classes ::: noun,
children :::
branches ::: numen

bookmarks: Instances - Definitions - Quotes - Chapters - Wordnet - Webgen


object:numen
word class:noun

see also :::

questions, comments, suggestions/feedback, take-down requests, contribute, etc
contact me @ integralyogin@gmail.com or
join the integral discord server (chatrooms)
if the page you visited was empty, it may be noted and I will try to fill it out. cheers



now begins generated list of local instances, definitions, quotes, instances in chapters, wordnet info if available and instances among weblinks


OBJECT INSTANCES [0] - TOPICS - AUTHORS - BOOKS - CHAPTERS - CLASSES - SEE ALSO - SIMILAR TITLES

TOPICS
SEE ALSO


AUTH

BOOKS
Modern_Man_in_Search_of_a_Soul
Plotinus_-_Complete_Works_Vol_01
The_Blue_Cliff_Records
The_Use_and_Abuse_of_History

IN CHAPTERS TITLE
1.wby_-_The_Three_Monuments
1.whitman_-_Washingtons_Monument,_February,_1885

IN CHAPTERS CLASSNAME

IN CHAPTERS TEXT
0.00_-_THE_GOSPEL_PREFACE
01.04_-_The_Secret_Knowledge
0_1962-07-25
0_1962-09-15
0_1962-11-17
0_1963-03-23
0_1965-09-25
0_1966-05-14
0_1966-06-25
0_1967-02-11
0_1967-02-15
0_1967-05-10
02.10_-_The_Kingdoms_and_Godheads_of_the_Little_Mind
03.03_-_The_House_of_the_Spirit_and_the_New_Creation
03.04_-_The_Vision_and_the_Boon
04.05_-_The_Immortal_Nation
07.42_-_The_Nature_and_Destiny_of_Art
08.27_-_Value_of_Religious_Exercises
09.01_-_Towards_the_Black_Void
1.00_-_Preface
1.01_-_Archetypes_of_the_Collective_Unconscious
1.01_-_Economy
1.01_-_Historical_Survey
1.01_-_Our_Demand_and_Need_from_the_Gita
1.01_-_The_Highest_Meaning_of_the_Holy_Truths
1.02_-_MAPS_OF_MEANING_-_THREE_LEVELS_OF_ANALYSIS
1.02_-_The_Age_of_Individualism_and_Reason
1.03_-_Reading
1.03_-_The_Sephiros
1.05_-_BOOK_THE_FIFTH
1.05_-_Christ,_A_Symbol_of_the_Self
1.05_-_Solitude
1.05_-_THE_HOSTILE_BROTHERS_-_ARCHETYPES_OF_RESPONSE_TO_THE_UNKNOWN
1.06_-_Man_in_the_Universe
1.06_-_The_Sign_of_the_Fishes
1.07_-_BOOK_THE_SEVENTH
1.07_-_THE_MASTER_AND_VIJAY_GOSWAMI
1.08_-_BOOK_THE_EIGHTH
1.08_-_The_Historical_Significance_of_the_Fish
1.09_-_The_Furies_and_Medusa._The_Angel._The_City_of_Dis._The_Sixth_Circle__Heresiarchs.
1.1.04_-_Philosophy
1.10_-_BOOK_THE_TENTH
1.11_-_The_Master_of_the_Work
1.1.2_-_Commentary
1.12_-_God_Departs
1.13_-_BOOK_THE_THIRTEENTH
1.13_-_Gnostic_Symbols_of_the_Self
1.13_-_THE_MASTER_AND_M.
1.14_-_Bibliography
1.14_-_The_Structure_and_Dynamics_of_the_Self
1.15_-_Index
1.15_-_The_Transformed_Being
1.17_-_The_Transformation
1.20_-_ON_CHILD_AND_MARRIAGE
1.28_-_The_Killing_of_the_Tree-Spirit
1.30_-_Adonis_in_Syria
1.35_-_Attis_as_a_God_of_Vegetation
1.37_-_Oriential_Religions_in_the_West
1.38_-_The_Myth_of_Osiris
1.39_-_The_Ritual_of_Osiris
1.43_-_Dionysus
1.44_-_Demeter_and_Persephone
1.47_-_Lityerses
1.49_-_Ancient_Deities_of_Vegetation_as_Animals
1.52_-_Killing_the_Divine_Animal
1.58_-_Human_Scapegoats_in_Classical_Antiquity
1.76_-_The_Gods_-_How_and_Why_they_Overlap
1.77_-_Work_Worthwhile_-_Why?
1953-07-15
1953-10-28
1954-06-30_-_Occultism_-_Religion_and_vital_beings_-_Mothers_knowledge_of_what_happens_in_the_Ashram_-_Asking_questions_to_Mother_-_Drawing_on_Mother
1954-12-22_-_Possession_by_hostile_forces_-_Purity_and_morality_-_Faith_in_the_final_success_-Drawing_back_from_the_path
1.anon_-_If_this_were_a_world
1.anon_-_The_Epic_of_Gilgamesh_Tablet_III
1f.lovecraft_-_At_the_Mountains_of_Madness
1f.lovecraft_-_Ibid
1f.lovecraft_-_Nyarlathotep
1f.lovecraft_-_The_Disinterment
1f.lovecraft_-_The_Dream-Quest_of_Unknown_Kadath
1f.lovecraft_-_The_Haunter_of_the_Dark
1f.lovecraft_-_The_Horror_in_the_Museum
1f.lovecraft_-_The_Loved_Dead
1f.lovecraft_-_The_Mound
1f.lovecraft_-_The_Nameless_City
1f.lovecraft_-_The_Statement_of_Randolph_Carter
1f.lovecraft_-_Through_the_Gates_of_the_Silver_Key
1f.lovecraft_-_Under_the_Pyramids
1.fs_-_Rousseau
1.jk_-_Hyperion,_A_Vision_-_Attempted_Reconstruction_Of_The_Poem
1.pbs_-_Adonais_-_An_elegy_on_the_Death_of_John_Keats
1.pbs_-_Fragment_From_The_Wandering_Jew
1.pbs_-_Hellas_-_A_Lyrical_Drama
1.pbs_-_Queen_Mab_-_Part_VII.
1.pbs_-_Rosalind_and_Helen_-_a_Modern_Eclogue
1.pbs_-_Stanzas_From_Calderons_Cisma_De_Inglaterra
1.pbs_-_The_Revolt_Of_Islam_-_Canto_I-XII
1.rb_-_Paracelsus_-_Part_III_-_Paracelsus
1.rb_-_Paracelsus_-_Part_IV_-_Paracelsus_Aspires
1.rwe_-_Concord_Hymn
1.rwe_-_To_Rhea
1.rwe_-_Woodnotes
1.snk_-_Endless_is_my_Wealth
1.wby_-_Meditations_In_Time_Of_Civil_War
1.wby_-_Meru
1.wby_-_Nineteen_Hundred_And_Nineteen
1.wby_-_Sailing_to_Byzantium
1.wby_-_Supernatural_Songs
1.wby_-_The_Three_Monuments
1.wby_-_To_A_Shade
1.whitman_-_As_At_Thy_Portals_Also_Death
1.whitman_-_Brother_Of_All,_With_Generous_Hand
1.whitman_-_Carol_Of_Occupations
1.whitman_-_Passage_To_India
1.whitman_-_Song_Of_The_Broad-Axe
1.whitman_-_The_Great_City
1.whitman_-_Unnamed_Lands
1.whitman_-_Washingtons_Monument,_February,_1885
1.ww_-_3-_The_White_Doe_Of_Rylstone,_Or,_The_Fate_Of_The_Nortons
1.ww_-_7-_The_White_Doe_Of_Rylstone,_Or,_The_Fate_Of_The_Nortons
1.ww_-_A_Whirl-Blast_From_Behind_The_Hill
1.ww_-_Book_Eighth-_Retrospect--Love_Of_Nature_Leading_To_Love_Of_Man
1.ww_-_Book_First_[Introduction-Childhood_and_School_Time]
1.ww_-_Book_Fourteenth_[conclusion]
1.ww_-_Book_Fourth_[Summer_Vacation]
1.ww_-_Book_Ninth_[Residence_in_France]
1.ww_-_Book_Seventh_[Residence_in_London]
1.ww_-_Book_Sixth_[Cambridge_and_the_Alps]
1.ww_-_Book_Thirteenth_[Imagination_And_Taste,_How_Impaired_And_Restored_Concluded]
1.ww_-_Book_Twelfth_[Imagination_And_Taste,_How_Impaired_And_Restored_]
1.ww_-_Elegiac_Stanzas_In_Memory_Of_My_Brother,_John_Commander_Of_The_E._I._Companys_Ship_The_Earl_Of_Aber
1.ww_-_Fidelity
1.ww_-_Hart-Leap_Well
1.ww_-_Inscriptions_Written_with_a_Slate_Pencil_upon_a_Stone
1.ww_-_Lines_Left_Upon_The_Seat_Of_A_Yew-Tree,
1.ww_-_Occasioned_By_The_Battle_Of_Waterloo_February_1816
1.ww_-_The_Brothers
1.ww_-_The_Excursion-_I-_Dedication-_To_the_Right_Hon.William,_Earl_of_Lonsdalee,_K.G.
1.ww_-_The_Excursion-_IV-_Book_Third-_Despondency
1.ww_-_The_Excursion-_VII-_Book_Sixth-_The_Churchyard_Among_the_Mountains
1.ww_-_The_Excursion-_X-_Book_Ninth-_Discourse_of_the_Wanderer,_and_an_Evening_Visit_to_the_Lake
1.ww_-_The_Morning_Of_The_Day_Appointed_For_A_General_Thanksgiving._January_18,_1816
1.ww_-_The_Recluse_-_Book_First
1.ww_-_To_The_Spade_Of_A_Friend_(An_Agriculturist)
1.ww_-_Tribute_To_The_Memory_Of_The_Same_Dog
2.02_-_Brahman,_Purusha,_Ishwara_-_Maya,_Prakriti,_Shakti
2.03_-_THE_ENIGMA_OF_BOLOGNA
2.05_-_The_Divine_Truth_and_Way
3.02_-_King_and_Queen
3.02_-_The_Psychology_of_Rebirth
3.03_-_SULPHUR
3.04_-_LUNA
3.05_-_SAL
3.05_-_The_Formula_of_I.A.O.
3.08_-_Of_Equilibrium
3.16_-_THE_SEVEN_SEALS_OR_THE_YES_AND_AMEN_SONG
3.18_-_Of_Clairvoyance_and_the_Body_of_Light
3.21_-_Of_Black_Magic
33.17_-_Two_Great_Wars
36.09_-_THE_SIT_SUKTA
3.7.1.07_-_Involution_and_Evolution
3_-_Commentaries_and_Annotated_Translations
4.02_-_GOLD_AND_SPIRIT
4.0_-_NOTES_TO_ZARATHUSTRA
4.17_-_THE_AWAKENING
4.25_-_Towards_the_supramental_Time_Vision
5.03_-_The_World_Is_Not_Eternal
5_-_The_Phenomenology_of_the_Spirit_in_Fairytales
6.02_-_Great_Meteorological_Phenomena,_Etc
6.0_-_Conscious,_Unconscious,_and_Individuation
7_-_Yoga_of_Sri_Aurobindo
Aeneid
Averroes_Search
BOOK_III._-_The_external_calamities_of_Rome
BOOK_II._--_PART_I._ANTHROPOGENESIS.
BOOK_II._--_PART_III._ADDENDA._SCIENCE_AND_THE_SECRET_DOCTRINE_CONTRASTED
BOOK_II._--_PART_II._THE_ARCHAIC_SYMBOLISM_OF_THE_WORLD-RELIGIONS
BOOK_I._--_PART_I._COSMIC_EVOLUTION
BOOK_I._--_PART_III._SCIENCE_AND_THE_SECRET_DOCTRINE_CONTRASTED
BOOK_I._--_PART_II._THE_EVOLUTION_OF_SYMBOLISM_IN_ITS_APPROXIMATE_ORDER
Book_of_Imaginary_Beings_(text)
Book_of_Psalms
BOOK_XVIII._-_A_parallel_history_of_the_earthly_and_heavenly_cities_from_the_time_of_Abraham_to_the_end_of_the_world
BOOK_XV._-_The_progress_of_the_earthly_and_heavenly_cities_traced_by_the_sacred_history
BOOK_XXII._-_Of_the_eternal_happiness_of_the_saints,_the_resurrection_of_the_body,_and_the_miracles_of_the_early_Church
COSA_-_BOOK_IX
COSA_-_BOOK_VIII
Cratylus
Deutsches_Requiem
ENNEAD_02.03_-_Whether_Astrology_is_of_any_Value.
ENNEAD_02.09_-_Against_the_Gnostics;_or,_That_the_Creator_and_the_World_are_Not_Evil.
ENNEAD_03.01_-_Concerning_Fate.
ENNEAD_03.06_-_Of_the_Impassibility_of_Incorporeal_Entities_(Soul_and_and_Matter).
ENNEAD_03.07_-_Of_Time_and_Eternity.
ENNEAD_04.02_-_How_the_Soul_Mediates_Between_Indivisible_and_Divisible_Essence.
ENNEAD_04.07_-_Of_the_Immortality_of_the_Soul:_Polemic_Against_Materialism.
ENNEAD_06.05_-_The_One_and_Identical_Being_is_Everywhere_Present_In_Its_Entirety.345
ENNEAD_06.09_-_Of_the_Good_and_the_One.
For_a_Breath_I_Tarry
Liber_46_-_The_Key_of_the_Mysteries
Sayings_of_Sri_Ramakrishna_(text)
Symposium_translated_by_B_Jowett
Talks_With_Sri_Aurobindo_2
The_Act_of_Creation_text
The_Aleph
The_Book_of_the_Prophet_Isaiah
The_Dwellings_of_the_Philosophers
The_Gospel_According_to_Matthew
The_Immortal
The_Logomachy_of_Zos
The_Pilgrims_Progress
Timaeus

PRIMARY CLASS

SIMILAR TITLES
numen
Torment Tides of Numenera

DEFINITIONS

AjantA. A complex of some thirty caves and subsidiary structures in India, renowned for its exemplary Buddhist artwork. Named after a neighboring village, the caves are carved from the granite cliffs at a bend in the Wagurna River valley, northeast of AURANGABAD, in the modern Indian state of Maharashtra. The grottoes were excavated in two phases, the first of which lasted from approximately 100 BCE to 100 CE, the second from c. 462 to 480, and consist primarily of monastic cave residences (VIHARA) and sanctuaries (CAITYA). The sanctuaries include four large, pillared STuPA halls, each enshrining a central monumental buddha image, which renders the hall both a site for worship and a buddha's dwelling (GANDHAKUtĪ), where he presides over the activities of the monks in residence. The murals and sculpture located at AjantA include some of the best-preserved examples of ancient Buddhist art. Paintings throughout the complex are especially noted for their depiction of accounts from the Buddha's previous lives (JATAKA). Despite the presence of some AVALOKITEsVARA images at the site, it is Sanskrit texts of mainstream Buddhism, and especially the MuLASARVASTIVADA school, that are the source and inspiration for the paintings of AjantA. Indeed, almost all of AjantA's narrative paintings are based on accounts appearing in the MuLASARVASTIVADA VINAYA, as well as the poems of Aryasura and AsVAGHOsA. On the other hand, the most common type of sculptural image at AjantA (e.g., Cave 4) is a seated buddha making a variant of the gesture of turning the wheel of the dharma (DHARMACAKRAMUDRA), flanked by the two bodhisattvas AVALOKITEsVARA and VAJRAPAnI. The deployment of this mudrA and the two flanking bodhisattvas indicates that these buddha images are of VAIROCANA and suggests that tantric elements that appear in the MAHAVAIROCANABHISAMBODHISuTRA and the MANJUsRĪMuLAKALPA, both of which postdate the AjantA images, developed over an extended period of time and had precursors that influenced the iconography at AjantA. Inscriptions on the walls of the earliest part of the complex, primarily in Indian Prakrits, attest to an eclectic, even syncretic, pattern of religious observance and patronage. Later epigraphs found at the site associate various patrons with Harisena (r. 460-477), the last known monarch of the VAkAtaka royal family. VarAhadeva, for example, who patronized Cave 16, was one of Harisena's courtiers, while Cave 1 was donated by Harisena himself, and Cave 2 may have been patronized by a close relative, perhaps one of Harisena's wives. Cave 16's central image, a buddha seated on a royal throne with legs pendant (BHADRASANA), is the first stone sculpture in this iconographic form found in western India. Introduced to India through the tradition of KUSHAN royal portraiture, the bhadrAsana has been interpreted as a position associated with royalty and worldly action. This sculpture may thus have functioned as a portrait sculpture; it may even allegorize Harisena as the Buddha. In fact, it is possible that VarAhadeva may have originally intended to enshrine a buddha seated in the cross-legged lotus position (VAJRAPARYAnKA) but changed his plan midway in the wake of a regional war that placed Harisena's control over the AjantA region in jeopardy. Around 480, the constructions at AjantA came to a halt with the destruction of the VAkAtaka family. The caves were subsequently abandoned and became overgrown, only to be discovered in 1819 by a British officer hunting a tiger. They quickly became the object of great archaeological and art historical interest, and were designated a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1983.

Amarapura. The "Immortal City"; Burmese royal capital during the Konbaung period (1752-1885), built by King Bodawpaya (r. 1782-1819). Amarapura was one of five Burmese capitals established in Upper Burma (Myanmar) after the fall of Pagan between the fourteenth and nineteenth centuries, the others being Pinya, SAGAING, AVA (Inwa), and Mandalay. Located five miles north of the old capital of Ava (Inwa) and seven miles south of Mandalay on the southern bank of the Irrawaddy river, it served as the capital of the Burmese kingdom twice: from 1783 to 1823 and again from 1837 to 1857. The city was mapped out in the form of a perfect square, its perimeter surrounded by stout brick walls and further protected by a wide moat. The city walls were punctuated by twelve gates, three on each side, every gate crowned with a tiered wooden pavilion (B. pyatthat). Broad avenues laid out in a grid pattern led to the center of the city where stood the royal palace and ancillary buildings, all constructed of teak and raised above the ground on massive wooden pylons. Located to the north of the city was a shrine housing the colossal MAHAMUNI image of the Buddha (see ARAKAN BUDDHA), which was acquired by the Burmese as war booty in 1784 when King Bodawpaya conquered the neighboring Buddhist kingdom of Arakan. Since its relocation at the shrine, the seated image has been covered with so many layers of gold leaf that its torso is now completely obscured, leaving only the head and face visible. In 1816, Bodawpaya erected the monumental Pahtodawgyi pagoda, modeled after the Shwezigon pagoda at Pagan. Its lower terraces are adorned with carved marble plaques depicting episodes from the JATAKAs. Another major shrine is the Kyauktawgyi pagoda, located to the southeast of the city on the opposite shore of Taungthaman lake. Kyauktawgyi pagoda is reached via the U Bein Bridge, a 3,000-foot- (1,200-meter) long bridge spanning the lake, which was constructed from teakwood salvaged from the royal palace at the vanquished capital of Ava. Amarapura was site of the THUDHAMMA (P. Sudhamma) reformation begun in 1782 under the patronage of Bodawpaya, which for a time unified the Burmese sangha under a single leadership and gave rise to the modern Thudhamma NikAya, contemporary Burma's largest monastic fraternity. The Thudhamma council that Bodawpaya organized was directed to reform the Burmese sangha throughout the kingdom and bring it under Thudhamma administrative control. In 1800, the president of the council conferred higher ordination (UPASAMPADA) on a delegation of five low-caste Sinhalese ordinands who returned to Sri Lanka in 1803 and established a branch of the reformed Burmese order on the island; that fraternity was known as the AMARAPURA NIKAYA and was dedicated to opening higher ordination to all without caste distinction. In 1857, when the royal residence was shifted from Amarapura to nearby Mandalay, the city walls and palace compound of Amarapura were disassembled and used as building material for the new capital. Today, Amarapura is home to modern Burma's most famous monastic college, Mahagandayon Kyaung Taik, built during the British period and belonging to the Shwegyin NikAya.

AmarAvatī. (T. 'Chi med ldan). In Sanskrit, "Immortal"; is the modern name for DhAnyakataka or Dharanikota, the site of a monastic community associated with the MAHASAMGHIKA school, located in eastern Andhra Pradesh. The site is best known for its large main STuPA, started at the time of AsOKA (third century BCE), which, by the second century CE, was the largest monument in India. It is thought to have been some 140 feet in diameter and upwards of 100 feet tall, and decorated with bas-reliefs. The stupa is mentioned in numerous accounts, including that by the Chinese pilgrim XUANZANG. AmarAvatī (as DhAnyakataka) reached its historical zenith as the southern capital of the later SAtavAhana [alt. sAtavAhana] dynasty that ended in 227 CE. The last inscription found at the site is dated to the eleventh century, and when first excavated at the end of the eighteenth century by the British, the stupa had long been reduced to a large mound of earth. Over the following centuries, it has been the focus of repeated archaeological excavations that yielded many important finds, making it one of the best researched Buddhist sites of ancient India. The site is important in Tibetan Buddhism because the Buddha is said to have taught the KALACAKRATANTRA at DhAnyakataka. See also NAGARJUNAKOndA.

Ananda Temple. A monumental THERAVADA Buddhist monastery located outside the Tharba Gate in the medieval Burmese capital of Pagan. The Ananda was built around 1105 by King Kyanzittha (r. 1084-1111), third monarch of the Pagan empire, and is dedicated to the four buddhas who have appeared during the present auspicious age: Krakucchanda (P. Kakusandha), Kanakamuni (P. KonAgamana), KAsYAPA, and GAUTAMA. In architectural style, the Ananda represents a fusion of Bengali, Burmese, and Pyu (precursors of the ethnic Burmans) elements. Legend states that eight ARHATs from Mount Gandhamadana in India visited King Kyanzittha, and he was so impressed that he constructed a monastery for them, and next to it founded the Ananda. Like all temples and pagodas of the city of Pagan, the Ananda is built of fired brick and faced with stucco. It is cruciform in plan following a Pyu prototype and crowned with a North Indian style tower, or sikhara. Its interior consists of two circumambulatory halls pierced by windows that allow a limited amount of light into the interior. The hallways are decorated with terracotta plaques depicting episodes from the PAli JATAKAs, the MahAnipAta, and NIDANAKATHA. The inner hall contains niches housing numerous seated images of the Buddha that are rendered in a distinctive Pala style. The temple is entered from four entrances facing the four cardinal directions, which lead directly to four large inner chambers, each containing a colossal standing statue of a buddha. Two of the statues are original; a third was rebuilt in the eighteenth century; and the fourth has been repaired. Three of the statues are flanked by smaller images of their chief disciples. The exception is the statue of Gautama Buddha, located in the western chamber, which is flanked by what is believed to be portrait statues of King Kyanzitha and SHIN ARAHAN, the Mon monk said to have converted Pagan to TheravAda Buddhism, who was also Kyanzittha's preceptor.

Angkor Wat. Massive temple complex and religious monument located in northwest Cambodia; the name refers to both a specific temple and the larger archaeological site, which includes hundreds of temples, including ANGKOR THOM, an ancient capital city of the Khmer kingdom. The Angkor Wat temple was constructed under the auspices of King Suryavarman II (r. 1131-1150 CE) in honor of the Hindu god Visnu. The temple is constructed in high Khmer (Cambodian) classical style and consists of five major towers, which are said to represent the five peaks surrounding Mt. SUMERU, the axis mundi of the universe in Indian cosmology; it also includes an extensive bas-relief, the longest continuous such carving in the world, that depicts famous episodes in Hindu mythology. As the fortunes of the Khmer empire declined along with the Hindu religion it had supported, Angkor Wat was later reconceived as a Buddhist monument, and a Hall of a Thousand Buddhas added to its main entrance. In 1992, UNECSCO designated the entire complex as a World Heritage Site.

antiquary ::: a. --> Pertaining to antiquity. ::: n. --> One devoted to the study of ancient times through their relics, as inscriptions, monuments, remains of ancient habitations, statues, coins, manuscripts, etc.; one who searches for and studies the relics of antiquity.

antiquity ::: n. --> The quality of being ancient; ancientness; great age; as, a statue of remarkable antiquity; a family of great antiquity.
Old age.
Ancient times; former ages; times long since past; as, Cicero was an eloquent orator of antiquity.
The ancients; the people of ancient times.
An old gentleman.
A relic or monument of ancient times; as, a coin, a


Apap or Apep (Egyptian) Āpep Apophis (Greek) The serpent of evil, generally denoting matter in its lower reaches of differentiation from spirit; the slayer of every soul too loosely linked to its immortal spirit. Typhon, having slain Osiris, incarnates in Apap and seeks to kill Horus (the personal ego), but is slain by Horus through the power of Horus’ father Osiris, the buddhic principle. It is also the serpent which is slain by the sun god Ra. The combat is another aspect of the myth of the battle between Horus and Set, these deities representing cosmic and physical light and cosmic and physical darkness respectively. “Apap is called ‘the devourer of the Souls,’ and truly, since Apap symbolizes the animal body, as matter left soulless and to itself. Osiris, being, like all the other Solar gods, a type of the Higher Ego (Christos), Horus (his son) is the lower Manas or the personal Ego. On many a monument one can see Horus, helped by a number of dog-headed gods armed with crosses and spears, killing Apap” (TG 26).

Archaeologists have calculated that these circles date from about 1900 BC in the so-called Early Bronze Age. Blavatsky states that the erection of such great monolithic monuments was supervised by initiated priests, some at least coming from Egypt, belonging to the second subrace of the fifth root-race, at a time when a land connection existed between France and Great Britain, but gives no date for the British stone circles. Recent excavations, however, have disclosed that the great circle cuts right across the site of an older and rather smaller one.

archaeology ::: n. --> The science or study of antiquities, esp. prehistoric antiquities, such as the remains of buildings or monuments of an early epoch, inscriptions, implements, and other relics, written manuscripts, etc.

Architecture [from Latin architectura from Greek architekton master-builder] Signifies not building in itself, but the science or art of building in accordance with certain principles or rules which endure through the ages, because rooted in cosmic order and beauty. Architecture is reckoned as one of the five great arts, and the monuments of antiquity in whatever land show clearly that those who designed them had, besides a knowledge of materials and the technique of using them, some knowledge at least of the great cosmic laws of harmony and beauty, and their derivative, proportion.

A statue of Moroni tops the 40-foot monument at

Athena (Greek) Daughter of Metis (wisdom, wise counsel) and Zeus, said to have sprung fully-formed from her father’s head; with Zeus and Apollo one of a divine triad. Famed for wise counsel both in peace and war, Athena was the strategist, as Homer portrays her in the Iliad. As patron deity of Athens, she was the genius of statesmanship and civic policy. Certain archaic monuments show Athena assisting Prometheus (the intellectual fire-bringer) in shaping the first human body from the plastic stuff of earth. It is equally significant that she was connected with Apollo, the god of the seers and the sun personified, in producing climatic changes due to the shifting of the poles. Athena is to be found, variously named, in every theogony, as one of the kabeiria, those mighty beings “of both sexes, as also terrestrial, celestial and kosmic,” who when incarnated as initiate-teachers or kings, “were also, in the beginning of times, the rulers of mankind,” giving “the first impulse to civilizations” and directing “the mind with which they had endued men to the invention and perfection of all the arts and sciences” (SD 2:363-4).

Ava. [alt. Inwa]. Name of the chief Burmese (Myanmar) kingdom and its capital that flourished in Upper Burma between the fourteenth and sixteenth centuries CE. Founded in 1364 at the confluence of the Irrawaddy and Myitnge rivers, the city of Ava, whose official PAli name is Ratanapura, was the successor state of the PAGAN empire (1044-c. 1287), whose cultural, religious, and political traditions Ava's kings consciously sought to preserve. While occupying a much reduced realm compared to imperial Pagan and hemmed in by the hostile Mon kingdom of RAmaNNa (Pegu) in the south, and Shan warlords in the north and east, Ava remained the preeminent military power in the region through its strategic control of the irrigated district of Kyaukse. Ava's kings were lavish in their support of Buddhist institutions as testified by the numerous pagodas and temples constructed within the environs of the city. Especially important were the Sagaing hills on the opposite shore of the Irrawaddy river, where successive kings built scores of monasteries and colleges, making it one of Southeast Asia's major TheravAda scholastic centers. In contrast to the neighboring Mon and Thai kingdoms, which by the fifteenth century had largely adopted the reformed THERAVADA Buddhism of Sri Lankan tradition, Ava continued to patronize its own native "unreformed" sangha, which was descended from Pagan and which Ava regarded as possessing a purer and more ancient pedigree than that of the Sinhalese. The political and religious traditions preserved at Ava came to an abrupt end, however, when in 1527, Shan armies overran the capital and three years later massacred its monks. Ava's glory was resurrected in 1635 when King Thalun (r. 1629-1648) rebuilt the city and made it the capital of the restored Burmese empire of Taungoo. From the throne of Ava, Thalun orchestrated a major Buddhist revival in which he rebuilt the kingdom's ancient national shrine of Shwesettaw near Minbu and erected the gigantic Kaungmudaw pagoda in Sagaing. In addition to the construction of monuments, Thalun held an inquest into monastic lands and instituted the office of ecclesiastical censor (B. mahadan-wun) to oversee religious affairs throughout the country, an office that survived into the British period. Ava was again sacked and its king executed by Mon rebels in 1752, an event that marked the end of the Taungoo dynasty. It was rebuilt and served twice as the capital of the third Burmese empire of Konbaung in 1765-1783 and 1823-1837.

Avebury An English village in Wiltshire about 20 miles north of Stonehenge, where one of the most remarkable stone circles in England, and the largest in Europe, is located. Unfortunately many of the stones have been removed or buried, so that the monument at present is not as impressive as Stonehenge. Originally 300 stones are believed to have been in the three circles, the largest circle measuring on the average 1260 feet in diameter and 4442 feet in circumference.

Baidurya dkar po. (Vaidurya Karpo). In Tibetan, "White Beryl." The monumental astronomical and astrological treatise written in 1685 by the regent of the fifth DALAI LAMA, SDE SRID SANGS RGYAS RGYA MTSHO; the full title is Phug lugs rtsis kyi legs bshad mkhas pa'i mgul rgyan baidurya dkar po'i do shal dpyod ldan snying nor. It deals with the principles of astrology, astronomy, geomancy, and calendrical calculations based on the five elements of wood, fire, earth, metal, and water. Like the larger BAIduRYA SNGON PO, it is supplemented by detailed illustrations. The author's Baidurya dkar po las 'phros pa'i snyan sgron dang dri lan g.ya' sel (known as Baidurya g.ya' sel) clarifies and further elucidates controversial points in the text.

BhAjA. One of the earliest and best-preserved Buddhist cave temples in western India, located around 150 miles south of Mumbai (Bombay). According to the paleography of the inscriptions on site and the stylistic features of the monuments, the site seems to have been excavated around 100-70 BCE. Early Buddhist rock-cut cave temples like BhAjA, AJAntA, and KARLI were located along ancient trade routes, especially those connecting ports with inland towns. The architecture of these temples generally included one worship hall (CAITYA) containing a STuPA with an ambulatory that enabled circumambulation (PRADAKsInA), as well as numerous other cells that comprised the living quarters for the monks (VIHARA). At BhAjA, a large caitya hall dominates the site, featuring stylistic characteristics typical of this early phase of Buddhist architecture: a simple apsidal plan, divided into a nave and side aisles, crowned by a tunnel vault; the imitation of wooden prototypes in the detailing of the surface and the almost complete absence of sculptural decoration in the interior (though paintings may have once adorned the walls). The caitya hall is accompanied by seventeen further caves, which supposedly once housed a community of Buddhist nuns.

BodhgayA. (S. BuddhagayA). Modern Indian place name for the most significant site in the Buddhist world, renowned as the place where sAKYAMUNI Buddha (then, still the BODHISATTVA prince SIDDHARTHA) became a buddha while meditating under the BODHI TREE at the "seat of enlightenment" (BODHIMAndA) or the "diamond seat" (VAJRASANA). The site is especially sacred because, according to tradition, not only did sAkyamuni Buddha attain enlightenment there, but all buddhas of this world system have or will do so, albeit under different species of trees. BodhgayA is situated along the banks of the NAIRANJANA river, near RAJAGṚHA, the ancient capital city of the MAGADHA kingdom. Seven sacred places are said to be located in BodhgayA, each being a site where the Buddha stayed during each of the seven weeks following his enlightenment. These include, in addition to the bodhimanda under the Bodhi tree: the place where the Buddha sat facing the Bodhi tree during the second week, with an unblinking gaze (and hence the site of the animesalocana caitya); the place where the Buddha walked back and forth in meditation (CAnKRAMA) during the third week; the place called the ratnagṛha, where the Buddha meditated during the fourth week, emanating rays of light from his body; the place under the ajapAla tree where the god BRAHMA requested that the Buddha turn the wheel of the dharma (DHARMACAKRAPRAVARTANA) during the fifth week; the lake where the NAGA MUCILINDA used his hood to shelter the Buddha from a storm during the sixth week; and the place under the rAjAyatana tree where the merchants TRAPUsA and BHALLIKA met the Buddha after the seventh week, becoming his first lay disciples. ¶ Located in the territory of MAGADHA (in modern Bihar), the ancient Indian kingdom where the Buddha spent much of his teaching career, BodhgayA is one of the four major pilgrimage sites (MAHASTHANA) sanctioned by the Buddha himself, along with LUMBINĪ in modern-day Nepal, where the Buddha was born; the Deer Park (MṚGADAVA) at SARNATH, where he first taught by "turning the wheel of the dharma" (DHARMACAKRAPRAVARTANA); and KUsINAGARĪ in Uttar Pradesh, where he passed into PARINIRVAnA. According to the AsOKAVADANA, the emperor AsOKA visited BodhgayA with the monk UPAGUPTA and established a STuPA at the site. There is evidence that Asoka erected a pillar and shrine at the site during the third century BCE. A more elaborate structure, called the vajrAsana GANDHAKUtĪ ("perfumed chamber of the diamond seat"), is depicted in a relief at BodhgayA, dating from c. 100 BCE. It shows a two-storied structure supported by pillars, enclosing the Bodhi tree and the vajrAsana, the "diamond seat," where the Buddha sat on the night of his enlightenment. The forerunner of the present temple is described by the Chinese pilgrim XUANZANG. This has led scholars to speculate that the structure was built sometime between the third and sixth centuries CE, with subsequent renovations. Despite various persecutions by non-Buddhist Indian kings, the site continued to receive patronage, especially during the PAla period, from which many of the surrounding monuments date. A monastery, called the BodhimandavihAra, was established there and flourished for several centuries. FAXIAN mentions three monasteries at BodhgayA; Xuanzang found only one, called the MahAbodhisaMghArAma (see MAHABODHI TEMPLE). The temple and its environs fell into neglect after the Muslim invasions that began in the thirteenth century. British photographs from the nineteenth century show the temple in ruins. Restoration of the site was ordered by the British governor-general of Bengal in 1880, with a small eleventh-century replica of the temple serving as a model. There is a tall central tower some 165 feet (fifty meters) in height, with a high arch over the entrance with smaller towers at the four corners. The central tower houses a small temple with an image of the Buddha. The temple is surrounded by stone railings, some dating from 150 BCE, others from the Gupta period (300-600 CE) that preserve important carvings. In 1886, EDWIN ARNOLD visited BodhgayA. He published an account of his visit, which was read by ANAGARIKA DHARMAPALA and others. Arnold described a temple surrounded by hundreds of broken statues scattered in the jungle. The MahAbodhi Temple itself had stood in ruins prior to renovations undertaken by the British in 1880. Also of great concern was the fact that the site had been under saiva control since the eighteenth century, with reports of animal sacrifice taking place in the environs of the temple. DharmapAla visited BodhgayA himself in 1891, and returned to Sri Lanka, where he worked with a group of leading Sinhalese Buddhists to found the MAHABODHI SOCIETY with the aim of restoring BodhgayA as place of Buddhist worship and pilgrimage. The society undertook a series of unsuccessful lawsuits to that end. In 1949, after Indian independence, the BodhgayA Temple Act was passed, which established a committee of four Buddhists and four Hindus to supervise the temple and its grounds. The Government of India asked AnagArika Munindra, a Bengali monk and active member of the MahAbodhi Society, to oversee the restoration of BodhgayA. Since then, numerous Buddhist countries-including Bhutan, China, Japan, Myanmar, Nepal, Sikkim, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Tibet, and Vietnam-have constructed (or restored) their own temples and monasteries in BodhgayA, each reflecting its national architectural style. In 2002, the MahAbodhi Temple was named a UNESCO World Heritage Site.

