nanquan cuts the cat in two" (case no. 63 of the Biyan lu, case no. 14 in the WUMENGUAN). Monks from the eastern and western wings of the monastery were arguing over possession of a cat. Nanquan grabbed the cat and told the monks, "If anyone can say something to the point, you will save this cat's life; if not, I will kill it." No one replied, so Nanquan cut the cat in two. In the following gong'an in the Biyan lu (case no. 64), his disciple Zhaozhou Congshen returned to the monastery and heard the story. He immediately took off his straw sandals, placed them on his head, and walked away. Nanquan remarked, "If you had been here a moment ago, you could have saved that cat's life."

Nanshan lü zong. (J. Nanzan risshu; K. Namsan yulchong 南山律宗). In Chinese, the "South Mountain School of Discipline," the name for a loose affiliation of Chinese exegetes who traced their lineage back to the Chinese VINAYA master DAOXUAN (596-667). (The name Nanshan, or South Mountain, refers to Daoxuan's residence at ZHONGNANSHAN in present-day Shanxi province.) This tradition is largely concerned with the exegesis of the SIFEN LÜ ("Four-Part Vinaya") of the DHARMAGUPTAKA school. This VINAYA text, which came to be adopted widely throughout East Asia, was translated into Chinese in 405 by the Kashmīri monk BUDDHAYAsAS (c. early fifth century CE) and is still followed today in the East Asian Buddhist traditions. It taught a code of discipline that involved 250 principal monastic precepts for monks, 348 for nuns. The central scripture of the Nanshan lü zong is Daoxuan's influential commentary on the Sifen lü, the Sifen lü shanfan buque xingshi chao, which was composed in 626. Although the Nanshan lü zong remained the dominant tradition of vinaya exegesis in China, other groups such as the DONGTA LÜ ZONG (East Pagoda) and Xiangbu (Xiang Region) vinaya schools also flourished. The interpretations of the Nanshan lü zong were introduced into Japan by the Chinese monk GANJIN (C. Jianzhen; 687-763), who helped established the School of Discipline (J. RISSHu), one of the six schools of the Nara tradition of early Japanese Buddhism (see NARA BUDDHISM, SIX SCHOOLS OF).

Nanyang Huizhong. (J. Nan'yo Echu; K. Namyang Hyech'ung 南陽慧忠) (675?-775). Chinese CHAN master of the Tang dynasty; a native of Yuezhou in present-day Zhejiang province. He is said to have studied under the sixth patriarch (LIUZU) HUINENG (638-713) as a youth and to have eventually become one of his dharma successors. After Huineng's death, Nanyang led an itinerant life, traveling from one monastery to the next until he settled down on Mt. Baiya in Nanyang (present-day Henan province), whence he acquired his toponym. He is said to have remained in seclusion on the mountain for some forty years. In 761, he was invited to the palace by Emperor Suzong (r. 756-762), who honored Nanyang as his teacher. He took up residence at the monastery of Qianfusi, but later moved to Guangzhaisi at the request of Emperor Daizong (r. 762-779). Nanyang later established the monasteries of Yanchangsi and Changshousi and installed a copy of the Buddhist canon (DAZANGJING) at each site. Juizong lived during a period of great efflorescence in the Chan school, but he was not closely identified with any one school. He is, however, said to have been critical of the teachings of the Chan master MAZU DAOYI (709-788) and other HONGZHOU ZONG teachers in Sichuan in the south of China, who rejected the authority of the traditional Buddhist scriptures; he is also said to have criticized the Hongzhou interpretation of "mind is buddha" as being akin to the sREnIKA HERESY, in which the body is simply an impermanent vessel for an eternal mind or soul. The notion that "inanimate objects can preach the dharma" (wujing shuofa) is also attributed to Nanyang.

Nanyue Huairang. (J. Nangaku Ejo; K. Namak Hoeyang 南嶽懷讓) (677-744). Chinese CHAN monk of the Tang dynasty, Huairang was a native of Jinzhou in present-day Shandong province. At an early age, Huairang is said to have gone to the monastery of Yuquansi in Jingzhou (present-day Hubei province) where he studied VINAYA under the vinaya master Hongjing (d.u.). Later, he visited SONGSHAN and continued his studies under Hui'an (also known as Lao'an or "Old An"; 582-709), a reputed disciple of the fifth patriarch HONGREN (601-674). Hui'an purportedly introduced Huairang to the sixth patriarch (LIUZU) HUINENG (638-713), from whom Huairang eventually received dharma transmission. In 713, Huairang began teaching at the monastery of Boresi on Mt. Nanyue (present-day Hunan province), whence his toponym. There, Huairang acquired his most famous disciple, MAZU DAOYI (709-788). As most of what is known of Huairang comes from the work of Mazu and Mazu's students, some scholars contend that the obscure figure of Huairang was used as a convenient means of linking Mazu's successful HONGZHOU ZONG line with the legendary sixth patriarch Huineng. The Chan lamplight records (CHUANDENG LU) trace the GUIYANG ZONG and LINJI ZONG, two of the traditional "five houses" (see WU JIA QI ZONG) of the mature Chan tradition, back to Nanyue Huirang.

Nanyue Huisi. (J. Nangaku Eshi; K. Namak Hyesa 南嶽慧思) (515-577). Chinese monk in the TIANTAI school and teacher of TIANTAI ZHIYI (538-597); also known as Great Master Nanyue and Great Master Si. Huisi was a native of Yuzhou in present-day Anhui province. According to his biography in the Liang-era GAOSENG ZHUAN, Huisi was obsessed with the prospect of death in his youth and assiduously pursued a means of attaining immortality. Studying with his teacher Huiwen (d.u.), about whom next to nothing is known, Huisi is said to have learned a meditative technique based on NĀGĀRJUNA's premise of the identity of emptiness, provisionality, and their mean (see SANDI), which he later taught to his own students. Monks who disagreed with his teachings tried to poison him, so Huisi left northern China for the south, but his popularity there prompted jealous monks to brand him a spy. This charge was rejected by the Chen-dynasty emperor, and Huisi continued to teach in the south, where he attracted many students, including the renowned Tiantai Zhiyi. Huisi's meditative teachings on the suiziyi sanmei ("cultivating SAMĀDHI wherever mind is directed," or "the samādhi of freely flowing thoughts") were recorded in Zhiyi's MOHE ZHIGUAN. In this type of meditation, the adept is taught to use any and all experiences, whether mental or physical, whether wholesome or unwholesome, as grist for the mill of cultivating samādhi. Huisi is credited with the compilation of several treatises, such as the Dasheng zhiguan, Cidi chanyao, Fahua jing anle xingyi, and others.

Nan zong. (J. Nanshu; K. Nam chong 南宗). In Chinese, "Southern School," an appellation used widely throughout the Tang dynasty, largely due to the efforts of HEZE SHENHUI (684-758) and his lineage, to describe what they claimed to be the orthodox lineage of the CHAN ZONG; in distinction to the collateral lineage of the "Northern School" (BEI ZONG) of SHENXIU (606-706) and his successors. Heze Shenhui toured various provinces and constructed ordination platforms, where he began to preach that HUINENG (638-713), whom he claimed as his teacher, was the true sixth patriarch (LIUZU) of the Chan school. In 732, during an "unrestricted assembly" (WUZHE DAHUI) held at the monastery of Dayunsi in Huatai, Shenhui engaged a monk by the name of Chongyuan (d.u.) and publicly criticized what he called the "Northern School" of Shenxiu's disciples PUJI (651-739), YIFU (661-736), and XIANGMO ZANG (d.u.) as being merely a collateral branch of BODHIDHARMA's lineage, which advocated an inferior gradualistic teaching. Shenhui argued that his teacher Huineng had received the orthodox transmission of Bodhidharma's lineage and the "sudden teaching" (DUNJIAO), which was the unique soteriological doctrine of Bodhidharma and his Chan school. Shenhui launched a vociferous attack on the Northern School, whose influence and esteem in both religious and political circles were unrivaled at the time. He condemned Shenxiu's so-called "Northern School" for having wrongly usurped the mantle of the Chan patriarchy from Huineng's "Southern School." Shenhui also (mis)characterized the teaching of the "Northern School" as promoting a "gradual" approach to enlightenment (JIANWU), which ostensibly stood in stark contrast to Huineng's and thus Shenhui's own "sudden awakening" (DUNWU) teachings. As a result of Shenhui's polemical attacks on Shenxiu and his disciples, subsequent Chan historians, such as GUIFENG ZONGMI (780-841), came to refer reflexively to a gradualist "Northern School" that was to be rigidly distinguished from a subitist "Southern School." Modern scholarship has demonstrated that, in large measure, the centrality of the "Southern School" to early Chan history is a retrospective creation. The Chan patriarchal lineage going back to Chan's putative founder, Bodhidharma, was still inchoate in the eighth century; indeed, contemporary genealogical histories, such as the LIDAI FABAO JI, CHUAN FABAO JI, LENGQIE SHIZI JI, and BAOLIN ZHUAN, demonstrate how fluid and fragile the notion of the Chan lineage remained at this early period. Because the lineages that eventually came to be recognized within the later tradition were not yet cast in stone, it was therefore possible for Shenhui to advocate that a semilegendary, and relatively unknown figure, Huineng, rather than the leading Chan figures of his time, was the orthodox successor of the fifth patriarch HONGREN and the real sixth patriarch (liuzu). While this characterization is now known to be misleading, subsequent histories of the Chan tradition more or less adopted Shenhui's vision of early Chan history. The influential LIUZU TAN JING played an important role in this process of distinguishing a supposedly inferior, gradualist Northern School from a superior, subitist Southern School. By the eleventh century, with the composition of the mature Chan genealogical histories, such as the CHODANG CHIP (C. ZUTANG JI) and JINGDE CHUANDENG LU, this orthodox lineage was solidified within the tradition and became mainstream. In these later "transmission of the lamplight" records (CHUANDENG LU), the "Southern School" was now unquestioned as the orthodox successor in Bodhidharma's lineage, a position it retained throughout the subsequent history of the Chan tradition. Despite Shenhui's virulent attacks against the "Northern School," we now know that Shenxiu and his disciples were much more central to the early Chan school, and played much more important roles in Chan's early growth and development, than the mature tradition realized.

Naong Hyegŭn. (懶翁慧勤) (1320-1376). In Korean, "Old Lazybones, Earnest in Wisdom," an eminent Korean SoN master and pilgrim of the Koryo dynasty. Naong was a native of Yonghae in present-day North Kyongsang province and is said to have decided to become a monk after the traumatic death of a close friend in 1339. After his ordination by the monk Yoyon (d.u.) of the hermitage of Myojogam on Mt. Kongdok, Naong traveled from one monastery to the next until he settled down at the monastery of Hoeamsa in 1344. Four years later at Hoeamsa, Naong is said to have attained his first awakening. In 1347, he left for China where he met the Indian master ZHIKONG CHANXIAN (1289-1363; K. Chigong Sonhyon; S. *sunyadisya-Dhyānabhadra) at the monastery of Fayuansi in the Yuan-dynasty capital of Yanjing; later, Naong would receive dharma transmission from Zhikong. After studying under Zhikong, Naong visited the Chan master Pingshan Chulin (1279-1361) at Jingcisi in Hangzhou (present-day Zhejiang province). Naong is said to have later received Pingshan's chowrie (FUZI; VĀLAVYAJANA) as a sign of his spiritual attainment. Before his return to the Yuan capital of Yanjing in 1355, Naong made a pilgrimage to MT. PUTUOSHAN, where he made offerings to the bodhisattva AVALOKITEsVARA (GUANYIN). Upon his arrival back in Yanjing, he was appointed abbot of the monastery of Guangjisi by Emperor Xundi (r. 1333-1368). In 1358, Naong returned to Korea and three years later was invited to the royal palace, where he taught the king and queen. In 1370, Naong was appointed the royal preceptor (wangsa) and abbot of the influential monastery of SONGGWANGSA. Naong was viewed as a living buddha and eventually became the object of cultic worship: in the apocryphal Ch'isong kwangmyong kyong ("Book of Blazing Light"), which was widely disseminated in Korea in the sixteenth century, Naong is said to have been an emanation of sĀKYAMUNI Buddha himself. He spent the next few years revitalizing the community at his old monastery of Hoeamsa. Among his many disciples, MUHAK CHACH'O (1327-1405) is most famous.

Ngag dbang blo bzang rgya mtsho. (Ngawang Losang Gyatso) (1617-1682). The fifth DALAI LAMA of Tibet, widely held to be one of the most dynamic and influential members of his lineage. He was the first Dalai Lama to formally wield both religious and secular power over the Tibetan state and is renowned for his diverse range of religious and political activities. Commonly referred to as "the great fifth" (lnga pa chen po), Ngag dbang blo bzang rgya mtsho established himself as a gifted teacher, accomplished tantric practitioner, prolific author, and skillful statesman. The fifth Dalai Lama was born to an aristocratic family in the region of 'Phyong rgyas (Chongye) near the burial grounds of the early Tibetan dynastic rulers. His family had close ties with the RNYING MA sect, although the Dalai Lama claimed in one of his autobiographies that his mother had been the tantric consort of the JO NANG master TĀRANĀTHA and that Tāranātha was his biological father. He was recognized as the fifth Dalai Lama in 1622 by BLO BZANG CHOS KYI RGYAL MTSHAN, although there was a rival candidate, Grags pa rgyal mtshan. The fifth Dalai Lama mastered the DGE LUGS curriculum but also had a strong interest in Rnying ma, SA SKYA, and BKA' BRGYUD. During this period, the Dge lugs was being persecuted by the kings of Gtsang, who were patrons of the KARMA BKA' BRGYUD. The fifth Dalai Lama cultivated a relationship with the Qoshot Mongols. This deepened a connection with the Mongols begun by the third Dalai Lama, BSOD NAMS RGYA MTSHO, and enhanced by the fourth Dalai Lama, YON TAN RGYA MTSHO. With the aid of the Qoshot Mongol ruler Gushri Khan (1582-1655), the fifth Dalai Lama and his Dge lugs sect prevailed after a period of bitter political rivalry against the Bka' brgyud and their supporters in the Gtsang court. In 1642, the Dalai Lama and his regent Bsod nams chos 'phel became the rulers of Tibet, although it took nearly a decade before their power was consolidated throughout the provinces of central Tibet and extended to parts of eastern and western Tibet. The relationship thus forged between the Dalai Lama and the Mongol ruler was based on the so-called priest-patron (YON MCHOD) model previously established between the Sa skya heirarch ' PHAGS PA BLO GROS RGYAL MTSHAN and Qubilai Khan. The Dalai Lama promoted the view that he and the previous Dalai Lamas were incarnations (SPRUL SKU) of the BODHISATTVA AVALOKITEsVARA and that he himself was linked to the three great religious kings (chos rgyal) SRONG BTSAN SGAM PO, KHRI SRONG LDE BTSAN, and RAL PA CAN. In 1645, the fifth Dalai Lama began construction of the PO TA LA Palace on the site of Srong btsan sgam po's palace on Dmar po ri (Red Hill) in LHA SA. He named it after POTALAKA, the abode of Avalokitesvara. The palace included his residence quarters and space for the Tibetan government, the DGA' LDAN PHO BRANG, both relocated from 'BRAS SPUNGS monastery. In 1652, at the invitation of the Qing emperor, the fifth Dalai Lama traveled to the Manchu imperial court in Beijing, where he was greeted with great ceremony, although he resented attempts by the Chinese to present him as a vassal of the Qing emperor rather than as an equal head of state. The Dalai Lama forced the conversion to Dge lugs of those monasteries he considered doctrinally heterodox or politically dangerous. These included numerous Bka' brgyud institutions and, famously, the monastery of Dga' ldan (formerly Rtag brtan) phun tshogs gling (see JO NANG PHUN TSHOGS GLING), whose Jo nang texts were ordered to be locked under state seal. The fifth Dalai Lama did, however, support the founding of new Rnying ma institutions, such as RDZOGS CHEN monastery and SMIN GROL GLING, and the renovation of RDO RJE BRAG. He himself was a "treasure revealer" (GTER STON), discovering several texts that are included in his collected works. His religious training was broad and eclectic; among teachers of the Dge lugs sect, he was particularly close to the first PAn CHEN LAMA, BLO BZANG CHOS KYI RGYAL MTSHAN, who had also been the teacher of the fourth Dalai Lama, and from whom the fifth Dalai Lama received both his novice vows in 1625 and his monastic vows in 1638. After the Pan chen Lama's death, the Dalai Lama identified his next incarnation, continuing the alternating relation of teacher and student between the two foremost lamas of the Dge lugs. He died in 1682, but his death was kept secret by his regent, SDE SRID SANGS RGYAS RGYA MTSHO, until 1697. He is entombed in a massize STuPA in the Po ta la. The fifth Dalai Lama was a prolific and talented author, with his collected works comprising twenty-five volumes on a wide range of topics. Of particular note are his extensive autobiographies. Among his more strictly "religious" works, his LAM RIM teachings entitled LAM RIM 'JAM DPAL ZHAL LUNG is well known.

Nguyen Thiều. (C. Yuanshao 元韶) (c. 1610-c. 1691). Chinese monk who is considered the founding patriarch of a Vietnamese branch of the Chinese LINJI ZONG of CHAN. Born in Guangdong (China), he became a monk at the age of nineteen. He arrived in Vietnam in 1665 accompanying Chinese merchants and settled in Bình Định province (central Vietnam). He eventually built the Thạp Tháp Di Đà monastery and began to teach Chan. He also founded the Hà Trung monastery in Thuạn Hóa and Quốc n monastery in Huế. After that, at the request of Lord Nguyẽn Phúc Tàn, he returned to China to bring back Buddhist materials and utensils and to invite other eminent monks to Vietnam. Among these monks was the Chan master Thạch Liem. Nguyen Thièu was the first monk to teach Linji Chan in central Vietnam. The modern Vietnamese Buddhist claim of an affinity with Linji Chan derives from this transmission via Nguyen Thièu.

Nitto guho junrei gyoki. (入唐求法巡行). In Japanese, "Record of a Pilgrimage to China in Search of the Dharma"; a renowned travel diary, in four rolls, by the Japanese TENDAISHu monk ENNIN (794-864) of his nine years sojourning in Tang China. In 838, Ennin sailed to China with his companions Engyo (799-852) and Jokyo (d. 866), arriving in Yangzhou (present-day Jiangsu province) at the mouth of the Yangzi River. The next year, he found himself at the monastery of Kaiyuansi, where he received the teachings and rituals of the various KONGoKAI (vajradhātu) deities from the monk Quanya (d.u.). When adverse winds kept him from returning to Japan, he remained behind at the monastery of Fahuayuan on Mt. Chi in Dengzhou (present-day Shandong province). From there, Ennin made a pilgrimage to WUTAISHAN, where he studied TIANTAI ZONG doctrine and practice. In 840, Ennin arrived in the capital Chang'an, where he studied under the master (ĀCĀRYA) Yuanzheng (d.u.) of the monastery of Daxingshansi. The next year, Ennin also studied the teachings of the TAIZoKAI (garbhadhātu) and the SUSIDDHIKARASuTRA under the ācārya Yizhen (d.u.) of the monastery of Qinglongsi. In 842, Ennin furthered his studies of the taizokai under the ācārya Faquan (d.u.) at the monastery Xuanfasi, SIDDHAM under Yuanjian (d.u.) of Da'anguosi, and siddham pronunciation under the Indian ācārya Baoyue (d.u.). In 845, Ennin fled the Huichang persecution of Buddhism (HUICHANG FANAN) that was then raging in Chang'an, and arrived back in Japan in 847. Ennin's record includes not only detailed information on the routes he took between Japan and China, but also the procedures and expenses required in order to obtain travel permits. In addition, his diary contains detailed descriptions of the daily rituals followed at a Korean monastery in Shandong province where he (and other foreign travelers) stayed for some time. The Nitto guho junrei gyoki is therefore an important source for studying the daily lives of travelers, merchants, officials, and monks in medieval China.

Niutou Farong. (J. Gozu Hoyu; K. Udu Pobyung 牛頭法融) (594-657). In Chinese, "Oxhead, Dharma Interfusion"; proper name of the founder of an early CHAN school often known in English as the "Oxhead school" (NIUTOU ZONG), after his toponym Niutou (Oxhead). Farong was a native of Yanling in present-day Jiangsu province. Little is known of his early years. He is said to have studied the teachings of MADHYAMAKA and to have spent twenty years in the mountains after his ordination by a certain dharma master Ling (d.u.). In 643, Farong entered the monastery of Youqisi on Mt. Niutou (in present-day Jiangsu province), whence he acquired his toponym. In 647, he gave a public lecture on the SADDHARMAPUndARĪKASuTRA, and six years later he lectured on the PANCAVIMsATISĀHASRIKĀPRAJNĀPĀRAMITĀSuTRA at the monastery of Jianchusi (see BAO'ENSI). The influential treatise JUEGUAN LUN ("Extinguishing Cognition Treatise") is attributed by tradition to BODHIDHARMA, the legendary founder of the Chan school, but it is now generally believed to have been composed by Farong or one of his students. Although Farong's official biography in the XU GAOSENG ZHUAN does not mention this event, later stele inscriptions and Chan genealogical histories (see CHUANDENG LU) report that DAOXIN, the putative fourth patriarch of the Chan school, instructed Farong in the sudden teaching (DUNJIAO); Farong's connections with Daoxin are, however, historically dubious. Some of the more unusual positions Farong took include the notion that even inanimate objects, such as rocks, rivers, and flowers, possess the buddha-nature (FOXING). Farong was also one of the earliest teachers in the Chan school to advocate the nonreliance on conceptual descriptions of Buddhism (see BULI WENZI).

Niutou zong. (J. Gozushu; K. Udu chong 牛頭宗). In Chinese, "Oxhead School"; a lineage of early Chan that traces itself to the Chan master NIUTOU FARONG (594-657), a reputed disciple of the fourth patriarch DAOXIN (580-651), although the connections between the two monks are tenuous. The monk Zhiwei (646-722) is often credited with the actual formation of the Niutou zong as a lineage that could claim independence from both the Northern school (BEI ZONG) and Southern school (NAN ZONG) of Chan. The school was active in the seventh through eighth centuries, but reached its zenith in the third quarter of the eighth century. The school's name is derived from Mt. Niutou (in present-day Jiangsu province), where Farong and his students are said to have taught a form of Chan distinct from that of the other lineages then current in China. The Chan historian GUIFENG ZONGMI characterizes the Niutou school as the "tradition (that believes) all things are to be cut off without support" (minjue wuji zong). The teachings of the Niutou tradition show a strong predilection toward the notion of emptiness (suNYATĀ) and PRAJNĀPĀRAMITĀ, as exemplified in its influential treatise JUEGUAN LUN ("Extinguishing Cognition Treatise"), which uses a series of negative argumentations, derived from MADHYAMAKA antecedents, to open students to an experience of the pure wisdom that transcends all dualities. Oxhead writings also frequently employ a threefold rhetorical structure of an initial question by the teacher, followed by the student's hesitation in how to respond, culminating in understanding; this structure seems to have its antecedents in TIANTAI ZHIYI's teachings of the "three truths" (SANDI) of absolute, conventional, and mean. One of the enduring influences of the Niutou school is on the 780 CE composition of the LIUZU TAN JING ("Platform Sutra of the Sixth Patriarch"), which deploys a similar threefold rheotic in developing its understanding of Chan.

nomarchy ::: n. --> A province or territorial division of a kingdom, under the rule of a nomarch, as in modern Greece; a nome.

nome ::: --> of Nim
Alt. of Nomen ::: n. --> A province or political division, as of modern Greece or ancient Egypt; a nomarchy.
Any melody determined by inviolable rules.


Och: The Olympian Spirit (q.v.), governing the Sun, ruler of 28 Olympian Provinces of the Universe; his day is Sunday.

of the 196 provinces into which Heaven is divided.

of the 196 provinces in which the universe is

of the 196 Olympic Provinces. Arathron’s sigil

of the Olympian Provinces. As a Monday angel,

of the shadow of death and his special province is

Olympian province: See: Olympian Spirits.

Olympian Spirits: According to the Arbatel, a magic ritual published in the late 16th century, spirits who dwell in the air and in interplanetary space, each governing a certain number of the 196 Olympic Provinces into which the universe is divided. The seven Olympic Spirits, also referred to as Stewards of Heaven, are: Aratron, Bethor, Phaleg, Och, Hagith, Ophiel, and Phul (q.v.).

Ophiel: The Olympian Spirit (q.v.) governing Mercury, ruler of 14 Olympian Provinces of the universe; his day is Wednesday.

orb ::: 1. A sphere or spherical object. 2. An eye or eyeball. poet. and rhet. 3. A sphere or celestial body, such as the sun or the moon. 4. Something of circular form; a circle or an orbit. 5. *Fig. A range of endeavor or activity; a province. *orbs, moon-orb.

oscan ::: a. --> Of or pertaining to the Osci, a primitive people of Campania, a province of ancient Italy. ::: n. --> The language of the Osci.

Otiot ::: Weekly children's magazine. ::: Ottoman Empire Rule ::: (1517-1917) The land of Israel was conquered by the Turkish Ottoman Empire and divided into four districts. It was attached to the Province of Damascus and ruled from Istanbul.

Paegun Kyonghan. (白雲景閑) (1299-1374). Korean SoN master in the Imje (C. LINJI ZONG) lineage, who is known as one of the three great Son masters of the late-Koryo dynasty, along with T'AEGO POU (1301-1376) and NAONG HYEGŬN (1320-1376). After entering the monastery at a young age, Kyonghan eventually traveled to Yuan-dynasty China in 1351, where he studied under the Chan master Shiwu Qinggong (1272-1352), a Linji-Chan teacher from whom he received dharma transmission, and under the Indian monk ZHIKONG CHANXIAN, who later came to live and teach in Korea. After awakening in 1353, Kyonghan returned to Korea, residing at An'guksa and Sin'gwangsa, both in Hwanghae province, and later at Ch'wiamsa in Yoju, where he passed away in 1374. Kyonghan's record of dharma talks, Paegun hwasang orok ("Discourse Records of the Master Paegun"), in two rolls, was compiled posthumously by his disciple Sokch'an. Kyonghan is also the author of the PULCHO CHIKCHI SIMCH'E YOJoL, an anthology of the biographies and teachings of the Buddhist patriarchs and Son masters.

Paegyangsa. (白羊寺). In Korean, "White Ram Monastery"; the eighteenth district monastery (PONSA) of the contemporary CHOGYE CHONG of Korean Buddhism, located on Paegam (White Cliff) Mountain in South Cholla province. The monastery was founded in 632 by the Paekche monk Yohwan (d.u.) and was originally called Paegamsa; it was renamed Chongt'osa after a reconstruction project during the Koryo dynasty in 1034. Its current name of Paegyangsa comes from a Koryo-era legend. Sometime during the reign of King Sonjo of the Choson dynasty (r. 1567-1607), a teacher now known as Hwanyang (d.u., lit. "Goat Caller") was said to have been leading a recitation assembly on the SADDHARMAPUndARĪKASuTRA ("Lotus Sutra"), when a white ram came down out of the mountains to listen to the monks recite the SuTRA. Once the event was over, the ram appeared to Hwanyang in a dream and explained that he had been reborn as a ram for transgressions he had committed in heaven; after hearing the master's sermon, however, he was redeemed and was able to take rebirth once again as a divinity (DEVA). The next day the body of the ram was found on the monastery grounds, and Paegyangsa received the name by which it has been known ever since. Paegyangsa is guarded by the Gate of the Four Heavenly Kings (Sach'onwang mun). The main shrine hall (TAEUNG CHoN) is unusually located to the right of the gate, rather than centered in the compound, and an eight-story stone STuPA is located behind the main hall, rather than in front of it. The oldest extant building on the campus is the Kŭngnak pojon, or SUKHĀVATĪ hall, the construction of which was sponsored by the queen-consort of the Choson king Chungjong (r. 1506-1544). The main shrine hall, reconstructed in 1917 by the prominent Buddhist reformer MANAM CHONGHoN (1876-1957), is dedicated to sĀKYAMUNI Buddha, and enshrines an image of sākyamuni flanked by the bodhisattvas MANJUsRĪ and SAMANTABHADRA. Much of the monastery burned in 1950 during the Korean War, and reconstruction extended into the 1990s. In 1996, Paegyangsa was elevated to the status of an ecumenical monastery (CH'ONGNIM), and is one of the five such centers in the contemporary Chogye order, which are expected to provide training in the full range of practices that exemplify the major strands of the Korean Buddhist tradition; the monastery is thus also known as the Kobul Ch'ongnim.

Paekp'a Kŭngson. (白坡亘璇) (1767-1852). Korean SoN master of the Choson dynasty, also known as Kusan. Paekp'a was a native of Mujang in present-day North Cholla province. In 1778, he was ordained by a certain Sihon (d.u.) at the nearby monastery of Sonŭnsa. In 1790, he moved from his original residence at the hermitage of Yongmunam on Mt. Ch'o to the Yongwonam on Mt. Pangchang, where he studied under the renowned Hwaom chong (C. HUAYAN ZONG) master, Solp'a Sangon (1707-1791). A year before Sangon passed away, Kŭngson received the full monastic precepts from him. Paekp'a established himself at the famous hermitage of Unmunam and attracted many students. He studied the teachings of the renowned CHAN master XUEFENG YICUN at Mt. Yonggu and acquired the name Paekp'a. In order to practice Son meditation, he returned to Yongmunam and revived POJO CHINUL's Samādhi and PrajNā Society (CHoNGHYE KYoLSA). He subsequently returned to Unmunam to compile his influential treatise Sonmun sugyong ("Hand Mirror of the Son School"), which was later the subject of a famous critique by the Son master CH'OŬI ŬISUN (1786-1866) in his Sonmun sabyon mano ("Prolix Words on Four Distinctive Types in the Son School"). Paekp'a was a staunch promoter of Son, who sought to resolve what he perceived to be a fundamental internal tension within the Son tradition: the radical subitism of the Imje chong (LINJI ZONG), which advocated the simultaneity of sudden awakening (DUNWU) and cultivation (K. tono tonsu; C. dunwu dunxiu), and the more moderate subitism of the Heze zong and POJO CHINUL (1158-1210), which advocated sudden awakening followed by gradual cultivation (K. tono chomsu; C. DUNWU JIANXIU). Paekp'a's goal was to demonstrate how the subitist "questioning meditation" (K. kanhwa Son; C. KANHUA CHAN) that became emblematic of both the Linji zong and the Korean Son tradition after Chinul could be reconciled with Korean Buddhism's preferred soteriological schema of moderate subitism. By contrast, Ch'oŭi was more concerned with exploring deeper levels of accommodation between Son practice and Buddhist doctrinal teachings (KYO), by demonstrating the fundamental unity of these two major strands of the religion. Their respective positions set the stage for subsequent debates during the late Choson dynasty over whether Korean Buddhism was an exclusively Son, or a broader ecumenical, tradition, an identity debate that continues into the present day. Kŭngson's many writings also include the Suson kyolsamun, T'aegoamga kwasok, Sikchisol, Ojong kangyo sagi, Sonyo ki, and Chakpop kwigam.

palatinate ::: n. --> The province or seigniory of a palatine; the dignity of a palatine. ::: v. t. --> To make a palatinate of.

particularism ::: n. --> A minute description; a detailed statement.
The doctrine of particular election.
Devotion to the interests of one&


pasha ::: n. --> An honorary title given to officers of high rank in Turkey, as to governers of provinces, military commanders, etc. The earlier form was bashaw.

Pegu. [alt. Bago]. Former capital of the Mon (Talaing) kingdom of RāmaNNadesa (1287-1539) in Lower Burma; also called Hanthawaddi. Founded c. 825 CE on the coast of the Bay of Bengal, Pegu served as an important entrepôt, which had flourishing commercial and cultural links with Sri Lanka, India, and ports farther east. The port was made the Mon capital in 1353 when the Mon court was transferred there from the city of Muttama (Martaban). The kingdom of RāmaNNadesa had originally gained independence in 1287 with the collapse of its former suzerain, the Burmese empire of PAGAN (Bagan), and for much of the next two and a half centuries it was engaged in internecine warfare with Pagan's landlocked successor state, AVA, for control of the maritime province of Bassein on Pegu's western flank. As the capital of a wealthy trading kingdom, Pegu was filled with numerous Buddhist shrines and monasteries. These included the Kyaikpien, Mahazedi, Shwegugale, and Shwemawdaw pagodas, and the nearby Shwethalyaung, a colossal reclining buddha built in 994. The most important Mon king in the religious sphere to rule from Pegu was Dhammacedi (r. 1472-1492) who, in 1476, conducted a purification of the Mon sāsana along the lines of the reformed Sinhalese tradition. The purification is recorded in the KALYĀnĪ INSCRIPTIONS erected in Pegu at site of Kalyānī Sīmā Hall. Pegu fell to the Burmese in 1539, who retained it as the capital of their new Burmese Empire until 1599. The beauty of Pegu was regularly extolled in the travelogues of European merchants and adventurers. Pegu again briefly became the capital of an independent Mon kingdom between 1747 and 1757, after which it was utterly destroyed by the Burmese king ALAUNGPAYA (r. 1752-1760), founder of the Konbaung empire (1752-1885). It was rebuilt and subsequently served as the British capital of Lower Burma between 1852 and 1862 and is currently the capital of Bago District.

Phaleg: The Olympian Spirit (q.v.) governing Mars, ruler of 35 Olympian Provinces of the universe; his day is Tuesday.

Phra Kaew Morakot. In Thai, "The Emerald Buddha" (full name: Phra Phuttha Maha Mani Ratana Patimakorn; P. Buddhamahāmaniratnapatimā); this most sacred and venerated buddha image in Thailand is currently enshrined at Wat Phra Kaew (Temple of the Emerald Buddha), an ornate temple located on the grounds of the royal palace in the Thai capital of Bangkok. The image, which is in the seated meditation posture, is 29.5 inches (forty-five centimeters) tall; despite its name, it is in fact not made of emerald, but is carved from a single block of a green stone thought to be either jasper or jade. Kaew is an indigenous Thai word for "glass" or "translucence"; morakot derives from the Sanskrit word for emerald (S. morakata). According to legend, the Emerald Buddha was the first buddha image ever made and was carved five hundred years after the Buddha's death out of a sacred gem that came from INDRA's palace. The image is said to have been made by NĀGASENA (c. 150 BCE), the interlocutor of the MILINDAPANHA, in the north Indian city of PĀtALIPUTRA around 43 BCE. The image was then taken to Sri Lanka in the fourth century CE, and was on its way to Burma in 457, when the ship carrying it went off course and the image next appeared in Cambodia. The image eventually came into Thai hands and made its way to AYUTHAYA, Chiangrai, Chiangmai, and ultimately Bangkok. The image's actual provenance is a matter of debate. Some art historians argue that on stylistic grounds the Emerald Buddha appears to have been carved in northern Thailand around the fifteenth century, while others argue for a south Indian or Sri Lankan origin based on its meditative posture, which is uncommon in Thai buddha images. The Emerald Buddha first enters the historical record upon its discovery in 1434 CE, in the area that is now the northern Thai province of Chiangrai, when lightning struck a chedi (P. cetiya, S. CAITYA) and a buddha image made of stucco was found inside. As the stucco began to flake off, the image of the Emerald Buddha was revealed. At that time, Chiangrai was ruled by the Lānnā Thai kingdom, whose king attempted to bring the image back to his capital of Chiangmai. The chronicles relate that three times he sent an elephant to bring the Emerald Buddha to Chiangmai, but each time the elephant went to Lampang instead, so the king finally relented and allowed the image to remain there. In 1468, the new Chiangmai monarch, King Tiloka, finally succeeded in moving the image to Chiangmai and installed it in the eastern niche of a large STuPA at Wat Chedi Luang. The image remained there until 1552, when it was taken to LUANG PRABANG, then the capital of Laos, by the Lao ruler, who was also ruling Chiangmai at the time. In 1564, the king then took the image to Vientiane, where he set up a new capital after fleeing the Burmese. The Emerald Buddha remained in Vientiane for 214 years, until 1778 when the Siamese general Taksin captured the city and took the Emerald Buddha to Thonburi, then the Siamese capital. In 1784, when Bangkok was established as the capital, the image was installed there, in Wat Phra Kaew, the Temple of the Emerald Buddha, as the palladium of the nation (then known as Siam). Because Wat Phra Kaew is located within the palace grounds, the temple is unique in Thai Buddhism for having no monastic residences; the grounds contain only sacred shrines, stupas, and the main ubosoth (UPOsADHA hall), where the Buddha resides. The image of the Emerald Buddha is always clothed in golden raiments, which are changed according to the seasons. King Rāma I (r. 1782-1809) had two seasonal costumes made for the statue: a ceremonial robe for the hot season and a monastic robe for the rainy season. King Rāma III (1824-1851) had another costume made for the cold season: a mantle of gold beads. The ruling monarch performs the ceremonial changing of the garments each season.

Phúc ĐiỂn. (福田) (c. late-nineteenth century). Scholar-monk of the Nguyễn dynasty, considered one of the most important historians of Buddhism in premodern Vietnam. His biography is recorded in the Thiền Uyẻn Truyền Đăng Lục ("Recorded Transmission of the Lamplight in the CHAN Community"). According to this source, he was a native of Sơn Minh, Hà Nội province. His family name was Vũ. He left home to become a monk at the age of twelve and first studied under the Venerable Vien Quang of Thịnh Liẹt Đại Bi Temple. After three years, Vien Quang passed away, and Phúc Đièn went to study under the Venerable Từ Phong of Nam Dư Phúc Xuan Temple. When he was twenty years old Từ Phong passed away, and Phúc Đièn moved to Phap Van Temple in Bắc Ninh province and received full ordination under the Venerable Từ Quang. Phúc Đièn's biography shows that he was not only an author, translator, and historian, but also an activist who tirelessly built and repaired many monasteries. Besides reprinting, editing, translating (from classical Chinese into vernacular Nôm Vietnamese) numerous Buddhist texts, and recording detailed histories of various temples, he also left behind several independent works, the most important of which are the Tam Giao Nguyen Lưu ("Sources of the Three Religions"), the Đại Nam Thiền Uyẻn Truyền Đăng Tạp Lục ("Recorded Transmission of the Lamplight [in the Chan Community] of Vietnam"), and the Thiền Uyẻn Truyền Đăng Lục ("Transmission of the Lamplight in the Chan Community"). His extant writings include more works on history than on Buddhist doctrine. His aspiration was to collect all the extant materials regarding the origin and transmission of Vietnamese Buddhism. Because he was convinced that Vietnamese Buddhism was a continuation of the orthodox school of Chinese Buddhism (and specifically the CHAN ZONG), he implicitly accepted the hermeneutical strategies of Chinese Chan in constructing his view of Vietnamese Buddhist history. However, in addition to Chinese Chan documents, he also consulted Vietnamese sources, together with copious notes drawn from his own fieldwork at various temples. His writings, therefore, provide valuable sources for the understanding of Vietnamese Buddhist history.

Phul: The Olympian Spirit (q.v.) governing the Moon, ruler of seven Olympian Provinces of the universe; his day is Monday.

Physical consciousness ::: There is the universal physical cons- ciousness of Nature and there is our own which is a part of it, moved by it, and used by the central being for the support of its expression in the physical world and for a direct dealing with all these external objects and movements and forces. This physical consciousness-plane receives from the other planes their powers and influences and makes formations of them in its own province. Therefore we have a physical mind as well as a vital mind and the mind proper ; we have a vital-physical part in us

Pojo Chinul. (C. Puzhao Zhine; J. Fusho Chitotsu 普照知訥) (1158-1210). In Korean, lit. "Shining Universally, Knowing Reticence"; the premier Korean SoN master of the Koryo dynasty and one of the two most influential monks in the history of Korean Buddhism (along with WoNHYO); he usually referred to himself using his cognomen Moguja (Oxherder). Chinul was a native of the Tongju district to the west of the Koryo capital of Kaesong (present-day Sohŭng in Hwanghae province). In 1165, he was ordained by the Son master Chonghwi (d.u.) at Kulsansa on Mt. Sagul, one of the monastic centers of the so-called "Nine Mountains school of Son" (see KUSAN SoNMUN). In 1182, Chinul passed the Son clerical examinations (SŬNGKWA) held at the monastery of Pojesa in the capital of Kaesong, but rather than take an ecclesiastical position he opted instead to form a retreat society (KYoLSA) with some fellow monks. Chinul left the capital and headed south and began his residence at Ch'ongwonsa in Ch'angp'yong (present-day South Cholla province). There, Chinul is said to have attained his initial awakening while reading the LIUZU TAN JING. In 1185, Chinul relocated himself to Pomunsa on Mt. Haga (present-day North Kyongsang province), where he had his second awakening while reading LI TONGXUAN's HUAYAN JING HELUN ("Commentary to the AVATAMSAKASuTRA"). In 1188, Chinul and the monk Tŭkchae (d.u.) launched the first Samādhi and PrajNā Retreat Society (CHoNGHYE KYoLSA) at the monastery of Kojosa on Mt. Kong (present-day North Kyongsang province). Chinul subsequently moved the community to the Kilsangsa on Mt. Songgwang, which was later renamed SUSoNSA, or the Son Cultivation Community, by King Hŭijong (r. 1204-1211); this is the major monastery now known as SONGGWANGSA. On his way to establish the retreat society, Chinul is said to have briefly resided at the hermitage Sangmujuam on CHIRISAN, where he attained his final awakening while reading the recorded sayings (YULU) of the CHAN master DAHUI ZONGGAO. In addition to reciting the VAJRACCHEDIKĀPRAJNĀPĀRAMITĀSuTRA, the practice of the Son Cultivation Community at Kilsangsa was purportedly based on the three principles of the concurrent practice of SAMĀDHI and PRAJNĀ as taught in the Liuzu tan jing, faith and understanding of the perfect and sudden teachings (K. wondon kyo; C. YUANDUN JIAO) according to the AvataMsakasutra, and the shortcut method of "questioning meditation" (K. kanhwa Son; C. KANHUA CHAN) developed by Dahui. Chinul is renowned for developing an ecumenical approach to Buddhist thought and practice, which sought to reconcile the insights of the "word of the Buddha"-viz., the scriptures, or KYO-with the "mind of the Buddha"-viz., Son practice. He taught an approach to Buddhist practice that combined an initial sudden awakening followed by continued gradual cultivation (K. dono chomsu; C. DUNWU JIANXIU), which he saw as the optimal soteriological schema for most practitioners. Chinul also was the first to introduce "questioning meditation" (kanhwa Son) into the Korean Son tradition, and this type of meditation would hold pride of place in Korean Buddhism from that point forward. Chinul was later given the posthumous title Puril Pojo (Buddha-Sun That Shines Universally). His many works include the SUSIM KYoL ("Secrets on Cultivating the Mind"), KANHWA KYoRŬI RON ("Resolving Doubts About Observing the Meditative Topic"), WoNDON SoNGBUL NON ("The Complete and Sudden Attainment of Buddhahood"), and his magnum opus, the PoPCHIP PYoRHAENGNOK CHoRYO PYoNGIP SAGI ("Excerpts from the 'Dharma Collection and Special Practice Record' with Personal Notes"), which is included in the SAJIP ("Fourfold Collection").

pomeranian ::: a. --> Of or pertaining to Pomerania, a province of Prussia on the Baltic Sea. ::: n. --> A native or inhabitant of Pomerania.

Pongsonsa. (奉先寺). In Korean, "Respecting Ancestors Monastery"; the twenty-fifth district monastery (PONSA) of the contemporary CHOGYE CHONG of Korean Buddhism, located on Mount Unak in Kyonggi province. The monastery was constructed by T'anmun (d.u.) in 968, in the twentieth year of the reign of Koryo King Kwangjong (r. 949-975), and was originally named Unaksa, after the mountain on which it was built. In 1469, the first year of the reign of King Yejong (r. 1468-1469), Queen Chonghŭi (1418-1483) decided that the tomb of her deceased husband, King Sejo (r. 1445-1468), should be established on this mountain, and she therefore had the monastery renamed "Respecting Ancestors Monastery" (Pongsonsa). The monastery became the headquarters of the KYO school when the two schools of Kyo (Doctrine) and SoN (Meditation) were restored in 1551, during the reign of the Choson king Myongjong (r. 1545-1567). The monastery was repeatedly destroyed by fire during several wars, including the Japanese Hideyoshi invasions of the late-sixteenth century, the Manchu invasions of the seventeenth century, and the Korean War.

Popchusa. (法住寺). In Korean, "Monastery Where the Dharma Abides"; the fifth district monastery (PONSA) of the contemporary CHOGYE CHONG of Korean Buddhism, located at the base of Songni (Leaving Behind the Mundane) Mountain in North Ch'ungch'ong province. Popchusa was founded in 553, during the reign of the Silla King Chinhŭng (r. 540-576), by the monk Ŭisin (d.u.) who, according to legend, returned from the "western regions" (viz. Central Asia and India) with scriptures and resided at the monastery; hence the monastery's name. In 1101, during the Koryo dynasty, ŬICH'oN (1055-1101) held an assembly to recite the RENWANG JING ("Scripture for Humane Kings") here for the protection of the state (see HUGUO FOJIAO), which is said to have been attended by thirty thousand monks. On entering the monastery, to the back and left of the front gate there are two granite pillars that date from the eleventh century, which were used to support the hanging paintings (KWAEBUL) that were unfurled on such important ceremonial occasions as the Buddha's birthday. A pavilion on the right houses a huge iron pot dated to 720 CE, which was purportedly once used to prepare meals for monks and pilgrims; off to the side is a water tank made of stone that would have held about 2,200 gallons (ten cubic meters) of water. There is also a lotus-shaped basin dating from the eighth century and a lion-supported stone lantern sponsored by the Silla monarch Songdok (r. 702-737) in 720. The main shrine hall (TAEUNG CHoN) houses images of VAIROCANA, sĀKYAMUNI, and Rocana buddhas. Behind these three statues are three paintings of the same buddhas, accompanied by BODHISATTVAs, a young ĀNANDA, and the elderly MAHĀKĀsYAPA. In the paintings sākyamuni and Rocana are surrounded by rainbows and Vairocana by a white halo. Popchusa is especially renowned for its five-story high wooden pagoda, which dates from the foundation of the monastery in 553; it may have been the model for the similar pagoda at HoRYuJI in Nara, Japan. The current pagoda was reconstructed in 1624 and is the oldest extant wooden pagoda in Korea. The pagoda is painted with pictures of the eight stereotypical episodes in the life of the Buddha (see BAXIANG). Inside are four images of sākyamuni: the east-facing statue is in the gesture of fearlessness (ABHAYAMUDRĀ); the west, in the teaching pose (DHARMACAKRAMUDRĀ); the south, in the touching-the-earth gesture (BHuMISPARsAMUDRĀ); and the north, in a reclining buddha posture, a rare Korean depiction of the Buddha's PARINIRVĀnA. Around the four buddha images sit 340 smaller white buddhas, representing the myriad buddhas of other world systems. The ceiling inside is three stories high, and the beams, walls, and ceiling are painted with various images, including bodhisattvas and lotus flowers. Outside the pagoda is Popchusa's most striking image, the thirty-three-meter (108-foot), 160-ton bronze statue of the bodhisattva MAITREYA. The original image is said to have been constructed by the Silla VINAYA master CHINP'YO (fl. eighth century), but was removed by the Taewon'gun in 1872 and melted down to be used in the reconstruction of Kyongbok Palace in Seoul. A replacement image was begun in 1939 but was never completed; another temporary statue was crafted from cement and installed in 1964. The current bronze image was finally erected in 1989. Near the base is a statue of a woman with a bowl of food, representing the laywoman SUJĀTĀ, who offered GAUTAMA a meal of milk porridge before his enlightenment.

Potalaka. (T. Po ta la; C. Butuoluoshan; J. Fudarakusen; K. Pot'araksan 補陀落山). According to the GAndAVYuHASuTRA, a mountain that is the abode of the bodhisattva of compassion, AVALOKITEsVARA. The precise location of the mountain is the subject of considerable speculation. According to XUANZANG, it is located in southern India to the east of the Malaya Mountains. He describes it as a perilous mountain with a lake and a heavenly stone palace at the summit. A river flows from the summit, encircling the mountain twenty times before flowing into the South Sea. Those who seek to meet the bodhisattva scale the mountain, but few succeed. Xuanzang says that the bodhisattva appears to his devotees at the base the mountain in the form of Mahesvara (siva) or an ascetic sadhu covered in ashes. Modern scholarship has speculated that Xuanzang was describing the mountain called Potikai or Potiyil in Tamil Nadu. Other sources place the mountain on an island in the Indian Ocean. In East Asian Buddhism, it is called PUTUOSHAN and is identified as a mountainous island in the Zhoushan Archipelago, about sixty-two miles off the eastern coast of Zhejiang province. When the fifth DALAI LAMA constructed his palace in LHA SA, he named it PO TA LA, after this mountain identified with Avalokitesvara, of whom he is considered the human incarnation.

pretorium ::: n. --> The general&

primate ::: a. --> The chief ecclesiastic in a national church; one who presides over other bishops in a province; an archbishop.
One of the Primates.


proconsulary ::: a. --> Of or pertaining of a proconsul; as, proconsular powers.
Under the government of a proconsul; as, a proconsular province.


proconsul ::: n. --> An officer who discharged the duties of a consul without being himself consul; a governor of, or a military commander in, a province. He was usually one who had previously been consul.

procurator ::: n. --> One who manages another&

proper province is not the 1st but the 7th or 10th Heaven (it was in the 10th Heaven that Enoch

propretor ::: n. --> A magistrate who, having been pretor at home, was appointed to the government of a province.

provincial ::: a. --> Of or pertaining to province; constituting a province; as, a provincial government; a provincial dialect.
Exhibiting the ways or manners of a province; characteristic of the inhabitants of a province; not cosmopolitan; countrified; not polished; rude; hence, narrow; illiberal.
Of or pertaining to an ecclesiastical province, or to the jurisdiction of an archbishop; not ecumenical; as, a provincial synod.


provincialism ::: n. --> A word, or a manner of speaking, peculiar to a province or a district remote from the mother country or from the metropolis; a provincial characteristic; hence, narrowness; illiberality.

provincialist ::: n. --> One who lives in a province; a provincial.

provinciality ::: n. --> The quality or state of being provincial; peculiarity of language characteristic of a province.

provinciate ::: v. t. --> To convert into a province or provinces.

Puhyu Sonsu. (浮休善修) (1543-1615). Korean Son master of the Choson dynasty. Sonsu was a native of Osu in present-day North Cholla province. In 1562, he went to CHIRISAN, where he became the student of a certain Sinmyong (d.u.) and later continued his studies under the Son master Puyong Yonggwan (1485-1571). He was especially renowned for his calligraphy. Sonsu survived the Japanese Hideyoshi invasions from 1592 to 1598 and resided after the war at the monastery of HAEINSA. Sonsu and his disciple PYoGAM KAKSoNG were once falsely accused by another monk and were subsequently imprisoned; they were released later when the king learned of their innocence. In 1614, Sonsu went to the hermitage of Ch'ilburam at the monastery of SONGGWANGSA and passed away the next year after entrusting his disciples to Kaksong. He was given the posthumous title Honggak Tŭnggye (Expansive Enlightenment, Mastery of All). He left over seven hundred disciples, seven of whom became renowned Son masters in their own right and formed separate branches of Sonsu's lineage. His writings can be found in the Puhyudang chip.

Pusoksa. (浮石寺). In Korean, "Floating Rock Monastery," located on Mt. Ponghwang, in North Kyongsang province; one of the major Silla HWAoM (C. HUAYAN ZONG) monasteries established by ŬISANG (625-702), the founder of the Hwaom school in Korea. According to the monastery's foundation story in the SAMGUK YUSA ("Memorabilia of the Three Kingdoms"), while Ŭisang was studying in China, he stayed over at the home of a layman, whose daughter Sonmyo (C. Shenmiao) became enamored of the master. When the time came for Ŭisang to return to Silla, he went to see Sonmyo to let her know that he was leaving, but she was not at home, so he just left a note for her. After receiving the message, Sonmyo ran down to the waterfront, only to see that his ship had already disappeared over the horizon. In despair, she jumped into the sea and died, but was reborn as a dragon who protected Ŭisang on the voyage back to Silla. After returning home, Ŭisang tried to build a monastery on Mt. Ponghwang in order to establish the Hwaom teachings in Silla. There were, however, five hundred bandits living on the mountain at the time, who stopped Ŭisang from proceeding. The dragon woman Sonmyo frightened them away by transforming herself into a huge rock floating in the air. The monastery takes its name "Pusok" (Floating Rock) from this rock, which is believed to be the massive boulder that sits next to the main shrine hall. Sonmyo Pavilion is named after this female dharma protector. Many Silla and Koryo monks studied Hwaom doctrine at Pusoksa, including the Silla SoN masters Hyech'ol (785-861) and Muyom (801-888), and the Koryo state preceptors Kyorŭng (964-1053) and Hagil (1052-1144). Despite its close sectarian associations with the Hwaom school, the monastery's shrine halls are more directly linked to the PURE LAND teachings, reflecting Ŭisang's eclectic approach to Buddhist thought and practice. These pure land linkages include (1) the Anyang nu (Pavilion of Peaceful Nurturing) is an alternative name for the pure land of SUKHĀVATĪ; (2) Muryangsu chon (Hall of Immeasurable Life), the main shrine hall of the monastery, is dedicated to AMITĀBHA, rather than to the MAHĀVAIROCANA image that might be expected in a Hwaom monastery; (3) the statue of AMITĀBHA in the main hall faces east so that worshippers will face west, in the direction of the Amitābha's pure land, when worshipping in the hall; (4) after entering the Ilchu mun (One-Pillar Gate), the front entrance gate to the monastery grounds, the monastery is laid out over nine stone terraces, which is often interpreted as corresponding to the pure land theory of nine grades of the pure land (kup'um chongt'o; see C. JIUPIN), a sort of a soteriological outline of rebirth in the pure land, which ranges from the worst of the worst to the best of the best. Pusoksa is currently a branch monastery (MALSA) of the sixteenth district monastery (PONSA) KOUNSA (Secluded Cloud Monastery), which was also founded by Ŭisang.

Putuoshan. (J. Fudasen; K. Pot'asan 普陀山/補陀山). In Chinese, "Mount POTALAKA"; a mountainous island in the Zhoushan Archipelago, about sixty-two miles off the eastern coast of Zhejiang province; also known as Butuoshan, Butuoluojiashan, Xiaobaihuashan, etc. Putuoshan is considered one of the four Buddhist sacred mountains in China, along with WUTAISHAN in Shanxi, EMEISHAN in Sichuan, and JIUHUASHAN in Anhui. Each of the mountains is said to be the residence of a specific BODHISATTVA, and Putuoshan is regarded as the sacred mountain of AVALOKITEsVARA, known in Chinese as GUANYIN pusa, the revered "bodhisattva of compassion." There are many legends told about Putuoshan. During the Tang dynasty, an Indian monk is said to have come to Putuoshan and immolated his ten fingers, after which Avalokitesvara appeared and preached the dharma to him. As this legend spread, Putuoshan gained fame as the sacred site of Avalokitesvara. In 916 CE, a Japanese monk was bringing a statue of Avalokitesvara back to Japan from Wutaishan, but was delayed on Putuoshan by fierce storms. He built a monastery for Avalokitesvara on the island and named it Baotuo monastery, an abbreviated Chinese transcription for the Sanskrit word Potalaka, an Indian holy mountain that, according to the GAndAVYuHA of the AVATAMSAKASuTRA, is thought to be the abode of Avalokitesvara. Since that sutra said that Mt. Potalaka was an isolated mountainous island rising out of the ocean, the sacred geography seemed to match Putuoshan's physical geography. After the Southern Song dynasty, the scale of monasteries, nunneries, monks and nuns in Putuoshan increased significantly through donations from the imperial court and lay Buddhists. Many people came to Putuoshan, especially to pray for safe voyages. It was also popular for the emperor to perform religious rites on Putuoshan. In 1131, during the Southern Song dynasty, all Buddhist schools on Putuoshan were designated as CHAN monasteries. In 1214, Putuoshan was ordered to emphasize the worship of Avalokitesvara. At the height of its prestige, there were as many as 218 monasteries on the island, housing more than two thousand monks and nuns. There are now three major monasteries on Putuoshan-Pujisi, Fayusi, and Huijisi-all affiliated with either the LINJI ZONG or the CAODONG ZONG of CHAN Buddhism, and seventy-two smaller temples. Pious pilgrims come to Putuoshan from all over China to worship Avalokitesvara, and Putuoshan continues to be one of the most popular pilgrimage sites in China. See also POTALAKA; PO TA LA.

Pyogam Kaksong. (碧巖覺性) (1575-1660). Korean SoN master of the Choson dynasty; also known as Chingwon. Kaksong was a native of Poŭn (in present-day North Ch'ungch'ong province). After losing his father at an early age, Kaksong became a monk under Solmuk (d.u.) at the hermitage of Hwasanam. Kaksong received the full monastic precepts in 1588 from a certain Pojong (d.u.) and subsequently became the disciple of the eminent Son master PUHYU SoNSU, whom he accompanied from one mountain monastery to another. When Japanese troops stormed the Korean peninsula in 1592 during the Hideyoshi invasions, Kaksong served in the war in place of his teacher, who had been recommended earlier to the king by the eminent monk SAMYoNG YUJoNG. Kaksong launched a successful sea campaign against Japanese naval forces. Kaksong was once falsely accused of a crime and imprisoned, but was later released and appointed prelate (p'ansa) of both the Son and KYO traditions and abbot of the monastery Pongŭnsa in the capital of Seoul. In 1624, he was appointed the supreme director of the eight provinces (p'alto toch'ongsop) and oversaw the construction of Namhansansong. Kaksong then spent the next few years in Cholla province, restoring the monasteries of HWAoMSA, SONGGWANGSA, and SSANGGYESA, which had been burned during the Hideyoshi invasions. He also taught at HAEINSA, PAEGUNSA, and Sangsonam, but eventually returned to Hwaomsa, where he passed away in 1660. He produced many famous disciples, such as Ch'wimi Such'o (1590-1668), Paekkok Ch'onŭng (1617-1680), Moun Chinon (1622-1703), and Hoeŭn Ŭngjun (1587-1672). Kaksong's lineage expanded into eight branches, and his influence on the subsequent development of Korean Son rivalled that of CH'oNGHo HYUJoNG, the preeminent Korean monk during the Choson dynasty. Kaksong also composed many treatises, including the Sonwonjipto chung kyorŭi, Kanhwa kyorŭi, Songmun sangŭi ch'o, and others.

Qimingsi. (齊明寺). In Chinese, "Brightness of Qi" convent, located in Yanguan county in Zhejiang province; the residence for several Qi-dynasty nuns listed in the BIQIUNI ZHUAN ("Lives of the Nuns") collection, including Dele (421-501 CE), SENGMENG (418-489 CE), Chaoming (438-498 CE), and Shi Faxuan (434-516 CE). Differing explanations of its foundation appear in the Biqiuni zhuan. The first story credits Sengmeng for founding the convent. It is said that when her mother became ill, Sengmeng returned to her home in Yanguan county to tend to her. While there, Sengmeng decided to turn her residence into a convent. It is said that she participated actively in the construction of the convent's various halls. The second account credits a devout layman named Yüan Jian for donating his residence to build the convent in 487 CE, during the Qi dynasty (479-502 CE). According to this version, the nun Dele was chosen as abbess of the convent because of her renowned lecturing skills and intellectual talent, her meditative expertise, and her ability to attract a wide following of both monks and nuns, including the aforementioned Shi Faxuan.

Qingyuan Xingsi. (J. Seigen Gyoshi; K. Ch'ongwon Haengsa 青原行思) (d. 740). A Chinese CHAN master of the Tang dynasty, Qingyuan is said to have been a native of Jizhou in present-day Jiangxi province. Little is known of his career besides the fact that he was ostensibly the student of the sixth patriarch (LIUZU) HUINENG. He later resided at the monastery of Jingjusi on Mt. Qingyuan (present-day Jiangxi province) and acquired many students, of whom SHITOU XIQIAN (700-790) is the most famous. Like many of the reputed disciples of Huineng (e.g., YONGJIA XUANJUE and NANYUE HUAIRANG), Qingyuan's relation with Huineng is dubious. Later, three major "houses" (jia) of the Chan tradition, YUNMEN, CAODONG, and FAYAN, traced their lineages back to Huineng via Shitou and his teacher Qingyuan (see WU JIA QI ZONG). Qingyuan was given the posthumous title Chan master Hongji (Universal Salvation).

Ral pa can. (Ralpachen) (r. 815-838). The name by which Khri gtsug lde btsan (Titsuk Detsen), the forty-first ruler of the Tibetan dynastic period, is best known. He is considered to be the third of three great religious kings (chos rgyal) of Tibet, together with his predecessors SRONG BTSAN SGAM PO and KHRI SRONG LDE BTSAN. All three are regarded as human incarnations of the bodhisattva AVALOKITEsVARA. Ral pa can is remembered as an enthusiastic patron of Buddhism, especially for raising the position and prestige of monks by establishing a tax to sustain their needs. He was so devoted to the SAMGHA that he is said to have allowed monks to sit on his long locks of hair; his sobriquet "ral pa can" means "having long locks." He patronized the translation of Buddhist texts from a wide range of materials, including TANTRAs and sĀSTRAs that were not transmitted to other countries in East or Southeast Asia. The first standard Sanskrit-Tibetan lexicon, the MAHĀVYUTPATTI, was also completed during his reign. In addition to his support for Buddhism, Ral pa can is known for his military conquests, which expanded the territory of the Tibetan empire to its largest extent, conquering regions of China, India, Nepal, Khotan, Turkestan, and Gansu. After Tibetan armies attacked Yanzhou in modern Shandong Province, the Chinese sued for peace. A peace treaty in 821 set the boundaries between the two countries, marking a period of peaceful relations along the border. Three great bilingual steles bearing the inscription of this treaty were fashioned. One, erected in 823, still stands in front of the JO KHANG temple. Ral pa can's Buddhist sympathies eventually garnered the resentment of the aristocracy. In 838, he was assassinated by his elder brother, GLANG DAR MA, thus ending the period of the religious kings and the early propagation (SNGA DAR) of Buddhism in Tibet. According to Buddhist accounts, his death initiated a period of persecution of Buddhism.

Ratio: According to St. Augustine, reason is the mind's capacity of distinguishing and connecting the things that are learned. Ratio est mentis motio ea quae discuntur distinguendi et connectendi potens. He also calls it an aspectus animi, quo per seipsum, non per corpus verum intuetur. It precedes the exercise of the intellectual capacity. He says of man: Nam ideo vult intelligere, quia ratio praecedit. Reason is, however, inferior to the intellect. Man possesses reason before he begins the activity of intellection, which is a contemplation. Action is rather the province of reason. -- J.J.R.

realm ::: 1. A kingdom. 2. The region, sphere, or domain within which anything occurs, prevails, or dominates. 3. The special province or field of someone or something. **realms.

realm ::: n. --> A royal jurisdiction or domain; a region which is under the dominion of a king; a kingdom.
Hence, in general, province; region; country; domain; department; division; as, the realm of fancy.


reconquer ::: v. t. --> To conquer again; to recover by conquest; as, to reconquer a revolted province.

rectory ::: n. --> The province of a rector; a parish church, parsonage, or spiritual living, with all its rights, tithes, and glebes.
A rector&


reduce ::: n. --> To bring or lead back to any former place or condition.
To bring to any inferior state, with respect to rank, size, quantity, quality, value, etc.; to diminish; to lower; to degrade; to impair; as, to reduce a sergeant to the ranks; to reduce a drawing; to reduce expenses; to reduce the intensity of heat.
To bring to terms; to humble; to conquer; to subdue; to capture; as, to reduce a province or a fort.
To bring to a certain state or condition by grinding,


reduction ::: n. --> The act of reducing, or state of being reduced; conversion to a given state or condition; diminution; conquest; as, the reduction of a body to powder; the reduction of things to order; the reduction of the expenses of government; the reduction of a rebellious province.
The act or process of reducing. See Reduce, v. t., 6. and To reduce an equation, To reduce an expression, under Reduce, v. t.


Reformation: The Protestant Reformation may be dated from 1517, the year Martin Luther (1483-1546), Augustinian monk and University professor in Wittenberg, publicly attacked the sale of indulgences by the itinerant Tetzel, Dominican ambassador of the Roman Church. The break came first in the personality of the monk who could not find in his own religious and moral endeavors to win divine favor the peace demanded by a sensitive conscience; and when it came he found to his surprise that he had already parted company with a whole tradition. The ideology which found a response in his inner experience was set forth by Augustine, a troubled soul who had surrendered himself completely to divine grace and mercy. The philosophers who legitimized man's endeavor to get on in the world, the church which demanded unquestioned loyalty to its codes and commands, he eschewed as thoroughly inconsonant with his own inner life. Man is wholly dependent upon the merits of Christ, the miracle of faith alone justifies before God. Man's conscience, his reason, and the Scriptures together became his only norm and authority. He could have added a fourth: patriotism, since Luther became the spokesman of a rising tide of German nationalism already suspect of the powers of distant Rome. The humanist Erasmus (see Renaissance) supported Luther by his silence, then broke with him upon the reformer's extreme utterances concerning man's predestination. This break with the humanists shows clearly the direction which the Protestant Reformation was taking: it was an enfranchised religion only to a degree. For while Erasmus pleaded for tolerance and enlightenment the new religious movement called for decision and faith binding men's consciences to a new loyalty. At first the Scriptures were taken as conscience permitted, then conscience became bound by the Scuptures. Luther lacked a systematic theology for the simple reason that he himself was full of inconsistencies. A reformer is often not a systematic thinker. Lutheran princes promoted the reconstruction of institutions and forms suggested by the reformer and his learned ally, Melanchthon, and by one stroke whole provinces became Protestant. The original reformers were reformed by new reformers. Two of such early reformers were Ulrich Zwingli (1484-1531) in Switzerland and John Calvin (1509-1564) who set up a rigid system and rule of God in Geneva. Calvinism crossed the channel under the leadership of John Knox in Scotland. The English (Anglican) Reformation rested on political rather than strictly religious considerations. The Reformation brought about a Counter-Reformation within the Roman Church in which abuses were set right and lines against the Protestants more tightly drawn (Council of Trent, 1545-1563). -- V.F.

region ::: n. --> One of the grand districts or quarters into which any space or surface, as of the earth or the heavens, is conceived of as divided; hence, in general, a portion of space or territory of indefinite extent; country; province; district; tract.
Tract, part, or space, lying about and including anything; neighborhood; vicinity; sphere.
The upper air; the sky; the heavens.
The inhabitants of a district.


residency ::: n. --> Residence.
A political agency at a native court in British India, held by an officer styled the Resident; also, a Dutch commercial colony or province in the East Indies.


Rgyud smad. (Gyume). In Tibetan, the "Lower Tantric College," one of two major DGE LUGS centers for tantric studies in LHA SA, together with RGYUD STOD. Prior to his death in 1419, TSONG KHA PA is said to have enjoined his disciple Rgyud Shes rab seng ge (1383-1445) to spread his tantric teachings. In 1432, he founded a tantric college in the Sras district of Gtsang called the Sras rgyud grwa tshang (the "tantric college of Se") or as the Gtsang stod rgyud (the "tantric [college] of Tsang, the upper [region]"). The term stod, lit. "upper" in Tibetan, also means "western" and is sometimes used as a synonym for Gtsang, the province to the west of the central province of Dbus. In 1433, he returned to Lha sa and founded Rgyud smad grwa tshang, or the "tantric college of lower [Tibet])." The term smad, literally "lower," also means "eastern." In 1474, Shes rab seng ge's disciple, Rgyud chen Kun dga' don grub, left Rgyud smad when he was not selected as the abbot. He later founded another tantric college in Lha sa, which he called Dbus stod 'Jam dpal gling grwa tshang or the "Garden of MANJUsRĪ College of Upper Ü." It eventually became known as Rgyud stod. Shortly after its founding, it moved to the RA MO CHE temple in Lha sa. Hence, the the standard translations "lower tantric college" for Rgyud smad and "upper tantric college" for Rgyud stod have no implications of hierarchy or curricular gradation, but refer simply to the geographical locations of the institutions from which they evolved. Monks from the three great Dge lugs monasteries of Lha sa ('BRAS SPUNGS, SE RA, and DGA' LDAN) who had achieved one of the two higher DGE BSHES (geshe) degrees-the lha ram pa or the tshogs ram pa-could enter as a dge bshes bka' ram pa. Which of the two tantric colleges a geshe attended was determined by his birthplace. The curriculum of both of the tantric colleges involved study of the GUHYASAMĀJATANTRA, CAKRASAMVARATANTRA, and VAJRABHAIRAVATANTRA systems. These were studied through memorization and debate, as in the sutra colleges. Monks also received instruction in the performance of ritual, the use of MUDRĀ, the making of images, and the construction of MAndALAs. Monks were also instructed in chanting; the deep chanting that has become famous in the West was taught at both Rgyud smad and Rgyud stod. Those who successfully completed the curriculum received the title of dge bshes sngags ram pa. Monks who were not already geshes of one of three monasteries could enter one of the tantric colleges to receive ritual instruction but received a lower degree, called bskyed rim pa. Becoming a dge bshes sngags ram pa and especially an officer of one of the tantric colleges (dge bskos or disciplinarian; bla ma dbu mdzad, lit. "chant leader" but the vice abbot; and mkhan po or abbot) was essential for holding positions of authority in the Dge lugs hierarchy. For example, the DGA' LDAN KHRI PA was required to be a former abbot of Rgyud smad or Rgyud stod. After the Chinese takeover of Tibet, Rgyud smad and Rgyud stod were reestablished in exile in India.