BodhnAth Stupa. (T. Bya rung kha shor). The popular Nepali name for a large STuPA situated on the northeast edge of the Kathmandu Valley in Nepal. Venerated by both Newar and Tibetan Buddhists, it has become one of Nepal's most important and active Buddhist pilgrimage sites. The base, arranged on three terraces in a multiangled shape called viMsatikona (lit. "twenty angles"), is more than 260 feet on each side with the upper dome standing some 130 feet high. At the structure's south entrance stands a shrine to the Newar goddess known as Ajima or HARĪTĪ. Together with SVAYAMBHu and NAMO BUDDHA, BodhnAth forms a triad of great stupas often depicted together in Tibetan literature. The stupa's origins are unclear and a variety of competing traditions account for its founding and subsequent development. Most Nepali sources agree that the mahAcaitya was founded through the activities of King MAnadeva I (reigned 464-505), who unwittingly murdered his father but later atoned for his patricide through a great act of contrition. Among Newars, the stupa is commonly known as the KhAsticaitya, literally "the dew-drop CAITYA." This name is said to refer to the period in which King MAnadeva founded the stupa, a time of great drought when cloth would be spread out at night from which the morning dew could be squeezed in order to supply water necessary for the construction. The site is also called KhAsacaitya, after one legend which states that MAnadeva was the reincarnation of a Tibetan teacher called KhAsA; another well-known tradition explains the name as stemming from the buddha KAsYAPA, whose relics are said to be enclosed therein. The major Tibetan account of the stupa's origin is found in a treasure text (GTER MA) said to have been hidden by the Indian sage PADMASAMBHAVA and his Tibetan consort YE SHES MTSHO RGYAL. According to this narrative, the monument was constructed by a widowed poultry keeper. The local nobility grew jealous that such a grand project was being undertaken by a woman of such low status. They petitioned the king, requesting that he bring the construction to a halt. The king, however, refused to intervene and instead granted permission for the work to be completed, from which its Tibetan name Bya rung kha shor (Jarung Kashor, literally "permission to do what is proper") is derived. The stupa was renovated under the guidance of Tibetan lamas on numerous occasions and it eventually came under the custodial care of a familial lineage known as the Chini Lamas. Once surrounded by a small village, since 1959 BodhnAth has become a thriving center for Tibetan refugee culture and the location for dozens of relocated Tibetan monasteries.

Book of the Dead: Any one of a series of ancient Egyptian writings which set forth the substance of the magic, ritual and myths of their respective periods. The “Book” is the total of the inscriptions found on papyrus, tombs, monuments, etc.

Borobudur. [alt. Barabudur]. A massive Indonesian Buddhist monument located in a volcanic area west of Yogyakarta, in the south-central region of the island of Java. Although there are no written records concerning the monument's dating, archaeological and art-historical evidence suggests that construction started around 790 CE during the sailendra dynasty and continued for at least another three-quarters of a century. The derivation of its name remains controversial. The anglicized name Borobudur was given to the site by the colonial governor Sir Thomas Raffles, when Java was under British colonial rule. The name "budur" occurs in an old Javanese text referring to a Buddhist site and Raffles may have added the "boro" to refer to the nearby village of Bore. Borobudur is a pyramid-shaped MAndALA with a large central STuPA, which is surrounded by three concentric circular tiers that include a total of seventy-two individual stupas, and four square terraces, giving the monument the appearance of a towering mountain. The mandala may have been associated with the pilgrimage of the lad SUDHANA described in the GAndAVYuHA (and its embedded version in the "Entering the DharmadhAtu" chapter of the AVATAMSAKASuTRA). This structure is without analogue anywhere else in the Buddhist world, but seems to have influenced Khmer (Cambodian) architectural traditions. The central stupa houses a buddha image, and originally may have also enshrined a relic (sARĪRA). Each of the seventy-two smaller stupas also enshrines an image of a BODHISATTVA, of whom MANJUsRĪ and SAMANTABHADRA are most popular. The walls of Borobudur are carved with some 1,350 bas-reliefs that illustrate tales of the Buddha's past and present lives from the JATAKA and AVADANA literature, as well as events from such texts as the LALITAVISTARA, Gandavyuha, and the BHADRACARĪPRAnIDHANA. There are also niches at the upper parts of the walls that are enshrined with buddha images employing different hand gestures (MUDRA). The three circular tiers of Borobudur are presumed to correspond to the three realms of Buddhist cosmology (TRAIDHATUKA); thus, when pilgrims circumambulated the central stupa, they may have also been traveling symbolically through the sensuous realm (KAMADHATU), the subtle-materiality realm (RuPADHATU) and the immaterial realm (ARuPYADHATU). There are also ten series of bas-reliefs, which suggest that pilgrims making their way through the monument were also ritually reenacting a bodhisattva's progression through the ten stages (DAsABHuMI) of the bodhisattva path (MARGA). The monument is constructed on hilly terrain rather than flat land, and there is also some geological evidence that it may have originally been built on a lakeshore, as if it were a lotus flower floating in a lake. Borobudur is aligned with two other Buddhist temples in the area, Pawon and Mendu, an orientation that may well have had intentional ritual significance. By at least the fifteenth century, Borobudur was abandoned. There are two main theories regarding its fate. Since Borobudur was buried under several layers of volcanic ash at the time of its rediscovery, one theory is that a famine resulting from a volcanic eruption prompted the depopulation of the region and the monument's abandonment. A second explanation is that the rise of Islam hastened the downfall of Buddhism in Java and the neglect of the monument.

cairn ::: n. --> A rounded or conical heap of stones erected by early inhabitants of the British Isles, apparently as a sepulchral monument.
A pile of stones heaped up as a landmark, or to arrest attention, as in surveying, or in leaving traces of an exploring party, etc.


capricorn ::: n. --> The tenth sign of zodiac, into which the sun enters at the winter solstice, about December 21. See Tropic.
A southern constellation, represented on ancient monuments by the figure of a goat, or a figure with its fore part like a fish.


Carnac A village in Brittany celebrated for the enormous number of ancient stone monuments in its vicinity, to be classed with similar monuments found in many parts of the world and with the so-called Dracontia or serpent-mounds. They are records in symbol of the world’s history, designed to be enduring, and in more than one sense actually or mystically the work of giants. “The archaic records show the Initiates of the Second Sub-race of the Aryan family moving from one land to the other for the purpose of supervising the building of menhirs and dolmens, of colossal Zodiacs in stone, and places of sepulchre to serve as receptacles for the ashes of generations to come” (SD 2:750).

cenotaph ::: n. --> An empty tomb or a monument erected in honor of a person who is buried elsewhere.

cenotaphs ::: monuments erected in honour of dead persons whose remains lie elsewhere.

Chaitya (Sanskrit) Caitya [from the verbal root cit to think, perceive] The individual soul; also a funeral monument or memorial, often containing the ashes of the deceased. Sometimes with Buddhists, a sacred building containing a revered image.

Chos kyi 'byung gnas. (Chokyi Jungne) (1700-1774). Tibetan Buddhist scholar recognized as the eighth TAI SI TU incarnation, remembered for his wide learning and his editorial work on the Tibetan Buddhist canon. He traveled extensively throughout his life, maintaining strong relationships with the ruling elite of eastern Tibet and the Newar Buddhists of the Kathmandu Valley. Born in the eastern Tibetan region of SDE DGE, Chos kyi 'byung gnas was recognized as a reincarnate lama (SPRUL SKU) by the eighth ZHWA DMAR, from whom he received his first vows. He would go on to study with KAḤ THOG Rigs 'dzin Tshe dbang nor bu (1698-1755), from whom he learned about GZHAN STONG ("other emptiness"). At the age of twenty-one, he accompanied several important Bka' brgyud hierarchs, the Zhwa dmar and the twelfth KARMA PA, to Kathmandu, a journey that was to have a profound impact on the young Si tu's life. He returned to eastern Tibet in 1724, where he was received favorably by the king of Sde dge, Bstan pa tshe ring (Tenpa Tsering, 1678-1738). Under the latter's patronage, Chos kyi 'byung gnas founded DPAL SPUNGS monastery in 1727, which became the new seat for the Si tu lineage (they are sometimes called the Dpal spungs si tu). Between the years 1731 and 1733, he undertook the monumental task of editing and correcting a new redaction of the BKA' 'GYUR section of the Tibetan Buddhist canon, to be published at the printing house of Sde dge. Although in his day Tibetan knowledge of Indian linguistic traditions had waned, Chos kyi 'byung gnas devoted much of his later life to the study of Sanskrit grammar and literature, which he had first studied with Newar panditas during his time in Kathmandu. He sought out new Sanskrit manuscripts in order to establish more precise translations of Sanskrit works already translated in the Tibetan canon; he is esteemed in Tibet for his knowledge of Sanskrit grammar. In addition to his prolific scholarly work, Chos kyi 'byung gnas was an accomplished painter as well as a gifted physician, much sought after by the aristocracy of eastern Tibet. In 1748, he visited Nepal once again, where he translated the SvayambhupurAna, the legends concerning the SVAYAMBHu STuPA, into Tibetan. He was received amicably by the rulers JayaprakAsamalla (1736-1768) of Kathmandu, Ranajitamalla (1722-1769) of what is now Bhaktapur, and PṛthvīnArAyana sAha, who would unify the Kathmandu Valley under Gorkhali rule several decades later. Chos kyi 'byung gnas' collected writings cover a vast range of subjects including lengthy and detailed diaries and an important history of the KARMA BKA' BRGYUD sect coauthored by his disciple Be lo Tshe dbang kun khyab (Belo Tsewang Kunkyap, b. 1718). He is retrospectively identified as an originator of what would become known as Khams RIS MED movement, which gained momentum in early nineteenth century Sde dge.

cromlech ::: n. --> A monument of rough stones composed of one or more large ones supported in a horizontal position upon others. They are found chiefly in countries inhabited by the ancient Celts, and are of a period anterior to the introduction of Christianity into these countries.

curlew ::: n. --> A wading bird of the genus Numenius, remarkable for its long, slender, curved bill.

deface ::: v. t. --> To destroy or mar the face or external appearance of; to disfigure; to injure, spoil, or mar, by effacing or obliterating important features or portions of; as, to deface a monument; to deface an edifice; to deface writing; to deface a note, deed, or bond; to deface a record.
To destroy; to make null.


Dolmen [from Celtic] A rude stone monument consisting of two or more upright monoliths supporting a capstone. Such monuments are found in various parts of the world, notably in Carnac, Brittany. They are symbolic records of the world’s history, designed to be enduring, the work of giants.

dor.” He appears in Mithraic monuments and is

doughbird ::: n. --> The Eskimo curlew (Numenius borealis). See Curlew.

Easter Island A volcanic island in the South Pacific about 2000 miles west of Chile, celebrated for its mysterious megalithic monuments including many huge platforms (ahus) built of large blocks of basalt so hard that it can scarcely be worked with steel tools. Some of the platforms are made of carefully hewn stones, ten feet long and fitted together with almost invisible joints. Some are drilled with curious round holes. Easter Island is best known for about 550 statues of great but varying size found in different places, mostly facing the ocean, some of which formerly stood on the platforms. Most vary in height from 4 to 32 feet, but the largest one, which still remains unfinished in the quarry measures about 70 feet. They are composed of a friable rock much softer than the platforms, which may well be far older. Their significance and origin are unknown, but they bear the distinct imprint of the Lemuro-Atlantean tradition. Easter Island as land is said to belong to the earliest civilizations of the third root-race, but the island, submerged towards the end of the third root-race, reappeared due to a sudden uplifting of that part of the ocean floor during the Champlain epoch of northern polar submersion (SD 2:327).

efface ::: v. t. --> To cause to disappear (as anything impresses or inscribed upon a surface) by rubbing out, striking out, etc.; to erase; to render illegible or indiscernible; as, to efface the letters on a monument, or the inscription on a coin.
To destroy, as a mental impression; to wear away.


effigy ::: n. --> The image, likeness, or representation of a person, whether a full figure, or a part; an imitative figure; -- commonly applied to sculptured likenesses, as those on monuments, or to those of the heads of princes on coins and medals, sometimes applied to portraits.

E. Landau, Grundlagen der Analysis, Leipzig, 1930. Numinous: A word coined from the Latin "numen" by Rudolf Otto to signify the absolutely unique state of mind of the genuinely religious person who feels or is aware of something mysterious, terrible, awe-inspiring, holy and sacred. This feeling or awareness is a mysterium tremendum, beyond reason, beyond the good or the beautiful. This numinous is an a priori category and is the basis of man's cognition of the Divine. See his book The Idea of the Holy (rev. ed., 1925). -- V.F.

epitaph ::: n. --> An inscription on, or at, a tomb, or a grave, in memory or commendation of the one buried there; a sepulchral inscription.
A brief writing formed as if to be inscribed on a monument, as that concerning Alexander: "Sufficit huic tumulus, cui non sufficeret orbis." ::: v. t.


feroher ::: n. --> A symbol of the solar deity, found on monuments exhumed in Babylon, Nineveh, etc.

greyhound ::: n. --> A slender, graceful breed of dogs, remarkable for keen sight and swiftness. It is one of the oldest varieties known, and is figured on the Egyptian monuments.

Harmachis (Greek) Harmachus (Latin) Heru-khuti (Egyptian) Ḥeru-khuti. Horus of the two horizons, an aspect of the god referring particularly to the sun god Ra. The two horizons represent the day sun and the night sun, or sunrise and sunset. The principal sites of this worship were at Annu (Heliopolis) and Apollonopolis. The largest monument of Heru-khuti is the famous Sphinx near the pyramids of Gizeh. The meanings of Harmachis, the Sphinx, are both numerous and perplexing, but one of the most illuminating is that it was the symbol of the risen god-man, the type-figure of success achieved under the most difficult and trying ordeals of the initiatory cycle.

hearse ::: n. --> A hind in the year of its age.
A framework of wood or metal placed over the coffin or tomb of a deceased person, and covered with a pall; also, a temporary canopy bearing wax lights and set up in a church, under which the coffin was placed during the funeral ceremonies.
A grave, coffin, tomb, or sepulchral monument.
A bier or handbarrow for conveying the dead to the grave.
A carriage specially adapted or used for conveying the dead


Hodgson, Brian Houghton. (1801-1894). An early British scholar of Sanskrit Buddhism. He was born in Derbyshire. At age fifteen, he gained admission to Haileybury, the college that had been established by the East India Company in 1806 to train its future employees. He excelled at Bengali, Persian, Hindi, political economy, and classics. Following the standard curriculum of the company, after two years at Haileybury, he went to the College of Fort William in Calcutta to continue his studies. Once in India, he immediately began to suffer liver problems and was eventually assigned to Kathmandu as Assistant Resident and later Resident to the Court of Nepal. He began his studies of Buddhism at this time (Buddhism, although long dead in India, still flourished in the Newar community of the Kathmandu Valley). Working with the assistance of the distinguished Newar scholar Amṛtānanda, Hodgson published a number of essays on Buddhism in leading journals of the day. However, he is largely remembered for his collection and distribution of Sanskrit manuscripts. In 1824, he began accumulating Buddhist works in Sanskrit (and Tibetan) and dispatching them around the world, beginning with the gift of sixty-six manuscripts to the library of the College of Fort William in 1827 and continuing until 1845: ninety-four to the Library of the Asiatic Society of Bengal, seventy-nine to the Royal Asiatic Society, thirty-six to the India Office Library, seven to the Bodleian, eighty-eight to the Société Asiatique, and later fifty-nine more to Paris. A total of 423 works were provided. The manuscripts sent to Paris drew the immediate attention of EUGÈNE BURNOUF, who used them as the basis for his monumental 1844 Introduction à l'histoire du Buddhisme indien. Hodgson's contributions to the study of Buddhism occurred in the early decades of his career; he later turned his attention to Himalayan natural history and linguistics, where he made important contributions as well.

Hodgson, Shadworth: (1852-1913) English writer who had no profession and who held no public office. He displayed throughout a long life a keen devotion to philosophy. He was among the founders of the Aristotelian Society and served as its president for fourteen years. His earlier work was reshaped in a monumental four volume treatise called The Metaphysic of Experience. He viewed himself as correcting and completing the Kantian position in his comparatively materialistic approach to reality with a recognition of the unseen world prompted by a practical, moral compulsion rather than speculative conviction. -- L.E.D.

However, the ogdoad of the ancients had a special significance, among other things referring to the addition of the linking unit, whether of a superior or inferior hierarchy, to the septenary hierarchy envisioned at the moment. Furthermore, when the seven sacred planets of the ancients were considered in connection with their relations to earth, this conjoining of the eight units was often called an ogdoad. Hinduism takes cognizance of eight great gods, namely, the eight adityas, and on some of the oldest monuments of India, Persia, and Chaldea one may see the eight-pointed or double cross.

imperishable ::: a. --> Not perishable; not subject to decay; indestructible; enduring permanently; as, an imperishable monument; imperishable renown.

In later Persian literature, Jamshid has often been interchangeably taken for King Solomon, while some Islamic scholars consider him identical with Lamech in the Old Testament. Jamshid in Shah-Nameh is the Yima of the Avesta who, as a blessed king, ruled for 700 years over seven keshvars, created civilization, and categorized the people and their tasks into four groups. He built palaces and colossal monuments by channeling the savage powers of demons, discovered the secrets of nature, and cured all maladies. Such innovation and achievements called for festivities and celebration, called the New Age (Nou-Rouz). From then on, this day — which coincides with the entrance of the sun into the sign of Aries; also the day that Gayomarth, the first man, became king of earth — has been celebrated by the Iranians. For 300 years Jamshid gloriously ruled with justice, during which period death, pain, and evil disappeared, until vanity and narcissism blinded him and caused his downfall. Azi-Dahak, who takes over Jamshid’s throne, then appears on the scene by murdering his own father.

inscription ::: a marking, such as the wording on a coin, medal, monument, or seal, that is inscribed. inscriptions.

inscription ::: n. --> The act or process of inscribing.
That which is inscribed; something written or engraved; especially, a word or words written or engraved on a solid substance for preservation or public inspection; as, inscriptions on monuments, pillars, coins, medals, etc.
A line of division or intersection; as, the tendinous inscriptions, or intersections, of a muscle.
An address, consignment, or informal dedication, as of


In seeking to explain the meaning of these records we are faced with the difficulty of interpreting an ancient science into terms of modern ideas. The science of those days was a comprehensive whole, which has become decomposed into sundered fragments, which seem to us, because of having lost the keys to the ancient wisdom which brought about the construction of these noble monuments, to be unrelated to each other. Were the pyramids initiation chambers, records of astronomical data, of mathematical truths, or of standard measurements? They were all of these and more. When the candidate passed through the processes of initiation he enacted in his own person the self-same processes which occur on the cosmic scale, on the principle of the master-key of analogy, the size, shape, and orientation of the passages and chambers signifying at once cosmic and human mysteries.

Jefferson, Thomas: (1743-1826) Third president of the United States. He was the author of the Declaration of Independence, which remains as one of the monuments to his firm faith in democratic principles. His opposition to Hamiltonian centralization of power placed him at one extreme of the arc described by the pendulum of political theory that has swayed through the history of this country. He had firm faith in free speech and education and his life long efforts stand uppermost among those who struggled for tolerance and religious freedom. In addition to politics, he was keenly interested in the science and mathematics of his day. Cf. Writings of T. J., 10 vols. (N. Y. 1892-9), ed. P. L. Ford. -- L.E.D.

Kielce ::: City in southeast Poland. Jews first settled there in 1868, and numbered 24,000 by the year 1939. Most known for its anti-Jewish pogrom on July 4, 1946, when an angry mob, incited by the rumor that Jews (recently returned to their home town) had killed Polish children for their blood, killed 42 Jews and wounded 50 others. The cemetery has a monument to the 42 Jews, another one to 45 very young children murdered in 1944 and a monument made of gravestones.

kistvaen ::: n. --> A Celtic monument, commonly known as a dolmen.

leylines ::: Ley Lines A term coined by archaeologist Alfred Watkins, these are grid patterns formed by drawing connecting lines between ancient standing stones, stone circles, and other ancient monuments, which are said to mark the intersection of natural earthly energy currents. Many claim these areas are associated with increased paranormal activity, or 'gateways' for supernatural beings.

Lithos, Lithoi (Greek) Stone monuments in Egypt, at Carnac in Brittany, and elsewhere, with symbolic markings on them. Those of archaic age were set up by the last subrace of the Lemurians, who lived until late in Atlantean times, and by the late subraces of the Atlanteans as well as by early races of the present fifth root-race.

lotus ::: n. --> A name of several kinds of water lilies; as Nelumbium speciosum, used in religious ceremonies, anciently in Egypt, and to this day in Asia; Nelumbium luteum, the American lotus; and Nymphaea Lotus and N. caerulea, the respectively white-flowered and blue-flowered lotus of modern Egypt, which, with Nelumbium speciosum, are figured on its ancient monuments.
The lotus of the lotuseaters, probably a tree found in Northern Africa, Sicily, Portugal, and Spain (Zizyphus Lotus), the


Mahābodhi Temple. (T. Byang chub chen po; C. Daputisi; J. Daibodaiji; K. Taeborisa 大菩提寺). The "Temple of the Great Awakening"; proper name used to refer to the great STuPA at BODHGAYĀ, marking the place of the Buddha's enlightenment, and hence the most important place of pilgrimage (see MAHĀSTHĀNA) in the Buddhist world. The Emperor AsOKA erected a pillar and shrine at the site in the third century BCE. A more elaborate structure, called the VAJRĀSANA GANDHAKUtĪ ("perfumed chamber of the diamond seat"), is depicted in a relief at Bodhgayā, dating from c. 100 BCE. It shows a two-storied structure supported by pillars, enclosing the BODHI TREE and the vajrāsana, the "diamond seat," where the Buddha sat on the night of his enlightenment. The forerunner of the present structure is described by the Chinese pilgrim XUANZANG. This has led scholars to speculate that the temple was built between the third and sixth centuries CE, with subsequent renovations. Despite various persecutions by Hindu kings, the site continued to receive patronage, especially during the Pāla period, from which many of the surrounding monuments date. The monastery fell into neglect after the Muslim invasions that began in the thirteenth century. British photographs from the nineteenth century show the monastery in ruins. Restoration of the site was ordered by the British governor-general of Bengal in 1880, with a small eleventh-century replica of the monastery serving as a model. There is a tall central tower some 165 feet (fifty meters) in height, with a high arch over the entrance with smaller towers at the four corners. The central tower houses a small shrine with an image of the Buddha. The structure is surrounded by stone railings, some dating from 150 BCE, others from the Gupta period (300-600 CE), which preserve important carvings. The area came under the control of a saiva mahant in the eighteenth century. In the late nineteenth century, the Sinhalese Buddhist activist Anagārika Dharmapāla (see DHARMAPĀLA, ANAGĀRIKA), was part of a group that founded the MAHĀBODHI SOCIETY and began an unsuccessful legal campaign to have control of the site returned to Buddhists. In 1949, after Indian independence, the Bodhgayā Temple Act was passed, which is established a joint committee of four Buddhists and four Hindus to oversee the monastery and its grounds.

Mahāmeghavana. In Pāli, "Great Cloud Grove"; a park in Sri Lanka donated to MAHINDA for use by the sangha (S. SAMGHA) by King DEVĀNAMPIYATISSA. The park was located on the southern outskirts of the Sinhalese capital, ANURĀDHAPURA, and received its name because a cloud appeared and rained upon the spot when the park was first laid out. The Mahāmeghavana was considered especially auspicious because it was said to have been visited by four of the five buddhas of the current auspicious eon (S. BHADRAKALPA; P. bhaddakappa), a fact Mahinda pointed out to the king after the park was donated to the sangha. The Mahameghavana came to be the site of many of the major monuments, shrines, and institutions of Sinhalese Buddhist history. These included the MAHĀVIHĀRA monastery, built for Mahinda, which became headquarters of the THERAVĀDA fraternity; the THuPĀRĀMA monastery, which housed the first STuPA or reliquary mound erected on the island; the southern branch of the BODHI TREE, brought to the island from India by Mahinda's sister, the elder nun SAnGHAMITTĀ; and the MAHĀTHuPA and LOHAPĀSĀDA built by King DUttHAGĀMAnI. Subsequently at the Mahāmeghavana were also built the ABHAYAGIRI monastery by King VAttAGĀMAnI ABHAYA and the JETAVANA monastery by King MAHĀSENA. These two monasteries became headquarters of rival fraternities that seceded from the Mahāvihāra.

Mahāthupa. In Pāli, "great STuPA"; the great reliquary mound built by the Sinhalese king DUttHAGĀMAnĪ in the first century BCE, erected after he had vanquished the Damilas and reunited the island kingdom under his rule. The Mahāthupa was erected in the MAHĀMEGHAVANA grove near ANURĀDHAPURA at a spot visited by all four of the buddhas who had been born thus far in the present auspicious eon (P. bhaddakappa; S. BHADRAKALPA). The monument, which was 120 cubits high and designed in the shape of a water drop, was crowned with a richly adorned relic chamber that housed physical relics (S. sARĪRA) of the Buddha acquired from the NĀGA MAHĀKĀLA. The arahant MAHINDA is said to have once indicated to King DEVĀNAMPIYATISSA the site where the Mahāthupa was to be built. DevānaMpiyatissa wished to construct the shrine himself, but Mahinda informed him that that honor was to go the future king, Dutthagāmanī. To commemorate that prophecy, DevānaMpiyatissa had it inscribed on a pillar at the site. It was the discovery of that pillar that prompted Dutthagāmanī to take up the task. Thousands of saints from various parts of the island and JAMBUDVĪPA (meaning India in this case) gathered at the Mahāmeghavana to celebrate the construction of the Mahāthupa. Dutthagāmanī fell ill and died just before the monument was completed. The royal umbrella was raised above the Mahāthupa by his brother and successor, Saddhatissa.

mandala. (T. dkyil 'khor; C. mantuluo; J. mandara; K. mandara 曼荼羅). In Sanskrit, lit. "circle"; a polysemous term, best known for its usage in tantric Buddhism as a type of "circular diagram." Employed widely throughout South, East, and Central Asia, mandala are highly flexible in form, function, and meaning. The core concept of mandala originates from the Sanskrit meaning "circle," where a boundary is demarcated and increasing significance is accorded to areas closer to the center; the Tibetan translation (dkyil 'khor) "center periphery" emphasizes this general scheme. In certain contexts, mandalas can have the broad sense of referring to circular objects ("mandala of the moon") or a complete collection of constituent parts ("mandala of the universe"). This latter denotation is found in Tibetan Buddhism, where a symbolic representation of the universe is offered to buddhas and bodhisattvas as a means of accumulating merit, especially as a preliminary practice (SNGON 'GRO). Mandalas may have begun as a simple circle drawn on the ground as part of a ritual ceremony, especially for consecration, initiation, or protection. In its developed forms, a mandala is viewed as the residential palace for a primary deity-located at the center-surrounded by an assembly of attendant deities. This portrayal may be considered either a symbolic representation or the actual residence; it may be mentally imagined or physically constructed. The latter constitutes a significant and highly developed contribution to the sacred arts of many Asian cultures. Mandalas are often depicted two dimensionally by a pattern of basic geometric shapes and are most commonly depicted in paint or colored powders. These are thought of almost as architectural floor plans, schematic representations viewed from above of elaborate three-dimensional structures, mapping an ideal cosmos where every element has a symbolic meaning dependent upon the ritual context. Mandalas are occasionally fashioned in three dimensions from bronze or wood, with statues of deities situated in the appropriate locations. When used in a private setting, such as in the Buddhist visualization meditation of deity yoga (DEVATĀYOGA), the practitioner imagines the entire universe as purified and transformed into the transcendent mandala-often identifying himself or herself with the form of the main deity at the center. In other practices, the mandala is visualized within the body, populated by deities at specific locations. In public rituals, including tantric initiations and consecration ceremonies, a central mandala can be used as a common basis for the participation of many individuals, who are said to enter the mandala. The mandala is also understood as a special locus of divine power, worthy of ritual worship and which may confer "blessings" upon devotees. Religious monuments (BOROBUDUR in Java), institutions (BSAM YAS monastery in Tibet), and even geographical locations (WUTAISHAN in China) are often understood as mandalas. Mandalas have also entered the popular vocabulary of the West. Swiss psychologist Carl Jung developed theories of cognition incorporating mandalas as an analytical model. The fourteenth DALAI LAMA has used the KĀLACAKRA mandala as a means of spreading a message of peace throughout the world. See also KONGoKAI; TAIZoKAI.

Mandalay. The last royal capital of the Burmese Konbaung kingdom, prior to the British conquest of Burma (Myanmar). The city is situated on the eastern bank of the Irrawaddy River, twelve miles north of AVA (Inwa) and five miles north of AMARAPURA, both previous capitals of the Konbaung dynasty (1752-1885). Built in 1857 by MINDON MIN (r. 1853-1878) at the base of the eponymous Mandalay Hill, its construction was carried out at the place where the Buddha is said to have made a prophecy that a great Buddhist capital would arise on that spot in the 2,400th year after the parinibbāna. Very similar in plan to Amarapura, Mandalay is laid out in a grid pattern, at the center of which is a royal precinct in the shape of a perfect square surrounded by a wide moat and a brickwork defensive wall. The wall is pierced by twelve gates, three on each side, crowned with multistoried tiered pavilions (B. pyatthat), symbols of royal authority. Broad avenues run perpendicularly from the gates to the center of the royal compound where the palace and ancillary buildings are located. Destroyed during Allied bombing in World War II, these structures have recently been restored. The city's most famous shrine is the MAHĀMUNI pagoda, which houses the colossal bronze Mahāmuni image of Gotama Buddha (see ARAKAN BUDDHA). Originally housed in the palladium of Arakan, the Mahāmuni was seized by King Bodawpaya (r. 1782-1819) when he conquered that kingdom in 1785. As had been the case with the founding of earlier capitals, the construction of Mandalay was regarded as inaugurating a golden age wherein the religion, culture, and political fortunes of the Burmese kingdom would flourish. In connection with the prophecy, in 1868, Mindon Min summoned 2,400 learned monks to the capital from throughout the kingdom to revise the Pāli TIPItAKA in what came to be regarded by the Burmese as the fifth Buddhist council (see COUNCIL, FIFTH). In 1871, the revised Burmese canon was inscribed on 729 stone slabs that were erected, each in its own shrine, in concentric rings around the massive Kuthodaw pagoda (Pagoda of Great Merit). The entire complex occupies fourteen acres and is situated to the northeast of the fortified city at the base of Mandalay Hill. Nearby is the Sandamuni pagoda, constructed along a similar plan, which houses 1,171 slabs on which are inscribed the Pāli commentaries. Another monument constructed for the synod is the Kyauktawgyi pagoda modeled after the ANANDA TEMPLE at PAGAN, which contains a colossal seated statue of the Buddha. Commemorating Mandalay's foundation legend is the Shweyattaw temple, also built by Mindon Min and located halfway up a stairway leading to the top of Mandalay Hill. The structure houses a colossal standing image of the Buddha covered in gold leaf, whose outstretched arm points to the city center, marking the spot where the Buddha delivered his prophecy. In addition to its pagodas and temples, the city boasted numerous monasteries and colleges making it one of the major scholastic centers of the kingdom. Mandalay ceased to be the Burmese capital in 1885 when it fell to British troops at the conclusion of the Third Anglo-Burmese War.

mausolean ::: a. --> Pertaining to a mausoleum; monumental.

mausoleum ::: n. --> A magnificent tomb, or stately sepulchral monument.

Megalithic monuments, more or less similar to Stonehenge, are found widely scattered over the globe, even in the wild Triobrand Islands near New Guinea. To know why such buildings were erected we should need far more knowledge than we have of the actual builders, their ideas and aims, and innumerable other conditions. The subject is connected with what is said about a lost science which could avail itself of the normal latent magical properties of stones.

menhir ::: n. --> A large stone set upright in olden times as a memorial or monument. Many, of unknown date, are found in Brittany and throughout Northern Europe.

Mila 18 ::: The underground bunker from which the battle of the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising was launched, and in which Mordecai Anielewicz was killed. A monument stands today on top of a pile of rubble.

monument ::: 1. A structure, such as a building, pillar, statue or sculpture, erected as a memorial to a person or event, as a building, pillar or statue. 2. Any enduring evidence or notable example of something. 3. An exemplar, model, or personification of some abstract quality. monuments.

monumental ::: 1. Exceptionally great, as in quantity, quality, extent or degree. 2. Impressively large, sturdy and enduring.

monumental ::: a. --> Of, pertaining to, or suitable for, a monument; as, a monumental inscription.
Serving as a monument; memorial; preserving memory.


Monumentality: Artistic character suggesting the sense of grandeur, even though small in size. -- L.V.

monumentally ::: adv. --> By way of memorial.
By means of monuments.


monument in the Protestant Cemetery in Rome.

monument ::: n. --> Something which stands, or remains, to keep in remembrance what is past; a memorial.
A building, pillar, stone, or the like, erected to preserve the remembrance of a person, event, action, etc.; as, the Washington monument; the Bunker Hill monument. Also, a tomb, with memorial inscriptions.
A stone or other permanent object, serving to indicate a limit or to mark a boundary.


Monuments of its own magnificence;

Monuments of unageing intellect.

moniment ::: n. --> Something to preserve memory; a reminder; a monument; hence, a mark; an image; a superscription; a record.

monolith ::: n. --> A single stone, especially one of large size, shaped into a pillar, statue, or monument.

Name ::: “Name in its deeper sense is not the word by which we describe the object, but the total of power, quality, character of the reality which a form of things embodies and which we try to sum up by a designating sound, a knowable name, Nomen. Nomen in this sense, we might say, is Numen; the secret Names of the Gods are their power, quality, character of being caught up by the consciousness and made conceivable. The Infinite is nameless, but in that namelessness all possible names, Numens of the gods, the names and forms of all realities, are already envisaged and prefigured, because they are there latent and inherent in the All-Existence.” The Life Divine

name ::: Sri Aurobindo: "Name in its deeper sense is not the word by which we describe the object, but the total of power, quality, character of the reality which a form of things embodies and which we try to sum up by a designating sound, a knowable name, Nomen. Nomen in this sense, we might say, is Numen; the secret Names of the Gods are their power, quality, character of being caught up by the consciousness and made conceivable. The Infinite is nameless, but in that namelessness all possible names, Numens of the gods, the names and forms of all realities, are already envisaged and prefigured, because they are there latent and inherent in the All-Existence.” The Life Divine

Numen: In the religion of the Romans of antiquity, a divine power or spirit, whose presence was felt as an occult power.

obliterate ::: v. t. --> To erase or blot out; to efface; to render undecipherable, as a writing.
To wear out; to remove or destroy utterly by any means; to render imperceptible; as. to obliterate ideas; to obliterate the monuments of antiquity. ::: a.