Risshu. [alt. Ritsushu] (律宗). In Japanese, "School of Discipline," one of the so-called six schools of the Nara tradition of early Japanese Buddhism (see NARA BUDDHISM, SIX SCHOOLS OF); the term is also sometimes seen transcribed as RITSUSHu. Although its origins are uncertain, a decree by the Grand Council of State (J. Daijokan) in 718 acknowledged Risshu as one of major schools of Buddhism in the Japanese capital of Nara. The school is dedicated to the exegesis and dissemination of the rules of Buddhist VINAYA, especially those associated with the SIFEN LÜ ("Four-Part Vinaya") of the DHARMAGUPTAKA school. Rather than an established religious institution, the Risshu, like the other contemporaneous schools of the Nara period (710-974), should instead be considered more of an intellectual tradition or school of thought. Risshu arose as an attempt to systematize monastic rules and practices on the basis of Chinese translations of Indian vinaya texts. Throughout the first half of the eighth century, Japanese monks relied on the Taiho Law Code (701), a set of government-mandated monastic regulations, to guide both their ordination ceremonies (J. jukai) and their conduct. Realizing that Japan lacked proper observance of the vinaya, Nara scholars who had studied monastic discipline in China sought the aid of GANJIN (C. Jianzhen; 687-763), a well-known Chinese master of the NANSHAN LÜ ZONG (South Mountain School of Discipline), the largest of the three vinaya traditions of China. Their attempts to use Ganjin to establish an orthodox ordination ceremony in Japan met with considerable resistance, first from the Chinese court, which did not want to part with Ganjin, and second with entrenched interests in Nara, which had grown accustomed to the Taiho regulations. After five failed attempts to travel to Japan at these monks' invitation, Ganjin finally arrived in Japan in 754. Then sixty-six and blind, Ganjin finally established an ordination platform that summer at the great Nara monastery of ToDAIJI. Soon thereafter, two more ordination platforms were erected under the jurisdiction of Risshu: one at Yakushiji in Shimotsuke province (in present-day Tochigi prefecture), and one at Kanzeonji in Chikuzen province (in present-day Fukuoka prefecture). In his later years, Ganjin also founded the monastery of ToSHoDAIJI in Nara, where he trained monks according to his own codification of the rules. Risshu and the other Nara schools fell into a period of decline over the course of the Heian period (794-1185), which ultimately set the stage for a restoration of Risshu in the early Kamakura period (1185-1333). Under the leadership of the Tendai priest Shunjo (1166-1227), who had studied in China, a group of monks with interests in vinaya assembled at Sennyuji in Kyoto. They would later become identified as the Hokkyo, or "northern capital," branch of the Risshu school, in contrast to the Nankyo (southern capital) branch in Nara. Monks in Nara also attempted to restore Risshu, as exemplified by Kakujo's (1194-1249) move to Toshodaiji and the efforts of Eizon (1201-1290), who incorporated esoteric practice (see MIKKYo) in his restoration of Risshu at Saidaiji in Nara. Today, Risshu survives in the two monasteries of Toshodaiji and Saidaiji, although the latter was officially joined with the SHINGONSHu during the Meiji Restoration (1868-1912).

royalty ::: n. --> The state of being royal; the condition or quality of a royal person; kingship; kingly office; sovereignty.
The person of a king or sovereign; majesty; as, in the presence of royalty.
An emblem of royalty; -- usually in the plural, meaning regalia.
Kingliness; spirit of regal authority.
Domain; province; sphere.


rubicon ::: n. --> A small river which separated Italy from Cisalpine Gaul, the province alloted to Julius Caesar.

Ryogen. (良源) (912-985). In Japanese, "Virtuous Fount"; a tenth-century exponent of the TENDAISHu during the Heian Period, also known posthumously as Jie Daishi. Born in omi province (present-day Shiga prefecture), Ryogen became the eighteenth appointed head (zasu) of the Tendai school in 966 and spent the last nineteen years of his life at ENRYAKUJI reforming monastic discipline, promoting doctrinal studies, and writing works of his own. He used strategic political alliances to help what was then a marginalized Tendai school become the most powerful religious institution in Japan; in addition, he raised funds both to reconstruct burned monastic buildings on HIEIZAN and to construct new monasteries within its precincts. In response to escalating disputes among regional monastic communities, Ryogen also established in 970 the first permanent fighting force to defend and serve the interests of the Mt. Hiei monks. While this move appears to contradict a set of reforms he had previously issued that forbade his monks from carrying weapons, it seems that his first troops may actually have been hired mercenaries rather than "monk soldiers" (J. SoHEI). Among Ryogen's disciples, perhaps the best known is GENSHIN (942-1017), the author of the influential oJo YoSHu.

Ryokan. (良寛) (1758-1831). In Japanese, "Virtuous Liberality"; Edo-period ZEN monk in the SoToSHu, often known as Ryokan Taigu (lit. Ryokan, the Great Fool). Ryokan was associated with a reformist group within the contemporary Soto monastic community that sought to restore formal meditative practice and the study of the writings of DoGEN KIGEN. Ryokan grew up in Echigo province (present-day Niigata prefecture), the son of a SHINTo priest. He became a novice monk at age seventeen at the nearby Soto monastery of Koshoji and was ordained when he turned twenty-one under a Soto monk named Kokusen (d. 1791). He left for Kokusen's monastery in the Bitchu province (present-day Okayama prefecture) and subsequently inherited the temple after Kokusen died. Soon afterward, however, he departed from the monastery, choosing instead to follow an itinerant lifestyle for the next several years. In 1804, he settled down for twelve years in a hut on Mt. Kugami, situated near his hometown. In 1826 Ryokan met Teishin (d. 1872), a young nun who had been previously widowed, and the two remained close companions until Ryokan's death. Ryokan eventually chose for himself a radically simple existence, living much of his life as a hermit, owning few possessions and begging for alms. He was well regarded for his love of children and his compassion for people from all social strata, including prostitutes. His expression of compassion was so extreme that he is even said to have placed lice inside his robes so they would not get cold and to have exposed his legs to mosquitoes while he slept. Ryokan was a renowned calligrapher and poet (in both Chinese and vernacular Japanese). Most of his verses are written as thirty-one-syllable tanka, although he also wrote ninety choka (long poems) and at least twenty other verses in nonstandard form. Ryokan's poetry addressed his common everyday experiences in the world in direct, humble terms. Ryokan did not publish during his lifetime; rather, his verses were collected and published posthumously by his companion Teishin.

Saddhatissa, Hammalawa. (1914-1990). A prolific Pāli scholar, translator, social activist, and senior Buddhist monk. Born at Hammalawa in Satkorale province, Sri Lanka, he was ordained a BHIKsU in 1926 and pursued his undergraduate studies in Sri Lanka at Vidyodaya Pirivena and Prachina Bhasopakara Samagama. He continued his studies in Benares in India, the School of Oriental and African Studies (SOAS) in London, and ultimately received his Ph.D. at Edinburgh in 1965. He was proficient in Pāli, Sanskrit, Prakrit, Sinhala, and Hindi and held numerous academic posts in Asia, Europe, and North America, including Professor of Pāli at Banaras Hindu University from 1956 to 1957, Lecturer in Sinhala at SOAS from 1958 to 1960, Professor of Buddhism and Pāli at the University of Toronto from 1966 to 1969, and Visiting Lecturer at Oxford in 1973. While holding these posts, he also conducted numerous lecture tours in Europe, the United States, and Japan. In 1956, he served as an advisor to Dr. BHIMRAO RAMJI AMBEDKAR (1891-1956) at Nagpur, India, during the organization of mass conversions of members of the Dalit caste (the so-called untouchables) to Buddhism. Between 1957 and 1985 he served as head of London Buddhist Vihara, and in 1966 revived the British MAHĀBODHI SOCIETY, which had been defunct since World War II, serving as its president. He also helped found the New London Buddhist Vihara in 1964; the Buddhist Center, Oakenholt, in Oxford in 1971; the Buddhist Research Library, in Nugegoda, Sri Lanka in 1984; and the Buddha Vihara, Handsworth, in Birmingham in 1986. He was appointed president of the Sangha Council of Great Britain in 1966, and the Sanghanayaka Thera of the United Kingdom in 1980. In 1984 he served as vice-president of the Pali Text Society. His English publications and critical editions and translations include The Buddha's Way, Buddhist Ethics, The Birth-Stories of the Ten Bodhisattas and the Dasabodhisattuppattikathā, Sutta Nipāta, Upāsakajanālankāra, Handbook for Buddhists, Introduction to Buddhism, and The Life of the Buddha.

Saicho. (最澄) (767-822). In Japanese, "Most Pure"; the monk traditionally recognized as the founder of the TENDAISHu in Japan; also known as Dengyo Daishi (Great Master Transmission of the Teachings). Although the exact dates and place of Saicho's birth remain a matter of debate, he is said to have been born to an immigrant Chinese family in omi province east of HIEIZAN in 767. At age eleven, Saicho entered the local Kokubunji and studied under the monk Gyohyo (722-797), a disciple of the émigré Chinese monk Daoxuan (702-766). In 785, Saicho received the full monastic precepts at the monastery of ToDAIJI in Nara, after which he began a solitary retreat in a hermitage on Mt. Hiei. In 788, he built a permanent temple on the summit of Mt. Hiei. After Emperor Kanmu (r. 781-806) moved the capital to Kyoto in 794, the political significance of the Mt. Hiei community and thus Saicho seem to have attracted the attention of the emperor. In 797, Saicho was appointed a court priest (naigubu), and in 802 he was invited to the monastery of Takaosanji to participate in a lecture retreat, where he discussed the writings of the eminent Chinese monk TIANTAI ZHIYI on the SADDHARMAPUndARĪKASuTRA. Saicho and his disciple GISHIN received permission to travel to China in order to acquire Tiantai texts. In 804, they went to the monastery or Guoqingsi on Mt. Tiantai and studied under Daosui (d.u.) and Xingman (d.u.), disciples of the eminent Chinese Tiantai monk JINGQI ZHANRAN. Later, they are also known to have received BODHISATTVA precepts (bosatsukai) from Daosui at Longxingsi. He is also said to have received tantric initiation into the KONGoKAI and TAIZoKAI (RYoBU) MAndALAs from Shunxiao (d.u.). After nine and a half months in China, Saicho returned to Japan the next year with numerous texts, which he catalogued in his Esshuroku. Emperor Kanmu, who had been ill, asked Saicho to perform the esoteric rituals that he had brought back from China as a therapeutic measure. Saicho received permission to establish the Tendai sect and successfully petitioned for two Tendai monks to be ordained each year, one for doctrinal study and one to perform esoteric rituals. After the death of Kanmu in 806, little is known of Saicho's activities. In 810, he delivered a series of lectures at Mt. Hiei on the Saddharmapundarīkasutra, the SUVARnAPRABHĀSOTTAMASuTRA, and the RENWANG JING ("Scripture for Humane Kings"). In 812, Saicho also constructed a meditation hall known as the Hokkezanmaido. Later, Saicho is also said to have received kongokai initiation from KuKAI at the latter's temple Takaosanji, but their relations soured after a close disciple of Saicho's left Saicho for Kukai. Their already tenuous relationship was sundered completely when Saicho requested a tantric initiation from Kukai, who replied that Saicho would need to study for three years with Kukai first. Saicho then engaged the eminent Hossoshu (FAXIANG ZONG) monk Tokuitsu (d.u.) in a prolonged debate concerning the buddha-nature (see BUDDHADHĀTU, FOXING) and Tendai doctrines, such as original enlightenment (see HONGAKU). In response to Tokuitsu's treatises Busshosho and Chuhengikyo, Saicho composed his Shogonjikkyo, Hokke kowaku, and Shugo kokkaisho. Also at this time, Saicho began a prolonged campaign to have an independent MAHĀYĀNA ordination platform established at Mt. Hiei. He argued that the bodhisattva precepts as set forth in the FANWANG JING, traditionally seen as complementary to monastic ordination, should instead replace them. He argued that the Japanese were spiritually mature and therefore could dispense entirely with the HĪNAYĀNA monastic precepts and only take the Mahāyāna bodhisattva precepts. His petitions were repeatedly denied, but permission to establish the Mahāyāna ordination platform at Mt. Hiei was granted a week after his death. Before his death Saicho also composed the Hokke shuku and appointed Gishin as his successor.

Samantabhadra. (T. Kun tu bzang po; C. Puxian; J. Fugen; K. Pohyon 普賢). The Sanskrit name of both an important bodhisattva in Indian and East Asian Buddhism and of an important buddha in Tibetan Buddhism. As a bodhisattva, Samantabhadra is a principal bodhisattva of the MAHĀYĀNA pantheon, who is often portrayed as the personification of the perfection of myriad good works and spiritual practices. He is one of the AstAMAHOPAPUTRA, and an attendant of sĀKYAMUNI Buddha, standing opposite MANJUsRĪ at the Buddha's side. In the PANCATATHĀGATA configuration, he is associated with the buddha VAIROCANA. Samantabhadra figures prominently in the AVATAMSAKASuTRA. In a chapter named after him, he sets forth ten SAMĀDHIs. In the GAndAVYuHA (the final chapter of the AvataMsakasutra), the bodhisattva SUDHANA sets out in search of a teacher, encountering fifty-two beings (twenty of whom are female), including the Buddha's mother Mahāmāyā (MĀYĀ), the future buddha MAITREYA, as well as AVALOKITEsVARA and MANJUsRĪ. His final teacher is the bodhisattva Samantabhadra, who sets forth the ten vows in his famous BHADRACARĪPRAnIDHĀNA. In China, the center of Samantabhadra's worship is EMEISHAN in Sichuan province, which began to develop in the early Tang. According to legend, Samantabhadra arrived at the mountain by flying there on his white elephant, his usual mount. As a buddha, Samantabhadra is the primordial buddha (ĀDIBUDDHA) according to the RNYING MA sect of Tibetan Buddhism. He is depicted naked, blue, and in sexual union with his consort Samantabhadrī. He is embodiment of the original purity of all phenomena of SAMSĀRA and NIRVĀnA. Called the "primordial basis" (ye gzhi), he is regarded as the eternal union of awareness (RIG PA) and emptiness (suNYATĀ), of emptiness and appearance, and of the nature of the mind and compassion. As such he is the wellspring of the ATIYOGA teachings.

Samyong Yujong. (四溟惟政) (1544-1610). Influential Korean SoN master during the Choson dynasty and important resistance leader during the Japanese Hideyoshi invasions of the late sixteenth century. Yujong was a native of Miryang in present-day South Kyongsang province. He was ordained by a monk named Sinmuk (d.u.) at the monastery of CHIKCHISA on Mt. Hwanghak (in present-day North Kyongsang province). In 1561, he passed the clerical examinations (SŬNGKWA) for Son monks and was appointed the abbot of Chikchisa in 1573. He later became the disciple of the eminent Son master CH'oNGHo HYUJoNG (a.k.a. SoSAN TAESA). When the Japanese invaded the Korean peninsula in 1592, Yujong took over his teacher Hyujong's place as leader of the monks' militia (ŭisŭnggun) against the invading troops. Leading several thousand monk-soldiers, Yujong's army played a crucial role in several battles where the Japanese were defeated. After the war ended, Yujong is also said to have gone to Japan as an emissary of the Korean king to negotiate peace with the new shogun Tokugawa Ieyasu (1543-1616); he also helped to negotiate the release of some three thousand Korean hostages and prisoners of war taken during the invasion. For his valor during the war, Yujong was appointed prelate (p'ansa) of the SoN (Meditation) and KYO (Doctrine) schools of the Choson-dynasty ecclesia. By the eighteenth century, Yujong had become the object of a popular cult in Korea, and shrines to Yujong and his teacher Hyujong were erected around the country.

satrap ::: n. --> The governor of a province in ancient Persia; hence, a petty autocrat despot.

Sde dge. (Derge). A region on the Tibet-China border, which until the 1950s was one of the most famous kingdoms in Khams; now incorporated into China's Sichuan province. The kingdom with its twenty-five districts enjoyed the autonomy of an independent state throughout much of its existence. Included among its famous monasteries are DPAL SPUNGS, KAḤ THOG, RDZOGS CHEN, ZHE CHEN, and DPAL YUL. From the eighteenth century onward, its royal family supported a famous printery that became the repository of hundreds of thousands of woodblock prints. The printing of the entire BKA' 'GYUR and BSTAN 'GYUR edited by TAI SI TU Gstug lag chos kyi 'byung gnas (1700-1774) and of the foundational texts of the SA SKYA and RNYING MA sects, among others, were started there in 1729 and completed in 1744. In the nineteenth century, the region became the center of the Khams RIS MED (nonsectarian) movement; many of the modern traditions of Tibetan Buddhism can be traced back to its founders 'JAM MGON KONG SPRUL, 'JAM DBYANGS MKHYEN BRTSE, and DPAL SPRUL RIN PO CHE.

see ::: n. --> A seat; a site; a place where sovereign power is exercised.
Specifically: (a) The seat of episcopal power; a diocese; the jurisdiction of a bishop; as, the see of New York. (b) The seat of an archibishop; a province or jurisdiction of an archibishop; as, an archiepiscopal see. (c) The seat, place, or office of the pope, or Roman pontiff; as, the papal see. (d) The pope or his court at Rome; as, to appeal to the see of Rome.


Sengcan. (J. Sosan; K. Sŭngch'an 僧粲) (d. 606?). Chinese monk and reputed third patriarch of the CHAN tradition. Although the influential Chan poem XINXIN MING ("Faith in Mind") is attributed to Sengcan, little is actually known of this mysterious figure, and he may simply have been a later invention created to connect the BODHIDHARMA-HUIKE line of early Chan with the East Mountain teachings (DONGSHAN FAMEN) of DAOXIN (580-651) and HONGREN (602-675). Most of what is known of Sengcan is constructed retrospectively in such early Chan genealogical histories as the BAOLIN ZHUAN, LENGQIE SHIZI JI, CHUAN FABAO JI, and LIDAI FABAO JI, and in later Chan histories known as "transmission of the lamplight records" (CHUANDENG LU). Sengcan is claimed to have studied under Huike, the first Chinese disciple of the Chan founder, Bodhidharma, and the second patriarch of the Chan school. During Emperor Wu's (r. 502-549) persecution of Buddhism, Sengcan is said to have gone into hiding and later resided on Mt. Sikong in Shuzhou (present-day Anhui province). The Lengqie shizi ji and Chuan fabao ji claim that Daoxin became Sengcan's disciple sometime in the late-sixth century, but Daoxin's connection to this dubious figure is tenuous at best and most probably spurious. Sengcan was later given the posthumous title Chan Master Jingzhi (Mirror-like Wisdom).

Sengyou. (J. Soyu; K. Sŭngu 僧祐) (445-518). Early Chinese VINAYA teacher and scriptural cataloguer, whose career is indicative of early Chinese Buddhism's concerns to preserve the integrity of the dispensation and to transmit its beliefs and practices accurately. According to his biography in the GAOSENG ZHUAN ("Biographies of Eminent Monks"), Sengyou was born in Jianye (present-day Nanjing, Jiangsu province), the capital of the Liu-Song dynasty (420-479), the first of the four short-lived southern dynasties that formed during the Six Dynasties period. He became a monk at an early age, and studied under vinaya master Faying (416-482). Later, Sengyou himself gained a reputation as a vinaya master; the Gaoseng zhuan says that, whenever he was invited by the prince Wenxuan (406-494) of the Qi dynasty (479-502) to lecture on the vinaya, typically seven or eight hundred people would attend. During the Yongming era (483-493) of the Qi dynasty, Sengyou received an imperial order to travel to the Wu region (in present-day Jiangnan) to lecture on the Shisong lü, the SARVĀSTIVĀDAVINAYA, as well as to explain the methods for receiving the precepts. In addition to his vinaya-related activities, Sengyou also tried to establish an authoritative canon of Buddhist texts by compiling the CHU SANZANG JIJI ("Compilation of Notices on the Translation of the TRIPItAKA"), the earliest extant Buddhist scriptural catalogue (JINGLU). In his catalogue, Sengyou introduced three criteria for distinguishing an apocryphal scripture (see APOCRYPHA) from a genuine one: (1) the meanings and expressions found in a text were "shallow and coarse"; (2) a text did not come from "foreign regions"; (3) a text was not translated by a "Western guest." While the first criterion was a more subjective form of internal evidence, the latter two were important pieces of external evidence that all subsequent cataloguers adopted as objective standards for determining textual authenticity. Sengyou's other extant major works include the Shijia pu ("Genealogy of sĀKYAMUNI"), in five rolls, and the Buddhist apologetic HONGMING JI ("Collection for the Propagation and Clarification [of Buddhism]"), in fourteen rolls.

Sesshu Toyo. (雪舟等楊) (1420-1506). A Japanese monk-painter of the Muromachi (1337-1573) period, best known for his use of realism in landscape painting. He was born to a warrior family in Bitchu province (present-day Okayama Prefecture, in the southwestern part of the main Japanese island of Honshu) and became a ZEN monk in the RINZAISHu tradition in 1431. From early in his monastic career, however, Sesshu (lit. Snow Boat) showed more interest in painting than in Zen training. Around 1440, he moved to SHoKOKUJI, one of the GOZAN (five mountains) temples of Kyoto, where he received formal training in Chinese painting of the Song-dynasty (960-1279) style from Tensho Shubun (d. c. 1444-1450), the most famous monk-painter of his time. In 1467, Sesshu traveled to China, where he studied the emerging Ming style of painting. After returning to Japan in 1469, he established an atelier in present-day oita Prefecture in Kyushu; subsequently, he moved to present-day Yamaguchi prefecture in the far west of Honshu in 1486. Using his "splashed-ink" (haboku) style, he established a style of realism in landscape painting, which included bold brush strokes and splashes of ink, with subtle tones. Many students gathered around him, later forming what became known as the Unkoku-rin (Cloud Valley) school, after the name of the monastery where Sesshu served as abbot. Sesshu's best-known works include his 1486 Sansui chokan ("Long Landscape Scroll"), a fifty-foot-long scroll depicting the four seasons; Haboku sansui ("Splashed-Ink Landscape") of 1495; and the Ama-no-Hashidate zu ("View of Ama-no-Hashidate") of c. 1501-1505, which offers an unusual bird's-eye view of a picturesque sandbar, bay, and mountains in Tango province facing the Sea of Japan/East Sea. Sesshu is often judged to be the greatest of all Japanese painters.

Shang Tianzhusi. (上天竺寺). In Chinese, "Upper Tianzhu Monastery," located on Mt. Tianzhu in Hangzhou, along the southern coast of China. (TIANZHU is one of the common Sinographic transcriptions of Sindu, or India.) Founded by King Qian Liu (852-932 CE) of the Kingdom of Wuyue (907-978 CE) during the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period following the demise of the Tang dynasty. According to certain sources, before he became king, Qian Liu dreamed of a woman dressed in white robes, who promised to protect him and his descendants if he was compassionate and did not kill living creatures. She then informed him that she could be found on Mt. Tianzhu in Hangzhou twenty years hence. When Qian Liu ascended the throne, he dreamed once more of this white-robed woman, whom he realized was BAIYI GUANYIN (White-Robed AVALOKITEsVARA). In this dream, she informed Qian Liu that she needed a residence, in return for which she would bestow her patronage on his kingdom. When the king discovered that, of all the monasteries on Mt. Tianzhu, only one housed a Baiyi Guanyin icon, he became its patron and named it the Tianzhu Kanjing Yuan (Tianzhu Center for Reading Scriptures). Later renamed Upper Tianzhu monastery, it became renowned as a GUANYIN pilgrimage site. The monastery is also known for its association with the Song-dynasty legend of Princess MIAOSHAN (first complete rendition 1100 CE) when Jiang Zhiqi (1031-1104 CE), prefect of Ruzhou in Henan province, was transferred to Hangzhou in 1104 CE. Upon his arrival, he had the Miaoshan legend inscribed on a stele to be enshrined in Upper Tianzhu monastery.

Shaolinsi. (J. Shorinji; K. Sorimsa 少林寺). In Chinese, "Small Grove Monastery"; located at the foot of SONGSHAN in Dengfeng county, Henan province. According to the XU GAOSENG ZHUAN ("Continued Biographies of Eminent Monks"), the Xiaowen emperor (r. 471-500 CE) of the Northern Wei dynasty built the monastery in 496 CE for the Indian monk Fotuo (d.u.). Shaolinsi initially was an important center of translation activities, and many famous monks, including BODHIRUCI, RATNAMATI, JINGYING HUIYUAN, and XUANZANG, resided at the monastery. But the monastery is best known in the East Asian tradition as the putative center of martial arts in China. Fotuo, the monastery's founder, is claimed to have had two disciples who displayed sublime acrobatic skills, perhaps a harbinger of later martial-arts exercises. Li Shimin (599-649; r. 626-649), second ruler and Taizong emperor of the Tang dynasty (618-907), is said to have used the Shaolin monks' martial talents, especially with the heavy cudgel, to help his father found their new dynasty. Within another century, Shaolinsi became associated with the legend of the Indian monk BODHIDHARMA (c. early fifth century), the putative founder of the CHAN school, who is said to have practiced wall-gazing meditation (BIGUAN) for nine years in a cave above the monastery; according to later traditions, Bodhidharma also taught himself self-defense techniques both to protect himself against wild animals and for exercise, which he transmitted to his disciples at the monastery. In subsequent years, the monastery continued to be renowned as a center of both martial arts and Chan Buddhism. In 1245, the Yuan emperor Shizu (r. 1260-1294) appointed the Chan master Xueting Fuyu (1203-1275) abbot of Shaolinsi, and under Xueting's guidance the monastery flourished. At least by the fifteenth century, the connection between Shaolinsi and the martial arts became firmly established in the Chinese popular imagination and "Shaolin monks" remain popular on the international performing-arts circuit.

Shenxiu. (J. Jinshu; K. Sinsu 神秀) (606?-706). Chinese CHAN master of the Tang dynasty and putative founder of the "Northern school" (BEI ZONG) of early Chan Buddhism. Shenxiu was a native of Kaifeng in present-day Henan province. As an extraordinarily tall man with well-defined features, Shenxiu is said to have had a commanding presence. In 625, Shenxiu was ordained at the monastery of Tiangongsi in Luoyang, but little is known of his activities in the first two decades following his ordination. In 651, Shenxiu became a disciple of HONGREN (601-674), cofounder of the East Mountain Teachings (DONGSHAN FAMEN) and the monk later recognized as the fifth patriarch of the Chan school; indeed, by many early accounts, such as the CHUAN FABAO JI and LENGQIE SHIZI JI, Shenxiu became Hongren's legitimate successor. According to the famous story in the LIUZU TANJING ("Platform Sutra of the Sixth Patriarch"), however, Shenxiu lost a verse-writing contest to the unlettered HUINENG (638-713), whom Hongren then in secret sanctioned as the sixth patriarch. However, it is unclear how long Shenxiu studied with Hongren. One source states that it was for a period of six years, in which case he would have left Hongren's monastery long before Huineng's arrival, making the famous poetry contest impossible. Regardless of the date of his departure, Shenxiu eventually left Hongren's monastery for Mt. Dangyang in Jingzhou (present-day Hubei province), where he remained for over twenty years and attracted many disciples. Shenxiu and his disciples were the subjects of a polemical attack by HEZE SHENHUI (684-758), who disparaged Shenxiu as representing a mere collateral branch of BODHIDHARMA's lineage and for promoting what Shenhui called a "gradual" (jian) approach to enlightenment. Shenhui instead promoted a "sudden teaching" (DUNJIAO), which he claimed derived from a so-called "Southern school" (NAN ZONG) founded by Huineng, another (and relatively obscure) disciple of Hongren, whom Shenhui claimed was Hongren's authentic successor and the true sixth patriarch (LIUZU). Later Chan historians such as GUIFENG ZONGMI (780-841) began to use the designation "Northern school" (Bei zong) to describe the lineage of Shenxiu and his disciples YIFU (661-736), PUJI (651-739), and XIANGMO ZANG (d.u.). While Shenhui's characterization of Shenxiu and his supposed "gradualism" is now known to be misleading, subsequent histories of the Chan tradition (see CHUANDENG LU) more or less adopted Shenhui's vision of early Chan; thus Huineng, rather than Shenxiu, comes to be considered the bearer of the orthodox Chan transmission. As one mark of Shenxiu's high standing within the Chan tradition of his time, in 700, Shenxiu was invited to the imperial palace by Empress WU ZETIAN, where the empress prostrated herself before the nonagenarian monk. She was so impressed with the aged Chan master that she decided to build him a new monastery on Mt. Dangyang named Dumensi. She also gave him the title of state preceptor (GUOSHI). Upon his death, he was given a state funeral. He is one of only three Buddhist monks whose biography is included in the Tang shi ("Tang Annals"). This is clearly not the profile of an imposter within the Chan lineage. Shenxiu's teachings are known to have focused on the transcendence of thoughts (linian) and the five expedient means (fangbian; S. UPĀYA); these teachings appear in "Northern school" treatises discovered at Dunhuang, such as the YUANMING LUN, Guanxin lun, and DASHENG WUSHENG FANGBIAN MEN. Shenxiu was an expert on the LAnKĀVATĀRASuTRA, a text favored by Hongren and the early Chan tradition, and is also thought to have written a substantial commentary on the AVATAMSAKASuTRA. Despite the uncomplimentary portrayal of the "Northern school" in mainstream Chan materials, it is now recognized that Shenxiu and his disciples actually played a much more important role in the early growth and development of the Chan school than the mature tradition acknowledged.

Shide. (J. Jittoku; K. Sŭptŭk 拾得) (d.u.). In Chinese, lit. "Picked Up"; a legendary layman of the Tang dynasty. The young Shide is said to have acquired his name from having been adopted or "picked up" by the hermit Fenggan (d.u.). Shide is known to have worked in the kitchen of the monastery of Guoqingsi on Mt. TIANTAI in present-day Zhejiang province. Shide became a favored subject in brushstroke art and was often depicted madly wielding his broom around the monastery, often together with the legendary poet HANSHAN. Fenggan, Hanshan, and Shide are collectively known as the "three hermits of Guoqing."

Shi. (J. Shaku; K. Sok; V. Thích 釋). The transcription of the first syllable of the Buddha's clan name, sĀKYA (C. Shijia), as found in the Buddha's appellation sĀKYAMUNI, "Sage of the sākya Clan." In East Asian Buddhism since the time of DAO'AN (312-385), monks traditionally abandoned their family's surname and used in its place the Buddha's own clan name; hence, monks and nuns in premodern East Asia typically took the surname Shi. Before Dao'an, ordinands had adopted the surname of their preceptors, including using ethnikons in case their master was a foreigner, e.g., AN for monks and missionaries who hailed from PARTHIA, also known as Aršak or Arsakes (C. ANXI GUO)-viz., the Arsacid kingdom (c. 250 BCE-224 CE) southeast of the Caspian Sea; ZHU for Indians; ZHI for monks from KUSHAN (Yuezhi) in northwest India; YU for monks from KHOTAN; KANG for monks from SOGDIANA; and BO for monks from KUCHA. While Dao'an was resided in Xiangyang (in present-day Hubei province) between 365 and 379, he introduced the custom of adopting Shi as the monastic surname so that all Buddhist monks would have a common religious identity. The adoption of the Buddha's surname signified the monks' and nuns' severance of their ties with their natal families and worldly society, as well as the dedication of their lives to the lineage of the Buddha. The custom became general practice after 385, when there seemed to be textual justification for the practice in a translated passage from the Zengyi ahan jing (EKOTTARĀGAMA), which referred to "sRAMAnAs who were sons of the sākya" (C. shamen Shijiazi; S. sramana-sākyaputrīyāḥ). Zhu DAOSHENG (355-434) was one of the last influential Chinese monks to adopt the surname of his preceptor, rather than that of the Buddha. See also FAMING; sĀKYABHIKsU.

Shitou Xiqian. (J. Sekito Kisen; K. Soktu Hŭich'on 石頭希遷) (700-790). In Chinese, "Rare Transformation Atop a Stone"; master in the Tang-dynasty CHAN ZONG, who was an important ancestor in the lineages of the CAODONG ZONG, YUNMEN ZONG, and FAYAN ZONG, three of the five major houses of the mature Song-dynasty Chan tradition (see WU JIA QI ZONG). Xiqian is claimed to have studied with the sixth patriarch (LIUZU) HUINENG (638-713) while still a youth and was present at the master's deathbed. He subsequently traveled to Qingyuanshan in modern-day Jiangxi province to study with a monk who was claimed to have been one of the sixth patriarch's most eminent disciples: QINGYUAN XINGSI (d. 740). Xingsi is said to have thought highly of his new disciple, famously calling him a unicorn among the other horned animals in his congregation, and eventually made Xiqian his principal dharma heir (FASI). In 742, after his teacher's death, he traveled to Mt. Nanyue (present-day Hunan province), where he lived in a hermitage built on top of a large boulder, hence his cognomen Shitou ("Atop a Stone"). In 762, he traveled to Tanzhou near present-day Changsha, before returning to Mt. Nanyue, where he passed away at the age of ninety. Although during his lifetime Xiqian seems to have been a fairly obscure teacher in a little-known regional lineage, he retrospectively came to be viewed as one of the two most influential teachers of the classical Chan period, along with MAZU DAOYI (709-788). This inflated appraisal is largely a result of the prominence of Xiqian's third-generation successor DONGSHAN LIANGJIE (807-869), one of the two teachers after whom the Caodong school is named. Xiqian is the author of the CANTONG QI, regarded by the Chinese Caodong zong and Japanese SoToSHu as one of their foundational scriptures. Xiqian's short verse, in a total of 220 Sinographs, is highly regarded for its succinct and unequivocal expression of the teaching of nonduality.

shogun ::: n. --> A title originally conferred by the Mikado on the military governor of the eastern provinces of Japan. By gradual usurpation of power the Shoguns (known to foreigners as Tycoons) became finally the virtual rulers of Japan. The title was abolished in 1867.

Shuiyue Guanyin. (J. Suigatsu Kannon; K. Suwol Kwanŭm 水月觀音). In Chinese, "Moon in the Water AVALOKITEsVARA"; a representation of the BODHISATTVA GUANYIN that is frequently depicted in East Asian art. The name of this bodhisattva derives from this image's most characteristic feature: a luminous disk that encircles the bodhisattva and evokes both a nimbus (see KĀYAPRABHĀ) and a full moon, effectively suggesting its power to dispel the darkness of the night. Another connotation is indicated in texts such as the DAZHIDU LUN (*MahāprajNāpāramitāsāstra), where the term "moon in the water" connotes that all phenomena are like reflections of the moon on the surface of the water, thereby signifying insubstantiality and impermanence. The origin of Shuiyue Guanyin and its iconography is said to be based on the GAndAVYuHA section of the AVATAMSAKASuTRA, which describes the quest for ultimate truth by the youth SUDHANA. During his pilgrimage, Sudhana encounters Guanyin at the latter's sacred island home of POTALAKA. Artists used this account of Potalaka as the basis for Shuiyue Guanyin images from the eighth century onwards. The first Shuiyue Guanyin is presumed to have been painted by Zhou Fang (active c. 780-810 CE), but the earliest extant depiction appears on a silk banner at DUNHUANG dated to 943: Shuiyue Guanyin appears in the lower right of a large painting of the thousand-armed and thousand-eyed Guanyin (SĀHASRABHUJASĀHASRANETRĀVALOKITEsVARA). There, the deity is seated on a rock outcropping surrounded by water, posed in majestic ease, attired in beautiful robes and sashes with intricate details on his robes and jewelry. Behind him is a lush bamboo grove with sheer, mountainous cliffs. Further standard attributes of Shuiyue Guanyin are the image of the buddha AMITĀBHA in his crown as well as a willow branch and a KUndIKĀ bottle placed to the figure's right. Water spread by means of a willow branch was thought to have a healing effect on the believer. The island of Potalaka was believed to be located somewhere in the ocean south of India, but by the late Tang dynasty the Chinese had identified it with PUTUOSHAN, an island offshore from Zhejiang province near the seaport of Ningbo. It is probably due to maritime contacts between Ningbo and the Korean peninsula that Shuiyue Guanyin depictions became popular during the Koryo dynasty in Korea. Koryo images of Shuiyue Guanyin are especially renowned for their splendor and this form of the bodhisattva remains common in Korean Buddhist painting.

silesia ::: n. --> A kind of linen cloth, originally made in Silesia, a province of Prussia.
A twilled cotton fabric, used for dress linings.


Siming Zhili. (J. Shimei Chirei; K. Samyong Chirye 四明知禮) (960-1028). Chinese monk of the TIANTAI tradition. Zhili was a native of Siming in present-day Zhejiang province. After losing his mother at an early age, Zhili resolved to become a monk and he received the full monastic precepts at age fifteen. He then studied the VINAYA and the scriptures of the Tiantai tradition. In 991, he became the abbot of Ganfusi, and four years later he began his residence at the monastery Bao'enyuan on Mt. Siming, whence his toponym. In 1009, he completed the restoration of Bao'enyuan and the following year his monastery received the official plaque renaming it Yanqingsi. Zhili later found himself at the center of the SHANJIA SHANWAI or "Home-Mountain/Off-Mountain" debate that racked the Song-dynasty Tiantai school. Zhili's Shanjia (Home Mountain) faction and the Tiantai monk Ciguang Wu'en's (912-986) Shanwai (Off Mountain) faction were split over the authenticity of one of TIANTAI1 ZHIYI's texts and the practice of contemplation, as well as the role and value of practices and concepts generated from outside the Tiantai tradition in explicating Tiantai doctrine. In response to this debate, Zhili composed a series of letters, which were edited together as the SIMING SHIYI SHU. Zhili also composed the Shibu'er men zhiyao chao and wrote extensively on various PURE LAND-related repentance rituals. Zhili's disciples later comprised three separate branches of the Chinese Tiantai tradition.

Sinhŭngsa. (神興寺). In Korean, "Divinely Flourishing Monastery"; the third district monastery (PONSA) of the contemporary CHOGYE CHONG of Korean Buddhism, located in Outer Soraksan (Snowy Peaks Mountain) near the town of Sokch'o. The monastery was founded in 652 by the Silla VINAYA master CHAJANG (d.u.; fl. c. mid-seventh century), who named it Hyangsongsa, or City of Fragrances [see GANDHAVATĪ] (monastery), but it has been nicknamed "Monastery of Frequent Changes" because it has changed its location, name, and school affiliation so many times over the centuries. When Hyangsongsa burned down in 698, the Silla Hwaom (C. HUAYAN) teacher ŬISANG (625-702) had it rebuilt three years later near its current site and renamed it Sonjongsa (Meditative Absorption Monastery). The monastery was damaged during the Japanese Hideyoshi invasions of 1592-1598 and burned to the ground in 1642. The three monks who remained after the conflagration each dreamed of a spirit who told them that relocating the monastery's campus would protect it from any future damage by fire, water, or wind. Following the spirit's recommendation, the monks moved the site ten leagues (K. i; C. li) below where the monastery was then located and renamed it Sinhŭngsa, the name it has kept ever since. Sinhŭngsa proper is built on a foundation of natural stone with four large cornerstones. The visitor reaches the monastery along a half-mile-long path that is flanked by reliquaries and memorial stele until reaching the Ilchumun (Single Pillar Gate). Sinhŭngsa's main shrine hall is the Kŭngnak pojon (SUKHĀVATĪ Basilica), which faces west and is decorated on the outside by the ten ox-herding paintings (see OXHERDING PICTURES, TEN). Inside, AMITĀBHA is enshrined together with his companion BODHISATTVAs, AVALOKITEsVARA and MAHĀSTHĀMAPRĀPTA; they sit below a canopy of yellow dragons and in front of a painting of sĀKYAMUNI with an elderly KĀsYAPA and a young-looking ĀNANDA. Right after entering the Ilchumun is found the 14.6-meter (48 foot) high T'ongil Taebul (Unification Great Buddha) sitting on a 4.3 meter (14 foot) pedestal. Casting of this bronze image started in 1987 and was finished ten years later; it is now the largest seated bronze buddha image in the world, larger even than the Japanese KAMAKURA DAIBUTSU (at 13.35 meters, or 44 feet, high). Its pedestal is decorated with images of the sixteen ARHAT protectors of Buddhism (see sOdAsASTHAVIRA). This monastery should be distinguished from the homophonous Sinhŭngsa (Newly Flourishing Monastery), located in the T'aebaek Mountains near the city of Samch'ok in Kangwon province; that temple is the fourth district monastery of the Chogye order.

sircar ::: n. --> A Hindoo clerk or accountant.
A district or province; a circar.
The government; the supreme authority of the state.


Sku 'bum. (Kumbum). In Tibetan, literally "one hundred thousand images," referring to a general architectural style of elaborate, multistories CAITYAs, including the Rgyal rtse sku 'bum (Gyantse Kumbum), GCUNG RI BO CHE, Jo nang sku 'bum, and Rgyang 'bum mo che (Gyang Bumoche). ¶ Sku 'bum is also the name of a Tibetan monastery founded in 1560 by Rin chen brtson 'grus rgyal mtshan (d.u.) commemorating the birthplace of DGE LUGS founder TSONG KHA PA BLO BZANG GRAGS PA; it is situated near Lake Kokonor and close to Xining, the capital of Qinghai province (incorporating much of the Tibetan A mdo region) in China. In 1583, the third DALAI LAMA, BSOD NAMS RGYA MTSHO , expanded the site by adding a temple dedicated to MAITREYA (T. Byams pa), after which the complex became known as Sku 'bum Byams pa gling (Kumbum Jampa Ling). The institution is centered around a miraculous tree marking Tsong kha pa's actual birthplace. It is also the site where Tsong kha pa's mother is said to have fashioned a STuPA in 1379. Unlike other Tibet sites with the name sku 'bum, the name of the monastery does not derive from its architectural style but rather from a white sandalwood tree that grew at the spot where Tsong kha pa's father planted his placenta (in other versions, it grew from a drop of blood from the umbilical cord). The tree is said to have one hundred thousand leaves, with each leaf bearing an image of the seed syllables (BĪJA) and hand implements of the buddha SiMhanāda, the buddha whom Tsong kha pa will eventually become. Over the centuries, Sku 'bum developed into an enormous complex, one of the largest in the region, with thirty temples, over a thousand buildings, and some 3,600 monks. It had four colleges, one each for the study of doctrine, tantra, medicine, and the KĀLACAKRATANTRA. The monastery's hereditary abbot was the A skya Rin po che, considered the incarnation of Tsong kha pa's father. Sku 'bum is counted among the six great Dge lugs monasteries in Tibet, traditionally drawing large numbers of monks from Mongolia, as well as parts of eastern Tibet. Since 1959, the size of the monastic population has been drastically reduced and, since the 1990s, the monastery has become a popular destination for Han Chinese tourists.

Somdej Toh. [alt. Somdet Toh] (1788-1872). The popular name of Phra Buddhacharn Toh Phomarangsi, one of the most famous Thai monks of the nineteenth century. He was born in Kamphaeng Phet province and, according to some accounts, was the son of King Rāma II. After his ordination, he distinguished himself as a scholar of Pāli scriptures and was eventually appointed as preceptor to Prince Mongkut (later King RĀMA IV) when the prince was ordained as a novice. Somdej Toh retired to the forest shortly thereafter, returning to Bangkok when he was summoned by Mongkut after his coronation as king. He remained a mentor to the king throughout his life and many stories are told of their friendship. He served first as abbot of Wat Rakhang, across the river from the Thai royal palace. Somdej Toh was renowned for his eloquent sermons and his skills as a poet, as well as for being a meditation and VINAYA master. He also was famous as a maker of highly prized amulets. After his death, he became the object of a devotional cult, with mediums who claim to speak in his voice.

Sonamsa. (仙巖寺). In Korean, "Monastery of the Peaks of the Perfected," one of the main mountain monasteries of the T'AEGO CHONG of Korean Buddhism; located on the opposite side of CHOGYE Mountain from SONGGWANGSA, and near the city of Sunch'on, in South Cholla province. The monastery claims to have been founded in 529 by the legendary Koguryo monk ADO. In 861, the monk TOSoN (827-898) enlarged the monastery and gave it its current name Sonamsa. During the Koryo dynasty, the royal monk ŬICH'oN (1055-1101) expanded the monastery again, making it a center for ecumenical training in both Doctrine (KYO) and Meditation (SoN). The monastery was destroyed during the Japanese Hideyoshi invasions of the late-sixteenth century; rebuilt, it burned again in the eighteenth century and was reconstructed by the monks Nuram Sikhwal (1752-1830) and Haebung Chollyong (d. 1826) during the reign of the Choson King Sunjo (r. 1800-1834). During the Japanese colonial period (1910-1945), Sonamsa was one of the thirty-one major district monasteries (ponsan) of the Buddhist ecclesiastical administration. After the purification movement (chonghwa undong) that occurred in Korean Buddhism after the end of Japanese colonial rule and the Korean War, Sonamsa was the only major mountain monastery to remain under the control of the married monks in the T'aego order. The contemporary CHOGYE CHONG claims legal title to Sonamsa and lists it officially as the twentieth of its twenty-five parish monasteries (PONSA), but has ceded control to the T'aego order. In 1985, the T'aego order opened a center at Sonamsa to train a new generation of priests in its order. The entrance to Sonamsa is graced by two bridges, one of which, the Sŭngson Bridge, is considered one of the most beautiful in Korea, especially when its view is combined with nearby Kangsollu Tower and a pond that includes a tree-studded island. Sonamsa also preserves one of the largest hanging pictures (see KWAEBUL, T'AENGHWA) in Korea, which depicts in intricate detail all the assemblies of the AVATAMSAKASuTRA (K. Hwaom kyong).

Songgwangsa. (松廣寺). In Korean, "Piney Expanse Monastery"; the twenty-first district monastery (PONSA) of the contemporary CHOGYE CHONG of Korean Buddhism, located on Mount Chogye in South Cholla province. Along with HAEINSA and T'ONGDOSA, Songgwangsa is one of the "three-jewel monasteries" (SAMBO SACH'AL), which represent one of the three jewels (RATNATRAYA) of Buddhism; Songgwangsa has traditionally been considered the "SAMGHA-jewel monastery" (sŭngbo sach'al), because of the succession of sixteen state preceptors (K. kuksa; C. GUOSHI) who resided at the monastery during the Koryo dynasty. According to legend, Songgwangsa began as a small monastery named Kilsangsa, which was founded by a certain Hyerim (d.u.). In 1197, that monastery was restored and expanded by the eminent Son master POJO CHINUL, who moved his SAMĀDHI and PRAJNĀ Community (CHoNGHYE KYoLSA) to the Kilsangsa site. To commemorate the establishment of the expanded monastery, King Hŭijong (r. 1204-1211) renamed it SUSoNSA, or Son Cultivation Community, in 1208. (Still today, the meditation hall at the monastery uses the name Susonsa.) Chinul's reliquary STuPA, the Kamno t'ap (Sweet Dew Reliquary), sits on a hill behind the meditation hall, overlooking the monastery he founded. During the Choson dynasty, Songgwang, the original name of the mountain on which Susonsa was built, became the name of the monastery itself, and the mountain came to be known instead as Mt. Chogye. One of the most famous buildings at the monastery is the Kuksa chon (State Preceptors Hall), built in 1369 and now listed as Korean National Treasure no. 56, which enshrined early Choson-period portraits (CHINYoNG) of Chinul and the sixteen state preceptors at Songgwangsa. (The portraits were themselves collectively listed as cultural treasure no. 1043.) The portraits were stolen in 1995 in a brazen late-night heist and only three have been recovered. In 1969, Songgwangsa was elevated to the status of an ecumenical monastery (CH'ONGNIM), and is one of the five such centers in the contemporary Chogye order, which are all expected to provide training in the full range of practices that exemplify the major strands of the Korean Buddhist tradition. Songgwangsa is thus also known as the Chogye Ch'ongnim.

Songshan. (J. Suzan; K. Sungsan 嵩山). In Chinese, "Lofty Mountain"; sacred mountain located in northern Henan province. Mt. Song, also known as Zhongyue (Middle Marchmount), belongs to what is known as the wuyue, or five marchmounts. Mt. Song is actually a mountain range consisting of two groups of peaks. To the east there are twenty-four peaks known collectively as Taishi, and to the west twenty-six peaks known as Shaoshi. Since ancient times, Mt. Song has been considered sacred. Emperors frequently made visits to the mountain and many who sought physical immortality found it to be an ideal dwelling place. Mt. Song has also been the home of many Buddhist monks. Sometime during the Han dynasty, a monastery known as Fawangsi (Dharma King Monastery) was built on Mt. Song. For centuries, the monastery received the support of many emperors, such as Emperor Wendi of the Sui dynasty, who renamed it Shelisi (sARĪRA Monastery), Emperor Taizong (r. 626-649) who renamed it Gongdesi (Merit Monastery), and Emperor Daizong (r. 762-779) who renamed it Wenshushili Guangde Bao'ensi (MaNjusrī's Vast Virtue, Requiting Kindness Monastery). During the Song dynasty, the monastery was supported by Emperor Renzong (r. 1022-1063), who once again renamed it Fawangsi. Mt. Song was also the home of the famous monastery of SHAOLINSI, which is claimed to have been built on its Shaoshi peaks by a certain Indian monk named Fotuo (d.u.) in 496. Shaolinsi is perhaps best remembered as the home of the semilegendary Indian monk BODHIDHARMA, who is presumed to have dwelled in a cave nearby for nine years, engaged in BIGUAN (wall contemplation). To the west of Fawangsi, there was also a monastery by the name of Xianjusi (Tranquil Dwelling Monastery), which had once been the private villa of Emperor Xuanwudi (r. 499-515) of the Northern Wei dynasty. Xianjusi was the residence of the meditation master Sengchou (480-560), and also PUJI (651-739), the disciple of CHAN master SHENXIU, and his disciple YIXING. Other monasteries such as Yongtaisi, Fengchansi, and Qingliangsi were also built on Mt. Song.

Sonunsa. (禪雲寺). In Korean, "Cloud of Meditation Monastery"; the twenty-fourth district monastery (PONSA) of the contemporary CHOGYE CHONG of Korean Buddhism, located on Mount Tosol (TUsITA) in North Cholla province. There are several conflicting narratives concerning its foundation, but the prevailing view is that the monastery was founded by the meditation master Komdan (fl. c. 577) during the reign of the Paekche king Widok (r. 554-598). Sonunsa has a history of repeated destruction and reconstruction through the Koryo and Choson periods. Most of the monastery's present structures, including its main shrine hall (TAEUNG CHoN), were built during the reign of the Choson-dynasty King Kwanghae (r. 1608-1623). The monastery is famous for its associations with worship of KsITIGARBHA (K. Chijang posal) and is well known for its many camellia bushes, one of the few flowers that bloom during the harsh Korean winter.

sphere ::: 1. The sky considered as a vaulted roof; firmament. 2. The place or environment within which a person or thing exists; a field of activity or operation; orbit, province, realm, domain. 3. A celestial abode. 4. A field of something specified. 5. The orbit of a celestial body, such as that of a planet. Also fig. **spheres.**

spirits ruling the 196 provinces of Heaven) “the

stadtholder ::: n. --> Formerly, the chief magistrate of the United Provinces of Holland; also, the governor or lieutenant governor of a province.

Sudoksa. (修德寺). In Korean, "Cultivating Merit Monastery"; the seventh district monastery (PONSA) of the contemporary CHOGYE CHONG of Korean Buddhism, located on the slopes of Toksung (Virtue Exalted) mountain in South Ch'ungch'ong province. According to Sudoksa's monastic records, the monastery was first constructed at the end of the Paekche dynasty by Sungje (d.u.). During the reign of the Paekche king Mu (r. 600-641) the monk Hyehyon (d.u.) is said to have lectured there on the SADDHARMAPUndARĪKASuTRA ("Lotus Sutra"). Alternate records state, however, that the monastery was founded by Chimyong (d.u.) during the reign of the Paekche king Pop (r. 599-600). The monastery was subsequently repaired by the renowned Koryo-dynasty Son monk NAONG HYEGŬN (1320-1376), and since that time Sudoksa has been one of the major centers of SoN (C. CHAN) practice in Korea. Sudoksa is best known for its TAEUNG CHoN, the main shrine hall. The taeung chon was rebuilt in 1308 and is presumed to be the oldest wooden building in Korea, having been spared the conflagrations that struck many Korean monasteries during the Japanese Hideyoshi invasions (1592-1598). It was constructed in the Chusimp'o style, so that its support pillars are wider in the middle than they are at the bottom or top. The Tap'o-style bracketing, imported from Fujian during the Southern Song dynasty, is similar to other Koryo-era monasteries, such as Pongjongsa and PUSoKSA. Inside the hall are images of three buddhas, sĀKYAMUNI, AMITĀBHA and BHAIsAJYAGURU, and two bodhisattvas, MANJUsRĪ and SAMANTABHADRA. Paintings depict KsITIGARBHA, the ten kings of hell (see SHIWANG; YAMA), and some indigenous Korean divinities. Many of the oldest original wall paintings were damaged during the Korean War and have now been removed to the safety of the monastery's museum. The courtyard holds two STuPAs, a three-story stone pagoda probably from the Koryo dynasty, and an older seven-story granite pagoda from the late Paekche dynasty, with typical upward curving corners. There is a thirty-three foot high statue of Maitreya a short walk up the mountain; the statue is unusual in that it is wearing Korean clothes, including a double cylindrical hat. It was erected by the Son master MAN'GONG WoLMYoN (1872-1946), one of the renowned Son teachers of the modern era who taught at Sudoksa; other famous masters associated with the monastery include KYoNGHo SoNGU (1849-1912), the nun KIM IRYoP (1869-1971), and Hyeam Hyonmun (1884-1985). Sudoksa recently opened a museum near its entrance to hold the large number of important historical artistic and written works the monastery owns, such as the exquisite wall paintings that formerly were located in the taeung chon. In 1996, Sudoksa was elevated to the status of an ecumenical monastery (CH'ONGNIM), and is one of the five such centers in the contemporary Chogye order, which are all expected to provide training in the full range of practices that exemplify the major strands of the Korean Buddhist tradition; the monastery is thus also known as the Toksung Ch'ongnim.

Sugi. (守其) (c. mid-thirteenth century). Korean monk during the Koryo dynasty who served as editor-in-chief of the second carving of the Korean Buddhist canon (KORYo TAEJANGGYoNG). To supervise this massive editorial project, Sugi established a main editorial headquarters at Kanghwa Island, off the west-central coast of Korea, and a branch at Namhae in the far south of the Korean peninsula. Sugi gathered an army of scholars, first to collate the various editions of the scriptures and to establish the correct reading, and then to proofread meticulously the finished xylographs to ferret out any misprints. In editing this new canon, Sugi and his editorial team consulted principally three earlier canons: (1) the Chinese canon, carved during the Song-dynasty's Kaibao reign era between 971 and 983, which he called variously the Old Song edition (Ku-Song pon), Song edition (Song pon), etc.; (2) the Khitan Liao canon, printed c. 1031-1055, which he generally referred to as the Khitan edition (Tan pon); and (3) the first Koryo canon of 1011, which he usually called the State edition (Kuk pon). Foremost among these editions was the Liao canon of the Khitans, a complete copy of which Koryo had received in 1064. The xylographs of 1,514 texts in 6,815 rolls were carved between 1236 and 1251 in a total of 81,258 wood blocks-the oldest of the few complete xylographic canons still extant in East Asia. This second Koryo canon continues to be stored today in paired wooden archives at HAEINSA in Kyongsang province, as they have been since 1398. Sugi documented in remarkable detail the process he and his editorial team followed in compiling this new canon in his thirty-roll KORYoGUK SINJO TAEJANG KYOJoNG PYoLLOK ("Supplementary Record of Collation Notes to the New Carving of the Great Canon of the Koryo Kingdom"), which was finished around 1247. In these notes, Sugi collated seventy-six passages from sixty-five different texts. In his textual analysis of a specific scripture, Sugi generally treated major issues of structure, translator attribution, textual lineage, and the like; he did not discuss minor variations in readings of a few Sinographs. In a typical entry for a specific text, Sugi lists the case character in the second Koryo canon where the work appears; the title of the text and the roll (K. kwon; C. quan) in which the disputed point appears; followed by the passage itself, generally indicated by kwon, scroll (p'ok) and line (haeng) numbers. The most common types of textual problems noted by Sugi in earlier canons were transpositions of passages (K. chonhu toch'ak) and dittographies (K. chungsa; chungch'om). After evaluating the discrepancies in the different canonical editions, Sugi then indicated which reading he preferred and this reading was then entered into the second Koryo carving. Sugi also treated issues of textual authenticity in the course of editing his canon, especially in attempting to adjudicate the authenticity of some of the variant Chinese translations of Indic Buddhist scriptures. The information Sugi provides in his "Collation Notes" offers important information on how East Asian Buddhist scholars in the premodern era went about the task of collating and editing multiple recensions of thousands of scriptures into a definitive canonical collection. Sugi's notes also help to document the textual genealogies of the various East Asian canons and provide definitive proof that, in style and format, the second Koryo canon imitated both the Chinese Kaibao and first Koryo canons, but its readings followed more closely those found in the Khitan Liao canon. Sugi's annotations are thus an extremely valuable source for detailing medieval Chinese xylographic lineages. In making editorial decisions, Sugi rejects such discredited techniques as following the reading of the majority of manuscripts-as when he rejects the readings of both the Kaibao and first Koryo canons-or following uncritically the "best" manuscript, as in the cases where he rejects the reading of the Khitan edition. Sugi's reputation for scholarly accuracy was such that Japanese scholars adopted the second Koryo canon as the textus receptus for the modern Taisho printed edition of the canon, the TAISHo SHINSHu DAIZoKYo, compiled in Japan between 1922 and 1934.

Sukhothai. The first Thai polity in mainland Southeast Asia. Located in the central Menam valley, it began as a frontier outpost of the Khmer empire. In 1278 two local princes raised a successful rebellion to create a new kingdom with the city of Sukhothai as its capital. Under King Ramkhamhaeng (r. 1279-1298), Sukhothai brought several neighboring states under its sway and by the early 1300s enjoyed suzerainty over entire the Menam river basin, and westward across the maritime provinces of Lower Burma. Ramkhamhaeng established diplomatic and commercial relations with China and its envoys twice visited the Chinese capital on tributary missions to the emperor. Having won independence, the kings of Sukhothai chose a new cultural orientation to buttress their rule. The former Khmer overlords were votaries of Hinduism and MAHĀYĀNA Buddhism and the earliest CAITYAs in the city display the architectural features of traditional Khmer tower pyramids. The Thai ruling house abandoned these traditions in favor of Sinhalese-style Pāli Buddhism. In the 1330s a charismatic monk named Si Satha introduced a Sinhalese ordination lineage into the kingdom along with a collection of buddha relics around which was organized a state cult. The shift in religious affiliation is reflected in the lotus-bud and bell-shaped caityas built during the period, which have their prototypes in Sri Lanka. Sukhothai is upheld as a golden age in Thai cultural history. Known for its innovations in architecture and iconography, the kingdom also gave definitive form to the modern Thai writing system which is based on Mon and Khmer antecedents. By the mid-fourteenth century, with the rise of the kingdom of AYUTHAYA to its south, Sukhothai entered a period of decline from which it never recovered. In 1378, Ayuthaya occupied Sukhothai's border provinces, reducing it to the status of a vassal state. After unsuccessful attempts to break free from her southern overlord, Sukhothai was finally absorbed as a province of the Ayuthaya kingdom in the fifteenth century.

*suraMgamasutra. (T. Dpa' bar 'gro ba'i mdo; C. Shoulengyan jing; J. Shuryogongyo; K. Sunŭngom kyong 首楞嚴經). A Chinese indigenous scripture (see APOCRYPHA), usually known in the West by its reconstructed Sanskrit title suraMgamasutra, meaning "Heroic March Sutra." Its full title is Dafoding rulai miyin xiuzheng liaoyi zhu pusa wanxing Shoulengyan jing; in ten rolls. (This indigenous scripture should be distinguished from an early-fifth century Chinese translation of the suRAMGAMASAMĀDHISuTRA, attributed by KUMĀRAJĪVA, in two rolls, for which Sanskrit fragments are extant.) According to the account in the Chinese cataloguer Zhisheng's Xu gujin yijing tuji, the suraMgamasutra was brought to China by a sRAMAnA named Pāramiti. Because the suraMgamasutra had been proclaimed a national treasure, the Indian king had forbidden anyone to take the sutra out of the country. In order to transmit this scripture to China, Pāramiti wrote the sutra out in minute letters on extremely fine silk, then he cut open his arm and hid the small scroll inside his flesh. With the sutra safely hidden away, Pāramiti set out for China and eventually arrived in Guangdong province. There, he happened to meet the exiled Prime Minister Fangrong, who invited him to reside at the monastery of Zhizhisi, where he translated the sutra in 705 CE. Apart from Pāramiti's putative connection to the suraMgamasutra, however, nothing more is known about him and he has no biography in the GAOSENG ZHUAN ("Biographies of Eminent Monks"). Zhisheng also has an entry on the suraMgamasutra in his KAIYUAN SHIJIAO LU, but there are contradictions in these two extant catalogue accounts of the sutra's transmission and translation. The Kaiyuan Shijiao lu merely records that the sramana Huidi encountered an unnamed Western monk at Guangdong, who had with him a copy of the Sanskrit recension of this sutra, and Huidi invited him to translate the scripture together. Since the names of this Western monk and his patron Fangrong are not mentioned, the authenticity of the scripture has been called into question. Although Zhisheng assumed the suraMgamasutra was a genuine Indian scripture, the fact that no Sanskrit manuscript of the text is known to exist, as well as the inconsistencies in the stories about its transmission to China, have led scholiasts for centuries to questions the scripture's authenticity. There is also internal evidence of the scripture's Chinese provenance, such as the presence of such indigenous Chinese philosophical concepts as yin-yang cosmology and the five elements (wuxing) theory, the stylistic beauty of the literary Chinese in which the text is written, etc. For these and other reasons, the suraMgamasutra is now generally recognized to be a Chinese apocryphal composition. The sutra opens with one of the most celebrated stories in East Asian Buddhist literature: the Buddha's attendant ĀNANDA's near seduction by the harlot Mātangī. With Ānanda close to being in flagrante delicto, the Buddha sends the bodhisattva MANJUsRĪ to save him from a PĀRĀJIKA offense, by employing the suraMgama DHĀRAnĪ to thwart Mātangī's seductive magic. The Buddha uses the experience to teach to Ānanda and the congregation the suRAMGAMASAMĀDHI, which counters the false views about the aggregates (SKANDHA) and consciousness (VIJNĀNA) and reveals the TATHĀGATAGARBHA that is inherent in all sentient beings. This tathāgatagarbha, or buddha-nature, is made manifest through the suraMgamasamādhi, which constitutes the "heroic march" forward toward enlightenment. The suraMgamasutra was especially influential in the CHAN school during the Song and Ming dynasties, which used the text as the scriptural justification for the school's distinctive teaching that Chan "points directly to the human mind" (ZHIZHI RENXIN), so that one may "see the nature and achieve buddhahood" (JIANXING CHENGFO). Several noted figures within the Chan school achieved their own awakenings through the influence of the suraMgamasutra, including the Ming-dynasty master HANSHAN DEQING (1546-1623), and the sutra was particularly important in the writings of such Ming-dynasty Chan masters as YUNQI ZHUHONG (1535-1615). The leading Chan monk of modern Chinese Buddhism, XUYUN (1840-1959), advocated the practice of the suraMgamasutra throughout his life, and it was the only scripture that he ever annotated. As a mark of the sutra's influence in East Asian Buddhism, the suraMgamasutra is one of the few apocryphal scriptures that receives its own mention in another indigenous sutra: the apocryphal Foshuo fa miejin jing ("The Sutra on the Extinction of the Dharma") states that the first sutra to disappear from the world during the dharma-ending age (MOFA) will in fact be the suraMgamasutra. The Tibetan translation of this Chinese apocryphon was produced during the Qianlong era (1735-1796) of the Qing dynasty; the scripture was apparently so important in contemporary Chinese Buddhism that it was deemed essential for it to be represented in the Tibetan canon as well.

Tachikawaryu. (立川流). A strand of Japanese esoteric Buddhism that is generally regarded as heterodox by the mainstream SHINGONSHu tradition because of its involvement in ritual sex and magical elements. The school was established in 1114 in the town of Tachikawa (Izu province) by Ninkan (1057-1123), who is known to have combined Daoist yin-yang cosmology with Shingon rituals and taught sexual union as a direct way of attaining buddhahood. Its teachings were subsequently systematized by Raiyu (1226-1304). The school sought to achieve buddhahood in this very body (SOKUSHIN JoBUTSU) and taught that the loss of self that occurs through ritual sexuality was the most immediate approach to enlightenment; sexual climax, which the school termed the lion's roar (see SIMHANĀDA), constituted the moment of awakening. The Tachikawaryu was officially proscribed in the thirteenth century and its practices eliminated from the mainstream esoteric tradition through the efforts of the Shingon monk Yukai (1345-1416). Although its scriptures were lost (except for a few that are said to have been sealed so that they would never be reopened), some of its practices are thought to have continued to circulate in secret in Shingon circles.

T'aego chong. (太古宗). In Korean, "T'aego Order"; an order of Korean married monks established in 1969, in response to the post-Korean War domination of Korean Buddhism by the CHOGYE CHONG of celibate monks. The name of the school is taken from the late Koryo-period monk T'AEGO POU (1310-1382), who was presumed to have introduced the lineage of the Chinese LINJI ZONG (K. Imje chong) to Korea at the end of the Koryo dynasty. The Korean monastic tradition had traditionally institutionalized celibacy throughout its history, but during the Japanese colonial period in Korea (1910-1945), the Japanese government-general had officially sanctioned clergy marriage along with many other reforms of Korean Buddhism that mirrored Japanese policies toward Buddhism in Japan during the Meiji Restoration. Following liberation from Japan in 1945, the celibate monks of Korea launched a purification movement (chonghwa undong) in 1955 to remove all vestiges of Japanese influence from Korean Buddhism, including the institution of clergy marriage. This campaign was supported by the Korean president Syngman Rhee, who issued a series of orders calling for the resignation of all "Waesaek sŭngnyo" (Japanized monks) from monastic positions. The married monks regarded these orders as the beginning of a pomnan (C. fanan), or persecution, of their way of life. The schism between the two sides deepened, often involving violent confrontations and continuing litigation. In 1961, a Korean Supreme Court ruling formally returned administrative control of virtually all the major monasteries to the celibate monks of the Chogye chong. In 1969, the remaining married monks who refused to leave their families split from the Chogye chong and, under the leadership of TAERYUN (1884-1979), organized themselves into the T'aego chong. The T'aego chong is now the second largest Buddhist order in Korea, following the Chogye chong, which continues officially to observe celibacy. The major monasteries that remain under the control of the T'aego chong are T'AEGOSA and PONGWoNSA in Seoul and SoNAMSA in South Cholla province.

T'aego Pou. (太古普愚) (1301-1382). In Korean, "Grand Ancient, Universal Stupidity"; SoN master of the late Koryo dynasty, who is presumed to have introduced the lineage of the LINJI ZONG (K. Imje chong) of the Chinese CHAN school to Korea. T'aego was a native of Hongju in present-day South Ch'ungchong province. He is said to have been born into the prominent family of a court official and ordained as a youth in 1313 by the monk Kwangji (d.u.) at the monastery of Hoeamsa (Kyonggi province). T'aego later passed the clerical examinations (SŬNGKWA) for specialists of the Hwaom (C. HUAYAN) school in 1329. While investigating the Chan case (GONG'AN) "the ten thousand dharmas return to one" (case 45 of the BIYAN LU) in 1333, T'aego is said to have attained his first awakening at the monastery of Kamnosa in Songso (South Cholla province). Four years later, he is said to have had another awakening while investigating ZHAOZHOU CONGSHEN's WU GONG'AN. In 1341, he built a hermitage near the monastery Chŭnghŭngsa on Mt. Samgak (Kyonggi province) named T'aegoam, whence he acquired his toponym. In 1346, T'aego headed for China, where he resided at the monastery of Daguangsi in the Yuan capital of Yanjing. T'aego is also said to have visited the eminent Chan master Shiwu Qinggong (1272-1352) and received his seal of transmission (C. YINKE, K. in'ga) and thus an affiliation with Shiwu's Linji lineage. After T'aego returned to Korea in 1348, he retired to Miwon on Mt. Sosol (Kyonggi province). In 1356, he was summoned to the Koryo capital of Kaesong, where he taught at the influential monastery of Pongŭnsa. That same year he was appointed the king's personal instructor, or "royal preceptor" (wangsa), and abbot of the monastery KWANGMYoNGSA, the major Son monastery in the capital. T'aego continued to serve as the personal advisor to successive kings until his death on Mt. Sosol in 1382. His teachings are recorded in the T'aego hwasang orok. ¶ In the last half of the twentieth century, attempts to trace the orthodox lineage of the contemporary Korean CHOGYE CHONG back to T'aego and his Chinese Linji lineage rather than to POJO CHINUL (1158-1210) caused a rift within the Korean Buddhist community. The focus of the critique is Chinul's putatively "gradualist" approach to Son Buddhist soteriology (viz., his advocacy of tono chomsu, C. DUNWU JIANXIU) and Chinul's lack of an authentic dharma transmission from a recognized Chan or Son master (he is known to have been an autodidact). T'aego was therefore credited with initiating true Son orthodoxy in Korea, based on T'aego's transmission from Shiwu Qinggong, an authentic successor in the Chinese Linji school with its quintessentially "sudden awakening" (DUNWU) soteriology. This issue remains a matter of unremitting controversy in contemporary Chogye order politics. T'aego's name has also been adopted by the T'AEGO CHONG, a modern order of Korean married monks, in order to give a patina of orthodoxy to its school as well.

Taehŭngsa. (大興寺). In Korean, "Monastery of Great Flourishing"; the twenty-second district monastery (PONSA) of the contemporary CHOGYE CHONG of Korean Buddhism, located on Turyun Mountain in near Haenam County in South Cholla province. According to memorial stele erected for early Koryo-dynasty monks, the monastery was founded some time before 900 CE, perhaps by either Chonggwan (fl. c. 426) or TOSoN (827-898). During the Japanese Hideyoshi invasions of the late sixteenth century, the monk CH'oNGHo HYUJoNG (1520-1604), also known as SoSAN TAESA, led a monastic militia based at the monastery in fighting the Japanese. After the fighting ended in 1598, Sosan proclaimed that Taehŭngsa would never be touched by the "three disasters" (samjae) of flood, fire, or wind, and it was in part due to his efforts that Taehŭngsa became an important Buddhist center. Sosan requested that his personal belongings be kept there even after his death, and today his calligraphy, portrait, robe, and bowls can be seen in the monastery's museum. A famous resident was the Son master CH'OŬI ŬISUN (1786-1866), the eighteenth-century reviver of the tea traditions of Korea, who developed the tea ceremony as a form of religious practice and is known for synthesizing the tea ceremony and Son practice, as exemplified in his slogan ta Son ilmi (tea and Son are a single taste). The monastery's main shrine hall (TAEŬNG CHoN) is approached by use of the Sinjin Bridge and enshrines images of sĀKYAMUNI, AMITĀBHA, and BHAIsAJYAGURU. Taehŭngsa is also known for its Ch'onbul chon, "Thousand-Buddha Hall," which enshrines a thousand miniature jade statues of the Buddha, all carved in Kyongju about 250 years ago. There is a story that the ship transporting the buddha images was hijacked by Japanese pirates, but the pirates later had a dream in which the Buddha severely admonished them and voluntarily returned the statues to Taehŭngsa. The grounds of the monastery also include a three-story stone pagoda from the Koryo dynasty, which is said to have held relics (K. sari; S. sARĪRA) of the Buddha brought to Korea by the VINAYA master CHAJANG (608-686). A five-inch (twelve-cm) high, seated bronze Buddha was found inside the base during repairs in 1967 to one of the other three-story pagodas, which appears to date back to the Silla dynasty. A seated MAITREYA Buddha is carved on a rock at Taehŭngsa, which is dated to the early Koryo dynasty. Taehŭngsa is also the home of a highly decorated bronze bell formerly owned by T'apsansa, which is held aloft by a hook shaped like a dragon.

Taksasilā. (P. Takkasilā; T. Rdo 'jog; C. Shishi guo; J. Sekishitsu koku; K. Soksil kuk 石室國). Capital of GANDHĀRA (in the Punjab province of modern Pakistan), often known in the West by its Greek name Taxila; an important early center of Indian Buddhist learning and transcontinental trade. The city is mentioned frequently in the JĀTAKAs, but not in the Pāli suttas, although it is presumed that the Buddha's physician JĪVAKA studied there. AsOKA is said to have built a dharmarājika STuPA and monastery there, which were enlarged when the city was rebuilt following Scythian invasions. Taksasilā was a center for both Hindu and Buddhist scholarship, which flourished especially between the first and fifth centuries CE. Among the schools of Indian Buddhism, the SARVĀSTIVĀDA was especially strong in the city. Taksasilā was visited by the Chinese pilgrims FAXIAN and XUANZANG, who described it in their travel records.

Tanluan. (J. Donran; K. Tamnan 曇鸞) (c. 476-542). Chinese monk and putative patriarch of the PURE LAND traditions of East Asia. He is said to have become a monk at an early age, after which he devoted himself to the study of the MAHĀSAMNIPĀTASuTRA. As his health deteriorated from his intensive studies, Tanluan is said to have resolved to search for a means of attaining immortality. During his search in the south of China, Tanluan purportedly met the Daoist master Tao Hongjing (455-536), who gave him ten rolls of scriptures of the Daoist perfected. Tanluan is then said to have visited BODHIRUCI in Luoyang, from whom he received a copy of the GUAN WULIANGSHOU JING. Tanluan subsequently abandoned his initial quest for immortality in favor of the teachings of the buddha AMITĀBHA's pure land (see SUKHĀVATĪ). He was later appointed abbot of the monasteries of Dayansi in Bingzhou (present-day Shaanxi province) and Xuanzhongsi in nearby Fenzhou. Tanluan is famous for his commentary on the WULIANGSHOU JING YOUPOTISHE YUANSHENG JI attributed to VASUBANDHU.

Taxila. The Greek name for the Indian city of TAKsAsILĀ, an important center of Buddhist learning in the GANDHĀRA region (in Punjab province of modern Pakistan). See TAKsAsILĀ.

tetrarch ::: a. --> A Roman governor of the fourth part of a province; hence, any subordinate or dependent prince; also, a petty king or sovereign.
Four.


the 196 provinces in which Heaven is divided.

The first Dalai Lama, DGE 'DUN GRUB, was known as a great scholar and religious practitioner. A direct disciple of TSONG KHA PA, he is remembered for founding BKRA SHIS LHUN PO monastery near the central Tibetan town of Shigatse. The second Dalai Lama, Dge 'dun rgya mtsho, was born the son of a RNYING MA YOGIN and became a renowned tantric master in his own right. ¶ It is with the third Dalai Lama, BSOD NAMS RGYA MTSHO, that the Dalai Lama lineage actually begins. Recognized at a young age as the reincarnation of Dge 'dun rgya mtsho, he was appointed abbot of 'BRAS SPUNGS monastery near LHA SA and soon rose to fame throughout central Asia as a Buddhist teacher. He served as a religious master for the Mongol ruler Altan Khan, who bestowed the title "Dalai Lama," and is credited with converting the Tümed Mongols to Buddhism. Later in life, he traveled extensively across eastern Tibet and western China, teaching and carrying out monastic construction projects. ¶ The fourth Dalai Lama, Yon tan rgya mtsho, was recognized in the person of the grandson of Altan Khan's successor, solidifying Mongol-Tibetan ties. ¶ While the first four Dalai Lamas served primarily as religious scholars and teachers, the fifth Dalai Lama, NGAG DBANG BLO BZANG RGYA MTSHO, combined religious and secular activities to become one of Tibet's preeminent statesmen. He was a dynamic political leader who, with the support of Gushi Khan, defeated his opponents and in 1642 was invested with temporal powers over the Tibetan state, in addition to his religious role, a position that succeeding Dalai Lamas held until 1959. A learned and prolific author, he and his regent, SDE SRID SANGS RGYAS RGYA MTSHO, were largely responsible for the identification of the Dalai Lamas with the bodhisattva Avalokitesvara. The construction of the PO TA LA palace began during his reign (and was completed after this death). He is popularly known as the "Great Fifth." ¶ The sixth Dalai Lama, TSHANGS DBYANGS RGYA MTSHO, was a controversial figure who chose to abandon the strict monasticism of his predecessors in favor of a life of society and culture, refusing to take the vows of a fully ordained monk (BHIKsU). He is said to have frequented the drinking halls below the Po ta la palace. He constructed pleasure gardens and the temple of the NAGAs, called the KLU KHANG, on the palace grounds. He is remembered especially for his poetry, which addresses themes such as love and the difficulty of spiritual practice. Tibetans generally interpret his behavior as exhibiting an underlying tantric wisdom, a skillful means for teaching the dharma. His death is shrouded in mystery. Official accounts state that he died while under arrest by Mongol troops. According to a prominent secret biography (GSANG BA'I RNAM THAR), however, he lived many more years, traveling across Tibet in disguise. ¶ The seventh Dalai Lama, SKAL BZANG RGYA MTSHO, was officially recognized only at the age of twelve, and due to political complications, did not participate actively in affairs of state. He was renowned for his writings on tantra and his poetry. ¶ The eighth Dalai Lama, 'Jam dpal rgya mtsho (Jampal Gyatso, 1758-1804), built the famous NOR BU GLING KHA summer palace. ¶ The ninth through twelfth Dalai Lamas each lived relatively short lives, due, according to some accounts, to political intrigue and the machinations of power-hungry regents. According to tradition, from the death of one Dalai Lama to the investiture of the next Dalai Lama as head of state (generally a period of some twenty years), the nation was ruled by a regent, who was responsible for discovering the new Dalai Lama and overseeing his education. If the Dalai Lama died before reaching his majority, the reign of the regent was extended. ¶ The thirteenth Dalai Lama, THUB BSTAN RGYA MTSHO, was an astute and forward-looking political leader who guided Tibet through a period of relative independence during a time of foreign entanglements with Britain, China, and Russia. In his last testament, he is said to have predicted Tibet's fall to Communist China. ¶ The fourteenth and present Dalai Lama, Bstan 'dzin rgya mtsho, assumed his position several years prior to reaching the age of majority as his country faced the Chinese invasion of Tibet in 1950. In 1959, he escaped into exile, establishing a government-in-exile in the Himalayan town of Dharamsala (DHARMAsALA) in northwestern India. Since then, he has traveled and taught widely around the world, while also advocating a nonviolent solution to Tibet's occupation. He was born in the A mdo region of what is now Qinghai province in China to a farming family, although his older brother had already been recognized as an incarnation at a nearby important Dge lugs monastery (SKU 'BUM). On his becoming formally accepted as Dalai Lama, his family became aristocrats and moved to Lha sa. He was educated traditionally by private tutors (yongs 'dzin), under the direction first of the regent Stag brag rin po che (in office 1941-1950), and later Gling rin po che Thub bstan lung rtogs rnam rgyal (1903-1983) and Khri byang rin po che Blo bzang ye shes (1901-1981). His modern education was informal, gained from conversations with travelers, such as the Austrian mountaineer Heinrich Harrer. When the Chinese army entered the Khams region of eastern Tibet in 1951, he formally took over from the regent and was enthroned as the head of the DGA' LDAN PHO BRANG government. In the face of Tibetan unrest as the Chinese government brought Tibet firmly under central control, the Dalai Lama fled to India in 1959; the Indian government accorded the Dalai Lama respect as a religious figure but did not accept his claim to be the head of a separate state. In 1989, the Dalai Lama was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize, an event that increased his prominence around the world. He is the author of many books in English, most of them the written record of lectures and traditional teachings translated from Tibetan.

The general superiority of theology in this system over the admittedly distinct discipline of philosophy, makes it impossible for unaided reason to solve certain problems which Thomism claims are quite within the province of the latter, e.g., the omnipotence of God, the immortality of the soul. Indeed the Scotist position on this latter question has been thought by some critics to come quite close to the double standard of truth of Averroes, (q.v.) namely, that which is true in theology may be false in philosophy. The univocal assertion of being in God and creatures; the doctrine of universal prime matter (q.v.) in all created substances, even angels, though characteristically there are three kinds of prime matter); the plurality of forms in substances (e.g., two in man) giving successive generic and specific determinations of the substance; all indicate the opposition of Scotistic metaphysics to that of Thomism despite the large body of ideas the two systems have in common. The denial of real distinction between the soul and its faculties; the superiority of will over intellect, the attainment of perfect happiness through a will act of love; the denial of the absolute unchangeableness of the natural law in view of its dependence on the will of God, acts being good because God commanded them; indicate the further rejection of St. Thomas who holds the opposite on each of these questions. However the opposition is not merely for itself but that of a voluntarist against an intellectualist. This has caused many students to point out the affinity of Duns Scotus with Immanuel Kant. (q.v.) But unlike the great German philosopher who relies entirely upon the supremacy of moral consciousness, Duns Scotus makes a constant appeal to revelation and its order of truth as above all philosophy. In his own age, which followed immediately upon the great constructive synthesis of Saints Albert, Bonaventure, and Thomas, this lesser light was less a philosopher because he and his School were incapable of powerful synthesis and so gave themselves to analysis and controversy. The principal Scotists were Francis of Mayron (d. 1327) and Antonio Andrea (d. 1320); and later John of Basoles, John Dumbleton, Walter Burleigh, Alexander of Alexandria, Lychetus of Brescia and Nicholas de Orbellis. The complete works with a life of Duns Scotus were published in 1639 by Luke Wadding (Lyons) and reprinted by Vives in 1891. (Paris) -- C.A.H.

The line of Karma pas originated during the twelfth century with DUS GSUM MKHYEN PA, a close disciple of SGAM PO PA BSOD NAMS RIN CHEN, who had himself studied under the famous YOGIN MI LA RAS PA. Dus gsum mkhyen pa established several important monasteries, including Mtshur phu, which served as the main seat of the Karma pas and the Karma bka' brgyud in central Tibet. Dus gsum mkhyen pa's successor, the second Karma pa KARMA PAKSHI, is remembered especially for his prowess in meditation and thaumaturgy. He was patronized by the Mongols, first by Mongke (1209-1259) and later by his brother, the Yuan emperor Qubilai Khan (r. 1260-1294) before losing the emperor's support. The third Karma pa RANG 'BYUNG RDO RJE continued this affiliation with the Mongol court, playing a role in emperor Toghun Temür's (r. 1333-1368) ascension to the throne. The fourth Karma pa Rol pa'i rdo rje and fifth Karma pa Bde bzhin gshegs pa maintained ties with the Chinese court-the former with Toghun Temür and the latter serving as the preceptor of the Yongle emperor (reigned 1402-1424) of the Ming dynasty, a position of great influence. The sixth Karma pa Mthong ba don ldan did not maintain the same political connections of his predecessors; he is remembered especially for his contributions to the religious life of the Karma bka' brgyud, producing meditation and ritual manuals. The seventh Karma pa Chos grags rgya mtsho is known primarily for his philosophical works on logic and epistemology (PRAMĀnA); his voluminous text on the topic is still used today as a principal textbook in many Bka' brgyud monasteries. The eighth Karma pa MI BSKYOD RDO RJE is among the most renowned scholars of his generation, a prolific author whose writings encompassed Sanskrit, poetry, and art, as well as MADHYAMAKA philosophy and tantra. The ninth Karma pa DBANG PHYUG RDO RJE is revered for his influential works on the theory and practice of MAHĀMUDRĀ. It was during his lifetime that the DGE LUGS hierarchs ascended to power, with an attendant decline in the political fortunes of his sect in central Tibet. His successor, the tenth Karma pa Chos kyi dbang phyug, was thus forced into a life of virtual exile near the Sino-Tibetan border in the east as his patron, the king of Gtsang, was defeated by the Gushri Khan, patron of the Dge lugs. As the war came to an end, the tenth Karma pa returned to LHA SA where he established ties with the fifth Dalai Lama NGAG DBANG BLO BZANG RGYA MTSHO. The eleventh Karma pa Ye shes rdo rje and twelfth Karma pa Byang chub rdo rje lived relatively short lives, although the latter made an important journey through Nepal together with his disciple, the brilliant scholar and Sanskritist Si tu CHOS KYI 'BYUNG GNAS. The life of the thirteenth Karma pa Bdud 'dul rdo rje was, for the most part, lived outside the sphere of politics. He is remembered for his love of animals, to which he taught the dharma. Beginning during his lifetime and continuing into that of the fourteenth Karma pa Theg mchog rdo rje, there was a revival of Bka' brgyud doctrine in the eastern Tibetan province of Khams, as part of what has come to be called the RIS MED or non-sectarian movement. The fourteenth Karma pa's disciple, 'JAM MGON KONGS SPRUL BLO GROS MTHA' YAS, played a leading role. The fifteenth Karma pa Mkha' khyab rdo rje, a principal disciple of 'Jam mgon kongs sprul, was a prolific scholar. The sixteenth Karma pa RANG 'BYUNG RIG PA'I RDO RJE, like other lamas of his generation, saw the Communist Chinese occupation of Tibet, fleeing to India in 1959 and establishing an exile seat at Rumtek Monastery in Sikkim. He was the first Karma pa to visit the West. The seventeenth Karma pa O rgyan 'phrin las rdo rje was enthroned at Mtshur phu monastery on September 27, 1992. In late December 2000, he escaped into exile, establishing a residence in Dharamsala, India. Although his identification as the Karma pa has been disputed by a small number of followers of a rival candidate, O rgyan 'phrin las rdo rje is regarded as the seventeenth Karma pa by the majority of the Tibetan community, including the Dalai Lama.

The seals of the seven angels who rule over the 196 provinces of heaven. From the collection

These desires and drives, however, tend to stray beyond their proper provinces and to become intermingled and confused in attempts to identify truth, goodness, and beauty, to turn justifications into explanations, to regard subsistent ideals as concretely existent facts, and to distort facts into accordance with desired ideals. It is the business of reason and philosophy to clear up this confusion by distinguishing human drives and interests from one another, indicating to each its proper province and value, and confining each to the field in which it is valid and in which its appropriate satisfaction may be found. By so doing, they dispel the suspicion and antagonism, with which the scientist, the moralist, the artist, and the theologian are wont to view one another, and enable a mind at harmony with itself to contemplate a world in which subsistent and the existent form a harmonious whole. --

Thích Quảng Đức. (釋廣德) (1897-1963). Vietnamese monk who became internationally known for his self-immolation (see SHESHEN) to protest the oppression of Buddhism by the government of the partisan Catholic president Ngô Đình Diẹm. Thích Quảng Đức was born in Khanh Hòa province (Central Vietnam) and his personal name was Lam Văn Tức. He left home to become a monk at the age of seven and received full ordination at the age of twenty. Subsequently, he went to Mount Ninh Hòa to practice austerities and led the life of a mendicant monk for five years. In 1932, he was invited to be a preceptor at the Ninh Hòa branch of the An Nam Association of Buddhist Studies. In 1934, he moved to South Vietnam, working with Buddhist communities in various provinces for several years. He then traveled to Cambodia and lived there for three years, devoting himself to rebuilding monasteries and studying Pāli literature. In 1953, the Nam Viẹt Association of Buddhist Studies invited him to be the abbot of Phước Hòa Temple. The last temple he supervised was Quan Thé m Temple in Gia Định. On June 11, 1963, when the tension between Buddhism and the government reached a high point, he led a procession of more than one thousand monks through the streets of Saigon. At a crossroad, he calmly sat down in lotus posture, doused himself in gasoline, and set himself on fire. He is revered by Vietnamese Buddhists, who refer to him as Bodhisattva Quảng Đức.

Thông Biẹn. (通辦) (d. 1134). The first Vietnamese Buddhist author to write a history of Vietnamese Buddhism based on the model of the "transmission of the lamplight" (CHUANDENG) histories of the Chinese CHAN school. He was a native of Đan Phượng (which is now in Hà Tay province, North Vietnam). His family name was Ngô and he was born into a Buddhist family. He was respected by the Lý court and was bestowed the title quềc sư (state preceptor; C. GUOSHI). The THIỀN UYỂN TẬP ANH relates that in a lecture in 1096 he interpreted Vietnamese Buddhist history as the continuation of the transmission of both the scriptural school and the mind (or Chan) school of Chinese Buddhism. According to Thông Biẹn, the Scriptural School began with Mou Bo and Kang Senghui, and the Chan school was transmitted by BODHIDHARMA. He further claimed that Chan came to Vietnam through two streams, represented, respectively, by VINĪTARUCI (d. 594) and VÔ NGÔN THÔNG (d. 826). Vinītaruci and Vô Ngôn Thông thus were the ancestral teachers of the two streams of Chan that produced numerous side branches in Vietnam. Later in his life, Thông Biẹn founded a great teaching center and taught the SADDHARMAPUndARĪKASuTRA. His contemporaries referred to him as Ngộ Phap Hoa (Awakened to the Lotus). Thông Biẹn's model of Vietnamese Buddhist history was subsequently adopted by Buddhist authors of later generations and thus exercised lasting influence on the traditional understanding of Vietnamese Buddhist history. Many modern Vietnamese Buddhist leaders still accept Thông Biẹn's views about the history of Buddhism in Vietnam.

Thudhamma. (P. Sudhamma). The majority Buddhist monastic fraternity (B. GAING; P. gana, cf. NIKĀYA) in contemporary Myanmar (Burma), comprising 85-90 percent of the monastic population of the country. The name derives from the Thudhamma Council, an ecclesiastical body appointed by royal decree in 1782, which was charged with reforming the Burmese sangha (S. SAMGHA) and uniting its various factions into a single fraternity under Thudhamma leadership. The Thudhamma Council established a common monastic curriculum and in general promoted uniformity of doctrinal interpretation and VINAYA practice among the kingdom's monasteries. With the exception of a short hiatus in the 1810s, the council remained a permanent governing body of the Burmese sangha until the late nineteenth century, when it was dissolved following the British conquest of Upper Burma in 1885 and the deposition of the Burmese king. Even before that event, the authority of the council had declined in Lower Burma as a consequence of Britain's seizure of Burma's maritime provinces in 1824 and 1852. During the reign of MINDON MIN (1853-1878), Burmese monks living in British-controlled Lower Burma refused to recognize the authority of the Thudhamma Council and organized themselves into an independent fraternity called the DWAYA GAING (P. Dvāragana). In the Burmese kingdom itself, the council's policies were not supported by ultra-orthodox monks who, because of their prominent disciplinary observances and scriptural expertise, gained popular support and royal patronage. From among these reformist monks, two prominent factions emerged, the SHWEGYIN and Hngettwin, both of which eventually organized themselves into independent fraternities with their own network of monasteries. After the disestablishment of Buddhism as the state religion of Burma by the British, all "unreformed" monasteries, which were the vast majority in the country, came to be designated Thudhamma by default, even though there was no longer an ecclesiastical umbrella under which they operated nor a hierarchy to which they were answerable. This allowed for the politicization of Thudhamma monks during the British colonial period, some of whom became leaders of the Burmese independence movement. In 1980, the Burmese government's Ministry of Religious Affairs recognized the Thudhamma gaing as one of nine officially sanctioned monastic fraternities comprising the Burmese sangha. Somewhat more relaxed in matters of outward deportment than especially the Shwegyin and Dwaya, the Thudhamma gaing is renowned for its scholarship and maintains major monastic colleges in Yangon (Rangoon), Mandalay, and Pakokku.

Tiantai Zhiyi. (J. Tendai Chigi; K. Ch'ont'ae Chiŭi 天台智顗) (538-597). One of the most influential monks in Chinese Buddhist history and de facto founder of the TIANTAI ZONG. A native of Jingzhou (in present-day Hunan province), Zhiyi was ordained at the age of eighteen after his parents died during the wartime turmoil that preceded the Sui dynasty's unification of China. He studied VINAYA and various MAHĀYĀNA scriptures, including the SADDHARMAPUndARĪKASuTRA ("Lotus Sutra") and related scriptures. In 560, Zhiyi met NANYUE HUISI (515-577), who is later listed as the second patriarch of the Tiantai lineage, on Mt. Dasu in Guangzhou and studied Huisi's teachings on the suiziyi sanmei (cultivating SAMĀDHI wherever mind is directed, or the samādhi of freely flowing thoughts), the "four practices of ease and bliss" (si anle xing), a practice based on the Saddharmapundarīkasutra, and the lotus repentance ritual. Zhiyi left Huisi at his teacher's command and headed for the southern capital of Jinling (present-day Jiangsu province) at the age of thirty (567) to teach the Saddharmapundarīkasutra and the DAZHIDU LUN for eight years at the monastery of Waguansi. The Shi chanboluomi cidi famen [alt. Cidi chanmen] are his lecture notes from this period of meditation and teaching. In 575, he retired to Mt. Tiantai (present-day Zhejiang province), where he built a monastery (later named Xiuchansi by the emperor) and devoted himself to meditative practice for eleven years. During this time he compiled the Fajie cidi chumen and the Tiantai xiao zhiguan. After persistent invitations from the king of Chen, Zhiyi returned to Jinling in 585 and two years later wrote the FAHUA WENJU, an authoritative commentary on the Saddharmapundarīkasutra. Subsequently in Yangzhou, Zhiyi conferred the bodhisattva precepts on the crown prince, who later became Emperor Yang (r. 604-617) of the Sui dynasty. Zhiyi was then given the title Great Master Zhizhe (Wise One). Zhiyi also established another monastery on Mt. Dangyang in Yuquan (present-day Hunan province), which Emperor Wen (r. 581-604) later named Yuquansi. Zhiyi then began lecturing on what became his masterpieces, the FAHUA XUANYI (593) and the MOHE ZHIGUAN (594). At the request of the king of Jin, in 595 Zhiyi returned to Yangzhou, where he composed his famous commentaries on the VIMALAKĪRTINIRDEsA, i.e., the Weimojing xuanshou and the Weimojing wenshou, before dying in 597. Among the thirty or so works attributed to Zhiyi, the Fahua xuanyi, Fahuawenju, and Mohe zhiguan are most renowned and are together known as the Tiantai san dabu (three great Tiantai commentaries).

Tiantai zong. (J. Tendaishu; K. Ch'ont'ae chong 天台宗). In Chinese, "Terrace of Heaven School"; one of the main schools of East Asian Buddhism; also sometimes called the "Lotus school" (C. Lianhua zong), because of its emphasis on the SADDHARMAPUndARĪKASuTRA ("Lotus Sutra"). "Terrace of Heaven" is a toponym for the school's headquarters on Mt. Tiantai in present-day Zhejiang province on China's eastern seaboard. Although the school retrospectively traces its origins back to Huiwen (fl. 550-577) and NANYUE HUISI (515-577), whom the school honors as its first and second patriarchs, respectively, the de facto founder was TIANTAI ZHIYI (538-597), who created the comprehensive system of Buddhist teachings and practices that we now call Tiantai. Zhiyi advocated the three truths or judgments (SANDI): (1) the truth of emptiness (kongdi), viz., all things are devoid of inherent existence and are empty in their essential nature; (2) the truth of being provisionally real (jiadi), viz., all things are products of a causal process that gives them a derived reality; and (3) the truth of the mean (zhongdi), viz., all things, in their absolute reality, are neither real nor unreal, but simply thus. Zhiyi described reality in terms of YINIAN SANQIAN (a single thought contains the TRICHILIOCOSM [TRISĀHASRAMAHĀSĀHASRALOKADHĀTU]), which posits that any given thought-moment perfectly encompasses the entirety of reality; at the same time, every phenomenon includes all other phenomena (XINGJU SHUO), viz., both the good and evil aspects of the ten constituents (DHĀTU) or the five sense organs (INDRIYA) and their respective objects and the three realms of existence (TRAIDHĀTUKA) are all contained in the original nature of all sentient beings. Based on this perspective on reality, Zhiyi made unique claims about the buddha-nature (FOXING) and contemplation (GUAN): he argued that not only buddhas but even sentient beings in such baleful existences as animals, hungry ghosts, and hell denizens, possess the capacity to achieve buddhahood; by the same token, buddhas also inherently possess all aspects of the unenlightened three realms of existence. The objects of contemplation, therefore, should be the myriad of phenomena, which are the source of defilement, not an underlying pure mind. Zhiyi's grand synthesis of Buddhist thought and practice is built around a graduated system of calmness and insight (jianzi ZHIGUAN; cf. sAMATHA and VIPAsYANĀ), which organized the plethora of Buddhist meditative techniques into a broad, overarching soteriological system. To Zhiyi is also attributed the Tiantai system of doctrinal classification (panjiao; see JIAOXIANG PANSHI) called WUSHI BAJIAO (five periods and eight teachings), which the Koryo Korean monk CH'EGWAN (d. 970) later elaborated in its definitive form in his CH'oNT'AE SAGYO ŬI (C. Tiantai sijiao yi). This system classifies all Buddhist teachings according to the five chronological periods, four types of content, and four modes of conversion. Zhiyi was succeeded by Guanding (561-632), who compiled his teacher's works, especially his three masterpieces, the FAHUA XUANYI, the FAHUA WENJU, and the MOHE ZHIGUAN. The Tiantai school declined during the Tang dynasty, overshadowed by the newer HUAYAN and CHAN schools. The ninth patriarch JINGXI ZHANRAN (711-782) was instrumental in rejuvenating the school; he asserted the superiority of the Tiantai school over the rival Huayan school by adapting Huayan concepts and terminologies into the tradition. Koryo monks such as Ch'egwan and Ŭit'ong (927-988) played major roles in the restoration of the school by helping to repatriate lost Tiantai texts back to China. During the Northern Song period, Wu'en (912-988), Yuanqing (d. 997), Zhiyuan (976-1022), and their disciples, who were later pejoratively called the SHANWAI (Off-Mountain) faction by their opponents, led the resurgence of the tradition by incorporating Huayan concepts in the school's thought and practice: they argued that since the true mind, which is pure in its essence, produces all phenomena in accord with conditions, practitioners should contemplate the true mind, rather than all phenomena. Believing this idea to be a threat to the tradition, SIMING ZHILI (960-1028) and his disciples, who called themselves SHANJIA (On-Mountain), criticized such a concept of pure mind as involving a principle of separateness, since it includes only the pure and excludes the impure, and led a campaign to expunge the Huayan elements that they felt were displacing authentic Tiantai doctrine. Although Renyue (992-1064) and Congyi (1042-1091), who were later branded as the "Later Off-Mountain Faction," criticized Zhili and accepted some of the Shanwai arguments, the Shanjia faction eventually prevailed and legitimized Zhili's positions. The orthodoxy of Zhili's position is demonstrated in the FOZU TONGJI ("Comprehensive History of the Buddhas and Patriarchs"), where the compiler Zhipan (1220-1275), himself a Tiantai monk, lists Zhili as the last patriarch in the dharma transmission going back to the Buddha. Tiantai theories and practices were extremely influential in the development of the thought and practice of the Chan and PURE LAND schools; this influence is especially noticeable in the white-lotus retreat societies (JIESHE; see also BAILIAN SHE) organized during the Song dynasty by such Tiantai monks as Zhili and Zunshi (964-1032) and in Koryo Korea (see infra). After the Song dynasty, the school declined again, and never recovered its previous popularity. ¶ Tiantai teachings and practices were transmitted to Korea during the Three Kingdoms period through such Korean monks as Hyon'gwang (fl. sixth century) and Yon'gwang (fl. sixth century), both of whom traveled to China and studied under Chinese Tiantai teachers. It was not until several centuries later, however, that a Korean analogue of the Chinese Tiantai school was established as an independent Buddhist school. The foundation of the Korean CH'oNT'AE CHONG is traditionally assumed to have occurred in 1097 through the efforts of the Koryo monk ŬICH'oN (1055-1101). Ŭich'on was originally a Hwaom monk, but he sought to use the Ch'ont'ae tradition in order to reconcile the age-old tension in Korean Buddhism between KYO (Doctrine) and SoN (Meditation). In the early thirteenth century, the Ch'ont'ae monk WoNMYO YOSE (1163-1245) organized the white lotus society (PAENGNYoN KYoLSA), which gained great popularity especially among the common people; following Yose, the school was led by Ch'on'in (1205-1248) and CH'oNCH'AEK (b. 1206). Although the Ch'ont'ae monk Chogu (d. 1395) was appointed as a state preceptor (K. kuksa; C. GUOSHI) in the early Choson period, the Ch'ont'ae school declined and eventually died out later in the Choson dynasty. The contemporary Ch'ont'ae chong is a modern Korean order established in 1966 that has no direct relationship to the school founded by Ŭich'on. ¶ In Japan, SAICHo (767-822) is credited with founding the Japanese TENDAISHu, which blends Tiantai and tantric Buddhist elements. After Saicho, such Tendai monks as ENNIN (793-864), ENCHIN (814-891), and ANNEN (b. 841) systematized Tendai doctrines and developed its unique forms, which are often called TAIMITSU (Tendai esoteric teachings). Since the early ninth century, when the court granted the Tendai school official recognition as an independent sect, Tendai became one of the major Buddhist schools in Japan and enjoyed royal and aristocratic patronage for several centuries. The Tendai school's headquarters on HIEIZAN became an important Japanese center of Buddhist learning: the founders of the so-called new Buddhist schools of the Kamakura era, such as HoNEN (1133-1212), SHINRAN (1173-1263), NICHIREN (1222-1282), and DoGEN KIGEN (1200-1253), all first studied on Mt. Hiei as Tendai monks. Although the Tendai school has lost popularity and patrons to the ZENSHu, PURE LAND, and NICHIRENSHu schools, it remains still today an active force on the Japanese Buddhist landscape.

Tiantong Rujing. (J. Tendo Nyojo; K. Ch'ondong Yojong 天童如浄) (1162-1227). Chinese CHAN master in the CAODONG ZONG, also known as Jingchang (Pure Chang) and Changweng (Old Man Chang); he received his toponym Tiantong after the mountain where he once dwelled. Rujing was a native of Shaoxing in Yuezhou (present-day Zhejiang province) and was ordained at a local monastery named Tianyisi. Rujing later went to the monastery of Zishengsi on Mt. Xuedou to study under Zu'an Zhijian (1105-1192) and eventually became his dharma heir. Rujing spent the next few decades moving from one monastery to the next. In 1220, he found himself at Qingliangsi in Jiankang (Jiangsu province) and then at Rui'ansi in Taizhou and Jingcisi in Linan. In 1224, Rujing was appointed by imperial decree to the abbotship of the famous monastery of Jingdesi on Mt. Tiantong, where the Chan master HONGZHI ZHENGJUE had once resided. Rujing's teachings can be found in his recorded sayings (YULU), which were preserved in Japan. Although Rujing was a relatively minor figure in the history of Chinese Chan, he was profoundly influential in Japanese ZEN, due to the fact that the Japanese SoToSHu founder DoGEN KIGEN (1200-1253) considered himself to be Rujing's successor. Dogen attributes many of the distinctive features of his own approach to practice, such as "just sitting" (SHIKAN TAZA) and "body and mind sloughed off" (SHINJIN DATSURAKU) to this man whom he regarded as the preeminent Chan master of his era. Little of this distinctively Soto terminology and approach actually appears in the records of Rujing's own lectures, however. Instead, he appears in his discourse record as a fairly typical Song-dynasty Chan master, whose only practical meditative instruction involves the contemplation of ZHAOZHOU's "no" (see WU GONG'AN). This difference may reflect the differing editorial priorities of Rujing's Chinese disciples. It might also derive from the fact that Dogen misunderstood Rujing or received simplified private instructions from him because of Dogen's difficulty in following Rujing's formal oral presentations in vernacular Chinese.

Tianxizai. (J. Tensokusai; K. Ch'onsikchae 天息災) (d. 1000). Kashmiri monk-translator, who arrived in China in 980. While residing at a cloister to the west of the imperial monastery of Taiping-Xingguosi in Yuanzhou (present-day Jiangxi province), he translated (sometimes working in collaboration with DĀNAPĀLA and Fatian) seventeen MAHĀYĀNA and prototantric scriptures into Chinese, including the BODHICARYĀVATĀRA, KĀRAndAVYuHA, AlpāksarāprajNāpāramitāsutra, Āyusparyantasutra, (Ārya)Tārābhattarikāyanāmāstottarasataka, Māricīdhāranī, and the MANJUsRĪMuLAKALPA.

to Agrippa, Heaven has 196 provinces, with 7

T'ongdosa. (通度寺). In Korean, "Breakthrough Monastery" (lit. "Penetrating Crossing-Over Monastery"); the fifteenth district monastery (PONSA) in the contemporary CHOGYE CHONG of Korean Buddhism, located at the base of Yongch'uksan (S. GṚDHRAKutAPARVATA, or Vulture Peak) in Yangsan, South Kyongsang province. Along with HAEINSA and SONGGWANGSA, T'ongdosa is one of the "three-jewel monasteries" (SAMBO SACH'AL) that represent one of the three jewels (RATNATRAYA) of Buddhism; T'ONGDOSA is the buddha-jewel monastery (pulbo sach'al), because of its ordination platform and the relics (K. sari; S. sARĪRA) of the Buddha enshrined in back of its main shrine hall (TAEUNG CHoN). The oldest of the three-jewel monasteries, T'ongdosa has long been regarded as the center of Buddhist disciplinary studies (VINAYA) in Korea, and has been one of the major sites of ordination ceremonies since the Unified Silla period (668-935). Relics, reputed to be those of the Buddha himself, are enshrined at the monastery, and its taeung chon is famous for being one of four in Korea that does not enshrine an image of the Buddha; instead, a window at the back of the main hall, where the image ordinarily would be placed, looks out on the Diamond Ordination Platform (Kŭmgang kyedan), which includes a reliquary (STuPA) that enshrines the Buddha's relics. This focus on vinaya and the presence of these relics, both of which are reminders of the Buddha, have led the monastery to be designated the buddha-jewel monastery of Korea. T'ongdosa is said to have been established by the vinaya master CHAJANG (608-686) in 646 to enshrine a portion of the relics that he brought back with him from his sojourn into China. While on pilgrimage at WUTAISHAN, Chajang had an encounter with the bodhisattva MANJUsRĪ, who entrusted Chajang with a gold studded monk's robe (K. kasa; S. KAsĀYA) wrapped in purple silk gauze, one hundred pieces of relics of the Buddha's skull bone and his finger joint, beads, and sutras. One portion of the relics was enshrined together with the Buddha's robe in a bell-shaped stone stupa at the center of the Diamond Ordination Platform; another portion was enshrined in the nine-story pagoda at HWANGNYONGSA in the Silla capital of Kyongju. Under Chajang's leadership, the monastery grew into a major center of Silla Buddhism and the monastery continued to thrive throughout the Silla and Koryo dynasties, until the whole monastery except the taeung chon was destroyed by invading Japanese troops in the late sixteenth century. In 1641, the monk Uun (d.u.) rebuilt the monastery in its current configuration. The Diamond Ordination Platform was periodically damaged during the sporadic Japanese invasions that occurred during the Choson dynasty. In the fourth month of 1377, Japanese pirates invaded, seeking to plunder the sarīra; to keep them from falling into Japanese hands, the abbot went into hiding with the relics. Two years later, on the fifteenth day of the fifth month of 1379, the pirates came again, and the monks quickly whisked away the relics and hid them deep in the forest behind the monastery. The Japanese went in pursuit of the relics, but the abbot Wolsong (d.u.) took them to Seoul to keep them safe, returning with them once the danger had passed. During the Hideyoshi Invasions in the late sixteenth century, the relics were also removed in order to keep them safe. SAMYoNG YUJoNG, who was leading a monk's militia fighting the Japanese invaders, sent the relics to the Diamond Mountains (KŬMGANGSAN) in the north, where his teacher and the supreme commander, CH'oNGHo HYUJoNG, was staying. Hyujong decided that the relics were no safer there than back at their home monastery, so he returned them to T'ongdosa. Yujong covered the hiding place of the relics with weeds and thorn bushes and, once the Japanese threat was rebuffed, he restored the site to its former glory and the relics were reenshrined in 1603. The platform was repaired again in 1653 and on a grand scale in 1705. The Diamond Ordination Platform remains the site where BHIKsU and BHIKsUnĪ ordinations are held in Korea. In 1972, T'ongdosa was elevated to the status of an ecumenical monastery (CH'ONGNIM), and is one of the five such centers in the contemporary Chogye order, which are all expected to provide training in the full range of practices that exemplify the major strands of the Korean Buddhist tradition; the monastery is thus also known as the Yongch'uk Ch'ongnim.

Touzi Yiqing. (J. Tosu Gisei; K. T'uja Ŭich'ong 投子義青) (1032-1083). Chinese CHAN master in the CAODONG ZONG. Touzi was a native of Qingzhou prefecture in present-day Shandong province. He entered the monastery of Miaoxiangsi at the age of seven and was ordained at age fifteen. During this period, Touzi is said to have studied Buddhist doctrine and the AVATAMSAKASuTRA. Later, Touzi became a disciple of the LINJI ZONG master Fushan Fayuan (991-1067), from whom he received the portrait (DINGXIANG), leather shoes, and patched robes of the deceased DAYANG JINGXUAN, a Caodong lineage holder. Touzi thus became a holder not of his teacher Fushan's but of Dayang's Caodong lineage. In 1073, he began his residence at the Chan monastery of Haihui Chansi on Mt. Baiyun in Shuzhou prefecture, present-day Anhui province. Eight years later, he moved to the nearby Mt. Touzi, whence he acquired his toponym. His teachings are recorded in the Shuzhou Touzi Qing heshang yulu and Touzi Qing heshang yuyao.

Turfan. Central Asian petty kingdom located along the northern track of the SILK ROAD through the Takla Makhan desert, in what is now the Chinese province of Xinjiang. This and other oasis kingdoms in Central Asia served as crucial stations in the transmission of Buddhism from India to China. Buddhism had a strong presence in Turfan from the seventh century through the fourteenth century, with important texts being translated, cave temples built, and works of art produced. The oldest physical manuscripts of the Indian Buddhist tradition are manuscripts in the KHAROstHĪ script (see GĀNDHĀRĪ), dated to the fourth to fifth centuries CE, which were discovered at Turfan. These and other discoveries were made by a team of German researchers led by Albert Grünwedel and Albert von Le Coq in a series of expeditions between 1902 and 1914. Turfan was also the locus where TOCHARIAN A (East Tocharian, or Turfanian) was used; manuscripts in Tocharian A date primarily from the eighth century. Western expeditions into the area led to the discovery of tens of thousands of textual fragments, in a variety of languages and scripts, which came to be known collectively as the "Turfan Collection." These texts belong to a variety of genres and schools, but the SARVĀSTIVĀDA is prevalent, leading to the conclusion that the school was prominent in Turfan. As with other locations in this region, the dry desert air helped to preserve the various materials on which these texts were written. In Turfan were found translations of Sanskrit and Chinese Buddhist texts, as well as some original Buddhist poetry and lay literature. Also discovered in Turfan were the Bezaklik rock caves, dating from around the ninth century, which contain the painted images of thousands of buddhas. Albert von le Coq removed many of these and transported them to Berlin, where many were destroyed by Allied bombing during the Second World War. Although this area was a melting pot of Indian, Chinese, and Central Asian traditions, Buddhist activity in the Turfan region saw a sharp rise in the ninth century, when the Uighur people moved from Mongolia into the Turfan region and many Turfan texts are recorded in the Uighur script. Buddhism seems to have survived in this region until as late as the fifteenth century.

up-line ::: n. --> A line or track leading from the provinces toward the metropolis or a principal terminus; the track upon which up-trains run. See Up-train.

VajiraNānavarorasa. (Thai. Wachirayanwarorot) (1860-1921). One of the most influential Thai monks of the late-nineteenth and early-twentieth centuries; his name (given in its Pāli form here) is also rendered in the Thai vernacular as Wachirayanwarorot [alt. Wachirayan Warot]. The son of King Mongkut (RĀMA IV), after a youth spent in royal luxury, he was ordained as a monk in 1879. He distinguished himself as a scholar of the Buddhist scriptures and in 1892 became abbot of WAT BOWONNIWET [alt. Wat Bovoranives; P. Pavaranivesa], the leading monastery of the THAMMAYUT (P. Dhammayuttika) order. In 1893, he became patriarch of the order and served as supreme patriarch (sangharāja; S. SAMGHARĀJAN) of the Thai sangha (S. SAMGHA) from 1910 until his death. A distinguished scholar of Pāli, he was the author of many textbooks, including the definitive Thai primer on the Pāli VINAYA tradition, the Vinayamukha ("Gateway to the Discipline"), which he wrote in an (unsuccessful) attempt to bring together the two major sects of Thai Buddhism, the Thammuyut and the MAHANIKAI. VajiraNānavarorasa also designed the modern monastic curriculum and reorganized the Thai ecclesiastical hierarchy. As an advisor to King Chulalongkorn (RĀMA V), he also sought to extend modern education into the provinces. VajiraNānavarorasa's autobiography is considered the first work of the genre in Thai vernacular literature.

viaticum ::: n. --> An allowance for traveling expenses made to those who were sent into the provinces to exercise any office or perform any service.
Provisions for a journey.
The communion, or eucharist, when given to persons in danger of death.


viceroy ::: prep. --> The governor of a country or province who rules in the name of the sovereign with regal authority, as the king&

vilayet ::: n. --> One of the chief administrative divisions or provinces of the Ottoman Empire; -- formerly called eyalet.

walloons ::: n. pl. --> A Romanic people inhabiting that part of Belgium which comprises the provinces of Hainaut, Namur, Liege, and Luxembourg, and about one third of Brabant; also, the language spoken by this people. Used also adjectively.

Wanfosi. (J. Manbutsuji; K. Manbulsa 萬佛寺). In Chinese, "Monastery of Myriad Buddhas"; located outside the western gate of the old city wall of Chengdu in Sichuan province; currently only an archeological site. The monastery was founded during the Eastern Han period (25-220 CE) and survived through the end of the Ming dynasty (1368-1644), changing its name several times in the course of its history. It was known as Anpusi during the Liang dynasty (502-556), JINGZHONGSI during the Tang dynasty (618-907), Jingyinsi during the Song dynasty (960-1279), and Zhulinsi, Wanfusi, and, finally, Wanfosi, during the Ming dynasty (1368-1644), after which it fell into disrepair. Since the rediscovery of the site in 1882, some two hundred sculptures and other sacred objects have been uncovered during successive excavations, most of which are currently kept in the Sichuan Provincial Museum. The sculptures date mainly from the North-south Dynasties through the Tang periods. During the Tang, when the monastery was known as Jingzhongsi, it was the residence of the early CHAN monk CHoNGJUNG MUSANG (680-756, alt. 684-762), a Korean monk from the Unified Silla dynasty (668-935), whose prosperous Sichuan Chan lineage came to be known as the JINGZHONG ZONG line. His toponym Chongjung (Jingzhong) comes from this monastery of Jingzhongsi.

Wanshousi. (萬壽寺). In Chinese, "Long Life Monastery"; located on Mt. Jing, Hangzhou prefecture, in present-day Zhejiang province of China; the first of the so-called "five mountain" (wushan, cf. GOZAN) monasteries of the CHAN tradition in China. Wanshousi, also known as Jingshansi, was established by the Chan master FAQIN during the Tianbao reign (742-756) of the Tang dynasty. During the Song dynasty, the monastery was designated as a public monastery, or "monastery of the ten directions" (SHIFANG CHA), and was renamed on several occasions as Chengtian Chanyuan (Upholding Heaven Chan Cloister), Nengren Chansi (sākyamuni Chan Monastery), and Xingsheng Wanshou Chansi (Flourishing of Holiness, Long Life Chan Monastery). Wanshousi attracted many eminent abbots, such as DAHUI ZONGGAO and WUZHUN SHIFAN, and flourished under their supervision. The famous Japanese pilgrims DoGEN KIGEN and ENNI BEN'EN also studied at Wanshousi. The monastery was destroyed in a conflagration at the end of the Yuan dynasty but was reconstructed during the Hongwu era (1368-1398) of the Ming dynasty. Largely through the efforts of the abbot Nanshi Wenxiu and others, Wanshousi regained some of its past glory.

Wat Phra Phutthabat. In Thai, "Monastery of the Buddha's Footprint" (P. BUDDHAPĀDA); a Thai monastery located in Saraburi province. In the seventeenth century, a hunter encountered a large puddle of water that appeared to be a footprint of the Buddha (buddhapāda). Once this identification was verified, a monastery was built to enshrine the footprint. Visiting this monastery is considered a source of great merit, and it is traditional for the Thai king to make an annual pilgrimage to the site to pay homage to the relic.

Wat Phu. [alt. Wat Phou; Vat Phu]. In Lao, "Mountain Monastery"; an important Khmer monastery complex located in Champassak province on the Mekong River in southern Laos. The first monastery was probably constructed in the fifth century CE, although the surviving structures (now largely in ruins) date from the eleventh through the thirteenth centuries. Originally a saiva temple, the ruins contain a shrine to siva's bull Nandin, as well as pediments depicting INDRA, Kṛsnā, and Visnu. The temple complex was converted to Buddhist use in the thirteenth century, with Buddhist images added to many of the shrines. In 2001, the site was designated a UNESCO World Heritage Site.

waywode ::: n. --> Originally, the title of a military commander in various Slavonic countries; afterwards applied to governors of towns or provinces. It was assumed for a time by the rulers of Moldavia and Wallachia, who were afterwards called hospodars, and has also been given to some inferior Turkish officers.

waywodeship ::: n. --> The office, province, or jurisdiction of a waywode.

Wolchongsa. (月精寺). In Korean, "Lunar Essence Monastery"; the fourth district monastery (PONSA) of the contemporary CHOGYE CHONG of Korean Buddhism, located on Odaesan (see WUTAISHAN) in Kangwon province. The monastery's history is closely linked to the VINAYA master CHAJANG (fl. c. 590-658). While Chajang was on pilgrimage at Wutaishan in China, he came across a mysterious old monk who interpreted a prophetic dream he had had and gave him relics (K. sari; S. sARĪRA) of the buddha to take back to Korea with him. Seven days later, a dragon told him to return to Odaesan in Korea to build a monastery; in 643, Chajang arrived at Odaesan, where he eventually constructed Wolchongsa. Wolchongsa's main shrine hall, Chokkwang chon (Calm Radiance Hall), enshrines an image of sĀKYAMUNI as well as a mysterious statue that was found in the diamond pond south of the monastery. This statue, delicately carved in a style common to the eleventh century, is believed to be of BHAIsAJYAGURU. In front of the main hall is a nine-story octagonal pagoda, fifty feet (15.2 meters) high, that was constructed in the tenth century. Skillfully carved and multiangled, it is representative of Koryo-era STuPAs. In front of the stupa is a seated BODHISATTVA, perhaps MANJUsRĪ, making an offering. The statue has been carved with detailed attention to ornamental accessories and clothing. The Chongmyol pogung (Precious Basilica of Calm Extinction) houses the relics of the Buddha that Chajang brought back to Korea and is one of four major shrine halls in Korea that does not enshrine a buddha image (the relics take the place of an image). One of Wolchongsa's most famous residents during the twentieth century was the monk HANAM CHUNGWoN (1876-1951), who helped save some of its buildings from soldiers who had been ordered to burn them down during the Korean War (seventeen buildings were unfortunately burned and had to be reconstructed). Sangwonsa, one of Wolchongsa's branch monasteries (MALSA), is famous among Korean monasteries for its spectacular scenery and is a popular tourist stop.

Wumen Huikai. (J. Mumon Ekai; K. Mumun Hyegae 無門慧開) (1183-1260). In Chinese, "Gateless, Opening of Wisdom"; CHAN master in the LINJI ZONG; author of the eponymous WUMEN GUAN ("Gateless Checkpoint"), one of the two most important collections of Chan GONG'AN (J. koan; K. kongan). A native of Hangzhou prefecture in present-day Zhejiang province, Huikai was ordained by the monk "One Finger" Tianlong (d.u.), who also hailed from Hangzhou (see also YIZHI CHAN). Wumen later went to the monastery of Wanshousi in Jiangsu province to study with Yuelin Shiguan (1143-1217), from whom Huikai received the WU GONG'AN of ZHAOZHOU CONGSHEN; Huikai is said to have struggled with this gong'an for six years. In 1218, Huikai traveled to Baoyinsi on Mt. Anji, where he succeeded Yuelin as abbot. He subsequently served as abbot at such monasteries as TIANNINGSI, Pujisi, Kaiyuansi, and Baoningsi. In 1246, Huikai was appointed as abbot of Huguo Renwangsi in Hangzhou prefecture, and it is here that the Japanese ZEN monk SHINICHI KAKUSHIN studied under him. Emperor Lizong (r. 1224-1264) invited Huikai to provide a sermon at the Pavilion of Mysterious Virtue in the imperial palace and also to pray for rain. In honor of his achievements, the emperor bestowed upon him a golden robe and the title Chan master Foyan (Dharma Eye).

Wutaishan. (五臺山). In Chinese, "Five-Terraces Mountain"; a sacred mountain located in northern Shanxi province, which, together with EMEISHAN, PUTUOSHAN, and JIUHUASHAN, is one of the "four great mountains" (sidamingshan) of Buddhism in China. The name Wutai is derived from its five treeless, barren peaks (one in each cardinal direction and the center) that resemble terraces or platforms. During the Northern Wei dynasty (424-532), Wutaishan came to be identified with the mythic Mt. Qingliang (Clear and Cool) of the AVATAMSAKASuTRA, which speaks of a mountain to the northeast where the bodhisattva MANJUsRĪ is said to be constantly preaching the DHARMA. From the time of the identification of Mount Wutai as Mt. Qingliang, numerous testimonies to the manifestation of MaNjusrī on the mountain have been reported. Mt. Wutai thus came to be known as the primary abode and place of worship for MaNjusrī and for this reason drew pilgrims from across the continent, including South Asia and, later, Tibet. Numerous monasteries and hermitages of both Buddhists and Daoists occupy its peaks. The first Buddhist monastery on Wutaishan, Da Futu Lingjiusi (Great Buddha Vulture Monastery), is claimed to have been built by KĀsYAPA MĀTAnGA (d.u.) and Dharmaratna (d.u.) sometime during the first century (see also BAIMASI and SISHI'ER ZHANG JING). The name of the monastery was changed to Xuantongsi and then to (Da) Huayansi during the Tang dynasty to reflect its role as the center of HUAYAN studies. The Huayan patriarch CHENGGUAN (738-839) composed his great HUAYANJING SHU at this monastery. The esoteric monk AMOGHAVAJRA also assisted in the establishment of another monastery on Mt. Wutai, which was given the name Jingesi (Gold Pavilion Monastery) in 770 after its gilded tiles. Emperor Daizong (r. 762-779) declared Jingesi as an important center for the new esoteric teachings (MIJIAO) brought to China by Amoghavajra. The monk FAZHAO also established the monastery of Zhulinsi (Bamboo Grove Monastery) on the model of a majestic monastery that MaNjusrī had revealed to him in a vision. The monasteries Qingliangsi, Beishansi, Manghaisi, and Da Wenshusi are also located on the mountain. During a pilgrimage to Wutaishan by the Korean monk CHAJANG (d.u., c. mid-seventh century), he had a vision in which MaNjusrī guided him to a Korean analogue of the mountain; that mountain is now known as Odaesan (the Korean pronunciation of Wutaishan) and is itself a major pilgrimage center of Korean Buddhism. During the Qing dynasty, Wutaishan was also the major center for the study of Tibetan Buddhism in China.

Wuzu Fayan. (J. Goso Hoen; K. Ojo Pobyon 五祖法演) (d. 1104). Chinese CHAN master in the LINJI ZONG. Wuzu was a native of Mianzhou prefecture in present-day Sichuan province. After being ordained at the age of thirty-four, Fayan studied YOGĀCĀRA doctrine in his home province, but later went south where he studied under Huilin Zongben (1020-1099), Fushan Fayuan (991-1067), and BAIYUN SHOUDUAN. Fayan eventually became Baiyun's disciple and inherited his Linji lineage. After staying at various monasteries in Anhui province, Fayan moved to Mt. Wuzu (also known as East Mountain) in Hubei province, where he acquired his toponym. The mountain itself received its name, Wuzu (fifth patriarch), from its most famous past resident, the fifth patriarch of Chan, HONGREN. Mt. Wuzu thus became an important center for the Linji lineage, and it was there that Fayan taught his famous disciples YUANWU KEQIN, Taiping Huiqin (1059-1117), and Foyan Qingyuan (1067-1120), known collectively as the "three Buddhas of East Mountain." Wuzu's teachings are recorded in the Wuzu Fayan chanshi yulu.

Xiangshansi. (香山寺). In Chinese, "Fragrant Mountain Monastery"; located on SONGSHAN in Ruzhou, Henan province. It is not known when the monastery was first established, but it is thought to have been built c. 516 CE during the Northern Wei dynasty (386-584). One source credits the founding of a Xiangshan monastery in Xiangzhou to a certain general named Liu Qingzhi, but no further mention is made of either the general or the monastery. The current Xiangshansi underwent a major renovation around 1068 during the Northern Song dynasty, and special attention was paid to restoring its Dabei ta (Great Compassion pagoda), which still stands today; housed in the pagoda is a thousand-armed and thousand-eyed form of GUANYIN (SĀHASRABHUJASĀHASRANETRĀVALOKITEsVARA). Xiangshansi, like SHANG TIANZHUSI, is known for being a major pilgrimage site for Guanyin (AVALOKITEsVARA) worship. It became associated with the Princess MIAOSHAN incarnation of Guanyin, whose legend is inscribed on a stele at the monastery. The stele was commissioned in 1100 by a minor civil servant, Jiang Zhiqi (1031-1104), who was the prefect of Ruzhou. Jiang had the legend reinscribed on another stele at the Shang Tianzhusi when he moved to Hangzhou four years later.

Xinxing. (J Shingyo; K. Sinhaeng 信行) (540-594). In Chinese, "Practice of Faith"; founder of the "Third-Stage Sect" (SANJIE JIAO), a school of popular Buddhism that flourished during the Tang dynasty. Born in Ye in presentday Henan province, Xinxing ordained as a novice monk by the age of seventeen, after which he wandered the country, studying Buddhism and reading such Buddhist scriptures as the SADDHARMAPUndARĪKASuTRA ("Lotus Sutra"), VIMALAKĪRTINIRDEsA, and MAHĀPARINIRVĀnASuTRA. Feeling guilty for accepting from the laity offerings that he did not believe he deserved, Xinxing eventually abandoned monastic life, participating in various state labor projects and cultivating ascetic practices. He is also known to have bowed to all he met on the street, following the teachings of the SADĀPARIBHuTA chapter of the Saddharmapundarīkasutra. It is uncertain exactly when Xinxing established the Third-Stage Sect, but it was probably sometime around 587. In 589, at the behest of Emperor Wendi, he entered Chang'an, the capital city of the Sui dynasty, and stayed at Zhenjisi (Authentic Quiescence Monastery, later renamed Huadu monastery), where he promoted actively the teachings of the school until his death in 594. Xinxing had about three hundred followers, including Sengyong (543-631) and Huiru (d. c. 618). Due to the proscription of the sect during the Tang dynasty, only a few fragments of Xinxing's writings are extant. These include the Sanjie fofa ("Buddhadharma during the Third Stage"), in four rolls, and sections of the Duigen qixing fa ("Principles on Practicing in Response to the Sense-Bases") and the Ming Dasheng wujinzang fa ("Clarifying the Teaching of the Mahāyāna's Inexhaustible Storehouse"). ¶ Xinxing's teachings derive from the doctrines of the degenerate dharma (MOFA) and the buddha-nature (FOXING); they emphasize almsgiving (S. DĀNA) as an efficient salvific method, which contributed to the development of the school's distinctive institution, the WUJINZANG YUAN (inexhaustible storehouse cloister). Because people during the degenerate age (mofa) were inevitably mistaken in their perceptions of reality, it was impossible for them to make any meaningful distinctions, whether between right and wrong, good and evil, or ordained and lay. Instead, adherents were taught to treat all things as manifestations of the buddha-nature, leading to a "universalist" perspective on Buddhism that was presumed to have supplanted all the previous teachings of the religion. Xinxing asserted that almsgiving was the epitome of Buddhist practice during the degenerate age of the dharma and that the true perfection of giving (DĀNAPĀRAMITĀ) meant that all people, monks and laypeople alike, should be making offerings to relieve the suffering of those most in need, including the poor, the orphaned, and the sick. In its radical reinterpretation of the practice of giving in Buddhism, even animals were considered to be a more appropriate object of charity than were buddhas, bodhisattvas, monks, or the three jewels (RATNATRAYA). Particularly significant were offerings made to the inexhaustible storehouse cloister (Wujinzang yuan), which served the needs of the impoverished and suffering in society-especially offerings made on the anniversary of Xinxing's death. See also XIANGFA JUEYI JING.

Xuansha Shibei. (J. Gensha Shibi; K. Hyonsa Sabi 玄沙師備) (835-908). Chinese CHAN master in the lineage of QINGYUAN XINGSI (d. 740) and a predecessor in the FAYAN ZONG of the classical Chan school; he was a native of Min (presentday Fujian province). Xuansha left home to study with the Chan master Lingxun (d.u.) on Mt. Furong and later received the monastic precepts in 864 from the VINAYA master Daoxuan (d.u.) at the monastery KAIYUANSI in Jiangxi province. Two years later, he visited the Chan master XUEFENG YICUN and became his disciple. Xuansha's adherence to the precepts is said to have been so strict that he was given the nickname Bei Doutuo, or "DHUTAnGA Bei." He subsequently left Xuefeng's side and established a cloister on Mt. Sheng (also known as Mt. Xuansha) in Fujian province, named Xuansha (Sublime Sand). In 898, he was summoned to live in the cloister of Anguoyin in Fujian by the king of Min. Emperor Zhaozong (r. 888-904) gave Xuansha the title of Great Master Zongyi (Tradition's Best). Luohan Kuichen (867-928) was one of his disciples. His sayings were published in the Xuansha guanglu and Xuansha Shibei chanshi yulu, and sporadic references to some of his more popular sayings (e.g., XUANSHA SANBING) can also be found in the BIYAN LU.

Xuanzang. (J. Genjo; K. Hyonjang 玄奘) (600/602-664). Chinese monk, pilgrim, and patriarch of the Chinese YOGĀCĀRA tradition (FAXIANG ZONG) and one of the two most influential and prolific translators of Indian Buddhist texts into Chinese, along with KUMĀRAJĪVA (344-413); in English sources, his name is seen transcribed in a variety of ways (now all outmoded), including Hsüan-tsang, Hiuen Tsiang, Yuan Chwang, etc. Xuanzang was born into a literati family in Henan province in either 600 or 602 (although a consensus is building around the latter date). In 612, during a state-supported ordination ceremony, Xuanzang entered the monastery of Jingtusi in Luoyang where his older brother was residing as a monk. There, Xuanzang and his brother studied the MAHĀPARINIRVĀnASuTRA and various MAHĀYĀNA texts. When the Sui dynasty collapsed in 618, they both fled the capital for the safety of the countryside. In 622, Xuanzang was given the complete monastic precepts and was fully ordained as a monk (BHIKsU). By this time Xuanzang had also studied earlier translations of the MAHĀYĀNASAMGRAHA, JNĀNAPRASTHĀNA, and *TATTVASIDDHI under various teachers but came to doubt the accuracy of those translations and the veracity of their teachings. In order to resolve his doubts, Xuanzang embarked on an epic journey to India in 627, in flagrant disregard of the Taizong emperor's (r. 626-629) edict against traveling abroad. His trek across the SILK ROAD and India is well known, thanks to his travel record, the DA TANG XIYU JI, his official biography, and the famous Ming-dynasty comic novel based on Xuangzang's travels, XIYU JI ("Journey to the West"). (See "Routes of Chinese Pilgrims" map.) According to these sources, Xuanzang visited the various Buddhist pilgrimage sites of the subcontinent (see MAHĀSTHĀNA) and spent years at NĀLANDĀ monastery mastering Sanskrit, including fifteen months studying the texts of the Indian Yogācāra tradition under the tutelage of the 106-year-old sĪLABHADRA. In 645, Xuanzang returned to the Tang capital of Chang'an with over six hundred Sanskrit manuscripts that he had acquired in India, along with images, relics, and other artifacts. (These materials were stored in a five-story stone pagoda, named the DAYAN TA, or Great Wild Goose Pagoda, that Xuanzang later built on the grounds of the monastery of DA CI'ENSI; the pagoda is still a major tourist attraction in Xi'an.) The Taizong and Gaozong emperors (r. 649-683) honored Xuanzang with the title TREPItAKA (C. sanzang fashi; "master of the Buddhist canon") and established a translation bureau (yijing yuan) in the capital for the master, where Xuanzang supervised a legion of monks in charge of transcribing the texts, "rectifying" (viz., clarifying) their meaning, compiling the translations, polishing the renderings, and certifying both their meaning and syntax. Xuanzang and his team developed an etymologically precise set of Chinese equivalencies for Buddhist technical terminology, and his translations are known for their rigorous philological accuracy (although sometimes at the expense of their readability). While residing at such sites as HONGFUSI, Da ci'ensi, and the palace over an eighteen-year period, Xuanzang oversaw the translation of seventy-six sutras and sāstras in a total of 1,347 rolls, nearly four times the number of texts translated by Kumārajīva, probably the most influential of translators into Chinese. (Scholars have estimated that Xuanzang and his team completed one roll of translation every five days over those eighteen years of work.) Xuanzang's influence was so immense that he is often recognized as initiating the "new translation" period in the history of the Chinese translation of Buddhist texts, in distinction to the "old translation" period where Kumārajīva's renderings hold pride of place. Among the more important translations made by Xuanzang and his translation team are the foundational texts of the Yogācāra school, such as the CHENG WEISHI LUN (*VijNaptimātratāsiddhi), ASAnGA's MAHĀYĀNASAMGRAHA, and the YOGĀCĀRABHuMIsĀSTRA, and many of the major works associated with the SARVĀSTIVĀDA school of ABHIDHARMA, including definitive translations of the JNānaprasthāna and the encyclopedic ABHIDHARMAMAHĀVIBHĀsĀ, as well as complete translations of VASUBANDHU's ABHIDHARMAKOsABHĀsYA and SAMGHABHADRA's *NYĀYĀNUSĀRA. He translated (and retranslated) many major Mahāyāna sutras and sāstras, including the massive MAHĀPRAJNĀPĀRAMITĀSuTRA, in six hundred rolls; this translation is given a place of honor as the first scripture in the East Asian Buddhist canons (see DAZANGJING; KORYo TAEJANGGYoNG). Also attributed to Xuanzang is the Chinese translation of the famed PRAJNĀPĀRAMITĀHṚDAYASuTRA, or "Heart Sutra," probably the most widely read and recited text in East Asian Buddhism. Because Xuanzang himself experienced a palpable sense of the Buddha's absence while he was sojourning in India, he also translated the Nandimitrāvadāna (Da aluohan Nantimiduo luo suoshuo fazhu ji, abbr. Fazhu ji, "Record of the Duration of the Dharma Spoken by the Great Arhat NANDIMITRA"), the definitive text on the sixteen ARHAT protectors (see sOdAsASTHAVIRA) of Buddhism, which became the basis for the LOUHAN cult in East Asia.

Xuedou Chongxian. (J. Setcho Juken; K. Soltu Chunghyon 雪竇重顯) (980-1052). Chinese CHAN master in the YUNMEN ZONG of the mature Chan tradition; also known as Yinzhi. Xuedou was a native of Sichuan province. After his ordination under Renxian (d.u.) of the cloister of Pu'anyuan, Xuedou received doctrinal training from Yuanying (d.u.) of Dacisi and Guyin Yuncong (965-1032) of Shimen. During his travels in the south, Xuedou visited the Yunmen master Zhimen Guangzuo (d.u.) in Hubei province and became his leading disciple. Xuedou later resided on Cuiwei peak near Tongting Lake and the monastery of Zishengsi on Mt. Xuedou in Zhejiang province, whence he acquired his toponym. During his residence in Zishengsi, Xuedou acquired more than seventy students and composed his famed collection of one hundred old cases (guce, viz., GONG'AN) known as the Xuedou songgu, which in turn formed the basis of Chan master YUANWU KEQIN's influential BIYAN LU. Xuedou also composed the Tongting yulu, Xuedou kaitang lu, Puquan ji, Zuying ji, and various other texts. Xuedou's successful career as a teacher is often considered a period of revitalization of the Yunmen tradition.

Xuefeng Yicun. (J. Seppo Gison; K. Solbong Ŭijon 雪峰義存) (822-908). Chinese CHAN master in the lineage of QINGYUAN XINGSI (d. 740); a native of Min (presentday Fujian province). He was ordained at the age of seventeen and given the dharma name Yicun, but temporarily returned to lay clothing during the severe persecution of the HUICHANG FANAN and studied under Furong Lingxun (d.u.). After a brief stay with DONGSHAN LIANGJIE, Xuefeng left at Dongshan's direction to study with DESHAN XUANJIAN (780/2-865). Xuefeng then embarked on a journey with his colleagues Yantou Quanhuo (828-887) and Qinshan Wensui (d.u.). With the help of Yantou, Xuefeng is said to have had his first awakening experience during a snowfall on Mt. Ao in Hunan. Xuefeng and Yantou became Deshan's leading disciples. Xuefeng later established a monastery with the support of the king of Min on what came to be known as Mt. Xuefeng in Fujian province. The mountain was originally known as Mt. Xianggu (Elephant Bone) but acquired its new name after a famous exchange at the mountain between the king of Min and the monk Xuefeng. Xuefeng's monastery was given the name Chongshengsi and Yingtian Xuefeng Chanyuan. In 882, Emperor Xizong (r. 873-888) bestowed upon him the title Great Master Zhenjue (Authentic Enlightenment) and the purple robe. His disciples include YUNMEN WENYAN (the founder of the YUNMEN ZONG of the classical Chan school), XUANSHA SHIBEI (whose students eventually would go on to establish the FAYAN ZONG), Changjing Huileng (854-932), Baofu Congzhan (d. 928), and Gushan Shenyan (d. 943). His teachings are recorded in his Xuefeng Zhenjue chanshi yulu.