Ogam (Ogham) writing: A pre-Christian Celtic “writing” found on numerous stone monuments in Ireland, Scotland and Wales, using an alphabet of twenty letters, each letter consisting of one to five lines or strokes in a certain position. It has been suggested that this writing was invented by the Druids who used it for secret signalling and as magical diagrams. (According to Celtic legends, it was devised by the mythical Celtic chief Ogma.) According to theosophists, Ogam was an early Celtic mystery language (q.v.) and the Druids used the Ogam writing to record messages written in this Ogam language.

Paddamya Taung. A pagoda or JEDI (P. cetī/cetiya; S. CAITYA) located at the northernmost range of the Sagaing Hills along the Irrawaddy (Ayeyarvaddi) River in Upper Burma (Myanmar). Situated on a hill named Mani-kinzana Paddamya, the monument is claimed by local tradition to have been built by the Indian Mauryan emperor AsOKA in 308 BCE, and to contain gems and buddha relics (P. sarīra; S. sARĪRA) that he donated. The pagoda derives its name from the surrounding area, which at one time was rich in rubies (Burmese, paddamya) and medicinal plants. It was restored in 1300 CE, while Sagaing was the capital of the Burmese kingdom, by the monk Thingayaza from Padu Village near the city. An annual festival is held there on the full moon day of the Burmese month of Tawthalin (September-October).

Pagan. (Bagan). Capital of the first Burmese (Myanmar) empire (1044-c. 1287), located near the confluence of the Irrawaddy (Ayeyarwady) and Chindwin rivers in the middle of Burma's dry zone. The center of a classic hydraulic civilization, Pagan supported a large population of peasant farmers, specialized laborers, and religious and political elites through maintenance of elaborate irrigation works in nearby Kyaukse. Also known as Arimaddanapura, or "Crusher of Enemies," Pagan began as a cluster of nineteen villages that coalesced into a fortified city-state by the ninth century. Pagan rose in importance in the vacuum left by the collapse of the Pyu kingdom of srīksetra, which succumbed to military pressure from Nanchao in 832 CE. Invigorated by the cultural and technological advancements brought by Pyu refugees, Pagan emerged as an empire in the eleventh century under the military leadership of King ANAWRAHTA (r. 1044-1077), who united Burma for the first time. His domain extended from the borders of Nanchao in the north to the maritime regions of Bassein, Thaton, and the Tenasserim peninsula in the south. Later chronicles credit Anawrahta with adopting THERAVĀDA Buddhism as the official religion of his empire, a religion he acquired as war booty from his conquest of the Mon kingdom of Thaton. While details of the account are doubtful, Pagan became a stronghold of the Pāli Buddhist tradition, whence it spread to other parts of Southeast Asia. Anawrahta began an extensive program of temple building that lasted till the Mongol invasion of 1287. Pagan's royalty and aristocracy built thousands of pagodas, temples, monasteries, and libraries within the environs of the city, of which 2,217 monuments survive, scattered across an area of approximately forty square miles. Like the Pyu kingdom before it, Pagan received cultural influences from South India, Bengal, and Sri Lanka, all of which are reflected in varying degrees in the city's architecture and plastic arts. Beginning in the twelfth century, Pagan extended patronage to the reformed Sinhalese Theravāda Buddhism imported from Sri Lanka, which flourished alongside the native "unreformed" Burmese Theravāda tradition until the end of the empire. Under later dynasties, reformed Theravāda Buddhism became the dominant religion of Burma, Thailand, Laos, and Cambodia. Theravāda scholarship flourished at Pagan. Major works of the period include the Pāli grammars Saddanīti, Suttaniddesa and Nyāsa, and treatises on ABHIDHAMMA such as Sankhepavannanā, Nāmācāradīpanī, Mātikatthadīpanī, Visuddhimaggaganthi and Abhidhammatthasangahatīkā.

pillar ::: n. --> The general and popular term for a firm, upright, insulated support for a superstructure; a pier, column, or post; also, a column or shaft not supporting a superstructure, as one erected for a monument or an ornament.
Figuratively, that which resembles such a pillar in appearance, character, or office; a supporter or mainstay; as, the Pillars of Hercules; a pillar of the state.
A portable ornamental column, formerly carried before a


pylons ::: monumental gateways in the form of a pair of truncated pyramids serving as entrances to ancient Egyptian temples.

Pyramid The square pyramid as a symbol is an amplification of the triangle: it has lines, triangles, and a square, proceeding from a point downwards or conversely upwards merging into a point at the apex. Thus we have the four numbers of the tetraktys represented by point, line, triangle, and square. Reference is usually to stone monuments, especially those of Egypt and chiefly to the Great Pyramid of Cheops. All these pyramids, whether in Egypt, Central America, or elsewhere, are records constructed by initiates who journeyed to many lands, for the preservation of sacred knowledge through the dark ages, to be available to posterity.

Rohitaka-stupa (Sanskrit) Rohitaka-stūpa [from rohita red + stūpa a conical monument] The red stupa or dagoba built by King Asoka, and on which Maitribala-raja fed starving yakshas with his blood.

sacellum ::: n. --> An unroofed space consecrated to a divinity.
A small monumental chapel in a church.


Sārnāth. The modern place name for a site approximately four miles outside of Vārānasī and the location of the Deer Park (MṚGADĀVA) in ṚsIPATANA where the Buddha is said to have first "turned the wheel of dharma" (DHARMACAKRAPRAVARTANA), viz., delivered his first sermon. Sārnāth is thus considered one of the holiest sites in the Buddhist world and has long been an important place of pilgrimage. Seven weeks after the Buddha became enlightened at BODHGAYĀ, he started out for the Deer Park at Ṛsipatana, where he met and preached to his five former ascetic companions, the PANCAVARGIKA. To these five men, the Buddha preached the FOUR NOBLE TRUTHS (catvāry āryasatyāni). Of the five, the first to become enlightened was ĀJNĀTAKAUndINYA, followed shortly thereafter by the other four. Soon after the Buddha began teaching, a young man named YAsAS arrived from Vārānasī with fifty-four other people, who all asked to be ordained. Later, Emperor AsOKA had a large STuPA and other monuments erected at the spot. When FAXIAN visited Sārnāth during his fifth-century pilgrimage, the site was an active religious center, with two monasteries and four stupas. The monastic community was still thriving during the seventh century when XUANZANG visited. Today, the Dhamek stupa is the major surviving architectural structure, likely the restoration of a stupa dating back to the Asokan period. Ruins of the monastery are also visible, along with an important edict on an Asokan pillar forbidding activities that might cause a schism in the order (SAMGHABHEDA).

sepulchral ::: a. --> Of or pertaining to burial, to the grave, or to monuments erected to the memory of the dead; as, a sepulchral stone; a sepulchral inscription.
Unnaturally low and grave; hollow in tone; -- said of sound, especially of the voice.


Shwedagon. In Burmese, "Golden Dagon"; monumental golden pagoda (B. JEDI; S. STuPA; P. thupa) that dominates the skyline of Rangoon (Yangon), capital of Burma (Myanmar); named after Dagon, the ancient name of Rangoon. According to Burmese and Mon legend, the pagoda was built during the Buddha's lifetime to house eight hair relics given to TRAPUsA and BHALLIKA, two merchants from Ukkala who are said to have been the first disciples of the Buddha. The original account, which appears in the Pāli canon, places Ukkala in what is most likely modern-day ĀNDHRA, on the eastern coast of India. Mon-Burmese recensions of the story locate Ukkala at Dagon, acknowledgement of which is retained in the names Myauk Okkala-pa (North Ukkala) and Daung Okkala-pa (South Ukkala) given to Rangoon's suburbs. The Shwedagon is situated atop a two hundred-foot high hill, whose summit was leveled to create the four-acre plaza or platform that now surrounds the base of the shrine. The pagoda platform is approached by four covered stairways facing the cardinal directions, at the base of which are ornate entrances flanked by colossal Chinthe lions. The pagoda itself was repeatedly expanded and embellished over the centuries, reaching its current height of 326 feet in the fifteenth century. Constructed of brickwork, it is in the classical Burmese pagoda form of an inverted bell rising from an octagonal pyramidal base. These elements support a graceful spire crowned with a hti, or finial umbrella, that is encrusted with diamonds, rubies, pearls, and other gems of inestimable value. The hti also has many wind chimes, which gently tinkle in the constant breeze. The base of the pagoda is more than a quarter-mile in circumference and the entire structure is covered in gold, the accumulated munificence of generations of royal donors. Sixty-four smaller pagodas surround the main structure at its base, and at the four cardinal directions are shrines containing colossal statues of the four buddhas who have appeared in the world during the present fortunate eon (P. bhaddakappa; S. BHADRAKALPA). (See SAPTATATHĀGATA.) At one corner of the platform is a miniature replica of the main shrine, no more than a hundred feet tall. The smaller pagoda is affectionately known as the Shwedagon's older brother, as it was the model upon which the current main pagoda was based. At each corner of the Shwedagon's octagonal base is an alabaster statue of the Buddha dedicated to one of the eight days of the Burmese week (Wednesday being counted as two days), where it is believed to be especially auspicious for people born on those days to pray. A broad circumambulatory walkway paved in white marble rings the Shwedagon, which in turn is flanked with hundreds of lesser shrines dating mostly from the colonial period. Many types of religious piety are performed individually and in groups on the platform of the pagoda, such as the giving of DĀNA, freeing captured animals, processing candidates for the novitiate (B. shin-pyu), sweeping the plaza, lustrating images, reciting PARITTA texts, taking precepts, silent prayer, and meditation (B. taya a-to; P. BHĀVANĀ).

Spencer, Herbert: (1820-1903) was the great English philosopher who devoted a life time to the formulation and execution of a plan to follow the idea of development as a first principle through all the avenues of human thought. A precursor of Darwin with his famous notion of all organic evolution as a change "from homogeneity to heterogenity," from the simple to the complex, he nevertheless was greatly influenced by the Darwinian hypothesis and employed its arguments in his monumental works in biology, psychology, sociology and ethics. He aimed to interpret life, mind and society in terms of matter, motion and force. In politics, he evidenced from his earliest writings a strong bias for individualism. See Evolutionism, Charles Darwin. -- L.E.D.

stela ::: n. --> A small column or pillar, used as a monument, milestone, etc.

Stonehenge The well-known megalithic structure on Salisbury Plain, England, the most wonderful prehistoric relic in that country, now preserved as a national monument. The larger stones are about 18 feet high and weigh about 20 tons apiece. There are two concentric circles; the outer circle, now badly interrupted by breaks and disturbances, being a hundred feet in diameter and consisting of upright stones with horizontal ones across the tops, originally forming a continuous structure. The inner circle has no lintels at present. Within is a horseshoe line of great trilithons and monoliths, and inside that another horseshoe of smaller stones. In the center is a large block called the altar. Outside, facing the altar and the opening of the horseshoes, stand two outer stones, believed by some to mark the place of sunrise at the summer solstice about 1680 BC. Some of the stones, including the altar, were brought from a great distance. Transportation of such heavy stones from such a distance would require great skill and organizing power.

stone ::: n. --> Concreted earthy or mineral matter; also, any particular mass of such matter; as, a house built of stone; the boy threw a stone; pebbles are rounded stones.
A precious stone; a gem.
Something made of stone. Specifically: -
The glass of a mirror; a mirror.
A monument to the dead; a gravestone.
A calculous concretion, especially one in the kidneys or


Stone(s) There is available numerous testimony as to animated stones, speaking stones, etc. There is the Christ-stone, which followed the Israelites; the Jupiter Lapis swallowed by Saturn; the testimony of Pausanias as to the Grecian worship of stones; the Ophites and Siderites, serpent-stones and star-stones, the former being alleged to have the gift of speech; the baituloi or alleged animated stones mentioned by Sanchoniathon and Philo Byblius; the liafail or speaking stone of Westminster; Pliny’s stones which ran away when a hand approached them; the importance attached to stone monuments and rocking stones; etc. (SD 2:341 et seq). Again, we have the vast subject of talismans and of gems with potent properties.

stupa. (P. thupa; T. mchod rten; C. ta; J. to; K. t'ap 塔). In Sanskrit, "reliquary"; a structure, originally in the shape of a hemispherical mound, that contains the relics (sARĪRA) or possessions of the Buddha or a saint, often contained within a reliquary container. In the MAHĀPARINIBBĀNASUTTA, the Buddha says that after he has passed away, his relics should be enshrined in a stupa erected at a crossroads, and that the stupa should be honored with garlands, incense, and sandalwood paste. Because of a dispute among his lay followers after his death, his relics were said to be divided into ten portions and distributed to ten groups or individuals, each of whom constructed a stupa to enshrine their share of the relics in their home region. Two of these sites were the Buddha's home city of KAPILAVASTU, and KUsINAGARĪ, the place of his death, as well as RĀJAGṚHA and VAIsĀLĪ. The original stupas were later said to have been opened and the relics collected by the emperor AsOKA in the third century BCE so that he could subdivide them for a larger number of stupas in order to accumulate merit and protect his realm. Asoka is said to have had eighty-four thousand stupas constructed. The stupa form eventually spread throughout the Buddhist world (and during the twentieth century into the Western hemisphere), with significant variations in architectural form. For example, the dagoba of Sri Lanka and the so-called "PAGODA" (derived from a Portuguese transcription of the Sanskrit BHAGAVAT ["blessed," "fortunate"] or the Persian but kadah ["idol house"]), which are so ubiquitous in East Asia, are styles of stupas. The classical architectural form of the stupa in India consisted of a circular platform surmounted by a hemisphere made of brick within which the relics were enshrined. At the summit of the hemisphere, one or more parasols were affixed. A walking path (see CAnKRAMA) enclosed by a railing was constructed around the stupa, to allow for clockwise circumambulation of the reliquary. Each of these architectural elements would evolve in form and eventually become imbued with rich symbolic meaning as the stupa evolved in India and across Asia. The relics enshrined in the stupa are considered by Buddhists to be living remnants of the Buddha (or the relevant saint) and pilgrimage to, and worship of, stupas has long been an important type of Buddhist practice. For all Buddhist schools, the stupa became a reference point denoting the Buddha's presence in the landscape. Although early texts and archeological records link stupa worship with the Buddha's life and especially the key sites in his career, stupas are also found at places that were sacred for other reasons, often through an association with a local deity. Stupas were constructed for past buddhas and for prominent disciples (sRĀVAKA) of the Buddha. Indeed, stupas dedicated to disciples of the Buddha may have been especially popular because the monastic rules stipulate that donations to such stupas became the property of the monastery, whereas donations to stupas of the Buddha remained the property of the Buddha, who continued to function as a legal resident of most monasteries. By the seventh century, the practice of enshrining the physical relics of the Buddha ceases to appear in the Indian archeological record. Instead, one finds stupas filled with small clay tablets that have been stamped or engraved with a four-line verse (often known by its first two words YE DHARMĀ) that was regarded as conveying the essence of the Buddha's teaching: "For those factors that are produced through causes, the TATHĀGATA has set forth their causes (HETU) and also their cessation (NIRODHA). Thus has spoken the great renunciant." For the MAHĀYĀNA, the stupa conveyed a variety of meanings, such as the Buddha's immortality and buddhahood's omnipresence, and served a variety of functions, such as a site of textual revelation and a center guaranteeing rebirth in a PURE LAND. Stupas were also pivotal in the social history of Buddhism: these monuments became magnets attracting monastery building and votive construction, as well as local ritual traditions and regional pilgrimage. The economics of Buddhist devotion at these sites generated income for local monasteries, artisans, and merchants. The great stupa complexes (which often included monasteries with endowed lands, a pilgrimage center, a market, and support from the state) were essential sites for the Buddhist polities of Asia. See CAITYA and entries for specific stupas, including FAMENSI, RATNAGIRI, SĀNCĪ, SHWEDAGON, SVAYAMBHu/SVAYAMBHuNĀTH, THIÊN MỤ TỰ, THuPĀRĀMA.

Stupa (Sanskrit) Stūpa A conical monument, sometimes domed, in India and Ceylon, erected over relics of the Buddha, of arhats, or other great men.

Swam-oo Ponnya-shin Pagoda. A gilded pagoda (Burmese, JEDI) located at the center of the Sagaing range of hills in Upper Burma (Myanmar). It is situated atop a prominence known as Dhammika Taung, or the "Hill of the Practitioners," because it has always been surrounded by monasteries suitable for study and meditation. The pagoda was built in 1332 by a royal minister named Ponnya (meaning "Brāhmana") shortly after Sagaing was made the Burmese capital. The minister had neglected to seek the king's permission prior to the monument's construction, and because its foundation buried two earlier pagodas, the king ordered the minister to be drowned. At the last moment the execution order was rescinded, for which reason the pagoda received the name, "Ponnya-shin," meaning, "Ponnya lives." Ponnya made it a practice of donating his first offering of alms during the period of the Buddhist rains retreat (VARsĀ) at this pagoda. For this reason it also became known as "Swam-oo," or "First alms-offering." To the present day, people pray at this pagoda to ward off any prospect of sudden death, and in Sagaing it is customary to make one's first donation of alms at the beginning of the Buddhist rains retreat season at this pagoda.

Takakusu Junjiro. (高楠順次郎) (1866-1945). One of the leading Japanese scholars of Indian Buddhism of the early twentieth century, who played a leading role in establishing Japan as a major center of scholarship in Buddhist Studies. He was born, surnamed Sawai, in today's Hiroshima prefecture. He was raised in a JoDO SHINSHu family belonging to the NISHI HONGANJIHA, and he remained a devout layman throughout his life. After primary school, he studied at the leading Jodo Shinshu educational institution, today's Ryukoku University, from 1885 to 1889, during which time, through Jodo Shinshu connections, he was adopted into the Takakusu merchant house of Kobe. With the support of his adoptive father, he spent the period from 1890 to 1897 in Europe. Through the introduction of the Jodo Shinshu cleric NANJo BUN'Yu, Takakusu was able to study Indology under FRIEDRICH MAX MÜLLER at Oxford University, receiving a B.A. in 1894 and an M.A. in 1896. While at Oxford, he assisted Müller with the Sacred Books of the East project. The final volume of the series, entitled Buddhist Mahāyāna Texts (1894), included the VAJRACCHEDIKĀPRAJNĀPĀRAMITĀSuTRA, the PRAJNĀPĀRAMITĀHṚDAYA, and the three PURE LAND sutras, all Indian works (or at least so regarded at the time) but selected because of their importance for Japanese Buddhism. Müller's choice of these texts was influenced by Takakusu and Nanjo Bun'yu. The works in Buddhist Mahāyāna Texts were translated by Müller, with the exception of the GUAN WULIANGSHOU JING, which was translated by Takakusu. Takakusu also studied in Paris with SYLVAIN LÉVI, with whom he would later collaborate on the Hobogirin Buddhist encyclopedia project. He returned to Japan in 1897 to lecture in Indian philosophy at Tokyo Imperial University, where he served as professor from 1899 to 1927, being appointed to the chair of Sanskrit studies in 1901. He was a devoted supporter of Esperanto and in 1906 was a founding member of the Japanese Esperantists Association. He supervised and contributed substantially to three monumental publishing projects: (1) the Upanishaddo zensho, a Japanese translation of the Upanisads (1922-1924); (2) the TAISHo SHINSHu DAIZoKYo, a modern typeset edition of the East Asian Buddhist canon (see DAZANGJING) (1922-1934); and (3) the Kokuyaku nanden daizokyo, a Japanese translation of the Pāli canon of what he called "Southern Buddhism" (1936-1941). For his work on editing the Taisho canon, he was awarded the Prix Stanislas Julien in Sinology from the Institut de France in 1929. Among his English-language publications, he is known especially for A Record of the Buddhist Religion as Practised in India and the Malay Archipelago (1896), which is his translation of YIJING's pilgrimage record (NANHAI JIGUI NEIFA ZHUAN), and Essentials of Buddhist Philosophy (1947). He died in Shizuoka Prefecture, outside Tokyo.

TeX ::: (publication) /tekh/ An extremely powerful macro-based text formatter written by Donald Knuth, very popular in academia, especially in the computer-science community (it is good enough to have displaced Unix troff, the other favoured formatter, even at many Unix installations).The first version of TeX was written in the programming language SAIL, to run on a PDP-10 under Stanford's WAITS operating system.Knuth began TeX because he had become annoyed at the declining quality of the typesetting in volumes I-III of his monumental Art of Computer Programming grand hackish projects have started as a bit of toolsmithing on the way to something else; Knuth's diversion was simply on a grander scale than most.Guy Steele happened to be at Stanford during the summer of 1978, when Knuth was developing his first version of TeX. When he returned to MIT that fall, he rewrote TeX's I/O to run under ITS.TeX has also been a noteworthy example of free, shared, but high-quality software. Knuth offers monetary awards to people who find and report a bug in so full of cutting edge technique) that it is said to have unearthed at least one bug in every Pascal system it has been compiled with.TeX fans insist on the correct (guttural) pronunciation, and the correct spelling (all caps, squished together, with the E depressed below the baseline; user), TeXhacker (TeX programmer), TeXmaster (competent TeX programmer), TeXhax, and TeXnique.Several document processing systems are based on TeX, notably LaTeX Lamport TeX - incorporates document styles for books, letters, slides, etc., jadeTeX uses for bibliographies (distributed with LaTeX), PDFTeX modifies TeX to produce PDF and Omega extends TeX to use the Unicode character set.For some reason, TeX uses its own variant of the point, the TeX point.See also Comprehensive TeX Archive Network. .E-mail: (TeX User's group, Oregon, USA).(2002-03-11)

TeX "publication" /tekh/ An extremely powerful {macro}-based text formatter written by {Donald Knuth}, very popular in academia, especially in the computer-science community (it is good enough to have displaced {Unix} {troff}, the other favoured formatter, even at many {Unix} installations). The first version of TeX was written in the programming language {SAIL}, to run on a {PDP-10} under Stanford's {WAITS} {operating system}. Knuth began TeX because he had become annoyed at the declining quality of the typesetting in volumes I-III of his monumental "Art of Computer Programming" (see {Knuth}, also {bible}). In a manifestation of the typical hackish urge to solve the problem at hand once and for all, he began to design his own typesetting language. He thought he would finish it on his sabbatical in 1978; he was wrong by only about 8 years. The language was finally frozen around 1985, but volume IV of "The Art of Computer Programming" has yet to appear as of mid-1997. (However, the third edition of volumes I and II have come out). The impact and influence of TeX's design has been such that nobody minds this very much. Many grand hackish projects have started as a bit of {toolsmithing} on the way to something else; Knuth's diversion was simply on a grander scale than most. {Guy Steele} happened to be at Stanford during the summer of 1978, when Knuth was developing his first version of TeX. When he returned to {MIT} that fall, he rewrote TeX's {I/O} to run under {ITS}. TeX has also been a noteworthy example of free, shared, but high-quality software. Knuth offers monetary awards to people who find and report a bug in it: for each bug the award is doubled. (This has not made Knuth poor, however, as there have been very few bugs and in any case a cheque proving that the owner found a bug in TeX is rarely cashed). Though well-written, TeX is so large (and so full of cutting edge technique) that it is said to have unearthed at least one bug in every {Pascal} system it has been compiled with. TeX fans insist on the correct (guttural) pronunciation, and the correct spelling (all caps, squished together, with the E depressed below the baseline; the mixed-case "TeX" is considered an acceptable {kluge} on {ASCII}-only devices). Fans like to proliferate names from the word "TeX" - such as TeXnician (TeX user), TeXhacker (TeX programmer), TeXmaster (competent TeX programmer), TeXhax, and TeXnique. Several document processing systems are based on TeX, notably {LaTeX} Lamport TeX - incorporates document styles for books, letters, slides, etc., {jadeTeX} uses TeX as a backend for printing from {James' DSSSL Engine}, and {Texinfo}, the {GNU} document processing system. Numerous extensions to TeX exist, among them {BibTeX} for bibliographies (distributed with LaTeX), {PDFTeX} modifies TeX to produce {PDF} and {Omega} extends TeX to use the {Unicode} character set. For some reason, TeX uses its own variant of the {point}, the {TeX point}. See also {Comprehensive TeX Archive Network}. {(ftp://labrea.stanford.edu/tex/)}. E-mail: "tug@tug.org" (TeX User's group, Oregon, USA). (2002-03-11)

The scientific study of primitive leligions, with such well known names as E. B. Tylor, F. B. Jevons, W. H. R. Rivers, J. G. Frazer, R. H. Codrington, Spencer and Gillen, E. Westermarck, E. Durkheim, L. Levy-Bruhl; the numerous outlines of the development of religion since Hume's Natural History of Religion and E. Caird's Evolution of Religion; the prolific literature dealing with individual religions of a higher type, the science of comparative religion with such namea as that of L. H. Jordan, the many excellent treitises on the psychology of religion including Wm. James' Varieties of Religious Experience; the sacred literature of all peoples in various editions together with a voluminous theological exegesis, Church history and, finally, the history of dogma, especially the monumental work of von Harnack, -- all are contributing illustrative material to the Philosophy of Religion which became stimulated to scientific efforts through the positivism of Spencer, Huxley, Lewes, Tyndall, and others, and is still largely oriented by the progress in science, as may be seen, e.g., by the work of Emile Boutroux, S. Alexander (Space, Time and Deity), and A. N. Whitehead.

“The star worshipped in Egypt and reverenced by the Occultists; by the former because its heliacal rising with the Sun was a sign of the beneficent inundation of the Nile, and by the latter because it is mysteriously associated with Thoth-Hermes, god of wisdom, and Mercury, in another form. Thus Sothis-Sirius had, and still has, a mystic and direct influence over the whole living heaven, and is connected with almost every god and goddess. It was ‘Isis in the heaven’ and called Isis-Sothis, for Isis was ‘in the constellation of the dog,’ as is declared on her monuments. ‘The soul of Osiris was believed to reside in a personage who walks with great steps in front of sothis, sceptre in hand and a whip upon his shoulder.’ Sirius is also Anubis, and is directly connected with the ring ‘Pass me not’; it is, moreover, identical with Mithra, the Persian Mystery god, and with Horus and even Hathor, called sometimes the goddess Sothis. Being connected with the Pyramid, Sirius was, therefore, connected with the initiations which took place in it. A temple to Sirius-Sothis once existed within the great temple of Denderah. To sum up, all religions are not, as Dufeu, the French Egyptologist, sought to prove, derived from Sirius, the god-star, but Sirius-Sothis is certainly found in connection with every religion of antiquity” (TG 300).

  “Thoth remains changeless from the first to the last Dynasty. . . . the celestial scribe, who records the thoughts, words and deeds of men and weighs them in the balance, liken him to the type of the esoteric Lipikas. His name is one of the first that appears on the oldest monuments. He is the lunar god of the first dynasties, the master of Cynocephalus — the dog-headed ape who stood in Egypt as a living symbol and remembrance of the Third Root-Race” (TG 331).

Tiahuanaco A region near the southern shore of Lake Titicaca on the borders of Peru and Bolivia, the site of cyclopean ruins of vast edifices whose age is unknown. The lake is 12,500 feet above sea level, and owing to its altitude the district is capable of sustaining only a scanty population, yet it was evidently the seat of a great civilization in prehistoric times when the climate appears to have been far milder. Within a comparatively recent period, geologically speaking, the Andes have risen to their present height. Opinions are sharply divided as to the age of the monuments, ten to fifty thousand years having been suggested. Blavatsky inclines to a greater age, suggesting that these remarkable works were erected by people of Lemurian stock, but who actually then were of Atlantean racial connection, and who had inherited at least fragments of the pre-Atlantean-Lemurian tradition. Three main types of pre-Inca constructions exist: the buildings made of enormous polygonal stones, the Tiahuanaco style, and the pre-Inca roads and aqueducts. Markham, in The Incas of Peru, speaking of Tiahuanaco, writes: “The city covered a large area, built by highly skilled masons, and with the use of enormous stones. One 36 ft. by 7 ft. weighs 170 tons, another is 26 ft. by 16 by 6. Apart from the monoliths of ancient Egypt, there is nothing to equal this in any other part of the world . . . The point next in interest to the enormous size of the stones is the excellence of the workmanship. The lines are accurately straight, the angles correctly drawn, the surfaces true planes . . . Not less striking are the statues with heads adorned with curiously shaped head-dresses . . . There is ample proof of the very advanced stage reached by the builders in architectural art.”

tomb ::: n. --> A pit in which the dead body of a human being is deposited; a grave; a sepulcher.
A house or vault, formed wholly or partly in the earth, with walls and a roof, for the reception of the dead.
A monument erected to inclose the body and preserve the name and memory of the dead. ::: v. t.


tope ::: n. --> A moundlike Buddhist sepulcher, or memorial monument, often erected over a Buddhist relic.
A grove or clump of trees; as, a toddy tope.
A small shark or dogfish (Galeorhinus, / Galeus, galeus), native of Europe, but found also on the coasts of California and Tasmania; -- called also toper, oil shark, miller&


trilithon ::: n. --> A monument consisting of three stones; especially, such a monument forming a kind of doorway, as among the ancient Celts.

vandalism ::: n. --> The spirit or conduct of the Vandals; ferocious cruelty; hostility to the arts and literature, or willful destruction or defacement of their monuments.

vandal ::: n. --> One of a Teutonic race, formerly dwelling on the south shore of the Baltic, the most barbarous and fierce of the northern nations that plundered Rome in the 5th century, notorious for destroying the monuments of art and literature.
Hence, one who willfully destroys or defaces any work of art or literature. ::: a.


weikza. [alt. weikza-do]. In Burmese, a "wizard," deriving from the Pāli vijjādhara (S. VIDYĀDHARA). In Burmese popular religion, the weikza is portrayed as a powerful thaumaturge possessed of extraordinarily long life, whose abilities derive from a mastery of tranquillity meditation (P. samatha; S. sAMATHA) and a variety of occult sciences such as alchemy (B. ekiya), incantations (P. manta; S. MANTRA), and runes (B. ing, aing). Collectively, these disciplines are called weikza-lam or "the path of the wizard." Training in this path is esoteric, requiring initiation by a master (B. saya), and votaries typically are organized into semisecret societies called weikza-gaing (P. vijjāgana). Although concerned with the acquisition of supernatural powers and an invulnerable body, these attributes are ultimately dedicated to the altruistic purpose of assisting good people in times of need and protecting the Buddha's religion from evil forces. In this regard, weikza practitioners often act as healers and exorcists, and in the modern era weikza-sayas with large followings are among the country's notables, who have built monumental pagodas and restored national shrines. The perfected weikza has the ability to live until the advent of the future buddha Metteya (S. MAITREYA), at which time he can choose to pass into nibbāna (S. NIRVĀnA) as an enlightened disciple (P. sāvaka arahant; S. sRĀVAKA ARHAT), vow to become himself a solitary buddha (P. paccekabuddha; S. PRATYEKABUDDHA) or a perfect buddha (P. sammāsambuddha; S. SAMYAKSAMBUDDHA), or simply continue living as a weikza. Weikza practitioners typically eschew the practice of insight meditation (P. VIPASSANĀ; S. VIPAsYANĀ) on the grounds that this might cause them to attain nibbāna too quickly. Although largely domesticated to the prevailing worldview of Burmese THERAVĀDA orthodoxy, weikza practice and orientation ultimately derive from outside the Pāli textual tradition and show striking similarities to the Buddhist MAHĀSIDDHA tradition of medieval Bengal.

"When we see with the inner vision and sense and not with the physical eye a tree or other object, what we become aware of is an infinite one Reality constituting the tree or object, pervading its every atom and molecule, forming them out of itself, building the whole nature, process of becoming, operation of indwelling energy; all of these are itself, are this infinite, this Reality: we see it extending indivisibly and uniting all objects so that none is really separate from it or quite separate from other objects. ‘It stands," says the Gita, ‘undivided in beings and yet as if divided." Thus each object is that Infinite and one in essential being with all other objects that are also forms and names, — powers, numens, — of the Infinite.” The Life Divine

“When we see with the inner vision and sense and not with the physical eye a tree or other object, what we become aware of is an infinite one Reality constituting the tree or object, pervading its every atom and molecule, forming them out of itself, building the whole nature, process of becoming, operation of indwelling energy; all of these are itself, are this infinite, this Reality: we see it extending indivisibly and uniting all objects so that none is really separate from it or quite separate from other objects. ‘It stands,’ says the Gita, ‘undivided in beings and yet as if divided.’ Thus each object is that Infinite and one in essential being with all other objects that are also forms and names,—powers, numens,—of the Infinite.” The Life Divine

whimbrel ::: n. --> Any one of several species of small curlews, especially the European species (Numenius phaeopus), called also Jack curlew, half curlew, stone curlew, and tang whaup. See Illustration in Appendix.

Wooden tablets with elaborate inscriptions were in the possession of the natives when the island was discovered, and a few still exist, but these unquestionably, when compared with the megalithic monuments, are of very recent fabrication. Somewhat similar but syllabic inscriptions are found at Oleai in the Caroline Islands, but nowhere else in the Pacific. The Easter Island script curiously resembles that on the seals discovered at Mohenjo-Daro on the Indus River, India, cities which flourished more than 5000 years ago; but neither script has yet been deciphered.

Yogavasistha: A monumental work on Vedanta.