Xuyun. (雲) (1840-1959). In Chinese, "Empty Cloud"; CHAN monk of the modern period, renowned as one of the major reformers of modern Chinese Buddhism, especially of the Chan school; also known as Deqing. Xuyun was a native of Xiangxiang in Hunan province. He entered the monastery at the age of nineteen and received the precepts a year later from the monk Miaolian (d.u.). He then embarked on a long pilgrimage to famous mountains in China and to such distant sites as Tibet, India, and Sri Lanka, where he studied with teachers in a variety of Buddhist traditions. At the age of forty-three, Xuyun climbed WUTAISHAN, where he is said to have had a vision of the resident bodhisattva MANJUsRĪ. His awakening experience came at the drop of a teacup at the age of fifty-six. Xuyun was particularly renowned for his austerities and longevity. He became an important exponent of the convergence of "questioning meditation" (KANHUA CHAN) and recitation of the Buddha's name (NIANFO), who was noted for using the meditative topic (HUATOU) "Who is reciting the Buddha's name?" Xuyun spent the rest of his career propagating Buddhism throughout China until his death on Mt. Yunju in Jiangxi province at the advanced age of 120. See also TAIXU; YINGUANG.

Yangqi Fanghui. (J. Yogi Hoe; K. Yanggi Panghoe 楊岐方會) (992-1049). Chinese CHAN master and patriarch of the YANGQI PAI collateral line of the LINJI ZONG; one of the two major Linji sublineages, along with the HUANGLONG PAI. Yangqi was a native of Yuanzhou prefecture in present-day Jiangxi province. After studying under various teachers, he visited the Chan master Shishuang Chuyuan (986-1039), himself a successor of Fenyang Shanzhao (947-1024), and became one of Shishuang's leading disciples. Yangqi was later invited to serve as abbot of the monastery Putong Chanyuan on Mt. Yangqi in his hometown of Yuanzhou, whence he acquired his toponym. In 1046, he moved his residence to the monastery of Haihuisi on Mt. Yung'ai. Among his many talented disciples, the most famous is BAIYUN SHOUDUAN (1025-1072). His teachings are recorded in the Yangqi Fanghui chanshi yulu, Yangqi Fanghui chanshi houlu, and Yangqi Hui chanshi yuyao. See also WU JIA QI ZONG.

Yangqi pai. (J. Yogiha; K. Yanggi p'a 楊岐派). One of the two major branches of the LINJI ZONG of the CHAN school, which is listed among the five houses and seven schools (WU JIA QI ZONG) of the mature Chinese Chan tradition. The school is named after its founder, YANGQI FANGHUI (995-1049), who taught at Mt. Yangqi in what is now Yuanzhou province. Yangqi was a disciple of Shishuang Chuyuan (986-1039), a sixth-generation successor in the Linji school, who also taught HUANGLONG HUINAN (1002-1069), the founder of the HUANGLONG PAI sublineage of the Linji school. The Yangqi lineage flourished under its third-generation successors, Fojian Huiqin (1059-1117), Foyan Qingyuan (1067-1120), and YUANWU KEQIN (1063-1135), who promoted it among the literati, and it became one of the dominant schools of Song-dynasty Buddhism thanks to the decisive role played by Yuanwu's disciple DAHUI ZONGGAO (1089-1163). It was especially within this lineage that the meditative technique of the Chan of investigating the meditative topic or questioning meditation (KANHUA CHAN) flourished. The Yangqi masters took a different approach to GONG'AN (public case) training, criticizing "lettered Chan" (WENZI CHAN), a style of Chan developed by Yunmen and Huanglong masters, which gained popularity among the literati officials in the Northern Song period with its polished language and elegant verse explanations of the meaning of the gong'an. Dahui in particular presented the gong'an as a meditative tool for realizing one's innate enlightenment, not to demonstrate one's talent in clever repartee or one's literary prowess; at the same time, he critiqued the approaches of rival Chan schools, criticizing such Huanglong masters as JUEFAN HUIHONG (1071-1128) for clinging to intellectual and literary endeavors and such CAODONG ZONG masters as HONGZHI ZHENGJUE (1091-1157) for clinging to tranquillity and simply waiting for one's innate enlightenment to manifest itself. The school also produced many gong'an collections, including the BIYANLU ("Blue Cliff Record"), complied by Yuanwu Keqin, and the WUMEN GUAN ("Gateless Checkpoint"), compiled by the seventh-generation successor WUMEN HUIKAI (1183-1260). The Yangqi lineage was formally introduced to Korea by T'AEGO POU (1301-1382), who studied with the eleventh-generation Yangqi teacher Shiwu Qinggong (1272-1352); some modern Korean monks and scholars argue that the contemporary Korean Son tradition should be traced back to T'aego and his Yangqi lineage, rather than to POJO CHINUL (1158-1210). The Yangqi school reached Japan in the thirteenth century through pilgrim monks, including Shunjo (1166-1227), who studied with the Yangqi teacher Meng'an Yuancong (1126-1209), and NANPO JoMYo (1235-1309), better known by his imperially bestowed title Entsu Daio Kokushi ("state preceptor," see GUOSHI), who studied with the ninth-generation teacher XUTANG ZHIYU (1185-1269). All Linji lineages in contemporary Japan are affiliated with the Yangqi pai.

Yangshan Huiji. (J. Gyozan/Kyozan Ejaku; K. Angsan Hyejok 仰山慧寂) (807-883). Chinese CHAN master and patriarch of the GUIYANG ZONG [alt. Weiyang zong]. Yangshan was a native of Shaozhou prefecture in present-day Guangdong province. According to his biography, Yangshan's first attempt to enter the monastery at age fifteen failed because his parents refused to give their required permission. Two years later he cut off two of his fingers as a sign of his resolve to become a monk and became a sRĀMAnERA under the guidance of Chan master Tong (d.u.) of Nanhuasi. After he received his monastic precepts, Yangshan studied the VINAYAPItAKA. Yangshan is said to have received the teachings of the circle diagrams from Danyuan Yingzhen (d.u.), and he later became a disciple of Chan master GUISHAN LINGYOU after serving him for fifteen years. He later moved to Mt. Yang in Yuanzhou prefecture (present-day Jiangxi province), whence he acquired his toponym, and established a name for himself as a Chan master. Yangshan later moved to Mt. Dongping in his hometown of Shaozhou, where he passed away in the year 883 (alternative dates for his death are 916 and 891). He was posthumously honored with the title Dengxu dashi (Great Master Clear Vacuity) and a purple robe. He was also named Great Master Zhitong (Penetration of Wisdom). His teachings are recorded in the Yuanzhou Yangshan Huiji chanshi yulu. The names of the mountains on which Yangshan and his teacher Guishan resided were used in compound to designate their lineage, the Guiyang.

Yang Wenhui. (J. Yo Bunkai; K. Yang Munhoe 楊文會) (1837-1911). Chinese Buddhist layman at the end of the Qing dynasty, renowned for his efforts to revitalize modern Chinese Buddhism. A native of Anhui province, Yang fled from the Taiping Rebellion to Hangzhou prefecture. In 1862, he serendipitously acquired a copy of the DASHENG QIXIN LUN ("Awakening of Faith According to the Mahāyāna") and became interested in Buddhism. In 1878, he traveled to England, where he served at the Chinese Embassy in London, befriending the Japanese Buddhist scholar NANJo BUN'Yu (1849-1927), who helped him to acquire Chinese Buddhist texts that had been preserved in Japan. After his return to China, Yang established a publishing press called the Jingling Kejing Chu and published more than three thousand Buddhist scriptures. In 1893, ANAGĀRIKA DHARMAPĀLA visited Yang in Shanghai. In 1894, Yang and the British missionary Timothy Richard translated the DASHENG QIXIN LUN into English. In 1907, the Jingling Kejing Chu began to publish primers of Buddhism in various languages. In 1910, Yang also founded the Fojiao Yanjiu Hui (Buddhist Research Society), where he regularly lectured until his death in 1911.

Yifu. (J. Gifuku, K. Ŭibok 義福) (661-736). Chinese CHAN master associated with the Northern school (BEI ZONG) of the early Chan tradition. Yifu was a native of Luzhou prefecture in present-day Shanxi province, who became a student of the lay master DU FEI (d.u.), the author of the CHUAN FABAO JI, at Fuxiansi in Luoyang. After Yifu received the full monastic precepts in 690, he went to the monastery of YUQUANSI in Jingzhou prefecture to study with the eminent Chan master SHENXIU. Yifu became Shenxiu's close disciple and continued to study under him probably until his master's death. Later, Yifu moved to the monastery of Huagansi on ZHONGNANSHAN, where he lived for about twenty years. During his stay at Huagansi, Yifu attracted a large following. In 722, he moved again to the grand monastery of DACI'ENSI in Chang'an, where he was patronized by the upper echelons of Tang Chinese society. At the request of Emperor Xuanzong (r. 712-756), Yifu returned once again to Luoyang and resided at the monasteries of Fuxiansi and Nanlongxingsi. He received the posthumous title Chan Master Dazhi (Great Wisdom).

Yinguang. (J. Inko; K. In'gwang 印光) (1862-1940). Chinese monk renowned for his efforts to revitalize modern Chinese Buddhism, especially of the PURE LAND tradition; also sometimes referred to as the thirteenth patriarch of the Chinese JINGTU school and as Chang Cankui Seng (Forever Ashamed Monk). Yinguang was a native of Geyang in Shaanxi province. At a young age, Yinguang suffered from an eye ailment, probably conjunctivitis, which he is said to have cured by studying the Buddhist scriptures. He was formally ordained later at the monastery of Xing'an Shuangqisi in his home province. Yinguang's interest in pure land thought and practice is said to have been catalyzed by his encounter with the writings of the CHAN master Jixing Chewu (1741-1810), who came to be known as the twelfth patriarch of the pure land tradition in China. For more than twenty years, he resided in isolation at the monastery of Fayusi on the sacred mountain of PUTUOSHAN, where he studied the scriptures and practiced the recitation of the name of the buddha AMITĀBHA (NIANFO; cf. NAMU AMIDABUTSU). Yinguang's reputation grew with the publication of his private correspondences and his collected essays known as Jingtu jueyi lun ("Treatise on Resolving Doubts about the Pure Land"). His writings were often critical of Chan and emphasized the efficacy of pure land practice instead. Yinguang also worked to restore monasteries and to republish important pure land writings until his death in 1940. See also TAIXU; XUYUN.

Yinyuan Longxi. (J. Ingen Ryuki 隠元隆琦) (1592-1673). Chinese CHAN master and founding patriarch of the Japanese oBAKUSHu. Yinyuan was a native of Fuzhou, in present-day Fujian province. He began his training as a monk in his early twenties on PUTUOSHAN and was formally ordained several years later at Wanfusi on Mt. Huangbo. Yinyuan continued his training under the Chan master MIYUN YUANWU and, while serving under the Chan master FEIYIN TONGRONG at Wanfusi Yinyuan, was formally recognized as an heir to Feiyin's lineage in 1633. Seven years later, in 1640, Yinyuan found himself at the monastery of Fuyansi in Zhejiang province and at Longquansi in Fujian province in 1645. The next year, in 1646, he returned to Mt. Huangbo and revitalized the community at Wanfusi. In 1654, at the invitation of Yiran Xingrong (1601-1668), the abbot of the Chinese temple of Kofukuji in Nagasaki, Yinyuan decided to leave China to escape the succession wars and political turmoil that had accompanied the fall of the Chinese Ming dynasty. He was to be accompanied by some thirty monks and artisans. Due to political issues, however, Yinyuan was only allowed to enter Japan a year later in 1655. That same year, largely through the efforts of the Japanese monk Ryokei Shosen (1602-1670), the abbot of MYoSHINJI, Yinyuan was allowed to stay at Ryokei's home temple of Fumonji under virtual house arrest. The next year when Yinyuan expressed his wishes to return to China, Ryokei arranged a visit to Edo and an audience with the young shogun. At the end of 1658, Yinyuan made the trip to Edo and won the patronage of the shogun and his ministers. With their support, Yinyuan began the construction of MANPUKUJIs in Uji in 1661. The site came to be known as Mt. obaku, the Japanese pronunciation of his mountain home of Huangbo, and served as the center for the introduction of Ming-dynasty Chan into Japan. Yinyuan's teachings, especially those concerning monastic rules, catalyzed institutional and doctrinal reform among the entrenched Japanese ZEN communities. In 1664, Yinyuan left his head disciple MU'AN XINGTAO in charge of all administrative matters involving the monastery and retired to his hermitage on the compounds of Manpukuji. Nine years later Emperor Gomizunoo (r. 1611-1629) bestowed upon him the title state preceptor (J. kokushi, C. GUOSHI) Daiko Fusho (Great Radiance, Universal Illumination). He died shortly thereafter. Yinyuan brought many texts and precious art objects with him from China, and composed numerous texts himself such as the Huangbo yulu, Hongjie fayi, Fusho kokushi koroku, obaku osho fuso goroku, Ingen hogo, and obaku shingi.

Yishan Yining. (J. Issan Ichinei; K. Ilsan Illyong 一山一寧) (1247-1317). Chinese CHAN master in the LINJI ZONG; a native of Taizhou prefecture in present-day Zhejiang province. At a young age, Yishan became a student of a certain Wudeng Rong (d.u.) at the monastery of Hongfusi on Mt. Fu near his hometown in Taizhou. He was later ordained at the monastery of Puguangsi in Siming in Zhejiang province and continued to study VINAYA at Yingzhensi and TIANTAI thought and practice at Yanqingsi. Yishan then began his training in Chan under several teachers. He eventually became a disciple of Wanji Xingmi (d.u.), a disciple of the Chan master CAOYUAN DAOSHENG. In 1299, the Yuan emperor Chengzong (r. 1294-1307) bestowed upon him the title Great Master Miaoci Hongji (Subtle Compassion, Universal Salvation) and an official post as the overseer of Buddhist matters in Zhejiang. That same year, he was sent to Japan as an envoy of the court, but was detained temporarily at the temple of Shuzenji in Izu by the Kamakura shogunate. When the Hojo rulers learned of Yishan's renown in China, Yishan was invited to reside as abbot of the powerful monasteries of KENCHoJI, ENGAKUJI, and Jochiji in Kamakura. In 1313, Yishan was invited by the retired Emperor Gouda (r. 1274-1287) to reside as the third abbot of the monastery NANZENJI in Kyoto. Yishan had many students in Japan including the eminent Japanese monk MUSo SOSEKI. Yishan became ill and passed away in the abbot's quarters (J. hojo; C. FANGZHANG) of Nanzenji in 1317. The emperor bestowed upon him the title state preceptor (J. kokushi; C. GUOSHI) Issan (One Mountain). Yishan is also remembered for his calligraphy and for introducing to Japan the new commentaries written by the great Neo-Confucian scholar Zhu Xi (1130-1200) to Japan. He and his disciples, such as Shiliang Rengong (1266-1334), Mujaku Ryoen (d.u.), Monkei Ryoso (d. 1372), and Torin Yukyu (d. 1369), contributed much to the development of GOZAN culture in Japan.

Yixing. (J. Ichigyo; K. Irhaeng 一行) (683-727). In Chinese, "Single Practice"; a famous student of CHAN and master of esoteric Buddhism (MIJIAO), translator, and distinguished astronomer. Yixing was a native of Julu prefecture in present-day Hebei province. He became a monk under the eminent Chan master PUJI (651-739) in the Northern school (BEI ZONG) of the early Chan tradition and also studied the VINAYA under a monk by the name of Huizhen (d.u.). Having made a name for himself at the monastery of Guoqingsi on Mt. Tiantai, in 717, Yixing was invited by Emperor Xuanzong (r. 712-756) to the palace in Luoyang. While residing at the palace, Yixing became a disciple of the TREPItAKA sUBHAKARASIMHA and, together, they translated the MAHĀVAIROCANĀBHISAMBODHISuTRA. Based on subhakarasiMha's oral interpretations provided in the course of preparing their translation, Yixing also composed an important commentary on the sutra, the Darijing shu. In 727, Yixing's reputation in astronomy and calendrics prompted the emperor to have him devise a new calendar, which is known as the Dayan li. Yixing also devised an elaborate celestial globe, which used hydraulic power to portray the precise movements of the sun, moon, and constellations across the firmament. After his death, he was bestowed the posthumous title Chan master Dahui (Great Wisdom).

Yongjia Xuanjue. (J. Yoka Genkaku; K. Yongga Hyon'gak 永嘉玄覺) (675-713). Chinese CHAN monk renowned for his writings on meditation, also known as Mingdao, Yishujue, and Great Master Zhenjue (True Awakening); Yongjia is his toponym, the name of his hometown in Zhejiang province. Yongjia made a name for himself at a young age as an expert on meditation and the TIANTAI practices of calmness and insight (see sAMATHA and VIPAsYANĀ). He is said to have later received a seal of approval (YINKE) from the sixth patriarch (LIUZU) of Chan, HUINENG, after studying under the master for only one day and a night; hence, his cognomen Yishujue (Single-Night Enlightened, or Overnight Guest). His teachings are primarily known through the influential works attributed to him, such as the ZHENGDAO GE and Yongjia ji. Yongjia was given the posthumous title Great Master Wuxiang (No Marks).

Yongjusa. (龍珠寺). In Korean, "Dragon Pearl Monastery"; the second district monastery (PONSA) of the contemporary CHOGYE CHONG of Korean Buddhism, located on Mt. Hwa in Kyonggi province. The temple was constructed in 854 and originally named Karyangsa. It was rebuilt in 1790 to serve as the royal tomb of Prince Sado (1735-1762), the father of King Chongjo (r. 1776-1800). During the Japanese colonial period (1910-1945), Yongjusa became one of thirty-one head monasteries (PONSA) and it managed forty-nine branch temples (malsa) in several regions. A monks' training school was established in 1955, followed by a meditation hall in 1969. Yongjusa's main shrine hall (TAEUNG CHoN) was constructed in 1790 and enshrines images of the buddhas sĀKYAMUNI, BHAIsAJYAGURU, and AMITĀBHA. Other cultural properties at the site include the main temple bell, bronze censers, and a hanging painting of the Buddha (KWAEBUL).

Yongming Yanshou. (J. Yomei Enju; K. Yongmyong Yonsu 永明延壽) (904-975). Chinese CHAN master in the FAYAN ZONG during the Five Dynasties and Song dynasty periods; also known as Chongxuan and Baoyizi. Yongming was a native of Lin'an prefecture in Zhejiang province. At the age of twenty-seven, Yongming left his post as a minor official to become a monk under Cuiyan Lingcan (d.u.), a disciple of the Chan master XUEFENG YICUN (822-908); he subsequently studied under TIANTAI DESHAO (891-972) and inherited his Fayan lineage. Beginning in 952, Yongming served as abbot of a series of different monasteries, including Zishengsi on Mt. Xuedou, Lingyinsi (at the request of the king of Wuyue), and Yongmingsi, whence he acquired his toponym. Yongming was renowned for his advocacy of the simultaneous cultivation of Chan meditation and NIANFO (recitation of the Buddha's name) and for his magnum opus ZONGJING LU, a massive Chan genealogical history, in one hundred rolls. His writings also include the famous WANSHAN TONGGUI JI and the WEIXIN JUE. Although Yongming's Fayan lineage declined in China during the Song dynasty, thirty-six envoys sent by the Koryo king to study under Yongming returned with his teachings to Korea, where the line continued to flourish. Yongming was posthumously given the title Chan master Zhijue (Wise Awakening).

Yongsong Chinjong. (龍城震鐘) (1864-1940). Korean monk during the Japanese colonial period (1910-1945), also known as Paek Yongsong; leader of a conservative group of monastic reformers, and one of the thirty-three signatories to the Korean Declaration of Independence in 1919. Ordained at the monastery of HAEINSA in 1879, he received full monastic precepts five years later and became a disciple of Taeŭn Nango (1780-1841) at the hermitage of Ch'ilburam. Later, he had a great awakening while he was studying the JINGDE CHUANDENGLU at the monastery of SONGGWANGSA, where he became a disciple of the SoN master HWANSoNG CHIAN. One year after Korea was annexed by Japan, he established the monastery of Taegaksa and a Son center (Sonhagwon) in Seoul in an attempt to propagate Buddhism among a wider public. On March 1, 1919, he signed the Korean Declaration of Independence as a representative of the Buddhist community and was consequently incarcerated by the Japanese colonial government for eighteen months. During his year and a half in prison, he translated many sutras (such as the voluminous AVATAMSAKASuTRA, or Hwaomgyong) from literary Chinese into han'gŭl, the Korean vernacular script, in order to make more Buddhist texts accessible to ordinary Koreans. After his release from prison in March 1921, he established a community known as the Taegakkyo (Teaching of Great Awakening) and a translation center called Samjang Yokhoe (Society for Translating the TRIPItAKA), and devoted most of his time to the translation of Buddhist scriptures. In 1928 he published the journal Mua ("No Self") and with HANYoNG CHoNGHO also published the journal Puril ("Buddha Sun"). In May 1929, he and 127 other monks submitted a petition to the Japanese colonial government asking for the restoration of the tradition of celibacy in the Buddhist monasteries. Because of his interest in ensuring the continuance of the BHIKsU and BHIKsUnĪ traditions, Yongsong personally established many ordination platforms and transmitted the complete monastic precepts (kujokkye) several times during his career. He also stressed the need for monasteries to be self-sustaining economically. In accordance with his plan for self-sustenance, he participated in the management of a mine in Hamgyong province, and in 1922, he bought some land in Manchuria and ran a farm on the compounds of a branch of the Taegakkyo. He also started a Ch'amson Manil Kyolsahoe (Ten-Thousand Day Meditation Retreat Society) at the monastery of Ch'ilbulsa and attracted many followers from other monasteries. Yongsong was a prolific writer who left behind many works, including his famous Kwiwon chongjong ("The Orthodox Teaching that Returns to the Source"), a tract that compared Buddhism to Confucianism, Daoism, and Christianity, a modern twist on the old "three teachings" syncretism of medieval East Asian philosophy. This work was one of the first attempts by Buddhists to respond to the inroads made by Christianity in modern Korea. In his treatment, he suggests that Confucianism presented a complete moral doctrine but was deficient in transcendental teachings; Daoism was deficient in moral teachings but half-understood transcendental teaching; Christianity was fairly close to the Buddhist ch'on'gyo ("teachings of [humans] and divinities"), which taught the kinds of meritorious actions that would lead to rebirth in heavenly realms but was completely ignorant of the transcendental teaching. Only Buddhism, Yongsong concluded, presented all facets of both moral and transcendental teachings. Yongsong's other works include his Kakhae illyun, Susim non, and Ch'onggong wonil. See also IMWoTKO.

Yuanwu Keqin. (J. Engo Kokugon; K. Wono Kŭkkŭn 圜悟克勤) (1062-1135). Chinese CHAN master in the LINJI ZONG; also known as Wuzhuo and Foguo. Yuanwu was a native of Chongning, Pengzhou prefecture, in present-day Sichuan province (northwest of the city of Chengdu). Little is known about his early career, but Yuanwu eventually became a disciple of the Chan master WUZU FAYAN. According to legend, Yuanwu became ill after leaving Wuzu's side, and returned as Wuzu had predicted. Yuanwu then inherited Wuzu's Linji lineage. While traveling in the south, Yuanwu befriended the statesman ZHANG SHANGYING (1043-1122) and also won the support of other powerful local figures, such as the governor of Chengdu. At their request, Yuanwu served as abbot of several monasteries, including Jiashansi and Daolinsi, where he lectured on the Xuedou gonggu by XUEDOU CHONGXUAN. These lectures were later edited together as the BIYAN LU ("Blue Cliff Record"), an influential collection of Chan cases (GONG'AN). Yuanwu was honored with several titles: Emperor Huizong (r. 1100-1125) gave him the title Chan master Foguo (Buddha Fruition) and Gaozong the title Chan master Yuanwu (Consummate Awakening). The title Chan master Zhenjue (True Enlightenment) was also bestowed upon him. Among his hundred or so disciples, DAHUI ZONGGAO, the systematizer of the KANHUA CHAN method of meditation, is most famous. Yuanwu's teachings are recorded in the Yuanwu Foguo chanshi yulu and Yuanwu chanshi xinyao.

Yun'an Puyan. ( J. Unnan Fugan; K. Unam Poam 運庵普巖) (1156-1226). Chinese CHAN master in the LINJI ZONG; a native of Siming in present-day Sichuan province. After studying under Shigu Xiyi (d.u.) and Wuyong Jingquan (1137-1207) following his ordination, Yun'an traveled to the monastery of Zhengzhao Chanyuan on Mt. Yang in 1184 and continued his training under the Chan master Songyuan Chongyue (1132-1202), who early in his vocation had been a student of DAHUI ZONGGAO. When Songyuan was moved to Guangxiao Chansi in Jiangsu province and again to Shiji Chanyuan in Anhui province, Yun'an followed and continued to serve the master for eighteen years. Yun'an eventually became Songyuan's successor. In 1202, after Songyuan's death, Yun'an was invited to reside in a new hermitage established by the master's brother in Yun'an's hometown in Siming. This hermitage was named Yun'an, whence he acquired his toponym. In 1206, Yun'an moved to Dasheng Puzhao Chansi in Jiangsu province, where he trained many eminent disciples, such as XUTANG ZHIYU. His disciples edited his sayings together in the Yun'an Puyan chanshi yulu.

Yungang. ( J. Unko; K. Un'gang 雲崗). A complex of some fifty-three carved Buddhist caves located at the southern foot of Mt. Wuzhou some ten miles west of the city of Datong, in the Chinese province of Shaanxi. The Yungang grottoes extend roughly half a mile from east to west and were carved over a fifty-year period between the fifth and sixth centuries CE under the patronage of the Northern Wei dynasty (386-534) court. The caves themselves contain roughly fifty thousand Buddhist sculptures, which are noted for their rich variety. The grottoes at Yungang are divided into eastern, western, and central zones. Most of the best-preserved grottoes are found in the western zone, although Grotto No. 1 in the eastern section still contains numerous sculptures in relief. Grotto No. 5, located inside the entrance to the site, contains a giant buddha statue. Grottoes 16-20 are especially renowned for their five colossal buddha images. The iconographical features of the sculptures preserved at the Yungang caves are similar to those found in the contemporaneous cave complex at DUNHUANG; unlike Dunhuang, however, the Yungang caves contain no paintings. Since their completion, the Yungang grottoes have fallen victim to both war and natural disasters. After the People's Republic of China was founded in 1949, the Chinese government took an interest in the site, officially placing it under state protection in 1961. In December 2001, the Yungang grottoes were listed as a UNESCO World Heritage site.

Yunmen Wenyan. ( J. Unmon Bun'en; K. Unmun Munon 雲門文偃) (864-949). Chinese CHAN monk and founder of the YUNMEN ZONG, one of the so-called five houses and seven schools (WU JIA QI ZONG) of the classical Chinese Chan tradition. Yunmen was a native of Jiaxing in present-day Zhejiang province. He was ordained at the age of sixteen by the VINAYA master Zhideng (d.u.) of the monastery Kongwangsi and two years later received the full monastic precepts at the precept platform in Piling (present-day Jiangsu province). After his full ordination, Yunmen returned to Kongwangsi and studied the DHARMAGUPTAKA vinaya (SIFEN LÜ) under Zhideng. Later, Yunmen visited Muzhou Daoming (d.u.), a prominent disciple of the eminent Chan master HUANGBO XIYUN, and continued his studies of Chan under XUEFENG YICUN. Yunmen eventually became Xuefeng's disciple and inherited his lineage. Taking his leave of Xuefeng, Yunmen continued to visit other Chan masters throughout the country, and in 911 he visited the funerary STuPA of the sixth patriarch (LIUZU) HUINENG on CAOXISHAN. Yunmen then visited Lingshu Rumin (d. 918), a famed disciple of the Chan master Fuzhou Da'an (793-883), at his monastery of Lingshu Chanyuan in Shaozhou (present-day Guangdong province) and continued to study under Lingshu until his death in 918. Yunmen was then asked by the ruler of the newly established Nan Han state (917-971), Liu Yan (r. 917-942), to succeed Lingshu's place at Lingshu Chanyuan. In 923, he established a monastery on Mt. Yunmen in the region, whence he acquired his toponym. He continued to reside on Mt. Yunmen for thirty years and frequently visited the palace of the Nan Han state to preach. In 938, Liu Cheng (943-958), monarch of the Nan Han, bestowed on him the title Great Master Kuangzhen (Genuine Truth). According to his wishes, no funerary stupa was prepared for Yunmen and his body was left in his abbot's quarters (FANGZHANG). Yunmen was especially famous for his so-called one-word barriers (YIZI GUAN), in which he used a single utterance to respond to a student's question. For example, once a monk asked him, "When you kill your parents, you repent before the Buddha. But when you kill the buddhas and patriarchs, to whom do you repent?" Yunmen answered, "Lu" ("exposed"). Eighteen of Yunmen's most famous Chan cases (GONG'AN) are collected in the BIYAN LU ("Blue Cliff Record"); his extended teachings are recorded in the Yunmen Kuangzhen chanshi guanglu.

Yunmen zong. ( J. Unmonshu; K. Unmun chong 雲門宗). In Chinese, "Cloud Gate school"; one of the so-called five houses and seven schools (WU JIA QI ZONG) of the mature Chinese CHAN tradition. It is named after the mountain, located in Shaozhou (present-day Guangdong province), where its founder YUNMEN WENYAN (864-949) taught. Yunmen Wenyan was famous for his "one-word barriers" or "one-word checkpoints" (YIZI GUAN), in which he responded to his students' questions by using only a single word. The school became one of the dominant Chan traditions in the Five Dynasties (Wudai) and early Song dynasty, producing such prominent masters as DONGSHAN SHOUCHU (910-990), Dongshan Xiaocong (d. 1030), XUEDOU ZHONGXIAN (980-1052), and Tianyi Yihuai (992-1064). Yunmen masters played a major role in the development of classical Chan literature. Xuedou Zhongxian's earlier collection of one hundred old cases (guce, viz., GONG'AN), known as the Xuedou songgu, served as the basis for the famous BIYAN LU ("Blue Cliff Record"), which added the extensive commentaries and annotations of the Linji master YUANWU KEQIN (1063-1135) to Zhongxian's original compilation. Several Yunmen masters were closely associated with the Song-dynasty intelligentsia. Dajue Huailian (1009-1090), for example, was as personal friend of the Song literocrat (shidafu) and poet Su Shi (1036-1101). Fori Qichong (1007-1072) asserted the fundamental harmony of Confucianism and Buddhism, explaining Confucian philosophical concepts using Buddhist terminology. CHANGLU ZONGZE (fl. c. late eleventh to early twelfth century) institutionalized the practice of reciting the name of the Buddha (NIANFO) into the routine of Chan monastic life and wrote an influential text on Chan monastic regulations or "rules of purity" (QINGGUI), the CHANYUAN QINGGUI ("Pure Rules for the Chan Grove"). The Yunmen school survived for about two centuries before it was eventually absorbed into the LINJI ZONG.

Yunqi Zhuhong. (J. Unsei Shuko; K. Unso Chugoeng 雲棲祩宏) (1535-1615). Chinese CHAN master of the LINJI ZONG and one of the so-called four great monks of the Ming dynasty, along with HANSHAN DEQING (1546-1623), DAGUAN ZHENKE (1543-1603), and OUYI ZHIXU (1599-1655); also known as Fohui and Lianchi. Yunqi was a native of Renhe, Hangzhou prefecture (present-day Zhejiang province). In 1566, Yunqi abandoned his family and his life as a Confucian literatus and was ordained by Xingtianli (d.u.) of West Mountain. Yunqi wandered throughout the country in search of prominent teachers and attained his first awakening at Dongchang in present-day Shandong province. In 1571, he arrived at Mt. Yunqi in Hangzhou, whence he acquired his toponym. There, he was able to restore Yunqi monastery with the help of local followers. His reputation grew after he successfully brought rain and drove tigers from the area. Yunqi remained on the mountain and composed over thirty major works. With the help of his Confucian background, Yunqi was able to draw a large public to his Chan teachings, and he also promoted the practice known as NIANFO Chan in what was at the time the largest lay society in China. His influential works, such as the CHANGUAN CEJIN, Zizhi lu ("Record of Self-Knowledge"), Sengxun riji, and Zimen chongxing lu, were edited together as the Yunqi fahui ("Anthology of the Teachings of Yunqi Zhuhong").

Yuquansi. (玉泉寺). In Chinese, "Jade Spring Monastery"; important meditative center located on Mt. Yuquan in Jingzhou prefecture (present-day Hubei province). During the Daye reign period (605-617) of the Sui dynasty, a name plaque for the monastery was prepared by the King of Jin, and the eminent monk TIANTAI ZHIYI lectured there on his FAHUA XUANYI and MOHE ZHIGUAN. Yuquansi soon became a prominent center for meditators in China. The monastery became even more famous when the CHAN master SHENXIU of the Northern school (BEI ZONG) took up residence at the site sometime in the last quarter of the seventh century. The famed Chan master NANYUE HUAIRANG is also said to have ordained at Yuquansi.

Zanning. (J. Sannei; K. Ch'annyong 贊寧) (919-1001). Chinese VINAYA master and historian. Zanning was a native of Bohai in present-day Hebei province. Sometime between 926 and 930, he was ordained at the monastery of Xiangfusi in Hangzhou, Zhejiang province, and received his monastic precepts on Mt. Tiantai. Zanning then studied the "Four-Part Vinaya" (SIFEN LÜ) of the DHARMAGUPTAKA school and became an expert in the South Mountain vinaya lineage (NANSHAN LÜ ZONG). He thus came to be known as Lühu or "Vinaya Tiger," and was given the title Great Master Mingyi (Bright Righteousness). In 978, he also received the title Great Master Tonghui (Penetrating Wisdom) and was invited to the monastery of Tianshousi. Upon the Emperor's decree, Zanning compiled the influential Buddhist biographical record, the SONG GAOSENG ZHUAN, which was completed and entered into the official canon (DAZANGJING) in 988. He also composed the DA SONG SENG SHI LÜE, one of the earliest attempts to provide a comprehensive account of the history of Buddhism throughout Asia. His other writings include the Neidian ji, Jiuling shengxian lu, and Shichao yinyi zhigui.

zillah ::: n. --> A district or local division, as of a province.



QUOTES [6 / 6 - 547 / 547]


KEYS (10k)

   3 Sri Aurobindo
   1 Saul Ader
   1 Ramakrishna
   1 Gregory the Great

NEW FULL DB (2.4M)

   16 Anonymous
   14 Edward Gibbon
   9 Voltaire
   7 Niccol Machiavelli
   5 Henry David Thoreau
   5 Dorothy Parker
   5 Ashraf Ghani
   5 Ally Condie
   4 Mary Beard
   4 John Marshall
   4 Howard Zinn
   4 Elizabeth Speller
   4 Anthony Bourdain
   3 Thomas Carlyle
   3 Susan Sontag
   3 Shashi Tharoor
   3 Rajmohan Gandhi
   3 Rachel Notley
   3 Niccolo Machiavelli
   3 Michael Cunningham

1:If India becomes an intellectual province of Europe, she will never attain to her natural greatness or fulfil the possibilities within her. ~ Sri Aurobindo, Bande Mataram - II, Indian Resurgence and Europe,
2:When one considers the clamorous emptiness of the world, words of so little sense, actions of so little merit, one loves to reflect on the great reign of silence. The noble silent men scattered here and there each in his province silently thinking and silently acting of whom no morning paper makes mention, these are the salt of the earth. ~ Ramakrishna, the Eternal Wisdom
3:scope and aim of the works of sacrifice :::
   Into the third and last category of the works of sacrifice can be gathered all that is directly proper to the Yoga of works; for here is its field of effectuation and major province. It covers the entire range of lifes more visible activities; under it fall the multiform energies of the Will-to-Life throwing itself outward to make the most of material existence. It is here that an ascetic or other-worldly spirituality feels an insurmountable denial of the Truth which it seeks after and is compelled to turn away from terrestrial existence, rejecting it as for ever the dark playground of an incurable Ignorance. Yet it is precisely these activities that are claimed for a spiritual conquest and divine transformation by the integral Yoga. Abandoned altogether by the more ascetic disciplines, accepted by others only as a field of temporary ordeal or a momentary, superficial and ambiguous play of the concealed spirit, this existence is fully embraced and welcomed by the integral seeker as a field of fulfilment, a field for divine works, a field of the total self-discovery of the concealed and indwelling Spirit. A discovery of the Divinity in oneself is his first object, but a total discovery too of the Divinity in the world behind the apparent denial offered by its scheme and figures and, last, a total discovery of the dynamism of some transcendent Eternal; for by its descent this world and self-will be empowered to break their disguising envelopes and become divine in revealing form and manifesting process as they now are secretly in their hidden essence.
   ~ Sri Aurobindo, The Synthesis Of Yoga, The Ascent of the Sacrifice - 2, 169,
4:This is the real sense and drive of what we see as evolution: the multiplication and variation of forms is only the means of its process. Each gradation contains the possibility and the certainty of the grades beyond it: the emergence of more and more developed forms and powers points to more perfected forms and greater powers beyond them, and each emergence of consciousness and the conscious beings proper to it enables the rise to a greater consciousness beyond and the greater order of beings up to the ultimate godheads of which Nature is striving and is destined to show herself capable. Matter developed its organised forms until it became capable of embodying living organisms; then life rose from the subconscience of the plant into conscious animal formations and through them to the thinking life of man. Mind founded in life developed intellect, developed its types of knowledge and ignorance, truth and error till it reached the spiritual perception and illumination and now can see as in a glass dimly the possibility of supermind and a truthconscious existence. In this inevitable ascent the mind of Light is a gradation, an inevitable stage. As an evolving principle it will mark a stage in the human ascent and evolve a new type of human being; this development must carry in it an ascending gradation of its own powers and types of an ascending humanity which will embody more and more the turn towards spirituality, capacity for Light, a climb towards a divinised manhood and the divine life.
   In the birth of the mind of Light and its ascension into its own recognisable self and its true status and right province there must be, in the very nature of things as they are and very nature of the evolutionary process as it is at present, two stages. In the first, we can see the mind of Light gathering itself out of the Ignorance, assembling its constituent elements, building up its shapes and types, however imperfect at first, and pushing them towards perfection till it can cross the border of the Ignorance and appear in the Light, in its own Light. In the second stage we can see it developing itself in that greater natural light, taking its higher shapes and forms till it joins the supermind and lives as its subordinate portion or its delegate.
   ~ Sri Aurobindo, Essays In Philosophy And Yoga, Mind of Light, 587,
5:The poet-seer sees differently, thinks in another way, voices himself in quite another manner than the philosopher or the prophet. The prophet announces the Truth as the Word, the Law or the command of the Eternal, he is the giver of the message; the poet shows us Truth in its power of beauty, in its symbol or image, or reveals it to us in the workings of Nature or in the workings of life, and when he has done that, his whole work is done; he need not be its explicit spokesman or its official messenger. The philosopher's business is to discriminate Truth and put its parts and aspects into intellectual relation with each other; the poet's is to seize and embody aspects of Truth in their living relations, or rather - for that is too philosophical a language - to see her features and, excited by the vision, create in the beauty of her image.

   No doubt, the prophet may have in him a poet who breaks out often into speech and surrounds with the vivid atmosphere of life the directness of his message; he may follow up his injunction "Take no thought for the morrow," by a revealing image of the beauty of the truth he enounces, in the life of Nature, in the figure of the lily, or link it to human life by apologue and parable. The philosopher may bring in the aid of colour and image to give some relief and hue to his dry light of reason and water his arid path of abstractions with some healing dew of poetry. But these are ornaments and not the substance of his work; and if the philosopher makes his thought substance of poetry, he ceases to be a philosophic thinker and becomes a poet-seer of Truth. Thus the more rigid metaphysicians are perhaps right in denying to Nietzsche the name of philosopher; for Nietzsche does not think, but always sees, turbidly or clearly, rightly or distortedly, but with the eye of the seer rather than with the brain of the thinker. On the other hand we may get great poetry which is full of a prophetic enthusiasm of utterance or is largely or even wholly philosophic in its matter; but this prophetic poetry gives us no direct message, only a mass of sublime inspirations of thought and image, and this philosophic poetry is poetry and lives as poetry only in so far as it departs from the method, the expression, the way of seeing proper to the philosophic mind. It must be vision pouring itself into thought-images and not thought trying to observe truth and distinguish its province and bounds and fences.

   ~ Sri Aurobindo, The Future Poetry,
6:It is natural from the point of view of the Yoga to divide into two categories the activities of the human mind in its pursuit of knowledge. There is the supreme supra-intellectual knowledge which concentrates itself on the discovery of the One and Infinite in its transcendence or tries to penetrate by intuition, contemplation, direct inner contact into the ultimate truths behind the appearances of Nature; there is the lower science which diffuses itself in an outward knowledge of phenomena, the disguises of the One and Infinite as it appears to us in or through the more exterior forms of the world-manifestation around us. These two, an upper and a lower hemisphere, in the form of them constructed or conceived by men within the mind's ignorant limits, have even there separated themselves, as they developed, with some sharpness.... Philosophy, sometimes spiritual or at least intuitive, sometimes abstract and intellectual, sometimes intellectualising spiritual experience or supporting with a logical apparatus the discoveries of the spirit, has claimed always to take the fixation of ultimate Truth as its province. But even when it did not separate itself on rarefied metaphysical heights from the knowledge that belongs to the practical world and the pursuit of ephemeral objects, intellectual Philosophy by its habit of abstraction has seldom been a power for life. It has been sometimes powerful for high speculation, pursuing mental Truth for its own sake without any ulterior utility or object, sometimes for a subtle gymnastic of the mind in a mistily bright cloud-land of words and ideas, but it has walked or acrobatised far from the more tangible realities of existence. Ancient Philosophy in Europe was more dynamic, but only for the few; in India in its more spiritualised forms, it strongly influenced but without transforming the life of the race.... Religion did not attempt, like Philosophy, to live alone on the heights; its aim was rather to take hold of man's parts of life even more than his parts of mind and draw them Godwards; it professed to build a bridge between spiritual Truth and the vital and material human existence; it strove to subordinate and reconcile the lower to the higher, make life serviceable to God, Earth obedient to Heaven. It has to be admitted that too often this necessary effort had the opposite result of making Heaven a sanction for Earth's desires; for, continually, the religious idea has been turned into an excuse for the worship and service of the human ego. Religion, leaving constantly its little shining core of spiritual experience, has lost itself in the obscure mass of its ever extending ambiguous compromises with life: in attempting to satisfy the thinking mind, it more often succeeded in oppressing or fettering it with a mass of theological dogmas; while seeking to net the human heart, it fell itself into pits of pietistic emotionalism and sensationalism; in the act of annexing the vital nature of man to dominate it, it grew itself vitiated and fell a prey to all the fanaticism, homicidal fury, savage or harsh turn for oppression, pullulating falsehood, obstinate attachment to ignorance to which that vital nature is prone; its desire to draw the physical in man towards God betrayed it into chaining itself to ecclesiastic mechanism, hollow ceremony and lifeless ritual. The corruption of the best produced the worst by that strange chemistry of the power of life which generates evil out of good even as it can also generate good out of evil. At the same time in a vain effort at self-defence against this downward gravitation, Religion was driven to cut existence into two by a division of knowledge, works, art, life itself into two opposite categories, the spiritual and the worldly, religious and mundane, sacred and profane; but this defensive distinction itself became conventional and artificial and aggravated rather than healed the disease.... On their side Science and Art and the knowledge of Life, although at first they served or lived in the shadow of Religion, ended by emancipating themselves, became estranged or hostile, or have even recoiled with indifference, contempt or scepticism from what seem to them the cold, barren and distant or unsubstantial and illusory heights of unreality to which metaphysical Philosophy and Religion aspire. For a time the divorce has been as complete as the one-sided intolerance of the human mind could make it and threatened even to end in a complete extinction of all attempt at a higher or a more spiritual knowledge. Yet even in the earthward life a higher knowledge is indeed the one thing that is throughout needful, and without it the lower sciences and pursuits, however fruitful, however rich, free, miraculous in the abundance of their results, become easily a sacrifice offered without due order and to false gods; corrupting, hardening in the end the heart of man, limiting his mind's horizons, they confine in a stony material imprisonment or lead to a final baffling incertitude and disillusionment. A sterile agnosticism awaits us above the brilliant phosphorescence of a half-knowledge that is still the Ignorance. ~ Sri Aurobindo, The Synthesis Of Yoga, The Ascent of the Sacrifice - 1,

*** WISDOM TROVE ***

1:The inner nature of man is the province of Music. ~ confucius, @wisdomtrove
2:Beauty is the sole legitimate province of the poem. ~ edgar-allan-poe, @wisdomtrove
3:The United States trades more with the province of Ontario alone than with Japan. ~ ronald-reagan, @wisdomtrove
4:It is the province of knowledge to speak, and it is the privilege of wisdom to listen. ~ oliver-wendell-holmes-sr, @wisdomtrove
5:Intuition does not denote something contrary to reason, but something outside of the province of reason. ~ carl-jung, @wisdomtrove
6:What does God really look like stripped naked? That's the province of enlightenment... the formless, perfect face of existence. ~ frederick-lenz, @wisdomtrove
7:The province of the soul is large enough to fill up every cranny of your time, and leave you much to answer for if one wretch be damned by your neglect. ~ john-dryden, @wisdomtrove
8:War is a matter of vital importance to the state; the province of life or death; the road to survival or ruin. It is mandatory that it be thoroughly studied. ~ sun-tzu, @wisdomtrove
9:There is a majesty and mystery in nature, take her as you will. The essence of poetry comes breathing to a mind that feels from every province of her empire. ~ thomas-carlyle, @wisdomtrove
10:Money, in truth, can do much, but it cannot do all. We must know the province of it, and confine it there, and even spurn it back when it wishes to get farther. ~ thomas-carlyle, @wisdomtrove
11:It is a curious thing that the more the world shrinks because of electronic communications, the more limitless becomes the province of the storytelling entertainer. ~ walt-disney, @wisdomtrove
12:There is one transcendant advantage belonging to the province of the State governments . . . -I mean the ordinary administration of criminal and civil justice. ~ alexander-hamilton, @wisdomtrove
13:To communicate is our chief business; society and friendship our chief delights; and reading, not to acquire knowledge, not to earn a living, but to extend our intercourse beyond our own time and province. ~ virginia-woolf, @wisdomtrove
14:Because your own strength is unequal to the task, do not assume that it is beyond the powers of man; but if anything is within the powers and province of man, believe that it is within your own compass also. ~ marcus-aurelius, @wisdomtrove
15:Are we alone in the universe? This is a question which goes back to the dawn of history, but for most of human history it has been in the province of religion and philosophy. Fifty or something years ago, however, it became part of science. ~ paul-davies, @wisdomtrove
16:It is very bad for (an artist) to talk about how he (creates). It is not the (artist's) province to explain or to run guided tours through the more difficult country of his work. It's none of their business that you had to learn. Let them think you were born that way. ~ ernest-hemingway, @wisdomtrove
17:Ch√¢teau and hut, stone face and dangling figure, the red stain on the stone floor, and the pure water in the village well-thousands of acres of land-a whole province of France-all France itself-lay under the night sky, concentrated into a faint hairbreadth line. So does a whole world, with all its greatnesses and littlenesses, lie in a twinkling star. ~ charles-dickens, @wisdomtrove
18:There's little in taking or giving, There's little in water or wine: This living, this living, this living, Was never a project of mine. Oh, hard is the struggle, and sparse is The gain of the one at the top, For art is a form of catharsis, And love is a permanent flop, And work is the province of cattle, And rest's for a clam in a shell, So I'm thinking of throwing the battle - Would you kindly direct me to hell? ~ dorothy-parker, @wisdomtrove
19:There is only one law of Nature-the second law of thermodynamics-which recognises a distinction between past and future more profound than the difference of plus and minus. It stands aloof from all the rest. ... It opens up a new province of knowledge, namely, the study of organisation; and it is in connection with organisation that a direction of time-flow and a distinction between doing and undoing appears for the first time. ~ sir-arthur-eddington, @wisdomtrove
20:I perceive value, I confer value, I create value, I even create — or guarantee — existence. Hence, my compulsion to make “lists.” The things (Beethoven’s music, movies, business firms) won’t exist unless I signify my interest in them by at least noting down their names. Nothing exists unless I maintain it (by my interest, or my potential interest). This is an ultimate, mostly subliminal anxiety. Hence, I must remain always, both in principle and actively, interested in everything. Taking all of knowledge as my province. ~ susan-sontag, @wisdomtrove

*** NEWFULLDB 2.4M ***

1:Work is the province of cattle. ~ Dorothy Parker,
2:War is the province of danger. ~ Carl von Clausewitz,
3:Spontaneity is the province of youth ~ Jacqueline Carey,
4:A Court of equity knows its own province. ~ Sherrilyn Kenyon,
5:Isn't mockery the province of the insecure? ~ Roland Merullo,
6:The inner nature of man is the province of Music. ~ Confucius,
7:This is the province that pioneered dreaming big. ~ Paul Martin,
8:Beauty is the sole legitimate province of the poem. ~ Edgar Allan Poe,
9:Reckless behaviour is not the sole province of the young. ~ Eva Leigh,
10:...may we not be strangers in the lush province of joy ~ Charles Wright,
11:Her parents came from a Philippine province called Bicol, ~ Cinelle Barnes,
12:It is the special province of music to move the heart. ~ Johann Sebastian Bach,
13:Success at sports is the province of the almost empty head. ~ Jonathan Franzen,
14:Happiness is the province of those who ask few questions. ~ Christopher Buehlman,
15:No part of marriage is the exclusive province of any one sex. ~ Katharine Hepburn,
16:waived his right to a province. For one thing, he did not want to ~ Robert Harris,
17:Science can prove nothing about God, because God lies outside its province. ~ Huston Smith,
18:Late-night shortwave: province of ramblers and dreamers, madmen and ranters. ~ Anthony Doerr,
19:Rebelliousness really is the province of young people-that kind of iconoclasm. ~ Steve Martin,
20:survival has never really been the province of the fittest. Merely the hungriest. ~ Anonymous,
21:Flattery is the province of fools—those who give it and those who believe it. ~ Carole Lawrence,
22:If I wished to punish a province, I would have it governed by philosophers. ~ Frederick The Great,
23:The United States trades more with the province of Ontario alone than with Japan. ~ Ronald Reagan,
24:more familiar understandings of love are the province of patriarchal totalitarianism. ~ Nick Harkaway,
25:Fellini is a just a province kid. Rome exists for Fellini, not the other way around. ~ Scott McClanahan,
26:It is the province of the tarot reader to move backwards, forwards, even sideways in time. ~ Sasha Graham,
27:I've always considered the French-speaking part of Switzerland as a province of France. ~ Jean Luc Godard,
28:It is emphatically the province and duty of the Judicial Department to say what the law is. ~ John Marshall,
29:Literature is the province of imagination, and stories, in whatever guise, are meditations on life. ~ Paula Fox,
30:I have no family. My only responsibility is the welfare of Quebec. I belong to the province. ~ Maurice Duplessis,
31:It is the province of knowledge to speak and it is the privilege of wisdom to listen. ~ Oliver Wendell Holmes Sr,
32:The book is Brittany and the Angevins: Province and Empire, 1158–1203, by Judith A. Everard, ~ Sharon Kay Penman,
33:Boredom, as her mother had always told them, was a state to be pitied, the province of the witless. ~ Kate Morton,
34:It is the province of knowledge to speak, and it is the privilege of wisdom to listen. ~ Oliver Wendell Holmes Sr,
35:Books exist for me not as physical entities with pages and binding, but in the province of my mind. ~ Sara Sheridan,
36:Intuition does not denote something contrary to reason, but something outside of the province of reason. ~ Carl Jung,
37:What has happened cannot be changed, and so you cannot touch it. Change is the province of the future. ~ Anthony Ryan,
38:"Intuition does not denote something contrary to reason, but something outside of the province of reason." ~ Carl Jung,
39:it is essential that in entering a new Province you should have the good will of its inhabitants. ~ Niccol Machiavelli,
40:His beauty was notable even in a province where the lack of it is more exceptional in a young man. ~ Tennessee Williams,
41:When you send a clerk on business to a distant province, a man of rigid morals is not your best choice. ~ Ihara Saikaku,
42:I tour as many countries as possible, and I've toured every state in America, plus every province in Canada. ~ Elton John,
43:British under Clive defeat Nawab Siraj-ud-Daula to become rulers of Bengal, the richest province of India. ~ Shashi Tharoor,
44:No one yet knows what a man's province is, and how far that province, as conceived of today, is artificial. ~ Agnes Smedley,
45:With her death Egypt became a Roman province. It would not recover its autonomy until the twentieth century. ~ Stacy Schiff,
46:But who shall parcel out His intellect by geometric rules, Split like a province into round and square? ~ William Wordsworth,
47:A stranger may easily detect what is strange to the oldest inhabitant, for the strange is his province. ~ Henry David Thoreau,
48:I have heard it very often said that an artist does not need intelligence, that his is the province of the soul ~ Robert Henri,
49:I know no national boundary where the Negro is concerned. The whole world is my province until Africa is free. ~ Marcus Garvey,
50:I always considered myself a minor writer. My province is small, and I try to explore it very, very thoroughly. ~ Leonard Cohen,
51:Never feel that a piece of criticism or advice is too much trouble to give, or that it exceeds your province. ~ Lord Mountbatten,
52:Duplicity was not the sole province of the capital, Bas knew, but the honest inheritance of the entire species. ~ Daniel Polansky,
53:The great writers of aphorisms read as if they had all known each other very well. ~ Elias Canetti, The Human Province (1942–1972).,
54:I must remain always, both in principle + actively, interested in everything. Taking all of knowledge as my province. ~ Susan Sontag,
55:In every province, the chief occupations, in order of importance, are lovemaking, malicious gossip, and talking nonsense. ~ Voltaire,
56:Ahi serva Italia, di dolore ostello, / nave senza nocchiere in gran tempesta, / non donna di province, ma bordello. ~ Dante Alighieri,
57:brutal, media-obsessed ISIS commander in Anbar Province notorious for killing Shiite truck drivers and other civilians ~ Joby Warrick,
58:God made the Sea of Galilee and its surroundings as they are. Is it the province of Mr. Grimes to improve upon the work? ~ Mark Twain,
59:Piecemeal social engineering resembles physical engineering in regarding the ends as beyond the province of technology. ~ Karl Popper,
60:This monumental work, Taijang-Kyung, is now preserved in eternity in the Hal-in-sa Temple, Mount Kaya, in the province ~ Pearl S Buck,
61:Mengding Mountain on the Tibetan Plateau in northwestern Sichuan Province is likely the birthplace of cultivated tea. ~ Mary Lou Heiss,
62:To gain your own voice, forget about having it heard. Become a saint of your own province and your own consciousness. ~ Allen Ginsberg,
63:Less than fifteen cents to the province and more than twenty-five cents to Ottawa, this is far from being excessive! ~ Maurice Duplessis,
64:Power was not the province of those who made choices. Power was the ability to set the context in which choices were made. ~ Seth Dickinson,
65:stooges of the Raj, this well-entrenched, Raj-preferred party of landlords and landowners—Muslims in the province’s west, ~ Rajmohan Gandhi,
66:One lives in the naïve notion that later there will be more room than in the entire past. —Elias Canetti, The Human Province ~ Gretchen Rubin,
67:My fellow, you strike me at present as being situated in the moon, kingdom of dream, province of illusion, capital: Soap-Bubble. ~ Victor Hugo,
68:What does God really look like stripped naked? That's the province of enlightenment...the formless, perfect face of existence. ~ Frederick Lenz,
69:Palace Barracks, Holywood, a secure army base where British army families live during their tour of duty in the Province. The ~ Martin McGartland,
70:War is the province of danger and therefore courage above all things is the first quality of a warrior, von Clausewitz maintained. ~ Joe Haldeman,
71:I confess that I have as vast contemplative ends, as I have moderate civil ends: for I have taken all knowledge to be my province. ~ Francis Bacon,
72:The bog? What is that again?” “Every province has one. The place where a character’s energy returns after they are no longer… alive. ~ Lucian Bane,
73:Those who simply put their head down and power through this unsung province [Saskatchewan] are denying themselves its subtle powers. ~ Dave Bidini,
74:What did I expect him to say--that he would leave his wife? To do so was the province of fiction. Real life was not as easy as that. ~ Lynn Cullen,
75:I was a National-Socialist and I remain one...The Germany of today is no longer a great nation, it has become a province of Europe. ~ Joachim Peiper,
76:The crowd had the plump, righteous, slightly constipated look that seems the exclusive province of businessmen who belong to the GOP. ~ Stephen King,
77:It's an extraordinary thing, this tiny little province of Northern Ireland, where carnage happened. And I was part of it. I grew up in it. ~ Liam Neeson,
78:Fire isn't always an element of destruction. Classical alchemical doctrine teaches that it also has dominion over another province: change. ~ Jim Butcher,
79:For, although one may be very strong in armed forces, yet in entering a province one has always need of the goodwill of the natives. ~ Niccol Machiavelli,
80:The crowd had that plump, righteous, and slightly constipated look that seems the exclusive province of businessmen who belong to the GOP. ~ Stephen King,
81:Le romantisme anglais fut un mélange heureux de laudanum, d'exil et de phtisie; le romantisme allemand, d'alcool, de province et de suicide. ~ Emil M Cioran,
82:Nursing does not belong to a man; it is not his province. A sick child is always the mother’s property: her own feelings generally make it so. ~ Jane Austen,
83:He is older, crueler, more experienced, perhaps stronger, but survival has never really been the province of the fittest. Merely the hungriest. ~ N K Jemisin,
84:The name "Pakistan" was formed as an acronym of Muslim majority regions in India: Punjab, Afghani Province, Kashmir, Sindh and Baluchistan. ~ Firas Alkhateeb,
85:When every province of the world so teems with inhabitants that they can neither subsist where they are nor remove themselves elsewhere. ~ Niccolo Machiavelli,
86:The province of philosophy is not so much to prevent calamities befalling as to demonstrate that they are blessings when they have taken place. ~ Ernest Bramah,
87:That was a mother's obligation: to always accept her children as they were, rather than who she wanted them to be. That was the province of fathers. ~ Eva Leigh,
88:A humble, bootstrappy patriot, Knox wooed, then married Lucy Flucker, the highbrow daughter of the Loyalist governor of the province of Massachusetts. ~ Sarah Vowell,
89:The province of the soul is large enough to fill up every cranny of your time, and leave you much to answer for if one wretch be damned by your neglect. ~ John Dryden,
90:Do nothing to merely interest, assume or attract. This is not your province. Do only that wins the people you are after in the cheapest possible way ~ Claude C Hopkins,
91:It is infinitely harder to ask questions in such a way that the audience is led not to the answers (the province of the demagogue) but to new perceptions. ~ Gore Vidal,
92:The great writers of aphorisms read as if they had all known each other very well. ~ Elias Canetti (1905–1994), Jewish-Bulgarian writer. The Human Province (1942–1972),
93:War is a matter of vital importance to the state; the province of life or death; the road to survival or ruin. It is mandatory that it be thoroughly studied. ~ Sun Tzu,
94:Compromise is possible. But possibility is a vast empire, and likelihood its smallest province. Still, the province is rich, and so we work to seize it. ~ Max Gladstone,
95:It’s that blasted Independent Province!” the fourth said. “It’s been chaos since they gained sovereignty. I’ve felt it in my roots since.  A war is coming. ~ Lucian Bane,
96:Rock music is the province of the young, and it should be made by young people. I'm not running around in a pair of spandex tights trying to reclaim my youth. ~ Nick Cave,
97:Technology has now enabled a type of ubiquitous surveillance that had previously been the province of only the most imaginative science fiction writers. ~ Glenn Greenwald,
98:Art when really understood is the province of every human being. It is simply a question of doing things, anything, well. It is not an outside, extra thing. ~ Robert Henri,
99:it provokes him to think that his profession will become the exclusive province of programmers, mechanics, engineers, and the autonomous systems they design. ~ Linda Nagata,
100:For however strong you may be in respect of your army, it is essential that in entering a new Province you should have the good will of its inhabitants. ~ Niccol Machiavelli,
101:Roseto Valfortore lies one hundred miles southeast of Rome in the Apennine foothills of the Italian province of Foggia. In the style of medieval villages, ~ Malcolm Gladwell,
102:There is a majesty and mystery in nature, take her as you will. The essence of poetry comes breathing to a mind that feels from every province of her empire. ~ Thomas Carlyle,
103:In Hebei Province, in the heart of China’s northern grain belt, the average water level in the deep aquifer is dropping nearly three meters a year. Underground ~ Edward O Wilson,
104:Money, in truth, can do much, but it cannot do all. We must know the province of it, and confine it there, and even spurn it back when it wishes to get farther. ~ Thomas Carlyle,
105:It is a curious thing that the more the world shrinks because of electronic communications, the more limitless becomes the province of the storytelling entertainer. ~ Walt Disney,
106:Science is the special province of the ego. And magic and art are the special province of something else. I could name it, but I won't. It prefers to be unnamed ~ Terence McKenna,
107:There is one transcendant advantage belonging to the province of the State governments . . . -I mean the ordinary administration of criminal and civil justice. ~ Alexander Hamilton,
108:In this province Sandoval laid the foundation of a town, which, by the desire of Cortes, he named Medellin, after the latter's native place, in Estremadura. ~ Bernal D az del Castillo,
109:stooges of the Raj, this well-entrenched, Raj-preferred party of landlords and landowners—Muslims in the province’s west, Sikhs in the centre, and Hindu Jats in the east ~ Rajmohan Gandhi,
110:Childhood is the province of the imagination and when I immerse myself in it, I re-create it as it was, as it could have been, as I wanted - and didn't want - it to be. ~ Joyce Carol Oates,
111:It is not the legitimate province of the Legislature to determine which religion is true, or what false. Our government is a civil, and not a religious institution. ~ Richard Mentor Johnson,
112:Along with rising and falling water, winter is the province of wind. When the sea-breath and mountain-roar bend the hemlocks of these hills, the birds hang on as best they can. ~ Robert Pyle,
113:I have to come to terms with the paternalism of American business. Companies are expected to take on so many social responsibilities which are the province of the state in Europe. ~ Nick Denton,
114:His daughter, as part of himself, came within the normal range of his solicitude; but she was an outlying region, a subject province; and Mr. Orme's was a highly centralized polity. ~ Edith Wharton,
115:Well, Ramadi is a provincial capital of Anbar province. It's a sprawling city west of Baghdad. It's a poor city, endless cinderblock houses and high-rises almost as far as the eye can see. ~ Tom Bowman,
116:The city and province were given up to anarchy; the coloured people, elated with victory, proclaimed the slaughter of all whites, except the English, French, and American residents. ~ Henry Walter Bates,
117:we handed him back his province and left our allies to be crucified and sawn in two. They were innocent. They thought we’d stay. But we were liberals and we didn’t want a bad conscience. ~ Graham Greene,
118:A second railway in Tibet opened, between Lhasa, the capital, and the second city, Shigatse. The first, in 2006, linked Qinghai province with Lhasa. The railways are the highest in the world. ~ Anonymous,
119:If India becomes an intellectual province of Europe, she will never attain to her natural greatness or fulfil the possibilities within her. ~ Sri Aurobindo, Bande Mataram - II, Indian Resurgence and Europe,
120:The views of the Contact Group member-states must be taken seriously, as well as the guidelines set out in their document on Kosovo, which clearly says that the province should not be divided. ~ Martti Ahtisaari,
121:Philanthropy is involved with basic innovations that transform society, not simply maintaining the status quo or filling basic social needs that were formerly the province of the public sector. ~ David Rockefeller,
122:About half of the loyalists who left the United States ended up going north to Canada, settling in the province of Nova Scotia and also becoming pioneering settlers in the province of New Brunswick. ~ Rachel Martin,
123:Change is the province of leaders. It is the work of leaders to inspire people to do things differently, to struggle against uncertain odds, and to persevere toward a misty image of a better future. ~ James M Kouzes,
124:While there is perhaps a province in which the photograph can tell us nothing more than what we see with our own eyes, there is another in which it proves to us how little our eyes permit us to see. ~ Dorothea Lange,
125:Does he [the president] possess the power of making war? That power is exclusively vested in Congress. . . . It is the exclusive province of Congress to change a state of peace into a state of war. ~ William Paterson,
126:Sometimes, when one goes back to the scene of one’s childhood, things seem smaller. What was mysterious and the sole province of adults suddenly seems commonplace and mundane when viewed with mature eyes. ~ Robin Hobb,
127:War is the province of chance. In no sphere of human activity is such a margin to be left for this intruder. It increases the uncertainty of every circumstance, and deranges the course of events. ~ Carl von Clausewitz,
128:Permian recalls the former Russian province of Perm in the Ural Mountains. For Cretaceous (from the Latin for chalk) we are indebted to a Belgian geologist with the perky name of J. J. d’Omalius d’Halloy. ~ Bill Bryson,
129:Our government is operating within an unprecedented revenue shortfall and that we have an obligation to all citizens of the province to manage our finances responsibly. And that's what we're going to do. ~ Rachel Notley,
130:Now I should rather suppose there is no reason for it: it is the fashion to be unhappy. To have a reason for being so would be exceedingly commonplace: to be so without any is the province of genius. ~ Thomas Love Peacock,
131:To communicate is our chief business; society and friendship our chief delights; and reading, not to acquire knowledge, not to earn a living, but to extend our intercourse beyond our own time and province. ~ Virginia Woolf,
132:The province of science, on the other hand, is not to take so wide a survey, but to gain knowledge piece-meal: to locate points inductively, and thus to plot out the curve which we believe existence constitutes. ~ Anonymous,
133:Because your own strength is unequal to the task, do not assume that it is beyond the powers of man; but if anything is within the powers and province of man, believe that it is within your own compass also. ~ Marcus Aurelius,
134:Food is everything we are. It's an extension of nationalist feeling, ethnic feeling, your personal history, your province, your region, your tribe, your grandma. It's inseparable from those from the get-go. ~ Anthony Bourdain,
135:It is the peculiar province of the legislature to prescribe general rules for the government of society; the application of those rules to individuals in society would seem to be the duty of other departments. ~ John Marshall,
136:Maybe they’d be interested in joining our bridge club.” The last bridge my parents had anything to do with involved the Gansu Province, dynamite, and a really ticked-off yak, but I just smiled and said, “Thanks. ~ Ally Carter,
137:Where land was controlled by noblemen and/or the Church in other parts of Europe, in the province of Holland, circa 1500, only 5 percent of the land was owned by nobles, while peasants owned 45 percent of it. ~ Russell Shorto,
138:Every sane man recognises that unlimited liberty is anarchy, or rather is nonentity. The civic idea of liberty is to give the citizen a province of liberty; a limitation within which a citizen is a king. ~ Gilbert K Chesterton,
139:And innovation is no longer the province of in-house experts and research and development labs, but is produced through crowdsourcing and the contribution of ideas by independent participants in the platform. ~ Geoffrey G Parker,
140:A U.S. intelligence report leaked to the press grimly labeled Ramadi and Anbar Province “all but lost.” Virtually no one thought it possible that U.S. forces could turn the situation around there and win. Through ~ Jocko Willink,
141:Science can point out dangers, but science cannot turn the direction of minds and hearts. That is the province of spiritual powers within and without our very beginnings-powers that are the mysteries of life itself. ~ Oren Lyons,
142:The Tartar looked at the sky. The stars were as many as at home, there was the same blackness around, but something was missing. At home, in Simbirsk province, the stars were not like that at all, nor was the sky. ~ Anton Chekhov,
143:The Communists in Cuba didn't assist Castro in his revolution. They weren't on the side of the students. They didn't do anything to help in the invasion or the long-continuing struggle from the Oriente province down. ~ Dorothy Day,
144:Complete self-government for the province [gubernia and region], district and community through bureaucrats elected by universal suffrage; the abolition of all local and provincial authorities appointed by the state. ~ Vladimir Lenin,
145:Nothing is more usual than for philosophers to encroach upon the province of grammarians; and to engage in disputes of words, while they imagine that they are handling controversies of the deepest importance and concern. ~ David Hume,
146:PRIEST, WILLIAM. Travels in the United States of America (1793-1797). London: 1802. PROUD, ROBERT. History of Pennsylvania (1681-1742). Also Description of the Province from 1760-1770. 2 Vols. Philadelphia: 1797 and 1798. ~ Anonymous,
147:If you see in a province the oppression of the poor and the violation of justice and righteousness, a do not be amazed at the matter, b for the high official is watched by a higher, and there are yet higher ones over them. ~ Anonymous,
148:If we are generous enough, we can stretch our souls everywhere and everywhen else. If we succeed in doing so, we shall discover that our present embraces the past and the future and that the whole world is our province. ~ George Sarton,
149:It was officially known as Kwan-li-so Number 18. That meant Penal Labor Colony in Korean. It was a concentration camp. It was a gulag. It actually was hell, near the Taedong River in North Korea's P'yongan-namdo province. ~ David Baldacci,
150:Sometimes electricity provides unexpected benefits. In a remote village in China's Fujian province in which young men have traditionally had a hard time finding wives, the arrival of electricity has attracted more brides ~ Christopher Flavin,
151:It is emphatically the province and duty of the judicial department to say what the law is...If two laws conflict with each other, the courts must decide on the operation of each...This is of the very essence of judicial duty. ~ John Marshall,
152:The province of Texas is still part of the Mexican dominions, but it will soon contain no Mexicans; the same thing has occurred whenever the Anglo-Americans have come into contact with populations of a different origin. ~ Alexis de Tocqueville,
153:Because your own strength is unequal to the task, do not assume that it is beyond the powers of man; but if anything is within the powers and province of man, believe that it is within your own compass also.
Marcus Aurelius ~ Marcus Aurelius,
154:I probably live in the best province for independent filmmakers. Manitoba has a sort of thieving-magpie approach, trying to lift productions from other provinces as well as from other countries. It makes it very hard for me to leave. ~ Guy Maddin,
155:The fifth province is not anywhere here or there, north or south, east or west. It is a place within each of us. It is that place that is open to the other, that swinging door which allows us to venture out and others to venture in. ~ Mary Robinson,
156:Have you ever, on a cloudless night, looked down from a passing aircraft flying over Canada? Endless, glowing strings of cities, towns, and homesteads. Stretching on and on, one province to the next. With only the stars in the distance. ~ Paul Martin,
157:I now never make the preparations for penetrating into some small province of nature hitherto undiscovered without breathing a prayer to the Being who hides His secrets from me only to allure me graciously on to the unfolding of them. ~ Louis Agassiz,
158:Lots of things are not possible for municipalities, suburbs, or collections of them now. They are not possible and they would become possible, because they would have more authority. They would have the same authority as a province now. ~ Jane Jacobs,
159:He dived deeper and deeper into his books; he had taken all obsolescence to be his province; in his disgust at the stupid usual questions, "Will it pay?" "What good is it?" and so forth, he would only read what was uncouth and useless. ~ Arthur Machen,
160:This is what she hated most about the on-line world, the shadows as much as the bright lights of the legal nets: too many men assumes that the nets were exclusively their province, and were startled and angry to find out that it wasn't. ~ Melissa Scott,
161:We must widen the circle of our love till it embraces the whole village; the village in its turn must take into its fold the district, the district the province, and so on until the scope of our love becomes co-terminous with the world. ~ Mahatma Gandhi,
162:Cfr. D. Priori, Misure di polizia contro l’uso di barbe e baffi, in «Archivio storico per le province napoletane», 1961, III serie, vol. I, pp. 369-377; R. Zagaria, Il pallore e la barba durante il Risorgimento, Catania, Guaitolini, 1928. ~ Stefano Pivato,
163:"Are we alone in the universe?" This is a question which goes back to the dawn of history, but for most of human history it has been in the province of religion and philosophy. Fifty or something years ago, however, it became part of science. ~ Paul Davies,
164:Kindness and compassion towards all living things is a mark of a civilized society. Conversely, cruelty, whether it is directed against human beings or against animals, is not the exclusive province of any one culture or community of people. ~ Cesar Chavez,
165:But elephants have souls. Anything that can get drunk, he reasoned, must have some soul. Perhaps this is all “soul” means. Events between soul and soul are not God’s direct province: they are under the influence either of Fortune, or of virtue. ~ Thomas Pynchon,
166:By steady, persistent steps the sense of security departed from Roman Britain. Its citizens felt by daily experience a sense that the world-wide system of which they formed a partner province was in decline. They entered a period of alarm. ~ Winston S Churchill,
167:Poincaré [was] the last man to take practically all mathematics, pure and applied, as his province. ... Few mathematicians have had the breadth of philosophic vision that Poincaré had, and none in his superior in the gift of clear exposition. ~ Eric Temple Bell,
168:The dark cloud, which had been cleared by the Phoenician discoveries, and finally dispelled by the arms of Caesar, again settled on the shores of the Atlantic, and a Roman province [Britain] was again lost among the fabulous Islands of the Ocean. ~ Edward Gibbon,
169:The point is to develop the childlike inclination for play and the childlike desire for recognition and to guide the child over to important fields for society. Such a school demands from the teacher that he be a kind of artist in his province. ~ Albert Einstein,
170:For the first time since 1815, Russia was denied control of the Polish capital. It was a signal triumph for the Central Powers. The Germans now set their long-term sights on Finland, Russia’s province since the Swedes had been driven out in 1808. ~ Martin Gilbert,
171:That was in 1957. And there I found out that Germany is a kind of province. I didn't know anything about expressionism, about the Bauhaus and Dada and surrealism. I was uneducated, so to speak - and everybody else was more or less uneducated, too. ~ Georg Baselitz,
172:In the province of the mind, what one
believes to be true is true or becomes
true, within certain limits to be found
experientially and experimentally. These
limits are further beliefs to be transcended.
In the mind there are no limits. ~ John C Lilly,
173:I find I look at this province with very different eyes then when I arrived. I recollect I then thought of it as singularly level, but now after galloping over the montañas my own only surprise is what could have induced me to have ever called it level! ~ Charles Darwin,
174:Critics are always complaining about the materialism of hip-hop and accusing the artists of living way above their means. But this ostentatious sort of spending isn't strictly the province of hip-hop. It's almost like a continuation of the American Dream. ~ Simon de Pury,
175:Blue is the most common eye color in Oria Province, but there is something different about his eyes and I'm not sure what it is. More depth? I wonder what he sees when he looks at me. If he seems to have depth to me, do I seem shallow and transparent to him? ~ Ally Condie,
176:The memory of Mark Antony and his attempts to create a new eastern Hellenistic empire had not yet died. So sensitive was the situation under Augustus that the emperor prohibited independent visits to the new province by Roman senators and eminent knights. ~ Elizabeth Speller,
177:a South American mercenary who served as Inspector General of the Turkish forces in Armenia, reported that the Governor-General of the province had ordered the local authorities in Adil Javus ‘to exterminate all Armenian males of twelve years of age and over’. ~ Niall Ferguson,
178:Europe becomes more and more a province of Islam, a colony of Islam. And Italy is an outpost of that province, a stronghold of that colony... In each of our cities lies a second city: a Muslim city, a city run by the Quran. A stage in the Islamic expansionism. ~ Oriana Fallaci,
179:An artist is a provincial who finds himself somewhere between a physical reality and a metaphysical one. It’s this in-between that I’m calling a province, this frontier country between the tangible world and the intangible one. That is the realm of the artist. ~ Federico Fellini,
180:Hinduism is like the Ganga, pure and unsullied at its source but taking in its course the impurities in the way. Even like the Ganga it is beneficent in its total effect. It takes a provincial form in every province, but the inner substance is retained everywhere. ~ Mahatma Gandhi,
181:VOTES AND PROCEEDINGS OF ASSEMBLY. The House of Representatives of the Province of Pennsylvania. Vol. I, Two Parts (1662-1707), Philadelphia: 1752; Vol. II (1707-1726), Philadelphia: 1753; Vol. III (1726-1744), Philadelphia: 1754; Vol. IV (1744-1758, Philadelphia: 1774. ~ Anonymous,
182:In this distribution of powers the wisdom of our constitution is manifested. It is the province and duty of the Executive to preserve to the Nation the blessings of peace. The Legislature alone can interrupt those blessings, by placing the Nation in a state of War. ~ Alexander Hamilton,
183:It is very bad for (an artist) to talk about how he (creates). It is not the (artist's) province to explain or to run guided tours through the more difficult country of his work. It's none of their business that you had to learn. Let them think you were born that way. ~ Ernest Hemingway,
184:The idea that the government—any government—had a responsibility to help support those of able body who couldn’t support themselves was alien. That was charity, and charity was the province of churches or local associations and in no way the responsibility of government. ~ Zachary Karabell,
185:What is an artist? A provincial who finds himself somewhere between a physical reality and a metaphysical one... It’s this in-between that I’m calling a province, this frontier country between the tangible world and the intangible one - which is really the realm of the artist. ~ Federico Fellini,
186:Thanh Hoa itself is a rich agricultural province. Rice fields, a pattern of many shades of green, stretch far into the distance along the road, which also winds through foothills and the fringes of heavy jungle where tigers are said to roam. The vegetation, wild or cultivated, is lush. ~ Noam Chomsky,
187:Force is as pitiless to the man who possesses it, or thinks he does, as it is to its victims; the second it crushes, the first it intoxicates. Those who use it and those who endure it are turned to stone… a soul which has entered the province of force will not escape this except by a miracle. ~ Ron Rash,
188:If you see oppression of the poor and perversion of justice and righteousness in the province, don't be astonished at the situation, because one official protects another official, and higher officials protect them. 9 The profit from the land is taken by all; the king is served by the field. ~ Anonymous,
189:If you see oppression of the poor and perversion of justice and righteousness in the province, don't be astonished at the situation, because one official protects another official, and higher officials protect them. 9 The profit from the land is taken by all; the king is served by the field. ~ Anonymous,
190:The study of economic organization commonly proceeds as though market and administrative modes of organization were disjunct. Market organi­zation is the province of economists. Inter­nal organization is the concern of organization theory specialist. And never the twain shall meet. ~ Oliver E Williamson,
191:Sire—I have received an order, under your majesty's seal, to put to death all the protestants in my province. I have too much respect for your majesty, not to believe the letter a forgery; but if (which God forbid) the order should be genuine, I have too much respect for your majesty to obey it. ~ John Foxe,
192:Militarily, the great movements of resistance against colonial powers in the 18th and 19th century were almost all from Sufis: Imam Shamil in Caucasia, Amir Abd al Qadir in Algeria, The Barelvi family in the modern province of India, today which is Pakistan, and you can go down the line. ~ Seyyed Hossein Nasr,
193:The idea that the government—any government—had a responsibility to help support those of able body who couldn’t support themselves was alien. That was charity, and charity was the province of churches or local associations and in no way the responsibility of government. Yet those attitudes ~ Zachary Karabell,
194:The whole land seems aroused to discussion on the province of woman, and I am glad of it. We are willing to bear the brunt of thestorm, if we can only be the means of making a break in that wall of public opinion which lies right in the way of woman's rights, true dignity, honor and usefulness. ~ Angelina Grimke,
195:...discontented inhabitants who willingly admit a foreign power either through excessive ambition or through fear, as was the case with the Etolians, who admitted the Romans into Greece. So it was with every province that the Romans entered: they were brought in by the inhabitants themselves. ~ Niccol Machiavelli,
196:What's really important to remember is that this type of legislation exists in one form or another in every other province in the country. The right to refuse unsafe work is a right that is enjoyed by every other farm worker, paid farm worker, in the country and every other paid worker in Alberta. ~ Rachel Notley,
197:What a conception of art must those theorists have who exclude portraits from the proper province of the fine arts! It is exactly as if we denied that to be poetry in which the poet celebrates the woman he really loves. Portraiture is the basis and the touchstone of historic painting. ~ August Wilhelm von Schlegel,
198:In the province of the mind what one believes to be true, either is true or becomes true within certain limits. These limits are to be found experimentally and experientially. When so found these limits turn out to be further beliefs to be transcended. In the province of the mind there are no limits. ~ John C Lilly,
199:Paul and his companions traveled throughout the region of Phrygia and Galatia, having been kept by the Holy Spirit from preaching the word in the province of Asia. 7 - When they came to the border of Mysia, they tried to enter Bithynia, but the Spirit of Jesus would not allow them to.
[Acts - 16:6-7] ~ Anonymous,
200:There are problems to whose solution I would attach an infinitely greater importance than to those of mathematics, for example touching ethics, or our relation to God, or concerning our destiny and our future; but their solution lies wholly beyond us and completely outside the province of science. ~ Carl Friedrich Gauss,
201:Franco-Albertans have created a valuable legacy throughout the province. Our Government is pleased to support these projects, which showcase the thriving Francophone community in Calgary. We will continue to support our official languages and protect, celebrate, and strengthen Canada's linguistic duality. ~ Shelly Glover,
202:Some think that Russia should become a kind of a U.S. province, where it should supply natural resources to the United States and the rest of the world. But these people ignore one very important thing: The Russian people will never agree to this scenario. Russia is ultimately a self-sufficient country. ~ Mikhail Gorbachev,
203:The Analytical Engine has no pretensions whatever to originate anything. It can do whatever we know how to order it to perform. It can follow analysis; but it has no power of anticipating any analytical relations or truths. Its province is to assist us to making available what we are already acquainted with. ~ Ada Lovelace,
204:was only when talk veered toward that fogged-in province of burning bushes and giant obsidian cubes that we learned—mostly the hard way—that the more irrational a person’s belief, and the less evidence available to support it, the more likely he is to beat you up for suggesting that belief is wrongheaded. I ~ Ron Currie Jr,
205:For a moment the rank felt as though they had just returned from single-handedly conquering a distant province. They felt, in fact, tremendously bucked-up, which was how Lady Ramkin would almost certainly have put it and which was definitely several letters of the alphabet away from how they normally felt. ~ Terry Pratchett,
206:In his experience, the initial bridge of trust and comradeship too easily splinters under the pressure of personal ambition or rots through as proximity leads to a greater understanding of the other's flaws. Before long, a promotion or a move to a different province sends the last planks sweeping down a river. ~ Jenny White,
207:When the province of physical theory was extended to encompass microscopic phenomena through the creation of quantum mechanics, the concept of consciousness came to the fore again. It was not possible to formulate the laws of quantum mechanics in a fully consistent way without reference to the consciousness. ~ Eugene Wigner,
208:Our problem is this: we usually discover him within some denominational or Christian ghetto. We meet him in a province and, having caught some little view, we paint him in smaller strokes. The Lion of Judah is reduced to something kittenish because our understanding cannot, at first, write larger definitions. ~ Calvin Miller,
209:A smaller unit, the Kunming Group, whose attacks have been traced to I.P. addresses in Kunming, the capital of Yunnan Province, seemed focused on targets in Vietnam, Mr. Stewart said. It deployed malware and so-called spear phishing attacks that tried to entice victims to click on messages and links in Vietnamese. ~ Anonymous,
210:In these remote corners, I have discovered a center point, where East met West, and although there has been a collision of cultures, there is now a new Christian identity that is distinctly Chinese.

The circuitous mountain path in Yunnan province is red because over many years it has been soaked with blood. ~ Liao Yiwu,
211:The text of his speech, including some of the heckling that apparently even an emperor had to endure, was inscribed on bronze and put on display in the province, in what is now the city of Lyon, where it still survives. Claudius, it seems, did not get the chance that Cicero had to make adjustments for publication. ~ Mary Beard,
212:The first two things Gaudencio Rivera was made aware of--within hours of arriving by carabao-drawn cart at the secluded town of Tagbaoran on the island province of Palawan--were these: that the most beautiful woman in creation dwelt by the river, and that it was pointless to even dream of being loved by her. ~ Dean Francis Alfar,
213:But in almost every province of the Roman world, an army of fanatics, without authority and without discipline, invaded the peaceful inhabitants; and the ruin of the fairest structures of antiquity still displays the ravages of those barbarians who alone had time and inclination to execute such laborious destruction. ~ Edward Gibbon,
214:This was what she hated most about the on-line world, the shadows as much as the bright lights of the legal nets: too many men assumed that the nets were exclusively their province, and were startled and angry to find out that it wasn't...rather than ever admit fear, they walked with raised hackles, looking for a fight. ~ Melissa Scott,
215:The constitution is either a superior paramount law, unchangeable by ordinary means, or it is on a level with ordinary legislative acts, alterable when the legislature shall please to alter it. It is emphatically the province and duty of the judicial department to say what the law is. This is the very essence of judicial duty. ~ John Marshall,
216:The particular province of the shaman is the province of soul, that which feeds our embodied life, or fails to feed it. From a shamanic point of view, the relationship with animal allies, or animals that show themselves in animal forms, is a vital part of living. We're fully embodied, with full access to our natural soul energy. ~ Robert Moss,
217:No more than a famous master can be replaced and another take over the completion of the half-finished painting he has left behind can the great poet and thinker, the great statesman and the great soldier, be replaced. For their activity lies always in the province of art. It is not mechanically trained but inborn by God's grace. ~ Adolf Hitler,
218:ONCE I STOOD on the bank of a rice paddy in rural Sichuan Province, and a lean and aging Chinese peasant, wearing a faded forty-year-old blue jacket issued by the Mao government in the early years of the Revolution, stood knee deep in water and apropos of absolutely nothing shouted defiantly at me, “We Chinese invented many things! ~ Mark Kurlansky,
219:Imagine that leader of all the enemy, in that great plain of Babylon, sitting on a sort of throne of smoking flame, a horrible and terrifying sight. Watch him calling together countless devils, to despatch them into different cities till the whole world is covered, forgetting no province or locality, no class or single individual. ~ Ignatius of Loyola,
220:I would like to see the Punjab, North-West Frontier Province, Sind and Baluchistan amalgamated into a single State. Self-government within the British Empire, or without the British Empire, the formation of a consolidated North-West Indian Muslim State appears to me to be the final destiny of the Muslims, at least of North-West India. ~ Muhammad Iqbal,
221:If you go into Hasakah province in northeast Syria, that's an area that's as big as Lebanon. It's controlled by the Kurds, the Christians and the moderate Sunnis. And there are airstrips and hotels. You could settle a lot of people there.All we would have to do is be willing to provide them with some weaponry, some defensive weaponry. ~ Benjamin Carson,
222:The risk of leaving East Prussia, hearth of Junkerdom and the Hohenzollerns, to be held by only nine divisions was hard to accept, but Frederick the Great had said, “It is better to lose a province than split the forces with which one seeks victory,” and nothing so comforts the military mind as the maxim of a great but dead general. ~ Barbara W Tuchman,
223:The rural Chinese in Henan Province mixed alcohol and business like you wouldn’t believe. Perhaps as a result, they also had a charming nationalistic blind spot: they honestly believed they could out-drink everyone else on the planet. As an Irish-American who outweighed them by 50 pounds, I had come to find this both amusing and useful. ~ Matthew Polly,
224:Justice?... Justice is a delusion you will not find on this or any other sphere.
And wisdom? Wisdom is no part of dreams, lithe walker, though dreams are a part of the sum of each life's experiences, which is the only wisdom that matters.
But revelation? That is the province of dream. It can be yours, but only if your heart is strong ~ Neil Gaiman,
225:When one considers the clamorous emptiness of the world, words of so little sense, actions of so little merit, one loves to reflect on the great reign of silence. The noble silent men scattered here and there each in his province silently thinking and silently acting of whom no morning paper makes mention, these are the salt of the earth. ~ Sri Ramakrishna,
226:Imagine that leader of all the enemy, in that great plain of Babylon, sitting on a sort of throne of smoking flame, a horrible and terrifying sight. Watch him calling together countless devils, to despatch them into different cities till the whole world is covered, forgetting no province or locality, no class or single individual. ~ Saint Ignatius of Loyola,
227:In war the chief incalculable is the human will, which manifests itself in resistance, which in turn lies in the province of tactics. Strategy has not to overcome resistance, except from nature. Its purpose is to diminish the possibility of resistance, and it seeks to fulfil this purpose by exploiting the elements of movement and surprise. ~ B H Liddell Hart,
228:I didn't ever consider poetry the province exclusively of English and American literature and I discovered a great amount in reading Polish poetry and other Eastern European poetry and reading Russian poetry and reading Latin American and Spanish poetry and I've always found models in those other poetries of poets who could help me on my path. ~ Edward Hirsch,
229:In a practical syllogism, the major premise is an opinion, while the minor premise deals with particular things, which are the province of perception. Now when the two premises are combined, just as in theoretic reasoning the mind is compelled to affirm the resulting conclusion, so in the case of practical premises you are forced at once to do it. ~ Aristotle,
230:There are, of course, a number of epistemological questions, some of which lie more in the province of the philosopher than they do the economist or the social scientist. The one with which I am particularly concerned here is that of the role of knowledge in social systems, both as a product of the past and as a determinant of the future. ~ Kenneth E Boulding,
231:If some lose their whole fortunes, they will drag many more down with them . . . believe me that the whole system of credit and finance which is carried on here at Rome in the Forum, is inextricably bound up with the revenues of the Asiatic province. If Those revenues are destroyed, our whole system of credit will come down with a crash. ~ Marcus Tullius Cicero,
232:Withdraw from the Canada Pension Plan... Collect our own revenue from personal income tax... Resume provincial responsibility for health-care policy. If Ottawa objects to provincial policy, fight in the courts... [E]ach province should raise its own revenue for health... It is imperative to take the initiative, to build firewalls around Alberta. ~ Stephen Harper,
233:Were there many sick people in Europe that you recall? Any notable outbreaks in your province?"
"I don't know. I don't actually remember anything before the surgery."
His eyebrows rose, his blue eyes sucking in all the light of the room. "The cybernetic operation?"
"No, the sex change."
The doctor's smile faltered.
"I'm joking. ~ Marissa Meyer,
234:Being perfectly turned out, from kid slippers to lace parasol, including pearl-embroidered petticoats and the third new pair of gloves that day, was the exclusive province of the American woman. More, it was her patriotic duty. The daughters of dukes could indulge in loose-waisted “pre-Raphaelite” dresses, but Americans had to look like aristocrats. ~ Carol Wallace,
235:In the province of the mind, what one believes to be true, either is true or becomes true within certain limits. These limits are to be found experientially and experimentally. When the limits are determined, it is found that they are further beliefs to be transcended. In the province of the mind, there are no limits. The body imposes definite limits. ~ John C Lilly,
236:I used to think I had no will to power. Now I perceive that I vented it on thoughts, rather than people. Conquering an unknown province of knowledge. Getting the better of a problem. Forcing ideas to associate or come apart. Bullying recalcitrant words to assume a certain pattern. All the fun of being a dictator without any risks and responsibilities. ~ Aldous Huxley,
237:Sichuanese dialect is like Mandarin put through a mangle. So the Mandarin ‘sh’ becomes ‘s’, vowels are stretched out like warm toffee, there are pirate-like rolling ‘r’ sounds at the end of sentences, and no one can tell the difference between ‘n’ and ‘l’ or ‘f’ and ‘h’ (the province of Hunan, for example, is known in Sichuan, helpfully, as ‘Fulan’). ~ Fuchsia Dunlop,
238:Château and hut, stone face and dangling figure, the red stain on the stone floor, and the pure water in the village well-thousands of acres of land-a whole province of France-all France itself-lay under the night sky, concentrated into a faint hairbreadth line. So does a whole world, with all its greatnesses and littlenesses, lie in a twinkling star. ~ Charles Dickens,
239:Because Matthew, more than any other NT document, addresses Jewish concepts closely paralleled in the emerging rabbinic movement, the common scholarly view that he wrote from the Roman province of Syria (which included Judea and Galilee) makes good sense. Some scholars also find similarities between Matthew and other documents from early Syrian Christianity. ~ Anonymous,
240:In the province of Cicao on Haiti, where he and his men imagined huge gold fields to exist, they ordered all persons fourteen years or older to collect a certain quantify of gold every three months. When they brought it, they were given copper tokens to hang around their necks. Indians found without a copper token had their hands cut off and bled to death. ~ Howard Zinn,
241:When armed squads confiscated eight bulls, seven cows, four calves, three horses, thirty-six tons of wheat, a cart, a threshing machine, and a mill from B. Bondarenko of Aktyubinsk province, while sentencing him to a year in prison, he asked the presiding judge to provide an explanation for the basis of his conviction because he was not guilty of a crime. ~ Stephen Kotkin,
242:So near are the boundaries of panegyric and invective, that a worn-out sinner is sometimes found to make the best declaimer against sin. The same high-seasoned descriptions which in his unregenerate state served to inflame his appetites, in his new province of a moralist will serve him (a little turned) to expose the enormity of those appetites in other men. ~ Charles Lamb,
243:A constant stream of red-shirted choppers came and went, men from the north and coastal fishermen—Irish, Bluenoses, Province men, a few French Canadians, St. Francis Indians, Passamaquoddy and Mi’kmaq, and P. I.s—men from Prince Edward Island—and sometimes a man from foreign shores. There were always two or three Québécois running from the impoverished habitant life. The ~ Annie Proulx,
244:I did apprentice with a Fjerdan shipbuilder. And a Zemeni gunsmith. And a civil engineer from the Han Province of Bolh. Tried my hand at poetry for a while. The results were … unfortunate. These days, being Sturmhond requires most of my attention.”

Bardugo, Leigh (2013-06-04). Siege and Storm (The Grisha Book 2) (p. 132). Henry Holt and Co. (BYR). Kindle Edition. ~ Leigh Bardugo,
245:Protestantism as such is a better defender of the interests of Germanism, in so far as this is grounded in its genesis and later tradition; it fails, however, in the moment when this defense of national interests must take place in a province which is either absent from the general line of its ideological world and traditional development, or is for some reason rejected. ~ Adolf Hitler,
246:When every province of the world so teems with inhabitants that they can neither subsist where they are nor remove elsewhere, every region being equally crowded and over-peopled, and when human craft and wickedness have reached their highest pitch, it must needs come about that the world will purge herself in one or another of these three ways: floods, plague and famine ~ Niccol Machiavelli,
247:Nebuchadnezzar spoke, saying, “. . . I make a decree that any people, nation, or language which speaks anything amiss against the God of Shadrach, Meshach, and Abed-Nego shall be cut in pieces, and their houses shall be made an ash heap; because there is no other God who can deliver like this.” Then the king promoted Shadrach, Meshach, and Abed-Nego in the province of Babylon. ~ David Jeremiah,
248:Criticism is infested with the cant of materialism, which assumes that manual skill and activity is the first merit of all men, and disparages such as say and do not, overlooking the fact, that some men, namely, poets, are natural sayers, sent into the world to the end of expression, and confounds them with those whose province is action, but who quit to imitate the sayers. ~ Ralph Waldo Emerson,
249:And then I picture my father closing the door gently but firmly and keeping me safe inside this house. Inside these walls where I have been safe for so long. But this house isn’t safe anymore, I remind myself. This house is where I first saw Ky’s face on a microcard. Where they searched my father. Is there a safe place anywhere in this Borough? In this City, this Province, this world? ~ Ally Condie,
250:There is very little doubt that she would not on any account have married him if she had known a little more about him in time. But she lived in another province; besides, what could a little girl of sixteen know about it, except that she would be better at the bottom of the river than remaining with her benefactress. So the poor child exchanged a benefactress for a benefactor. ~ Fyodor Dostoyevsky,
251:Ninety percent of our police are fighting terrorists, so we don't have enough oriented towards their key duty, which is enforcement of the law. But these are precisely the inheritance that we want to overcome. Particularly the mark for success for us would be that a woman can not only walk in the streets of every major city, but can go from one province to another without any hindrance. ~ Ashraf Ghani,
252:9At once the royal secretaries were summoned—on the twenty-third day of the third month, the month of Sivan. They wrote out all Mordecai’s orders to the Jews, and to the satraps, governors and nobles of the 127 provinces stretching from India to Cush.a These orders were written in the script of each province and the language of each people and also to the Jews in their own script and language. ~ Anonymous,
253:But here’s a little secret, between you, me, and the rest of the mall: buying shit isn’t enough. What we wish for in our secret hearts is self-expression, the chance to reveal ourselves and to be loved for this revelation, devoured by love. And thus, most of us go about our duties of commerce and leisure in a state of perpetual longing, with nocturnal excursions into the province of despair. ~ Steve Almond,
254:A PRINCE, therefore, should have no care or thought but for war, and for the regulations and training it requires, and should apply himself exclusively to this as his peculiar province; for war is the sole art looked for in one who rules, and is of such efficacy that it not merely maintains those who are born Princes, but often enables men to rise to that eminence from a private station; ~ Niccol Machiavelli,
255:Critical acumen is exerted in vain to uncover the past; the past cannot be presented; we cannot know what we are not. But one veilhangs over past, present, and future, and it is the province of the historian to find out, not what was, but what is. Where a battle has been fought, you will find nothing but the bones of men and beasts; where a battle is being fought, there are hearts beating. ~ Henry David Thoreau,
256:Chess never has been and never can be aught but a recreation. It should not be indulged in to the detriment of other and more serious avocations - should not absorb or engross the thoughts of those who worship at its shrine, but should be kept in the background, and restrained within its proper province. As a mere game, a relaxation from the severe pursuits of life, it is deserving of high commendation. ~ Paul Morphy,
257:Lusitania, after a Roman province on the Iberian Peninsula that occupied roughly the same ground as modern-day Portugal. “The inhabitants were warlike, and the Romans conquered them with great difficulty,” said a memorandum in Cunard’s files on the naming of the ship. “They lived generally upon plunder and were rude and unpolished in their manners.” In popular usage, the name was foreshortened to “Lucy. ~ Erik Larson,
258:In the province of Quebec where I come from, we speak French and the only cosmopolitan city is Montreal. Every time we tackle the subject of immigration and racial tension, it's an issue that concerns Montreal. Also, in Quebec, we have this added issue that we want people to speak French, because French is always on the verge of disappearing to some extent. I work, play and do everything in French. ~ Philippe Falardeau,
259:The research reported on in our book "A=B", has moved a whole active field of mathematics from the province of human thought to the realm of computer-fodder. It is quite exciting to think about what other fields of pure mathematics, hitherto thought to be reserved to human intelligence, might be moved to that realm next. The goal is to put ourselves out of business completely, and the work is well underway. ~ Herbert Wilf,
260:In order to have original, uncommon, and perhaps even immortal thoughts, it is enough to estrange oneself so fully from the world of things for a few moments, that the most ordinary objects and events appear quite new and unfamiliar. In this way their true nature is disclosed. What is here demanded cannot, perhaps, be said to be difficult; it is not in our power at all, but is just the province of genius. ~ Arthur Schopenhauer,
261:And here she was now, over those boulders and parched hills, with a home of her own, a husband of her own, heading toward on final, cherished province: Motherhood. How delectable it was to think of this baby, her baby, their baby. How glorious it was to know that her love for it already dwarfed anything she had ever felt as a human being, to know that there was no need any longer for pebble games. ~ Khaled Hosseini,
262:Ethics occupies a central place in philosophy because it is concerned with sin, with the origin of good and evil and with moral valuations. And since these problems have a universal significance, the sphere of ethics is wider than is generally supposed. It deals with meaning and value and its province is the world in which the distinction between good and evil is drawn, evaluations are made and meaning is sought. ~ Nikolai Berdyaev,
263:Even the Terrible Old Man who talks to leaden pendulums in bottles, buys groceries with centuried Spanish gold, and keeps stone idols in the yard of his antediluvian cottage in Water Street can only say these things were the same when his grandfather was a boy, and that must have been inconceivable ages ago, when Belcher or Shirley or Pownall or Bernard was Governor of His Majesty’s Province of the Massachusetts-Bay. ~ H P Lovecraft,
264:He also told me that I had no option but to forget all my relatives and friends in Northern Ireland, and that I had to realise that because of the IRA’s international contacts, I would have to accept that my life would always be at risk.  He told me that once I had left the Province I would be on my own, and they would not be able to guarantee my life, nor the lives of Angie and the boys if they should join me. I ~ Martin McGartland,
265:Here is the full list of the banned words I used: active homosexual; career women; Third World; blacks; Asians; Australasia; Bangalore; primitive African tribes; crippled; in a wheelchair; hare lip; ethnic minorities; handicapped; spinster; committed suicide; gypsies; Bombay; illegitimate daughter; air hostess; Siamese twins; Calcutta; deaf ears; illegal asylum seeker; province of Northern Ireland; grandmother; bachelor. ~ Rod Liddle,
266:But it had seemed, when Cory broke up with Greer, that she became like a piece of knotted wire. Where were the qualities he had loved in her? He had taken on some of them himself. Because of course everyone was soft and hard. Skeleton and skin. But women claimed for themselves the province of softness, which men cast off. Maybe it was easier to say you liked it in a woman. But really, maybe you wished you had it yourself. ~ Meg Wolitzer,
267:There's little in taking or giving, There's little in water or wine: This living, this living, this living, Was never a project of mine. Oh, hard is the struggle, and sparse is The gain of the one at the top, For art is a form of catharsis, And love is a permanent flop, And work is the province of cattle, And rest's for a clam in a shell, So I'm thinking of throwing the battle - Would you kindly direct me to hell? ~ Dorothy Parker,
268:Within a world of free trade and democracy there are no incentives for war and conquest. In such a world it is of no concern whether a nation’s sovereignty stretches over a larger or a smaller territory. Its citizens cannot derive any advantage from the annexation of a province. us territorial problems can be treated without bias and passion; it is not painful to be fair to other people’s claims for self-determination. ~ Ludwig von Mises,
269:As their song crescendoed I had the sudden conviction that the world, which I had considered the province of meaningless chances, a mad dance of atoms, was as orderly as the hexagons in the honeycombs I had just crushed into wax and that behind everything, from Helen's weaving to Circe's mountain to Scylla's death, was a subtle pattern, an order of the most compelling lucidity, but hidden from me, a code I could never crack. ~ Zachary Mason,
270:Mozart in his music was probably the most reasonable of the world's great composers. It is the happy balance between flight and control, between sensibility and self-discipline, simplicity and sophistication of style that is his particular province... Mozart tapped once again the source from which all music flows, expressing himself with a spontaneity and refinement and breath-taking rightness that has never since been duplicated. ~ Aaron Copland,
271:The Canadian Identity, it seems, is truly elusive only at home. Beyond the borders Canadians know exactly who they are, within they see themselves as part of a family, a street, a neighbourhood, a community, a province , a region, and on special occasions like Canada Day and Grey Cup weekend and, of course, during the Winter Olympics, a country called Canada. Beyond the borders, they pine; within the borders, they more often whine ~ Roy MacGregor,
272:There is only one law of Nature-the second law of thermodynamics-which recognises a distinction between past and future more profound than the difference of plus and minus. It stands aloof from all the rest. ... It opens up a new province of knowledge, namely, the study of organisation; and it is in connection with organisation that a direction of time-flow and a distinction between doing and undoing appears for the first time. ~ Arthur Eddington,
273:And loneliness. I should say something of loneliness. The panic, the sweeping hysteria that comes not when you are without others, but when you are without yourself, adrift. I should describe the filthy province of mind, the blighted district inside, the place so crowded you cannot raise the eyelids of your eyes. Your shoulders are drawn and your head has fallen and your chest is bruised by the constant assault of your heart. ~ Hilary Thayer Hamann,
274:I think that, given the threat that ISIS poses to the region and beyond, as we have sadly seen in our own country, it is important to keep the Iraqi army on a path where they can actually take back territory, to work with the Sunni tribes in Anbar province and elsewhere so that their fighters can be also deployed, to work with the Kurds to provide them the support, but they're doing the fighting. We're doing the support and enabling. ~ Hillary Clinton,
275:No man must encroach upon my province, nor I upon his. He may advise me, moderately and without pertinaciousness, but he must not expect to dictate to me. He may censure me freely and without reserve; but he should remember that I am to act by my deliberation and not his. I ought to exercise my talents for the benefit of others; but that exercise must be the fruit of my own conviction; no man must attempt to press me into the service. ~ William Godwin,
276:In a post 9/11 world, in which the uncritical essentializing of people from the "Third-World" has been legitimized; Iraq and Afghanistan have been dehumanized in an attempt to disseminate enlightenment in those "dark" regions; the discourse of "honor killings" is prevalent in the North West Frontier Province of Pakistan and has carved a niche in Western academic discourse as another instance of the incorrigible bestiality of the Orient. ~ Nyla Ali Khan,
277:And loneliness. I should say something of loneliness. The panic, the sweeping hysteria that comes not when you are without others, but when you are without yourself, adrift. I should describe the filthy province of mind, the blighted district inside, the place so crowded you cannot raise the lids of your eyes. Your shoulders are drawn and your head has fallen and your chest is bruised by the constant assault of your heart. (p. 37) ~ Hilary Thayer Hamann,
278:There's little in taking or giving
There's little in water or wine
This living, this living , this living
was never a project of mine.
Oh, hard is the struggle, and sparse is
the gain of the one at the top
for art is a form of catharsis
and love is a permanent flop
and work is the province of cattle
and rest's for a clam in a shell
so I'm thinking of throwing the battle
would you kindly direct me to hell? ~ Dorothy Parker,
279:Poincaré [was] the last man to take practically all mathematics, pure and applied, as his province. ... Few mathematicians have had the breadth of philosophic vision that Poincaré had, and none in his superior in the gift of clear exposition. ~ Eric Temple Bell,
280:Late December, in Bridgwater, Somerset, Western Province, a middle-aged man named Thomas Wharnton, going home from work shortly after midnight, was set upon by youths. These knifed him, stripped him, spitted him, basted him, carved him, served him—all openly and without shame in one of the squares of the town. A hungry crowd clamoured for hunks and slices, kept back—that the King's Peace might not be broken—by munching and dripping greyboys. ~ Anthony Burgess,
281:IN WRITING THIS BOOK, I returned again and again to what people call my homeland, where my parents were born, as was I. But for the Vietnamese, the homeland is not simply the country of origin. It is the village where one’s father was born and where one’s father was buried. My father’s father died where he was supposed to, as my father will not and as I will not, in the province of his birth, his mausoleum thirty minutes from Ho Chi Minh’s birthplace. ~ Viet Thanh Nguyen,
282:Bill is about moving forward on a long overdue provision to protect vulnerable paid farm workers in Alberta to the same degree that they are protected in every other province in the country, and we feel confident that once people see how the bill actually applies to the regular family farm, they will see that a lot of the concerns were perhaps misplaced. And it's unfortunate that we created a situation that made people worry; that was not ever our intention. ~ Rachel Notley,
283:Coda"

There's little in taking or giving,
There's little in water or wine;
This living, this living, this living
Was never a project of mine.
Oh, hard is the struggle, and sparse is
The gain of the one at the top,
For art is a form of catharsis,
And love is a permanent flop,
And work is the province of cattle,
And rest's for a clam in a shell,
So I'm thinking of throwing the battle-
Would you kindly direct me to hell? ~ Dorothy Parker,
284:Five times was Athanasius expelled from his throne; twenty years he passed as an exile or a fugitive; and almost every province of the Roman empire was successively witness to his merit, and his sufferings in the cause of the Homoousion, which he considered as the sole pleasure and business, as the duty, and as the glory, of his life. Amidst the storms of persecution, the archbishop of Alexandria was patient of labour, jealous of fame, careless of safety; and ~ Edward Gibbon,
285:It is the duty of mankind on all suitable occasions to acknowledge their dependence on the Divine Being... Almighty God would mercifully interpose and still the rage of war among the nations... He would take this province under His protection, confound the designs and defeat the attempts of its enemies, and unite our hearts and strengthen our hands in every undertaking that may be for the public good, and for our defense and security in this time of danger. ~ Benjamin Franklin,
286:Su Shi
Leaving the town in the mountains
after seven years’ exile from his native province
the old poet meets a woman one third his age,
the most beautiful he has ever seen in this place.
“Will you not write a poem about me”, she asks him,
“since you have written so many others?”
He looks at her a long time
then nods his head regretfully.
To write, he thinks to himself, or be haunted:
some questions do not have answers.
~ David Brooks,
287:Coda
There's little in taking or giving,
There's little in water or wine;
This living, this living, this living
Was never a project of mine.
Oh, hard is the struggle, and sparse is
The gain of the one at the top,
For art is a form of catharsis,
And love is a permanent flop,
And work is the province of cattle,
And rest's for a clam in a shell,
So I'm thinking of throwing the battleWould you kindly direct me to hell?
~ Dorothy Parker,
288:The Province Of The Saved
539
The Province of the Saved
Should be the Art—To save—
Through Skill obtained in Themselves—
The Science of the Grave
No Man can understand
But He that hath endured
The Dissolution—in Himself—
That Man—be qualified
To qualify Despair
To Those who failing new—
Mistake Defeat for Death—Each time—
Till acclimated—to—
~ Emily Dickinson,
289:These funds had been built up over many years, mainly from North American sources sympathetic to the cause of a united Ireland, and it seemed that the money never entered the Republic of Ireland or the Province, but would be invested mainly in Europe. There was also income from protection rackets, bank robberies, post office raids, black taxis, DSS scams, video and CD pirating, fruit machines, republican clubs and pubs and local collections among sympathisers.  ~ Martin McGartland,
290:One Crucifixion Is Recorded—only
553
One Crucifixion is recorded—only—
How many be
Is not affirmed of Mathematics—
Or History—
One Calvary—exhibited to Stranger—
As many be
As persons—or Peninsulas—
Gethsemane—
Is but a Province—in the Being's Centre—
Judea—
For Journey—or Crusade's Achieving—
Too near—
Our Lord—indeed—made Compound Witness—
And yet—
There's newer—nearer Crucifixion
Than That—
~ Emily Dickinson,
291:Observe that noses were made to wear spectacles; and so we have spectacles. Legs were visibly instituted to be breeched, and we have breeches. Stones were formed to be quarried and to build castles; and My Lord has a very noble castle; the greatest Baron in the province should have the best house; and as pigs were made to be eaten, we eat pork all year round; consequently, those who have asserted all is well talk nonsense; they ought to have said that all is for the best. ~ Voltaire,
292:The conclusion of both modern physics and depth psychology is that things are not what they seem. What we experience as normal reality—about ourselves and nature—is only the tip of an iceberg that arises out of an unfathomable abyss. Knowledge of this hidden realm is the province of the Magician, and it is through the Magician energy that we will come to understand our lives with a degree of profundity not dreamed of for at least a thousand years of Western history. ~ Robert L Moore,
293:A nonhuman animal had better have a good lawyer. In 1508, Bartholomé Chassenée earned fame and fortune for his eloquent representation of the rats of his French province. These rats had been charged with destroying the barley crop and also with ignoring the court order to appear and defend themselves. Bartholomé Chassenée argued successfully that the rats hadn't come because the court had failed to provide reasonable protection from the village cats along the route. ~ Karen Joy Fowler,
294:Was [Sisyphus] from your province?
'I don't know. I don't know if he's real,' Ky says. 'If he ever existed.'
'Then why tell his story?' I don't understand, and for a second I feel betrayed. Why did Ky tell me about this person and make me feel empathy for him when there's no proof that he ever lived at all?
Ky pauses for a moment before he answers, ...'Even if he didn't live his story, enough of us have lived lives just like it. So it's true anyway. ~ Ally Condie,
295:We shall divert through our own Country a branch of commerce which the European States have thought worthy of the most important struggles and sacrifices, and in the event of peace on terms which have been contemplated by some powers we shall form to the American union a barrier against the dangerous extension of the British Province of Canada and add to the Empire of liberty an extensive and fertile Country thereby converting dangerous Enemies into valuable friends. ~ Thomas Jefferson,
296:Separately, a second Chinese antitrust agency said Wednesday that it would punish Audi AG and Fiat Chrysler Automobiles NV's Chrysler arm after an investigation found the two car makers had pursued monopolistic practices, in Hubei province and Shanghai respectively. Under China's antimonopoly law, the companies could face fines of as much as 10% of their sales from the preceding year. The companies have said they are cooperating, though they declined to release further details. ~ Anonymous,
297:It was only when it dawned upon me that the purloiner of the treasure need not necessarily be a confirmed rogue, that he could be even a man of character, an actor and possibly a victim in the changing scenes of a revolution, it was only then that I had the first vision of a twilight country which was to become the province of Sulaco, with its high shadowy Sierra and its misty campo for mute witnesses of events flowing from the passions of men short-sighted in good and evil. ~ Joseph Conrad,
298:The Shah regarded politics as the province of demagoguery, an art in which only charlatans could excel. He had no time for what he saw as the tedious process of achieving consensus through debate and discussion and tried to justify his solitary exercise of power by insisting it was what Iran needed to catch up with lost time. He believed he was more patriotic than anyone else and needed no advice on how best to promote and protect the highest interests of the nation. ~ Mohammed Reza Pahlavi,
299:Here, the Prophet was born in a settled and stable province of a strong Roman Empire. Much as in our timeline, Islamic civilisation, the dar-al Islam, flourished, but under Roman protection. There were no centuries of inter-faith conflict in Europe – no crusades, for instance. Even in the pre-Christian days, the Romans were always pragmatic about local religions. To the Romans, Islam is a muscular sister creed of the Christianity that is their official state religion. ~ Stephen Baxter,
300:The archiepiscopal throne of Macedonius, which had been polluted with so much Christian blood, was successively filled by Eudoxus and Damophilus. Their diocese enjoyed a free importation of vice and error from every province of the empire; the eager pursuit of religious controversy afforded a new occupation to the busy idleness of the metropolis: and we may credit the assertion of an intelligent observer, who describes, with some pleasantry, the effects of their loquacious zeal. ~ Edward Gibbon,
301:The hidden village was something we found when we went to research in China we climbed a mountain in the Sichuan province where the panda sanctuary is based, and we climbed to this beautiful, mist-covered, almost primordial place and when we turned these corners these moss covered old buildings would come into view, revealing themselves and it was so beautiful and so unlike anything we'd seen that we literally took those moments and put them into the film [Kung Fu Panda 3]. ~ Jennifer Yuh Nelson,
302:And so Columbus, desperate to pay back dividends to those who had invested, had to make good his promise to fill the ships with gold. In the province of Cicao on Haiti, where he and his men imagined huge gold fields to exist, they ordered all persons fourteen years or older to collect a certain quantity of gold every three months. When they brought it, they were given copper tokens to hang around their necks. Indians found without a copper token had their hands cut off and bled to death. ~ Anonymous,
303:That all persons living in this province, who confess and acknowledge the one Almighty and eternal God, to be the Creator, Upholder and Ruler of the world; and that hold themselves obliged in conscience to live peaceably and justly in civil society, shall, in no ways, be molested or prejudiced for their religious persuasion, or practice, in manners of faith and worship, nor shall they be compelled, at any time, to frequent or maintain any religious worship, place or ministry whatever. ~ William Penn,
304:[T]he sprawl of government into every conceivable realm of life has caused the withering of traditional institutions. Fathers become unnecessary if the government provides Aid to Families with Dependent Children. Church charities lose their mission when the government provides food, shelter and income to the poor. And the non-poor no longer feel pressed to provide aid to those in need, be they aged parents or their unfortunate neighbors-"compassion" having become the province of the state. ~ Mona Charen,
305:prince of Persia” shows how Satan has organized his angelic troops: he has assigned a fallen angel to every country and province. This prince was responsible for Persia, which held the Jewish nation in captivity. Michael and Gabriel managed to destroy this evil angel’s influence over the Persian king and establish their own influence on behalf of God’s people. It is in complete harmony with the Word of God to believe that the prince of Persia who opposed Daniel was the devil’s own angel. ~ David Jeremiah,
306:By himself, man adjusts everything to his own comfort. By himself, he is an irresistible liar. For he never says anything truly unpleasant to himself without instantly counterbalancing it with something flattering. The sentence [aphorism] from the outside has an impact because it comes unexpectedly: one does not have any counterweight ready for it. One helps it with the same strength one would have met it with in other circumstances. ~ Elias Canetti, The Human Province, Seabury Press (1986), tr. 1978, p. 146,
307:In any human endeavor, some fraction of its practitioners will be motivated to pursue that activity with such concentrated focus and unalloyed passion that it will consume them utterly. One has to look no further than individuals who feel compelled to devote their lives to becoming concert pianists, say, or climbing Mount Everest. For some, the province of the extreme holds an allure that’s irresistible. And a certain percentage of such fanatics will inevitably fixate on matters of the spirit. ~ Jon Krakauer,
308:Military men are capable of abominable crimes; witness, in our recent time alone, Chile, My Lai, Greece. But it is a "liberal" fallacy that equates the military mind with real evil and makes it the exclusive province of lieutenants or generals; the secondary evil of which the military is frequently capable is aggressive, romantic, melodramatic, thrilling, orgasmic. Real evil, the suffocating evil of Auschwitz—gloomy, monotonous, barren, boring—was perpetrated almost exclusively by civilians. ~ William Styron,
309:Kissing gave a man all sorts of immoral ideas. Such ideas were, in Madame Hera's world, the province only of men. That Ainsley herself had had ideas - her mind boggled, trying to imagine what Madame would say to that.
In fact, those very ideas cropped up in several of the letters Felicity had forwarded to her, variously referred to as 'unnatural desires,' 'longing,' 'carnal stirrings,' fever of the blood,' 'indecent thoughts' and even, memorably, 'an irrepressible need to scratch an itch. ~ Marguerite Kaye,
310:Yet for all of his popular appeal and surface accessibility, Einstein also came to symbolize the perception that modern physics was something that ordinary laymen could not comprehend, “the province of priest-like experts,” in the words of Harvard professor Dudley Herschbach.3 It was not always thus. Galileo and Newton were both great geniuses, but their mechanical cause-and-effect explanation of the world was something that most thoughtful folks could grasp. In the eighteenth century of Benjamin ~ Walter Isaacson,
311:The reason is that nature has so created men that they are able to desire everything but are not able to attain everything: so that the desire being always greater than the acquisition, there results discontent with the possession and little satisfaction to themselves from it. From this arises the changes in their fortunes; for as men desire, some to have more, some in fear of losing their acquisition, there ensues enmity and war, from which results the ruin of that province and the elevation of another. ~ Niccolo Machiavelli,
312:I perceive value, I confer value, I create value, I even create — or guarantee — existence. Hence, my compulsion to make “lists.” The things (Beethoven’s music, movies, business firms) won’t exist unless I signify my interest in them by at least noting down their names. Nothing exists unless I maintain it (by my interest, or my potential interest). This is an ultimate, mostly subliminal anxiety. Hence, I must remain always, both in principle + actively, interested in everything. Taking all of knowledge as my province. ~ Susan Sontag,
313:In the evening [the Iraqi interim governor of Maysan province] asked me for fifty dollars to repair his windows, which had been destroyed in a recent demonstration. Although he was the governor, his salary was only four hundred and fifty dollars a month, and Baghdad had still not agreed to give the governors an independent budget.... For the sake of a tiny sum of money - a couple thousand dollars a month from the hundred billion we had spent on the invasion - we were alienating our key partner and successor.
p. 264 ~ Rory Stewart,
314:Through the window on the far wall, he could see the remains of his homeland-buildings crumbled, the city walls in ruins, streets upturned, Cokyrian flags flying high to lay claim to it's newest province. And that was just the outer layer. Beneath, there were families in shreds, bleeding where the death of loved ones had left wounds so deep they would eternally fester. Cannan, his son and his families murdered brother had left behind were bleeding. Hytanica had nothing left to give and, therefore, nothing else to lose. ~ Cayla Kluver,
315:I remember how people would often come to see my master Jamyang Khyentse simply to ask for his guidance for the moment of death. He was so loved and revered throughout Tibet, especially in the eastern province of Kham, that some would travel for months on end to meet him and get his blessing just once before they died. All my masters would give this as their advice, for this is the essence of what is needed as you come to die: "Be free of attachment and aversion. Keep your mind pure. And unite your mind with Buddha." ~ Sogyal Rinpoche,
316:The high principles of Masonry were particularly welcome in the uncertain times leading up to the Revolution. American society was struggling with conflicting political loyalties, denominational conflicts among competing sects, cultural and language issues resulting from increased non-English-speaking immigration, and the problems of balancing self-government with being an English Colonial province. Masonry offered itself as a cultivated and ordered society of far-thinking individuals who could help mediate differences. ~ James Wasserman,
317:The situation, therefore, in the colonial countries, is tragic,” Cesaire continued. “Wherever colonization is a fact the indigenous culture begins to rot. And, among these ruins, something begins to be born which is not a culture but a kind of subculture, a subculture which is condemned to exist on the margin allowed it by European culture. This then becomes the province of a few men, the elite, who find themselves placed in the most artificial conditions, deprived of any revivifying contact with the masses of the people. ~ James Baldwin,
318:I perceive value, I confer value, I create value, I even create — or guarantee — existence. Hence, my compulsion to make “lists.” The things (Beethoven’s music, movies, business firms) won’t exist unless I signify my interest in them by at least noting down their names.