QUOTES [1 / 1 - 13 / 13]


KEYS (10k)

   1 Austin Osman Spare

NEW FULL DB (2.4M)

   4 R J Palacio

1:Darken your room, shut the door, empty your mind. Yet you are still in great company - the Numen and your Genius with all their media, and your host of elementals and ghosts of your dead loves - are there! They need no light by which to see, no words to speak, no motive to enact except through your own purely formed desire. ~ Austin Osman Spare, The Logomachy of Zos,

*** WISDOM TROVE ***

*** NEWFULLDB 2.4M ***

1:Otto contends that the presence of the powerful and overwhelming numen is primary, and this causes us to react to it with a sense of reverence, humility, and creatureliness.17 ~ Robert J Spitzer,
2:Otto concurs with James that the numen appears as an objective presence, and that it is distinguishable from every other object we experience, because it is more deep and more general (all-encompassing) than all other objects. ~ Robert J Spitzer,
3:The nod of a head is such a small thing, it can mean so little, yet it is the gesture of assent that allows, that makes to be. The nod is the gesture of power, the yes. The numen, the presence of the sacred, is called by its name ~ Ursula K Le Guin,
4:The nod of a head is such a small thing, it can mean so little, yet it is the gesture of assent that allows, that makes to be. The nod is the gesture of power, the yes. The numen. the presence of the sacred, is called by its name. ~ Ursula K Le Guin,
5:The primitive man experiences “soul,” first in other men and then in himself, as a Numen, just as he knows numina of the outer world, and develops his impressions in mythological form. His words for these things are symbols, sounds, not descriptive of the indescribable but indicative of it for him who hath ears to hear. ~ Oswald Spengler,
6:Darken your room, shut the door, empty your mind. Yet you are still in great company - the Numen and your Genius with all their media, and your host of elementals and ghosts of your dead loves — are there! They need no light by which to see, no words to speak, no motive to enact except through your own purely formed desire. ~ Austin Osman Spare,
7:Darken your room, shut the door, empty your mind. Yet you are still in great company - the Numen and your Genius with all their media, and your host of elementals and ghosts of your dead loves - are there! They need no light by which to see, no words to speak, no motive to enact except through your own purely formed desire. ~ Austin Osman Spare, The Logomachy of Zos,
8:It is arguable that when Humanists, "Shook off," as people say, "the trammels of religion," and discovered things of this world as objects of veneration in their own right... they began to lose the finer appreciation of even the world itself. Thus to the Christian centuries, the flesh was holy (or sacer at least in one sense or the other), and they veiled its awful majesty; to the Humanist centuries it was divine in its own right, and they exhibited it. Now it is the commonplace of the magazine cover. It has lost its numen. So too with the cult of knowledge for its own sake declining from the Revival of Learning to the Brains Trust. ~ Dorothy L Sayers,
9:The horsewife! The very basebone of the American plethora! The horsewife! Without whom the entire structure of civilian life would crumble! Without the horsewife, the whole raison d'être of our existences would be reduced, in a twinkling, to that brute level of brutality for which we so rightly reproach the filthy animals. Were it not for her enormous purchasing power and the heedless gaiety with which it is exercised, we would still be going around dressed in skins probably, with no big ticket items to fill the empty voids, in our homes and in our hearts. The horsewife! Nut and numen of our intersubjectivity. The horsewife! The chiefest ornament on the golden tree of human suffering! ~ Donald Barthelme,
10:What, actually, does it mean to be a tragic figure firmly in the grip of one's daimon? It means to possess great talent, to relentlessly pursue the expression of that talent through the unswerving affirmation of the causa-sui project that alone gives it birth and form. One is consumed by what he must do to express his gift. The passion of his character becomes inseparable from his dogma. Jung says the same thing beautifully when he concludes that Freud "must himself be so profoundly affected by the power of Eros that he actually wished to elevate it into a dogma...like a religious numen."
Eros is precisely the natural energy of the child's organism that will not let him rest, that keeps propelling him forward in a driven way while he fashions the lie of his character-which ironically permits that very drivenness to continue, but now under the illusion of self-control. ~ Ernest Becker,
11:E tenebris tantis tam clarum extollere lumen
qui primus potuisti inlustrans commoda vitae,
te sequor, o Graiae gentis decus, inque tuis nunc
ficta pedum pono pressis vestigia signis,
non ita certandi cupidus quam propter amorem
quod te imitari aveo; quid enim contendat hirundo
cycnis, aut quid nam tremulis facere artubus haedi
consimile in cursu possint et fortis equi vis?
tu, pater, es rerum inventor, tu patria nobis
suppeditas praecepta, tuisque ex, inclute, chartis,
floriferis ut apes in saltibus omnia libant,
omnia nos itidem depascimur aurea dicta,
aurea, perpetua semper dignissima vita.
nam simul ac ratio tua coepit vociferari
naturam rerum divina mente coorta
diffugiunt animi terrores, moenia mundi
discedunt. totum video per inane geri res.
apparet divum numen sedesque quietae,
quas neque concutiunt venti nec nubila nimbis
aspergunt neque nix acri concreta pruina
cana cadens violat semper[que] innubilus aether
integit et large diffuso lumine ridet:
omnia suppeditat porro natura neque ulla
res animi pacem delibat tempore in ullo. ~ Lucretius,
12:The true type of the Superman is, rather, Olympian: a calm greatness which expresses an irresistible superiority, something which terrifies and at the same time compels veneration, which prevails and disarms without fighting, establishing suddenly the feeling of a transcendent force, completely under control but totally capable of release, the wonderful and frightening sense which antiquity associated which the concept of the numen. Supra-life — that is, spirit, totally realised in its supernatural aspect — which permeates and governs absolutely everything which is ‘life’, is the substance here. But this type, the true Superman, cannot be treated merely as a construction of the thought of today. There is no great tradition of antiquity, whether of the East or of the West, which did not possess it. The tradition of the ‘divine right’ of the legitimate Kings, because they were the virile bearers of a force from above, is its last echo. To conceive the sudden re-emergence of this ancient conception, in a world where every great horizon was dead, where, to serve as immediate ideological substance for its incarnation, there were only the profane and opaque myths of evolutionism and natural selection, and a confused need for force and liberation — to conceive this is also to understand the invisible genesis of the theory of the Nietzschean Superman, its limit, and the path which can lead beyond it. ~ Julius Evola,
13:A Treatise On Poetry: Iv Natura
Pennsylvania, 1948-1949
The garden of Nature opens.
The grass at the threshold is green.
And an almond tree begins to bloom.
Sunt mihi Dei Acherontis propitii!
Valeat numen triplex Jehovae!
Ignis, aeris, aquae, terrae spiritus,
Salvete!—says the entering guest.
Ariel lives in the palace of an apple tree,
But will not appear, vibrating like a wasp’s wing,
And Mephistopheles, disguised as an abbot
Of the Dominicans or the Franciscans,
Will not descend from a mulberry bush
Onto a pentagram drawn in the black loam of the path.
But a rhododendron walks among the rocks
Shod in leathery leaves and ringing a pink bell.
A hummingbird, a child’s top in the air,
Hovers in one spot, the beating heart of motion.
Impaled on the nail of a black thorn, a grasshopper
Leaks brown fluid from its twitching snout.
And what can he do, the phantom-in-chief,
As he’s been called, more than a magician,
The Socrates of snails, as he’s been called,
Musician of pears, arbiter of orioles, man?
In sculptures and canvases our individuality
Manages to survive. In Nature it perishes.
Let him accompany the coffin of the woodsman
Pushed from a cliff by a mountain demon,
The he-goat with its jutting curl of horn.
Let him visit the graveyard of the whalers
Who drove spears into the flesh of leviathan
And looked for the secret in guts and blubber.
The thrashing subsided, quieted to waves.
Let him unroll the textbooks of alchemists
14
Who almost found the cipher, thus the scepter.
Then passed away without hands, eyes, or elixir.
Here there is sun. And whoever, as a child,
Believed he could break the repeatable pattern
Of things, if only he understood the pattern,
Is cast down, rots in the skin of others,
Looks with wonder at the colors of the butterfly,
Inexpressible wonder, formless, hostile to art.
To keep the oars from squeaking in their locks,
He binds them with a handkerchief. The dark
Had rushed east from the Rocky Mountains
And settled in the forests of the continent:
Sky full of embers reflected in a cloud,
Flight of herons, trees above a marsh,
The dry stalks in water, livid, black. My boat
Divides the aerial utopias of the mosquitoes
Which rebuild their glowing castles instantly.
A water lily sinks, fizzing, under the boat’s bow.
Now it is night only. The water is ash-gray.
Play, music, but inaudibly! I wait an hour
In the silence, senses tuned to a beaver’s lodge.
Then suddenly, a crease in the water, a beast’s
black moon, rounded, ploughing up quickly
from the pond-dark, from the bubbling methanes.
I am not immaterial and never will be.
My scent in the air, my animal smell,
Spreads, rainbow-like, scares the beaver:
A sudden splat.
I remained where I was
In the high, soft coffer of the night’s velvet,
Mastering what had come to my senses:
How the four-toed paws worked, how the hair
Shook off water in the muddy tunnel.
It does not know time, hasn’t heard of death,
Is submitted to me because I know I’ll die.
15
I remember everything. That wedding in Basel,
A touch to the strings of a viola and fruit
In silver bowls. As was the custom in Savoy,
An overturned cup for three pairs of lips,
And the wine spilled. The flames of the candles
Wavery and frail in a breeze from the Rhine.
Her fingers, bones shining through the skin,
Felt out the hooks and clasps of the silk
And the dress opened like a nutshell,
Fell from the turned graininess of the belly.
A chain for the neck rustled without epoch,
In pits where the arms of various creeds
Mingle with bird cries and the red hair of caesars.
Perhaps this is only my own love speaking
Beyond the seventh river. Grit of subjectivity,
Obsession, bar the way to it.
Until a window shutter, dogs in the cold garden,
The whistle of a train, an owl in the firs
Are spared the distortions of memory.
And the grass says: how it was I don’t know.
Splash of a beaver in the American night.
The memory grows larger than my life.
A tin plate, dropped on the irregular red bricks
Of a floor, rattles tinnily forever.
Belinda of the big foot, Julia, Thaïs,
The tufts of their sex shadowed by ribbon.
Peace to the princesses under the tamarisks.
Desert winds beat against their painted eyelids.
Before the body was wrapped in bandelettes,
Before wheat fell asleep in the tomb,
Before stone fell silent, and there was only pity.
Yesterday a snake crossed the road at dusk.
Crushed by a tire, it writhed on the asphalt.
16
We are both the snake and the wheel.
There are two dimensions. Here is the unattainable
Truth of being, here, at the edge of lasting
and not lasting. Where the parallel lines intersect,
Time lifted above time by time.
Before the butterfly and its color, he, numb,
Formless, feels his fear, he, unattainable.
For what is a butterfly without Julia and Thaïs?
And what is Julia without a butterfly’s down
In her eyes, her hair, the smooth grain of her belly?
The kingdom, you say. We do not belong to it,
And still, in the same instant, we belong.
For how long will a nonsensical Poland
Where poets write of their emotions as if
They had a contract of limited liability
Suffice? I want not poetry, but a new diction,
Because only it might allow us to express
A new tenderness and save us from a law
That is not our law, from necessity
Which is not ours, even if we take its name.
From broken armor, from eyes stricken
By the command of time and taken back
Into the jurisdiction of mold and fermentation,
We draw our hope. Yes, to gather in an image
The furriness of the beaver, the smell of rushes,
And the wrinkles of a hand holding a pitcher
From which wine trickles. Why cry out
That a sense of history destroys our substance
If it, precisely, is offered to our powers,
A muse of our gray-haired father, Herodotus,
As our arm and our instrument, though
It is not easy to use it, to strengthen it
So that, like a plumb with a pure gold center,
It will serve again to rescue human beings.
With such reflections I pushed a rowboat,
In the middle of the continent, through tangled stalks,
17
In my mind an image of the waves of two oceans
And the slow rocking of a guard-ship’s lantern.
Aware that at this moment I—and not only I—
Keep, as in a seed, the unnamed future.
And then a rhythmic appeal composed itself,
Alien to the moth with its whirring of silk:
O City, O Society, O Capital,
We have seen your steaming entrails.
You will no longer be what you have been.
Your songs no longer gratify our hearts.
Steel, cement, lime, law, ordinance,
We have worshipped you too long,
You were for us a goal and a defense,
Ours was your glory and your shame.
And where was the covenant broken?
Was it in the fires of war, the incandescent sky?
Or at twilight, as the towers fly past, when one looked
From the train across a desert of tracks
To a window out past the maneuvering locomotives
Where a girl examines her narrow, moody face
In a mirror and ties a ribbon to her hair
Pierced by the sparks of curling papers?
Those walls of yours are shadows of walls,
And your light disappeared forever.
Not the world's monument anymore, an oeuvre of your own
Stands beneath the sun in an altered space.
From stucco and mirrors, glass and paintings,
Tearing aside curtains of silver and cotton,
Comes man, naked and mortal,
Ready for truth, for speech, for wings.
18
Lament, Republic! Fall to your knees!
The loudspeaker’s spell is discontinued.
Listen! You can hear the clocks ticking.
Your death approaches by his hand.
An oar over my shoulder, I walked from the woods.
A porcupine scolded from the fork of a tree,
A horned owl, not changed by the century,
Not changed by place or time, looked down.
Bubo maximus, from the work of Linnaeus.
America for me has the pelt of a raccoon,
Its eyes are a raccoon’s black binoculars.
A chipmunk flickers in a litter of dry bark
Where ivy and vines tangle in the red soil
At the roots of an arcade of tulip trees.
America’s wings are the color of a cardinal,
Its beak is half-open and a mockingbird trills
From a leafy bush in the sweat-bath of the air.
Its line is the wavy body of a water moccasin
Crossing a river with a grass-like motion,
A rattlesnake, a rubble of dots and speckles,
Coiling under the bloom of a yucca plant.
America is for me the illustrated version
Of childhood tales about the heart of tanglewood,
Told in the evening to the spinning wheel’s hum.
And a violin, shivvying up a square dance,
Plays the fiddles of Lithuania or Flanders.
My dancing partner’s name is Birute Swenson.
She married a Swede, but was born in Kaunas.
Then from the night window a moth flies in
As big as the joined palms of the hands,
With a hue like the transparency of emeralds.
Why not establish a home in the neon heat
Of Nature? Is it not enough, the labor of autumn,
19
Of winter and spring and withering summer?
You will hear not one word spoken of the court
of Sigismund Augustus on the banks of the Delaware River.
The Dismissal of the Greek Envoys is not needed.
Herodotus will repose on his shelf, uncut.
And the rose only, a sexual symbol,
Symbol of love and superterrestrial beauty,
Will open a chasm deeper than your knowledge.
About it we find a song in a dream:
Inside the rose
Are houses of gold,
black isobars, streams of cold.
Dawn touches her finger to the edge of the Alps
And evening streams down to the bays of the sea.
If anyone dies inside the rose,
They carry him down the purple-red road
In a procession of clocks all wrapped in folds.
They light up the petals of grottoes with torches.
They bury him there where color begins,
At the source of the sighing,
Inside the rose.
Let names of months mean only what they mean.
Let the Aurora’s cannons be heard in none
Of them, or the tread of young rebels marching.
We might, at best, keep some kind of souvenir,
Preserved like a fan in a garret. Why not
Sit down at a rough country table and compose
An ode in the old manner, as in the old times
Chasing a beetle with the nib of our pen?
~ Czeslaw Milosz,

IN CHAPTERS [25/25]



   8 Philosophy
   8 Christianity
   7 Psychology
   6 Occultism
   1 Integral Yoga


   9 Carl Jung
   8 Plotinus
   7 Sri Aurobindo


   4 Plotinus - Complete Works Vol 01
   4 Mysterium Coniunctionis
   2 The Synthesis Of Yoga
   2 The Life Divine
   2 The Archetypes and the Collective Unconscious
   2 Plotinus - Complete Works Vol 02
   2 Aion


1.01 - Archetypes of the Collective Unconscious, #The Archetypes and the Collective Unconscious, #Carl Jung, #Psychology
  is not ourselves. It hints at an unseen presence, a numen to
  which neither human expectations nor the machinations of the

1.05 - Christ, A Symbol of the Self, #Aion, #Carl Jung, #Psychology
  Irenaeus (Adv. haer, I, 2, 2ff.) Horos (boundary) is a "power" or numen iden-
  tical with Christ, or at least proceeding from him. It has the following synonyms:

1.06 - Man in the Universe, #The Life Divine, #Sri Aurobindo, #Integral Yoga
  11:To the Life-Spirit, therefore, the individual in whom its potentialities centre is pre-eminently Man, the Purusha. It is the Son of Man who is supremely capable of incarnating God. This Man is the Manu, the thinker, the Manomaya Purusha, mental person or soul in mind of the ancient sages. No mere superior mammal is he, but a conceptive soul basing itself on the animal body in Matter. He is conscious Name or numen accepting and utilising form as a medium through which Person can deal with substance. The animal life emerging out of Matter is only the inferior term of his existence. The life of thought, feeling, will, conscious impulsion, that which we name in its totality Mind, that which strives to seize upon Matter and its vital energies and subject them to the law of its own progressive transformation, is the middle term in which he takes his effectual station. But there is equally a supreme term which Mind in man searches after so that having found he may affirm it in his mental and bodily existence. This practical affirmation of something essentially superior to his present self is the basis of the divine life in the human being.
  12:Awakened to a profounder self-knowledge than his first mental idea of himself, Man begins to conceive some formula and to perceive some appearance of the thing that he has to affirm. But it appears to him as if poised between two negations of itself. If, beyond his present attainment, he perceives or is touched by the power, light, bliss of a self-conscious infinite existence and translates his thought or his experience of it into terms convenient for his mentality, - Infinity, Omniscience, Omnipotence, Immortality, Freedom, Love, Beatitude, God, - yet does this sun of his seeing appear to shine between a double Night, - a darkness below, a mightier darkness beyond. For when he strives to know it utterly, it seems to pass into something which neither any one of these terms nor the sum of them can at all represent. His mind at last negates God for a Beyond, or at least it seems to find God transcending Himself, denying Himself to the conception. Here also, in the world, in himself, and around himself, he is met always by the opposites of his affirmation. Death is ever with him, limitation invests his being and his experience, error, inconscience, weakness, inertia, grief, pain, evil are constant oppressors of his effort. Here also he is driven to deny God, or at least the Divine seems to negate or to hide itself in some appearance or outcome which is other than its true and eternal reality.

1.11 - The Master of the Work, #The Synthesis Of Yoga, #Sri Aurobindo, #Integral Yoga
     This perception, this sense of a greater Power in us or above and moving us, is not a hallucination or a megalomania. Those who thus feel and see have a larger sight than ordinary men and have advanced a step beyond the limited physical intelligence, but theirs is riot the plenary vision or the direct experience. For, because they are not clear in mind and aware in the soul, because their awakening is more in the vital parts than into the spiritual substance of Self, they cannot be the conscious instruments of the Divine or come face to face with the Master, but are used through their fallible arid imperfect nature. The most they see of the Divinity is a Fate or a cosmic Force or else they give his name to a limited Godhead or, worse, to a titanic or demoniac Power that veils him. Even certain religious founders have erected the image of the God of a sect or a national God or a Power of terror and punishment or a numen of sattwic love and mercy and virtue and seem not to have seen the One and Eternal. The Divine accepts the image they make of him and does his work in them through that medium, but, since the one Force is felt and acts in their imperfect nature but more intensely than in others, the motive principle of egoism too can be more intense in them than in others. An exalted rajasic or sattwic ego still holds them and stands between them and the integral Truth. Even this is something, a beginning, although far from the true and perfect experience. A much worse thing may befall those who break something of the human bonds but have not purity and have not -- the knowledge, for they may become instruments, but not of the Divine; too often, using his name, they serve unconsciously his masks and black Contraries, the Powers of Darkness. Our nature must house the cosmic Force but not in its lower aspect or in its rajasic or sattwic movement; it must serve the universal Will, but in the light of a greater liberating knowledge. There must be no egoism of any kind in the attitude of the instrument, even when we are fully conscious of the greatness of the Force within us. Every man is knowingly or unknowingly the instrument of a universal Power and, apart from the inner Presence, there is no such essential difference between one action and another, one kind of instrumentation and another as would warrant the folly of an egoistic pride. The difference between knowledge and ignorance is a grace of the Spirit; the breath of divine Power blows where it lists and fills today one and tomorrow another with the word or the puissance. If the potter shapes one pot more perfectly than another, the merit lies not in the vessel but the maker. The attitude of our mind must not be "This is my strength" or "Behold God's power in me", but rather "A Divine Power works in this mind and body and it is the same that works in all men and in the animal, in the plant and in the metal, in conscious and living things and in things appearing to be inconscient arid inanimate." This large view of the One working in all and of the whole world as the equal instrument of a divine action and gradual self-expression, if it becomes our entire experience, will help to eliminate all rajasic egoism out of us and even the sattwic ego-sense will begin to pass away from our nature.
     The elimination of this form of ego leads straight towards the true instrumental action which Is the essence of a perfect Karmayoga. For while we cherish the instrumental ego, we may pretend to ourselves that we are conscious instruments of the Divine, but in reality we are trying to make of the Divine shakti an instrument of our own desires or our egoistic purpose. And even if the ego is subjected but not eliminated, we may indeed be engines of the divine Work, but we shall be imperfect tools and deflect or impair the working by our mental errors, our vital distortions or the obstinate incapacities of our physical nature. If this ego disappears, then we can truly become, not only pure instruments consciously consenting to every turn of the divine Hand that moves us, but aware of our true nature, conscious portions of the one Eternal and Infinite put out in herself for her works by the supreme shakti.

1.1.2 - Commentary, #Kena and Other Upanishads, #Sri Aurobindo, #Integral Yoga
  is the highest possible Name or numen on this planet; he is the
  realised terrestrial godhead.

1.14 - The Structure and Dynamics of the Self, #Aion, #Carl Jung, #Psychology
  as a vegetation numen, calls forth the "blessed greenness," all
  the budding and blossoming of plant life. 74 Indeed, this serpent

2.02 - Brahman, Purusha, Ishwara - Maya, Prakriti, Shakti, #The Life Divine, #Sri Aurobindo, #Integral Yoga
  Our conception of the Infinite is formlessness, but everywhere we see form and forms surrounding us and it can be and is affirmed of the Divine Being that he is at once Form and the Formless. For here too the apparent contradiction does not correspond to a real opposition; the Formless is not a negation of the power of formation, but the condition for the Infinite's free formation: for otherwise there would be a single Form or only a fixity or sum of possible forms in a finite universe. The formlessness is the character of the spiritual essence, the spirit-substance of the Reality; all finite realities are powers, forms, self-shapings of that substance: the Divine is formless and nameless, but by that very reason capable of manifesting all possible names and shapes of being. Forms are manifestations, not arbitrary inventions out of nothing; for line and colour, mass and design which are the essentials of form carry always in them a significance, are, it might be said, secret values and significances of an unseen reality made visible; it is for that reason that figure, line, hue, mass, composition can embody what would be otherwise unseen, can convey what would be otherwise occult to the sense. Form may be said to be the innate body, the inevitable self-revelation of the formless, and this is true not only of external shapes, but of the unseen formations of mind and life which we seize only by our thought and those sensible forms of which only the subtle grasp of the inner consciousness can become aware. Name in its deeper sense is not the word by which we describe the object, but the total of power, quality, character of the reality which a form of things embodies and which we try to sum up by a designating sound, a knowable name, Nomen. Nomen in this sense, we might say, is numen; the secret Names of the Gods are their power, quality, character of being caught up by the consciousness and made conceivable. The Infinite is nameless, but in that namelessness all possible names, numens of the gods, the names and forms of all realities, are already envisaged and prefigured, because they are there latent and inherent in the All-Existence.
  It becomes clear from these considerations that the coexistence of the Infinite and the finite, which is the very nature of universal being, is not a juxtaposition or mutual inclusion of two opposites, but as natural and inevitable as the relation of the principle of Light and Fire with the suns. The finite is a frontal aspect and a self-determination of the Infinite; no finite can exist in itself and by itself, it exists by the Infinite and because it is of one essence with the Infinite. For by the Infinite we do not mean solely an illimitable self-extension in Space and Time, but something that is also spaceless and timeless, a selfexistent Indefinable and Illimitable which can express itself in the infinitesimal as well as in the vast, in a second of time, in a point of space, in a passing circumstance. The finite is looked upon as a division of the Indivisible, but there is no such thing: for this division is only apparent; there is a demarcation, but no real separation is possible. When we see with the inner vision and sense and not with the physical eye a tree or other object, what we become aware of is an infinite one Reality constituting the tree or object, pervading its every atom and molecule, forming them out of itself, building the whole nature, process of becoming, operation of indwelling energy; all of these are itself, are this infinite, this Reality: we see it extending indivisibly and uniting all objects so that none is really separate from it or quite separate from other objects. "It stands" says the Gita "undivided in beings and yet as if divided." Thus each object is that Infinite and one in essential being with all other objects that are also forms and names - powers, numens - of the Infinite.
  This incoercible unity in all divisions and diversities is the mathematics of the Infinite, indicated in a verse of the Upanishads - "This is the complete and That is the complete; subtract the complete from the complete, the complete is the remainder."

2.03 - THE ENIGMA OF BOLOGNA, #Mysterium Coniunctionis, #Carl Jung, #Psychology
  [73] As a further contri bution he quotes an Italian poem about a great oak, representing, he says, the world of the elements, planted as it were in a heavenly garden, where Sun and Moon are spread out like two flowers.182 This allusion to the world-oak of Pherecydes leads us straight to the sun-and-moon tree of alchemy, to the red and white lily,183 the red slave and the white woman (or white dove),184 and the four-hued blossoms of the Tree in the Western Land.185 Reusners Pandora portrays the tree as a torch-bearing woman, its top sprouting out of her crowned head.186 Here the tree is personified by its feminine numen.
  [74] Aldrovanduss interpretation is essentially alchemical, as we can see from the treatise of Bernardus Trevisanus (Count of the March and Trevis, 140690).187 He tells the parable188 of an adept who finds a clear spring set about with the finest stone and secured to the trunk of an oak-tree, the whole surrounded by a wall. This is the Kings bath in which he seeks renewal. An old man, Hermes the mystagogue, explains how the King had this bath built: he placed in it an old oak, cloven in the midst.189 The fountain was surrounded by a thick wall, and first it was enclosed in hard, bright stone, then in a hollow oak.190
  [75] The point of the parable, evidently, is to bring the oak into connection with the bath. Usually this is the nuptial bath of the royal pair. But here the Queen is missing, for it is only the King who is renewed. This unusual version191 of the motif suggest that the oak, as the feminine numen, has taken the place of the Queen. If this assumption is correct, it is particularly significant that the oak is first said to be cloven and later to be hollow. Now it seems to be the upright trunk or stock of the fountain,192 now a living tree casting a shadow, now the trough of the fountain. This ambiguity refers to the different aspects of the tree: as the stock, the oak is the source of the fountain, so to speak; as the trough it is the vessel, and as the protecting tree it is the mother.193 From ancient times the tree was mans birthplace;194 it is therefore a source of life. The alchemists called both the vessel and the bath the womb.195 The cloven or hollow trunk bears out this interpretation.196 The Kings bath is itself a matrix, the tree serving as an attri bute of the latter. Often, as in the Ripley Scrowle,197 the tree stands in the nuptial bath, either as a pillar or directly as a tree in whose branches the numen appears in the shape of a mermaid (= anima) with a snakes tail.198 The analogy with the Tree of Knowledge is obvious.199 The Dodonian oak was the abode of an oracle, the anima here playing the role of prophetess.200 The snake-like Mercurius appears as a tree numen in Grimms fairytale of The Spirit in the Bottle.201
  [76] The tree has a remarkable relation to the old man in the Turba:
  --
  [78] The Latin translation serpent for witch is connected with the widespread primitive idea that the spirits of the dead are snakes. This fits in with the offering of goats blood, since the sacrifice of black animals to the chthonic numina was quite customary. In the Arabic text the witches refer to the female demons of the desert, the jinn. The grave-haunting numen is likewise a widespread idea that has lingered on into Christian legend. I have even met it in the dream of a twenty-two-year-old theological student, and I give this dream again so that those of my readers who are familiar with the language of dreams will be able to see the full scope of the problem we are discussing.216
  [79] The dreamer was standing in the presence of a handsome old man dressed entirely in black. He knew it was the white magician. This personage had just addressed him at considerable length, but the dreamer could no longer remember what it was about. He recalled only the closing words: And for this we need the help of the black magician. At that moment the door opened and in came another old man exactly like the first, except that he was dressed in white. He said to the white magician, I need your advice, but threw a sidelong, questioning glance at the dreamer, whereupon the white magician answered: You can speak freely, he is an innocent. The white-clad black magician then related his story. He had come from a distant land where something extraordinary had happened. The country was ruled by an old king who felt his death near and had therefore sought out a worthy tomb for himself. There were in that land a great number of tombs from ancient times, and the king had chosen the finest for himself. According to legend, it was the tomb of a virgin who had died long ago. The king caused it to be opened, in order to get it ready for use. But when the bones were exposed to the light of day they suddenly took on life and changed into a black horse, which galloped away into the desert. The black magician had heard this story and immediately set forth in pursuit of the horse. After a journey of many days through the desert he reached the grasslands on the other side. There he met the horse grazing, and there also he came upon the find on account of which he now needed the advice of the white magician. For he had found the lost keys of paradise, and he did not know what to do with them. Here the dream ended.

2.05 - The Divine Truth and Way, #Essays On The Gita, #Sri Aurobindo, #Integral Yoga
  But since all the Divine is within each being, we can rise above this relation by transcending the ignorance. For we can identify ourselves with the one Self supporter of all things and become the witness and non-doer. Or else we can put our individual being into the human soul's right relation with the supreme Godhead within us and make it in its parts of nature the immediate cause and instrument, nimitta, and in its spiritual self and person a high participant in the supreme, free and unattached mastery of that inner numen. This is a thing we have to see clearly in
  318

3.02 - King and Queen, #The Practice of Psycho therapy, #Carl Jung, #Psychology
  anima from the numen of the goddess. In the shape of the goddess the
  anima is manifestly projected, but in her proper (psychological) shape she
  --
  there. It was really a question of a transference of numen the converse of
  that from the king to the god. The numen seemed to have migrated in somemysterious way from the world of the spirit to the realm of matter. But the
  descent of the projection into matter had led some of the old alchemists,
  --
  as a whole experienced the numen of the psychological factor on so vast a
  scale. In one sense this is a catastrophe and a retrogression without
  --
  sphere but lately visited by the numen, where the whole weight of
  mankinds problems has settled. The ultimate questions of psycho therapy

3.03 - SULPHUR, #Mysterium Coniunctionis, #Carl Jung, #Psychology
  [150] So, although the alchemists failed to discover the hidden structure of matter, they did discover that of the psyche, even if they were scarcely conscious of what this discovery meant. Their naive Christ-lapis parallel is at once a symbolization of the chemical arcanum and of the figure of Christ. The identification or paralleling of Christ with a chemical factor, which was in essence a pure projection from the unconscious, has a reactive effect on the interpretation of the Redeemer. For if A (Christ) = B (lapis), and B = C (an unconscious content), then A = C. Such conclusions need not be drawn consciously in order to be made effective. Given the initial impulse, as provided for instance by the Christ-lapis parallel, the conclusion will draw itself even though it does not reach consciousness, and it will remain the unspoken, spiritual property of the school of thought that first hit upon the equation. Not only that, it will be handed down to the heirs of that school as an integral part of their mental equipment, in this case the natural scientists. The equation had the effect of channelling the religious numen into physical nature and ultimately into matter itself, which in its turn had the chance to become a self-subsistent metaphysical principle. In following up their basic thoughts the alchemists, as I have shown in Psychology and Alchemy, logically opposed to the son of the spirit a son of the earth and of the stars (or metals), and to the Son of Man or filius microcosmi a filius macrocosmi, thus unwittingly revealing that in alchemy there was an autonomous principle which, while it did not replace the spirit, nevertheless existed in its own right. Although the alchemists were more or less aware that their insights and truths were of divine origin, they knew they were not sacred revelations but were vouchsafed by individual inspiration or by the lumen naturae, the sapientia Dei hidden in nature. The autonomy of their insights showed itself in the emancipation of science from the domination of faith. Human intolerance and shortsightedness are to blame for the open conflict that ultimately broke out between faith and knowledge. Conflict or comparison between incommensurables is impossible. The only possible attitude is one of mutual toleration, for neither can deprive the other of its validity. Existing religious beliefs have, besides their supernatural foundation, a basis in psychological facts whose existence is as valid as those of the empirical sciences. If this is not understood on one side or the other it makes no difference to the facts, for these exist whether man understands them or not, and whoever does not have the facts on his side will sooner or later have to pay the price.
  [151] With this I would like to conclude my remarks on sulphur. This arcane substance has provided occasion for some general reflections, which are not altogether fortuitous in that sulphur represents the active substance of the sun or, in psychological language, the motive factor in consciousness: on the one hand the will, which can best be regarded as a dynamism subordinated to consciousness, and on the other hand compulsion, an involuntary motivation or impulse ranging from mere interest to possession proper. The unconscious dynamism would correspond to sulphur, for compulsion is the great mystery of human life. It is the thwarting of our conscious will and of our reason by an inflammable element within us, appearing now as a consuming fire and now as life-giving warmth.

3.04 - LUNA, #Mysterium Coniunctionis, #Carl Jung, #Psychology
  [193] The fountain of Bernardus Trevisanus is the bath of renewal that was mentioned earlier. The ever-flowing fountain expresses a continual flow of interest toward the unconscious, a kind of constant attention or religio, which might also be called devotion. The crossing of unconscious contents into consciousness is thus made considerably easier, and this is bound to benefit the psychic balance in the long run. Diana as the numen and nymph of this spring is an excellent formulation of the figure we know as the anima. If attention is directed to the unconscious, the unconscious will yield up its contents, and these in turn will fructify the conscious like a fountain of living water. For consciousness is just as arid as the unconscious if the two halves of our psychic life are separated.
  Hic fur est nequam arsenicali malignitate armatus, quem juvenis alatus horret et fugit.

3.05 - SAL, #Mysterium Coniunctionis, #Carl Jung, #Psychology
  Only in 1950, after the teaching authority in the Church had long deferred it, and almost a century after the declaration of the dogma of the Immaculate Conception, did the Pope, moved by a growing wave of popular petitions,386 feel compelled to declare the Assumption as a revealed truth. All the evidence shows that the dogmatization was motivated chiefly by the religious need of the Catholic masses. Behind this stands the archetypal numen of feminine deity,387 who, at the Council of Ephesus in 431, imperiously announced her claim to the title of Theotokos (God-bearer), as distinct from that of a mere Anthropotokos (man-bearer) accorded to her by the Nestorian rationalists.
  [238] The taking up of the body had long been emphasized as an historical and material event, and the alchemists could therefore make use of the representations of the Assumption in describing the glorification of matter in the opus. The illustration of this process in Reusners Pandora388 shows, underneath the coronation scene, a kind of shield between the emblems of Matthew and Luke, on which is depicted the extraction of Mercurius from the prima materia. The extracted spirit appears in monstrous form: the head is surrounded by a halo, and reminds us of the traditional head of Christ, but the arms are snakes and the lower half of the body resembles a stylized fishs tail.389 This is without doubt the anima mundi who has been freed from the shackles of matter, the filius macrocosmi or Mercurius-Anthropos, who, because of his double nature, is not only spiritual and physical but unites in himself the morally highest and lowest.390 The illustration in Pandora points to the great secret which the alchemists dimly felt was implicit in the Assumption. The proverbial darkness of sublunary matter has always been associated with the prince of this world, the devil. He is the metaphysical figure who is excluded from the Trinity but who, as the counterpart of Christ, is the sine qua non of the drama of redemption.391 His equivalent in alchemy is the dark side of Mercurius duplex and, as we saw, the active sulphur. He also conceals himself in the poisonous dragon, the preliminary, chthonic form of the lapis aethereus. To the natural philosophers of the Middle Ages, and to Dorn in particular, it was perfectly clear that the triad must be complemented by a fourth, as the lapis had always been regarded as a quaternity of elements. It did not disturb them that this would necessarily involve the evil spirit. On the contrary, the dismemberment and self-devouring of the dragon probably seemed to them a commendable operation. Dorn, however, saw in the quaternity the absolute opposite of the Trinity, namely the female principle, which seemed to him of the devil, for which reason he called the devil the four-horned serpent. This insight must have given him a glimpse into the core of the problem.392 In his refutation he identified woman with the devil because of the number two, which is characteristic of both. The devil, he thought, was the binarius itself, since it was created on the second day of Creation, on Monday, the day of the moon, on which God failed to express his pleasure, this being the day of doubt and separation.393 Dorn puts into words what is merely hinted at in the Pandora illustration.

3.7.1.07 - Involution and Evolution, #Essays In Philosophy And Yoga, #Sri Aurobindo, #Integral Yoga
  And the interest of the question becomes acute, its importance incalculable when we come to the still unexplained phenomenon of life and mind. Is life a creation out of inanimate substance or the appearance of a new, a suddenly or slowly resultant power out of the brute material energy, and is conscious mind a creation out of inconscient or subconscient life, or do these powers and godheads appear because they were always there though in a shrouded and by us unrecognizable condition of their hidden or suppressed idea and activity, Nomen and numen? And what
  320

3 - Commentaries and Annotated Translations, #Hymns to the Mystic Fire, #Sri Aurobindo, #Integral Yoga
  & numen, & carries in itself the swabhava of the thing, its nature
  or self-being and prakriti or natural working; as soon as thing

5 - The Phenomenology of the Spirit in Fairytales, #The Archetypes and the Collective Unconscious, #Carl Jung, #Psychology
  the Forest is here a vegetation or tree numen who reigns in the
  woods and, through the nixies, also has connections with water,
  --
  supra-individual factor the numen of the hunter is a dominant
  of the collective unconscious, and its characteristic features-

ENNEAD 02.09 - Against the Gnostics; or, That the Creator and the World are Not Evil., #Plotinus - Complete Works Vol 02, #Plotinus, #Christianity
  4 As wastage, see 6.4, 10; as numenius might have said in 12, 22.
  5 As said numenius fr. 46.
  6 See Plato's Timaeus 37.
  --
  49 Notice this numenian name for the divinity used at the beginning of the Escoreal numenius fragment.
  50 See iii. 8.9.
  --
  121 As said numenius, fr. 32.
  122 As did Discord, in Homer's Iliad, iv. 443.
  --
  129 As numenius said, fr. 26.3.
  130 In his Timaeus, 35.
  131 As said numenius, fr. 32.
  132 See Aristotle, Plato's Critias, numenius, 32, and Proclus.
  133 As thought Aristotle, de Anima, ii. 1.4.
  --
  152 As numenius said, fr. 32.
  153 Another reading is: "All perceptions belong to forms which can reduce to all things." But this does not connect with the next sentence.
  --
  177 This book sounds more numenian or Amelian, than the former three, which seem to have been written to answer questions of Porphyry's.
  178 See section 17.
  --
  191 This sounds as if it were a quotation from numenius, though it does not appear in the latter's fragments.
  192 See i. 8.2.
  --
  215 Phaedrus, Cary, 59, 62; numenius, 32.
  216 See ii. 2.1.
  --
  223 Such as numenius fr. 20.
  224 Pun on "agalmata," which has already done duty for "statues" and "forms."
  --
  243 See Life of Plotinos, 18. Notice how well the chronological order works out. The former book (31) and the next (33) treat of the Gnostics, while this book treats of the philosophical principle of their practical aspect. Besides, it explains the Amelio-Porphyrian quarrel. Like all other difficulties of the time, it was about Gnosticism, and Amelius's dismissal meant that Plotinos rejected Egyptian Gnosticism, and numenius's true position as a dualist stands revealed; but after Porphyry's departure, Plotinos harked back to it.
  244 We see here an assertion of the standpoint later asserted by Berkeley, Kant and Hegel that the mind cannot go outside itself, and that consequently it is the measure of all things. Kant's "thing-in-itself," a deduction from this, was already discovered by Plotinos in the result of the "bastard reasoning" process, which Hegel called "dialectic."
  --
  254 Who is the Unity; a numenian conception, fr. 36.
  255 A term reminiscent of the famous Christian Nicene formulation.
  256 That is we will form a "pair." numenius, 14, also taught the Pythagorean "pair or doubleness."
  257 See vi. 6.16.
  --
  266 See numenius, 67, 42.
  267 See ii. 9.1; iii. 9.9.
  268 Such as numenius, 42, and Plutarch, de Isis et Osiris, Fr. Tr. 381.
  269 From "a-polus."
  --
  281 By distinguishing within each of them potentiality and actualization, numenius, 25, multiplied them.
  282 Nous, and Logos or Achamoth; see ii. 9.6.
  --
  314 Plotinos had done so himself (Intelligence, and the intelligible world); numenius (25) also did so.
  315 See iv. 3.8, 15.
  --
  385 This was evidently a rebuke to Amelius, for his faithfulness to numenius; and it is at this time that Amelius left Plotinos.
  386 This may refer to numenius's views, see fr. 27 b. 10.
  387 Compare numenius, fr. 61, 62a.
  Transcriber's Notes

ENNEAD 03.01 - Concerning Fate., #Plotinus - Complete Works Vol 01, #Plotinus, #Christianity
  As the first book seemed Platonic, and the second numenian, so this third one seems called forth by the practical opposition of astrologers or Gnostics. Later in life, his thirty-third book, ii. 9, was to take up again this polemic in more extended form. This chronologic arrangement of Plotinos's first three books reveals his three chief sources of interestdevotion to Plato, reliance on numenius, and opposition to the Gnostics and astrologers.
  100

ENNEAD 03.06 - Of the Impassibility of Incorporeal Entities (Soul and and Matter)., #Plotinus - Complete Works Vol 02, #Plotinus, #Christianity
  INTRODUCTION TO THE ESCOREAL numenIAN FRAGMENT.
  6. We have sufficiently demonstrated the impassibility of intelligible "being" which is entirely comprised within the genus of form. But as matter also, though in another manner, is an incorporeal entity, we must examine its nature also. We must see whether it may be affected, and undergo every kind of modification, as is the common opinion; or whether, on the contrary, it be impassible; and in this case, what is the nature of its impassibility.

ENNEAD 03.07 - Of Time and Eternity., #Plotinus - Complete Works Vol 03, #Plotinus, #Christianity
  11 Possibly a reference to numenius' book thereon.
  12 Aristotle, Met. i. 5; Jamblichus, de Vita. Pyth. 28.150; and 29.162; found in their oath; also numenius, 60.
  13 See vi. 2.7.
  --
  31 The numenian secret name of the divinity, fr. 20.
  32 Met. xiii. 7.
  --
  63 As said numenius, 44.
  64 See vi. 7. This is another proof of the chronological order, as vi. 7 follows this book.
  --
  163 numenius, fr. 32.
  164 See numenius, fr. 48.
  165 Banquet, p. 211, Cary, 35.
  --
  181 This Stoic term had already been noticed and ridiculed by numenius, 2.8, 13; 3.4, 5; Guthrie, numenius, p. 141. He taught that it was a casual consequence of the synthetic power of the soul (52). Its relation to free-will and responsibility, here considered, had been with numenius the foundation of the ridicule heaped on Lacydes.
  182 Nic. Eth. x. 8.
  --
  190 numenius, 32.
  191 See vi. 7.2.
  --
  199 As said Plato in the Timaeus, p. 42; Cary, 18; see numenius, 10, 32.
  200 In this book Plotinos uses synonymously the "Heaven," the "World," the "Universal Organism or Animal," the "All" (or universe), and the "Whole" (or Totality). This book as it were completes the former one on the Ideas and the Divinity, thus studying the three principles (Soul, Intelligence and Good) cosmologically. We thus have here another proof of the chronological order. In it Plotinos defends Plato's doctrine against Aristotle's objection in de Anima i. 3.
  --
  342 Here Plotinos purposely mentions numenius's name for the divinity (fr. 20.6), and disagrees with it, erecting above it a supreme Unity. This, however, was only Platonic, Rep. vi. 19, 509 b., so that Plotinos should not be credited with it as is done by the various histories of philosophy. Even numenius held the unity, fr. 14.
  343 This means, by mere verbal similarity, "homonymy," or, punning.
  --
  430 Here we have numenius's innate motion of the intelligible, fr. 30.21.
  431 See vi. 1.1522.
  --
  458 When collectively considered as "A-pollo," following numenius, 42, 67, Plotinos, v. 5.6.
  459 See ii. 9.3.

ENNEAD 04.02 - How the Soul Mediates Between Indivisible and Divisible Essence., #Plotinus - Complete Works Vol 01, #Plotinus, #Christianity
  205 As thought numenius 29.
  206 See ii. 3.
  --
  242 This paragraph is founded on numenius 36, 39.
  243 See Plato's Second Letter, 312; in English, Burges, p. 482; i. 8.2.
  --
  253 Referring to numenius's work on "The Good," and on the "Immateriality of the Soul."
  254 In the Acibiades, C36.

ENNEAD 04.07 - Of the Immortality of the Soul: Polemic Against Materialism., #Plotinus - Complete Works Vol 01, #Plotinus, #Christianity
  (e.) (No body could subsist without the power of the universal soul.) Besides no body could subsist without the power of the universal Soul (from numenius46). Every body, indeed, is in a perpetual flow and movement (as thought Heraclitus, in Plato, Cratylus47), and the world would soon perish if it contained nothing but bodies, even if some one of them were to be called soul; for such a soul, being composed of the same matter as the other bodies, would undergo the same fate that they do; or rather, there would not even be any body, everything would remain in the condition of shapeless matter, since there would exist no principle to fashion it. Why, there would not even be any matter, and the universe would be annihilated to nothingness, if the care of keeping its parts united were entrusted to some body which would have nothing but the name of soul, as for instance, to air, or a breath without cohesion,48 which could not be one, by itself. As all bodies are divisible, if the universe depended on a body, it would be deprived of intelligence and given up to chance. How, indeed, could there be any order in a spirit which itself would need to receive order from a soul? How could this spirit contain reason and intelligence? On the hypothesis of the existence of the soul, all these elements serve to constitute the body of the world, and of every animal,61 because all different bodies together work for the end of all; but without the soul, there is no order, and even nothing exists any more.
  IF THE SOUL IS NOT SIMPLE MATTER, SHE MUST BE A SUBSTANTIAL FORM.
  --
  As the first book was evidently Platonic, the second seems numenian, reminding us of the latter's book on the Immortality of the Soul, one of the arguments from which we find in 3 E.
  86