Nothing exists unless I maintain it (by my interest, or my potential interest). This is an ultimate, mostly subliminal anxiety. Hence, I must remain always, both in principle + actively, interested in everything. Taking all of knowledge as my province. ~ Susan Sontag,
319:A Prince, therefore, should have no care or thought but for war, and for the regulations and training it requires, and should apply himself exclusively to this as his peculiar province; for war is the sole art looked for in one who rules, and is of such efficacy that it not merely maintains those who are born Princes, but often enables men to rise to that eminence from a private station; while, on the other hand, we often see that when Princes devote themselves rather to pleasure than to arms, they lose their dominions. ~ Niccol Machiavelli,
320:I examined into the mysteries of the science which has arisen in these later days to give the lie to the wisdom of the past, to reduce into the simplicity of problems the intricacies of political knowledge, to teach us the fallacy of the system which had governed by restriction, and imagined that the happiness of nations depended upon the perpetual interference of its rulers, and to prove to us that the only unerring policy of art is to leave a free and unobstructed progress to the hidden energies and province of Nature. ~ Edward Bulwer Lytton,
321:When a child reaches adolescence, there is very apt to be a conflict between parents and child, since the latter considers himself to be by now quite capable of managing his own affairs, while the former are filled with parental solicitude, which is often a disguise for love of power. Parents consider, usually, that the various moral problems which arise in adolescence are peculiarly their province. The opinions they express, however, are so dogmatic that the young seldom confide in them, and usually go their own way in secret. ~ Bertrand Russell,
322:The antagonism between science and religion, about which we hear so much, appears to me to be purely factitiousfabricated, on the one hand, by short-sighted religious people who confound a certain branch of science, theology, with religion; and, on the other, by equally short-sighted scientific people who forget that science takes for its province only that which is susceptible of clear intellectual comprehension; and that, outside the boundaries of that province, they must be content with imagination, with hope, and with ignorance ~ Thomas Huxley,
323:The view implicit in my education was that the basic narrative of Christianity had long been exposed as a myth, and that opinion was now divided as to whether its ethical teaching was of present value, a division in which the main weight went against it; religion was a hobby which some people professed and others did not; at the best it was slightly ornamental, at the worst it was the province of 'complexes' and 'inhibitions'--catchwords of the decade--and of the intolerance, hypocrisy, and sheer stupidity attributed to it for centuries. ~ Evelyn Waugh,
324:Americans don't like to waste time on stupid things, for example, on the torturous process of coming up with names for their towns. And really, why strain yourself when so many wonderful names already exist in the world?The entrance to the town of Moscow is shown in the photograph. That's right, an absolutely authentic Moscow, just in the state of Ohio, not in the USSR in Moscow province.There's another Moscow in some other state, and yet another Moscow in a third state. On the whole, every state has the absolute right to have its very own Moscow. ~ Ilya Ilf,
325:Shake accepted a yellowed slip of paper and unfolded it. It was a page torn from a copy of Julius Caesar. Minh had underlined a passage and written a rough Vietnamese translation in the margin.           “`Cry `Havoc!' and let slip the dogs of war.' Yes. It’s what I was thinking. It’s what happened on the Long Mountain March, isn’t it?”           “Yes...”           “It wasn’t the first time. It won’t be the last. Do you remember My Lai, Minh?”           “I remember what we heard. Quang Ngai Province. Civilians were executed by American soldiers. ~ Dale A Dye,
326:A sluggard once approached a fasting saint
And, baffled by despair, made this complaint:
‘The devil is a highwayman, a thief,
Who’s ruined me and robbed me of belief.’
The saint replied: ‘Young man, the devil too
Has made his way here to complain -- of you.
‘My province is the world,’ I heard him say;
‘Tell this new pilgrim of God’s holy Way
To keep his hands off what is mine -- if I
Attack him it’s because his fingers pry
In my affairs; if he will leave me be,
He’s no concern of mine and can go free. ~ Attar of Nishapur,
327:a man named Plough Jogger spoke his mind: I have been greatly abused, have been obliged to do more than my part in the war; been loaded with class rates, town rates, province rates, Continental rates and all rates . . . been pulled and hauled by sheriffs, constables and collectors, and had my cattle sold for less than they were worth. . . . . . . The great men are going to get all we have and I think it is time for us to rise and put a stop to it, and have no more courts, nor sheriffs, nor collectors nor lawyers. . . . The chairman of that meeting ~ Howard Zinn,
328:This praise, though far from fulsome, gave me pleasure and that is to my shame. But there was something in him, some power of spirit, that made me want to please him. Perhaps, it occurs to me now, it was no more than the intensity of his wish. Men are distinguished by the power of their wanting. What this one wanted became his province and his meal, he governed it and fed on it from the first moment of desire. Besides, with the perversity of our nature, being tested had made me more desire to succeed, though knowing the enterprise to be sinful. ~ Barry Unsworth,
329:Though no immediate and complete escape from the ongoing power system is possible, least of all through mass violence, the changes that will restore autonomy and initiative to the human person all lie within the province of each individual soul, once it is roused. Nothing could be more damaging to the myth of the machine, and to the dehumanized social order it has brought into existence, than a steady withdrawal of interest, a slowing down of tempo, a stoppage of senseless routines and mindless acts. And has not all this in fact begun to happen? ~ Lewis Mumford,
330:There before you is perhaps the most important juncture in all the eastern empire.” He slid down from his mount to point out one road after the other, naming the destinations. “The port of Joppa lies three days to the southwest, and beyond that the road continues on to Egypt. The southern road there leads to Jerusalem. Along the eastern route lies Tiberias, and beyond that Damascus and the province of Syria. That road leading north and west goes to Tyre, Sidon, and on to Tarsus.” They stood upon a gentle rise, perhaps two hundred feet above the Megiddo Plains. ~ Davis Bunn,
331:The Russians are going to be expansionist whether we [USA] provoke them to it or not. Russians keep saying that we're trying to encircle them. In what sense does the independence of Kosovo, a land-locked province, former Yugoslavia, with no common border with Russia, threaten Russia with encirclement? This is insulting. In what sense does the independence of Georgia constitute an encirclement? What we are facing, and we may as well give it its right name, is what I called it earlier, a chauvinistic, theocratic in part, xenophobic Russian imperialism. ~ Christopher Hitchens,
332:Only one further prize remained on the entire North Pacific coast, the peninsula of Korea. Although Japan clearly regarded Korea as essential to her security, a group of Russian adventurers resolved to steal it. Their plan was to establish a private company, the Yalu Timber Company, and begin moving Russian soldiers into Korea disguised as workmen. If they ran into trouble, the Russian government could always disclaim responsibility. If they succeeded, the empire would acquire a new province and they themselves would have vast economic concessions within it. ~ Robert K Massie,
333:There is one province in which, sooner or later, virtually everyone gets dealt a leading role--hero, heroine, or villain.... Unlike the slight implications of quotidian dilemmas that confront the average citizen in other areas of life ... the stakes in this realm could not be higher. For chances are that at some point along the line you will hold in your hands another person's heart. There is no greater responsibility on the planet. However you contend with this fragile organ, which pounds or seizes in accordance with your caprice, will take your full measure. ~ Lionel Shriver,
334:At the age of 17, Mozart was hired as a court musician to the current ruler of Salzburg, Prince-Archbishop Hieronymus Colloredo. During his time touring as a young man, Mozart had gained quite a following among the court in his home province of Salzburg, and his appointment found him surrounded by admirers, as well as friends among the other court musicians. During his four years of employment with the court in Salzburg, Mozart had the opportunity to explore new genres of music and wrote several violin concertos (a genre he would never touch again after this period). ~ Hourly History,
335:We should strengthen the faith of our people in their own future, the faith of every Canadian in Canada, and of every province in its sister province. This faith wrongs no one; burdens no one; menaces no one; dishonors no one; and, as it was said of old, faith moves mountains, so I venture reverently to express my own belief that if the difficulties of our future as a dominion were as high as the peaks of the Alps or Andes, yet that the pure patriotic faith of a united people would be all sufficient to overcome and ultimately to triumph over all such difficulties. ~ Thomas D Arcy McGee,
336:Hume is indeed sceptical about the possibility of metaphysical insights that go deeper than science can, he is not at all sceptical about the prospect of a science of human nature. His critique of metaphysics clears the way for the constructive phase of his project: an investigation of ‘the proper province of human reason’, which Hume believes will lead to the development of an empirical science of human nature based on ‘the only solid foundation’ of experiment and observation. Metaphysics tempts us to think we can find principles that show us the ultimate nature of reality. ~ David Hume,
337:You go to a lot of small communities in rural Alberta and you'll find a degree of diversity that probably hasn't existed in terms of immigration for a century - you'll find the Filipino grocery store, and the African Pentecostal church and maybe a mosque. Albertans are pro-immigration; they're also pro-integration. In my years in this province I cannot recall more than a handful of expressions of xenophobia or nativism that I've encountered. It's the land of new beginnings and fresh starts - it is rare Albertans who trace their roots here back more than a generation or two. ~ Jason Kenney,
338:Critical acumen is exerted in vain to uncover the past; the past cannot be presented; we cannot know what we are not. But one veil hangs over past, present, and future, and it is the province of the historian to find out, not what was, but what is. Where a battle has been fought, you will find nothing but the bones of men and beasts; where a battle is being fought, there are hearts beating. We will sit on a mound and muse, and not try to make these skeletons stand on their legs again. Does Nature remember, think you, that they were men, or not rather that they are bones? ~ Henry David Thoreau,
339:One of the weaknesses of much abstract painting is the attempt to substitute the inventions of the intellect for a pristine imaginative conception. The inner life of a human being is a vast and varied realm and does not concern itself alone with stimulating arrangements of color, form and design. The term 'life' as used in art is something not to be held in contempt, for it applies all of its existence, and the province of art is to react to it and not to shun it. Painting will have to deal more fully and less obliquely with life and nature's phenomena before it can again be great. ~ Edward Hopper,
340:The most rigid pattern was not the one imposed by the school system or the adolescent social system. It was the pattern I made of the people around me, a mythology for their incomprehensible activity, a mythology that brought me a cramped delight, which I protected by putting all possible space between myself and other people. the boundaries of my inner world did not extend out, but in, so that there was a large area of blank whiteness starting at my most external self and expanding inward until it reached the tiny inner province of dazzling color and activity that it safeguarded. ~ Mary Gaitskill,
341:The interpretation of the laws is the proper and peculiar province of the courts. A constitution is, in fact, and must be regarded by the judges, as fundamental law. It therefore belongs to them to ascertain its meaning, as well as the meaning of any particular act proceeding from the legislative body. If there should happen to be an irreconcilable variance between the two, that which has the superior obligation and validity ought, of course, to be preferred; or, in other words, the Constitution ought to be preferred to the statute, the intention of the people to the intention of their agents. ~ Alexander Hamilton,
342:[T]he full time is come for applying to the occult sciences the same searching analysis to which the other myths of prehistoric times have been so rigorously subjected. To trace its earliest beginnings, to investigate its development by the aid of modern criticism, is the province of physical science, no less than of the sister science of morals. ...[B]oth had a common origin. Those ancient cosmogenies, those poetical systems... struck out to solve the problem of the universe and of the destiny of mankind, were the germs of science no less than of literature... philosophy... religion. ~ Encyclopedia Brittanica (1875),
343:Footnote to May 20.—Returning from Brussels to Aachen, we ran across a batch of British prisoners. It was somewhere in the Dutch province of Limburg, a suburb, I think, of Maastricht. They were herded together in the brick-paved yard of a disused factory. We stopped and went over and talked to them. They were a sad sight. Prisoners always are, especially right after a battle. Some obviously shell-shocked, some wounded, all dead tired. But what impressed me most about them was their physique. They were hollow-chested and skinny and round-shouldered. About a third of them had bad eyes and wore glasses. ~ William L Shirer,
344:Tomb Of Evrion
In this tomb—ornately designed,
the whole of syenite stone,
covered by so many violets, so many lilies—
lies handsome Evrion,
an Alexandrian, twenty-five years old.
On his father's side, he was of old Macedonian stock,
on his mother's side, descended from a line of magistrates.
He studied philosophy with Aristokleitos,
rhetoric with Paros, and at Thebes
the sacred scriptures. He wrote a history
of the province of Arsinoites. That at least will survive.
But we've lost what was really precious: his form—
like a vision of Apollo.
~ Constantine P. Cavafy,
345:Science is increasingly answering questions that used to be the province of religion. Religion was an early attempt to answer the questions we all ask: why are we here, where did we come from? Long ago, the answer was almost always the same: gods made everything. The world was a scary place, so even people as tough as the Vikings believed in supernatural beings to make sense of natural phenomena like lightning, storms or eclipses. Nowadays, science provides better and more consistent answers, but people will always cling to religion, because it gives comfort, and they do not trust or understand science. ~ Stephen Hawking,
346:Chateau and hut, stone face and dangling figure, the red stain on the stone floor, and the pure water in the village well--thousands of acres of land--a whole province of France--all France itself--lay under the night sky, concentrated into a faint hairbreadth line. So does a whole world, with all its greatnesses and littlenesses, lie in a twinkling star. And as mere human knowledge can split a ray of light and analyse the manner of its composition, so, sublimer intelligences may read in the feeble shining of this earth of ours, every thought and act, every vice and virtue, of every responsible creature on it. ~ Charles Dickens,
347:Exceptional subjective experiences of truth, which are the province of the mystic who affects all mankind by sending forth spiritual energy into the collective consciousness, are not understandable by the majority of mankind and are therefore of limited meaning except to other spiritual seekers. This led to an effort to be ordinary, because just being ordinary in itself is an expression of Divinity; the truth of one’s real self can be discovered through the pathway of everyday life. To live with care and kindness is all that is necessary. The rest reveals itself in due time. The commonplace and God are not distinct. ~ David R Hawkins,
348:For Britain the end began in 367 when a concerted attack was made on the province by barbarians from all sides. The Bath region seems to have suffered. Villas were destroyed and the slaughtered inhabitants thrown down wells. Within a few years some semblance of stability was restored for a decade or two but in the face of increasing barbarian raids and immigration and the general disintegration of the authority of the empire, the province of Britannia dissolved into a confusion of warring factions. Populations fled from the cities and no longer was there the will or the ability to maintain the urban infrastructure. ~ Barry W Cunliffe,
349:Strategy has moved from controlling unique internal resources and erecting competitive barriers to orchestrating external resources and engaging vibrant communities. And innovation is no longer the province of in-house experts and research and development labs, but is produced through crowdsourcing and the contribution of ideas by independent participants in the platform. External resources don’t completely replace internal resources—more often they serve as a complement. But platform firms emphasize ecosystem governance more than product optimization, and persuasion of outside partners more than control of internal employees. ~ Geoffrey G Parker,
350:I assume you are the sort of person who would go backstage after the opera in hopes of hearing the prima donna crying on the telephone, or walking in on the baritone fellating the basso buffo. I respect that-I was always the same way myself-though I suspect you are not very happy. Happiness is the province of those who ask few questions. I remember, even before this was visited upon me, how I envied those who eagerly did what they were told: those who married without complaint at father's behest; those who looked up rather than sideways in church; those, in short, who honestly believed in God, good kings, and righteous wars. ~ Christopher Buehlman,
351:Let's say it once and for all: Poe and Lovecraft - not to mention a Bruno Schulz or a Franz Kafka - were what the world at large would consider extremely disturbed individuals. And most people who are that disturbed are not able to create works of fiction. These and other names I could mention are people who are just on the cusp of total psychological derangement. Sometimes they cross over and fall into the province of 'outsider artists.' That's where the future development of horror fiction lies - in the next person who is almost too emotionally and psychologically damaged to live in the world but not too damaged to produce fiction. ~ Thomas Ligotti,
352:But I can see that you are in pain, and that is the province of monsters. You drag your mother's corpse with you—it leaves a great furrow in the earth. If it is important enough to very rudely interrupt a woman who already owns two fingers she did not have this morning just to exhume those old bones, I will listen to you instead. It matters nothing to me. Believe me, it will not go easier for you if you come to feel warmly towards me because you have unburdened your soul. We have all the nights the world has ever made ahead of us. Speak of the dead in the dark, boy, and I will take her body from you, if you want to be rid of it. ~ Catherynne M Valente,
353:Ce sont les alliances où se laissent entraîner les princes berbères avec les chefs des factions romaines en lutte qui aboutissent au suicide de Juba 1er, successeur de Hiempsal II en -46 à l'agrandissement de la province romaine, à la ruine de Bogud, héritier de la partie occidentale de la Maurétanie de Bocchus Ier. Quand le second héritier, Bocchus II meurt, tout le nord de l'Afrique est administré directement par des fonctionnaires romains (33 - 25 av. J. -C.). Les deux derniers rois massyles, Juba II (25 av. - 23 ap. J.-C.) et Ptolémée (23 - 40 ap. J. -C.) font figure beaucoup plus de clients des Césars que de véritables princes autonomes.
p35 ~,
354:And so, he knows. He wants, he needs, to do the immoral, irresponsible thing. He wants to let this boy court his own destruction. He wants to commit that cruelty. Or (kinder, gentler version) he doesn't want to reconfirm his allegiance to the realm of the sensible, all the good people who take responsibility, who go to the right and necessary parties, who sell art made of two-by-fours and carpet remnants. He wants, for at least a little while, to live in that other, darker world - Blake's London, Courbet's Paris; raucous, unsanitary places where good behavior was the province of decent, ordinary people who produced no works of genius. ~ Michael Cunningham,
355:Descartes's declaration that reality divides neatly into two realms reassured the Church that the province of science would never overlap, and therefore never challenge , the world of theology and the spiritual. Science ceded the soul and the conscious mind to religion and kept the material world for itself. In return for this neat dividing up of turf, Descartes hoped, religious leaders would lay off scientists who were studying natural laws operating in the physical, nonmental realm. The ploy was only partly successful for Church science relations. Descartes himself was forced to flee Paris for Holland in search of greater tolerance. ~ Jeffrey M Schwartz,
356:The great majority of Castalians, the officials no less than the scholars and students, lived in their Pedagogic Province and their Order as if these constituted a stable, eternal, inevitable world. They knew, of course, that it had not always existed, that it had come into being slowly and amid bitter struggles in times of cruel distress; they knew it had originated at the end of the Age of Wars out of a double source: the heroically ascetic efforts of scholars, artists, and thinkers who had come to their senses, and the profound craving of the exhausted, bled, and betrayed peoples for order, normality, reason, lawfulness, and moderation. ~ Hermann Hesse,
357:No nation ever voluntarily gave up the dominion of any province, how troublesome soever it might be to govern it.... Such sacrifices, though they might frequently be agreeable to the interest, are always mortifying to the pride of every nation, and what is perhaps of still greater consequence, they are always contrary to the private interest of the governing part of it, who would thereby be deprived of the disposal of many places of trust and profit, of many opportunities of acquiring wealth and distinction, which the possession of the most turbulent, and, to the great body of the people, the most unprofitable province seldom fails to afford.23 ~ P J O Rourke,
358:Columbus, desperate to pay back dividends to those who had invested, had to make good his promise to fill the ships with gold. In the province of Cicao on Haiti, where he and his men imagined huge gold fields to exist, they ordered all persons fourteen years or older to collect a certain quantity of gold every three months. When they brought it, they were given copper tokens to hang around their necks. Indians found without a copper token had their hands cut off and bled to death. The Indians had been given an impossible task. The only gold around was bits of dust garnered from the streams. So they fled, were hunted down with dogs, and were killed. ~ Howard Zinn,
359:November 18, 2014: it’s a day that should live forever in history. On that day, in the city of Yiwu in China’s Zhejiang province, 300 kilometers south of Shanghai, the first train carrying 82 containers of export goods weighing more than 1,000 tons left a massive warehouse complex heading for Madrid. It arrived on December 9th. Welcome to the new trans-Eurasia choo-choo train. At over 13,000 kilometers, it will regularly traverse the longest freight train route in the world, 40% farther than the legendary Trans-Siberian Railway. Its cargo will cross China from East to West, then Kazakhstan, Russia, Belarus, Poland, Germany, France, and finally Spain. ~ Anonymous,
360:A vast province has now subsisted, and subsisted in a considerable degree of health and vigor for near a twelvemonth, without Governor, without public Council, without judges, without executive magistrates. How long it will continue in this state, or what may arise out of this unheard-of situation, how can the wisest of us conjecture? Our late experience has taught us that many of those fundamental principles, formerly believed infallible, are either not of the importance they were imagined to be, or that we have not at all adverted to some other far more important and far more powerful principles, which entirely overrule those we had considered as omnipotent. ~ Edmund Burke,
361:My Grief On The Sea
MY grief on the sea,
How the waves of it roll!
For they heave between me
And the love of my soul!
Abandon'd, forsaken,
To grief and to care,
Will the sea ever waken
Relief from despair?
My grief and my trouble!
Would he and I were,
In the province of Leinster,
Or County of Clare!
Were I and my darling-O heart-bitter wound!-On board of the ship
For America bound.
On a green bed of rushes
All last night I lay,
And I flung it abroad
With the heat of the day.
And my Love came behind me,
He came from the South;
His breast to my bosom,
His mouth to my mouth.
~ Douglas Hyde,
362:With Henry she had less in common. He expected of her what she had not learnt, and was not willing to acquire. A man interfering in the woman’s province meets little toleration; and Henry was extremely precise in his requirements of exact order, punctuality, and excellence, in all the arrangements of his house. While breaking her in to housekeeping, he made himself appear almost in the light of a task-master — and what was worse, of a despised task-master. Averil thought she could not respect a brother whose displeasure was manifested by petulance, not sternness, and who cared not only about his dinner, but about the tidy appearance of the drawing-room — ~ Charlotte Mary Yonge,
363:Another badass Gurkha in recent memory was Sergeant Dipprasad Pun of the Royal Gurkha Rifles. In 2010, while serving as the lone on-duty guard patrolling a small one-room outpost on the edge of the Afghan province of Helmand, Pun was suddenly ambushed by somewhere between fifteen and thirty Taliban warriors armed with RPGs and assault rifles. During his Ultimate Mega Gurkha Freakout Limit Break Mode, the five-foot-seven-inch sergeant fired off four hundred rounds of machine gun ammunition (every bullet he had), chucked seventeen grenades, detonated a remote mine, and then took an enemy soldier down by chucking a twenty-pound machine gun tripod into the dude’s face. ~ Ben Thompson,
364:Many of the politicians in Delhi and Karachi, too, had once fought together against the British; they had social and family ties going back decades. They did not intend to militarize the border between them with pillboxes and rolls of barbed wire. They laughed at the suggestion that Punjabi farmers might one day need visas to cross from one end of the province to the other. Pakistan would be a secular, not an Islamic, state, its founder, Mohammad Ali Jinnah, promised: Hindus and Sikhs would be free to practice their faiths and would be treated equally under the law. India would be better off without two disgruntled corners of the subcontinent, its people were told, less ~ Nisid Hajari,
365:Bee it therefore ordayned and enacted… that whatsoever person or persons within this province and the islands thereunto belonging, shall from henceforth blaspheme God, that is, to curse him, or shall deny our Savior Jesus Christ to be the Son of God, or shall deny the Holy Trinity, the Father, Son, and Holy Ghost, or the Godhead or any of the sayd Three Persons of the Trinity, or the Unity of the Godhead, or shall use or utter any reproachful speeches, words or languages concerning the Holy Trinity, or any of the sayd three persons thereof, shall be punished with death, and confiscation or forfeiture of all his or her land and goods to the lord proprietary and his heires. ~ Peter Manseau,
366:When they finally got to the front, it took Rin a long time to find her name. She scanned the lower half of the scroll, hardly daring to breathe. Surely she hadn’t scored well enough to make the top ten. She didn’t see Fang Runin anywhere. Only when she looked at Tutor Feyrik and saw that he was crying did she realize what had happened. Her name was at the very top of the scroll. She hadn’t placed in the top ten. She’d placed at the top of the entire village. The entire province. She had bribed a teacher. She had stolen opium. She had burned herself, lied to her foster parents, abandoned her responsibilities at the store, and broken a marriage deal. And she was going to Sinegard. ~ R F Kuang,
367:people of Yarba, who resold them to the Christians." " The inhabitants of this province (Yarba) it is supposed originated from the remnant of the children of Canaan, who were of the tribe of Nimrod. The cause of their establishment in the West of Africa was, as it is stated, in consequence of their being driven by Yar-rooba, son of Kahtan, out of Arabia to the Western Coast between Egypt and Abyssinia. From that spot they advanced into the interior of Africa, till they reach Yarba where they fixed their residence. On their way they left in every place they stopped at, a tribe of their own people. Thus it is supposed that all the tribes of the Soudan who inhabit the mountains are ~ Samuel Johnson,
368:I had killed people before, in war and as a member of the New Orleans police department, and I know what it does to you. Like the hunter, you feel an adrenaline surge of pleasure at having usurped the province of God. The person who says otherwise is lying. But the emotional attitude you form later varies greatly among individuals. Some will keep their remorse alive and feed it as they would a living gargoyle, to assure themselves of their own humanity; others will justify it in the name of a hundred causes, and they’ll reach back in moments of their own inadequacy and failure and touch again those flaming shapes that somehow made their impoverished lives historically significant. ~ James Lee Burke,
369:The order of the universe is not an assumption; it’s an observed fact. We detect the light from distant quasars only because the laws of electromagnetism are the same 10 billion light years away as here. The spectra of those quasars are recognizable only because the same chemical elements are present there as here, and because the same laws of quantum mechanics apply. The motion of galaxies around one another follows familiar Newtonian gravity. Gravitational lenses and binary pulsar spin-downs reveal general relativity in the depths of space. We could have lived in a universe with different laws in every province, but we do not. This fact cannot but elicit feelings of reverence and awe. ~ Carl Sagan,
370:Grimaud left the chamber, and led the way to the hall, where, according
to the custom of the province, the body was laid out, previously to
being put away forever. D'Artagnan was struck at seeing two open coffins
in the hall. In reply to the mute invitation of Grimaud, he approached,
and saw in one of them Athos, still handsome in death, and, in the
other, Raoul with his eyes closed, his cheeks pearly as those of the
Palls of Virgil, with a smile on his violet lips. He shuddered at seeing
the father and son, those two departed souls, represented on earth by
two silent, melancholy bodies, incapable of touching each other, however
close they might be. ~ Alexandre Dumas,
371:134. Letters are Commonplace
Letters are commonplace enough, yet what splendid things they are! When someone is in a distant province and one is worried about him, and then a letter suddenly arrives, one feels as though one were seeing him face to face. Again, it is a great comfort to have expressed one's feelings in a letter even though one knows it cannot yet have arrived. If letters did not exist, what dark depressions would come over one! When one has been worrying about something and wants to tell a certain person about it, what a relief it is to put it all down in a letter! Still greater is one's joy when a reply arrives. At that moment a letter really seems like an elixir of life. ~ Sei Sh nagon,
372:Nature to all things fixed the limits fit
And wisely curbed proud man's pretending wit.
As on the land while here the ocean gains.
In other parts it leaves wide sandy plains
Thus in the soul while memory prevails,
The solid power of understanding fails
Where beams of warm imagination play,
The memory's soft figures melt away
One science only will one genius fit,
So vast is art, so narrow human wit
Not only bounded to peculiar arts,
But oft in those confined to single parts
Like kings, we lose the conquests gained before,
By vain ambition still to make them more
Each might his several province well command,
Would all but stoop to what they understand. ~ Alexander Pope,
373:Balint pondered the programme outlined by Slawata: centralization, rule by an Imperial Council, the ancient kingdom of Hungary reduced to an Austrian province, and national boundaries to be re-arranged statistically according to the ethnic origin of the inhabitants! Why all this? To what purpose? Slawata had given him the answer: Imperial expansion in the Balkans so that feudal kingdoms for the Habsburgs reached the Sea of Marmora; and it was all to be achieved with the blood of Hungarian soldiers and paid for by Hungarian tax-money! So it was merely to help Vienna spread Austrian hegemony over the nations of the Balkans that Tisza was to be helped to build up the Hungarian national armed forces. ~ Mikl s B nffy,
374:I have only to go stubbornly on towards my aim, and I shall attain my end", thought Levin; "and it's something to work and take trouble for. This is not a matter of myself individually; the question of the public welfare comes into it. The whole system of culture, the chief element in the condition of people, must be completely transformed. Instead of poverty, general prosperity and content; instead of hostility, harmony and unity of interests. In short, a bloodless revolution, but a revolution of the greatest magnitude, beginning in the little circle of our district, then the province, then Russia, then the whole world. Because a just idea cannot but be fruitful. Yes, it's an aim worth working for. ~ Leo Tolstoy,
375:It is demonstrable," said he, "that things cannot be otherwise than as they are; for as all things have been created for some end, they must necessarily be created for the best end. Observe, for instance, the nose is formed for spectacles, therefore we wear spectacles. The legs are visibly designed for stockings, accordingly we wear stockings. Stones were made to be hewn and to construct castles, therefore My Lord has a magnificent castle; for the greatest baron in the province ought to be the best lodged. Swine were intended to be eaten, therefore we eat pork all the year round: and they, who assert that everything is right, do not express themselves correctly; they should say that everything is best. ~ Voltaire,
376:Toast For The Men Of Eidsvold
'Twas then this land of ours we drew
From centuries of ice and sorrow,
And let it of the sun's warmth borrow,
And law and plow brought order new;
We dug the wealth in mountain treasured,
Our stately ships the oceans measured,
And springtime thoughts were free to run
As round the Pole the midnight sun.
And still with God we'll conquer, hold:
Each plot reclaimed for harvest-reaping,
Each ship our sea takes to its keeping,
Each child-soul we to manhood mold,
Each spark of thought our life illuming,
Each deed to fruit of increase blooming,A province adds unto our land
And o'er our freedom guard shall stand.
~ Bjornstjerne Bjornson,
377:But no literature grows in isolation, and looking at the history of Indian writing in English is like looking at a silent movie made up of static postcards of Delhi, or Mumbai, or any other thronged Indian city: the life, the colour, the hubbub of hundreds of eager new writers and high-minded editors, peacocking poets and fiery-eyed pamphleteers, all of that has been bled out of collective memory. In the same year that Dean Mahomet wrote his Travels, the Madras Hircarrah (1794) started up, joining Hicky’s Bengal Gazette (1780) and the India Gazette (1781); the first in a flood of periodicals and journals that would breathlessly, urgently take the news of India running along from one province to another. The ~ Nilanjana Roy,
378:It is demonstrable,” said he, “that things cannot be otherwise than
as they are; for as all things have been created for some end, they must
necessarily be created for the best end. Observe, for instance, the nose
is formed for spectacles, therefore we wear spectacles. The legs are
visibly designed for stockings, accordingly we wear stockings. Stones
were made to be hewn and to construct castles, therefore My Lord has a
magnificent castle; for the greatest baron in the province ought to be
the best lodged. Swine were intended to be eaten, therefore we eat pork
all the year round: and they, who assert that everything is right, do not
express themselves correctly; they should say that everything is best. ~ Voltaire,
379:Its most memorable scene takes place in the piazza at Cesena early one morning in 1502, where the local governor, Remirro de Orco, is found in two pieces, with a bloody knife and a block of wood between them. “The ferocity of the spectacle,” Machiavelli recalls, “left the people at once satisfied and stupefied.” Cesare Borgia had made Remirro the governor of Romagna with instructions to pacify the rebellious province. This he did, but so brutally that he’d never have the loyalty of its people. So Borgia didn’t just sack his subordinate: he disassembled him and displayed the pieces. The shock and awe accomplished its purpose: at the cost of one life, others were saved that would have been lost if a new revolt had broken out. ~ John Lewis Gaddis,
380:Have you read the things that were published in Moskovskiye Novosti and Ogonyok in those days? For instance, General Kalugin’s exposures?10 Kalugin is a traitor. I saw Kalugin during my time in Leningrad when he was deputy head of the Directorate. He was an absolute loafer. A loafer, perhaps, but he remembers you. He doesn’t remember anything. He does remember, and he says that from the point of view of the intelligence service, you worked in a province and had nothing to show for your performance. Oh, he doesn’t remember a thing. He couldn’t remember me. I had no contact with him, nor did I meet him. It is I who remembers him, because he was a big boss and everybody knew him. As to whether he knew me, there were hundreds of us. ~ Vladimir Putin,
381:gain. In modern European custom, that need had been sated by the payment of war reparations into the victor’s coffers, the grabbing of a disputed province here or there, but that seemed rather picayune in view of this conflict’s cost. Instead, all the slaughter was to be justified by a new golden age of empire, the victors far richer, far grander than before. Naturally, this simply propelled the cycle to its logical, murderous conclusion. When contemplating all to be conferred upon the eventual winners, and all to be taken from the losers, how to possibly quit now? No, what was required was greater commitment—more soldiers, more money, more loss—to be redeemed when victory finally came with more territory, more wealth, more power. ~ Scott Anderson,
382:Jiang was not Han Chinese. She was a Turkic Uighur, a Muslim minority which emanated from the westernmost province of Xinjiang. Jiang’s family came from the desert capital Urumqi; her family had moved to Beijing when she was a child when Jiang’s father, a mid-ranking Party cadre, was posted to the Minorities Institute in the capital in the 1970s. Since her father was both an official and a Uighur, the family had been treated with a special deference reserved for select representatives of minority groups who served as symbols for the Party’s efforts to build ‘socialist solidarity’ between central China and the non-Han regions. In Beijing, Jiang had attended a special ‘experimental’ school reserved for the children of the Party élite. ~ Stephen Baxter,
383:Despite the risk, I don’t think it would be wise to cancel the festival,” he said, and would have left it at that had I not pursued a justification. “The Hytanicans are on edge, but there are still several days until the event. Word of the compensation we provided will spread, tempers will cool and excitement over the festival will set in. If we shut down the celebration, the people will feel twice wronged, and I’ll again be the most hated individual in the province. I’m the one they will blame.”
Narian was accustomed--as accustomed as one could be--to being disliked, but he didn’t want to lose the small bit of progress we had made toward redeeming his character. I wondered if this was in part because our marriage hung in the balance. ~ Cayla Kluver,
384:Seeking more information, I walked through the market listening to the gossip and discovered that our new general, the man sent to quell the unrest in the east, was the second son of a provincial tax collector whose only claims to recognition were that he had commanded some legions in Britain in the heady, early days of the invasion, that his brother had once stood for consul, and that he had been a governor in some African province, where the locals had thrown turnips at him.
Despairing, I returned to the house, and that despair deepened later when Horgias came home with the news that our new paragon of martial virtue had until recently been hiding in Greece, in disgrace for having fallen asleep during one of Nero’s recitals in the theatre. ~ M C Scott,
385:And a few hundred people, who risked their lives working for the Government or the RUC, have been pulled out of the Province because their undercover work had been detected by the IRA.  It is always necessary in such situations to pull out the person immediately, and often their families as well, and re-settle them in different locations throughout the mainland.  They are then given houses or apartments, new identities and sometimes a job.  Often, as the IRA keeps up its attempts to find and target these families, they have to be moved three or four times in an effort to keep them one step ahead of the gunmen.  I understand that these rescue missions, which are still carried out, have so far cost the British taxpayer between £75-£100 million. ~ Martin McGartland,
386:Christianity in this region remained as much a colonists’ religion as it would be once again during the French Empire of the twentieth century, and, just as in that later period, when the colonists left, so did the religion. Long wars during the sixth and seventh centuries forced many Romanized Africans to flee to other parts of the Mediterranean, and the Arab conquest virtually completed this process. As a Victorian scholar noted, “[T]he African churches were destroyed not because they were corrupt but because they failed to reach the hearts of the true natives of the province…. They fell because they were the churches of a party and not of a people.”4 Muslims did not have to eradicate African Christianity, because its believers had already fled. ~ Philip Jenkins,
387:You have always been my only muse. I cannot paint or sculpt. I have only my words to render your likeness. Sometimes I wish I were both God and Adam so I could tear out my rib and create you from my own flesh. I would say I’d create you from my heart, but I gave that to you when you left me. But that’s a cliché, isn’t it? Sadly, that’s all I have these days. The whole story is a cliché. I desired you. I ate of you. I lost you. That ancient story – older than the Garden, old as the Snake. I would have liked to call this story of ours The Temptation but the word temptation, once the province of pious theologians, has now been co-opted by every third second-rate romance novelist. And although I loved you, my beautiful girl, this is not a romance novel. ~ Tiffany Reisz,
388:Privacy is a protection from the unreasonable use of state and corporate power. But that is, in a sense, a secondary thing. In the first instance, privacy is the statement in words of a simple understanding, which belongs to the instinctive world rather than the formal one, that some things are the province of those who experience them and not naturally open to the scrutiny of others: courtship and love, with their emotional nakedness; the simple moments of family life; the appalling rawness of grief. That the state and other systems are precluded from snooping on these things is important - it is a strong barrier between the formal world and the hearth, extended or not - but at root privacy is a simple understanding: not everything belongs to everyone. ~ Nick Harkaway,
389:After Collecting The Autumn Taxes
From my high castle I look at the town below
Where the natives of Pa cluster like a swarm of flies.
How can I govern these people and lead them aright?
I cannot even understand what they say.
But at least I am glad, now that the taxes are in,
To learn that in my province there is no discontent.
I fear its prosperity is not due to me
And was only caused by the year's abundant crops,
The papers that lie on my desk are simple and few;
My house by the moat is leisurely and still.
In the autumn rain the berries fall from the eaves;
At the evening bell the birds return to the wood.
A broken sunlight quavers over the southern porch
Where I lie on my couch abandoned of idleness.
~ Bai Juyi,
390:The princess had accepted her fate in an effort to make the best of things, but she refused to do so any longer.
It wasn't till she was outside those walls that she'd realized the truth: the only one who could truly break her free was herself. That's why she was back. To claim what was truly hers. Not just the castle, but the province and its throne. Not just for her own happiness, but also for that of her people.
Now was the time to strike. It was why she had traveled so far, risked so much, and found strength that she hadn't known she possessed. Queen Ingrid's popularity had never been strong, but in the last few years, the kingdom had gone from indifference to downright terror. She couldn't allow her people to suffer this way any longer. It was time. ~ Jen Calonita,
391:In 63 B.C., a young Roman quaestor in Spain approached a statue of Alexander to pay homage to the commander, who had never lost a battle in his remarkable career. He broke down and wept before it. The 30-year-old realized that the Macedonian had already conquered the world at his age, while he was a mere administrator in a backwater Roman province who had frittered away his youth. The stone face smiled back at him, satisfied in his reputation as a military colossus.   This young man, Julius Caesar, eventually found his bearings and went on to his own successful career of conquest. He would raise up his own empire and lead armies to extraordinary victory. But it was to Alexander whom his knee bent, perhaps the only human worthy of such an act of praise by a Caesar. ~ Michael Rank,
392:C’était un de ces hommes politiques à plusieurs faces, sans convictions, sans grands moyens, sans audace et sans connaissance sérieuse, avocat de province, joli homme de chef-lieu, gardant un équilibre de finaud entre tous les partis extrêmes, sorte de jésuite républicain et de champignon libéral de nature douteuse, comme il en pousse par centaines sur le fumier populaire du suffrage universel.

Son machiavélisme de village le faisait passer pour fort parmi ses collègues, parmi tous les déclassés et les avortés dont on fait les députés. Il était assez soigné, assez correct, assez familier, assez aimable pour réussir. (…) On disait partout de lui « Laroche sera ministre », et il pensait aussi plus fermement que tous les autres que Laroche serait ministre. ~ Guy de Maupassant,
393:Hadrian’s dreams were realised; at least all the ambitions he believed himself to have held since boyhood were realised. Once he grasped power, he united the energy and determination of Trajan with the glittering rituals of the eastern kings of old. In just over ten years, by the time he sent his emissary to Athens, he had made the ill-used words ‘Roman peace’ a prosperous reality. He had crossed the empire, welcome in every province. He had assuaged his own curiosity and that of his people. Some thought him a scrupulous diplomatist, but they misunderstood; he was in his own way as strong and implacable as his fathers. Like them, he got what he wanted. The philosophers now come to Hadrian, and his days are full of the counsels of the wise – and the not so wise. ~ Elizabeth Speller,
394:To the man who loves art for its own sake,” remarked Sherlock Holmes, tossing aside the advertisement sheet of the Daily Telegraph, “it is frequently in its least important and lowliest manifestations that the keenest pleasure is to be derived. It is pleasant to me to observe, Watson, that you have so far grasped this truth that in these little records of our cases which you have been good enough to draw up, and, I am bound to say, occasionally to embellish, you have given prominence not so much to the many causes célèbres and sensational trials in which I have figured but rather to those incidents which may have been trivial in themselves, but which have given room for those faculties of deduction and of logical synthesis which I have made my special province. ~ Arthur Conan Doyle,
395:With just one departure daily, the station is mostly empty. But Mr. Shiekhly says that in his mind’s eye he can still see the girl, and everything else that once made the station such a special place to him: a nice restaurant over there; groups of men playing backgammon and dominoes; the officers’ lounge that was, he recalls, “beautiful and full of wood.” The station itself is a time capsule. The ticket booths in the circular room are identified by destinations long out of reach to passenger trains. One sign reads, “Booking for Mosul Train.” Another booth is where passengers once bought tickets to Turkey, Syria and Anbar Province. “Now you have to take tanks or jet fighters to get to these places,” said Ahmed Abdulrahman, 50, who has worked at the station since the late 1970s. ~ Anonymous,
396:Three days after the earthquake in Louisiana there was another geological catastrophe announced, this time in China. The coast of the province of Kiangsu, north of Nanking, about half way between the mouth of the Yangtse and the old bed of the Hwangho, was ripped apart in a powerful, thunderous earthquake; the sea gushed into this fissure and joined up with the great lakes of Pan Yoon and Hungtsu between the cities of Hwaingan and Fugyang. Apparently as a result of the earthquake, the Yangtse left its course below Nanking and flowed down towards Lake Tai and on to Hang-Cho. Loss of human life cannot, so far, even be estimated. Hundred of thousands of refugees are fleeing into the provinces to the north and south. Japanese warships have been given orders to sail to the affected area. ~ Karel apek,
397:The dilemma is this. In the modern world knowledge has been growing so fast and so enormously, in almost every field, that the probabilities are immensely against anybody, no matter how innately clever, being able to make a contribution in any one field unless he devotes all his time to it for years. If he tries to be the Rounded Universal Man, like Leonardo da Vinci, or to take all knowledge for his province, like Francis Bacon, he is most likely to become a mere dilettante and dabbler. But if he becomes too specialized, he is apt to become narrow and lopsided, ignorant on every subject but his own, and perhaps dull and sterile even on that because he lacks perspective and vision and has missed the cross-fertilization of ideas that can come from knowing something of other subjects. ~ Henry Hazlitt,
398:The Dude Center
We used to run a cow-ranch,
In all that old term meant,
But all our ancient glories
In recent years have went;
We’re takin’ summer boarders,
And, puttin’ it quite rude,
It’s now the cowboy’s province
To herd the festive dude.
We used to run an outfit,
The greatest in the West;
Our cowboys were the wonders —
Our roundups were the best;
The punchers still are with us,
But now they merely guide
The tenderfoot from Boston
Who’s learnin’ how to ride.
We used to brand our cattle
And ship ‘em wide and far;
But now we import humans
From off the Pullman car;
The dudes have got us captures
And tied and branded, too;
And the cowboy’s readin’ Ibsen
When his daily toil is through.
~ Arthur Chapman,
399:Eating Bamboo Shoots
My new province is a land of bamboo-groves:
Their shoots in spring fill the valleys and hills.
The mountain woodman cuts an armful of them
And brings them down to sell at the early market.
Things are cheap in proportion as they are common;
For two farthings, I buy a whole bundle.
I put the shoots in a great earthen pot
And heat them up along with boiling rice.
The purple nodules broken – like an old brocade;
The white skin opened – like new pearls.
Now every day I eat them recklessly;
For a long time I have not touched meat.
All the time I was living at Lo-yang
They could not give me enough to suit my taste,
Now I can have as many shoots as I please;
For each breath of the south-wind makes a new bamboo
~ Bai Juyi,
400:Some day, for instance, the word 'opinion' itself may become the recognised name of the most dangerous political vice. Men may teach themselves by habit and association to suspect those inclinations and beliefs which, if they neglect the duty of thought, appear in their minds they know not how, and which, as long as their origin is not examined, can be created by any clever organiser who is paid to do so. The most easily manipulated State in the world would be one inhabited by a race of Nonconformist business men who never followed up a train of political reasoning in their lives, and who, as soon as they were aware of the existence of a strong political conviction in their minds, should announce that it was a matter of 'conscience' and therefore beyond the province of doubt or calculation. ~ Graham Wallas,
401:In 1995, China passed the National Maternal and Infant Health Law, forbidding couples who had “genetic diseases of a serious nature” to procreate. The conditions listed include mental retardation, mental illness, and seizures. These couples were required to undergo a mandatory premarital medical exam. It was hugely controversial, reviving international criticism that China practices eugenics. Actually, the wording of the national law was considered mild. Some provinces had more explicit regulations. In 1988, Gansu Province passed local regulations prohibiting “reproduction of the dull-witted, idiots, or blockheads.” Gansu abolished that law in 2002. Similarly, the National Maternal and Infant Health Law was defanged when requirements for the premarital medical examination were quietly dropped in 2003. ~ Mei Fong,
402:Caroline was slightly taken aback (shocked would be much too strong a word to describe her feelings). It was difficult to know what to say to Widgeon. The whole affair seemed so topsy turvy, so typical of the topsy turvy conditions of modern life. She had tried to help her country by Growing More Food, and all she had got for the trouble involved was more trouble. She had received countless forms to fill up; she had been visited by inspectors who seemed to think it was within their province to be rude to her, and who treated her as if she were trying to defraud the authorities of their just and lawful due, and she had been fined quite heavily for doing something she did not know was wrong. Somewhat naturally Caroline felt annoyed and the opportunity to break the law without any risk at all tempted her considerably. ~ D E Stevenson,
403:The first thing to consider is education. This is divided into two parts, music and gymnastics. Each has a wider meaning than at present: 'music' means everything that is in the province of the muses, and 'gymnastics' means everything concerned with physical training and fitness. 'Music' is almost as wide as what we should call 'culture', and 'gymnastics' is somewhat wider than what we call 'athletics'. Culture is to be devoted to making men gentlemen, in the sense which, largely owing to Plato, is familiar in England. The Athens of his day was, in one respect, analogous to England in the nineteenth century: there was in each an aristocracy enjoying wealth and social prestige, but having no monopoly of political power; and in each the aristocracy had to secure as much power as it could by means of impressive behaviour. ~ Anonymous,
404:One of the few advantages that India has over England is a great Knowability. After five years' service a man is directly or indirectly acquainted with the two or three hundred Civilians in his Province, all the Messes of ten or twelve Regiments and Batteries, and some fifteen hundred other people of the non-official caste, in ten years his knowledge should be doubled, and at the end of twenty he knows, or knows something about, every Englishman in the Empire, and may travel anywhere and everywhere without paying hotel-bills. Globe-trotters who expect entertainment as a right, have, even within my memory, blunted this open-heartedness, but none the less to-day, if you belong to the Inner Circle and are neither a Bear nor a Black Sheep, all houses are open to you, and our small world is very, very kind and helpful. ~ Rudyard Kipling,
405:Cathy smiled back ‘Rules were meant to be broken.’

‘Don’t disagree,’ Oversteegen replied immediately. ‘Indeed they are. Providin’, however, that the one breakin’ the rules is willin’ t’ pay the price for it, and the price gets charged in full. Which you were, Lady Catharine. I saluted you for it then–at the family dinner table that night, in fact. My mother was infinitely more indisposed thereafter; tottered back t’ her bed cursin’ me for an ingrate. My father was none too pleased either. I salute you for it, again. Otherwise, breakin’ rules becomes the province of brats instead of heroes. Fastest way I can think t’ turn serious political affairs int’ a playpen. A civilized society needs a conscience, and conscience can’t be developed without martyrs—real ones—against which a nation can measure its crimes and sins. ~ David Weber,
406:I began by preparing my pasta: my deft fingers forming the intricate shapes of rigatoni, ravioli, spiralli, spaghetti, cannelloni, and linguini. Then I would brew sauces of sardines, or anchovies or zucchini or sheep's cheeses, of saffron, pine nuts, currants, and fennel. These I would simmer in the huge iron cauldrons, which were constantly bubbling above the fire. My pasta dishes, I have to say, were famous throughout the province, and the scent of my sauces carried by the breeze was sufficient to fill a poor man's stomach.
I also kneaded bread and produced the finest pane rimacinato, the most delicious ciabatta and focaccia that had ever been tasted in the region. Sometimes I would add wild thyme to the dough, or fragrant rosemary; plucked fresh from the hedgerow, with the dew still on the leaves. ~ Lily Prior,
407:when you got right down to the place where the cheese binds, there was no such thing as marriage, no such thing as union, that each soul stood alone and ultimately defied rationality. That was the mystery. And no matter how well you thought you knew your partner, you occasionally ran into blank walls or fell into pits. And sometimes (rarely, thank God) you ran into a full-fledged pocket of alien strangeness, something like the clear-air turbulence that can buffet an airliner for no reason at all. An attitude or belief which you had never suspected, one so peculiar (at least to you) that it seemed nearly psychotic. And then you trod lightly, if you valued your marriage and your peace of mind; you tried to remember that anger at such a discovery was the province of fools who really believed it was possible for one mind to know another. ~ Stephen King,
408:When you got right down to the place where the cheese binds, there was no such thing as marriage, no such thing as union - each soul stood alone and ultimately defied rationality. That was the mystery. And no matter how well you thought you knew your partner, you occasionally ran into blank walls or fell into pits. And sometimes (rarely, thank God) you ran into a full fledged pocket of alien strangeness, something like the clear-air turbulence that can buffet an air-liner for no reason at all. An attitude or belief which you had never suspected, one so peculiar (at least to you) that it seemed nearly psychotic. And then you tread lightly, if you valued your marriage and your peace of mind; you tried to remember that anger at such discovery was the province of fools who really believed it was possible for one mind to really know another. ~ Stephen King,
409:THE BREAK OF ULSTER   Of the line of Ir, son of Milesius, to whom Ulster had been ap- portioned, that Branch called the Clan na Rory (after its great founder, Rory, who had been King of Ulster, and also High-King of Ireland) now had ruled the province for nearly 700 years, namely, for more than 300 years before the Christian Era, and more than 300 years after. And their capital city and the King’s seat had been at Emain Macha. During practically all of this time, from that fort’s first founding by Queen Macha, the Royal Court of Ulster had been a court of splendour, and ever noted as a centre of chivalry and the home of poetry. And the power, and might, and courage of Ulster had ever acted as a brake on the ambitions of their neighbouring royal depredators, and especially the royal aggressors of Connaught, who were made to fear Ulster’s name. But ~ Seumas MacManus,
410:The avoidance or postponement of answering such deep and basic questions was traditionally the province of religion, which excelled at it. Every thinking person always knew that an insuperable mystery lay at the final square of the game board, and that there was no possible way of avoiding it. So, when we ran out of explanations and processes and causes that preceded the previous cause, we said, “God did it.” Now, this book is not going to discuss spiritual beliefs nor take sides on whether this line of thinking is wrong or right. It will only observe that invoking a deity provided something that was crucially required: it permitted the inquiry to reach some sort of agreed-upon endpoint. As recently as a century ago, science texts routinely cited God and “God’s glory” whenever they reached the truly deep and unanswerable portions of the issue at hand. ~ Robert Lanza,
411:It was the verdict of ancient writers that men afflict themselves in evil and weary themselves in the good, and that the same effects result from both of these passions. For whenever men are not obliged to fight from necessity, they fight from ambition; which is so powerful in human breasts, that it never leaves them no matter to what rank they rise. The reason is that nature has so created men that they are able to desire everything but are not able to attain everything: so that the desire being always greater than the acquisition, there results discontent with the possession and little satisfaction to themselves from it. From this arises the changes in their fortunes; for as men desire, some to have more, some in fear of losing their acquisition, there ensues enmity and war, from which results the ruin of that province and the elevation of another. ~ Niccol Machiavelli,
412:Britain was playing on the same weakness in America, punishing American exporters in the confidence that all thirteen states, behaving as separate actors, could not retaliate. Spain was also busy pitting Northern and Southern states against each other in its attempt to wrest the Mississippi from America. One characteristic of the failed governments Madison studied, from the Achaean League to the Belgic Confederacy, was paralysis. They were unable to get things done. The Achaeans required the agreement of ten of twelve members, and the Belgic Confederacy required unanimous consent. The Belgic Confederacy consisted of fifty-two independent cities and seven provinces. Thus foreign powers and enemies needed to co-opt only one city or province out of fifty-nine to get their way.3 It was exactly what both Madison and Monroe had continually experienced in Congress. ~ Chris DeRose,
413:Horror Harvest Pakistan pays a heavy price for nurturing terror. Can it destroy the killing machine now? asks Sajjad Khan. Sajjad Khan | 1472 words Relatives mourn at the funeral of Mohammed Ali Khan,15,one of the students killed in the Peshawar school attack; Courtesy: ReutersPeshawar. Terror. The rhyme is as much a cruel coincidence as it is tragic. The capital of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province, one of South Asia's oldest cities and an ancient centre of learning, has suffered massively at the hands of terrorists since Pakistan got embroiled in the Afghan jihad nearly 35 years ago. But even for a city so used to the blood of its innocents being spilled, the horror of December 16 was incomparable: at least 132 students and nine staff members of the Army Public School and College (APSC) mowed down in cold blood by Taliban attackers on what should have been just another day at school. ~ Anonymous,
414:A close examination of the instructions in the Satipaṭṭhāna Sutta reveals that the meditator is never instructed to interfere actively with what happens in the mind. If a mental hindrance arises, for example, the task of satipaṭṭhāna contemplation is to know that the hindrance is present, to know what has led to its arising, and to know what will lead to its disappearance. A more active intervention is no longer the domain of satipaṭṭhāna, but belongs rather to the province of right effort (sammā vāyāma).

The need to distinguish clearly between a first stage of observation and a second stage of taking action is, according to the Buddha, an essential feature of his way of teaching. The simple reason for this approach is that only the preliminary step of calmly assessing a situation without immediately reacting enables one to undertake the appropriate action. ~ An layo,
415:Christianity had not started off as the ideology of an empire. Virtually nothing is known about its supposed founder, Jesus of Nazareth. There is not even any definite proof he was a historical rather than a mythical figure. Certainly the proof is not to be found in the Christian New Testament. It claims his birth was in Bethlehem in the Roman province of Judaea, where his family had gone for a census during the time of Augustus. But there was no census at the time stated and Judaea was not a Roman province at the time. When a census was held in AD 7 it did not require anyone to leave their place of residence. Similarly, the New Testament locates Jesus’s birth as in the time of King Herod, who died in 4 BC. Roman and Greek writers of the time make no mention of Jesus and a supposed reference by the Jewish-Roman writer Josephus is almost certainly a result of the imagination of medieval monks.100 ~ Chris Harman,
416:. . . In that Empire, the Art of Cartography attained such Perfection that the map of a single Province occupied the entirety of a City, and the map of the Empire, the entirety of a Province. In time, those Unconscionable Maps no longer satisfied, and the Cartographers Guilds struck a Map of the Empire whose size was that of the Empire, and which coincided point for point with it. The following Generations, who were not so fond of the Study of Cartography as their Forebears had been, saw that that vast map was Useless, and not without some Pitilessness was it, that they delivered it up to the Inclemencies of Sun and Winters. In the Deserts of the West, still today, there are Tattered Ruins of that Map, inhabited by Animals and Beggars; in all the Land there is no other Relic of the Disciplines of Geography.

Suárez Miranda, Viajes de varones prudentes, Libro IV, Cap. XLV, Lérida, 1658 ~ Jorge Luis Borges,
417:Thus, while it may be fairly easy to like yourself when feelings of love or happiness or serenity are present, deeper psychological health is seen only when you can maintain a posture of self-love and self-respect in the times of emotional hurt that accompany life’s inevitable contingencies of loss, loneliness, confusion, uncontrollable unfairness, and accidental mistake. The human feeling experience, much like the weather, is often unpredictably changeable. No “positive” feeling can be induced to persist as a permanent experience, no matter what Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy tells us. As disappointing as this may be, as much as we might like to deny it, as much as it causes each of us ongoing life frustration, and as much as we were raised and continue to be reinforced for trying to control and pick our feelings, they are still by definition of the human condition, largely outside the province of our wills. ~ Pete Walker,
418:Someone with a low degree of epistemic arrogance is not too visible, like a shy person at a cocktail party. We are not predisposed to respect humble people, those who try to suspend judgement. Now contemplate epistemic humility. Think of someone heavily introspective, tortured by the awareness of his own ignorance. He lacks the courage of the idiot, yet has the rare guts to say "I don't know." He does not mind looking like a fool or, worse, an ignoramus. He hesitates, he will not commit, and he agonizes over the consequences of being wrong. He introspects, introspects, and introspects until he reaches physical and nervous exhaustion.

This does not necessarily mean he lacks confidence, only that he holds his own knowledge to be suspect. I will call such a person an epistemocrat; the province where the laws are structured with this kind of human fallibility in mind I will can an epistemocracy. ~ Nassim Nicholas Taleb,
419:A woman from the Hunan Province told it to me,” said Charon. “Once upon a time a stranger came to a remote village with an elephant. Everyone got excited, including three blind men who didn’t know what an elephant was. They decided to find out for themselves. “The first man approached the elephant near its head. He reached his hand out and felt the leathery ear. The second man approached from behind and brushed the elephant’s bristly tail. The third came at it from the side and stroked its wide midsection. “ ‘What a strange creature an elephant is,’ the first man said. ‘So flat and thin, like wash hung from the line.’ “ ‘What are you talking about?’ said the second man. ‘That animal was hairy and coarse, like the bristles on a stiff broom.’ “ ‘You are both wrong!’ said the third. ‘The beast was as broad and sturdy as a wall.’ They three men argued and argued, but they never could come to an agreement.” Charon ~ William Ritter,
420:Explicitly grounding my analysis in multiple voices highlights the diversity, richness, and power of Black women's ideas as part of a long-standing African American women's intellectual community. Moreover, this approach counteracts the tendency of mainstream scholarship to canonize a few Black women as spokespersons for the group and then refuse to listen to any but these select few. While it is certainly appealing to receive recognition for one's accomplishments, my experiences as the "first," "one of the few," and the "only" have shown me how effective selecting a few and using them to control the many can be in stifling subordinate groups. Assuming that only a few exceptional Black women have been able to do theory homogenizes African-American women and silences the majority. In contrast, I maintain that theory and intellectual creativity are not the province of a select few but instead emanate from a range of people. ~ Patricia Hill Collins,
421:The Normans had first arrived in Gaul (the former Roman province roughly equivalent to modern France) in the ninth century as Viking raiders – their name, given to them by their enemies, signified ‘men of the North’. Around the start of the tenth century some of them started to settle in the area around Rouen and colonized the ancient Roman region of Neustria, so that over time it came to be known by the new name of ‘Normandy’. In the century that followed they ditched most of their Viking ways and adopted the manners and customs of their new neighbours, learning to speak French, giving their children French names, embracing Christianity, and refounding some of the churches and monasteries that their not-too-distant ancestors had looted and destroyed. And yet, as Ralph Glaber’s comment shows, people who lived in other parts of France still felt that the Normans had some distance to travel before they could be regarded as fully civilized. ~ Marc Morris,
422:The violence that began in 1915 killed perhaps half the Armenian Christians in the region. Although the accumulated stories of massacre numb after a while, some of the atrocities cry out particularly. One of the worst storm centers was the wilayet, or province, of Diyarbakir, under its brutal governor, Reşid Bey. Here, “men had horse shoes nailed to their feet; women were gang-raped.” One source placed the number of murdered Christians in this province alone at 570,000. In the summer of 1915, the New York Times reported that “the roads and the Euphrates are strewn with corpses of exiles, and those who survive are doomed to certain death. It is a plan to exterminate the whole Armenian people.” During the 1915–16 era, at least 1 million Armenians were displaced, and plausible estimates for those actually killed range from eight hundred thousand to 1 million. If the word genocide has any meaning whatever, it certainly applies to these events.34 ~ Philip Jenkins,
423:But why would they do that? What is to be asked? He was a man who sees into things -- very ordinary things. A hat left on the floor of a café in Kingstown, a proverb overheard, an old fisherman mending a net: these, for him, were a kind of incitement. There are no answers other than that. He was not like the rest of us. Not even like himself. His imagination, or soul, or whatever province of his mind was hungry for the sustaining rain of the world, would soak in the storms of his own haunted strangeness, and the berries would bloom, and they were what they were, and if the tendrils were peculiar, and some of them wild, the fruits were so shockingly luscious and potent that the thirsty were willing to savour the bitter for the sake of the concomitant sweet. He needed the very ordinary. He was a beautiful man. What more than this need be said? The sort of man who makes you think the movement of foliage might be causing the breeze. ~ Joseph O Connor,
424:And yet it fills me with wonder, that, in almost all countries, the most ancient poets are considered as the best: whether it be that every other kind of knowledge is an acquisition gradually attained, and poetry is a gift conferred at once; or that the first poetry of every nation surprised them as a novelty, and retained the credit by consent which it received by accident at first; or whether, as the province of poetry is to describe Nature and Passion, which are always the same, the first writers took possession of the most striking objects for description, and the most probable occurrences for fiction, and left nothing to those that followed them, but transcription of the same events, and new combinations of the same images. Whatever be the reason, it is commonly observed that the early writers are in possession of nature, and their followers of art: that the first excel in strength and innovation, and the latter in elegance and refinement. ~ Samuel Johnson,
425:There is no evidence that Wilson ever saw the petition, but it was understandable that colonized peoples looked to him for help. His Fourteen Points, the wartime statement of Allied principles intended to guarantee fairness in the peace negotiations, had pledged that during “the free, open-minded and absolutely impartial adjustment of all colonial claims,” the interests of the colonized should be given “equal weight” with those of the colonizers. That was precisely what the Vietnamese petitioners wanted. As a subject people, they declared, Wilson’s advocacy of self-determination had filled them “with hope…that an era of rights and justice [was opening] to them.” They did not demand independence from France, but they did call for “a permanent delegation of native people elected to attend the French parliament” as well as freedom of speech and association and foreign travel, technical and professional schools in every province, and equal treatment under the law. ~ Geoffrey C Ward,
426:Though gay men have begun to understand it is something in themselves these upright men so fear, too many of us have internalized their self-hatred as shame. That the flesh and the spirit are one in love is none of the business of the celibate men of God, especially those who believe they rule the province of love. But the mission of the homophobe is more pernicious even than his morality. He wants every one of us to be all alone, never to find the beloved friend.
A man ought to be free to find his reason. Not that freedom alone will serve it up: it requires the gods’ own fury of luck to get two people to meet. But when it finally happens, two men in love can’t rejoice out loud—joy of the very thing everyone burns for—without bracing for the rant of prophets, the schoolyard bully, and Rome’s “intrinsic evil.” I try to remember that we fight as a ragged people to outlast the calamity so that others can sleep as safe as my friend and I, like a raft in the tempest. ~ Paul Monette,
427:When relationships have outlived their shelf life, people often realize that at some level, they are sticking it our because they once thought in the light of their divine love that the other person would change. Sorry for breaking the poetic hope here, but that doesn't happen. People are like rubber bands. They may be able to stretch from time to time and do some amazing things, but in general they are who they are. If manipulation and machinations on your side get them to behave the way you want, I will set my clock on the fact that they will return to their previous way of behaving, or they will keep faking it. To be in a relationship with someone who is not really there doesn't make sense. People who aren't cooperating feel like a project to us, like something for us to rescue or fix. Rescuing is the province of firefighters and fairy tales, but it's not real life. The stance of sticking it out in hopes of redemption is an old story and one that has wasted many lives. ~ Ramani Durvasula,
428:Magnetism is, of course, not the same as gravity, but Kepler’s fundamental innovation here is nothing short of breathtaking: he proposed that quantitative physical laws that apply to the Earth are also the underpinnings of quantitative physical laws that govern the heavens. It was the first nonmystical explanation of motion in the heavens; it made the Earth a province of the Cosmos. “Astronomy,” he said, “is part of physics.” Kepler stood at a cusp in history; the last scientific astrologer was the first astrophysicist. Not given to quiet understatement, Kepler assessed his discoveries in these words: With this symphony of voices man can play through the eternity of time in less than an hour, and can taste in small measure the delight of God, the Supreme Artist … I yield freely to the sacred frenzy … the die is cast, and I am writing the book—to be read either now or by posterity, it matters not. It can wait a century for a reader, as God Himself has waited 6,000 years for a witness. ~ Carl Sagan,
429:[The long ride to Riyadh]

When I first travelled, I was naive, sloppy, wide-eyed, and nothing happened to me. That’s probably where the dumb luck came in. Then I began to read the guidebooks, the State Department warnings, the endless elucidation of national norms, cultural cues and insults and regional dangers, and I became wary, careful, savvy. I kept my money taped inside my shoe, or strapped to my stomach. I took any kind of precaution, believing that the people of this area did this, and the people of that province did that. But then, finally, I realised no one of any region did anything I have ever expected them to do, much less anything the guidebooks said they would. Instead, they behaved as everyone behaves, which is to say they behave as individuals of damnably infinite possibility. Anyone could do anything, in theory, but most of the time everyone everywhere acts with plain bedrock decency, helping where help is needed, guiding where guidance is necessary. It’s almost weird. ~ Dave Eggers,
430:The poet is the sayer, the namer, and represents beauty. He is a sovereign, and stands on the centre. For the world is not painted, or adorned, but is from the beginning beautiful; and God has not made some beautiful things, but Beauty is the creator of the universe. Therefore the poet is not any permissive potentate, but is emperor in his own right. Criticism is infested with a cant of materialism, which assumes that manual skill and activity is the first merit of all men, and disparages such as say and do not, overlooking the fact, that some men, namely, poets, are natural sayers, sent into the world to the end of expression, and confounds them with those whose province is action, but who quit it to imitate the sayers. The poet does not wait for the hero or the sage, but, as they act and think primarily, so he writes primarily what will and must be spoken, reckoning the others, though primaries also, yet, in respect to him, secondaries and servants; as sitters or models in the studio of a painter, or as assistants who bring building materials to an architect. ~ Ralph Waldo Emerson,
431:Road-Side Dog
I went on a journey in order to acquaint myself with my province, in a two-horse
wagon with a lot of fodder and a tin bucket rattling in the back. The bucket was
required for the horses to drink from. I traveled through a country of hills and
pine groves that gave way to woodlands where swirls of smoke hovered over the
roofs of houses, as if they were on fire, for they were chimneyless cabins; I
crossed districts of fields and lakes. It was so interesting to be moving, to give
the horses their rein, and wait until, in the next valley, a village slowly appeared,
or a park with the white spot of a manor house in it. And always we were barked
at by a dog, assiduous in its duty. That was the beginning of the century; this is
its end. I have been thinking not only of the people who lived there once but also
of the generations of dogs accompanying them in their everyday bustle, and one
night - I don't know where it came from - in a pre-dawn sleep, that funny and
tender phrase composed itself: a road-side dog.
~ Czeslaw Milosz,
432:In reality, Kabila was no more than a petty tyrant propelled to prominence by accident. Secretive and paranoid, he had no political programme, no strategic vision and no experience of running a government. He refused to engage with established opposition groups or with civic organisations and banned political parties. Lacking a political organisation of his own, he surrounded himself with friends and family members and relied heavily for support and protection on Rwanda and Banyamulenge. Two key ministries were awarded to cousins; the new chief of staff of the army, James Kabarebe, was a Rwandan Tutsi who had grown up in Uganda; the deputy chief of staff and commander of land forces was his 26-year-old son, Joseph; the national police chief was a brother-in-law. Whereas Mobutu had packed his administration with supporters from his home province of Équateur, Kabila handed out key positions in government, the armed forces, security services and public companies to fellow Swahili-speaking Katangese, notably members of the Lubakat group of northern Katanga, his father’s tribe. ~ Martin Meredith,
433:The creative side of the female operates imperceptibly: its province is the potential man. When its play is unrestricted the level of the race is raised. One can always gauge the level of a period by the status of its womankind. Something more than freedom and opportunity are here involved because Woman's true nature never expressed itself in demands. Like water, woman always finds her own level. And like water also, she mirrors faithfully all that passes in the soul of man. What is called truly feminine therefore is only the deceptive masquerade which the uncreative male blindly accepts as the real show. It is the flattering substitute which the thwarted female offers in self-defense. It is the homosexual game which Narcissus exacts. It is most flagrantly revealed when the partners are extremely masculine and feminine. It can be mimicked most successfully in the shadow play of the avowed homosexuals. It reaches its blind culmination in the Don Juan. Here the pursuit of the unattainable reaches the burlesk proportions of a Chaplinesque pursuit. The end is always the same: Narcissus drowning in his own image. ~ Henry Miller,
434:There is another system, more beaded than weather or murder, that is moving up into the province. As Les leaves the chair to investigate his son’s crying a thousand zombies form an alliterative fog around Lake Scugog and beyond, mouthing the words Helen, hello, help. This fog predominates the region; however, other systems compete, bursting and winding with vowels braiding into dipthongs so long that they dissipate across a thousand panting lips. In the suburbs of Barrie, for instance, an alliteration that began with the wail of a cat in heat picked up the consonant “Guh” from a fisherman caught in surprise on Lake Simcoe. The echoing coves of the lake added a sort of meter, and by the time these sounds arrived in Gravenhurst, the people there were certain that a musical was blaring from speakers in the woods. All across the province, zombies, like extras in a crowd scene, imitate a thousand conversations. They open and close their mouths on things and sound is a heavy carpet of mumbling, a pre-production monstrosity. In minutes the Pontypool fog will march on the town of Sunderland and over the barriers south of Lindsay. ~ Tony Burgess,
435:The three classic levels of war – strategic, operational, and tactical – still exist in Fourth Generation war. But all three are affected, and to some extent changed, by the Fourth Generation. One important change is that, while in the first three generations strategy was the province of generals, the Fourth Generation has given us the “strategic corporal.” These days, the actions of a single enlisted man can have strategic consequences, especially if they happen to take place when cameras are rolling. The Second Persian Gulf War provides numerous examples. In one case, U.S. Marines had occupied a Shi’ite town in southern Iraq. A Marine corporal was leading a patrol through the town when it encountered a funeral procession coming the other way. The corporal ordered his men to stand aside and take their helmets off as a sign of respect. Word of that action quickly spread around town, and it helped the Marines’ effort to be welcomed as liberators. That in turn had a strategic impact, because the American strategy depended upon keeping Shi’ite southern Iraq quiet in order for American supply lines to pass through the territory. ~ William S Lind,
436:I am now going to make an admission. I confess, I agree, that all these good people who protested, who laughed, who did not perceive what we perceived, were in a quite legitimate position. Their opinion was quite in order. One must not be afraid to say that the kingdom of letters is only a province of the vast empire of entertainment. One picks up a book, one puts it aside; and even when one cannot put it down one very well understands that this interest is related to the facility of pleasure. That is to say that every effort of a creator of beauty or of fantasy should be bent, by the very essence of his work, on contriving for the public pleasure which demands no effort, or almost none. It is through the public that he should deduce what touches, moves, soothes, animates or enchants the public.

There are however several publics; amongst whom it is not impossible to find some people who do not conceive of pleasure without pain, who do not like to enjoy themselves without paying, and who are not happy if their happiness is not in some part their own contrivance through which they wish to realize what it costs them.
~ Paul Val ry,
437:Louis stared at her, nonplussed. He more than half suspected that one of the things which had kept their marriage together when it seemed as if each year brought the news that two or three of their friends' marriages had collapsed was their respect of the mystery--the half-grasped but never spoken idea that maybe, when you got right down to the place where the cheese binds, there was no such thing as marriage, no such thing as union, that each soul stood alone and ultimately defied rationality. That was the mystery. And no matter how well you thought you knew your partner, you occasionally ran into blank walls or fell into pits. And sometimes (rarely, thank God) you ran into a full-fledged pocket of alien strangeness, something like the clear-air turbulence that can buffet an airliner for no reason at all. An attitude or belief which you had never suspected, one so peculiar (at least to you) that it seemed nearly psychotic. And then you trod lightly, if you valued your marriage and your peace of mind; you tried to remember that anger at such a discovery was the province of fools who really believed it was possible for one mind to know another. ~ Stephen King,
438:How can one talk about the economics of small independent countries? How can one discuss a problem that is a non-problem? There is no such thing as the viability of states or of nations, there is only a problem of viability of people: people, actual persons like you and me, are viable when they can stand on their own feet and earn their keep. You do not make nonviable people viable by putting large numbers of them into one huge community, and you do not make viable people non-viable by splitting a large community into a number of smaller, more intimate, more coherent and more manageable groups. All this is perfectly obvious and there is absolutely nothing to argue about. Some people ask: 'What happens when a country, composed of one rich province and several poor ones, falls apart because the rich province secedes?' Most probably the answer is: 'Nothing very much happens.' The rich will continue to be rich and the poor will continue to be poor. 'But if, before secession, the rich province had subsidised the poor, what happens then?' Well then, of course, the subsidy might stop. But the rich rarely subsidise the poor; more often they exploit them. ~ Ernst F Schumacher,
439:a perfect description of the “automatic cultural man”—man as confined by culture, a slave to it, who imagines that he has an identity if he pays his insurance premium, that he has control of his life if he guns his sports car or works his electric toothbrush. Today the inauthentic or immediate men are familiar types, after decades of Marxist and existentialist analysis of man’s slavery to his social system. But in Kierkegaard’s time it must have been a shock to be a modern European city-dweller and be considered a Philistine at the same time. For Kierkegaard “philistinism” was triviality, man lulled by the daily routines of his society, content with the satisfactions that it offers him: in today’s world the car, the shopping center, the two-week summer vacation. Man is protected by the secure and limited alternatives his society offers him, and if he does not look up from his path he can live out his life with a certain dull security:

Devoid of imagination, as the Philistine always is, he lives in a certain trivial province of experience as to how things go, what is possible, what usually occurs… . Philistinism tranquilizes itself in the trivial… ~ Ernest Becker,
440:It took eleven weeks to organize the hunt for Osama bin Laden. When that hunt began in earnest, I was in eastern Afghanistan, in and around Jalalabad, where I had traveled on five trips over the years. An old acquaintance named Haji Abdul Qadir had just reclaimed his post as the provincial governor, two days after the fall of the Taliban. Haji Qadir was an exemplar of Afghan democracy. A well-educated and highly cultured Pathan tribal leader in his early sixties, a wealthy dealer in opium and weapons and other basic staples of the Afghan economy, he had been a CIA-supported commander in the fight against the Soviet occupation, the governor of his province from 1992 to 1996, and a close associate of the Taliban in their time. He personally welcomed Osama bin Laden to Afghanistan and helped him establish a compound outside Jalalabad. Now he welcomed the American occupation. Haji Qadir was a good host. We walked in the gardens of the governor’s palace, through swayback palms and feathery tamarisks. He was expecting a visit from his American friends any day now, and he was looking forward to the renewal of old ties and the ritual exchange of cash for information. ~ Tim Weiner,
441:Grayden and I, along with Dahnath, Drael and countless others, stayed to keep vigil, sitting on the hillside until the funeral blaze consumed itself, settling into cinders. In the early hours of the morning, a light, almost magical snow began to fall, and the moon’s glow as it reflected off the ground brightened the scenery, making everything seem new.
My uncle’s death had again set my family reeling. While we were accustomed to picking up pieces, sorting through rubble and holding on to memories, the brothers who had died had been the pillars of our family, strong leaders in Hytanica’s military, and shining examples of all that was good and honorable within our kingdom. But this time, beneath the grieving, there was hope--hope that glowed like the remaining embers. This land was again our own, the Province Wall would be torn down, and we citizens would once more walk through the city gates without fear or suspicion.
I shivered, and Grayden put his arm around me, snuggling me close to him, and a melancholy smile played across my face. My uncle had promised he would find a husband for me who would meet my father’s standards. And at what did the Captain of the Guard fail? ~ Cayla Kluver,
442:I was just thinking that it's a wonder you haven't rushed out to marry the first peasant girl you could find."
"Impertinent twit!" the countess exclaimed.
Marcus grinned at the girl's insolence, while the tightness in his chest eased. "Do you think I should?" he asked soberly, as if the question was worth considering.
"Oh, yes," Lillian assured him with a mischievous sparkle in her eyes. "The Marsdens could use some new blood. In my opinion, the family is in grave danger of becoming overbred."
"Overbred?" Marcus repeated, wanting nothing more than to pounce on her and cry her off somewhere. "What has given you that impression, Miss Bowman?"
"Oh, I don't know..." she said idly. "Perhaps the earth-shattering importance you attach to wether one should use a fork or spoon to eat one's pudding."
"Good manners are not the sole province of the aristocracy, Miss Bowman." Even to himself, Marcus sounded a bit pompous.
"In my opinion, my lord, an excessive preoccupation with manners and rituals is a strong indication that someone has too much time on his hands."
Marcus smiled at her impertinence. "Subversive, yet sensible," he mused. "I'm not certain I disagree. ~ Lisa Kleypas,
443:No one can understand history without continually relating the long periods which are constantly mentioned to the experiences of our own short lives. Five years is a lot. Twenty years is the horizon to most people. Fifty years is antiquity. To understand how the impact of destiny fell upon any generation of men one must first imagine their position and then apply the time-scale of our own lives. Thus nearly all changes were far less perceptible to those who lived through them from day to day than appears when the salient features of an epoch are extracted by the chronicler. We peer at these scenes through dim telescopes of research across a gulf of nearly two thousand years. We cannot doubt that the second and to some extent the third century of the Christian era, in contrast with all that had gone before and most that was to follow, were a Golden Age for Britain. But by the early part of the fourth century shadows had fallen upon this imperfect yet none the less tolerable society. By steady, persistent steps the sense of security departed from Roman Britain. Its citizens felt by daily experience a sense that the world-wide system of which they formed a partner province was in decline. ~ Winston S Churchill,
444:Another excellent expedient is to send colonies into one or two places, so that these may become, as it were, the keys of the Province; for you must either do this, or else keep up a numerous force of men-at-arms and foot soldiers. A Prince need not spend much on colonies. He can send them out and support them at little or no charge to himself, and the only persons to whom he gives offence are those whom he deprives of their fields and houses to bestow them on the new inhabitants. Those who are thus injured form but a small part of the community, and remaining scattered and poor can never become dangerous. All others being left unmolested, are in consequence easily quieted, and at the same time are afraid to make a false move, lest they share the fate of those who have been deprived of their possessions. In few words, these colonies cost less than soldiers, are more faithful, and give less offence, while those who are offended, being, as I have said, poor and dispersed, cannot hurt. And let it here be noted that men are either to be kindly treated, or utterly crushed, since they can revenge lighter injuries, but not graver. Wherefore the injury we do to a man should be of a sort to leave no fear of reprisals. ~ Anonymous,
445:You are a son, a brother, a nephew, a cousin--I don't know what--to no end of people. I am just a man. Here I stand before you. A man with a mind. Did it ever occur to you how a man who had never heard a word of warm affection or praise in his life would think on matters on which you would think first with or against your class, your domestic tradition--your fireside prejudices?... Did you ever consider how a man like that would feel? I have no domestic tradition. I have nothing to think against. My tradition is historical. What have I to look back to but that national past from which you gentlemen want to wrench away your future? Am I to let my intelligence, my aspirations towards a better lot, be robbed of the only thing it has to go upon at the will of violent enthusiasts? You come from your province, but all this land is mine--or I have nothing. No doubt you shall be looked upon as a martyr some day--a sort of hero--a political saint. But I beg to be excused. I am content in fitting myself to be a worker. And what can you people do by scattering a few drops of blood on the snow? On this Immensity. On this unhappy Immensity! I tell you...[what] it needs is not a lot of haunting phantoms that I could walk through--but a man! ~ Joseph Conrad,
446:I Ask You
What scene would I want to be enveloped in
more than this one,
an ordinary night at the kitchen table,
floral wallpaper pressing in,
white cabinets full of glass,
the telephone silent,
a pen tilted back in my hand?
It gives me time to think
about all that is going on outside-leaves gathering in corners,
lichen greening the high grey rocks,
while over the dunes the world sails on,
huge, ocean-going, history bubbling in its wake.
But beyond this table
there is nothing that I need,
not even a job that would allow me to row to work,
or a coffee-colored Aston Martin DB4
with cracked green leather seats.
No, it's all here,
the clear ovals of a glass of water,
a small crate of oranges, a book on Stalin,
not to mention the odd snarling fish
in a frame on the wall,
and the way these three candles-each a different height-are singing in perfect harmony.
So forgive me
if I lower my head now and listen
to the short bass candle as he takes a solo
while my heart
thrums under my shirt-frog at the edge of a pond-and my thoughts fly off to a province
made of one enormous sky
and about a million empty branches.
19
~ Billy Collins,
447:There were some places, and streets, where he did not venture since he had learnt that others had claims there greater than his own - not the gangs of meths drinkers who lived in no place and no time, nor the growing number of the young who moved on restlessly across the face of the city, but vagrants like himself who, despite the name which the world has given them, had ceased to wander and now associated themselves with one territory or 'province' rather than another. All of them led solitary lives, hardly moving from their own warren of streets and buildings: it is not known whether they chose the area, or whether the area itself had callen them and taken them in, but they had become the guardian spirits (as it were) of each place. Ned now knew some of their names: Watercress Joe, who haunted the streets by St Mary Woolnoth, Black Sam who lived and slept beside the Commercial Road between Whitechapel and Limehouse, Harry the Goblin who was seen only by Spitalfields and Artillery Lane, Mad Frank who walked continually through the streets of Bloomsbury, Italian Audrey who was always to be found in the dockside area of Wapping (it was she who had visited Ned in his shelter many years before), and 'Alligator' who never moved from Greenwich. ~ Peter Ackroyd,
448:WHEN on the Magpies' Bridge I see The Hoar-frost King has cast His sparkling mantle, well I know The night is nearly past, Daylight approaches fast. The author of this verse was Governor of the Province of Koshu, and Viceroy of the more or less uncivilized northern and eastern parts of Japan; he died A.D. 785. There was a bridge or passageway in the Imperial Palace at Kyoto called the Magpies' Bridge, but there is also an allusion here to the old legend about the Weaver and Herdsman. It is said, that the Weaver (the star Vega) was a maiden, who dwelt on one side of the River of the Milky Way, and who was employed in making clothes for the Gods. But one day the Sun took pity upon her, and gave her in marriage to the Herdboy (the star Aquila), who lived on the other side of the river. But as the result of this was that the supply of clothes fell short, she was only permitted to visit her husband once a year, viz. on the seventh night of the seventh month; and on this night, it is said, the magpies in a dense flock form a bridge for her across the river. The hoar frost forms just before day breaks. The illustration shows the Herdboy crossing on the Bridge of Magpies to his bride. A Hundred Verses from Old Japan (The Hyakunin-isshu), tr. by William N. Porter, [1909], ~ Anonymous,
449:John has a narrow mind. For him, neither the beauty nor the prosperity of the city of Ephesus is worth a second glance. Ephesus was situated at the end of the Silk Road from China and the caravan route from India which used to pass through the Parthian Empire en route to the West. But the prophet is quite unaware that this particular world exists at all. Even culture means absolutely nothing to him; for example, in 18:22 he rejoices that not only song but also the sound of the flute have disappeared. The world which he knows is limited to the seven churches whose Christianity corresponded with his own; and that in but a single province of the Roman Empire, namely Asia. As to the rest, he is only familiar with the mother church in Jerusalem and the sister church in Rome.
John is utterly obsessed by Rome. The fact that this particular metropolis had bestowed both law and peace upon no less than one-half of the world never got through to him at all. He is also quite oblivious of the fact that Rome oppresses nations and exploits slaves. He could not care less about national or social considerations. He abominates the "whore on the seven hills" simply because Rome is persecuting Christians. This is precisely what the Apocalypse is all about: innocent suffering. ~ Gilles Quispel,
450:The first time Halley set eyes on Howard was at a showing of The Towering Inferno. When she heard about him, her sister had wondered aloud how much of a future you could have with someone you’d met at a disaster movie. But at that point Halley wasn’t feeling picky. She had been in Dublin just over three weeks – not so long that she didn’t still get lost all the time on the infuriating streets that kept changing their names, but enough to disabuse her of most of her illusions about the place; enough too, with the deposit and first month’s rent for her new apartment, to separate her from most of the money she’d brought, and cut the time available for soul-searching and self-finding quite drastically. That afternoon she’d spent in an Internet café, reluctantly updating her résumé; she hadn’t had a conversation since the night before, a stilted exchange with the Chinese pizza delivery boy about his native Yunan province. When she spotted the poster for The Towering Inferno, which she and Zephyr must have watched twenty times together, it was like catching sight of an old friend. She went in and for three hours warmed herself in the familiar blaze of collapsing architecture and suffocating hotel guests; she stayed in her seat until the ushers started sweeping round her feet. ~ Paul Murray,
451:1891, a journalist from the Amrita Bazar Patrika managed to rummage through the wastepaper basket at the office of Viceroy Lord Lansdowne. There he found the fragments of a torn-up letter, which with great enterprise he managed to piece together. The letter contained explosive news, revealing as it did in considerable detail the viceroy’s plans to annex the Hindu Maharaja-ruled Muslim-majority state of Jammu & Kashmir. To the consternation of the British authorities, Amrita Bazar Patrika published the letter on its front page. The cat was out of the bag: the newspaper reached the Maharaja of Kashmir, who promptly protested, set sail for London and vehemently lobbied the authorities there to honour their predecessors’ guarantees of his state’s ‘independent’ status. The Maharaja was successful, and Indian nationalists congratulated the Patrika on having thwarted the colonialists’ imperial designs. Had this exposé not taken place, Kashmir would not have remained a ‘princely state’, free to choose the country, and the terms, of its accession upon Independence in 1947; it would have been a province of British India, subject to being carved up by a careless British pen during Partition. The contours of the ‘Kashmir problem’ would have looked very different today. Nonetheless, ~ Shashi Tharoor,
452:Some equestrians were involved in the potentially lucrative business of provincial taxation, thanks to another law of Gaius Gracchus. For it was he who first arranged that tax collecting in the new province of Asia should, like many other state responsibilities, be contracted out to private companies, often owned by equestrians. These contractors were known as publicani – ‘public service providers’ or ‘publicans’, as tax collectors are called in old translations of the New Testament, confusingly to modern readers. The system was simple, demanded little manpower on the part of the Roman state and provided a model for the tax arrangements in other provinces over the following decades (and was common in other early tax raising regimes). Periodic auctions of specific taxation rights in individual provinces took place at Rome. The company that bid the highest then collected the taxes, and anything it managed to rake in beyond the bid was its profit. To put it another way, the more the publicani could screw out of the provincials, the bigger their own take – and they were not liable to prosecution under Gaius’ compensation law. Romans had always made money out of their conquests and their empire, but increasingly there were explicitly, and even organised, commercial interests at stake. ~ Mary Beard,
453:I am not a well educated man except that I have educated myself, and,
because I have educated myself, what I say will not stand up, for lack of recognized authority. This in turn leaves me free to say what I will, in the hope that, like those small forces that do not threaten empires and are thus not fully pursued, the things in which I believe can survive in some high and forgotten place until the power of empire subsides.
And although I know that few will listen to or credit this, I think we are in a lost age, in which holiness and charity have been traded for the victory and penetration of knowledge, though all the knowledge in the world has not brought us any further than where we can go without it even in the outermost halls of grace. I believe that more is to be known and apprehended from the beauty of a face than in delving, no
matter how deep, simply into how things work, no matter how marvelous that may be. The greatest substance of the world is immaterial, the province of the heart, and its study cannot be forced or reasoned. Merely to touch upon the edge of things in parsing their mechanics is to forswear their fullness, for the entry to this fullness lies not in science but in art. I cannot prove this, for it cannot be proven, but I claim, assert, and have seen it. ~ Mark Helprin,
454:Morfyd pulled out the only other chair and sat across from Annwyl. “I have heard much about your brother. It amazes me you still live.”
Annwyl began to eat the hearty stew, desperately trying not to think too hard about what kind of meat it contained.
“It amazes me as well. Daily.”
“But you saved many people. Released many from his dungeons.”
Annwyl shrugged silently as she wondered whether that was gristle she currently chewed on.
“No one else would challenge him. No man would step forward to face him,” Morfyd pushed.
“Well, he’s my brother. He used to set fire to my hair and throw knives at my head. Facing him in combat was inevitable.”
“But you lived under his roof until two years ago. We’ve all heard the stories about life on Garbhán Isle.”
“My brother had other concerns after my father died. He wanted to make sure everyone feared him. He didn’t have time to worry about his bastard sister.”
“Why didn’t he marry you off? He could have forged an alliance with one of the bigger kingdoms.” Annwyl briefly thought of Lord Hamish of Madron Province and how close she came to being his bride. The thought chilled her.
“He tried. But the nobles kept changing their minds.”
“And did you help them with that?”
She held up her thumb and forefinger, a little bit apart.
“Just a little. ~ G A Aiken,
455:You are a son, a brother, a nephew, a cousin--I don't know what--to no end of people. I am just a man. Here I stand before you. A man with a
mind. Did it ever occur to you how a man who had never heard a word of warm affection or praise in his life would think on matters on which you would think first with or against your class, your domestic tradition--your fireside prejudices?... Did you ever consider how a
man like that would feel? I have no domestic tradition. I have nothing to think against. My tradition is historical. What have I to look back
to but that national past from which you gentlemen want to wrench away your future? Am I to let my intelligence, my aspirations towards a better lot, be robbed of the only thing it has to go upon at the will of
violent enthusiasts? You come from your province, but all this land is mine--or I have nothing. No doubt you shall be looked upon as a martyr some day--a sort of hero--a political saint. But I beg to be excused. I am content in fitting myself to be a worker. And what can you people do by scattering a few drops of blood on the snow? On this Immensity. On this unhappy Immensity! I tell you," he cried, in a vibrating, subdued voice, and advancing one step nearer the bed, "that what it needs is not a lot of haunting phantoms that I could walk through--but a man! ~ Joseph Conrad,
456:The Broken Doll
An infant is a selfish sprite;
But what of that? the sweet delight
Which from participation springs,
Is quite unknown to these young things.
We elder children then will smile
At our dear little John awhile,
And bear with him, until he see
There is a sweet felicity
In pleasing more than only one
Dear little craving selfish John.
He laughs, and thinks it a fine joke,
That he our new wax doll has broke.
Anger will never teach him better;
We will the spirit and the letter
Of courtesy to him display
By taking in a friendly way
These baby frolics; till he learn
True sport from mischief to discern.
Reproof a parent's province is:
A sister's discipline is this;
By studied kindness to effect
A little brother's young respect.
What is a doll? a fragile toy.
What is its loss? if the dear boy,
Who half perceives he's done amiss,
Retain impression of the kiss
That followed instant on his cheek;
If the kind, loving words we speak
Of 'Never mind it,' 'We forgive,'If these in his short memory live
Only, perchance, for half a dayWho minds a doll-if that should lay
The first impression in his mind
That sisters are to brothers kind?
For thus the broken doll may prove
128
Foundation to fraternal love.
~ Charles Lamb,
457:He thanked me with a smiling nod, measured out a few minims of the red tincture and added one of the powders. The mixture, which was at first of a reddish hue, began, in proportion as the crystals melted, to brighten in colour, to effervesce audibly, and to throw off small fumes of vapour. Suddenly and at the same moment, the ebullition ceased and the compound changed to a dark purple, which faded again more slowly to a watery green. My visitor, who had watched these metamorphoses with a keen eye, smiled, set down the glass upon the table, and then turned and looked upon me with an air of scrutiny.