ENNEAD 06.05 - The One and Identical Being is Everywhere Present In Its Entirety.345, #Plotinus - Complete Works Vol 04, #Plotinus, #Christianity
  Other philosophers, such as numenius, do not teach one soul in three parts, like the preceding, nor in two, such as the rational and irrational parts. They believe that we have two souls, one rational, the other irrational. Some among them attri bute immortality to both of the souls; others attri bute it only to the rational soul, and think that death not only suspends the exercise of the faculties that belong to the irrational soul, but even dissolves its "being" or essence. Last, there are some that believe, that by virtue of the union of the two souls, their movements are double, because each of them feels the passions of the other.
  OF THE DIFFERENCE OF THE PARTS, AND OF THE FACULTIES OF THE SOUL.
  --
  The Platonists hold different opinions. Some, like Plotinos and Porphyry, reduce to a single order and idea the different functions and faculties of life; others, like numenius, imagine them to be opposed, as if in a struggle; while others, like Atticus and Plutarch, bring harmony out of the struggle.
  E. Ammonius Saccas.
  --
  It will suffice to oppose the arguments of Ammonius, teacher of Plotinos, and those of numenius the Pythagorean,1262 to that of all those who claim that the soul is material. These are the reasons: "Bodies, containing nothing unchangeable, are naturally subject to change, to dissolution, and to infinite divisions. They inevitably need some principle that may contain them, that may bind and streng then their parts; this is the unifying principle that we call soul. But if the soul also be material, however subtle be the matter of which she may be composed, what could contain the soul herself, since we have just seen that all matter needs some principle to contain it? The same process will go on continuously to infinity until we arrive at an immaterial substance."
  UNION OF THE SOUL AND THE BODY.
  --
  The writer had for several years been working at the premier edition of the fragments of numenius, in reasonably complete form, with translation and outline. After ransacking the accessible sources of fragments, there remained yet an alleged treatise of numenius on Matter, in the library of the Escoreal, near Madrid. This had been known to savants in Germany for many years; and Prof. Uzener, of Bonn, in his criticism of Thedinga's partial collection of fragments, had expressed a strong desire that it be investigated; it had also been noticed by Zeller, and Bouillet, as well as Chaignet. If then I hoped to publish a comparatively reliable collection of the fragments of numenius, it was my duty, though hailing from far America, and though no European had shown enough interest therein to send for a photographic copy, to go there, and get one, which I did in July, 1913. I bore the precious fragment to Rostock and Prof. Thedinga in Hagen, where, however, we discovered that it was no more than a section of Plotinos's Enneads, iii. 6.6 to end. The manuscript did, indeed, show an erasure of the name1270 of Plotinos, and the substitution of that of numenius. After the first disappointment, it became unavoidable to ask the question why the monk should have done that. Had he any reason to suppose that this represented numenian doctrine, even if it was not written by numenius? Having no external data to go by, it became necessary to resort to internal criticism, to compare this Plotinian treatment of matter with other Plotinian treatments, in other portions of the Enneads.
  This then inevitably led to a close scrutiny of Plotinos's various treatments of the subject, with results that were very much unlooked for. This part that we might well have had reason to ascribe to numenian influence, on the contrary, turned out to be by far more Plotinian than other sections that we would at first have unhesitatingly considered Plotinian, and, as will be seen elsewhere, the really doubtful portions occur in the very last works of Plotinos's life, where it would have been more natural to expect the most genuine. However, the result was a demonstration of a progress in doctrines in the career of Plotinos, and after a careful study thereof, the reader will agree that we have in this case every element of probability in favor of such a development; indeed, it will seem so natural that the unbiased reader will ask himself why this idea has not before this been the general view of the matter.
  *****
  --
  The first treatment of matter occurs in the first Ennead, and it may be described as thoroughly numenian, being treated in conjunction with the subject1273 of evil. First, we have the expression of the Supreme hovering over Being.372 Then we have the soul double,373 reminding us of numenius's view of the double Second Divinity374 and the double soul.375 Then we have positive evil occurring in the absence of good.376 Plotinos377 opposes the Stoic denial of evil, for he says, "if this were all," there were no evil. We find a threefold division of the universe without the Stoic term hypostasis, which occurs in the treatment of the same topic elsewhere.378 Similar to numenius is the King of all,379 the blissful life of the divinities around him,380 and the division of the universe into three.381 Plotinos382 acknowledges evil things in the world, something denied by the Stoics,383 but taught by numenius, as is also original, primary existence of evil, in itself. Evil is here said to be a hypostasis in itself, and imparts evil qualities to other things. It is an image of being, and a genuine nature of evil. Plotinos describes384 matter as flowing eternally, which reminds us unmistakably of numenius's image385 of matter as a swiftly flowing stream, unlimited and infinite in depth, breadth, and length. Evil inheres in the material part of the body,386 and is seen as actual, positive, darkness, which is numenian, as far as it means a definite principle.387 Plotinos also388 insists on the ineradicability of evil, in almost the same terms as numenius,389 who calls on Heraclitus and Homer as supporters. Plotinos390 as reason for this assigns the fact that the world is a mixture, which is the very proof advanced by numenius in 12. Plotinos, moreover,391 defines matter as that which remains after all qualities are abstracted; this is thoroughly numenian.392
  In the fourth book of the Second Ennead the treatment of matter is original, and is based on comparative studies. Evil has disappeared from the horizon; and the long treatment of the controversy with the Gnostics393 is devoted to explaining away evil as misunderstood1274 good. Although he begins by finding fault with Stoic materialism,394 he asserts two matters, the intelligible and the physical. Intelligible matter395 is eternal, and possesses essence. Plotinos goes on396 to argue for the necessity of an intelligible, as well as a physical substrate (hypokeimenon). In the next paragraph397 Plotinos seems to undertake a historical polemic, against three traditional teachers (Empedocles, Anaxagoras, and Democritus) under whose names he was surely finding fault with their disciples: the Stoics, numenius, and possibly such thinkers as Lucretius. Empedocles is held responsible for the view that elements are material, evidently a Stoical view. Anaxagoras is held responsible for three views, which are distinctly numenian: that the world is a mixture,398 that it is all in all,399 and that it is infinite.400 We might, in passing, notice another Plotinian contradiction in here condemning the world as mixture, approved in the former passage.401 As to the atomism of Democritus, it is not clear with which contemporaries he was finding fault. Intelligible matter reappears402 where we also find again the idea of doubleness of everything. As to the terms used by the way, we find the Stoic categories of Otherness or Variety403 and Motion; the conceptual seminal logoi, and the "Koin ousia" of matter; but in his psychology he uses "logos" and "nosis," instead of "nous" and "phronesis," which are found in the Escorial section, and which are more Stoical. We also find the Aristotelian category of energy, or potentiality.
  In the very next book of the same Ennead,404 we find another treatment of matter, on an entirely different basis, accented by a rejection of intelligible matter.405 Here the whole basis of the treatment of matter is the Aristotelian category of "energeia" and "dunamis," or potentiality and actuality, Although we find the Stoic term hypostasis, the book seems to be more numenian,1275 for matter is again a positive lie, and the divinity is described by the numenian double name406 of Being and Essence ("ousia" and "to on").
  We now come to the Escorial section.407 This is by far the most extensive treatment of matter, and as we are chiefly interested in it in connection with its bearing the name of numenius at the Escorial, we shall analyze it for and against this numenian authorship, merely noting that the chief purpose is to describe the impassibility of matter, a Stoic idea.
  For numenius as author we note:
  a. A great anxiety to preserve agreement with Plato, even to the point of stretching definitions.408
  b. Plato's idea of participation, useless to monistic Stoics, is repeatedly used.409 numenius had gone so far as to assert a participation, even in the intelligibles.410
  c. Matter appears as the curse of all existent objects.411 It also appears as mother.412
  d. Try as he may, the author of this section cannot escape the dualism so prominent in numenius;413 the acrobatic nature of his efforts in this direction are pointed out elsewhere. We find here a thoroughgoing distinction between soul and body, which is quite numenian, and dualistic.414
  e. Matter is passive, possessing no resiliency.415
  f. We find an argument directed416 against those who "posit being in matter." These must be the Stoics, with whom numenius is ever in feud.
  g. Of numenian terms, we find "steria,"417 God the Father.418 Also the double numenian name for the Divinity, Being and Essence.419
  Against numenius as author, we note:
  a. The general form of the section, which is that of the Enneads, not the dialogue of numenius's Treatise on the Good. We find also the usual Plotinic interjected questions.
  1276 b. Un- numenian, at least, is matter as a mirror,420 and evil as merely negative, merely unaffectability to good.421 While numenius speaks of matter as nurse and feeder, here we read nurse and receptacle.
  c. Stoic, is the chief subject of the section, namely the affectibility of matter. Also, the allegoric interpretation of the myths, of the ithyphallic Hermes, and the Universal Mother, which are like the other Plotinic myths, of the double Hercules, Poros, Penia, and Koros. We find422 the Stoic idea of passibility and impassibility, although not exactly that of passion and action. We find423 connected the terms "nous" and "phronsis," also "anastasis." The term hypostasis, though used undogmatically, as mere explanation of thought, is found.424 Frequent425 are the conceptual logoi of the divine Mind (the seminal logoi) which enter into matter to clo the themselves with it, to produce objects. We also have the Stoic category "heterots,"426 and the application of sex as explanation of the differences of the world.427
  --
  On the whole, therefore, the Plotinic authorship is much more strongly indicated than the numenian.
  The next treatment of matter in the Fourth Ennead, is semi-stoical.431 The opposite aspects of the Universe appear again as "phronesis" and "phusis." We find here the Stoic doing and suffering, and432 hypostasis. Nevertheless, the chief process illustrated is still the Platonic image reproduced less and less clearly in successively more degraded spheres of being. Plotinos seems to put himself out of the numenian sphere of thought, referring to it in abstract historical manner, as belonging to the successors of Pythagoras and Pherecydes,1277 who treated of matter as the element that distinguished objects in the intelligible world.
  The last treatment of matter433 seems to have reached the extreme distance of numenianism. Instead of a dualism, with matter an original, positive principle, Plotinos closes his discussion by stating that perhaps form and matter may not come from the same origin, as there is some difference between them. He has just said that Being is common to both form and matter, as to quality, though not as to quantity. A little above this he insists that matter is not something original, as it is later than many earthly, and than all intelligible objects. As to the numenian double name of the Divinity, Being and Essence, he had taken from Aristotelianism the conceptions of "energeia" and "dunamis," and added them as the supreme hypostasis, so as to form in theological dialect the triad he, following numenius and Plato, had always asserted cosmologically (good, intellect, and soul): "The developed energy434 assumes hypostasis, as if from a great, nay, as from the greatest hypostasis of all; and so it joins Essence and Being."
  Reviewing these various treatments of matter we might call the first435 numenian; the next436 Platonic (as most independent, and historically treated); the next437 as Aristotelian; the Escorial Section as semi-Stoic;438 as also another short notice.439 The last treatment of matter, in vi. 3.7, is fully Stoic, in its denial of the evil of matter.
  How then shall we explain these differences? Chiefly by studying the periods in which they are written, and which they therefore explain.
  --
  1280 In the first place, the reader will ask himself, how does it come about that Plotinos is so dependent on Porphyry, and before him, on Amelius? The answer is that Plotinos himself was evidently somewhat deficient in the details of elementary education, however much proficiency in more general philosophical studies, and in independent thought, and personal magnetic touch with pupils he may have achieved. His pronunciation was defective, and in writing he was careless, so much so that he usually failed to affix proper headings or notice of definite authorship.441 These peculiarities would to some extent put him in the power, and under the influence of his editors, and this explains why he was dependent on Porphyry later, and Amelius earlier.442 These editors might easily have exerted potent, even if unconscious or merely suggestive influence; but we know that Porphyry did not scruple to add glosses of his own,443 not to speak of hidden Stoic and Aristotelian pieces,444 for he relied on Aristotle's "Metaphysics." Besides, Plotinos was so generally accused of pluming himself on writings of numenius, falsely passed off as his own, that it became necessary for Amelius to write a book on the differences between numenius and Plotinos, and for Porphyry to defend his master, as well as to quote a letter of Longinus on the subject;445 but Porphyry does not deny that among the writings of the Platonists Kronius, Caius, and Attikus, and the Peripatetics Aspasius, Alexander and Adrastus, the writings of numenius also were used as texts in the school of Plotinos (14).
  Having thus shown the influence of the editors of Plotinos, we must examine who and what they were. Let us however first study the general trend of the Plotinic career.
  --
  Such aggressive enmity is too positive to be accounted for by the mere removal to Rome from Alexandria, and suggests a break of some sort with former friends. Indications of such a break do exist, namely, the permanent departure to his earlier home, Apamea, of his former editor, Amelius. We hear448 of an incident in which Amelius invited Plotinos to come and take part in the New Moon celebrations449 of the mysteries. Plotinos, however, refused, on the grounds that "They must come to me, not I go to them." Then we hear450 of bad blood between this Amelius and Porphyry, a long, bitter controversy, patched up, indeed, but which cannot have failed to leave its mark. Then this Amelius writes a book on the Differences between Plotinos and numenius, which, in a long letter, he inscribes to Porphyry,451 as if the latter were the chief one interested in these distinctions. Later, Amelius, who before this seems to have been the chief disciple and editor of Plotinos, departs, never to return,1282 his place being taken by Porphyry. It is not necessary to possess a vivid imagination to read between the lines, especially when Plotinos, in the last work of this period, against the Gnostics, section 10, seems to refer to friends of his who still held to other doctrines.
  Now in order to understand the nature of the period when Amelius was the chief disciple of Plotinos, we must recall who Amelius was. In the first place, he hailed from the home-town of numenius, Apamea in Syria. He had adopted as son Hostilianus-Hesychius, who also hailed from Apamea. And it was to Apamea that Amelius withdrew, after he left Plotinos. We are therefore not surprised to learn that he had written out almost all the books of numenius, that he had gathered them together, and learned most of them by heart.452 Then we learn from Proclus (see Zeller's account) that Amelius taught the trine division of the divine creator, exactly as did numenius. Is it any wonder, then, that he wrote a book on the differences between Plotinos and numenius at a later date, when Porphyry had started a polemic with him? During his period as disciple of Plotinos, twenty-four years in duration, Plotinos would naturally have been under numenian influence of some kind, and we cannot be very far wrong in thinking that this change of editors must have left some sort of impress on the dreamy thinker, Plotinos, ever seeking to experience an ecstasy.
  *****
  In this account of the matter we have restrained ourselves from mentioning one of the strangest coincidences in literature, which would have emphasized the nature of the break of Amelius with Plotinos, for the reason that it may be no more than a chance pun; but that even as such it must have been present to the actors in that drama, there is no doubt. We read above that Amelius invited Plotinos to accompany him1283 to attend personally the mystery-celebrations at the "noumnia," a time sacred to such celebrations.453 But this was practically the name of numenius, and the text might well have been translated that Amelius invited him to visit the celebrations as numenius would have done; and indeed, from all we know of numenius, with his initiation at Eleusis and in Egypt, that is just of what we might have supposed he would have approved. In other words, we would discover Amelius in the painful act of choice between the two great influences of his life, numenius, and Plotinos. Moreover, that the incident was important is revealed by Porphyry's calling Plotinos's answer a "great word," which was much commented on, and long remembered.
  *****
  --
  These Eustochian works make the least use of Stoic, or even Aristotelian terms, most closely following even the actual words of numenius. For instance, we may glance at the very first book of the First Ennead, which though of the latest period, is thoroughly numenian.
  The first important point is the First Divinity "hovering over" Being,455 using the same word as numenius.456 This was suggested by Prof. Thedinga. However, he applied the words "he says" to numenius; but this cannot be the case, as a Platonic quotation immediately.
  The whole subject of the Book is the composite soul, and this is thoroughly numenian.457
  Then we have the giving without return.458
  Then we find the pilot-simile as illustration for the relation of soul to body,459 although in numenius it appears of the Logos and the world.
  We find the animal divided in two souls, the irrational and the rational,460 which reminds us of numenius's division into two souls.461
  The soul consists of a peculiar kind of motion, which however is entirely different from that of other bodies, which is its own life.462 This reminds us of numenius's still-standing of the Supreme, which however is simultaneously innate motion.463
  Referring to the problem, discussed elsewhere, that these Plotinic works of the latest or Eustochian period, are the most numenian, which we would be most likely to attri bute to his early or formative stage, rather than to the last or perfected period, it is interesting to notice that these works seem to imply other works of the Amelian or Porphyrian periods, by the words,464 "It has been said," or treated of, referring evidently to several passages.465 Still this need not necessarily refer to this1285 later work, it may even refer to Plato, or even to numenius's allegory of the Cave of the Nymphs,470 where the descent of the souls is most definitely studied. Or it might even refer to Num. 35a, where birth or genesis is referred to as the wetting of the souls in the matter of bodies.
  Moreover, they contain an acknowledgment, and a study of positive evil, something which would be very unlikely after his elaborate explaining away of evil in his treatise against the Gnostics, of the Porphyrian period, and his last treatment of Matter, where he is even willing to grant the possibility of matter possessing Being. The natural process for any thinker must ever be to begin with comparative imitation of his master, and then to progress to independent treatment of the subject. But for the process to be reversed is hardly likely.
  --
  We are therefore driven to the following, very human and natural conclusion. Plotinos's first attempts at philosophical writing had consisted of chiefly numenian disquisitions, which would be natural in Alexandria, where numenius had probably resided, and had left friends and successors among the Gnostics. When Plotinos went to Rome, he took these writings with him, but was too absorbed in new original Amelian treatises to resurrect his youthful numenian attempts, which he probably did not value highly, as being the least original, and because they taught doctrines he had left behind in his Aristotelian and Stoic progress. He laid them aside. Only when Porphyry had left him, and he felt the increasing feebleness due to old age and Stoic austerities, did his attendant Eustochius urge him to preserve these early works. Plotinos was willing, and sent them to Sicily where Porphyry had retired. And so it happened with Plotinos, as it has happened with many another writer, that the last things became first, and the first became last.
  *****
  --
  This then was the state of affairs at the advent of numenius. Although his chief interest lay in practical comparative religion, he tried, philosophically, to return to a mythical "original" Platonism or Pythagoreanism. What Plato did for earlier Greek speculation, numenius did for post-Platonic development. He harked back to the latter Platonic stage, which taught1291 the evil world-Soul. He included the achievements of Plutarch, the "soul of matter," and the trine division of a separate principle, such as Providence. To the achievement of Xenocrates he was drawn by two powerful interests, the Egyptian, Hermetic, Serapistic, in connection with the evil demons; and the Pythagorean, in connection with the Indefinite-duality. Thus numenius's History of the Platonic Succession is not a delusion; numenius really did sum up the positive Platonic progress, not omitting even Maximus of Tyre's philosophical hierarchic explanation of the emanative or participative streaming forth of the Divine. But numenius was not merely a philosopher: of this gathering of Platonic achievements he made a religion. In this he was also following the footsteps of Pythagoras, who limited his doctrines to a group of students. But numenius did not merely copy Pythagoras. numenius modernized him, connecting up the Platonic doctrinal aggregate with the mystery-rites current in his own day. Nor did numenius shirk any unpleasant responsibilities of a restorer of Platonism: he continued the traditional Academico-Stoical feud. Strange to say, the last great Stoic philosopher, Posidonius (A.D. 135151) hailed from numenius's home-town, Apamea, so that this Stoic feud may have been forced on numenius from home personalities or conditions. It would seem that in numenius and Posidonius we have a re-enactment of the tragedy of Greek philosophy on a Syrian theatre, where dogmatic Stoicism died, and Platonism admitted Oriental ideas.
  Apamea, however, had not yet ended its role in the development of thought. numenius's pupil, Amelius, had gathered, copied, and learned by heart his master's works. It was in Apamea that he adopted as son Hostilianius-Hesychius. After a twenty-four years' sojourn in Rome he returned to Apamea, and was dwelling there still at the time of the death of Plotinos,1292 with whom he had spent that quarter of a century. Here then we have a historical basis for a connection between numenius and Plotinos, which we have elsewhere endeavored to demonstrate from inner grounds.
  It was however by Amelius that philosophy is drawn into the maelstrom of the world-city. Plotinos, in his early periods a numenian Platonist, will later go over to Stoicism, and conduct a polemic with the Gnostics, the Alexandrian heirs of Platonic dualism, under the influence of the Stoic Porphyry. However, Plotinos will not publicly abandon Platonism; he will fuse the two streams of thought, and interpret in Stoic terms the fundamentals of Platonism, producing something which, when translated into Latin, he will leave as inheritance to all the ages. Not in vain, therefore, did Amelius transport the torch of philosophy to the Capital.
  *****
  --
  Plotinos was no religious leader; he was before everything else a philosopher, even if he centred his efforts on the practical aspects of the ecstatic union with God. Indeed, Porphyry relates to us the incident in which this matter was objectively exemplified. At the New Moon, Amelius invited him to join in a visit to the mystery celebrations. Plotinos refused, saying that "they would have to come to him, not he go over to them." This then is the chief difference between numenius and Plotinos, and the result would be a recrudescence of pure philosophic contentions, as those of Plotinos against the Gnostics.
  As to the general significance of Plotinos, we must here resume what we have elsewhere detailed: that with the change of editors, from Amelius to Porphyry, Plotinos changed from numenian or Pythagorean dualism1293 to Stoic monism, in which the philosophic feud was no longer with the Stoics, but with the Alexandrian descendants of numenian dualism, the Gnostics. Even though Plotinos showed practical religious aspects in his studying and experiencing the ecstasy, there is no record of any of his pupils being encouraged to do so, and therefore Plotinos remains chiefly a philosopher.
  The successors of Plotinos could not remain on this purely philosophic standpoint. Instead of practising the ecstasy, they followed the Gnostics in theorizing about practical religious reality in their cosmology and theology, which took on, more or less, the shape of magic, not inconsiderably aided by Stoic allegoric interpretations of myths, as in Porphyry's "Cave of the Nymphs."
  What Plato did for early Greek philosophy, what numenius did for post-Platonic thought, that Proclus Diadochus, the "Successor," did for Plotinos and his followers. For the first time since numenius we find again a comparative method. By this time religion and philosophy have fused in magic, and so, instead of a comparative religion, we have a comparative philosophy. Proclus was the first genuine commentator, quoting authorities on all sides. He was sufficient of a philosopher to grasp Neoplatonism as a school of thought; and far from paying any attention to Ammonius, as recent philosophy has done, as source of Neoplatonism, he traces the movement as far as Plutarch, calling him the "father of us all," inasmuch as he introduced the conception of "hypostasis." Evidently, Proclus looked upon this as the centre of Neoplatonic development, and therefore we shall be justified in a closer study of this conception; and we may even say that its historic destiny was a continuation of the main stream of creative Greek philosophy; or, if you prefer, of Platonism, or Noumenianism, or even Plotinian thought.
  1294 Did Greek philosophy die with Proclus? The political changes of the time forced alteration of dialect and position; but the accumulations of mental achievements could not perish. This again we owe to Proclus. Besides being the first great commentator he precipitated his most valuable achievements in logical form, in analytic arrangement, in the form of crystal-clear propositions, theorems, demonstrations, and corollaries. Such a highly abstract form was inevitable, inasmuch as numenius had turned away from Aristotelian observation of nature. Just like the Hebrew thinkers, who finally became commentators and abstract theorizers, nothing else was left for a philosophy without connection with experiment, when whittled down by the keenest intellects of the times.
  This abstract method, still familiarly used by geometry, reappeared among the School-men, notably in Thomas Aquinas. Later it persisted with Spinoza and Descartes. However, rising experimentalism has gradually terminated it, its last form appearing in Kant and Hegel. Kant's "Ding in sich," reached after abstracting all qualities, is only a re-statement of numenius and Plotinos's "subject," or, definition of matter; and Hegel's dialectic, beginning with Being and Not-being, more definitely proclaimed by Plotinos, goes as far back as the Eleatics and Heraclitus, not to mention Plato. However, Kant and Hegel are the great masters of modern thought; and although at one time the rising tide of materialism and cruder forms of evolution threatened to obscure it, Karl Pearson's "Grammar of Science," generous as it is in invective against Kant and Hegel, in modern terms clinches Berkeley's and Kant's demonstration of the reality of the super-sensual, thus vindicating Plotinos, and, before him, numenius.
  1295 It must not be supposed that in thus tracing the springs of our modern thought we necessarily approve of all the thought of Plotinos, numenius or Plato. On the contrary, they were far more likely to have committed logical errors than we are, because they were hypnotized by the glamor of the terms they used, which to us are mere laboratory tools. The best way to prove this will be to appraise at its logical value for us Plotinos's discussion of Matter, elsewhere studied in its value for us.
  1296
  --
  We have elsewhere pointed out the hopelessness of escaping either aspect of the problem of the One and the Many; and that the attempt of the Stoics to avoid the Platonic dualism by a materialistic monism was merely a change of names, the substance of the dualism remaining as the opposition of the contraries, such as active and passive, male and female, the predominant elements,474 etc. Plotinos, in his abandonment of numenian dualism, and championing of Stoicism, undertaking the feud with the Gnostics, the successors of numenius, must therefore have inherited the same difficulties of thought, and we shall see how in spite of his mental agility he is caught in the same traditional meshes, and that these irreducible difficulties occur in each one of his three periods of life, the Eustochian, the Amelian, and the Porphyrian.
  In the Amelian, he teaches two matters, the physical and the intelligible, by which device he seeks to avoid the difficulties of dualism, crediting to intelligible matter any necessary form of Being, thus pushing physical matter into the outer darkness of non-being. So intelligible matter is still a form of Being, and we still hold to monism; as intelligible matter may participate in the good; while matter physical remains evil, being a deprivation of good, not possessing it. This, of course is dualism; and he thus has a convenient pun on the word matter, by which he can be monist or dualist, as the fancy takes him, or as exigencies demand. This participation, therefore, does not eliminate the dualism,1297 while formally professing monism. Therefore Plotinos tries to choose between monism and dualism by surreptitiously accepting both.
  --
  In Plotinos's third, or Eustochian period, the same evasions occur. For instance478 he limits Being to goodness. Then he acknowledges the existence of evil things, and derives their evil quality from a primary evil, the "image of essence," the Being of evil. That he is conscious of having strained a point is evident from the fact that he adds the clause, "if there can be a Being of evil." Likewise,479 while discussing evil, which is generally recognized because in our daily lives there is positive pain, and sensations of pain, he defines evil as lack of qualities. To say that evil is not such as to form, but as to nature is opposite to form is nonsense, inasmuch as life is full of positive evils, as numenius brought out in 16, and Plotinos acknowledged even in spite of his polemic against the Gnostics.
  Finally Plotinos takes refuge in a miracle480 as explanation of "unparticipating participation." This is commentary enough; it shows he realized the futility of any arguments. But Plotinos was not alone in despairing of establishing an ironclad system; before him numenius had, just as pathetically, despaired of a logical dualism, and he acknowledged in fragment 16 that Pythagoras's arguments, however true, were "wonderful and opposed to the belief of a majority of humanity."
  In other words, monism is as unsatisfactory to reason as dualism. This was the chief point of agreement between Pythagoras and the Stoics; and Pragmatism has in modern times attempted to show a way out by a higher sanction of another kind.
  --
  Having watched numenius, for Platonic dualism; and Plotinos for Stoic monism, both appeal to a miracle as court of last resort, we may now return to that result of Platonism which has left the most vital impress on our civilization, its conception of the divine.
  1300
  --
  Elsewhere we have seen how numenius waged the traditional Academic feud with the Stoics bravely, but uselessly, inasmuch as it was chiefly a difference of dialects that separated them. In the course of this struggle, numenius had made certain distinctions within the divinity, which were followed by Amelius, but are difficult to trace in Plotinos because, as a matter of principle, Plotinos482 was averse to thus "dividing the divinity." Why so? Because he was waging a struggle with the Gnostics, who had followed in the footsteps of the Hermetic writings (with their Demiurge and Seven Governors); Philo Judaeus (with his five Subordinate Powers); numenius and Amelius (with their triply divided First and Second gods);after which we come to Basilides (with his seven Powers); Saturninus (with his Seven Angels); and Valentinus (with his 33 Aeons).
  This new feud between Plotinos and the Gnostics is however just as illusory as the earlier one between numenius and the Stoics. It was merely a matter of dialects. Plotinos indeed found fault with the Gnostics for making divisions within the Divinity; but wherever he himself is considering the divinity minutely, he, just as much as the Gnostics, is compelled to draw distinctions, even though he avoided acknowledged divisions by borrowing from Plutarch a new, non-Platonic, non- numenian, but Aristotelian, Stoic (Cornutus and Sextus) and still Alexandrian (Philo, Septuagint, Lucian) term "hypostasis."
  The difference he pretended to find between the1301 Gnostic distinctions within the Divinity and his new term hypostasis was that the former introduced manifoldness into the divinity, by splitting Him,483 thus allowing the influence of matter to pervade the pure realm of Being. Hypostasis, on the contrary, wholly existed within the realm of pure Being, and was no more than a trend, a direction, a characterization, a function, a face, or orientation of activity of the unaffected unity of Being. Thus the divinity retained its unity, and still could be active in several directions, without admixture of what philosophy had till then recognized as constituting manifoldness. But reflection shows that this is a mere quibble, an evasion, a paralogism, a quaternio terminorum, a pun. How it came about we shall attempt to show below.
  --
  In order to understand the attitude of Plotinos on the subject, we must try to put ourselves in his position. In the first place, on Porphyry's own admission, he had added to Platonism Peripatetic and Stoic views. From Aristotle his chief borrowings were the categories of form and matter, and the distinction between potentiality and actuality,488 as well as the Aristotelian psychology of various souls. To the Stoics he was drawn by their monism, which led him to drop the traditional Academico-Stoic feud, or rather to take the side of the Stoics against numenius the Platonist dualist and the dualistic successors, the Gnostics. But there was a difference between the Stoics and Plotinos. The Stoics assimilated spirit to matter, while Plotinos, reminiscent of Plato, preferred to assimilate matter to spirit. Still, he used their terminology, and categories, including the conception of a hypostasis, or form of existence. With this equipment, he held to the traditional Platonic trinity of the "Letters," the King, the intellect, and the soul. Philosophically, however, he had received from numenius the inheritance of a double name of the Divinity, Being and Essence. As a thinker, he was therefore forced to accommodate numenius to Plato, and by adding to numenius's name of the divinity, to complete numenius's theology by numenius's own1303 cosmology. This then he did by adding as third hypostasis the Aristotelian dynamic energy.
  But as Intellect is permanent, how can Energy arise therefrom? Here this eternal puzzle is solved by distinguishing energy into indwelling and out-flowing. As indwelling, Energy constitutes Intellect; but its energetic nature could not be demonstrated except by out-flowing, which produces a distinction.
  --
  Now Plotinos, as we remember, found fault with the Gnostics in that they taught distinctions within the divinity.506 He would therefore be disposed to remove from within the divinity those distinctions of Plotinic, Plutarchian, numenian, or Gnostic theology; although he himself in early times did not scruple to speak of a hypostasis of wisdom, or of Eros, or other matter he might be considering. Such terms of numenius or Amelius as he seems to ignore are the various Demiurges; the three Plutarchian Providences he himself still uses. Still, all these terms he would be disposed to eradicate from within the divinity.
  As a constructive metaphysician, however, he could not well get along without some titles for the different phases of the divinity; and even if he dispensed with the old names, there would still remain as their underlying1305 support the reality or substance of the distinction. So he removed the offensive, aggressive, historically known and recognized terms, while leaving their underlying substances, or supports. Now "substance" had become "substances," and to differentiate these it was necessary to interpret them as differing forms of existence. The change was most definitely made by Athanasius, who at a synod in Alexandria, in A.D. 362,507 fastened on the church, as synonymous with hypostasis the popular term "prosopon" or "face." That this was an innovation appears from the fact that the Nicene Council had stated that it was heretical to say that Christ was of a hypostasis different from that of the Father, in which case the word evidently meant still the original underlying (singular) substance. With this official definition in vogue, the original (singular) substance became forgotten, and it became possible to speak in the plural, of three faces, as indeed Plotinos had done.
  --
  Christian parallelisms in Plotinos have a historical origin in Christian parallelisms in his sources, namely, Stoicism, numenius and Plato.
  To Christian origins in Plato never has justice been done, not even by Bigg. His suggestion of the crucifixion of the just man, his reference to the son of God are only common-places, to which should be added many minor references.
  The Christian origins in numenius are quite explicit; mention of the Hebrews as among the races whose scriptures are important, of Moses among the great religious teachers, of the Spirit hovering over the waters, of the names of the Egyptian magicians which, together with Pliny, he hands down to posterity. He also was said to have told many stories about Jesus, in an allegorical manner.
  The Christian origins in Stoicism have been widely discussed; for instance, by Chaignet. But it is likely that this influence affected Christianity indirectly through Plotinos, along with the other Christian ideas we shall later find. At any rate Plotinos is the philosopher who uses the term "spiritual body" most like the Christians.510 The soul is a slave to the body,511 and has a celestial body512 as well as a spiritual body.513 Within us are two men opposing each other,514 the better part often being mastered by the worse part, as thought St.1309 Paul,515 in the struggle between the inner and outer man.516
  --
  VII. PLOTINOS'S INDEBTEDNESS TO numenIUS.
  1. HISTORICAL RELATIONS BETWEEN numenIUS AND PLOTINOS.
  We have, elsewhere, pointed out the historic connections between numenius and Plotinos. Here, it may be sufficient to recall that Amelius, native of numenius's home-town of Apamea, and who had copied and learned by heart all the works of numenius, and who later returned to Apamea to spend his declining days, bequeathing his copy of numenius's works to his adopted son Gentilianus Hesychius, was the companion and friend of Plotinos during his earliest period, editing all Plotinos's books, until displaced by Porphyry. We remember also that Porphyry was Amelius's disciple, before his spectacular quarrel with Amelius, later supplanting him as editor of the works of Plotinos. Plotinos also came from Alexandria, where numenius had been carefully studied and quoted by Origen and Clement of Alexandria. Further, Porphyry records twice that accusations were popularly made against Plotinos, that he had plagiarized from numenius. In view of all this historical background, we have the prima-facie right to consider Plotinos chiefly as a later re-stater of the views of numenius, at least during his earlier or Amelian period. Such a conception of the state of affairs must have been in the mind of that monk who, in the Escoreal manuscript, substituted the name of numenius for that of Plotinos on that fragment573 about matter, which begins directly1314 with numenius's name of the divinity, "being and essence."574
  2. numenIUS AS FATHER OF NEO-PLATONISM.
  Let us compare with this historical evidence, that which supports the universally admitted dependence of Plotinos on his teacher Ammonius. We have only two witnesses: Hierocles and Nemesius; and the latter attri butes the argument for the immateriality of the soul to Ammonius and numenius jointly. No doubt, Ammonius may have taught Plotinos in his youth; but so no doubt did other teachers; and of Ammonius the only survivals are a few pages preserved by Nemesius. The testimony for Plotinos's dependence on numenius is therefore much more historical, as well as significant, in view of numenius having left written records that were widely quoted. The title of "Father of Neo-platonism," therefore, if it must at all be awarded, should go to numenius, who had written a "History of the Platonic Succession," wherein he attempts to restore "original" Platonism. This fits the title "Neo-platonism," whereas the philosophy of Ammonius, would be better described as an eclectic synthesis of Platonism and Aristotelianism.
  3. CONTRAST BETWEEN THEM.
  Of course we shall admit that there are differences between Plotinos and numenius, at least during his Porphyrian period; this was inevitable while dismissing his numenian secretary Amelius,575 a friend "who had become imbued with" such doctrines before becoming the friend of Plotinos, who persevered in them, and wrote in justification thereof. We find that the book chronologically preceding this one is v. 5, on the very subject at issue between Amelius and Porphyry. Plotinos took his stand with the latter, and therefore against the former, and through him, against numenius;1315 and indeed we find him opposing several Gnostic opinions which can be substantiated in numenius: the creation by illumination or emanation,576 the threefoldness of the creator,577 and the pilot's forgetting himself in his work.578
  But, after all, these points are not as important as they might seem; for in a very little while we find Plotinos himself admitting the substance of all of these ideas, except the verbiage; he himself uses the light and ray simile, the "light of light;"579 he himself distinguishes various phases of the allegedly single intelligence,580 and the soul, as pilot of the body incarnates by the very forgetfulness by which the creator created.581
  Further, as we shall show, during his last or Eustochian period after Porphyry had taken a trip to Sicily to avoid suicide, he himself was to return to numenian standpoints. This may be shown in a general way as follows. Of the nine Eustochian essays582 only two583 betray no similarities to numenian ideas, while seven584 do. On the contrary, in the Amelio-Porphyrian period,585 written immediately on Amelius's dismissal, only six586 are numenian, and six587 are non- numenian. In the succeeding wholly Porphyrian period,588 we have the same equal number of numenian589 and non- numenian590 books. An explanation of this reversion to numenian ideas has been attempted in the study of the development in Plotinos's views. On the whole, therefore, Plotinos's opposition to numenius may be considered no more than episodic.
  4. DIRECT INDEBTEDNESS OF PLOTINOS TO numenIUS.
  As Plotinos was in the habit of not even putting his name to his own notes; as even in the times of Porphyry the actual authorship of much that he wrote was already disputed; as even Porphyry acknowledges principles and quotations were borrowed, we must discover1316 numenian passages by their content, rather than by any external indications. As the great majority of numenius's works are irretrievably lost, we may never hope to arrive at a final solution of the matter; and we shall have to restrict ourselves to that which, in Plotinos, may be identified by what numenian fragments remain. What little we can thus trace definitely will give us a right to draw the conclusion to much more, and to the opinion that, especially in his Amelian period, Plotinos was chiefly indebted to numenian inspiration. We can consider591 the mention of Pythagoreans who had treated of the intelligible as applying to numenius, whose chief work was "On the Good," and on the "Immateriality of the Soul."
  The first class of passages will be such as bear explicit reference to quotation from an ancient source. Of such we have five: "That is why the Pythagoreans were, among each other, accustomed to refer to this principle in a symbolic manner, calling him 'A-pollo,' which name means a denial of manifoldness."592 "That is the reason of the saying, 'The ideas and numbers are born from the indefinite doubleness, and the One;' for this is intelligence."593 "That is why the ancients said that ideas are essences and beings."594 "Let us examine the (general) view that evils cannot be destroyed, but are necessary."595 "The Divinity is above being."596
  --
  Moreover, Plotinos wrote a book on the Incorruptibility of the soul,603 as numenius had done;604 and both authors discuss the incorporeity of qualities.605
  Besides these passages where there is a definite expression1317 of dependence on earlier sources, there are two in which the verbal similarity606 is striking enough to justify their being considered references: "Besides, no body could subsist without the power of the universal Soul." "Because bodies, according to their own nature, are changeable, inconstant, and infinitely divisible, and nothing unchangeable remains in them, there is evidently need of a principle that would lead them, gather them, and bind them fast together; and this we name soul."607 This similarity is so striking that it had already been observed and noted by Bouillet. Compare "We consider that all things called essences are composite, and that not a single one of them is simple," with " numenius, who believes that everything is thoroughly mingled together, and that nothing is simple."608
  --
  As Plotinos does not give exact quotations and references, it is difficult always to give their undoubted source. As probably Platonic we may mention the passage about the universal Soul taking care of all that is inanimate;609 and "When one has arrived at individuals, they must be abandoned to infinity."610 Also other quotations.611 The line "It might be said that virtues are actualizations,"612 might be Aristotelian. We also find:613 "Thus, according to the ancient maxim, 'Courage, temperance, all the virtues, even prudence, are but purifications.'" "That is the reason that it is right to say that the 'soul's welfare and beauty lie in assimilating herself to the divinity.'" This sounds Platonic, but might be numenian.
  In this connection it might not be uninteresting to note passages in numenius which are attri buted to Plato, but which are not to be identified: "O Men, the Mind which you dimly perceive is not the First Mind;1318 but before this Mind is another one, which is older and diviner." "That the Good is One."614
  We turn now to thoughts found identically in Plotinos and numenius, although no textual identity is to be noted. We may group these according to the subject, the universe, and the soul.
  6. PARTICULAR SIMILARITIES.
  God is supreme king.615 Eternity is now, but neither past nor future.616 The King in heaven is surrounded by leisure.617 The Good is above Being;618 the divinity is the unity above the "Being and Essence;619 and connected with this is the unitary interpretation of the name A-pollo,620 following in the footsteps of Plutarch. Nevertheless, the inferior divinity traverses the heavens,621 in a circular motion.622 While numenius does not specify this motion as circular,623 it is implied, inasmuch as the creator's passing through the heavens must have followed their circular course. With this perfect motion is connected the peculiar numenian doctrine of inexhaustible giving,624 which gave a philosophical basis for the old simile of radiation of light,625 so that irradiation is the method of creation,626 and this is not far removed from emanationism. This process consists of the descent of the intelligible into the material, or, as numenius puts it, that both the intelligible and the perceptible participate in the ideas.627 Thus intelligence is the uniting principle that holds together the bodies whose tendency is to split up, and scatter,628 making a leakage or waste,629 which process invades even the divinity.630 This uniting of scattering elements produces a mixture or mingling,608 of matter and reason,631 which, however, is limited to the energies of the existent, not to the existent itself.632 All things are in a flow,633 and the whole all is in all.634 The divinity creates by glancing at the intelligence above,635 as a pilot.636 The divinity is split by over-attention to its charges.1319637
  This leads us over to consideration of the soul. The chief effort of numenius is a polemic against the materialism of the Stoics, and to it Plotinos devotes a whole book.638 All souls, even the lowest, are immortal.639 Even qualities are incorporeal.640 The soul, therefore, remains incorporeal.641 The soul, however, is divisible.642 This explains the report that numenius taught not various parts of the soul,643 but two souls, which would be opposed by Plotinos in his polemic against the Stoics,644 but taught in another place.645 Such divisibility is indeed implied in the formation of presentation as a by-product,646 or a "common part."647 Moreover, the soul has to choose its own demon, or guardian divinity.648 Salvation as a goal appears in numenius,649 but not in Plotinos, who opposes the Gnostic idea of the "saved souls,"650 though elsewhere he speaks of the paths of the musician,651 lover652 and philosopher653 in reaching ecstasy.654 Still both Gnostics and Plotinos insisted on the need of a savior.655 Memory is actualization of the soul.656 In the highest ecstasy the soul is alone with the alone.657
  7. SIMILARITIES APPLIED DIFFERENTLY.
  This comparison of philosophy would have been much stronger had we added thereto the following points in which we find similar terms and ideas, but which are applied differently. The soul is indissolubly united to intelligence according to Plotinos, but to its source with numenius.658 Plotinos makes discord the result of their fall, while with numenius it is its cause.659 Guilt is the cause of the fall of souls, with Plotinos,660 but with numenius it is impulsive passion. The great evolution or world-process is by Plotinos called the "eternal procession," while with numenius it is progress.661 The simile of the pilot is by Plotinos applied to the soul within the body; while with numenius, it refers to the logos, or creator in the universe,662 while1320 in both cases the cause,of creation for the creator,663 and incarnation for the soul664is forgetfulness. There is practically no difference here, however. Doubleness is, by Plotinos, predicated of the sun and stars, but by numenius, of the demiurge himself,665 which Plotinos opposes as a Gnostic teaching.666 The Philonic term "legislator" is, by Plotinos, applied to intelligence, while numenius applies it to the third divinity, and not the second.667 Plotinos extends immortality to animals, but numenius even to the inorganic realm, including everything.668 While numenius seems to believe in the Serapistic and Gnostic demons,669 Plotinos opposes them,670 although in his biography671 he is represented as taking part in the evocation of his guardian spirit in a temple of Isis.
  We thus find a tolerably complete body of philosophy shared by Plotinos and numenius, out of the few fragments of the latter that have come down to us. It would therefore be reasonable to suppose that if numenius's complete works had survived we could make out a still far stronger case for Plotinos's dependence on numenius. At any rate, the Dominican scribe at the Escoreal who inserted the name of numenius in the place of that of Plotinos in the heading of672 the fragment about matter, must have felt a strong confusion between the two authors.
  8. PHILOSOPHICAL RELATIONS BETWEEN numenIUS AND PLOTINOS.
  To begin with, we have the controversy with the Stoics, which, though it appears in the works of both, bears in each a different significance. While with numenius it absorbed his chief controversial efforts,673 with Plotinos674 it occupied only one of his many spheres of interest; and indeed, he had borrowed from them many terms, such as "pneuma," the spiritual body, and others, set forth elsewhere. Notable, however,1321 was the term "hexis," habituation, or form of inorganic objects,675 and the "phantasia," or sense-presentation.676 Like, them, the name A-pollo is interpreted as a denial of manifoldness.677
  Next in importance, as a landmark, is numenius's chief secret, the name of the divinity, as "being and essence," which reappears in Plotinos in numberless places.678 Connected with this is the idea that essence is intelligence.679
  9. PYTHAGOREAN SIMILARITIES.
  It is a common-place that numenius was a Pythagorean, or at least was known as such, for though he reverenced Pythagoras, he conceived of himself as a restorer of true Platonism. It will, therefore, be all the more interesting to observe what part numbers play in their system, especially in that of Plotinos, who made no special claim to be a Pythagorean disciple. First, we find that numbers and the divine ideas are closely related.680 Numbers actually split the unity of the divinity.681 The soul also is considered as a number,682 and in connection with this we find the Pythagorean sacred "tetraktys."683 Thus numbers split up the divinity,684 though it is no more than fair to add that elsewhere Plotinos contradicts this, and states that the multiplicity of the divinity is not attained by division;685 still, this is not the only case in which we will be forced to array Plotinos against himself.
  The first effect of the splitting influence of numbers will be doubleness,686 which, though present in intelligence,687 nevertheless chiefly appears in matter,688 as the Pythagorean "indefinite dyad."689 Still, even the Supreme is double.690 So we must not be surprised if He is constituted by a trinity,691 in connection with which the Supreme appears as grandfa ther.692
  If then both numenius and Plotinos are really under the spell of Pythagoras, it is pretty sure they will not1322 be materialist, they will believe in the incorporeality of the divinity,693 of qualities;694 and of the soul695 which will be invisible696 and possess no extension.697 A result of this will be that the soul will not be located in the body, or in space, but rather the body in the soul.698
  From this incorporeal existence,699 there is only a short step to unchangeable existence,700 or eternity.701 This, to the soul, means immortality,702 one theory of which is reincarnation.703 To the universe, however, this means harmony.704
  There are still other Pythagorean traces in common between numenius and Plotinos. The cause that the indeterminate dyad split off from the divinity is "tolma," rashness, or boldness.705 Everything outside of the divinity is in a continual state of flux.706 Evil is then that which is opposed to good.707 It also is therefore unavoidable, inasmuch as suppression of its cosmic function would entail cosmic collapse.708 The world stands thus as an inseparable combination of intelligence and necessity, or chance.709
  10. PLATONIC TRACES.
  --
  The same goal is reached psychologically, however, in the ecstasy.724 This idea occurred in Plato only as a poetic expression of metaphysical attainment; and in the case of Plotinos at least may have been used as a practical experience chiefly to explain his epileptic attacks; and this would be all the more likely as this disease was generally called the "sacred disease." Whether numenius also was an epileptic, we are not told; it is more likely he took the idea from Philo, or Philo's oriental sources; at least numenius seems to claim no personal ecstatic experiences such as those of Plotinos.
  We have entered the realm of psychology; and this teaches us that that in which numenius and Plotinos differ from Plato and Philo is chiefly their psychological or experimental application of pure philosophy. No1324 body could subsist without the soul to keep it together.725 Various attempts are made to describe the nature of the soul; it is the extent or relation of circumference to circle.726 Or it is like a line and its divergence.727 In any case, the divinity and the soul move around the heavens,728 and this may explain the otherwise problematical progress or evolution ("prosodos" or "stolos") of ours.729
  11. VARIOUS SIMILARITIES.
  There are many other unclassifiable numenian traces in Plotinos. Two of them, however, are comparatively important. First, is a reaffirmation of the ancient Greek connection between generation, fertility of birth of souls and wetness,730 which is later reaffirmed by Porphyry in his "Cave of the Nymphs." Plotinos, however, later denies this.731 Then we come to a genuine innovation of numenius's; his theory of divine or intelligible giving. Plato had, of course, in his genial, casual way, sketched out a whole organic system of divine creation and administration of this world. The conceptions he needed he had cheerfully borrowed from earlier Greek philosophy without any rigid systematization, so that he never noticed that the hinge on which all was supposed to turn was merely the makeshift of an assumption. This capital error was noticed by numenius, who sought to supply it by a psychological observation, namely, that knowledge may be imparted without diminution. Plotinos, with his winning way of dispensing with quotation-marks, appropriated this,732 as also the idea that life streams out upon the world in the glance of the divinity, and as quickly leaves it, when the Divinity turns away His glance.733
  Other less important points of contact are: the Egyptian ship of souls;734 the Philonic distinction between1325 "the" God as supreme, and "god" as subordinate;735 the hoary equivocation on "kosmos;"736 and the illustration of the divine Logos as the pilot of the world.737
  --
  Summarizing, he formed a bridge between the pagan world, with its Greco-Roman civilization, and the modern world, in three departments: Christianity, philosophy, and mysticism. So long as the traditional Platonico-Stoical feud persisted there was no hope of progress; because it kept apart two elements that were to fuse into the Christian philosophy. numenius was the last Platonist, as Posidonius was the last Stoic combatant. However, if reports are to be trusted, Ammonius was an eclecticist, who prided himself on combining Plato with Aristotle. If Plotinos was indeed his disciple, it was the theory eclecticism that he took from his reputed teacher. Practically he was to accomplish it by his dependence on the numenian Amelius, the Stoic Porphyry, and the negative Eustochius. It will be seen therefore that his chief importance was not in spite of his weakness, but most because of it. By repeatedly "boxing the compass" he thoroughly assimilated the best of the conflicting schools, and became of interest to a sufficiency of different groups (Christian, philosophical and mystical) to insure preservation, study and quotation. His habit of omitting credit to any but ancient thinkers left his own work, to the uninformedwho constituted all but a minimal numberas a body of original thought. Thus he remains to us the last light of Greece, speaking a language with which we are familiar, and leaving us quotations that are imperishable.
  1329
  --
  While therefore providentially Plotinos has ever been of great importance theologically, philosophically and mystically, we cannot leave him without honestly facing the question of his value as an original thinker. It is evident that his success was in inverse ratio to originality; but we can also see that he could not have held together those three spheres of interest without the momentum of a wonderful personality. This will be evident at a glance to any reader of his biography. But after all we are here concerned not so much with his personality as with his value as an original thinker. This question is mooted by, and cannot be laid aside because of its decisive influence on the problem of his dependence of numenius. The greater part of the latter's works being irretrievably lost, we can judge only from what we have; and as to the rest, we must ask ourselves, was Plotinos the kind of a man who would have depended on some other man's thoughts? Is he likely to have sketched out a great scheme and filled it in; or rather, was he likely to depend on personal suggestion, and embroider on it, so to speak. Elsewhere we have demonstrated a development of his opinions, for instance, about matter. Was this due to progressiveness, or to indefiniteness? The reader must judge for himself.
  PERSONAL LIMITATIONS.
  His epilepsy naturally created an opportunity for, and need of a doctrine of ecstasy; which for normal people should be no more than a doctrine, or at least be limited to conscious experiences. Even his admirer, Porphyry, acknowledges that he spelled and pronounced incorrectly.750 He acknowledged that without Porphyry's objections he would have nothing to say. He refrained from quoting his authorities, and1330 Porphyry acknowledged that his writings contained many Stoic and Aristotelian doctrines. It was generally bruited around that his doctrines were borrowed from numenius,751 to the extent that his disciples held controversies, and wrote books on the subject. His style is enigmatic, and the difficulty of understanding him was discussed even in his own day. He was dependent on secretaries or editors; first on Amelius, later on Porphyry, who does not scruple to acknowledge he added many explanations.752 Later, Plotinos sent his books to Porphyry in Sicily to edit. No doubt the defectiveness of his eyesight made both reading and writing difficult, and explains his failure to put titles to his works; though, as in the case of Virgil, such hesitation may have been the result of a secret consciousness of his indebtedness to others.
  RELIANCE ON PUNNING.
  Punning has of course a hoary antiquity, and even the revered Plato was an adept at itas we see in his Cratylos. Moreover, not till a man's work is translated can we uncover all the unconscious cases of "undistributed middle." Nevertheless, in an inquiry as to the permanent objective validity of a train of reasoning, we are compelled to note extent and scope of his tendency. So he puns on aeons;753 on science and knowledge;754 on "agalmata";755 on Aphrodite, as "delicate";756 on Being;757 on "koros," as creation or adornment";758 on difference in others;759 on idea;760 on heaven, world, universe, animal and all;761 on Vesta, and standing;762 on Hexis;763 on inclination;764 on doxa;765 on love and vision;766 on "einai" and "henos;"767 on "mous," "nosis," and to "nofon";768 on paschein;769 on Poros;770 on Prometheus and Providence;771 on reason and characteristic;772 on "schesis" and "schema";773 and "soma" and "sozesthai";"774 on suffering;1331775 on thinking, thinkable, and intellection;776 on "timely" and "sovereign."777 It will be noted that these puns refer to some of the most important conceptions, and are found in all periods of his life. We must therefore conclude that his was not a clear thinking ability; that he depended on accidental circumstances, and may not always have been fully conscious how far he was following others. This popular judgment that he was revamping numenius's work may then not have been entirely unfounded, as we indeed have shown.
  Nevertheless, he achieved some permanent work, that will never be forgotten; for instance:
  --
  9. His restatement of numenius's arguments for the immateriality of the soul.
  SELECTED MAXIMS
  --
  13 See i. 8; also numenius, 16.
  14 i. 2.4.
  --
  20 A Stoic confutation of Epicurus and the Gnostics. As soon as Porphyry has left him, Plotinos harks back to Amelius, on whose leaving he had written against the Gnostics. He also returns to numenian thoughts. Bouillet notices that here Plotinos founded himself on Chrysippus, Marcus Aurelius, and Epictetus, and was followed by Nemesius. This new foundation enabled him to assume a rather independent attitude. Against Plato, he taught that matter derived existence from God, and that the union of the soul and body is not necessarily evil. Against Aristotle, he taught that God is not only the final, but also the efficient cause of the universe. Against the Stoics, he taught that the human soul is free, and is a cause, independent of the World Soul from which she proceeded. Against the Gnostics, he insisted that the creator is good, the world is the best possible, and Providence extends to mundane affairs. Against the Manicheans, he taught that the evil is not positive, but negative, and is no efficient cause, so that there is no dualism.
  21 Diog. Laert. x. 133.
  --
  30 numenius, 32.
  31 Plato, Timaeus, p. 48, Cary, 21. Statesman, p. 273, Cary, 16; Laws, x. p. 904, Cary, 12.
  --
  41 According to Plato's Theaetetus, p. 176, Cary, 83; numenius,16.
  42 Seneca, de Provid. 2.
  --
  49 Republic x. p. 620; Cary, 16; numenius, 57.
  50 As said Sallust, Conspiration of Catiline, 52.
  --
  63 In the words of Plato's Timaeus p. 48; Cary, 21; and Theaetetus, p. 176; Cary, 84; numenius, 16.
  64 Almost the words of John i. 1.
  --
  70 numenius, 32.
  71 Plato, Banquet, p. 187, Cary, 14.
  --
  78 numenius, iii. 7.
  79 This image was later adopted by Swedenborg in his "celestial man."
  --
  95 See numenius. 14.
  96 Clem. Al. Strom. v. 689.
  --
  156 See books ii. 3; ii. 9; iii. 1, 2, 3, 4, for the foundations on which this summary of Plotinos's doctrine of evil is contained. To do this, he was compelled to return to Plato, whose Theaetetus, Statesman, Timaeus and Laws he consulted. Aristotle seems to have been more interested in natural phenomena and human virtue than in the root-questions of the destiny of the universe, and the nature of the divinity; so Plotinos studies him little here. But it will be seen that here Plotinos entirely returns to the later Plato, through numenius.
  157 As thought Empedocles, 318320.
  --
  164 numenius, fr. 32.
  165 As said Plato, in his second Letter, 2.312.
  --
  169 It is noteworthy that Plotinos in his old age here finally recognizes Evil in itself, just as Plato in his later work, the Laws (x. p. 897; Cary, 8) adds to the good World-soul, an evil one. This, for Plotinos, was harking back to numenius's evil world-soul, fr. 16.
  170 In his First Alcibiades, p. 122; Cary, 37.
  --
  173 See ii. 4.1012. This idea of irradiation is practically emanationism; and besides Plotinos's interest in orientalism (Porphyry Biography, 3), it harks back to numenius, fr. 26.3; 27a.10.
  174 Held by Plato in his Theaetetus, p. 176; Cary, 84, 85; and Republic, ii. 279; Cary, 18, and of numenius, fr. 16.
  175 See i. 2.1.
  --
  177 numenius, fr. 10; Plato, Rep. vi. p. 509b; Cary, 19.
  178 As Plato suggested in his Philebus, p. 23; Cary, 3537.
  179 numenius, fr. 17.
  180 Mentioned by Plato in the Timaeus, pp. 28, 30, 38; Cary, 9, 10, 14.
  --
  186 numenius, fr. 26.3.
  187 Diog. Laertes vii.
  --
  197 Again a term discussed by numenius, fr. ii. 8, 13; and iii; see i. 1.9; iv. 3.3, 30, 31; i. 4.10.
  198 We notice how these latter studies of Plotinos do not take up any new problems, chiefly reviewing subjects touched on before. This accounts for Porphyry's attempt to group the Plotinic writings, systematically. This reminds us of the suggestion in the Biography, that except for the objections of Porphyry, Plotinos would have nothing to write. Notice also the system of the last Porphyrian treatises, contrasted with the more literary treatment of the later. All this supports Porphyry's table of chronological arrangement of the studies of Plotinos. This book is closely connected with the preceding studies of Fate and Providence, iii. 13; for he is here really opposing not the Gnostics he antagonized when dismissing Amelius, but the Stoic theories on Providence and Fate.
  --
  207 numenius, fr. 32.
  208 Cicero, de Nat. Deorum, ii. 46.
  --
  232 This is the exact doctrine of numenius, fr. 53; it logically agrees with the doubleness of matter, Num. 14; of the Creator, Num. 36; and the world-Soul, fr. 16. See note 71.
  233 See par. 18.
  --
  261 Plotinos is here harking back to his very earliest writing, 1.6, where, before his monistic adventure with Porphyry, he had, under the numenian influence of Amelius, constructed his system out of a combination of the doctrines of Plato (about the ideas), Aristotle (the distinctions of form and matter and of potentiality and actualization), and the Stoic (the "reasons," "seminal reasons," action and passions, and "hexis," or "habit," the inorganic informing principle). Of these, numenius seems to have lacked the Aristotelian doctrines, although he left Plato's single triple-functioned soul for Aristotle's combination of souls of various degrees (fr. 53). Plotinos, therefore, seems to have distinguished in every object two elements, matter and form (ii. 4.1; ii. 5.2). Matter inheres potentially in all beings (ii. 5.3, 4) and therefore is non-being, ugliness, and evil (i. 6.6). Form is the actualization (K. Steinhart's Melemata Plotiniana, p. 31; ii. 5.2); that is, the essence and power (vi. 4.9), which are inseparable. Form alone possesses real existence, beauty and goodness. Form has four degrees: idea, reason, nature and habit; which degrees are the same as those of thought and life (Porphyry, Principles 12, 13, 14). The idea is distinguished into "idea" or intelligible Form, or "eidos," principle of human intellectual life. Reason is 1, divine (theios logos, i. 6, 2; the reason that comes from the universal Soul, iv. 3.10), 2, human (principle of the rational life, see Ficinus on ii. 6.2); 3, the seminal or generative reason (principle of the life of sensation, which imparts to the body the sense-form, "morph," 3.12-end; Bouillet, i. 365). Now reasons reside in the soul (ii. 4.12), and are simultaneously essences and powers (vi. 4.9), and as powers produce the nature, and as essences, the habits. Now nature ("physis") is the principle of the vegetative life, and habit, "hexis," numenius, fr. 55, see ii. 4.16, is the principle of unity of inorganic things.
  262 As thought Aristotle, Met. xii, 3.
  --
  266 This is numenius' doctrine, fr. 16.
  267 See iii. 3.5, 11.
  268 Plotinos here makes in the world-Soul a distinction analogous to that obtaining in the human one (where there is a reasonable soul, and its image, the vegetative soul, see i. 1.812; iv. 4. 13, 14). Here he asserts that there are two souls; the superior soul (the principal power of the soul, which receives the forms from Intelligence (see iv. 4.912, 35), and the inferior soul (nature, or the generative power), which transmits them to matter, so as to fashion it by seminal reasons (see iii. 4.13, 14, 22, 27). Bouillet, no doubt remembering Plotinos's own earlier invectives against those who divided the world-soul (ii. 9.6), evidently directed against Amelius and the numenian influence, which till then he had followedtries to minimize it, claiming that this does not mean two different hypostases, but only two functions of one and the same hypostasis. But he acknowledges that this gave the foundation for Plotinos's successors' distinction between the supermundane and the mundane souls (hyperkosmios, and egkosmios). Plotinos was therefore returning to numenius's two world-souls (fr. 16), which was a necessary logical consequence of his belief in two human souls (fr. 53), as he himself had taught in iii. 8.5. Plotinos objectifies this doubleness of the soul in the myth of the two Hercules, in the next book, i. 1.12.
  269 See ii. 9.2.
  --
  284 As thought Aristotle, de Anima 2.1; see 4.3.21, and numenius, 32.
  285 A famous comparison, found in Aristotle, de Anima, ii. 1; Plato, Laws, x. p. 906; Cary, 14; and especially numenius, 32.
  286 As Plotinos thinks.
  --
  307 See iv. 3.2931, also i. 1.9; numenius, fr. ii. 8, 19; iii. See section 10.
  308 See i. 2.5.
  --
  316 We find here a reassertion of numenius's doctrine of two souls in man, fr. 53.
  317 Bouillet observes that this book is only a feeble outline of some of the ideas developed in vi. 7, 8, and 9. The biographical significance of this might be as follows. As in the immediately preceding books Plotinos was harking back to numenius's doctrines, he may have wished to reconcile the two divergent periods, the Porphyrian monism of vi. 7 and 8, with the earlier Amelian dualism of vi. 9. This was nothing derogatory to him; for it is well known that there was a difference between the eclectic monism of the young Plato of the Republic, and the more logical dualism of the older Plato of the Laws. This latter was represented by numenius and Amelius; the formercombined with Aristotelian and Stoic elementsby Porphyry. Where Plato could not decide, why should we expect Plotinos to do so? And, as a matter of fact, the world also has never been able to decide, so long as it remained sincere, and did not deceive itself with sophistries, as did Hegel. Kant also had his "thing-in-itself"indeed, he did little more than to develop the work of Plotinos.
  318 As the Stoics would say.
  --
  Giving without loss (a numenian idea), vi. 9.9 (9-165).
  Gluttonous people who gorge themselves at the ceremonies and leave without mysteries, v. 5.1 (32-592).

ENNEAD 06.09 - Of the Good and the One., #Plotinus - Complete Works Vol 01, #Plotinus, #Christianity
  FOLLOWING numenIUS, PLOTINOS DESCRIBES THE SUPREME AS GIVER.
  9. In this choric ballet, the soul sees the source of life, the source of intelligence, the principle of being, the cause of the good, and the root of love. All these entities are derived from the One without diminishing Him. He is indeed no corporeal mass; otherwise the things that are born of Him would be perishable. However, they are eternal, because their principle ever remains the same, because205 He does not divide Himself to produce them, but remains entire. They persist, just as the light persists so long as the sun remains.206 Nor are we separated from the One; we are not distant from Him, though corporeal nature,166 by approaching us, has attracted us to it (thus drawing us away from the One).207 But it is in the One that we brea the and have our being.208 He gave us life not merely at a given moment, only to leave us later; but His giving is perpetual, so long as He remains what He is, or rather, so long as we turn towards Him. There it is that we find happiness, while to withdraw from Him is to fall. It is in Him that our soul rests; it is by rising to that place free from all evil that she is delivered from evils; there she really thinks, there she is impassible, there she really lives. Our present life, in which we are not united with the divinity, is only a trace or adumbration of real life. Real life (which is presence with the divinity) is the actualization of intelligence. It is this actualization of intelligence which begets the divinities by a sort of silent intercourse with the One; thereby begetting beauty, justice and virtue. These are begotten by the soul that is filled with divinity. In Him is her principle and goal; her principle, because it is from there that she proceeds; her goal, because there is the good to which she aspires, so that by returning thither she again becomes what she was. Life here below, in the midst of sense-objects, is for the soul a degradation, an exile, a loss of her wings.209
  --
  Such is the life of the divinities; such is also that of divine and blessed men; detachment from all things here below, scorn of all earthly pleasures, and flight of the soul towards the Divinity that she shall see face to face (that is, "alone with the alone," as thought numenius).215
  173

The Logomachy of Zos, #unset, #Anonymous, #Various
  The great sterilities: the numen and the human- ever present- are
  stercoraceous images of greed under other names.
  --
  The great sterilities: the numen and the humane in man- ever present
  are stercoraceous things of greed under other names.
  The numen, the soul and the body never forsake you but you forsake
  them for a while.
  --
  company. The numen and your genius, with all their media, and a host
  of elementals and ghosts of your dead loves- ARE THERE! They need no

WORDNET



--- Overview of noun numen

The noun numen has 1 sense (no senses from tagged texts)
                    
1. numen ::: (a spirit believed to inhabit an object or preside over a place (especially in ancient Roman religion))


--- Synonyms/Hypernyms (Ordered by Estimated Frequency) of noun numen

1 sense of numen                            

Sense 1
numen
   => spirit, disembodied spirit
     => spiritual being, supernatural being
       => belief
         => content, cognitive content, mental object
           => cognition, knowledge, noesis
             => psychological feature
               => abstraction, abstract entity
                 => entity


--- Hyponyms of noun numen
                                    


--- Synonyms/Hypernyms (Ordered by Estimated Frequency) of noun numen

1 sense of numen                            

Sense 1
numen
   => spirit, disembodied spirit




--- Coordinate Terms (sisters) of noun numen

1 sense of numen                            

Sense 1
numen
  -> spirit, disembodied spirit
   => control
   => evil spirit
   => banshee, banshie
   => genie, jinni, jinnee, djinni, djinny, djinn
   => familiar, familiar spirit
   => peri
   => apparition, phantom, phantasm, phantasma, fantasm, specter, spectre
   => presence
   => kachina
   => numen
   => python
   => sylvan, silvan
   => thunderbird
   => zombi, zombie, zombi spirit, zombie spirit




--- Grep of noun numen
numen
numenius
numenius arquata
numenius borealis



IN WEBGEN [10000/2407]