"And now," said he, "to settle what remains. Will you be wise? will you be guided? will you suffer me to take this glass in my hand and to go forth from your house without further parley? or has the greed of curiosity too much command of you? Think before you answer, for it shall be done as you decide. As you decide, you shall be left as you were before, and neither richer nor wiser, unless the sense of service rendered to a man in mortal distress may be counted as a kind of riches of the soul. Or, if you shall so prefer to choose, a new province of knowledge and new avenues to fame and power shall be laid open to you, here, in this room, upon the instant; and your sight shall be blasted by a prodigy to stagger the unbelief of Satan. ~ Robert Louis Stevenson,
458:RAYNAL, ABBE. Philosophical and Political History of the British Settlements and Trade in North America. Translated from the French. (Dependence of Great Britain upon colonies and Discussion of taxation. Colonies held as "Shackled in their Industry and Commerce," etc.) 2 Vols. Edinburgh: 1776. Record of Indentures, Individuals Bound Out as Apprentices, Servants, etc., and of German and Other Redemptioners in the ofice of the Mayor of the City of Philadelphia. October 3, 1771 to October 5, 1773. Before Mayors John Gibson and William Fisher. MS. Presented to American Phil. Society by Thos. P. Roberts, 1835. Reproduced in publications of Pennsylvania Germany Society, Vol. XVI, Lancaster, Pa., 1907. 321 closely printed pages averaging about twenty-two names to each double page or above 3,500 names recorded; both recently arrived and transfers recorded. Full description of terms, considerations, previous place of residence, etc. RECORD BEFORE THE MAYOR. (1745.) James Hamilton, Register. MS. contributed by George W. Neifle, Chester, Pa. Pa. Mag. Hist. and Biog., Vols. 30, 31 and 32. REDEMPTIONERS, REGISTRY OF THE "Book A" Germans, etc. (1785-1804); "Book C" (1817-1831). MSS. Library Historical Society of Pennsylvania. RICHARDS, ML H. "German Emigration from New York Province into Pennsylvania," Pennsylvania-German Society Proceedings, Vol. VII Lancaster: 1899. ~ Anonymous,
459:During the age of Christ, of his apostles, and of their first disciples, the doctrine which they preached was confirmed by innumerable prodigies. The lame walked, the blind saw, the sick were healed, the dead were raised, daemons were expelled, and the laws of Nature were frequently suspended for the benefit of the church [...] But the sages of Greece and Rome turned aside from the awful spectacle, and, pursuing the ordinary occupations of life and study, appeared unconscious of any alterations in the moral or physical government of the world. Under the reign of Tiberius, the whole earth, or at least a celebrated province of the Roman empire, was involved in a preternatural darkness of three hours. Even this miraculous event, which ought to have excited the wonder, the curiosity, and the devotion of mankind, passed without notice in an age of science and history. It happened during the lifetime of Seneca and the elder Pliny, who must have experienced the immediate effects, or received the earliest intelligence, of the prodigy. Each of these philosophers, in a laborious work, has recorded all the great phenomena of Nature, earthquakes, meteors, comets, and eclipses, which his indefatigable curiosity could collect. Both the one and the other have omitted to mention the greatest phenomenon to which the mortal eye has been witness since the creation of the globe. ~ Edward Gibbon,
460:I've tried to teach what I learned all those years in my mother and father's house, all those things I didn't realize I was learning and that I never knew I'd be so grateful for. When you have love and it's proffered every day in a kind of tender, yet stern insistence and even reckless laughter, when it is given to you and you accept it in life as a thing as natural as rain or snow, or the littler of leaves in fall, you can't help but take it for granted. For a bewildered while you incorrectly understand that the world has given you this becuase it's there in equal measure, everywhere. You never knowuntil it's too late to do anything about it, how seet the effort is: how lasting the human will to love can be in the breast of people who want to make it for you, who want to give it to you, without calculating what's in it fo them, without thinking at all of what it will mean when you grow to full adulthood, see the world as it is, and forget to mention what you have been given.

Ever day of my grown-up life, I have wanted to do what my parents did. I have wanted to widen the province of love and weaken hate and bitterness in the hearts of my children. And I've done these things because of what I got from my family, all those lovely years when I was growing up, being loved and cherished and, unbeknown to me, and in the best way, honored, for myself. ~ Marian Wright Edelman,
461:Finally, the work of the minister tended to be judged by his success in a single area - the saving of souls in measurable numbers. The local minister was judged either by his charismatic powers or by his ability to prepare his congregation for the preaching of some itinerant ministerial charmer who would really awaken its members. The 'star' system prevailed in religion before it reached the theater. As the evangelical impulse became more widespread and more dominant, the selection and training of ministers was increasingly shaped by the revivalist criterion of ministerial merit. The Puritan ideal of the minister as an intellectual and educational leader was steadily weakened in the face of the evangelical ideal of the minister as a popular crusader and exhorter. Theological education itself became more instrumental. Simple dogmatic formulations were considered sufficient. In considerable measure the churches withdrew from intellectual encounters with the secular world, gave up the idea that religion is a part of the whole life of intellectual experience, and often abandoned the field of rational studies on the assumption that they were the natural province of science alone. By 1853 an outstanding clergyman complained that there was 'an impression, somewhat general, that an intellectual clergyman is deficient in piety, and that an eminently pious minister is deficient in intellect. ~ Richard Hofstadter,
462:The Prince who establishes himself in a Province whose laws and language differ from those of his own people, ought also to make himself the head and protector of his feebler neighbours, and endeavour to weaken the stronger, and must see that by no accident shall any other stranger as powerful as himself find an entrance there. For it will always happen that some such person will be called in by those of the Province who are discontented either through ambition or fear; as we see of old the Romans brought into Greece by the Aetolians, and in every other country that they entered, invited there by its inhabitants. And the usual course of things is that so soon as a formidable stranger enters a Province, all the weaker powers side with him, moved thereto by the ill-will they bear towards him who has hitherto kept them in subjection. So that in respect of these lesser powers, no trouble is needed to gain them over, for at once, together, and of their own accord, they throw in their lot with the government of the stranger. The new Prince, therefore, has only to see that they do not increase too much in strength, and with his own forces, aided by their good will, can easily subdue any who are powerful, so as to remain supreme in the Province. He who does not manage this matter well, will soon lose whatever he has gained, and while he retains it will find in it endless troubles and annoyances. ~ Niccol Machiavelli,
463:Moi, moreover, made full use of his control of government machinery to obtain funds, harass the opposition and manipulate the results. The delimitation of constituencies was skewed heavily to favour Kanu strongholds in the North Eastern, Rift Valley and Coast provinces. The number of voters needed to return a single seat in opposition strongholds in some cases was four times higher than in Kanu strongholds. Whereas the North Eastern province, with 1.79 per cent of the electorate, had ten seats, Nairobi province with 8.53 per cent had only eight seats; whereas Coast province with 8.37 per cent of the electorate had twenty seats, Central province with 15.51 per cent had only twenty-five seats. The average size of a secure Kanu constituency was only 28,350 voters, while seats in opposition areas were on average 84 per cent larger with 52,169 voters. The registration process was also manipulated. The government cut short the period allowed for voter registration and delayed the issuing of identity cards needed by young potential voters, effectively disenfranchising at least 1 million people. Opposition areas were under-registered. The highest figures for registration were in the Rift Valley. The independence of the Electoral Commission was also suspect. The man Moi appointed to head it was a former judge who had been declared bankrupt two years previously and removed from the bench for improper conduct. ~ Martin Meredith,
464:Today pluralism operates as a court religion, while having less and less intellectual credibility. Betraying the plastic terminology in which its directives are framed are the additions to the “Human Rights Code” passed in the Canadian province of Ontario in 1994. The Code cites “human dignity” to justify the criminalization of “conduct or communication [that] promotes the superiority or inferiority of a person or class because of race, class, or sexual orientation.” The law has already been applied to prosecute scholars making hereditarian arguments about social behavior, and its proponents defend this muzzling as necessary for “human dignity.” But never are we told whence that dignity is derived. It is certainly not the one to which the Bible, a text that unequivocally condemns certain “sexual orientations,” refers. Nor are we speaking here about the dignity of nonengineered academic discourse, an act that the supporters of the Ontario Human Rights Code consider to be criminal if judged insensitive. Yet the pluralist advocates of human rights codes that now operate in Canada, Australia, England, and on the European continent assume there is a human dignity. Indeed this dignity is so widely and passionately accepted, or so it is asserted, that we must criminalize unkind communication. In the name of that supposedly axiomatic dignity, we are called upon to suppress scholarship and even to imprison its authors. ~ Paul Edward Gottfried,
465:By An Evolutionist
By an Evolutionist
The Lord let the house of a brute to the soul of a man,
And the man said, ‘Am I your debtor?’
And the Lord–‘Not yet; but make it as clean as you can,
And then I will let you a better.’
I.
If my body come from brutes, my soul uncertain or a fable,
Why not bask amid the senses while the sun of morning shines,
I, the finer brute rejoicing in my hounds, and in my stable,
Youth and health, and birth and wealth, and choice of women and of wines?
II.
What hast thou done for me, grim Old Age, save breaking my bones on the rack?
Would I had past in the morning that looks so bright from afar!
OLD AGE
Done for thee? starved the wild beast that was linkt with thee eighty years back.
Less weight now for the ladder-of-heaven that hangs on a star.
I.
If my body come from brutes, tho’ somewhat finer than their own,
I am heir, and this my kingdom. Shall the royal voice be mute?
No, but if the rebel subject seek to drag me from the throne,
Hold the sceptre, Human Soul, and rule thy province of the brute.
II.
I have climb’d to the snows of Age, and I gaze at a field in the Past.
Where I sank with the body at times in the sloughs of a low desire,
But I hear no yelp of the beast, and the Man is quiet at last,
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As he stands on the heights of his life with a glimpse of a height that is higher.
~ Alfred Lord Tennyson,
466:The Dai horse neighs against the bleak wind of
    Etsu,
The birds of Etsu have no love for En, in the north,
Emotion is born out of habit.
Yesterday we went out of the Wild-Goose gate,
To-day from the Dragon-Pen.*
Surprised. Desert turmoil. Sea sun.
Flying snow bewilders the barbarian heaven.
Lice swarm like ants over our accoutrements.
Mind and spirit drive on the feathery banners.
Hard fight gets no reward.
Loyalty is hard to explain.
Who will be sorry for General Rishogu,
          the swift moving,
Whose white head is lost for this province?
*NOTE by Pound: "i. e., we have been warring from one end of the empire to the other, now east, now west, on each border."
  This poem is from CATHAY (London: Elkin Mathews, 1915), the volume of Chinese poems
  The book's widely-applauded publication prompted T.S. Eliot to remark that Pound had "reinvented Chinese poetry for our time."
   CATHAY is comprised of 18 translations of various early Chinese poems, eleven poems by T'ang Dynasty poet Li Po ("Rihaku"), and the Anglo-Saxon poem, "The Seafarer," which Pound included for timeline comparison of 8th-Century English poetry with 8th-Century Chinese poetry.
   CATHAY ranks among the most pivotal publications in the entire history of translation and of modern poetry in English.
by owner. provided at no charge for educational purposes

~ Li Bai, South-Folk in Cold Country
,
467:When their father, the High King, learnt how that Eochaid had brought about his daughters’ dishonour and death, he rallied auxiliaries to his aid, and marched into Leinster, ravaging it as he went. The province and its king were saved only by Eochald’s humiliated submission, and his binding the province to pay to the High King at Tara, every alternate year for an Indefinite period, the tremendous tribute which came to be known as the Boru or cow-tribute — five thousand cows, five thousand hogs, five thousand cloaks, five thousand vessels of brass and bronze, and five thousand ounces of silver. This crushing tribute was henceforth laid upon Leinster, by the High King of Tara from the time of Tuathal forward till the reign of Fionnachta, a period of five hundred years — but in most cases having to be lifted with steel hands. It caused more bloody history than did almost any other festering sore with which Ireland was ever afflicted. During these five centuries hardly a High King sat upon the throne of Tara, who did not have to carry the bloody sword into Leinster again and again, forcibly to hack his pound of flesh from off that province’s palpitating body. And only sometimes was the fight fought between Meath and Leinster alone. Often, through alliances, mutual sympathies, antagonisms, hopes, or dangers, half of Ireland, and sometimes all of Ireland was embroiled. So, together with much that was good Tuathal left to his country a bloody legacy.[15] ~ Seumas MacManus,
468:When we asked him why he was so dedicated to reconciliation and to being willing to make concessions to his opponents, he did not hesitate to say that it had all been due to the influence and witness of the Christian churches. This was echoed by Tokyo Sexwale, the first Premier of the leading industrial province of Gauteng, when he too came to greet our synod as it was meeting in his province. Clearly the Church had made a contribution to what was happening in our land, even though its witness and ministry had been something of a mixed bag. Presumably without that influence things might have turned out a little differently. It could also be that at a very difficult time in our struggle, when most of our leaders were in jail or in exile or proscribed in some way or other, some of the leaders in the churches were thrust into the forefront of the struggle and had thereby given the churches a particular kind of credibility—people like Allan Boesak, formerly leader of the Dutch Reformed Mission Church, Frank Chikane, former general secretary of the South African Council of Churches (SACC), Peter Storey, former head of the Methodist Church, Beyers Naudé, the most prominent Afrikaner church dissident and also a general secretary of the SACC, Denis Hurley, formerly Roman Catholic Archbishop of Durban, and leaders of other faith communities who were there where the people were hurting. Thus when they spoke about forgiveness and reconciliation they had won their spurs and would be listened to with respect. ~ Desmond Tutu,
469:La pression des nationaux-socialistes commençait peu à peu à délabrer les nerfs des milieux cléricaux et bourgeois ; ils sentaient de plus en plus l’insistance subversive de l’impatiente Allemagne, qui leur serrait aussi la vis dans le domaine de l’économie. Le gouvernement Dollfuss, qui voulait conserver une Autriche indépendante et la préserver de Hitler, cherchait de plus en plus désespérément un dernier appui. La France et l’Angleterre étaient trop éloignées et au fond trop indifférentes, la Tchécoslovaquie était encore pleine de sa vieille rancune et de sa rivalité à l’égard de Vienne, si bien qu’il ne restait que l’Italie, qui s’efforçait alors d’étendre sur l’Autriche son protectorat économique et politique, afin de s’assurer les passages des Alpes et Trieste. Pour cette protection, Mussolini réclamait toutefois un très haut prix. L’Autriche devait s’adapter aux tendances fascistes, le Parlement, et par là même la démocratie devaient être liquidés. Cela n’était possible que si l’on écartait ou privait de ses droits le parti social-démocrate, le plus fort et le mieux organisé d’Autriche. Pour le briser, il n’y avait point d’autre moyen que la force brutale. En vue de cette action terroriste, le prédécesseur de Dollfuss, Ignaz Seipel, avait déjà créé une organisation, la Heimwehr69. Vue du dehors, elle offrait à peu près la plus pitoyable des apparences, elle était formée de petits avocats de province, d’officiers licenciés, d’ingénieurs sans travail, de toutes les médiocrités déçues, qui se haïssaient furieusement ~ Stefan Zweig,
470:The Duty Of A Brother
Why on your sister do you look,
Octavius, with an eye of scorn,
As scarce her presence you could brook?Under one roof you both were born.
Why, when she gently proffers speech,
Do you ungently turn your head?
Since the same sire gave life to each;
With the same milk ye both were fed.
Such treatment to a female, though
A perfect stranger she might be,
From you would most unmanly show;
In you to her 'tis worse to see.
When any ill-bred boys offend her,
Showing their manhood by their sneers,
It is your business to defend her
'Gainst their united taunts and jeers.
And not to join the illiberal crew
In their contempt of female merit;
What's bad enough in them, from you
Is want of goodness, want of spirit.
What if your rougher out-door sports
Her less robustious spirits daunt;
And if she join not the resorts
Where you and your wild playmates haunt:
Her milder province is at home;
When your diversions have an end,
When over-toiled from play you come,
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You'll find in her an in-doors friend.
Leave not your sister to another;
As long as both of you reside
In the same house, who but her brother
Should point her books, her studies guide?
If Nature, who allots our cup,
Than her has made you stronger, wiser;
It is that you, as you grow up,
Should be her champion, her adviser.
It is the law that hand intends
Which framed diversity of sex;
The man the woman still defends,
The manly boy the girl protects.
~ Charles Lamb,
471:If Makar Denisych was just a clerk or a junior manager, then no one would have dared talk to him in such a condescending, casual tone, but he is a 'writer', and a talentless mediocrity!
People like Mr Bubentsov do not understand anything about art and are not very interested in it, but whenever they happen to come across talentless mediocrities they are pitiless and implacable, They are ready to forgive anyone, but not Makar, that eccentric loser with manuscripts lying in his trunk. The gardener damaged the old rubber plant, and ruined lots of expensive plants, and the general does nothing and goes on spending money like water; Mr Bubentsov only got down to work once a month when he was a magistrate, then stammered, muddled up the laws, and spoke a lot of rubbish, but all this is forgiven and not noticed; but there is no way that anyone can pass by the talentless Makar, who writes passable poetry and stories, without saying something offensive. No one cares that the general's sister-in-law slaps the maids' cheeks, and swears like a trooper when she is playing cards, that the priest's wife never pays up when she loses, and the landowner Flyugin stole a a dog from the landower Sivobrazov, but the fact that Our Province returned a bad story to Makar recently is know to the whole district and has provoked mockery, long conversations and indignation, while Makar Denisych is already being referred to as old Makarka.
If someone does not write the way required, they never try to explain what is wrong, but just say:
'That bastard has gone and written another load of rubbish! ~ Anton Chekhov,
472:Grant them removed, and grant that this your noise
Hath chid down all the majesty of England;
Imagine that you see the wretched strangers,
Their babies at their backs and their poor luggage,
Plodding to the ports and coasts for transportation,
And that you sit as kings in your desires,
Authority quite silent by your brawl,
And you in ruff of your opinions clothed;
What had you got? I'll tell you: you had taught
How insolence and strong hand should prevail,
How order should be quelled; and by this pattern
Not one of you should live an aged man,
For other ruffians, as their fancies wrought,
With self same hand, self reasons, and self right,
Would shark on you, and men like ravenous fishes
Would feed on one another....
Say now the king
Should so much come too short of your great trespass
As but to banish you, whither would you go?
What country, by the nature of your error,
Should give your harbour? go you to France or Flanders,
To any German province, to Spain or Portugal,
Nay, any where that not adheres to England,
Why, you must needs be strangers: would you be pleased
To find a nation of such barbarous temper,
That, breaking out in hideous violence,
Would not afford you an abode on earth,
Whet their detested knives against your throats,
Spurn you like dogs, and like as if that God
Owed not nor made you, nor that the claimants
Were not all appropriate to your comforts,
But chartered unto them, what would you think
To be thus used? this is the strangers case;
And this your mountainish inhumanity. ~ William Shakespeare,
473:Consumption was understood as a manner of appearing, and that appearance became a staple of nineteenth-century manners. It became rude to eat heartily. It was glamorous to look sickly. “Chopin was tubercular at a time when good health was not chic,” Camille Saint-Saëns wrote in 1913. “It was fashionable to be pale and drained; Princess Belgiojoso strolled along the boulevards … pale as death in person.” Saint-Saëns was right to connect an artist, Chopin, with the most celebrated femme fatale of the period, who did a great deal to popularize the tubercular look. The TB-influenced idea of the body was a new model for aristocratic looks—at a moment when aristocracy stops being a matter of power, and starts being mainly a matter of image. (“One can never be too rich. One can never be too thin,” the Duchess of Windsor once said.) Indeed, the romanticizing of TB is the first widespread example of that distinctively modern activity, promoting the self as an image. The tubercular look had to be considered attractive once it came to be considered a mark of distinction, of breeding. “I cough continually!” Marie Bashkirtsev wrote in the once widely read Journal, which was published, after her death at twenty-four, in 1887. “But for a wonder, far from making me look ugly, this gives me an air of languor that is very becoming.” What was once the fashion for aristocratic femmes fatales and aspiring young artists became, eventually, the province of fashion as such. Twentieth-century women’s fashions (with their cult of thinness) are the last stronghold of the metaphors associated with the romanticizing of TB in the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries. ~ Susan Sontag,
474:White Night
I keep thinking of times that are long past,
Of a house in the Petersburg Quarter.
You had come from the steppeland Kursk Province,
Of a none-too-rich mother the daughter.
You were nice, you had many admirers.
On that distant white night we were sitting
On your window-sill, looking from high on
On the phantom-like scene of the city.
The street-lamps, like gauze butterflies fluttering,
Had been touched by the chill of the morning.
My soft words, as I opened my heart to you,
Matched the slumbering vistas before us.
We were plighted with timid fidelity
To the very same nebulous mystery
As the cityscape spreading unendingly
Far beyond the Neva, through the distances.
In that far-off impregnable wilderness,
Wrapped in springtime twilight ethereal,
Woodland glades and dense thickets were quivering
With mad nightingales' thunderous paeans.
Crazy resonant warbling ran riot,
And the voice of this plain-looking songster
Sowed derangement, ecstatic delight
In the depth of the mesmerised copsewood.
To those parts Night, a barefoot vagabond,
Stole its way along ditches and fences.
From our window-sill, after it tagging,
Was the trail of our cooed confidences.
To the words of this colloquy echoing
In the orchards beyond the tall palings
Spreading branches of apple and cherry trees
Swathed themselves in their pearly-white raiment.
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And the trees, like so many pale phantoms,
Waved their farewell, along the road thronging,
To White Night, that all-seeing enchanter,
Who was now to North Regions withdrawing.
~ Boris Pasternak,
475:scope and aim of the works of sacrifice :::
   Into the third and last category of the works of sacrifice can be gathered all that is directly proper to the Yoga of works; for here is its field of effectuation and major province. It covers the entire range of lifes more visible activities; under it fall the multiform energies of the Will-to-Life throwing itself outward to make the most of material existence. It is here that an ascetic or other-worldly spirituality feels an insurmountable denial of the Truth which it seeks after and is compelled to turn away from terrestrial existence, rejecting it as for ever the dark playground of an incurable Ignorance. Yet it is precisely these activities that are claimed for a spiritual conquest and divine transformation by the integral Yoga. Abandoned altogether by the more ascetic disciplines, accepted by others only as a field of temporary ordeal or a momentary, superficial and ambiguous play of the concealed spirit, this existence is fully embraced and welcomed by the integral seeker as a field of fulfilment, a field for divine works, a field of the total self-discovery of the concealed and indwelling Spirit. A discovery of the Divinity in oneself is his first object, but a total discovery too of the Divinity in the world behind the apparent denial offered by its scheme and figures and, last, a total discovery of the dynamism of some transcendent Eternal; for by its descent this world and self-will be empowered to break their disguising envelopes and become divine in revealing form and manifesting process as they now are secretly in their hidden essence.
   ~ Sri Aurobindo, The Synthesis Of Yoga, The Ascent of the Sacrifice - 2, 169,
476:I didn’t know what had ignited our passion, but with my hands in Narian’s hair and our mouths moving together, I was rapidly losing my ability to think. It was afternoon, and we were in my study, the door closed but not locked, and anyone, Cokyrian or Hytanican, could walk in at any moment.
Narian lifted me and set me on my desk, knocking a few papers to the floor, and I wrapped my legs around his waist. I laughed through our kiss until he was forced to come up for air.
“What?” he asked, cheeks flushed, his visage happy and dazed.
“What are we doing?”
“I don’t know, but I’m enjoying it,” he said, caressing my neck with his lips.
Despite how difficult he was making it for me to form words, I stuttered out a halfhearted objection. “Narian, you realize…we’re going to be caught.”
He was breathing heavily and took a moment to answer, too busy concentrating on the hollow of my throat. “Somehow…I can’t bring myself…to care.”
Still grasping his hair, I pulled his head back, kissing him once more fully on the lips. “That’s a new attitude you’ve adopted.”
He laughed. “The High Priestess and Rava appear to know we’re in love, so even if we’re discovered, it won’t be much of a shock to the powers that be.
Despite his words, he practically leaped away from me when the door opened. I crossed my legs, giving him a sideways glare for leaving me sitting rather inappropriately on the edge of my desk, and he rubbed the back of his neck in sheepish apology.
Of course it was Rava crossing the threshold, and she took in our postures before slamming the door, her expression particularly unpleasant.
“So this is how the two of you handle the affairs of the province,” she growled. ~ Cayla Kluver,
477:The girl circled in my arm was clean and fresh, and her sleeping breath was humid against the base of my throat. Something stirred in me in response to her helplessness, and yet at the same time I resented her. I had seen too damn many of these brisk and shining girls, so lovely, so gracious, and so inflexibly ambitious. They had counted their stock in trade and burnished it and spread it right out there on the counter. It was all yours for the asking. All you had to do was give her all the rest of your life, and come through with the backyard pool, cookouts, Eames chairs, mortgage, picture windows, two cars, and all the rest of the setting they required for themselves. These gorgeous girls, with steel behind their eyes, were the highest paid whores in the history of the world. All they offered was their poised, half-educated selves, one hundred and twenty pounds of healthy, unblemished, arrogant meat, in return for the eventual occupational ulcer, the suburban coronary. Nor did they bother to sweeten the bargain with their virginity. Before you could, in your hypnoid state, slip the ring on her imperious finger, that old-fashioned prize was long gone, and even its departure celebrated many times, on house parties and ski weekends, in becalmed sailboats and on cruise ships. This acknowledged and excused promiscuity was, in fact, to her advantage. Having learned her way through the jungly province of sex, she was less likely to be bedazzled by body hunger to the extent that she might make a bad match with an unpromising young man. Her decks were efficiently cleared, guns rolled out, fuses alight, cannonballs stacked, all sails set. She stood on the bridge, braced and ready, scanning the horizon with eyes as cold as winter pebbles. One ~ John D MacDonald,
478:—a slave was owned by a Continental Army soldier who'd been killed in the French and Indian War. The slave looked after the soldier's widow. He did everything, from dawn to dark didn't stop doing what needed to be done. He chopped and hauled the wood, gathered the crops, excavated and built a cabbage house and stowed the cabbages there, stored the pumpkins, buried the apples, turnips, and potatoes in the ground for winter, stacked the rye and wheat in the barn, slaughtered the pig, salted the pork, slaughtered the cow and corned the beef, until one day the widow married him and they had three sons. And those sons married Gouldtown girls whose families reached back to the settlement's origins in the 1600s, families that by the Revolution were all intermarried and thickly intermingled. One or another or all of them, she said, were descendants of the Indian from the large Lenape settlement at Indian Fields who married a Swede—locally Swedes and Finns had superseded the original Dutch settlers—and who had five children with her; one or another or all were descendants of the two mulatto brothers brought from the West Indies on a trading ship that sailed up the river from Greenwich to Bridgeton, where they were indentured to the landowners who had paid their passage and who themselves later paid the passage of two Dutch sisters to come from Holland to become their wives; one or another or all were descendants of the granddaughter of John Fenwick, an English baronet's son, a cavalry officer in Cromwell's Commonwealth army and a member of the Society of Friends who died in New Jersey not that many years after New Cesarea (the province lying between the Hudson and the Delaware that was deeded by the brother of the king of England to two English proprietors) became New Jersey. ~ Philip Roth,
479:CHAPTER XXVI.—A new Prince in a City or Province of which he has taken Possession, ought to make Everything new. Whosoever becomes prince of a city or State, more especially if his position be so insecure that he cannot resort to constitutional government either in the form of a republic or a monarchy, will find that the best way to preserve his princedom is to renew the whole institutions of that State; that is to say, to create new magistracies with new names, confer new powers, and employ new men, and like David when he became king, exalt the humble and depress the great, "filling the hungry with good things, and sending the rich empty away." Moreover, he must pull down existing towns and rebuild them, removing their inhabitants from one place to another; and, in short, leave nothing in the country as he found it; so that there shall be neither rank, nor condition, nor honour, nor wealth which its possessor can refer to any but to him. And he must take example from Philip of Macedon, the father of Alexander, who by means such as these, from being a petty prince became monarch of all Greece; and of whom it was written that he shifted men from province to province as a shepherd moves his flocks from one pasture to another. These indeed are most cruel expedients, contrary not merely to every Christian, but to every civilized rule of conduct, and such as every man should shun, choosing rather to lead a private life than to be a king on terms so hurtful to mankind. But he who will not keep to the fair path of virtue, must to maintain himself enter this path of evil. Men, however, not knowing how to be wholly good or wholly bad, choose for themselves certain middle ways, which of all others are the most pernicious, as shall be shown by an instance in the following Chapter. ~ Niccol Machiavelli,
480:The Iron Bridge
I am standing on a disused iron bridge
that was erected in 1902,
according to the iron plaque bolted into a beam,
the year my mother turned one.
Imagine--a mother in her infancy,
and she was a Canadian infant at that,
one of the great infants of the province of Ontario.
But here I am leaning on the rusted railing
looking at the water below,
which is flat and reflective this morning,
sky-blue and streaked with high clouds,
and the more I look at the water,
which is like a talking picture,
the more I think of 1902
when workmen in shirts and caps
riveted this iron bridge together
across a thin channel joining two lakes
where wildflowers blow along the shore now
and pairs of swans float in the leafy coves.
1902--my mother was so tiny
she could have fit into one of those oval
baskets for holding apples,
which her mother could have lined with a soft cloth
and placed on the kitchen table
so she could keep an eye on infant Katherine
while she scrubbed potatoes or shelled a bag of peas,
the way I am keeping an eye on that cormorant
who just broke the glassy surface
and is moving away from me and the iron bridge,
swiveling his curious head,
slipping out to where the sun rakes the water
and filters through the trees that crowd the shore.
And now he dives,
disappears below the surface,
and while I wait for him to pop up,
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I picture him flying underwater with his strange wings,
as I picture you, my tiny mother,
who disappeared last year,
flying somewhere with your strange wings,
your wide eyes, and your heavy wet dress,
kicking deeper down into a lake
with no end or name, some boundless province of water.
~ Billy Collins,
481:Nothing consumed more of the Department’s attention than the press. “Never again,” President Jiang Zemin vowed after Tiananmen, “would China’s newspapers, radio, and television be permitted to become a battle-front for bourgeois liberalism.” China, Jiang said, would never succumb to what he called “so-called glasnost.” Journalists were still expected to “sing as one voice,” and the Department would help them do so by issuing a vast and evolving list of words that must and must not appear in the news. Some rules never changed: Any mention of Taiwan’s laws was to refer to them as “so-called laws,” while China’s political system was so unique that reporters were never to type the phrase “according to international practice” when drawing comparisons to Beijing. When it came to the economy, they were not to dwell on bad news during the holidays, or on issues that the government classified as “unsolvable,” such as the fragility of Chinese banks or the political influence of the wealthy. The most ardently forbidden subject was Tiananmen itself; no mention of the 1989 protests or the bloodshed appear in Chinese textbooks; when the government discusses the events of that year, it describes them as “chaos” or “turmoil” organized by a handful of “black hands.” Journalists had little choice but to heed those instructions to such a degree that, even as China became more diverse and clamorous, the world of the news was an oasis of calm—a realm of breathtaking sameness. Newspapers on opposite sides of the country often carried identical headlines, in identical font. In May 2008, when a powerful earthquake struck the province of Sichuan, papers across the country proclaimed in near-perfect unison that the earthquake had “tugged at the heartstrings of the Chinese Communist Party.” The next morning, I rounded up the local papers and marveled at their consistency. ~ Evan Osnos,
482:Takes them less than a week to run the Line thro’ somebody’s House. About a mile and a half west of the Twelve-Mile Arc, twenty-four Chains beyond Little Christiana Creek, on Wednesday, April 10th, the Field-Book reports, “At 3 Miles 49 Chains, went through Mr. Price’s House.” “Just took a wild guess,” Mrs. Price quite amiable, “where we’d build it,— not as if my Husband’s a Surveyor or anything. Which side’s to be Pennsylvania, by the way?” A mischievous glint in her eyes that Barnes, Farlow, Moses McClean and others will later all recall. Mr. Price is in Town, in search of Partners for a Land Venture. “Would you Gentlemen mind coming in the House and showing me just where your Line does Run?” Mason and Dixon, already feeling awkward about it, oblige, Dixon up on the Roof with a long Plumb-line, Mason a-squint at the Snout of the Instrument. Mrs. Price meantime fills her Table with plates of sour-cherry fritters, Neat’s-Tongue Pies, a gigantick Indian Pudding, pitchers a-slosh with home-made Cider,— then producing some new-hackl’d Streaks of Hemp, and laying them down in a Right Line according to the Surveyors’ advice,— fixing them here and there with Tacks, across the room, up the stairs, straight down the middle of the Bed, of course, . . . which is about when Mr. Rhys Price happens to return from his Business in town, to find merry Axmen lounging beneath his Sassafras tree, Strange Stock mingling with his own and watering out of his Branch, his house invaded by Surveyors, and his wife giving away the Larder and waving her Tankard about, crying, “Husband, what Province were we married in? Ha! see him gape, for he cannot remember. ’Twas in Pennsylvania, my Tortoise. But never in Maryland. Hey? So from now on, when I am upon this side of the House, I am in Maryland, legally not your wife, and no longer subject to your Authority,— isn’t that right, Gents?” “Ask the Rev,” they reply together, ~ Thomas Pynchon,
483:The increases in productivity brought about by Ford’s innovation were startling and revolutionized not just the automobile industry but virtually every industry serving a mass market. Introduction of “Fordist” mass production techniques became something of a fad outside America: German industry went through a period of “rationalization” in the mid-1920s as manufacturers sought to import the most “advanced” American organizational techniques.12 It was the Soviet Union’s misfortune that Lenin and Stalin came of age in this period, because these Bolshevik leaders associated industrial modernity with large-scale mass production tout court. Their view that bigger necessarily meant better ultimately left the Soviet Union, at the end of the communist period, with a horrendously overconcentrated and inefficient industrial infrastructure—a Fordism on steroids in a period when the Fordist model had ceased to be relevant. The new form of mass production associated with Henry Ford also had its own ideologist: Frederick W. Taylor, whose book The Principles of Scientific Management came to be regarded as the bible for the new industrial age.13 Taylor, an industrial engineer, was one of the first proponents of time-and-motion studies that sought to maximize labor efficiency on the factory floor. He tried to codify the “laws” of mass production by recommending a very high degree of specialization that deliberately avoided the need for individual assembly line workers to demonstrate initiative, judgment, or even skill. Maintenance of the assembly line and its fine-tuning was given to a separate maintenance department, and the controlling intelligence behind the design of the line itself was the province of white-collar engineering and planning departments. Worker efficiency was based on a strict carrot-and-stick approach: productive workers were paid a higher piece rate than less productive ones. In typical American fashion, Taylor hid ~ Francis Fukuyama,
484:But if the case be thus with the Latin versions, how great are the contempt and profanation shown in the French, German, Polish and other languages! And yet here is one of the most successful artifices adopted by the enemy of Christianity and of unity in our age, to attract the people. He knew the curiosity of men, and how much one esteems one’s own judgment, and therefore he has induced his sectaries to translate the Holy Scriptures, every one into the tongue of the province where he finds himself placed, and to maintain this unheard-of opinion, that every one is capable of understanding the Scriptures, that all should read them, and that the public offices should be celebrated and sung in the vulgar tongue of each district. But who sees not the artifice? There is nothing in the world which, passing through many hands, does not change and lose it first luster: wine which has been often poured out and poured back loses its freshness and strength, wax when handled changes its color, coins lose their stamp. Be sure also that Holy Scripture, passing through so many translators, in so many versions and reversions, cannot but be altered. And if in the Latin versions there is such a variety of opinion among these turners of Scripture, how much more in their vernacular and mother-tongue editions, which not every one is able to check or to criticize? It gives a very great license to translators to know that they will only be tested by those of their own province. Every district has not such clear seeing eyes as France and Germany. “Are we sure,” says a learned profane writer,927 “that in the Basque provinces and in Brittany there are persons of sufficient judgment to give authority to this translation made into their tongue; the universal Church has no more arduous decision to give;” it is Satan’s plan for corrupting the integrity of this holy Testament. He well knows the result of disturbing and poisoning the source; it is at once to spoil all that comes after. ~ Francis de Sales,
485:But if the case be thus with the Latin versions, how great are the contempt and profanation shown in the French, German, Polish and other languages! And yet here is one of the most successful artifices adopted by the enemy of Christianity and of unity in our age, to attract the people. He knew the curiosity of men, and how much one esteems one’s own judgment, and therefore he has induced his sectaries to translate the Holy Scriptures, every one into the tongue of the province where he finds himself placed, and to maintain this unheard-of opinion, that every one is capable of understanding the Scriptures, that all should read them, and that the public offices should be celebrated and sung in the vulgar tongue of each district. But who sees not the artifice? There is nothing in the world which, passing through many hands, does not change and lose it first luster: wine which has been often poured out and poured back loses its freshness and strength, wax when handled changes its color, coins lose their stamp. Be sure also that Holy Scripture, passing through so many translators, in so many versions and reversions, cannot but be altered. And if in the Latin versions there is such a variety of opinion among these turners of Scripture, how much more in their vernacular and mother-tongue editions, which not every one is able to check or to criticize? It gives a very great license to translators to know that they will only be tested by those of their own province. Every district has not such clear seeing eyes as France and Germany. “Are we sure,” says a learned profane writer,927 “that in the Basque provinces and in Brittany there are persons of sufficient judgment to give authority to this translation made into their tongue; the universal Church has no more arduous decision to give;” it is Satan’s plan for corrupting the integrity of this holy Testament. He well knows the result of disturbing and poisoning the source; it is at once to spoil all that comes after. ~ Saint Francis de Sales,
486:The children and young people upon whom came this outpouring of the Holy Spirit and through whom came these visions and revelations were members of the Adullam Rescue Mission in Yunnanfu, Yunnan Province, China. For the most part, these children had been beggars in the streets of the city. In some cases they were poor children with one or both parents dead and had been brought to the Home. There were also some prodigals who had run away from their homes in more distant parts of this or adjoining provinces. But from whatever source they came, these children, mostly boys ranging in ages from six to eighteen, had come to us without previous training in morals and without education. Begging is a sort of "gang" system in which stealing is a profitable part. The morals are what would be expected of a "gang" in a godless land. The Bible is carefully and daily taught in the Adullam Home, and the gospel is constantly preached. Since the children coming into the home have always been open to the teachings given, before the outpouring of the Holy Spirit recorded below, some of them were doubtless converted, while many had a very good knowledge of the main themes of the Bible. All who received the Holy Spirit knew enough to believe in one God and to trust in the blood of Christ for salvation. They also prayed for the fullness of the Holy Spirit. They sought Christ. We did not see any one seeking visions or any of the manifestations that were received day by day as all single heartedly prayed and praised the Lord Jesus. He alone was sought and magnified throughout all the weeks of the Spirit's outpouring. In this visitation from the Lord all were treated impartially. The oldest and the youngest, the first arrivals and the latest comers, the best and the worst, all sitting together around their common Father's table were alike treated to His heavenly bounties. This giving of the Promised Spirit was clearly a love gift of grace "apart from works" or personal merit. It was not something that was worked ~ Anonymous,
487:To My Children,
I'm dedicating my little story to you; doubtless you will be among the very few who will ever read it. It seems war stories aren't very well received at this point. I'm told they're out-dated, untimely and as might be expected - make some unpleasant reading. And, as you have no doubt already perceived, human beings don't like to remember unpleasant things. They gird themselves with the armor of wishful thinking, protect themselves with a shield of impenetrable optimism, and, with a few exceptions, seem to accomplish their "forgetting" quite admirably.
But you, my children, I don't want you to be among those who choose to forget. I want you to read my stories and a lot of others like them. I want you to fill your heads with Remarque and Tolstoy and Ernie Pyle. I want you to know what shrapnel, and "88's" and mortar shells and mustard gas mean. I want you to feel, no matter how vicariously, a semblance of the feeling of a torn limb, a burnt patch of flesh, the crippling, numbing sensation of fear, the hopeless emptiness of fatigue. All these things are complimentary to the province of War and they should be taught and demonstrated in classrooms along with the more heroic aspects of uniforms, and flags, and honor and patriotism. I have no idea what your generation will be like. In mine we were to enjoy "Peace in our time". A very well meaning gentleman waved his umbrella and shouted those very words...less than a year before the whole world went to war. But this gentleman was suffering the worldly disease of insufferable optimism. He and his fellow humans kept polishing the rose colored glasses when actually they should have taken them off. They were sacrificing reason and reality for a brief and temporal peace of mind, the same peace of mind that many of my contemporaries derive by steadfastly refraining from remembering the War that came before.
[excerpt from a dedication to an unpublished short story, "First Squad, First Platoon"; from Serling to his as yet unborn children] ~ Rod Serling,
488:The Name "Arthur" The etymology of the Welsh name Arthur is uncertain, though most scholars favour either a derivation from the Roman gens name Artorius (ultimately of Messapic or Etruscan origin), or a native Brittonic compound based on the root *arto- "bear" (which became arth in Medieval and Modern Welsh). Similar "bear" names appear throughout the Celtic-speaking world. Gildas does not give the name Arthur but he does mention a British king Cuneglasus who had been "charioteer to the bear". Those that favor a mythological origin for Arthur point out that a Gaulish bear goddess Artio is attested, but as yet no certain examples of Celtic male bear gods have been detected. John Morris argues that the appearance of the name Arthur, as applied to the Scottish, Welsh and Pennine "Arthurs", and the lack of the name at any time earlier, suggests that in the early 6th century the name became popular amongst the indigenous British for a short time. He proposes that all of these occurrences were due to the importance of another Arthur, who may have ruled temporarily as Emperor of Britain. He suggests on the basis of archaeology that a period of Saxon advance was halted and turned back, before resuming again in the 570s. Morris also suggests that the Roman Camulodunum, modern Colchester, and capital of the Roman province of Britannia, is the origin of the name "Camelot". The name Artúr is frequently attested in southern Scotland and northern England in the 7th and 8th centuries. For example, Artúr mac Conaing, who may have been named after his uncle Artúr mac Áedáin. Artúr son of Bicoir Britone, was another 'Arthur' reported in this period, who slew Morgan mac Fiachna of Ulster in 620/625 in Kintyre. A man named Feradach, apparently the grandson of an 'Artuir', was a signatory at the synod that enacted the Law of Adomnan in 697. Arthur ap Pedr was a prince in Dyfed, born around 570–580. Given the popularity of this name at the time, it is likely that others were named for a figure who was already established in folklore by that time. ~ Roger Lancelyn Green,
489:IN T H E last twenty-five years I have had a lot of people staying with me and sometimes I am tempted to write an essay on guests. There are the guests who never shut a door after them and never turn out the light when they leave their room. There are the guests who throw themselves on their bed in muddy boots to have a nap after lunch, so that the counterpane has to be cleaned on their departure. There are the guests who smoke in bed and burn holes in your sheets. There are the guests who are on a regime and have to have special food cooked for them and there are the guests who wait till their glass is filled with a vintage claret and then say: "I won't have any, thank you." There are the guests who never put back a book in the place from which they took it and there are the guests who take away a volume from a set and never return it. There are the guests who borrow money from you when they are leaving and do not pay it back. There are the guests who can never be alone for a minute and there are the guests who are seized with a desire to talk the moment they see you glancing at a paper. There are the guests who, wherever they are, want to be somewhere else and there are the guests who want to be doing something from the time they get up in the morning till the time they go to bed at night. There are the guests who treat you as though they were SOME NOVELISTS I HAVE KNOWN 459 gauleiters in a conquered province. There are the guests who bring three weeks* laundry with them to have washed at your expense and there are the guests who send their clothes to the cleaners and leave you to pay the bill. There are the guests who telephone to London, Paris, Rome, Madrid and New York, and never think of inquiring how much it costs. There are the guests who take all they can get and offer nothing in return. There are also the guests who are happy just to be with you, who seek to please, who have resources of their own, who amuse you, whose conversation is delightful, whose interests are varied, who exhilarate and excite you, who in short give you far more than you ~ Anonymous,
490:We live in an extraordinary age. These are times of stunning changes in social organization, economic well-being, moral and ethical precepts, philosophical and religious perspectives, and human self-knowledge, as well as in our understanding of that vast universe in which we are imbedded like a grain of sand in a cosmic ocean. As long as there have been human beings, we have posed the deep and fundamental questions, which evoke wonder and stir us into at least a tentative and trembling awareness, questions on the origins of consciousness; life on our planet; the beginnings of the Earth; the formation of the Sun; the possibility of intelligent beings somewhere up there in the depths of the sky; as well as, the grandest inquiry of all - on the advent, nature and ultimate destiny of the universe. For all but the last instant of human history these issues have been the exclusive province of philosophers and poets, shamans and theologians. The diverse and mutually contradictory answers offered demonstrate that few of the proposed solutions have been correct. But today, as a result of knowledge painfully extracted from nature, through generations of careful thinking, observing, and experimenting, we are on the verge of glimpsing at least preliminary answers to many of these questions.

...If we do not destroy ourselves, most of us will be around for the answers. Had we been born fifty years earlier, we could have wondered, pondered, speculated about these issues, but we could have done nothing about them. Had we been born fifty years later, the answers would, I think, already have been in. Our children will have been taught the answers before most of them will have had the opportunity to even formulate the questions. By far the most exciting, satisfying and exhilarating time to be alive is the time in which we pass from ignorance to knowledge on these fundamental issues; the age where we begin in wonder and end in understanding. In all of the four-billion-year history of the human family, there is only one generation priveleged to live through that unique transitional moment: that generation is ours. ~ Carl Sagan,
491:Grand Provost.”
Rava’s voice, clear and crisp, startled me. She stood to my left, in the doorway of her office, and I had the impression she had been watching for me.
“Come in for a moment.”
The Cokyrian second-in-command retreated into her alcove, and I followed, closing the door as she went to stand behind her desk.
“How much power do you think he has?” she asked contemptuously, straightening her black tunic with a hard tug on the bottom.
“I don’t understand.” I tenaciously met her eyes, despite the dread creeping along my spine. It was obvious she had overheard my conversation with Narian.
“I understand the influence you have all too well. The commander will do exactly what you want, bend to your will. That alone should prove to you that strength is a woman’s endowment, not a man’s.”
She was testing me, taunting me, and I resented her for it.
“Are you going to continue with cryptic comments or are you going to say what you mean?” I demanded, rallying to take the offensive.
“You may love Nantilam’s little prince, but you’re blind to the fact that he is an instrument. He has been from the beginning and he always will be, until she has no further use for him. Nantilam cares for him and would rather see him alive than dead, but she will not listen to him, or to words he bears from you. I have her ear. She will listen only to the most powerful woman n this godforsaken province, and that woman is me.”
She was baiting me, successfully; I was on the verge of losing my temper. Knowing that would be a mistake, I let the silence between us lengthen, taking several slow and steady breaths. Then I gave her a small smile.
“The High Priestess made me Grand Provost because she wanted a woman in control who would understand the people. You do not understand my people, Rava. You keep them miserable because you fear them. And everything else aside, that makes you weak.”
Though Rava glowered at me, I was done with her, and coolly left her office. I could almost feel the slow tick of time, counting down to Narian’s return. He would prove one of us right and one of us wrong. ~ Cayla Kluver,
492:IN T H E last twenty-five years I have had a lot of people staying with me and sometimes I am tempted to write an essay on guests. There are the guests who never shut a door after them and never turn out the light when they leave their room. There are the guests who throw themselves on their bed in muddy boots to have a nap after lunch, so that the counterpane has to be cleaned on their departure. There are the guests who smoke in bed and burn holes in your sheets. There are the guests who are on a regime and have to have special food cooked for them and there are the guests who wait till their glass is filled with a vintage claret and then say: "I won't have any, thank you." There are the guests who never put back a book in the place from which they took it and there are the guests who take away a volume from a set and never return it. There are the guests who borrow money from you when they are leaving and do not pay it back. There are the guests who can never be alone for a minute and there are the guests who are seized with a desire to talk the moment they see you glancing at a paper. There are the guests who, wherever they are, want to be somewhere else and there are the guests who want to be doing something from the time they get up in the morning till the time they go to bed at night. There are the guests who treat you as though they were SOME NOVELISTS I HAVE KNOWN 459 gauleiters in a conquered province. There are the guests who bring three weeks* laundry with them to have washed at your expense and there are the guests who send their clothes to the cleaners and leave you to pay the bill. There are the guests who telephone to London, Paris, Rome, Madrid and New York, and never think of inquiring how much it costs. There are the guests who take all they can get and offer nothing in return. There are also the guests who are happy just to be with you, who seek to please, who have resources of their own, who amuse you, whose conversation is delightful, whose interests are varied, who exhilarate and excite you, who in short give you far more than you can ever hope to give them and whose visits are only too brief. ~ Anonymous,
493:New York
November 10, 1958

Dear Thom:

We had your letter this morning. I will answer it from my point of view and of course Elaine will from hers.

First—if you are in love—that’s a good thing—that’s about the best thing that can happen to anyone. Don’t let anyone make it small or light to you.

Second—There are several kinds of love. One is a selfish, mean, grasping, egotistical thing which uses love for self-importance. This is the ugly and crippling kind. The other is an outpouring of everything good in you—of kindness and consideration and respect—not only the social respect of manners but the greater respect which is recognition of another person as unique and valuable. The first kind can make you sick and small and weak but the second can release in you strength, and courage and goodness and even wisdom you didn’t know you had.

You say this is not puppy love. If you feel so deeply—of course it isn’t puppy love.

But I don’t think you were asking me what you feel. You know better than anyone. What you wanted me to help you with is what to do about it—and that I can tell you.

Glory in it for one thing and be very glad and grateful for it.

The object of love is the best and most beautiful. Try to live up to it.

If you love someone—there is no possible harm in saying so—only you must remember that some people are very shy and sometimes the saying must take that shyness into consideration.

Girls have a way of knowing or feeling what you feel, but they usually like to hear it also.

It sometimes happens that what you feel is not returned for one reason or another—but that does not make your feeling less valuable and good.

Lastly, I know your feeling because I have it and I’m glad you have it.

We will be glad to meet Susan. She will be very welcome. But Elaine will make all such arrangements because that is her province and she will be very glad to. She knows about love too and maybe she can give you more help than I can.

And don’t worry about losing. If it is right, it happens—The main thing is not to hurry. Nothing good gets away.

Love,

Fa ~ John Steinbeck,
494:Ben Apfelgarten
There was a certain gentleman, Ben Apfelgarten called,
Who lived way off in Germany a many years ago,
And he was very fortunate in being very bald
And so was very happy he was so.
He warbled all the day
Such songs as only they
Who are very, very circumspect and very happy may;
The people wondered why,
As the years went gliding by,
They never heard him once complain or even heave a sigh!
The women of the province fell in love with genial Ben,
Till (may be you can fancy it) the dickens was to pay
Among the callow students and the sober-minded men-With the women-folk a-cuttin' up that way!
Why, they gave him turbans red
To adorn his hairless head,
And knitted jaunty nightcaps to protect him when abed!
In vain the rest demurred-Not a single chiding word
Those ladies deigned to tolerate--remonstrance was absurd!
Things finally got into such a very dreadful way
That the others (oh, how artful) formed the politic design
To send him to the reichstag; so, one dull November day,
They elected him a member from the Rhine!
Then the other members said:
"Gott im Himmel! what a head!"
But they marvelled when his speeches they listened to or read;
And presently they cried:
"There must be heaps inside
Of the smooth and shiny cranium his constituents deride!"
Well, when at last he up 'nd died--long past his ninetieth year-The strangest and the most lugubrious funeral he had,
For women came in multitudes to weep upon his bier-The men all wond'ring why on earth the women had gone mad!
And this wonderment increased
Till the sympathetic priest
70
Inquired of those same ladies: "Why this fuss about deceased?"
Whereupon were they appalled,
For, as one, those women squalled:
"We doted on deceased for being bald--bald--bald!"
He was bald because his genius burnt that shock of hair away
Which, elsewise, clogs one's keenness and activity of mind;
And (barring present company, of course) I'm free to say
That, after all, it's intellect that captures womankind.
At any rate, since then
(With a precedent in Ben),
The women-folk have been in love with us bald-headed men!
~ Eugene Field,
495:This is the real sense and drive of what we see as evolution: the multiplication and variation of forms is only the means of its process. Each gradation contains the possibility and the certainty of the grades beyond it: the emergence of more and more developed forms and powers points to more perfected forms and greater powers beyond them, and each emergence of consciousness and the conscious beings proper to it enables the rise to a greater consciousness beyond and the greater order of beings up to the ultimate godheads of which Nature is striving and is destined to show herself capable. Matter developed its organised forms until it became capable of embodying living organisms; then life rose from the subconscience of the plant into conscious animal formations and through them to the thinking life of man. Mind founded in life developed intellect, developed its types of knowledge and ignorance, truth and error till it reached the spiritual perception and illumination and now can see as in a glass dimly the possibility of supermind and a truthconscious existence. In this inevitable ascent the mind of Light is a gradation, an inevitable stage. As an evolving principle it will mark a stage in the human ascent and evolve a new type of human being; this development must carry in it an ascending gradation of its own powers and types of an ascending humanity which will embody more and more the turn towards spirituality, capacity for Light, a climb towards a divinised manhood and the divine life.
   In the birth of the mind of Light and its ascension into its own recognisable self and its true status and right province there must be, in the very nature of things as they are and very nature of the evolutionary process as it is at present, two stages. In the first, we can see the mind of Light gathering itself out of the Ignorance, assembling its constituent elements, building up its shapes and types, however imperfect at first, and pushing them towards perfection till it can cross the border of the Ignorance and appear in the Light, in its own Light. In the second stage we can see it developing itself in that greater natural light, taking its higher shapes and forms till it joins the supermind and lives as its subordinate portion or its delegate.
   ~ Sri Aurobindo, Essays In Philosophy And Yoga, Mind of Light, 587,
496:On this Thirtieth Day of May in the First Year of Cokyrian dominance over the Province of Hytanica, the following regulations shall be put into practice in order to assist our gracious Grand Provost in her effort to welcome Cokyri into our lands--and to help ensure the enemy does not bungle the first victory it has managed in over a century.
Regulation One. All Hytanican citizens must be willing to provide aid to aimlessly wandering Cokyrian soldiers who cannot on their honor grasp that the road leading back to the city is the very same road that led them away.
Regulation Two. It is strongly recommended that farmers hide their livestock, lest the men of our host empire become confused and attempt to mate with them.
Regulation Three. As per negotiated arrangements, crops grown on Hytanican soil will be divided with fifty percent belonging to Cokyri, and seventy-five percent remaining with the citizens of the province; Hytanicans will be bound by law to wait patiently while the Cokyrians attempt to sort the baffling deficiency in their calculations.
Regulation Four. The Cokyrian envoys assigned to manage the planting and farming effort will also require Hytanican patience while they slowly but surely learn what is a crop and what is a weed, as well as left from right.
Regulation Five. Though the Province Wall is a Cokyrian endeavor, it would be polite and understanding of Hytanicans to remind the enemy of the correct side on which to be standing when the final stone is laid, so no unfortunates may find themselves trapped outside with no way in.
Regulation Six. When at long last foreign trade is allowed to resume, Hytanicans should strive to empathize with the reluctance of neighboring kingdoms to enter our lands, for Cokyri’s stench is sure to deter even the migrating birds.
Regulation Seven. For what little trade and business we do manage in spite of the odor, the imposed ten percent tax may be paid in coins, sweets or shiny objects.
Regulation Eight. It is regrettably prohibited for Hytanicans to throw jeers at Cokyrian soldiers, for fear that any man harried may cry, and the women may spit.
Regulation Nine. In case of an encounter with Cokyrian dignitaries, the boy-invader and the honorable High Priestess included, let it be known that the proper way in which to greet them is with an ass-backward bow.
~ Cayla Kluver,
497:Narian was once more making preparations for a journey to Cokyri; as official liaison, he frequently traveled between the mother empire and the province. Knowing that the trip was long and arduous I didn’t expect him to come to me that night, and I didn’t bother to light a lantern when I adjourned to my bedroom. Instead, I relied on memory and moonlight to guide me to my dressing table.
I unpinned my dark brown hair--it was not yet long enough to tie back, but letting it merely hang was impractical--and reached behind to tug at the laces of my dress. They were difficult to loosen without the aid of my personal maid, Sahdienne, who had been among those servants rehired for the sake of the economy. I sighed in frustration and stood, about to send for her when I felt warm hands rest on my waist from behind. My irritation dispersed as I closed my eyes and tilted my head back against a sturdy chest, breathing in his presence. Narian had come.
He swept my hair off my neck, his fingers giving me pleasant chills, then took over what I had been attempting. My dress rustled to the floor, leaving me standing in my chemise, and he sweetly and tenderly kissed my neck and shoulders. He pushed my shift down my arms, his mouth following, and I leaned against him, my legs weak, keenly attuned to every brush of his lips against my flushed skin.
My heart beat faster, and I twisted to face him, kissing him deeply, hardly aware that he had begun to walk backward, leading me toward the bed. We fell together upon the mattress, not entirely gracefully, but neither of us thinking about form. He rolled on top of me, his breath quickening along with mine, and it was only when he took hold of my bunched up chemise that my brain snapped into action. I placed my hands on his shoulders and shook my head, and he flopped flat on his back beside me with a groan.
After a moment to regain his composure, he propped himself up on his elbow to look down at me, desire still lurking in his mesmerizing eyes.
“Alera? Are you…all right?”
“Narian, we can’t do this.” I was more than a little shocked at the both of us.
His brow furrowed, and he ran a hand through his disheveled hair. He took a breath and opened his mouth, then stopped, apparently unable to decide exactly what he wanted to say.
“Why not?”
Because,” I said, pushing myself upright. “We’re not married! ~ Cayla Kluver,
498:When he had ate his fill, and proceeded from the urgent first cup and necessary second to the voluntary third which might be toyed with at leisure, without any particular outcry seeming to suggest he should be on his guard, he leant back, spread the city’s news before him, and, by glances between the items, took a longer survey of the room. Session of the Common Council. Vinegars, Malts, and Spirituous Liquors, Available on Best Terms. Had he been on familiar ground, he would have been able to tell at a glance what particular group of citizens in the great empire of coffee this house aspired to serve: whether it was the place for poetry or gluttony, philosophy or marine insurance, the Indies trade or the meat-porters’ burial club. Ships Landing. Ships Departed. Long Island Estate of Mr De Kyper, with Standing Timber, to be Sold at Auction. But the prints on the yellowed walls were a mixture. Some maps, some satires, some ballads, some bawdy, alongside the inevitable picture of the King: pop-eyed George reigning over a lukewarm graphical gruel, neither one thing nor t’other. Albany Letter, Relating to the Behaviour of the Mohawks. Sermon, Upon the Dedication of the Monument to the Late Revd. Vesey. Leases to be Let: Bouwerij, Out Ward, Environs of Rutgers’ Farm. And the company? River Cargos Landed. Escaped Negro Wench: Reward Offered. – All he could glean was an impression generally businesslike, perhaps intersown with law. Dramatic Rendition of the Classics, to be Performed by the Celebrated Mrs Tomlinson. Poem, ‘Hail Liberty, Sweet Succor of a Briton’s Breast’, Offered by ‘Urbanus’ on the Occasion of His Majesty’s Birthday. Over there there were maps on the table, and a contract a-signing; and a ring of men in merchants’ buff-and-grey quizzing one in advocate’s black-and-bands. But some of the clients had the wind-scoured countenance of mariners, and some were boys joshing one another. Proceedings of the Court of Judicature of the Province of New-York. Poor Law Assessment. Carriage Rates. Principal Goods at Mart, Prices Current. Here he pulled out a printed paper of his own from an inner pocket, and made comparison of certain figures, running his left and right forefingers down the columns together. Telescopes and Spy-Glasses Ground. Regimental Orders. Dinner of the Hungarian Club. Perhaps there were simply too few temples here to coffee, for them to specialise as he was used. ~ Francis Spufford,
499:The poet-seer sees differently, thinks in another way, voices himself in quite another manner than the philosopher or the prophet. The prophet announces the Truth as the Word, the Law or the command of the Eternal, he is the giver of the message; the poet shows us Truth in its power of beauty, in its symbol or image, or reveals it to us in the workings of Nature or in the workings of life, and when he has done that, his whole work is done; he need not be its explicit spokesman or its official messenger. The philosopher's business is to discriminate Truth and put its parts and aspects into intellectual relation with each other; the poet's is to seize and embody aspects of Truth in their living relations, or rather - for that is too philosophical a language - to see her features and, excited by the vision, create in the beauty of her image.

   No doubt, the prophet may have in him a poet who breaks out often into speech and surrounds with the vivid atmosphere of life the directness of his message; he may follow up his injunction "Take no thought for the morrow," by a revealing image of the beauty of the truth he enounces, in the life of Nature, in the figure of the lily, or link it to human life by apologue and parable. The philosopher may bring in the aid of colour and image to give some relief and hue to his dry light of reason and water his arid path of abstractions with some healing dew of poetry. But these are ornaments and not the substance of his work; and if the philosopher makes his thought substance of poetry, he ceases to be a philosophic thinker and becomes a poet-seer of Truth. Thus the more rigid metaphysicians are perhaps right in denying to Nietzsche the name of philosopher; for Nietzsche does not think, but always sees, turbidly or clearly, rightly or distortedly, but with the eye of the seer rather than with the brain of the thinker. On the other hand we may get great poetry which is full of a prophetic enthusiasm of utterance or is largely or even wholly philosophic in its matter; but this prophetic poetry gives us no direct message, only a mass of sublime inspirations of thought and image, and this philosophic poetry is poetry and lives as poetry only in so far as it departs from the method, the expression, the way of seeing proper to the philosophic mind. It must be vision pouring itself into thought-images and not thought trying to observe truth and distinguish its province and bounds and fences.

   ~ Sri Aurobindo, The Future Poetry,
500:Cia Dope Calypso
In nineteen hundred forty-nine
China was won by Mao Tse-tung
Chiang Kai Shek's army ran away
They were waiting there in Thailand yesterday
Supported by the CIA
Pushing junk down Thailand way
First they stole from the Meo Tribes
Up in the hills they started taking bribes
Then they sent their soldiers up to Shan
Collecting opium to send to The Man
Pushing junk in Bangkok yesterday
Supported by the CIA
Brought their jam on mule trains down
To Chiang Mai that's a railroad town
Sold it next to the police chief's brain
He took it to town on the choochoo train
Trafficking dope to Bangkok all day
Supported by the CIA
The policeman's name was Mr. Phao
He peddled dope grand scale and how
Chief of border customs paid
By Central Intelligence's U.S. aid
The whole operation, Newspapers say
Supported by the CIA
He got so sloppy and peddled so loose
He busted himself and cooked his own goose
Took the reward for the opium load
Seizing his own haul which same he resold
Big time pusher for a decade turned grey
Working for the CIA
14
Touby Lyfong he worked for the French
A big fat man liked to dine & wench
Prince of the Meos he grew black mud
Till opium flowed through the land like a flood
Communists came and chased the French away
So Touby took a job with the CIA
The whole operation fell in to chaos
Till U.S. intelligence came in to Laos
Mary Azarian/Matt Wuerker I'll tell you no lie I'm a true American
Our big pusher there was Phoumi Nosavan
All them Princes in a power play
But Phoumi was the man for the CIA
And his best friend General Vang Pao
Ran the Meo army like a sacred cow
Helicopter smugglers filled Long Cheng's bars
In Xieng Quang province on the Plain of Jars
It started in secret they were fighting yesterday
Clandestine secret army of the CIA
All through the Sixties the dope flew free
Thru Tan Son Nhut Saigon to Marshall Ky
Air America followed through
Transporting comfiture for President Thieu
All these Dealers were decades and yesterday
The Indochinese mob of the U.S. CIA
Operation Haylift Offisir Wm Colby
Saw Marshall Ky fly opium Mr. Mustard told me
Indochina desk he was Chief of Dirty Tricks
"Hitch-hiking" with dope pushers was how he got his fix
Subsidizing the traffickers to drive the Reds away
Till Colby was the head of the CIA
15
~ Allen Ginsberg,
501:Là in Kakania, in quello Stato incompreso, che ormai non esiste più e che in tante cose fu un modello ingiustamente sottovalutato, c’era anche velocità, ma non troppa. Quando si era all’estero e si ripensava a questo paese, sorgeva davanti agli occhi il ricordo di quelle sue strade bianche, larghe e comode, risalenti al tempo delle marce a piedi e dei postali, strade che si diramavano in tutte le direzioni, come le vie di trasmissione del regolamento, come i nastri del traliccio chiaro nelle uniformi dei soldati, e che cingevano le province con il braccio bianco-cartaceo dell’amministrazione. E che province! Ghiacciai e mari, il Carso e i campi di grano della Boemia, notti sull’Adriatico percorse dallo stridio inquieto dei grilli, e villaggi slovacchi dove il fumo usciva dai camini come da narici camuse e il villaggio se ne stava rannicchiato tra due collinette, quasi che la terra avesse dischiuso un poco le labbra per riscaldare il suo bambino. Naturalmente su quelle strade si incontravano anche automobili; ma non troppe. Ci si preparava anche là alla conquista dell’aria; ma senza eccedere in solerzia. Di quando in quando si faceva partire una nave per il Sudamerica o per l’Estremo Oriente; ma non troppo spesso. Non si ambiva al dominio del mondo, né dal punto di vista economico né da quello politico; si era al centro dell’Europa, dove si intersecano gli antichi assi del mondo; le parole “colonia” e “oltremare” risuonavano ancora come un qualcosa di remoto e di non sperimentato. Si viveva nel lusso, ma di certo non con l’estrema raffinatezza dei francesi. Si praticava lo sport, ma non da forsennati come gli anglosassoni. Si spendevano somme ingenti per l’esercito, ma solo quel tanto che bastava per esser certi di rimanere la penultima delle grandi potenze. Anche la capitale, pur essendo una delle città più grandi del mondo, era un po’ più piccola di tutte le altre, ma notevolmente più grande di quanto lo siano di solito le grandi città. E l’amministrazione di questo paese, illuminata, discreta, volta a smussare prudentemente tutti gli spigoli, era nelle mani della migliore burocrazia d’Europa, alla quale si poteva rimproverare un solo difetto: ritenere saccenteria e presunzione il genio e la geniale intraprendenza dei privati che non fossero legittimati a ciò dal privilegio di alti natali o di un incarico statale. E d’altronde, c’è forse qualcuno cui piaccia farsi comandare da chi non è autorizzato? In Kakania, poi, un genio passava sempre per uno sciocco, ma a differenza di quel che capitava dalle altre parti, non succedeva mai che uno sciocco passasse per un genio. ~ Robert Musil,
502:Message From Abroad
To Andrew Lytle
Paris, November 1929
Their faces are bony and sharp but very red, although
their ancestors nearly two hundred years have dwelt
by the miasmal banks of tidewaters where malarial fever
makes men gaunt and dosing with quinine shakes them
as with a palsy. Traveller to America (1799).
What years of the other times, what centuries
Broken, divided up and claimed? A few
Here and there to the taste, in vigilance
Ceaseless, but now a little stale, to keep us
Fearless, not worried as the hare scurrying
Without memory . . .
Provence,
The Renascence, the age of Pericles, each
A broad, rich-carpeted stair to pride
With manhood now the cost-they're easy to follow
For the ways taken are all notorious,
Lettered, sculptured, and rhymed;
Those others, incuriously complete, lost,
Not by poetry and statues timed,
Shattered by sunlight and the impartial sleet.
What years . . . What centuries . . .
Now only
The bent eaves and the windows cracked,
The thin grass picked by the wind,
Heaved by the mole; the hollow pine that
Screams in the latest storm-these,
These emblems of twilight have we seen at length,
And the man red-faced and tall seen, leaning
In the day of his strength
Not as a pine, but the stiff form
Against the west pillar,
Hearing the ox-cart in the street-
41
His shadow gliding, a long nigger
Gliding at his feet.
II
Wanderers to the east, wanderers west:
I followed the cold northern track,
The sleet sprinkled the sea;
The dim foam mounted
The night, the ship mounted
The depths of nightHow absolute the sea!
With dawn came the gull to the crest,
Stared at the spray, fell asleep
Over the picked bones, the white face
Of the leaning man drowned deep;
The red-faced man, ceased wandering,
Never came to the boulevards
Nor covertly spat in the sawdust
Sunk in his collar
Shuffling the cards;
The man with the red face, the stiff back,
I cannot see in the rainfall
Down Saint-Michel by the quays,
At the corner the wind speaking
Destiny, the four ways.
III
I cannot see you
The incorruptibles,
Yours was a secret fate,
The stiff-backed liars, the dupes:
The universal blue
Of heaven rots,
Your anger is out of dateWhat did you say mornings?
Evenings, what?
The bent eaves
On the cracked house,
That ghost of a hound. . . .
42
The man red-faced and tall
Will cast no shadow
From the province of the drowned.
~ Allen Tate,
503:I choose you,” I said, leaning toward him, and his mouth met mine with such ardor that my senses reeled all over again. He lay down with me on top of him, and it took all my strength of will to pull away.
“But we have to be married.”
He studied me, concluding that I truly believed in what I said.
“Then let’s go get married.”
“Now?” I blurted, eyes wide.
“Is now a problem?”
“The banns need to be published six weeks in advance of the wedding!”
“Banns?” He rolled me sideways off him so that we lay facing each other, his voice dubious.
“The banns announce our betrothal,” I elaborated, hoping not to dampen his enthusiasm or his readiness to tolerate Hytanican tradition. “They give time for anyone who might have an objection to our union to come forward.”
I recognized the problem even as the words left my mouth, but he was first to say it.
“And when the entire province objects, what then?” He pushed himself into a sitting position, then took my hands and gently pulled me up beside him. “Alera, how important is this custom to you?”
I peered out the window at the stars while I gave the matter serious thought, pondering Narian’s way of life and if I could reconcile myself to it. I wanted to, but part of me was afraid of it--of going against the doctrines I had been raised to follow. I believed strongly in my kingdom’s religion. I also knew I had to uphold the traditions my people valued if they were to believe in me and accept me as their leader. If I were to switch now to Cokyrian custom, their trust would be betrayed.
“It’s very important,” I ultimately answered, not looking at him.
“Don’t be embarrassed,” he said, cupping my chin to raise my eyes to his. “I wouldn’t deserve you if I didn’t respect your beliefs.”
He gave me a light kiss, signifying that things were resolved between us, although the real problem remained.
“I don’t know when the people will accept you, but I cannot go behind their backs. It may be a long wait.”
Narian’s expression was resigned. “So we wait.”
His attitude lifted my spirits, and a splendid idea struck me. “Our priests are sworn to keep confidences--we could be betrothed.”
“And betrothal--it doesn’t involve banns or ceremonies or parades in this kingdom?” He was teasing me, assuring me he was fine with my decision.
“No.” I laughed. “Just an exchange of rings. I’ll wear mine around my neck.”
“I’ll wear mine on my hand where I should. My soldiers will be oblivious.” He smirked, then added, “And it will confirm your countrymen’s suspicions that I am ignorant.”
I gazed into his eyes, at the love that shone within them, and laid my head upon his chest, content, for now, to have him hold me. ~ Cayla Kluver,
504:Esther Agrees to Help the Jews ESTHER 4 When Mordecai learned all that had been done, Mordecai tore his clothes  o and put on sackcloth and ashes, and went out into the midst of the city, and he cried out with a loud and bitter cry. 2He went up to the entrance of the king’s gate, for no one was allowed to enter the king’s gate clothed in sackcloth. 3And in every province, wherever the king’s command and his decree reached, there was great mourning among the Jews,  p with fasting and weeping and lamenting, and many of them  q lay in sackcloth and ashes. 4When Esther’s young women and her eunuchs came and told her, the queen was deeply distressed. She sent garments to clothe Mordecai, so that he might take off his sackcloth, but he would not accept them. 5Then Esther called for Hathach, one of the king’s eunuchs, who had been appointed to attend her, and ordered him to go to Mordecai to learn what this was and why it was. 6Hathach went out to Mordecai in the open square of the city in front of the king’s gate, 7and Mordecai told him all that had happened to him,  r and the exact sum of money that Haman had promised to pay into the king’s treasuries for the destruction of the Jews. 8Mordecai also gave him  s a copy of the written decree issued in Susa for their destruction, that he might show it to Esther and explain it to her and command her to go to the king to beg his favor and plead with him on behalf of her people. 9And Hathach went and told Esther what Mordecai had said. 10Then Esther spoke to Hathach and commanded him to go to Mordecai and say, 11“All the king’s servants and the people of the king’s provinces know that if any man or woman goes to the king inside  t the inner court without being called,  u there is but one law—to be put to death, except the one  v to whom the king holds out the golden scepter so that he may live. But as for me, I have not been called to come in to the king these thirty days.” 12And they told Mordecai what Esther had said. 13Then Mordecai told them to reply to Esther, “Do not think to yourself that in the king’s palace you will escape any more than all the other Jews. 14For if you keep silent at this time, relief and deliverance will rise for the Jews from another place, but you and your father’s house will perish. And who knows whether you have not come to the kingdom for such a time as this?” 15Then Esther told them to reply to Mordecai, 16“Go, gather all the Jews to be found in Susa, and hold a fast on my behalf, and do not eat or drink for  w three days, night or day. I and my young women will also fast as you do. Then I will go to the king, though it is against the law,  x and if I perish, I perish.” 17Mordecai then went away and did everything as Esther had ordered him. ~ Anonymous,
505:I’m giving you a chance to walk away, to live. Don’t be a fool--take it.”
Cannan tucked his knife into the shaft of his boot, then cast his eyes over Steldor, Galen, Adrik and Koranis. All resolutely met his gaze.
“I don’t see fear in this room, Narian,” he said, shaking his head. “Do what you must, as will we.”
“Then you’re asking to die!” For a moment there was a pleading note in Narian’s voice, an indication of how torn he was about his position. He didn’t want to put these men to death. “If I arrest you, you will be executed. If I let you go forward, you will fail.”
“The only way we could fail,” Steldor interjected in a low voice, “is by accepting what you have handed our people. We owe this to them.”
“You owe them your leadership, not the sacrifice of your lives. The High Priestess will not relinquish this province, in that she is unyielding. She and the Overlord fought too long and too hard for it. Don’t do this.
My uncle approached the Cokyrian commander with an almost sympathetic expression. His dark eyes had lost none of their determination, but he meant to reach the young man with his words.
“Who are you, Narian?” The question was strange, but Narian seemed to understand its significance. “From the moment you set foot in Hytanica, you have tried to play both sides. You’ve spent far too long being a Cokyrian with Hytanican blood, and it ends now, for better or worse. There is no more in between, so do what you must. Either have us arrested, or allow us to go forward.”
Narian met Cannan’s gaze, not discomfited by the taller man’s proximity. In truth, he had nothing at all to fear from us, what with the powers he possessed. But I wished I could see something in his eyes, some indication of what he would do from here.
“Very well, Captain. I will do as you say--what I must.”
Showing us his back, Narian ascended the stairs, disappearing through the cellar door. Steldor immediately made to follow, but Cannan grasped his shirt.
“Let me go,” my cousin snapped, but his father stepped closer, until their faces were just inches apart.
“Don’t be reckless,” the captain muttered. “He will kill you if you challenge him.”
Steldor gave in, and his father released his grip.
“Then what do we do?” Galen asked.
“Nothing has changed.” Cannan looked around at the men who would follow his orders, to the grave and beyond. “We will do exactly what we have planned. Until and unless Narian stops us, we proceed.”
“But…but isn’t that dangerous?” King Adrik queried.
“This has always been dangerous. But I’m willing to take a chance on Narian.”
The silence in the aftermath of the captain’s statement reinforced my sense that, at a single wave of the Cokyrian commander’s hand, we would all be buried alive. ~ Cayla Kluver,
506:Je n'ai jamais vu le Sheikh Ahmed, qui était encore très peu connu à l'époque déjà lointaine où j'étais en Algérie [à Sétif, durant l'année scolaire 1917-1918], et d'ailleurs je n'ai pas eu l'occasion d'aller dans la province d'Oran; c'est seulement beaucoup plus tard que je suis entré en correspondance avec Mostaganem par l'entremise de Taillard. Quant au 1er voyage de Sh.[eikh] A.[ïssa] [F. Schuon], voici ce qu'il en est exactement : quand il m'a annoncé qu'il partait pour l'Algérie, sa lettre m'est arrivée trop tard pour qu'une réponse puisse encore lui parvenir avant la date de son départ, de sorte que je n'ai pas pu lui donner alors une indication quelconque; tout ce que j'ai pu faire et ce que j'ai fait était d'invoquer pour lui la barakah de Sidi Abul-Hassan [ash-Shâdhilî], en demandant qu'il soit conduit auprès du Sheikh Ahmed, et c'est ce qui est arrivé en effet, à la suite d'un ensemble de circonstances assez singulières comme vous le savez; je dois dire que lui-même n'a jamais rien su de cela, car j'ai trouvé inutile de lui en parler. Pour ce qui est de la suite, c'est lui qui me l'a raconté la 1re fois qu'il est venu ici: à son arrivée, il n'a pas pu voir le Sheikh Ahmed qui était souffrant, et ceux qui l'ont reçu lui ont déclaré que, ne le connaissant pas, ils ne pouvaient pas l'admettre à séjourner à la zawîyah; au cours de la conversation, il lui est arrivé de prononcer mon nom, je ne sais à quel propos, et l'attitude à son égard a changé aussitôt : on lui a dit alors qu'on venait justement de recevoir une lettre de moi le jour même, et, bien que naturellement il n'y ait eu dans cette lettre rien le concernant, cette coïncidence a été interprétée comme un signe favorable, de sorte qu'on l'a autorisé à rester. Quelques jours plus tard, il m'a écrit pour me faire savoir où il était, mais il ne savait pas encore de quoi il s'agissait en réalité ni ce que c'était que la tarîqah; c'est en lui répondant que je lui ai donné des explications qui l'ont déterminé à demander son rattachement; il ne s'agit donc pas d'une lettre qui lui aurait été renvoyée de France comme vous l'avez entendu dire, puisque je n'avais pas pu lui écrire avant son départ. Vous voyez par tout cela que je pourrais bien dire, sans exagération, que sans moi il n'y aurait jamais eu de Sh. A. ! - Je vous disais la dernière fois qu'il n'y avait aucune différence entre son cas et celui des autres moqaddem qui ont cessé d'entretenir des relations avec Mostaganem; il y en a cependant une qui, en un certain sens, serait à son désavantage : c'est que les autres avaient été nommés par le Sheikh Ahmed, tandis que lui ne l'a été qu'après sa mort et par le Sheikh Adda.

16 septembre 1950
[Cahiers de l'Unité n°13, Stanislas Ibranoff, Rene Guenon et la tradition hindoue par Renaud Fabbri] ~ Ren Gu non,
507:How nice that our former stable boy has begotten a namesake from my elder daughter,” the countess remarked acidly. “This will be the first of many brats, I am sure. Regrettably there is still no heir to the earldom…which is your responsibility, I believe. Come to me with news of your impending marriage to a bride of good blood, Westcliff, and I will evince some satisfaction. Until then, I see little reason for congratulations.”
Though he displayed no emotion at his mother’s hard-hearted response to the news of Aline’s child, not to mention her infuriating preoccupation with the begetting of an heir, Marcus was hard-pressed to hold back a savage reply. In the midst of his darkening mood, he became aware of Lillian’s intent gaze.
Lillian stared at him astutely, a peculiar smile touching her lips. Marcus arched one brow and asked sardonically, “Does something amuse you, Miss Bowman?”
“Yes,” she murmured. “I was just thinking that it’s a wonder you haven’t rushed out to marry the first peasant girl you could find.”
“Impertinent twit!” the countess exclaimed.
Marcus grinned at the girl’s insolence, while the tightness in his chest eased. “Do you think I should?” he asked soberly, as if the question was worth considering.
“Oh yes,” Lillian assured him with a mischievous sparkle in her eyes. “The Marsdens could use some new blood. In my opinion, the family is in grave danger of becoming overbred.”
“Overbred?” Marcus repeated, wanting nothing more than to pounce on her and carry her off somewhere. “What has given you that impression, Miss Bowman?”
“Oh, I don’t know…” she said idly. “Perhaps the earth-shattering importance you attach to whether one should use a fork or spoon to eat one’s pudding.”
“Good manners are not the sole province of the aristocracy, Miss Bowman.” Even to himself, Marcus sounded a bit pompous.
“In my opinion, my lord, an excessive preoccupation with manners and rituals is a strong indication that someone has too much time on his hands.”
Marcus smiled at her impertinence. “Subversive, yet sensible,” he mused. “I’m not certain I disagree.”
“Do not encourage her effrontery, Westcliff,” the countess warned.
“Very well—I shall leave you to your Sisyphean task.”
“What does that mean?” he heard Daisy ask.
Lillian replied while her smiling gaze remained locked with Marcus’s. “It seems you avoided one too many Greek mythology lessons, dear. Sisyphus was a soul in Hades who was damned to perform an eternal task…rolling a huge boulder up a hill, only to have it roll down again just before he reached the top.”
“Then if the countess is Sisyphus,” Daisy concluded, “I suppose we’re…”
“The boulder,” Lady Westcliff said succinctly, causing both girls to laugh.
“Do continue with our instruction, my lady,” Lillian said, giving her full attention to the elderly woman as Marcus bowed and left the room. “We’ll try not to flatten you on the way down. ~ Lisa Kleypas,
508:There is a dark side to religious devotion that is too often ignored or denied. As a means of motivating people to be cruel or inhumane -- as a means of inciting evil, to borrow the vocabulary of the devout -- there may be no more potent force than religion. When the subject of religiously inspired bloodshed comes up, many Americans immediately think of Islamic fundamentalism, which is to be expected in the wake of the September 11 attacks on New York and Washington. But men have been committing heinous acts in the name of God ever since mankind began believing in deities, and extremists exist within all religions. Muhammad is not the only prophet whose words have been used to sanction barbarism; history has not lacked for Christians, Jews, Hindus, Sikhs, and even Buddhists who have been motivated by scripture to butcher innocents. Plenty of these religious extremists have been homegrown, corn-fed Americans.
Faith-based violence was present long before Osama bin Laden, and it ill be with us long after his demise. Religious zealots like bin Laden, David Koresh, Jim Jones, Shoko Asahara, and Dan Lafferty are common to every age, just as zealots of other stripes are. In any human endeavor, some fraction of its practitioners will be motivated to pursue that activity with such concentrated focus and unalloyed passion that it will consume them utterly. One has to look no further than individuals who feel compelled to devote their lives to becoming concert pianists, say, or climbing Mount Everest. For some, the province of the extreme holds an allure that's irresistible. And a certain percentage of such fanatics will inevitably fixate on the matters of the spirit.
The zealot may be outwardly motivated by the anticipation of a great reward at the other end -- wealth, fame, eternal salvation -- but the real recompense is probably the obsession itself. This is no less true for the religious fanatic than for the fanatical pianist or fanatical mountain climber. As a result of his (or her) infatuation, existence overflows with purpose. Ambiguity vanishes from the fanatic's worldview; a narcissistic sense of self-assurance displaces all doubt. A delicious rage quickens his pulse, fueled by the sins and shortcomings of lesser mortals, who are soiling the world wherever he looks. His perspective narrows until the last remnants of proportion are shed from his life. Through immoderation, he experiences something akin to rapture.
Although the far territory of the extreme can exert an intoxicating pull on susceptible individuals of all bents, extremism seems to be especially prevalent among those inclined by temperament or upbringing toward religious pursuits. Faith is the very antithesis of reason, injudiciousness a crucial component of spiritual devotion. And when religious fanaticism supplants ratiocination, all bets are suddenly off. Anything can happen. Absolutely anything. Common sense is no match for the voice of God... ~ Jon Krakauer,
509:however, the round trip was a very long one (fourteen months was in fact well below the average). It was also hazardous: of twenty-two ships that set sail in 1598, only a dozen returned safely. For these reasons, it made sense for merchants to pool their resources. By 1600 there were around six fledgling East India companies operating out of the major Dutch ports. However, in each case the entities had a limited term that was specified in advance – usually the expected duration of a voyage – after which the capital was repaid to investors.10 This business model could not suffice to build the permanent bases and fortifications that were clearly necessary if the Portuguese and their Spanish allies* were to be supplanted. Actuated as much by strategic calculations as by the profit motive, the Dutch States-General, the parliament of the United Provinces, therefore proposed to merge the existing companies into a single entity. The result was the United East India Company – the Vereenigde Nederlandsche Geoctroyeerde Oostindische Compagnie (United Dutch Chartered East India Company, or VOC for short), formally chartered in 1602 to enjoy a monopoly on all Dutch trade east of the Cape of Good Hope and west of the Straits of Magellan.11 The structure of the VOC was novel in a number of respects. True, like its predecessors, it was supposed to last for a fixed period, in this case twenty-one years; indeed, Article 7 of its charter stated that investors would be entitled to withdraw their money at the end of just ten years, when the first general balance was drawn up. But the scale of the enterprise was unprecedented. Subscription to the Company’s capital was open to all residents of the United Provinces and the charter set no upper limit on how much might be raised. Merchants, artisans and even servants rushed to acquire shares; in Amsterdam alone there were 1,143 subscribers, only eighty of whom invested more than 10,000 guilders, and 445 of whom invested less than 1,000. The amount raised, 6.45 million guilders, made the VOC much the biggest corporation of the era. The capital of its English rival, the East India Company, founded two years earlier, was just £68,373 – around 820,000 guilders – shared between a mere 219 subscribers.12 Because the VOC was a government-sponsored enterprise, every effort was made to overcome the rivalry between the different provinces (and particularly between Holland, the richest province, and Zeeland). The capital of the Company was divided (albeit unequally) between six regional chambers (Amsterdam, Zeeland, Enkhuizen, Delft, Hoorn and Rotterdam). The seventy directors (bewindhebbers), who were each substantial investors, were also distributed between these chambers. One of their roles was to appoint seventeen people to act as the Heeren XVII – the Seventeen Lords – as a kind of company board. Although Amsterdam accounted for 57.4 per cent of the VOC’s total capital, it nominated only eight out of the Seventeen Lords. ~ Niall Ferguson,
510:You!” she snarled, her glower intended for Narian. He walked unflinchingly toward her, keeping me close to his side. “You knew of this plot! Confess the part you have played and I will perhaps spare your life.”
Narian put a hand on my shoulder, telling me to stay where I was, then took a few steps closer to the woman who had been like a mother to him. I stood frozen, waiting along with her to hear his answer. What was going on? What had Narian done?
“I am not a part of this,” he declared.
Nantilam quickly closed the remaining distance between them. She was infuriated, her green eyes flaring as vividly as the flames outside.
“But you know more than you have told me.” Her voice was low, dangerous, rumbling with anger.
“I know that the Hytanicans’s first rebellion was meant to distract us, and that those captured willingly sacrificed their lives. I know that right now, the men you wanted to execute are waging one last fight to reclaim their kingdom.”
My head was spinning, both at the news and at my own idiocy. How could I have failed to see this? How could I not have known it would happen? I had chosen to be blind, even when Narian had all but begged me to come to Cokyri with him. I hadn’t wanted to see it. But the clues had been there. Now people were dying in Hytanica. Someone, probably London, had set the fires here in Cokyri to hinder the arrival of messengers from the province with word of the revolt and to forestall the High Priestess from sending reinforcements. We were trapped and helpless, able only to imagine the battle taking place on the other side of the river.
“I knew something was amiss,” the High Priestess simmered. “I knew it the moment I saw Alera with you. You’re a traitor, Narian.”
He shook his head, his expression hard. “I am no traitor. I did everything you asked of me. I conquered Hytanica for you and the Overlord, I administered the province as you wanted for months, and I did not plot against you.” Narian’s voice dropped to a fierce whisper. “I am not to blame for what is happening today--for giving the Hytanicans a fair chance at retaking what is rightfully theirs. My only sin is that I did not try to stop them.”
Nantilam scrutinized him for what seemed an eternity.
“I listened to you,” she vehemently said at last. “I loved you, and I trusted you, and I fought not to lose you after my brother’s death.”
“You never trusted me,” Narian contradicted, interrupting whatever else she had intended to say. “And with good reason. You believe the only way to repay a betrayal if with a betrayal. You betrayed me in the worst way imaginable. You lied to me my entire life, trained me and used me as a weapon, never telling me the real reason I was of value to you.” His blue eyes flashed, their sapphire brilliance rivaling the ever-changing emerald sparks in hers. “But I will no longer be manipulated for your causes, and I will not become another warlord. You can consider yourself repaid. ~ Cayla Kluver,
511:longer; it cannot deceive them too much." Madame Defarge looked superciliously at the client, and nodded in confirmation. "As to you," said she, "you would shout and shed tears for anything, if it made a show and a noise. Say! Would you not?" "Truly, madame, I think so. For the moment." "If you were shown a great heap of dolls, and were set upon them to pluck them to pieces and despoil them for your own advantage, you would pick out the richest and gayest. Say! Would you not?" "Truly yes, madame." "Yes. And if you were shown a flock of birds, unable to fly, and were set upon them to strip them of their feathers for your own advantage, you would set upon the birds of the finest feathers; would you not?" "It is true, madame." "You have seen both dolls and birds to-day," said Madame Defarge, with a wave of her hand towards the place where they had last been apparent; "now, go home!" XVI. Still Knitting Madame Defarge and monsieur her husband returned amicably to the bosom of Saint Antoine, while a speck in a blue cap toiled through the darkness, and through the dust, and down the weary miles of avenue by the wayside, slowly tending towards that point of the compass where the chateau of Monsieur the Marquis, now in his grave, listened to the whispering trees. Such ample leisure had the stone faces, now, for listening to the trees and to the fountain, that the few village scarecrows who, in their quest for herbs to eat and fragments of dead stick to burn, strayed within sight of the great stone courtyard and terrace staircase, had it borne in upon their starved fancy that the expression of the faces was altered. A rumour just lived in the village—had a faint and bare existence there, as its people had—that when the knife struck home, the faces changed, from faces of pride to faces of anger and pain; also, that when that dangling figure was hauled up forty feet above the fountain, they changed again, and bore a cruel look of being avenged, which they would henceforth bear for ever. In the stone face over the great window of the bed-chamber where the murder was done, two fine dints were pointed out in the sculptured nose, which everybody recognised, and which nobody had seen of old; and on the scarce occasions when two or three ragged peasants emerged from the crowd to take a hurried peep at Monsieur the Marquis petrified, a skinny finger would not have pointed to it for a minute, before they all started away among the moss and leaves, like the more fortunate hares who could find a living there. Chateau and hut, stone face and dangling figure, the red stain on the stone floor, and the pure water in the village well—thousands of acres of land—a whole province of France—all France itself—lay under the night sky, concentrated into a faint hair-breadth line. So does a whole world, with all its greatnesses and littlenesses, lie in a twinkling star. And as mere human knowledge can split a ray of light and analyse the manner of its composition, so, sublimer intelligences may read in the feeble shining of this earth of ours, every thought and act, every vice and virtue, of every responsible ~ Charles Dickens,
512:I turned and flipped the latch on the door, then pulled hard on the handle, stumbling over the threshold into the fresh air. I would have fallen in the dirt for the second time that day except that someone standing outside caught me. Terrified that my escape was being thwarted, I struck out at whoever it was, feeling a sharp pain when my fist connected with the person’s jaw.
Empress, you hit hard!” a male voice exclaimed, then he captured my arms and trapped them behind my back. By the strange expletive he had used, I knew him to be Cokyrian--my luck was golden. “What’s going on here?”
The butcher staggered into the doorway, squinting in the sunlight.
“Your girl’s a thief,” he muttered at sight of the man who held me, sparing a glower for me as though warning me to be quiet. I ground my teeth and looked away, intending to do just that.
Now that I had stopped struggling, the Cokyrian soldier released me, and I considered whether or not to run. Then I saw who had been restraining me--Saadi, the man with whom Narian and my uncle had dealt after my failed prank. There would be no point in running if he remembered who I was.
“My girl?” Saadi repeated, his pale blue eyes calculating. “She is no Cokyrian. Besides, I would expect you to show any comrade of mine more respect than that.”
“My apologies,” the butcher forced himself to say, and rage filled me at his newly respectful attitude. “She broke into my store and I assumed from her clothing…I also assume you’ll see her punished for her crime.”
“You were about to punish her yourself, weren’t you?”
Saadi scrutinized me, noting the red marks around my wrists and perhaps the beginnings of the bruises I would have across my mouth.
“In Cokyri, you would be killed for what you did to her--what you tried to do.”
“It’s good we’re not in Cokyri then,” the butcher sneered.
Saadi’s jaw clenched, and he seemed to be fighting a deep urge to pummel the merchant who stood before him.
“I should take you to join the men at the gallows.”
“I would welcome it.”
“I can see why,” Saadi coldly retorted, with a subtle look up and down at the heavyset man. “But I’m afraid the lack of your business might dampen the economy in the province, and that is something my sister would frown upon. She’ll be disappointed, though--she does so enjoy seeing men like you hang.”
“And I enjoy seeing women in skirts as God intended.”
Another strained moment passed, then Saadi laughed. “Perhaps if your God had paid less attention to clothing and more to abilities, you and your kind wouldn’t be in this position right now.”
The butcher shifted uncomfortably, and Saadi quickly dispensed with him. “If you want me to arrest her for thievery, I’ll also arrest you for assault. So I would advise that you go back to your meat and your customers, may they be few.”
The man did not need to be told twice. He slammed the door in our faces, and I could hear the lock click into place. It was then that I noticed the canvas bag at Saadi’s feet. He must have seen flight in my eyes, for he started running at almost the same moment I did. ~ Cayla Kluver,
513:About a half hour later, there was a knock on my door and I stiffened, my heart hammering. Who could want to see me?”
“Come in!”
Narian slipped through the door, closing it quietly behind him, and I laughed at myself. I was not used to him entering my room in a conventional fashion.
“I never knew your home--all of Cokyri--was so beautiful,” I confessed when he was sitting beside me. “We’re not told about these things when we learn about history.”
“It is beautiful,” he agreed, almost wistfully, and I wondered what he was thinking.
“You really grew up here, in this temple?”
He was nodding, absentmindedly rubbing his wrist, and I simply watched him for a moment.
“And you love it,” I surmised.
“I suppose I do. It feels like home. But I don’t miss it when I’m with you.”
He kissed me, then leaned back against the pillows, pulling me along with him.
“Narian,” I murmured, lifting my head to look at him. He was so handsome, so perfect with his halo of golden hair and his intense blue eyes that I ached for him to kiss me and touch me. But there were things I wanted to ask him. “What was causing the friction between you and the High Priestess?”
An ironic smile lit his features. “Call it a familial disagreement. She doesn’t understand my change of heart--that I don’t care anymore if she sees us together. Ever since the Overlord’s death, she’s been trying to win me back, you might say. She knows I’m not happy with her. But she doesn’t realize that she’s already lost me--this place may feel like home to me forever, but it will never again be home. This part of my life is over. My loyalty has turned.”
“You’ve never said that before,” I pointed out, feeling like there was something important he was not telling me. “That your loyalty is to Hytanica.”
“I only recently came to realize it myself. But that is where my loyalty lies.”
He was resolute, decided--and he was making me uneasy. What had the High Priestess said at dinner? The Grand Provost wouldn’t leave her province in unrest. I hadn’t had I?
“Narian--” I started, sitting up, but he interrupted me.
“Your loyalty has always been to Hytanica, and I don’t want there to be anything standing between us. So I’ve made up my mind, Alera. It’s a good thing.”
I nodded, trying to shrug off my disquiet, for he was, of course, right. I stood up and tugged on his arm, trying to get him to move.
He laughed. “I told you I was tired, remember?”
“Yes, but as long as we’re here, I’d like you to show me something.”
“What might that be?” He came to his feet, and I dragged him toward the door.
“I want to see where Miranna was confined.” I clutched nervously at my blouse, unsure how he would react, for I had not been able to think of a tactful way to raise the topic.
He stopped, forcing me to face him. “Alera, do you really want to see that?”
“You told me she was well cared for here,” I bristled, my tone slightly accusatory. “If that’s true, then you have nothing to hide from me.”
Narian released me. “I didn’t lie to you. The High Priestess made certain Miranna was well accommodated. But she was still a prisoner. I just want to be sure that you are ready to see this.”
“I’m ready. ~ Cayla Kluver,
514:ISIS was forced out of all its occupied territory in Syria and Iraq, though thousands of ISIS fighters are still present in both countries. Last April, Assad again used sarin gas, this time in Idlib Province, and Russia again used its veto to protect its client from condemnation and sanction by the U.N. Security Council. President Trump ordered cruise missile strikes on the Syrian airfield where the planes that delivered the sarin were based. It was a minimal attack, but better than nothing. A week before, I had condemned statements by Secretary of State Rex Tillerson and U.N. Ambassador Nikki Haley, who had explicitly declined to maintain what had been the official U.S. position that a settlement of the Syrian civil war had to include Assad’s removal from power. “Once again, U.S. policy in Syria is being presented piecemeal in press statements,” I complained, “without any definition of success, let alone a realistic plan to achieve it.” As this book goes to the publisher, there are reports of a clash between U.S. forces in eastern Syria and Russian “volunteers,” in which hundreds of Russians were said to have been killed. If true, it’s a dangerous turn of events, but one caused entirely by Putin’s reckless conduct in the world, allowed if not encouraged by the repeated failures of the U.S. and the West to act with resolve to prevent his assaults against our interests and values. In President Obama’s last year in office, at his invitation, he and I spent a half hour or so alone, discussing very frankly what I considered his policy failures, and he believed had been sound and necessary decisions. Much of that conversation concerned Syria. No minds were changed in the encounter, but I appreciated his candor as I hoped he appreciated mine, and I respected the sincerity of his convictions. Yet I still believe his approach to world leadership, however thoughtful and well intentioned, was negligent, and encouraged our allies to find ways to live without us, and our adversaries to try to fill the vacuums our negligence created. And those trends continue in reaction to the thoughtless America First ideology of his successor. There are senior officials in government who are trying to mitigate those effects. But I worry that we are at a turning point, a hinge of history, and the decisions made in the last ten years and the decisions made tomorrow might be closing the door on the era of the American-led world order. I hope not, and it certainly isn’t too late to reverse that direction. But my time in that fight has concluded. I have nothing but hope left to invest in the work of others to make the future better than the past. As of today, as the Syrian war continues, more than 400,000 people have been killed, many of them civilians. More than five million have fled the country and more than six million have been displaced internally. A hundred years from now, Syria will likely be remembered as one of the worst humanitarian catastrophes of the twenty-first century, and an example of human savagery at its most extreme. But it will be remembered, too, for the invincibility of human decency and the longing for freedom and justice evident in the courage and selflessness of the White Helmets and the soldiers fighting for their country’s freedom from tyranny and terrorists. In that noblest of human conditions is the eternal promise of the Arab Spring, which was engulfed in flames and drowned in blood, but will, like all springs, come again. ~ John McCain,
515:My morning schedule saw me first in Cannan’s office, conferring with my advisor, but our meeting was interrupted within minutes by Narian, who entered without knocking and whose eyes were colder than I had seen them in a long time.
“I thought you intended to control them,” he stated, walking toward the captain’s desk and standing directly beside the chair in which I sat.”
He slammed a lengthy piece of parchment down on the wood surface, an unusual amount of tension in his movements. I glanced toward the open door and caught sight of Rava. She stood with one hand resting against the frame, her calculating eyes evaluating the scene while she awaited orders.
Cannan’s gaze went to the parchment, but he did not reach for it, scanning its contents from a distance. Then he looked at Narian, unruffled.
“I can think of a dozen or more men capable of this.”
“But you know who is responsible.”
Cannan sat back, assessing his opposition. “I don’t know with certainty any more than you do. In the absence of definitive proof of guilt on behalf of my son and his friends, I suggest you and your fellows develop a sense of humor.” Then the captain’s tone changed, becoming more forbidding. “I can prevent an uprising, Narian. This, you’ll have to get used to.”
Not wanting to be in the dark, I snatched up the parchment in question. My mouth opened in shock and dismay as I silently read its contents, the men waiting for me to finish.
On this Thirtieth Day of May in the First Year of Cokyrian dominance over the Province of Hytanica, the following regulations shall be put into practice in order to assist our gracious Grand Provost in her effort to welcome Cokyri into our lands--and to help ensure the enemy does not bungle the first victory it has managed in over a century.
Regulation One. All Hytanican citizens must be willing to provide aid to aimlessly wandering Cokyrian soldiers who cannot on their honor grasp that the road leading back to the city is the very same road that led them away.
Regulation Two. It is strongly recommended that farmers hide their livestock, lest the men of our host empire become confused and attempt to mate with them.
Regulation Three. As per negotiated arrangements, crops grown on Hytanican soil will be divided with fifty percent belonging to Cokyri, and seventy-five percent remaining with the citizens of the province; Hytanicans will be bound by law to wait patiently while the Cokyrians attempt to sort the baffling deficiency in their calculations.
Regulation Four. The Cokyrian envoys assigned to manage the planting and farming effort will also require Hytanican patience while they slowly but surely learn what is a crop and what is a weed, as well as left from right.
Regulation Five. Though the Province Wall is a Cokyrian endeavor, it would be polite and understanding of Hytanicans to remind the enemy of the correct side on which to be standing when the final stone is laid, so no unfortunates may find themselves trapped outside with no way in.
Regulation Six. When at long last foreign trade is allowed to resume, Hytanicans should strive to empathize with the reluctance of neighboring kingdoms to enter our lands, for Cokyri’s stench is sure to deter even the migrating birds.
Regulation Seven. For what little trade and business we do manage in spite of the odor, the imposed ten percent tax may be paid in coins, sweets or shiny objects.
Regulation Eight. It is regrettably prohibited for Hytanicans to throw jeers at Cokyrian soldiers, for fear that any man harried may cry, and the women may spit.
Regulation Nine. In case of an encounter with Cokyrian dignitaries, the boy-invader and the honorable High Priestess included, let it be known that the proper way in which to greet them is with an ass-backward bow.
~ Cayla Kluver,
516:II L'Association bretonne. Il est une institution qui distingue la Bretagne des autres provinces et où se réflète son génie, l'Association bretonne. Dans ce pays couvert encore de landes et de terres incultes, et où il reste tant de ruines des anciens âges, des hommes intelligents ont compris que ces deux intérêts ne devaient pas être séparés, les progrès de l'agriculture et l'étude des monuments de l'histoire locale. Les comices agricoles ne s'occupent que des travaux d'agriculture, les sociétés savantes que de l'esprit; l'Association bretonne les a réunis: elle est à la fois une association agricole et une association littéraire. Aux expériences de l'agriculture, aux recherches archéologiques, elle donne de la suite et de l'unité; les efforts ne sont plus isolés, ils se font avec ensemble; l'Association bretonne continue, au XIXe siècle, l'oeuvre des moines des premiers temps du christianisme dans la Gaule, qui défrichaient le sol et éclairaient les âmes. Un appel a été fait dans les cinq départements de la Bretagne à tous ceux qui avaient à coeur les intérêts de leur patrie, aux écrivains et aux propriétaires, aux gentilshommes et aux simples paysans, et les adhésions sont arrivées de toutes parts. L'Association a deux moyens d'action: un bulletin mensuel, et un congrès annuel. Le bulletin rend compte des travaux des associés, des expériences, des essais, des découvertes scientifiques; le congrès ouvre des concours, tient des séances publiques, distribue des prix et des récompenses. Afin de faciliter les réunions et d'en faire profiter tout le pays, le congrès se tient alternativement dans chaque département; une année à Rennes, une autre à Saint-Brieuc, une autre fois à Vitré ou à Redon; en 1858, il s'est réuni à Quimper. A chaque congrès, des questions nouvelles sont agitées, discutées, éclaircies[1]: ces savants modestes qui consacrent leurs veilles à des recherches longues et pénibles, sont assurés que leurs travaux ne seront pas ignorés; tant d'intelligences vives et distinguées, qui demeureraient oisives dans le calme des petites villes, voient devant elles un but à leurs efforts; la publicité en est assurée, ils seront connus et appréciés. D'un bout de la province à l'autre, de Rennes à Brest, de Nantes à Saint-Malo, on se communique ses oeuvres et ses plans; tel antiquaire, à Saint-Brieuc, s'occupe des mêmes recherches qu'un autre à Quimper: il est un jour dans l'année où ils se retrouvent, où se resserrent les liens d'études et d'amitié. [Note 1: Voir l'Appendice.] Le congrès est un centre moral et intellectuel, bien plus, un centre national: ces congrès sont de véritables assises bretonnes; ils remplacent les anciens États: on y voit réunis, comme aux États, les trois ordres, le clergé, la noblesse et le tiers-état, le tiers-état plus nombreux qu'avant la Révolution, et de plus, mêlés aux nobles et aux bourgeois, les paysans. La Bretagne est une des provinces de France où les propriétaires vivent le plus sur leurs terres; beaucoup y passent l'année tout entière. De là une communauté d'habitudes, un échange de services, des relations plus familières et plus intimes, qui n'ôtent rien au respect d'une part, à la dignité de l'autre. Propriétaires et fermiers, réunis au congrès, sont soumis aux mêmes conditions et jugés par les mêmes lois; souvent le propriétaire concourt avec son fermier. Dans ces mêlées animées, où l'on se communique ses procédés, où l'on s'aide de ses conseils, où l'on distribue des prix et des encouragements, les riches propriétaires et les nobles traitent les paysans sur le pied de l'égalité; ici, la supériorité est au plus habile: c'est un paysan, Guévenoux, qui, en 1857, eut les honneurs du congrès de Redon. Voici quatorze ans que l'Association bretonne existe; l'ardeur a toujours été en croissant; les congrès sont devenus des solennités: on y vient de tous les points ~ Anonymous,
517:Does an arbitrary human convention, a mere custom, decree that man must guide his actions by a set of principles—or is there a fact of reality that demands it? Is ethics the province of whims: of personal emotions, social edicts and mystic revelations—or is it the province of reason? Is ethics a subjective luxury—or an objective necessity? In the sorry record of the history of mankind’s ethics—with a few rare, and unsuccessful, exceptions—moralists have regarded ethics as the province of whims, that is: of the irrational. Some of them did so explicitly, by intention—others implicitly, by default. A “whim” is a desire experienced by a person who does not know and does not care to discover its cause. No philosopher has given a rational, objectively demonstrable, scientific answer to the question of why man needs a code of values. So long as that question remained unanswered, no rational, scientific, objective code of ethics could be discovered or defined. The greatest of all philosophers, Aristotle, did not regard ethics as an exact science; he based his ethical system on observations of what the noble and wise men of his time chose to do, leaving unanswered the questions of: why they chose to do it and why he evaluated them as noble and wise. Most philosophers took the existence of ethics for granted, as the given, as a historical fact, and were not concerned with discovering its metaphysical cause or objective validation. Many of them attempted to break the traditional monopoly of mysticism in the field of ethics and, allegedly, to define a rational, scientific, nonreligious morality. But their attempts consisted of trying to justify them on social grounds, merely substituting society for God. The avowed mystics held the arbitrary, unaccountable “will of God” as the standard of the good and as the validation of their ethics. The neomystics replaced it with “the good of society,” thus collapsing into the circularity of a definition such as “the standard of the good is that which is good for society.” This meant, in logic—and, today, in worldwide practice—that “society” stands above any principles of ethics, since it is the source, standard and criterion of ethics, since “the good” is whatever it wills, whatever it happens to assert as its own welfare and pleasure. This meant that “society” may do anything it pleases, since “the good” is whatever it chooses to do because it chooses to do it. And—since there is no such entity as “society,” since society is only a number of individual men—this meant that some men (the majority or any gang that claims to be its spokesman) are ethically entitled to pursue any whims (or any atrocities) they desire to pursue, while other men are ethically obliged to spend their lives in the service of that gang’s desires. This could hardly be called rational, yet most philosophers have now decided to declare that reason has failed, that ethics is outside the power of reason, that no rational ethics can ever be defined, and that in the field of ethics—in the choice of his values, of his actions, of his pursuits, of his life’s goals—man must be guided by something other than reason. By what? Faith—instinct—intuition—revelation—feeling—taste—urge—wish—whim Today, as in the past, most philosophers agree that the ultimate standard of ethics is whim (they call it “arbitrary postulate” or “subjective choice” or “emotional commitment”)—and the battle is only over the question or whose whim: one’s own or society’s or the dictator’s or God’s. Whatever else they may disagree about, today’s moralists agree that ethics is a subjective issue and that the three things barred from its field are: reason—mind—reality. If you wonder why the world is now collapsing to a lower and ever lower rung of hell, this is the reason. If you want to save civilization, it is this premise of modern ethics—and of all ethical ~ Anonymous,
518:Sicut Patribus, sit Deus Nobis)

The rocky nook with hilltops three
Looked eastward from the farms,
And twice each day the flowing sea
Took Boston in its arms;
The men of yore were stout and poor,
And sailed for bread to every shore.
And where they went on trade intent
They did what freeman can,
Their dauntless ways did all men praise,
The merchant was a man.
The world was made for honest trade,
To plant and eat be none afraid.
The waves that rocked them on the deep
To them their secret told;
Said the winds that sung the lads to sleep,
"Like us be free and bold!"
The honest waves refuse to slaves
The empire of the ocean caves.
Old Europe groans with palaces,
Has lords enough and more;
We plant and build by foaming seas
A city of the poor;
For day by day could Boston Bay
Their honest labor overpay.
We grant no dukedoms to the few,
We hold like rights and shall;
Equal on Sunday in the pew,
On Monday in the mall.
For what avail the plough or sail,
Or land or life, if freedom fail?
The noble craftsmen we promote,
Disown the knave and fool;
Each honest man shall have his vote,
Each child shall have his school.
A union then of honest men,
Or union nevermore again.
The wild rose and the barberry thorn
Hung out their summer pride
Where now on heated pavements worn
The feet of millions stride.
Fair rose the planted hills behind
The good town on the bay,
And where the western hills declined
The prairie stretched away.
What care though rival cities soar
Along the stormy coast:
Penn's town, New York, and Baltimore,
If Boston knew the most!
They laughed to know the world so wide;
The mountains said: "Good-day!
We greet you well, you Saxon men,
Up with your towns and stay!"
The world was made for honest trade,
To plant and eat be none afraid.
"For you," they said, "no barriers be,
For you no sluggard rest;
Each street leads downward to the sea,
Or landward to the West."
O happy town beside the sea,
Whose roads lead everywhere to all;
Than thine no deeper moat can be,
No stouter fence, no steeper wall!
Bad news from George on the English throne:
"You are thriving well," said he;
"Now by these presents be it known,
You shall pay us a tax on tea;
'Tis very small,no load at all,
Honor enough that we send the call."
"Not so," said Boston, "good my lord,
We pay your governors here
Abundant for their bed and board,
Six thousand pounds a year.
(Your highness knows our homely word,)
Millions for self-government,
But for tribute never a cent."
The cargo came! and who could blame
If Indians seized the tea,
And, chest by chest, let down the same
Into the laughing sea?
For what avail the plough or sail
Or land or life, if freedom fail?
The townsmen braved the English king,
Found friendship in the French,
And Honor joined the patriot ring
Low on their wooden bench.
O bounteous seas that never fail!
O day remembered yet!
O happy port that spied the sail
Which wafted Lafayette!
Pole-star of light in Europe's night,
That never faltered from the right.
Kings shook with fear, old empires crave
The secret force to find
Which fired the little State to save
The rights of all mankind.
But right is might through all the world;
Province to province faithful clung,
Through good and ill the war-bolt hurled,
Till Freedom cheered and the joy-bells rung.
The sea returning day by day
Restores the world-wide mart;
So let each dweller on the Bay
Fold Boston in his heart,
Till these echoes be choked with snows,
Or over the town blue ocean flows.
This poem was read in Faneuil Hall, on the Centennial Anniversary of the "Boston Tea-Party," at which a band of men disguised as Indians had quietly emptied into the sea the taxed tea-chests of three British ships. by owner. provided at no charge for educational purposes

~ Ralph Waldo Emerson, Boston
,
519:At The Making Of Man
First all the host of Raphael
In liveries of gold,
Lifted the chorus on whose rhythm
The spinning spheres are rolled,–
The Seraphs of the morning calm
Whose hearts are never cold.
He shall be born a spirit,
Part of the soul that yearns,
The core of vital gladness
That suffers and discerns,
The stir that breaks the budding sheath
When the green spring returns,–
The gist of power and patience
Hid in the plasmic clay,
The calm behind the senses,
The passionate essay
To make his wise and lovely dream
Immortal on a day.
The soft Aprilian ardours
That warm the waiting loam
Shall whisper in his pulses
To bid him overcome,
And he shall learn the wonder-cry
Beneath the azure dome.
And though all-dying nature
Should teach him to deplore,
The ruddy fires of autumn
Shall lure him but the more
To pass from joy to stronger joy,
As through an open door.
He shall have hope and honour,
Proud trust and courage stark,
To hold him to his purpose
Through the unlighted dark,
49
And love that sees the moon's full orb
In the first silver arc.
And he shall live by kindness
And the heart's certitude,
Which moves without misgiving
In ways not understood,
Sure only of the vast event,–
The large and simple good.
Then Gabriel's host in silver gear
And vesture twilight blue,
The spirits of immortal mind,
The warders of the true,
Took up the theme that gives the world
Significance anew.
He shall be born to reason,
And have the primal need
To understand and follow
Wherever truth may lead,–
To grow in wisdom like a tree
Unfolding from a seed.
A watcher by the sheepfolds,
With wonder in his eyes,
He shall behold the seasons,
And mark the planets rise,
Till all the marching firmament
Shall rouse his vast surmise.
Beyond the sweep of vision,
Or utmost reach of sound,
This cunning fire-maker,
This tiller of the ground,
Shall learn the secrets of the suns
And fathom the profound.
For he must prove all being,
Sane, beauteous, benign,
And at the heart of nature
Discover the divine,–
50
Himself the type and symbol
Of the eternal trine.
He shall perceive the kindling
Of knowledge, far and dim,
As of the fire that brightens
Below the dark sea-rim,
When ray by ray the splendid sun
Floats to the world's wide brim.
And out of primal instinct,
The lore of lair and den,
He shall emerge to question
How, wherefore, whence, and when,
Till the last frontier of the truth
Shall lie within his ken.
Then Michael's scarlet-suited host
Took up the word and sang;
As though a trumpet had been loosed
In heaven, the arches rang;
For these were they who feel the thrill
Of beauty like a pang.
He shall be framed and balanced
For loveliness and power,
Lithe as the supple creatures,
And coloured as a flower,
Sustained by the all-feeding earth,
Nurtured by wind and shower,
To stand within the vortex
Where surging forces play,
A poised and pliant figure
Immutable as they,
Till time and space and energy
Surrender to his sway.
He shall be free to journey
Over the teeming earth,
An insatiable seeker,
A wanderer from his birth,
51
Clothed in the fragile veil of sense,
With fortitude for girth.
His hands shall have dominion
Of all created things,
To fashion in the likeness
Of his imaginings,
To make his will and thought survive
Unto a thousand springs.
The world shall be his province,
The princedom of his skill;
The tides shall wear his harness,
The winds obey his will;
Till neither flood, nor fire, nor frost,
Shall work to do him ill.
A creature fit to carry
The pure creative fire,
Whatever truth inform him,
Whatever good inspire,
He shall make lovely in all things
To the end of his desire.
~ Bliss William Carman,
520:It is natural from the point of view of the Yoga to divide into two categories the activities of the human mind in its pursuit of knowledge. There is the supreme supra-intellectual knowledge which concentrates itself on the discovery of the One and Infinite in its transcendence or tries to penetrate by intuition, contemplation, direct inner contact into the ultimate truths behind the appearances of Nature; there is the lower science which diffuses itself in an outward knowledge of phenomena, the disguises of the One and Infinite as it appears to us in or through the more exterior forms of the world-manifestation around us. These two, an upper and a lower hemisphere, in the form of them constructed or conceived by men within the mind's ignorant limits, have even there separated themselves, as they developed, with some sharpness.... Philosophy, sometimes spiritual or at least intuitive, sometimes abstract and intellectual, sometimes intellectualising spiritual experience or supporting with a logical apparatus the discoveries of the spirit, has claimed always to take the fixation of ultimate Truth as its province. But even when it did not separate itself on rarefied metaphysical heights from the knowledge that belongs to the practical world and the pursuit of ephemeral objects, intellectual Philosophy by its habit of abstraction has seldom been a power for life. It has been sometimes powerful for high speculation, pursuing mental Truth for its own sake without any ulterior utility or object, sometimes for a subtle gymnastic of the mind in a mistily bright cloud-land of words and ideas, but it has walked or acrobatised far from the more tangible realities of existence. Ancient Philosophy in Europe was more dynamic, but only for the few; in India in its more spiritualised forms, it strongly influenced but without transforming the life of the race.... Religion did not attempt, like Philosophy, to live alone on the heights; its aim was rather to take hold of man's parts of life even more than his parts of mind and draw them Godwards; it professed to build a bridge between spiritual Truth and the vital and material human existence; it strove to subordinate and reconcile the lower to the higher, make life serviceable to God, Earth obedient to Heaven. It has to be admitted that too often this necessary effort had the opposite result of making Heaven a sanction for Earth's desires; for, continually, the religious idea has been turned into an excuse for the worship and service of the human ego. Religion, leaving constantly its little shining core of spiritual experience, has lost itself in the obscure mass of its ever extending ambiguous compromises with life: in attempting to satisfy the thinking mind, it more often succeeded in oppressing or fettering it with a mass of theological dogmas; while seeking to net the human heart, it fell itself into pits of pietistic emotionalism and sensationalism; in the act of annexing the vital nature of man to dominate it, it grew itself vitiated and fell a prey to all the fanaticism, homicidal fury, savage or harsh turn for oppression, pullulating falsehood, obstinate attachment to ignorance to which that vital nature is prone; its desire to draw the physical in man towards God betrayed it into chaining itself to ecclesiastic mechanism, hollow ceremony and lifeless ritual. The corruption of the best produced the worst by that strange chemistry of the power of life which generates evil out of good even as it can also generate good out of evil. At the same time in a vain effort at self-defence against this downward gravitation, Religion was driven to cut existence into two by a division of knowledge, works, art, life itself into two opposite categories, the spiritual and the worldly, religious and mundane, sacred and profane; but this defensive distinction itself became conventional and artificial and aggravated rather than healed the disease.... On their side Science and Art and the knowledge of Life, although at first they served or lived in the shadow of Religion, ended by emancipating themselves, became estranged or hostile, or have even recoiled with indifference, contempt or scepticism from what seem to them the cold, barren and distant or unsubstantial and illusory heights of unreality to which metaphysical Philosophy and Religion aspire. For a time the divorce has been as complete as the one-sided intolerance of the human mind could make it and threatened even to end in a complete extinction of all attempt at a higher or a more spiritual knowledge. Yet even in the earthward life a higher knowledge is indeed the one thing that is throughout needful, and without it the lower sciences and pursuits, however fruitful, however rich, free, miraculous in the abundance of their results, become easily a sacrifice offered without due order and to false gods; corrupting, hardening in the end the heart of man, limiting his mind's horizons, they confine in a stony material imprisonment or lead to a final baffling incertitude and disillusionment. A sterile agnosticism awaits us above the brilliant phosphorescence of a half-knowledge that is still the Ignorance. ~ Sri Aurobindo, The Synthesis Of Yoga, The Ascent of the Sacrifice - 1,
521:The Lark’s Nest
'TRUST only to thyself;' the maxim's sound;
For, tho' life's choicest blessing be a friend,
Friends do not very much abound;
Or, where they happen to be found,
And greatly thou on friendship shouldst depend,
Thou'lt find it will not bear
Much wear and tear;
Nay ! that even kindred, cousin, uncle, brother,
Has each perhaps to mind his own affair;
Attend to thine then; lean not on another.
Esop assures us that the maxim's wise;
And by a tale illustrates his advice:
When April's bright and fickle beams
Saw every feather'd pair
In the green woodlands, or by willowy streams,
Busied in matrimonial schemes;
A Lark, amid the dewy air,
Woo'd, and soon won a favourite fair;
And, in a spot by springing rye protected,
Her labour sometimes shared;
While she, with bents, and wither'd grass collected,
Their humble domicile prepared;
Then, by her duty fix'd, the tender mate
Unwearied prest
Their future progeny beneath her breast;
And little slept, and little ate,
While her gay lover, with a careless heart,
As is the custom of his sex,
Full little recks
The coming family; but like a dart,
From his low homested, with the morning springs;
And far above the floating vapour, sings
At such an height,
That even the shepherd-lad upon the hill,
Hearing his matin note so shrill,
With shaded eyes against the lustre bright,
Scarce sees him twinkling in a flood of light.
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But hunger, spite of all her perseverance,
Was one day urgent on his patient bride;
The truant made not his appearance,
That her fond care might be a while supplied,­
So, because hunger will not be denied,
She leaves her nest reluctant; and in haste
But just allows herself to taste,
A dew drop, and a few small seeds­
Ah ! how her fluttering bosom bleeds,
When the dear cradle she had fondly rear'd
All desolate appear'd !
And ranging wide about the field she saw
A setter huge, whose unrelenting jaw
Had crush'd her half-existing young;
Long o'er her ruin'd hopes the mother hung,
And vainly mourn'd,
Ere from the clouds her wanderer return'd:­
Tears justly shed by beauty, who can stand them ?
He heard her plaintive tale with unfeign'd sorrow,
But, as his motto was, 'Nil desperandum,'
Bade her hope better fortune for to-morrow;
Then from the fatal spot afar, they sought
A safer shelter, having bought
Experience, which is always rather dear;
And very near
A grassy headland, in a field of wheat,
They fix'd, with cautious care, their second seat­
But this took time; May was already past,
The white thorn had her silver blossoms cast,
And there the Nightingale, to lovely June,
Her last farewell had sung;
No longer reign'd July's intemperate noon,
And high in heaven the reaper's moon,
A little crescent hung,
Ere from their shells appear'd the plumeless young.
Oh ! then with how much tender care,
The busy pair,
Watch'd and provided for the panting brood !
For then, the vagrant of the air,
186
Soar'd not to meet the morning star,
But, never from the nestlings far,
Explor'd each furrow, every sod for food;
While his more anxious partner tried
From hostile eyes, the helpless group to hide;
Attempting now, with labouring bill, to guide
The enwreathing bindweed round the nest;
Now joy'd to see the cornflower's azure crest
Above it waving, and the cockle grow,
Or poppies throw
Their scarlet curtains round;
While the more humble children of the ground,
Freak'd pansies, fumitory, pimpernel,
Circled with arras light, the secret cell:­
But who against all evils can provide ?
Hid, and overshadow'd thus, and fortified,
By teasel, and the scabious' thready disk,
Corn-marygold, and thistles; too much risk
The little household still were doom'd to run,
For the same ardent sun,
Whose beams had drawn up many an idle flower,
To fence the lonely bower,
Had by his powerful heat,
Matured the wheat;
And chang'd of hue, it hung its heavy head,
While every rustling gale that blew along
From neighbouring uplands, brought the rustic song
Of harvest merriment: then full of dread,
Lest, not yet fully fledg'd, her race
The reaper's foot might crush, or reaper's dog might trace,
Or village child, too young to reap or bind,
Loitering around, her hidden treasure find;
The mother bird was bent
To move them, e'er the sickle came more near;
And therefore, when for food abroad she went,
(For now her mate again was on the ramble)
She bade her young report what they should hear:
So the next hour they cried, 'They'll all assemble,
'The farmer's neighbours, with the dawn of light,
'Therefore, dear mother, let us move to night.'
187
'Fear not, my loves,' said she, 'you need not tremble;
'Trust me, if only neighbours are in question,
'Eat what I bring, and spoil not your digestion
'Or sleep, for this.' Next day away she flew,
And that no neighbour came was very true;
But her returning wings the Larklings knew,
And quivering round her, told, their landlord said,
'Why, John ! the reaping must not be delay'd,
'By peep of day to-morrow we'll begin,
'Since now so many of our kin
'Have promis'd us their help to set about it.'
'Still,' quoth the bird, 'I doubt it;
'The corn will stand to-morrow.' So it prov'd;
The morning's dawn arriv'd­but never saw
Or uncle, cousin, brother, or brother-in-law;
And not a reap-hook mov'd !
Then to his son the angry farmer cried,
'Some folks are little known 'till they are tried;
'Who would have thought we had so few well-wishers !
'What ! neither neighbour Dawes, nor cousin Fishers,
'Nor uncle Betts, nor even my brother Delves,
'Will lend an hand, to help us get the corn in ?
'Well then, let you and me, to-morrow morning,
'E'en try what we can do with it ourselves.'
'Nay,' quoth the Lark, ''tis time then to be gone:
'What a man undertakes himself is done.'
Certes, she was a bird of observation;
For very true it is, that none,
Whatever be his station,
Lord of a province, tenant of a mead,
Whether he fill a cottage, or a throne,
Or guard a flock, or guide a nation,
Is very likely to succeed,
Who manages affairs by deputation.
~ Charlotte Smith,
522:The Rape Of The Lock: Canto 2
Not with more glories, in th' etherial plain,
The sun first rises o'er the purpled main,
Than, issuing forth, the rival of his beams
Launch'd on the bosom of the silver Thames.
Fair nymphs, and well-dress'd youths around her shone,
But ev'ry eye was fix'd on her alone.
On her white breast a sparkling cross she wore,
Which Jews might kiss, and infidels adore.
Her lively looks a sprightly mind disclose,
Quick as her eyes, and as unfix'd as those:
Favours to none, to all she smiles extends;
Oft she rejects, but never once offends.
Bright as the sun, her eyes the gazers strike,
And, like the sun, they shine on all alike.
Yet graceful ease, and sweetness void of pride,
Might hide her faults, if belles had faults to hide:
If to her share some female errors fall,
Look on her face, and you'll forget 'em all.
This nymph, to the destruction of mankind,
Nourish'd two locks, which graceful hung behind
In equal curls, and well conspir'd to deck
With shining ringlets the smooth iv'ry neck.
Love in these labyrinths his slaves detains,
And mighty hearts are held in slender chains.
With hairy springes we the birds betray,
Slight lines of hair surprise the finney prey,
Fair tresses man's imperial race ensnare,
And beauty draws us with a single hair.
Th' advent'rous baron the bright locks admir'd;
He saw, he wish'd, and to the prize aspir'd.
Resolv'd to win, he meditates the way,
By force to ravish, or by fraud betray;
For when success a lover's toil attends,
Few ask, if fraud or force attain'd his ends.
For this, ere Phœbus rose, he had implor'd
Propitious Heav'n, and ev'ry pow'r ador'd,
But chiefly love--to love an altar built,
Of twelve vast French romances, neatly gilt.
There lay three garters, half a pair of gloves;
225
And all the trophies of his former loves;
With tender billet-doux he lights the pyre,
And breathes three am'rous sighs to raise the fire.
Then prostrate falls, and begs with ardent eyes
Soon to obtain, and long possess the prize:
The pow'rs gave ear, and granted half his pray'r,
The rest, the winds dispers'd in empty air.
But now secure the painted vessel glides,
The sun-beams trembling on the floating tides,
While melting music steals upon the sky,
And soften'd sounds along the waters die.
Smooth flow the waves, the zephyrs gently play,
Belinda smil'd, and all the world was gay.
All but the Sylph--with careful thoughts opprest,
Th' impending woe sat heavy on his breast.
He summons strait his denizens of air;
The lucid squadrons round the sails repair:
Soft o'er the shrouds aerial whispers breathe,
That seem'd but zephyrs to the train beneath.
Some to the sun their insect-wings unfold,
Waft on the breeze, or sink in clouds of gold.
Transparent forms, too fine for mortal sight,
Their fluid bodies half dissolv'd in light,
Loose to the wind their airy garments flew,
Thin glitt'ring textures of the filmy dew;
Dipp'd in the richest tincture of the skies,
Where light disports in ever-mingling dyes,
While ev'ry beam new transient colours flings,
Colours that change whene'er they wave their wings.
Amid the circle, on the gilded mast,
Superior by the head, was Ariel plac'd;
His purple pinions op'ning to the sun,
He rais'd his azure wand, and thus begun.
"Ye Sylphs and Sylphids, to your chief give ear!
Fays, Fairies, Genii, Elves, and Dæmons, hear!
Ye know the spheres and various tasks assign'd
By laws eternal to th' aerial kind.
Some in the fields of purest æther play,
And bask and whiten in the blaze of day.
Some guide the course of wand'ring orbs on high,
226
Or roll the planets through the boundless sky.
Some less refin'd, beneath the moon's pale light
Pursue the stars that shoot athwart the night,
Or suck the mists in grosser air below,
Or dip their pinions in the painted bow,
Or brew fierce tempests on the wintry main,
Or o'er the glebe distil the kindly rain.
Others on earth o'er human race preside,
Watch all their ways, and all their actions guide:
Of these the chief the care of nations own,
And guard with arms divine the British throne.
"Our humbler province is to tend the fair,
Not a less pleasing, though less glorious care.
To save the powder from too rude a gale,
Nor let th' imprison'd essences exhale,
To draw fresh colours from the vernal flow'rs,
To steal from rainbows e'er they drop in show'rs
A brighter wash; to curl their waving hairs,
Assist their blushes, and inspire their airs;
Nay oft, in dreams, invention we bestow,
To change a flounce, or add a furbelow.
"This day, black omens threat the brightest fair
That e'er deserv'd a watchful spirit's care;
Some dire disaster, or by force, or slight,
But what, or where, the fates have wrapt in night.
Whether the nymph shall break Diana's law,
Or some frail china jar receive a flaw;
Or stain her honour, or her new brocade,
Forget her pray'rs, or miss a masquerade;
Or lose her heart, or necklace, at a ball;
Or whether Heav'n has doom'd that Shock must fall.
Haste, then, ye spirits! to your charge repair:
The flutt'ring fan be Zephyretta's care;
The drops to thee, Brillante, we consign;
And, Momentilla, let the watch be thine;
Do thou, Crispissa, tend her fav'rite lock;
Ariel himself shall be the guard of Shock.
"To fifty chosen Sylphs, of special note,
We trust th' important charge, the petticoat:
227
Oft have we known that sev'n-fold fence to fail,
Though stiff with hoops, and arm'd with ribs of whale.
Form a strong line about the silver bound,
And guard the wide circumference around.
"Whatever spirit, careless of his charge,
His post neglects, or leaves the fair at large,
Shall feel sharp vengeance soon o'ertake his sins,
Be stopp'd in vials, or transfix'd with pins;
Or plung'd in lakes of bitter washes lie,
Or wedg'd whole ages in a bodkin's eye:
Gums and pomatums shall his flight restrain,
While clogg'd he beats his silken wings in vain;
Or alum styptics with contracting pow'r
Shrink his thin essence like a rivell'd flow'r.
Or, as Ixion fix'd, the wretch shall feel
The giddy motion of the whirling mill,
In fumes of burning chocolate shall glow,
And tremble at the sea that froths below!"
He spoke; the spirits from the sails descend;
Some, orb in orb, around the nymph extend,
Some thrid the mazy ringlets of her hair,
Some hang upon the pendants of her ear;
With beating hearts the dire event they wait,
Anxious, and trembling for the birth of fate.
~ Alexander Pope,
523:wrote a series of memorials in remonstrance.
As Governor of Hangzhou
Again, ~ Bai Juyi



was sent away from the court and the capital, but this time to the
important position of the thriving town of Hangzhou, which was at the southern
terminus of the Grand Canal and located in the scenic neighborhood of West
Lake. Fortunately for their friendship, Yuan Zhen at the time was serving an
assignment in nearby Ningbo, also in what is today Zhejiang, so the two could
occasionally get together, at least until ~ Bai Juyi



's term as Governor expired.
As governor of