Wikipedia - 14th New Jersey Volunteer Infantry Monument
Wikipedia - 1 Prince's Terrace -- Scottish monument
Wikipedia - 32nd Indiana Monument -- US Civil War monument
Wikipedia - 33 Martyrs Memorial -- Monument in Turkey to the memory of 33 unarmed recruits killed by PKK
Wikipedia - 7 Most Endangered Programme -- Programme to protect endangered monuments and sites in Europe
Wikipedia - Abano Mineral Lake Natural Monument -- Carbon dioxide effervescent lake in Kazbegi Municipality, Georgia
Wikipedia - Abhakara Kiartivongse monument, Pattaya -- Monument in Pattaya, Thailand
Wikipedia - Admiral Hood Monument -- Memorial column on a hill near Butleigh, Compton Dundon, Somerset, England
Wikipedia - A Happening of Monumental Proportions -- 2017 film directed by Judy Greer
Wikipedia - Aiwan-e-Iqbal -- Office complex and monument in Lahore, Pakistan
Wikipedia - Ajanta Caves -- 2nd century BCE to 6th century CE Buddhist cave monuments located in Maharashtra, India
Wikipedia - Ali Bel Bicaj Tower House and Mill -- Cultural heritage monument of Kosovo
Wikipedia - Allah Chattar -- Monument in Muradnagar, Bangladesh
Wikipedia - Alyosha Monument, Murmansk -- World War II memorial in Russia
Wikipedia - Amis des monuments rouennais -- French historic structure organization
Wikipedia - Ancient Monuments Act 1931 -- Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom
Wikipedia - Ancient Monuments and Archaeological Areas Act 1979 -- Law in the UK
Wikipedia - Ancient Monuments Consolidation and Amendment Act 1913 -- Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom
Wikipedia - Ancient Monuments of the Mississippi Valley -- Book by Ephraim George Squier
Wikipedia - Ancient Monuments Preservation Act 1904 -- Act in British India
Wikipedia - Ancient Monuments Protection Act 1882 -- Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom
Wikipedia - Ancient Monuments Protection Act 1900 -- Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom
Wikipedia - Ancient Monuments Protection Act 1910 -- Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom
Wikipedia - Andrew Ritchie (art historian) -- Museum director and Monuments Man
Wikipedia - Angel of Victory (ValdepeM-CM-1as) -- Monument in Granada
Wikipedia - Aniakchak National Monument and Preserve -- Region of Alaska
Wikipedia - Antiquities and Monuments Ordinance -- Ordinance of Hong Kong
Wikipedia - Apponyi Palace (Bratislava) -- Monument in Bratislava
Wikipedia - Arapi Family House -- Cultural heritage monument of Kosovo
Wikipedia - Arbor Low -- Neolithic henge monument in Derbyshire, England
Wikipedia - Ardfert Abbey -- Medieval Franciscan friary and National Monument located in County Kerry, Ireland.
Wikipedia - Arthur's Stone (Kerikeri) -- Monument in New Zealand
Wikipedia - Asllan Tupella Tower House -- Cultural heritage monument of Kosovo
Wikipedia - Assumburg -- Monumental windmill, Netherlands
Wikipedia - Ataturk, His Mother and Women's Rights Monument -- Monument in M-DM-0zmir, Turkey
Wikipedia - Ataturk Monument (M-DM-0zmir) -- Monument in M-DM-0zmir, Turkey
Wikipedia - Athens Charter (preservation) -- Manifesto on restoration of historic monuments
Wikipedia - Athens Confederate Monument -- Confederate monument in Athens, Georgia, United States
Wikipedia - Au chien qui fume -- restaurant and Historic Monument in Paris, France
Wikipedia - Au roi de la biere -- Historic Monument in Paris, France
Wikipedia - Avebury -- Neolithic henge monument in Wiltshire, England
Wikipedia - Axe historique -- Line of monuments, buildings, and thoroughfares in Paris, France
Wikipedia - Axial stone circle -- Type of megalithic monument in counties Cork and Kerry, Ireland
Wikipedia - Balladoole -- Historic monument site on the Isle of Man
Wikipedia - Ballinknockane -- Site of Irish national monument
Wikipedia - Ballynahow Castle -- Tower house and National Monument in County Tipperary, Ireland
Wikipedia - Baltimore Monuments -- Professional softball team
Wikipedia - Bank and Monument stations -- London Underground and DLR stations
Wikipedia - Barda Mausoleum -- Historical monument of the XIV century in Azerbaijan
Wikipedia - Basilica on Tepe's Hill -- Cultural monument in Albania
Wikipedia - Bayezid II Hamam -- Historic monument in Istanbul, Turkey
Wikipedia - Bayreuth Festspielhaus -- Opera house and cultural heritage monument in Bavaria, Germany
Wikipedia - Bears Ears National Monument -- Protected area in Utah
Wikipedia - Bedd Taliesin -- Listed Historic Monument and grave
Wikipedia - Befreiungshalle -- Architectural heritage monument in Germany
Wikipedia - Beginish house -- Stone house and Irish national monument in County Kerry, Ireland
Wikipedia - Behy court tomb -- Megalithic monument in Ireland
Wikipedia - Ben Youssef Madrasa -- Historic monument in Marrakesh, Morocco
Wikipedia - Birth of a New Man -- Monument in Seville
Wikipedia - Birtvisi Natural Monument -- Natural monument of Georgia
Wikipedia - Bluestonehenge -- Prehistoric monument in Wiltshire, England
Wikipedia - Bohdan Khmelnytsky Monument, Kyiv -- Monument in Kyiv, Ukraine
Wikipedia - Booker T. Washington National Monument -- 224 acres managed the U.S. National Park Service
Wikipedia - Boundary Stelae of Akhenaten -- Group of royal monuments in Upper Egypt
Wikipedia - Bowl barrow -- Ancient funerary monument, the most numerous form of round barrow
Wikipedia - Brigham Young Monument -- Sculpture by Cyrus Edwin Dallin
Wikipedia - Broken Chair -- Monumental sculpture in Geneva
Wikipedia - Bronze Horseman -- Monument for Peter I at the Senate Square in Saint Petersburg
Wikipedia - Buck Island Reef National Monument -- Comprises 880 acres in St. Croix, Virgin Islands (US) maintained by the National Park Service
Wikipedia - Bukoshi Oak -- natural monument in Kosovo
Wikipedia - Bust of John McDonogh -- Monument to American slave owner
Wikipedia - Buzludzha monument -- Abandoned communist monument house in Bulgaria
Wikipedia - Cairn -- Man-made pile of stones or burial monument
Wikipedia - California Coastal National Monument -- National monument in the United States
Wikipedia - Camposanto Monumentale
Wikipedia - Canyon de Chelly National Monument -- National Park Service unit in Arizona, United States
Wikipedia - Capulin Volcano National Monument -- U.S. National Monument in New Mexico
Wikipedia - Cargill Monument -- Monument in Dunedin, New Zealand
Wikipedia - Carrownlisheen Wedge Tomb -- Irish national monument
Wikipedia - Cascade-Siskiyou National Monument -- National monument in the United States
Wikipedia - Castle Clinton -- US national monument
Wikipedia - Castle Hill, Huddersfield -- Ancient monument in West Yorkshire, England
Wikipedia - Castlelyons Friary -- Former Carmelite Priory and National Monument located in County Cork, Ireland
Wikipedia - Castle Mountains National Monument -- Protected area in Mojave Desert, California
Wikipedia - Castleruddery Stone Circle -- Stone circle and National Monument in County Wicklow, Ireland
Wikipedia - Category:Cultural Monuments of Albania
Wikipedia - Category:National Historic Monuments of Argentina
Wikipedia - Category:Peace monuments and memorials
Wikipedia - Cathedral of Mercedes, Uruguay -- Cultural heritage monument of Uruguay
Wikipedia - Cecil John Rhodes Statue -- Monument in Cape Town, South Africa
Wikipedia - Cenotaph -- "Empty tomb" or monument erected in honor of a person whose remains are elsewhere
Wikipedia - Centre des monuments nationaux -- French heritage agency
Wikipedia - Chambered cairn -- Burial monument, usually constructed during the Neolithic, consisting of a sizeable (usually stone) chamber around and over which a cairn of stones was constructed
Wikipedia - Chiricahua National Monument -- National monument in southeastern Arizona
Wikipedia - Choragic Monument of Lysicrates
Wikipedia - Chronicle of Georgia -- Monument in Tbilisi, Georgia
Wikipedia - Church ruins, Belsh -- Cultural Monument in Albania
Wikipedia - Church ruins, Dashajt -- Cultural Monument of Albania
Wikipedia - Cine-Teatro Monumental, Lisbon -- Defunct theatre in Lisbon, Portugal
Wikipedia - Civil War Unknowns Monument -- Monument at Arlington National Cemetery, Arlington, VA, US
Wikipedia - Clock Tower, Hong Kong -- Monument in Tsim Sha Tsui, Hong Kong
Wikipedia - Clonca Church & Cross -- Historic monument in County Donegal
Wikipedia - Cnoc Raithni -- Irish national monument
Wikipedia - Colorado National Monument -- National Park Service unit in Colorado, United States
Wikipedia - Columbus Monument, Barcelona -- Monument in Barcelona
Wikipedia - Compass rose -- Figure on a compass, map, nautical chart, or monument used to display the orientation of the cardinal directions
Wikipedia - Confederate Defenders of Charleston -- Monument in Charleston, South Carolina
Wikipedia - Confederate Memorial (Arlington National Cemetery) -- Monument in Arlington National Cemetery built in 1914
Wikipedia - Confederate Monument (Fort Worth, Texas) -- Outdoor Confederate memorial installed in Fort Worth, Texas
Wikipedia - Confederate Monument (Franklin, Tennessee) -- Monument in Franklin, Tennessee, United States
Wikipedia - Confederate Monument in Georgetown -- Confederate Monument memoir of the Confederate Army
Wikipedia - Confederate Monument (Liberty, Mississippi) -- Monument in Liberty, Mississippi, United States
Wikipedia - Confederate Private Monument -- Sculpture of a Confederate soldier in Nashville, Tennessee
Wikipedia - Confederate Soldier Memorial (Huntsville, Alabama) -- Monument to the Confederate Army in Huntsville, Alabama
Wikipedia - Confederate Soldiers and Sailors Monument (Indianapolis) -- Monument to the Confederate POWs in Indianapolis
Wikipedia - Conolly's Folly -- Monument in County Kildare, Ireland
Wikipedia - Corona Founders Monument -- California Historic Landmark
Wikipedia - Corpus Inscriptionum et Monumentorum Religionis Mithriacae
Wikipedia - Corral del Carbon -- Historic monument in Granada, Spain
Wikipedia - Craters of the Moon National Monument and Preserve -- National monument in Idaho, United States
Wikipedia - Cross of All Nations -- A monumental cross located in Baskinta, Lebanon
Wikipedia - Cueva del Milodon Natural Monument -- Protected area in Chile
Wikipedia - Cultural Heritage Monuments of Slovakia
Wikipedia - Cultural property -- Physical cultural heritage; monuments, artworks, libraries etc.
Wikipedia - Danteum -- Project for a monument to Dante Alighieri
Wikipedia - De Akkermolen -- Dutch monumental windmill
Wikipedia - Declared monuments of Hong Kong -- Heritage sites in Hong Kong
Wikipedia - Deekshabhoomi -- Buddhist monument at Nagpur, Maharashtra, India
Wikipedia - Denton Confederate Soldier Monument -- Confederate memorial in Denton, Texas
Wikipedia - Devon County War Memorial -- First World War memorial monument
Wikipedia - Domo Bolivariano de Barquisimeto -- National historical monument of Venezuela in Barquisimeto
Wikipedia - Doyle Monument -- Monument in Jerbourg Point
Wikipedia - Dr. B. R. Ambedkar Memorial Park -- Indian monument dedicated to B. R. Ambedkar
Wikipedia - D'Urville Monument -- Mountain of Antarctica
Wikipedia - Dwyer-McAllister Cottage -- National Monument in Wicklow, Ireland
Wikipedia - Edifici de Sindicats -- Monumental building in Barcelona, Spain
Wikipedia - Effigy Mounds National Monument -- National monument of prehistoric mounds built by Native Americans, in Iowa, United States
Wikipedia - Elena Ghica Elementary School -- Cultural heritage monument of Kosovo
Wikipedia - El Monumento de la Recordacion -- Memorial monument and monolith erected in San Juan, Puerto Rico
Wikipedia - El Morro National Monument -- National monument in the United States
Wikipedia - Emperor William Monument (Porta Westfalica) -- Colossal monument near Porta Westfalica in North Rhine-Westphalian, Germany
Wikipedia - Enclave: The Ottawa Women's Monument -- Public monument in Ottawa, Canada
Wikipedia - Entrance grave -- Prehistoric burial monument found primarily on the Isles of Scilly, England
Wikipedia - Etchmiadzin Cathedral -- Cultural heritage monument of Armenia
Wikipedia - Eternal Light Peace Memorial -- 1938 Gettysburg Battlefield monument
Wikipedia - Ferrybridge Henge -- Neolithic henge monument
Wikipedia - First Albanian School in Pristina -- Cultural heritage monument of Kosovo
Wikipedia - Flora Fountain -- Heritage monument in Mumbai, India
Wikipedia - Former Historical Archive (Vushtrri) -- Cultural heritage monument of Kosovo
Wikipedia - Fort Matanzas National Monument -- Place in Florida (US) managed by the National Park Service
Wikipedia - Fountain of Cybele (Madrid) -- Monumental fountain in Madrid
Wikipedia - Fountain of Fame (Madrid) -- Monumental fountain in Madrid
Wikipedia - Four Corners Monument -- Marks the quadripoint in the Southwestern United States
Wikipedia - Freedom Monument -- Memorial located in Riga, Latvia, honouring soldiers killed during the Latvian War of Independence
Wikipedia - Freight Wagon Memorial -- Monument
Wikipedia - Froschfelsen -- Natural monument in Germany
Wikipedia - Fuad Abdurahmanov -- Azerbaijani monument sculptor
Wikipedia - Funerary Monument to Sir John Hawkwood -- Fresco by Paolo Uccello
Wikipedia - Garleton Castle -- Scheduled monument in East Lothian, Scotland, UK
Wikipedia - Gateway Arch -- Monument in St. Louis, Missouri, U.S.
Wikipedia - Gentleman's Wall (Smrekonica) -- Cultural heritage monument of Kosovo
Wikipedia - George Washington Birthplace National Monument -- 550 acres in Virginia (US) managed by the National Park Service
Wikipedia - George Washington Carver National Monument -- National monument in Missouri, US
Wikipedia - Gerard Johnson (sculptor) -- 17th-century English sculptor thought to have created Shakespeare's funerary monument
Wikipedia - Gergovie Monument -- Stone monument in Puy-de-Dome, France
Wikipedia - Giant's Ring -- Neolithic henge monument
Wikipedia - GM-CM-+rmova Mosque -- Cultural heritage monument of Kosovo
Wikipedia - Goethe Monument (Berlin)
Wikipedia - Gola Ghar -- Historical monument in Sivasagar, Assam, India
Wikipedia - Gopuram -- Monumental gateway tower to Hindu temple complexes
Wikipedia - Gornja Slatina Mosque -- Cultural heritage monument of Kosovo
Wikipedia - Grands Moulins de Paris (Marquette-lez-Lille) -- French historical monument
Wikipedia - Great Hamam of Pristina -- Ottoman-era monument in Pristina, Kosovo
Wikipedia - Great Madrasa (Gjakova) -- Cultural heritage monument of Kosovo
Wikipedia - Great Stupa of Universal Compassion -- Buddhist monument under construction near Bendigo, Victoria, Australia
Wikipedia - Greenhill Ogham Stones -- Ogham stones (national monument) in County Cork, Ireland
Wikipedia - Ha! Ha! Pyramid -- Art monument in Quebec
Wikipedia - Hamam Mosque -- Cultural heritage monument of Kosovo
Wikipedia - Hampi -- Ancient and medieval monuments, a UNESCO World Heritage Site in Karnataka, India
Wikipedia - Harilaq Fortress -- Cultural heritage monument of Kosovo
Wikipedia - Haxhi Ymer Kuttab -- Cultural heritage monument of Kosovo
Wikipedia - Heel-shaped cairn -- Type of megalithic monument
Wikipedia - Heroinat Memorial -- Public monument in Pristina, Kosovo
Wikipedia - Het Slaakhuis -- Rijksmonument in Rotterdam
Wikipedia - Historical Monuments Commission -- Former government agency of South Africa
Wikipedia - Historic Monuments and Sites of Morocco
Wikipedia - Historic Monuments of Ancient Kyoto (Kyoto, Uji and Otsu Cities) -- World Heritage Site
Wikipedia - Historic Monuments of Ancient Nara -- Complex of eight historical sites in Nara, Japan
Wikipedia - Historic Scotland -- Executive agency responsible for historic monuments in Scotland
Wikipedia - Ho Chi Minh Monument -- Russian monument honoring Vietnamese leader Ho Chi Minh
Wikipedia - Homestead National Monument of America -- National monument in the United States
Wikipedia - Hotel de la Capitainerie des Chasses -- Historic Monument in Villejuif, France
Wikipedia - Hovenweep National Monument -- US national monument
Wikipedia - Howitzer Monument -- Monument to a Confederate artillery unit in Richmond, Virginia
Wikipedia - Huize Ivicke -- Monumental building in Wassenaar
Wikipedia - Hunnestad Monument -- Monument
Wikipedia - Imperial fora -- Series of monumental squares in Rome
Wikipedia - Industrial heritage -- An industrial plant, which can stand as a monument to monument preservation and heritage conservation law
Wikipedia - Institute for Protection of Cultural Monuments and National Museum -- Scientific, research and cultural institution in Ohrid, North Macedonia
Wikipedia - Jalesveva Jayamahe Monument -- Public statue
Wikipedia - James Oglethorpe Monument -- Monument in Savannah, Georgia
Wikipedia - Japanese Lantern Monument -- Memorial in Cape Town, South Africa
Wikipedia - Japanese Torreya of Samin-ri -- Monumental tree
Wikipedia - John Day Fossil Beds National Monument -- National Park Service unit in Oregon, United States
Wikipedia - KamenicM-CM-+ Church -- Cultural Monument in Albania
Wikipedia - Kapaemahu -- Cultural monument in Hawaii
Wikipedia - KaraM-DM-^QorM-DM-^Qe Monument, Belgrade -- Either of two monuments in Belgrade, Serbia
Wikipedia - Karl Schmidt Memorial -- Monument in Chennai, India
Wikipedia - Khalanga War Memorial -- Heritage monument in Dehradun, India
Wikipedia - Khomuli Cave Natural Monument -- Cave in Georgia
Wikipedia - Khorab Memorial -- Namibian monument
Wikipedia - Khwaja Khizr Tomb -- Historical monument in Sonipat, NCR, India
Wikipedia - Kildun Standing Stones -- Bronze age monument in County Mayo, Ireland
Wikipedia - King Ludwig Oak -- Natural monument in Germany
Wikipedia - King's Standing Bowl Barrow -- Scheduled Monument in Birmingham, England
Wikipedia - Klonk -- Czech national nature monument
Wikipedia - Knock y Doonee -- Historic monument site on the Isle of Man
Wikipedia - Kohala Historical Sites State Monument -- Historic Place in Hawaii County, Hawaii
Wikipedia - Kolkata Gate -- Arch-monument in Kolkata, India
Wikipedia - Kristek House -- Artwork by Lubo Kristek, monumental assemblage
Wikipedia - KyffhM-CM-$user Monument -- Late 19th century colossal monument in Germany
Wikipedia - Lahore: History and Architecture of Mughal Monuments -- Non-Fiction Book
Wikipedia - Lamel Hill -- Scheduled monument in the City of York, North Yorkshire, England
Wikipedia - La Palette -- cafM-CM-) and Historic Monument in Paris, France
Wikipedia - Lenin Monument (Berlin) -- Lenin Monument by Nikolai Tomsky
Wikipedia - Leshan Giant Buddha -- Monumental sculpture
Wikipedia - Lincoln Memorial -- 20th century American national monument in Washington, DC
Wikipedia - Lincoln Monument (Philadelphia) -- Statue in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
Wikipedia - Lion Monument -- Sculpture in Lucerne by Bertel Thorvaldsen
Wikipedia - List of ancient monuments in Rome -- Wikipedia list article
Wikipedia - List of appearances of Monument Valley in the media -- Wikipedia list article
Wikipedia - List of Confederate monuments and memorials in Alabama -- Confederate monuments and memorials in Alabama
Wikipedia - List of Confederate monuments and memorials in Georgia -- Confederate monuments and memorials in Georgia
Wikipedia - List of Confederate monuments and memorials in Mississippi -- Confederate monuments and memorials in Mississippi
Wikipedia - List of Confederate monuments and memorials in North Carolina -- Confederate monuments and memorials in North Carolina
Wikipedia - List of Confederate monuments and memorials in South Carolina -- Confederate monuments and memorials in South Carolina
Wikipedia - List of Confederate monuments and memorials in Virginia -- Confederate monuments and memorials in Virginia
Wikipedia - List of Confederate monuments and memorials -- Wikipedia list article
Wikipedia - List of cultural heritage monuments in Rwanda -- Wikipedia list article
Wikipedia - List of firefighting monuments and memorials -- Wikipedia list article
Wikipedia - List of historical monuments in Romania
Wikipedia - List of historic monuments in Romania -- Wikipedia list article
Wikipedia - List of Historic Monuments (Poland)
Wikipedia - List of Los Angeles Historic-Cultural Monuments in Hollywood -- Wikipedia list article
Wikipedia - List of megalithic monuments in Ireland -- Wikipedia list article
Wikipedia - List of memorials and monuments at Arlington National Cemetery -- Wikipedia list article
Wikipedia - List of monumental masons -- Wikipedia list article
Wikipedia - List of monument and memorial controversies in the United States -- Excluding monuments or memorials dealing with the Confederate States of America
Wikipedia - List of monuments and memorials in Azov -- Wikimedia list article
Wikipedia - List of monuments and memorials to Sam Houston -- Wikipedia list article
Wikipedia - List of monuments and sites in Errachidia -- List of monuments that are classified or inventoried by the Moroccan ministry of culture around Errachidia.
Wikipedia - List of monuments and sites in Figuig, Morocco -- List of monuments that are classified or inventoried by the Moroccan ministry of culture around Figuig.
Wikipedia - List of monuments and sites in Tata, Morocco -- List of sites and monuments that are classified or inventoried by the Moroccan ministry of culture around Tata, Morocco
Wikipedia - List of monuments in Agadir -- List of monuments that are classified by the Moroccan ministry of culture around Agadir.
Wikipedia - List of monuments in Asilah -- List of monuments that are classified by the Moroccan ministry of culture around Asilah.
Wikipedia - List of monuments in Azilal -- List of monuments that are classified by the Moroccan ministry of culture around Azilal.
Wikipedia - List of monuments in Casablanca -- List of monuments that are classified by the Moroccan ministry of culture around Casablanca.
Wikipedia - List of monuments in Chefchaouen -- List of monuments that are classified by the Moroccan ministry of culture around Chefchaouen.
Wikipedia - List of monuments in El Hajeb -- List of monuments that are classified by the Moroccan ministry of culture around El Hajeb.
Wikipedia - List of monuments in El Jadida -- List of monuments that are classified by the Moroccan ministry of culture around El Jadida.
Wikipedia - List of monuments in Essaouira -- List of monuments that are classified by the Moroccan ministry of culture around Essaouira.
Wikipedia - List of monuments in Fez -- List of monuments that are classified by the Moroccan ministry of culture around Fez.
Wikipedia - List of monuments in Guelmim -- List of monuments that are classified by the Moroccan ministry of culture around Guelmim.
Wikipedia - List of monuments in Marrakesh -- List of monuments that are classified by the Moroccan ministry of culture around Marrakesh.
Wikipedia - List of monuments in Mehdya -- List of monuments that are classified by the Moroccan ministry of culture around Mehdya.
Wikipedia - List of monuments in Meknes -- List of monuments that are classified by the Moroccan ministry of culture around Meknes.
Wikipedia - List of monuments in Nador, Morocco -- List of monuments that are classified by the Moroccan ministry of culture around Nador.
Wikipedia - List of monuments in Ouarzazate -- List of monuments that are classified by the Moroccan ministry of culture around Ouarzazate.
Wikipedia - List of monuments in Oujda -- List of monuments that are classified by the Moroccan ministry of culture around Oujda.
Wikipedia - List of monuments in Rabat, Morocco -- List of monuments that are classified by the Moroccan ministry of culture around Rabat.
Wikipedia - List of monuments in Safi, Morocco -- List of monuments that are classified by the Moroccan ministry of culture around Safi.
Wikipedia - List of monuments in SalM-CM-), Morocco -- List of monuments that are classified by the Moroccan ministry of culture around SalM-CM-).
Wikipedia - List of monuments in Sidi Ifni -- List of monuments that are classified by the Moroccan ministry of culture around Sidi Ifni.
Wikipedia - List of monuments in Sidi Kacem -- List of monuments that are classified by the Moroccan ministry of culture around Sidi Kacem.
Wikipedia - List of monuments in Tangier -- List of monuments that are classified by the Moroccan ministry of culture around Tangier.
Wikipedia - List of monuments in Taroudant -- List of monuments that are classified by the Moroccan ministry of culture around Taroudant.
Wikipedia - List of monuments in Taza -- List of monuments that are classified by the Moroccan ministry of culture around Taza.
Wikipedia - List of monuments in Tetouan -- List of monuments that are classified by the Moroccan ministry of culture around Tetouan.
Wikipedia - List of monuments in Tiznit -- List of monuments that are classified by the Moroccan ministry of culture around Tiznit.
Wikipedia - List of monuments in Zagora -- List of monuments that are classified by the Moroccan ministry of culture around Zagora.
Wikipedia - List of monuments of Algeria
Wikipedia - List of monuments of Antarctica
Wikipedia - List of monuments of Aruba
Wikipedia - List of monuments of Azerbaijan
Wikipedia - List of monuments of Italy
Wikipedia - List of monuments of Kenya
Wikipedia - List of Monuments of National Importance in Agra circle -- Wikipedia list article
Wikipedia - List of Monuments of National Importance in Agra district -- Wikipedia list article
Wikipedia - List of Monuments of National Importance in Ahmedabad district -- Wikipedia list article
Wikipedia - List of Monuments of National Importance in Allahabad district -- Wikipedia list article
Wikipedia - List of Monuments of National Importance in Andhra Pradesh -- Wikipedia list article
Wikipedia - List of Monuments of National Importance in Arunachal Pradesh -- Wikipedia list article
Wikipedia - List of Monuments of National Importance in Assam -- Wikipedia list article
Wikipedia - List of Monuments of National Importance in Aurangabad circle -- Wikipedia list article
Wikipedia - List of Monuments of National Importance in Bangalore circle -- Wikipedia list article
Wikipedia - List of Monuments of National Importance in Belgaum district -- Wikipedia list article
Wikipedia - List of Monuments of National Importance in Bidar district -- Wikipedia list article
Wikipedia - List of Monuments of National Importance in Bihar -- Wikipedia list article
Wikipedia - List of Monuments of National Importance in Bijapur district, Karnataka -- Wikipedia list article
Wikipedia - List of Monuments of National Importance in Chennai circle -- Wikipedia list article
Wikipedia - List of Monuments of National Importance in Chhattisgarh -- Wikipedia list article
Wikipedia - List of Monuments of National Importance in Dadra and Nagar Haveli and Daman and Diu -- Wikipedia list article
Wikipedia - List of Monuments of National Importance in Delhi -- Wikipedia list article
Wikipedia - List of Monuments of National Importance in Dharwad district -- Wikipedia list article
Wikipedia - List of Monuments of National Importance in Goa -- Wikipedia list article
Wikipedia - List of Monuments of National Importance in Gujarat -- Wikipedia list article
Wikipedia - List of Monuments of National Importance in Gulbarga district -- Wikipedia list article
Wikipedia - List of Monuments of National Importance in Haryana -- Wikipedia list article
Wikipedia - List of Monuments of National Importance in Himachal Pradesh -- Wikipedia list article
Wikipedia - List of Monuments of National Importance in Jammu and Kashmir -- Wikipedia list article
Wikipedia - List of Monuments of National Importance in Jharkhand -- Wikipedia list article
Wikipedia - List of Monuments of National Importance in Kanchipuram district -- Wikipedia list article
Wikipedia - List of Monuments of National Importance in Karnataka -- Wikipedia list article
Wikipedia - List of Monuments of National Importance in Kerala -- Wikimedia list article
Wikipedia - List of Monuments of National Importance in Ladakh -- Wikipedia list article
Wikipedia - List of Monuments of National Importance in Lalitpur district, India -- Wikipedia list article
Wikipedia - List of Monuments of National Importance in Lucknow circle/North -- Wikipedia list article
Wikipedia - List of Monuments of National Importance in Lucknow circle/South -- Wikipedia list article
Wikipedia - List of Monuments of National Importance in Lucknow circle -- Wikipedia list article
Wikipedia - List of Monuments of National Importance in Madhya Pradesh/East -- Wikipedia list article
Wikipedia - List of Monuments of National Importance in Madhya Pradesh/West -- Wikipedia list article
Wikipedia - List of Monuments of National Importance in Madhya Pradesh -- Wikipedia list article
Wikipedia - List of Monuments of National Importance in Maharashtra -- Wikipedia list article
Wikipedia - List of Monuments of National Importance in Manipur -- Wikipedia list article
Wikipedia - List of Monuments of National Importance in Meghalaya -- Wikipedia list article
Wikipedia - List of Monuments of National Importance in Mizoram -- Wikipedia list article
Wikipedia - List of Monuments of National Importance in Mumbai circle -- Wikipedia list article
Wikipedia - List of Monuments of National Importance in Nagaland -- Wikipedia list article
Wikipedia - List of Monuments of National Importance in Odisha -- Wikipedia list article
Wikipedia - List of Monuments of National Importance in Patna circle, Uttar Pradesh -- Wikipedia list article
Wikipedia - List of Monuments of National Importance in Puducherry -- Wikipedia list article
Wikipedia - List of Monuments of National Importance in Pudukkottai district -- Wikipedia list article
Wikipedia - List of Monuments of National Importance in Punjab, India -- Wikipedia list article
Wikipedia - List of Monuments of National Importance in Raichur district -- Wikipedia list article
Wikipedia - List of Monuments of National Importance in Rajasthan -- Wikipedia list article
Wikipedia - List of Monuments of National Importance in Sikkim -- Wikipedia list article
Wikipedia - List of Monuments of National Importance in Tamil Nadu -- Wikipedia list article
Wikipedia - List of Monuments of National Importance in Telangana -- Wikipedia list article
Wikipedia - List of Monuments of National Importance in Thrissur circle, Tamil Nadu -- Wikipedia list article
Wikipedia - List of Monuments of National Importance in Tripura -- Wikipedia list article
Wikipedia - List of Monuments of National Importance in Uttara Kannada district -- Wikipedia list article
Wikipedia - List of Monuments of National Importance in Uttarakhand -- Wikipedia list article
Wikipedia - List of Monuments of National Importance in Uttar Pradesh -- Wikipedia list article
Wikipedia - List of Monuments of National Importance in West Bengal -- Wikipedia list article
Wikipedia - List of monuments of Pope John Paul II
Wikipedia - List of monuments of the Gettysburg Battlefield -- Wikipedia list article
Wikipedia - List of monuments of Tolyatti -- Wikimedia list article
Wikipedia - List of monuments to Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington -- Wikipedia list article
Wikipedia - List of monuments to Ludwig van Beethoven -- Wikipedia list article
Wikipedia - List of most visited palaces and monuments -- Wikipedia list article
Wikipedia - List of museums and monuments in Istanbul -- Wikipedia list article
Wikipedia - List of National Historic Monuments of Argentina
Wikipedia - List of National Monuments in County Laois -- Wikimedia list article
Wikipedia - List of national monuments of Taiwan -- Wikipedia list article
Wikipedia - List of national monuments of the United States -- Wikipedia list article
Wikipedia - List of proposed national monuments of the United States -- Wikipedia list article
Wikipedia - List of Religious Cultural Monuments of Albania
Wikipedia - List of Rijksmonuments
Wikipedia - List of scheduled monuments in Anglesey -- Wikipedia list article
Wikipedia - List of scheduled monuments in Blaenau Gwent -- Wikipedia list article
Wikipedia - List of scheduled monuments in Bridgend -- Wikipedia list article
Wikipedia - List of scheduled monuments in Caerphilly -- Wikipedia list article
Wikipedia - List of scheduled monuments in Cardiff -- Wikipedia list article
Wikipedia - List of scheduled monuments in Cheshire (1066-1539) -- Wikipedia list article
Wikipedia - List of scheduled monuments in Cheshire dated to before 1066 -- Wikipedia list article
Wikipedia - List of scheduled monuments in Cheshire since 1539 -- Wikipedia list article
Wikipedia - List of scheduled monuments in Conwy -- Wikipedia list article
Wikipedia - List of scheduled monuments in Flintshire -- Wikipedia list article
Wikipedia - List of Scheduled Monuments in Merthyr Tydfil County Borough -- Wikipedia list article
Wikipedia - List of Scheduled Monuments in Monmouthshire -- Wikipedia list article
Wikipedia - List of Scheduled Monuments in Neath Port Talbot -- Wikipedia list article
Wikipedia - List of Scheduled Monuments in Newport -- Wikipedia list article
Wikipedia - List of scheduled monuments in North Somerset -- Wikipedia list article
Wikipedia - List of Scheduled Monuments in Rhondda Cynon Taf -- Wikipedia list article
Wikipedia - List of scheduled monuments in Sedgemoor -- Wikipedia list article
Wikipedia - List of scheduled monuments in South Somerset -- Wikipedia list article
Wikipedia - List of Scheduled Monuments in Swansea -- wikimedia list article
Wikipedia - List of scheduled monuments in the Vale of Glamorgan -- Wikipedia list article
Wikipedia - List of Scheduled Monuments in Torfaen -- Wikipedia list article
Wikipedia - List of scheduled monuments in Wrexham -- Wikipedia list article
Wikipedia - List of scheduled monuments -- Wikipedia list article
Wikipedia - List of scheduled prehistoric monuments in Carmarthenshire -- Wikipedia list article
Wikipedia - List of Scheduled prehistoric Monuments in Ceredigion -- Wikipedia list article
Wikipedia - List of Scheduled prehistoric Monuments in Gwynedd (former Caernarvonshire) -- Wikipedia list article
Wikipedia - List of Scheduled prehistoric Monuments in Gwynedd (former Merionethshire) -- Wikipedia list article
Wikipedia - List of Scheduled prehistoric Monuments in north Pembrokeshire -- Wikipedia list article
Wikipedia - List of Scheduled prehistoric Monuments in Powys (Brecknockshire) -- Wikipedia list article
Wikipedia - List of scheduled prehistoric monuments in Powys (Montgomeryshire) -- Wikipedia list article
Wikipedia - List of Scheduled prehistoric Monuments in Powys (Radnorshire) -- Wikipedia list article
Wikipedia - List of Scheduled prehistoric Monuments in south Pembrokeshire -- Wikipedia list article
Wikipedia - List of scheduled Roman to modern monuments in Carmarthenshire -- Wikipedia list article
Wikipedia - List of Scheduled Roman to modern Monuments in Ceredigion -- Wikipedia list article
Wikipedia - List of Scheduled Roman to modern Monuments in Gwynedd -- Wikipedia list article
Wikipedia - List of Scheduled Roman to modern Monuments in Pembrokeshire -- Wikipedia list article
Wikipedia - List of Scheduled Roman to modern Monuments in Powys (Brecknockshire) -- Wikipedia list article
Wikipedia - List of Scheduled Roman to modern Monuments in Powys (Montgomeryshire) -- Wikipedia list article
Wikipedia - List of Scheduled Roman to modern Monuments in Powys (Radnorshire) -- Wikipedia list article
Wikipedia - List of Special Places of Scenic Beauty, Special Historic Sites and Special Natural Monuments -- Wikipedia list article
Wikipedia - List of State Protected Monuments in Andhra Pradesh -- Wikipedia list article
Wikipedia - List of State Protected Monuments in Arunachal Pradesh -- Wikipedia list article
Wikipedia - List of State Protected Monuments in Assam -- Wikipedia list article
Wikipedia - List of State Protected Monuments in Bihar -- Wikipedia list article
Wikipedia - List of State Protected Monuments in Chhattisgarh -- Wikipedia list article
Wikipedia - List of State Protected Monuments in Delhi -- Wikipedia list article
Wikipedia - List of State Protected Monuments in Goa -- Wikipedia list article
Wikipedia - List of State Protected Monuments in Gujarat -- Wikipedia list article
Wikipedia - List of State Protected Monuments in Haryana -- Wikipedia list article
Wikipedia - List of State Protected Monuments in Himachal Pradesh -- Wikipedia list article
Wikipedia - List of State Protected Monuments in Jammu and Kashmir -- Wikipedia list article
Wikipedia - List of State Protected Monuments in Jharkhand -- Wikipedia list article
Wikipedia - List of State Protected Monuments in Karnataka -- Wikipedia list article
Wikipedia - List of State Protected Monuments in Kerala -- Wikipedia list article
Wikipedia - List of State Protected Monuments in Madhya Pradesh -- Wikipedia list article
Wikipedia - List of State Protected Monuments in Maharashtra -- Wikipedia list article
Wikipedia - List of State Protected Monuments in Manipur -- Wikipedia list article
Wikipedia - List of State Protected Monuments in Meghalaya -- Wikipedia list article
Wikipedia - List of State Protected Monuments in Mizoram -- Wikipedia list article
Wikipedia - List of State Protected Monuments in Odisha -- Wikipedia list article
Wikipedia - List of State Protected Monuments in Punjab, India -- Wikipedia list article
Wikipedia - List of State Protected Monuments in Rajasthan -- Wikipedia list article
Wikipedia - List of State Protected Monuments in Tamil Nadu -- Wikipedia list article
Wikipedia - List of State Protected Monuments in Telangana -- Wikipedia list article
Wikipedia - List of State Protected Monuments in Uttarakhand -- Wikipedia list article
Wikipedia - List of State Protected Monuments in Uttar Pradesh -- Wikipedia list article
Wikipedia - List of State Protected Monuments in West Bengal -- Wikipedia list article
Wikipedia - List of Texas Revolution monuments and memorials -- Wikipedia list article
Wikipedia - List of Union Civil War monuments and memorials -- Wikipedia list article
Wikipedia - List of Vietnam War monuments and memorials -- Wikipedia list article
Wikipedia - List of war museums and monuments in Vietnam -- Wikipedia list article
Wikipedia - List of World War II monuments and memorials in Bosnia and Herzegovina -- Wikipedia list article
Wikipedia - List of World War II monuments and memorials in North Macedonia -- Wikipedia list article
Wikipedia - List of World War II monuments and memorials in Slovenia -- Wikipedia list article
Wikipedia - List of World War I monuments and memorials -- Wikipedia list article
Wikipedia - List of Yugoslav World War II monuments and memorials in Montenegro -- Wikipedia list article
Wikipedia - List of Yugoslav World War II monuments and memorials in Serbia -- Wikipedia list article
Wikipedia - Lists of monuments and memorials -- Wikipedia list article
Wikipedia - Lists of war monuments and memorials -- Wikipedia list article
Wikipedia - Lluka e EpM-CM-+rme Kuttab -- Cultural heritage monument of Kosovo
Wikipedia - Los Angeles Historic-Cultural Monument -- Heritage designation of the city of Los Angeles, California
Wikipedia - Luther Monument (Washington, D.C.)
Wikipedia - Luther Monument
Wikipedia - Luther Monument (Worms)
Wikipedia - Madani Square -- Monument in Sylhet, Bangladesh
Wikipedia - Madonna of the Trail -- a series of 12 identical monuments dedicated to the spirit of pioneer women in the United States
Wikipedia - Mahmut Pasha Hamam -- Historic monument in Istanbul, Turkey
Wikipedia - Maria Elena nitrate works -- National monument of Chile
Wikipedia - Maria Konopnicka Monument, WrzeM-EM-^[nia -- Statue in WrzeM-EM-^[nia, Poland
Wikipedia - Maria Lionza (statue) -- Monumental sculpture in Caracas
Wikipedia - Matthew Perry Monument (Newport, Rhode Island) -- Statue
Wikipedia - Mausoleum -- Monument enclosing the interment space or burial chamber of a deceased person or people
Wikipedia - Medal of Honor Memorial (Indianapolis) -- Monument in Indianapolis, IN, US
Wikipedia - Medal of Honor Monument -- Monument in Salem, OR, US
Wikipedia - Medieval Monuments in Kosovo
Wikipedia - Megalithic Monuments of Alcalar -- group of burial tombs in Mexilhoeira Grande, Portugal
Wikipedia - Megalith -- Large stone used to build a structure or monument
Wikipedia - Memorial Complex Adem Jashari -- Cultural heritage monument of Kosovo
Wikipedia - Memorial for Victims of the German Occupation -- Monument in Budapest, Hungary
Wikipedia - M-EM- timlje Mosque -- Cultural heritage monument of Kosovo
Wikipedia - Mercado Central de Santiago -- National monument of Chile
Wikipedia - Meseta la Galera Natural Monument -- Meseta la Galera Natural Monument
Wikipedia - MM-CM-)rida cable car -- National historical monument of Venezuela
Wikipedia - Montebello Genocide Memorial -- Monument in Montebello, California, USA
Wikipedia - Monumenta Germaniae Historica
Wikipedia - Monumental cemetery of Brescia -- Cemetery in the Italian municipality of Brescia
Wikipedia - Monumental cross
Wikipedia - Monumental: In Search of America's National Treasure -- 2012 film
Wikipedia - Monumental sculpture
Wikipedia - Monument in Commemoration of the Return of Hong Kong to China -- Monument in Wan Chai North, Hong Kong
Wikipedia - Monument Metro station -- Station of the Tyne and Wear Metro
Wikipedia - Monumento a la abolicion de la esclavitud -- Monument that commemorates the abolition of slavery in Puerto Rico
Wikipedia - Monumento a la Mujer -- Statue commemorating the contributions of Puerto Rican women
Wikipedia - Monumento al Jibaro PuertorriqueM-CM-1o -- Sculpture by Tomas Batista in Salinas, Puerto Rico
Wikipedia - Monumento a los hM-CM-)roes de El Polvorin (mausoleum) -- Mausoleum monument in Ponce, Puerto Rico
Wikipedia - Monumento a los hM-CM-)roes de El Polvorin (obelisk) -- Monument at Plaza Las Delicias in Ponce, Puerto Rico
Wikipedia - Monumento a los NiM-CM-1os HM-CM-)roes -- Monument in Mexico City
Wikipedia - Monument of Aemilius Paullus -- Monument erected to commemorate the Roman victory over King Perseus of Macedon.
Wikipedia - Monument Peak (San Bernardino County) -- Mountain in California, USA
Wikipedia - Monuments and Historic Sites of Zambia
Wikipedia - Monuments of Japan
Wikipedia - Monuments of Kosovo
Wikipedia - Monuments of National Importance of India -- Wikipedia list article
Wikipedia - Monuments of Romania
Wikipedia - Monuments
Wikipedia - Monument to Agustina de Aragon (Zaragoza) -- Monument in Zaragoza
Wikipedia - Monument to Alfonso XIII (Madrid) -- Monument in Granada
Wikipedia - Monument to Alfonso XII -- Monument by JosM-CM-) Grases Riera in Madrid, Spain
Wikipedia - Monument to AndrM-CM-)s Bello -- Monument in Madrid, Spain
Wikipedia - Monument to Antonio Maura -- Monument in Guadalajara
Wikipedia - Monument to Canovas del Castillo -- Monument in Palacio, Madrid, Spain
Wikipedia - Monument to Claudio Moyano (Madrid) -- Monument in Madrid
Wikipedia - Monument to Concepcion Arenal (Madrid) -- Monument in Madrid
Wikipedia - Monument to Count Ansurez -- Monument in Granada
Wikipedia - Monument to Cuba (Madrid) -- Monument in Madrid
Wikipedia - Monument to Dante
Wikipedia - Monument to Daoiz and Velarde (Segovia) -- Monument in Segovia
Wikipedia - Monument to Eugenio d'Ors (Madrid) -- Monument in Granada
Wikipedia - Monument to Franco (Santa Cruz de Tenerife) -- Instance of public art
Wikipedia - Monument to Friedrich Engels -- Historic monument
Wikipedia - Monument to Fyodor Ushakov (Rostov-on-Don) -- Monument in Rostov-on-Don, Russia
Wikipedia - Monument to Galdos (Madrid) -- Statue by Victorio Macho in Buen Retiro park, Madrid, Spain
Wikipedia - Monument to General Cassola -- Monument in Granada
Wikipedia - Monument to General Martinez Campos -- Monument in Madrid
Wikipedia - Monument to General Peron (Madrid) -- Monument in Madrid
Wikipedia - Monument to Hernan CortM-CM-)s (Medellin) -- Monument in Medellin, Spain
Wikipedia - Monument to innocent murdered -- Russian memorial in Rostov Oblast
Wikipedia - Monument to Isabella the Catholic (Granada) -- Monument in Granada
Wikipedia - Monument to Josif PanM-DM-^Mic -- 1897 statue by M-DM-^PorM-DM-^Qe Jovanovic
Wikipedia - Monument to JosM-CM-) Marti (Madrid) -- Monument in Madrid
Wikipedia - Monument to Maria Christina of Bourbon (Madrid) -- Monument in Madrid
Wikipedia - Monument to M-CM-^Alvaro de Bazan (Madrid) -- Monument in Madrid
Wikipedia - Monument to Michael Jackson -- 2014 film
Wikipedia - Monument to Miguel de Cervantes -- Monument in Palacio, Madrid, Spain
Wikipedia - Monument to Moret (Cadiz) -- Monument in Cadiz
Wikipedia - Monument to Nicholas I -- Equestrian statue in Saint Petersburg
Wikipedia - Monument to OnM-CM-)simo Redondo -- Removed monument in Valladolid, Spain.
Wikipedia - Monument to Pedro IV (Porto) -- monument in Porto, Portugal
Wikipedia - Monument to Peter and Fevronia (Bataysk)
Wikipedia - Monument to Pope John Paul II -- Statue in Mexico City
Wikipedia - Monument to Quevedo (Madrid) -- Monument in Madrid
Wikipedia - Monument to Romanones (Guadalajara) -- Monument in Guadalajara
Wikipedia - Monument to Soldiers Liberators (Chernihiv) -- Monument in Chernihiv, Ukraine
Wikipedia - Monument to Soviet Tank Crews -- Military monument in Prague
Wikipedia - Monument to the children in Yad Vashem -- architectural structure in Israel
Wikipedia - Monument to the Conquerors of Space -- Monument in Moscow, Russia
Wikipedia - Monument to the Dream -- 1967 film
Wikipedia - Monument to the Fighters of the Revolution -- Memorial in Saint Petersburg
Wikipedia - Monument to the Five Senses -- Sculpture by Lubo Kristek
Wikipedia - Monument to the Independence of Brazil -- Sculpture in Sao Paulo, Brazil
Wikipedia - Monument to the LycM-CM-)e Chases -- Installation art by Christian Boltanski
Wikipedia - Monument to the Unknown Soldier, Sofia -- Monument in Sofia, Bulgaria
Wikipedia - Monument to Those Who Saved the World -- Remembrance monument to the firefighters who died in the 1986 Chernobyl disaster in Ukraine
Wikipedia - Monument to Vladimir the Great
Wikipedia - Monument to Vojvoda Vuk -- 1922 statue by M-DM-^PorM-DM-^Qe Jovanovic
Wikipedia - Monument to Vuk KaradM-EM->ic -- 1937 statue by M-DM-^PorM-DM-^Qe Jovanovic
Wikipedia - Monumentum Adulitanum -- Ancient inscription in Ge'ez and Greek from Eritrea.
Wikipedia - Monument Valley 2 -- 2017 video game sequel to Monument Valley
Wikipedia - Monument Valley High School (Utah) -- High school in Utah, USA
Wikipedia - Monument Valley (video game) -- Puzzle video game
Wikipedia - Monument Valley -- Area characterized by distinctive buttes and mesas in the American West
Wikipedia - Monument -- Type of structure either explicitly created to commemorate a person or important event
Wikipedia - Mormon Trail Monument -- California Historic Landmark
Wikipedia - Motena Cave Natural Monument -- Cave in Georgia
Wikipedia - Mount Pleasant henge -- Neolithic henge monument
Wikipedia - Mozart Monument, Vienna -- Monument in Vienna, Austria
Wikipedia - Mukhura Waterfall Natural Monument -- Waterfall in Georgia
Wikipedia - Mulliq Village Mill -- Cultural heritage monument of Kosovo
Wikipedia - Mustafa Kemal Ataturk Monument, Baku -- Monument dedicated to Ataturk in Baku, Azerbaijan
Wikipedia - Mustafa Kemal Ataturk Monument, Mexico City -- Monument dedicated to Ataturk in Mexico City
Wikipedia - Nash County Confederate Monument -- Confederate memorial in Rocky Mount, North Carolina,
Wikipedia - Nathan Bedford Forrest Monument (Memphis, Tennessee) -- Bronze sculpture by Charles Henry Niehaus
Wikipedia - National Garden of American Heroes -- Proposed monument
Wikipedia - National Geological Monuments of India -- Wikimedia list article
Wikipedia - National Monument (Indonesia) -- National monument and architectural icon of Jakarta, Indonesia
Wikipedia - National monument (Ireland) -- Monument assigned national importance in Ireland
Wikipedia - National Monuments Council (South Africa and Namibia) -- Former government agency of South Africa
Wikipedia - National Monuments Foundation -- Organization
Wikipedia - National Monuments of Chile
Wikipedia - National Monuments of Colombia -- Set of properties, nature reserves, archaeological sites, historic districts, urban areas and property
Wikipedia - National monuments of Portugal
Wikipedia - National Monuments of Sierra Leone
Wikipedia - National Monuments of Singapore
Wikipedia - National Monuments of Swaziland
Wikipedia - National Monuments of Zimbabwe
Wikipedia - National monument (United States) -- Monuments assigned protected status by Presidents of the US
Wikipedia - National monument -- Monument that represents the Nation, for any country
Wikipedia - National Museums and Monuments of Zimbabwe
Wikipedia - National Park (Bogota) -- National monument of Colombia
Wikipedia - National Register of Historic Monuments in Romania
Wikipedia - National Register of Historic Places listings in Lava Beds National Monument -- Wikipedia list article
Wikipedia - National Wallace Monument
Wikipedia - Natural monument -- Natural or natural/cultural feature of outstanding or unique value
Wikipedia - Necropolis -- Large ancient cemetery with elaborate tomb monuments
Wikipedia - Nelson's Column, Montreal -- Monument in Montreal, Quebec, Canada
Wikipedia - Newgrange -- Neolithic monument in County Meath, Ireland
Wikipedia - New York Monuments Commission -- Commission of the New York state government
Wikipedia - Nicolaus Copernicus Monument, Krakow -- Monument in Krakow, Poland
Wikipedia - Nicolaus Copernicus Monument, Montreal -- Structure in Montreal
Wikipedia - Nicolaus Copernicus Monument, Warsaw -- Monument in Warsaw, Poland
Wikipedia - Numen: Contest of Heroes -- 2009 action role-playing video game
Wikipedia - Numenera -- Science fantasy tabletop role-playing game
Wikipedia - Numenius of Apamea -- Ancient Greek philosopher
Wikipedia - Numen (journal)
Wikipedia - Numenta
Wikipedia - Numen -- Ancient Roman divine presence
Wikipedia - Nymphaeum -- Type of monument in ancient Greece and Rome
Wikipedia - Obelisco a los NiM-CM-1os HM-CM-)roes -- Monument in Chapultepec, Mexico City.
Wikipedia - Obelisk -- Tall, four-sided, narrow tapering monument which ends in a pyramid-like shape at the top
Wikipedia - Old Hamam (VuM-DM-^Mitrn) -- Cultural heritage monument of Kosovo
Wikipedia - Oregon Caves National Monument and Preserve -- National monument in Oregon, United States
Wikipedia - Our Confederate Soldiers -- Confederate monument in Beaumont, Texas
Wikipedia - Pacific Remote Islands Marine National Monument -- Group of unorganized United States Pacific Island territories
Wikipedia - Palace of Fine Arts -- Monumental structure in San Francisco, California
Wikipedia - Palacio do Grilo -- Monument in Lisbon
Wikipedia - Papahanaumokuakea Marine National Monument -- 583,000 square miles of ocean waters, including ten islands and atolls of the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands
Wikipedia - Parque Cristal -- National historical monument of Venezuela in Caracas
Wikipedia - Paseo Los Proceres -- Monument in Caracas, Venezuela
Wikipedia - Passage tombs in Ireland -- Megalithic monument category
Wikipedia - Patton Monument (West Point) -- Monument at West Point, USA
Wikipedia - Pawton Quoit -- Burial monument south of St. Breock, in Cornwall region, England
Wikipedia - Peace Monument of Glendale -- A replica of a memorial dedicated to comfort women
Wikipedia - Peace Pagoda -- Buddhist stupa; a monument to inspire peace
Wikipedia - Pearl Harbor Monument -- Memorial
Wikipedia - Pedra do Elefante Natural Monument -- Municipal Natural monument in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
Wikipedia - Pennsylvania State Memorial, Gettysburg -- Gettysburg Battlefield monument
Wikipedia - Percy Le Clerc -- Inspector of National Monuments in Ireland
Wikipedia - Perron (columnar monument) -- Type of monument
Wikipedia - Peter Muhlenberg Memorial -- Washington, D.C. public monument
Wikipedia - Philip Reid -- enslaved 19th century African American master craftsman with pivotal role in historical monuments
Wikipedia - Philopappos Monument -- Mausoleum and monument in Athens, Greece
Wikipedia - Pipe Spring National Monument -- National monument in Arizona, United States
Wikipedia - Pir Mardakan Khanqah -- Historic architectural monument located in Azerbaijan
Wikipedia - Plat -- Map showing a piece of land, drawn to scale, with details such as nearby properties, boundaries, land size, flood zones, the surrounding neighborhood, easements, and monuments
Wikipedia - Plaza Monumental de Toros de Pueblo Nuevo -- Bullring in San Cristobal, Venezuela
Wikipedia - Pobednik -- Monumental sculpture in Belgrade, Serbia
Wikipedia - Pompeys Pillar National Monument -- Rock formation in Montana, USA
Wikipedia - Poortgebouw -- Monumental legalised squat in Rotterdam, the Netherlands
Wikipedia - Portlick Motte -- Motte and National Monument in County Westmeath, Ireland
Wikipedia - Praca de Touros Monumental de Lourenco Marques -- Bullring in Maputo, Mozambique
Wikipedia - Praia das Macas Prehistoric Monument -- Neolithic site near Sintra, Portugal
Wikipedia - Prehistoric Trackways National Monument -- National monument in New Mexico, United States
Wikipedia - Principal Monuments of France -- 1786 series of paintings by Hubert Robert
Wikipedia - Prison Ship Martyrs' Monument -- Monument in Brooklyn, New York
Wikipedia - Pristina Archives -- Cultural heritage monument of Kosovo
Wikipedia - Prometheus Cave Natural Monument -- Cave in Georgia
Wikipedia - Prussian National Monument for the Liberation Wars -- Monument in Berlin
Wikipedia - Puerta de San Vicente -- Monumental gate located in the Glorieta de San Vicente in Madrid
Wikipedia - Pylon (architecture) -- Monumental gateway of an Egyptian temple
Wikipedia - Records of the Grand Historian -- Monumental history of ancient China written in the 1st century BC
Wikipedia - Refugiados (monument) -- Monument in Madrid
Wikipedia - Richard Wagner Monument
Wikipedia - Rio Sao Francisco Natural Monument -- Natural monument in Brazil
Wikipedia - Robinson's Arch -- Monumental staircase in Jerusalem
Wikipedia - Roddick Gates -- Monumental gates at McGill University in Montreal
Wikipedia - Roman Bridge (Gjakova) -- Cultural heritage monument of Kosovo
Wikipedia - Roman Thermae of Maximinus -- Cultural heritage monument in Braga, Portugal
Wikipedia - Royal Commission on the Ancient and Historical Monuments of Scotland -- Government agency
Wikipedia - Royal Commission on the Ancient and Historical Monuments of Wales -- Archival institution in United Kingdom
Wikipedia - Royal Commission on the Historical Monuments of England -- U.K. Government advisory body
Wikipedia - Rudolf Virchow Monument -- Monument in Berlin
Wikipedia - Rujm el-Hiri -- Stone-age monument in the Golan Heights
Wikipedia - Rumyantsev Obelisk -- Monument in Saint Petersburg
Wikipedia - Russell Cave National Monument -- 310 acres in Alabama (US) managed by the National Park Service
Wikipedia - Sabz Burj -- Monuments in Delhi
Wikipedia - Sacred Nagi Tree of Kumano Hayatama Taisha -- Natural Monument of Japan
Wikipedia - Saint Anne's Church, Dunav -- Cultural heritage monument of Kosovo
Wikipedia - Saint Anthony's Church (Gjakova) -- Cultural heritage monument of Kosovo
Wikipedia - Saint Joseph's Church, Vitina -- Cultural heritage monument of Kosovo
Wikipedia - Saint Nicholas's Church (DrajM-DM-^Mici) -- Cultural heritage monument of Kosovo
Wikipedia - Saint Vladimir Monument -- 1853 monument in Kyiv
Wikipedia - Sakajia Cave Natural Monument -- Cave in Georgia
Wikipedia - Sakhizari Cliff Natural Monument -- Complex geologic structure in Georgia
Wikipedia - San Juan Islands National Monument -- National monument in Washington, United States
Wikipedia - San Patricio de Hibernia Monument -- In Texas (US), on the National Register of Historic Places
Wikipedia - San Pedro Cemetery Museum -- National monument of Colombia
Wikipedia - Santa Fe And Salt Lake Trail Monument -- California Historic Landmark
Wikipedia - Scheduled monuments in Coventry -- Wikimedia list article
Wikipedia - Scheduled monuments in Derbyshire -- List of protected ancient monuments in Derbyshire, England
Wikipedia - Scheduled monuments in Derby -- List of protected ancient monuments in Derby, England
Wikipedia - Scheduled monuments in Greater London -- List of places in London, United Kingdom
Wikipedia - Scheduled monuments in Nottinghamshire -- Wikimedia list article
Wikipedia - Scheduled monuments in Staffordshire -- Wikimedia list article
Wikipedia - Scheduled monuments in Taunton Deane -- Wikipedia list article
Wikipedia - Scheduled monument
Wikipedia - Scholars Pavilion -- Monument at the United Nations Office at Vienna, Austria
Wikipedia - Sconce and Devon Park -- Park and listed ancient monument in Newark, Nottinghamshire
Wikipedia - Sculpture Park Engelbrecht -- Monumental sculptures from Erich Engelbrecht
Wikipedia - Sergeant Floyd Monument -- Monument on the Missouri River at Floyd's Bluff in Sioux City, Iowa, USA to honor Charles Floyd of the Lewis and Clark Expedition
Wikipedia - Shabanaj Family Mill -- Cultural heritage monument of Kosovo
Wikipedia - Shah Cheragh -- funerary monument and mosque in Shiraz, Iran
Wikipedia - Shahid Gate -- Monument in Kathmandu, Nepal
Wikipedia - Shakespeare Bridge -- A Los Angeles Historic-Cultural Monument
Wikipedia - Shakespeare's funerary monument -- funerary monument for William Shakespeare in Stratford-upon-Avon
Wikipedia - Sheh Zeynel Abedini Tekke -- Cultural heritage monument of Kosovo
Wikipedia - Shemsedin Kirjatani House -- Cultural heritage monument of Kosovo
Wikipedia - Shirvanshah's Palace Mausoleum -- Historical monument of the XV century in the Republic of Azerbaijan
Wikipedia - Shivleni Caves -- Rock-cut cave monuments in India
Wikipedia - ShtjefM-CM-+n Gjecovi Chapel -- Cultural heritage monument of Kosovo
Wikipedia - Silbury Hill -- Monumental Neolithic mound west of the River Kennet and south of Avebury village
Wikipedia - Slabinja Monument -- War memorial sculpture in Croatia
Wikipedia - Smythe's Megalith -- Neolithic monument in Kent, England
Wikipedia - Soldiers' and Sailors' Monument (Cleveland) -- Monument in Cleveland, Ohio
Wikipedia - Soldiers' and Sailors' Monument (Rochester, New York) -- Monument in Rochester, New York
Wikipedia - Soldiers' Monument (Santa Fe, New Mexico) -- Monument in Santa Fe, New Mexico
Wikipedia - Soldiers' National Monument -- Gettysburg Battlefield memorial located at the central point of Gettysburg National Cemetery
Wikipedia - Solkota Cave Natural Monument -- A karst cave in Imereti region of Georgia
Wikipedia - Sons of San Patricio Monument -- In Texas (US), on the National Register of Historic Places
Wikipedia - Spanish-American War Soldier's Monument -- Outdoor sculpture and war memorial in Portland, Oregon
Wikipedia - St. Anne's Church, Dervican -- Cultural Monument in Albania
Wikipedia - Stari Han -- Cultural Monument of Exceptional Importance in Kremna, Serbia
Wikipedia - State Protected Monuments of India -- Wikipedia list article
Wikipedia - Statue of Cervantes (Madrid) -- Monument in plaza de las Cortes, Madrid
Wikipedia - Statue of Henry Campbell-Bannerman -- Monument in Stirling, Scotland, UK
Wikipedia - Statue of Liberty National Monument -- United States national monument
Wikipedia - Statue of Unity -- Monument to Vallabhbhai Patel in the Narmada valley, Gujarat, India
Wikipedia - Statue of Velazquez (Madrid) -- Monument in Madrid
Wikipedia - Statue of Williams Carter Wickham -- Monument to Confederate general in Richmond, Virginia
Wikipedia - Statue of Yuri Gagarin, Greenwich -- Monument in London
Wikipedia - St. George's Church, Brataj -- Cultural Monument in Albania
Wikipedia - St. Jakobs Memorial -- Monument in the city of Basel, Switzerland
Wikipedia - St. John's Church, Linaj -- Cultural Monument of Albania
Wikipedia - St. Mary Church, KrujM-CM-+ -- Cultural Monument of Albania
Wikipedia - St. Mary's Church, Surrel -- Cultural Monument of Albania
Wikipedia - St. Michael's Church, Menshat -- Cultural Monument of Albania
Wikipedia - St Nicholas's Church, Kurjan -- Cultural Monument in Albania
Wikipedia - Stonehenge -- Neolithic henge monument in Wiltshire, England
Wikipedia - Stone settings (Exmoor) -- Prehistoric monuments found in Exmoor, England
Wikipedia - Stonewall Inn -- Gay tavern and historical monument in New York City
Wikipedia - St. Paraskevi's Church, Vallesh -- Cultural Monument of Albania
Wikipedia - St. Stephen's Church, DhM-CM-+rmi -- Cultural Monument in Albania
Wikipedia - Suvorov Monument (Saint Petersburg) -- Monument in Saint Petersburg
Wikipedia - Syle Rexha Tower House -- Cultural heritage monument of Kosovo
Wikipedia - Tabhane -- Cultural heritage monument of Kosovo
Wikipedia - Tahtakale Hamam -- Historic monument in Istanbul, Turkey
Wikipedia - Taliq Bridge -- Cultural heritage monument of Kosovo
Wikipedia - Taras Shevchenko Memorial -- Monument in Washington
Wikipedia - Taula -- Stonehenge-like weird stone monument
Wikipedia - Terminating vista -- Building or monument at the end of a view
Wikipedia - Terry Fox Memorial and Lookout -- Public monument near Thunder Bay, Ontario
Wikipedia - Tetrapylon -- Ancient Roman monument of cubic shape, generally built on a crossroads
Wikipedia - The Abbot's Fish House, Meare -- Grade I listed building and Scheduled Ancient Monument in Meare, Somerset, England
Wikipedia - The Bull Ring -- Neolithic henge monument in Derbyshire
Wikipedia - The Extra Mile -- National monument in Washington D.C.
Wikipedia - The Gates of Hell -- Monumental sculpture by Auguste Rodin
Wikipedia - The Last Bullet Monument -- Last bullets of Turkish War of Independence.
Wikipedia - The Layer Monument -- Early 17th-century marble monument
Wikipedia - The Layer Quaternity -- Four marble sculptures in the columns of the Layer Monument
Wikipedia - The Monuments Men -- 2014 film by George Clooney
Wikipedia - The Motherland Calls -- Volgograd monumental sculpture for heroes of the Battle of Stalingrad
Wikipedia - The Norman House (York) -- Grade I listed building and scheduled monument
Wikipedia - Theodore Roosevelt Monument Assemblage -- Monument in Theodore Roosevelt Memorial Park in New York, United States
Wikipedia - The Rich Well -- Monument in Russia
Wikipedia - The Russian-Bashkir Friendship Monument -- Monument in Bashkortostan, Russia
Wikipedia - Thesaurus Linguae Latinae -- Monumental dictionary of Latin
Wikipedia - These Are My Jewels -- Civil War monument in Columbus, Ohio
Wikipedia - The Significance of Monuments -- Book by Richard Bradley
Wikipedia - The Torch of Friendship -- Miami Monument
Wikipedia - The Wave (Arizona) -- Rock formation in the Vermilion Cliffs National Monument in Arizona, United States
Wikipedia - Thimlich Ohinga -- National Monument of Kenya
Wikipedia - This Is the Place Monument -- Monument in Salt Lake City, Utah USA
Wikipedia - Threecastles Castle -- Irish National Monument - castle in County Wicklow
Wikipedia - Tiananmen -- Monumental gate in the [[city center]] of Beijing, China
Wikipedia - Tinmal Mosque -- Historic monument in Morocco
Wikipedia - Tomb of Absalom -- Ancient monumental rock-cut tomb
Wikipedia - Tomb of Antipope John XXIII -- tomb monument of Baldassare Cossa created by Donatello and Michelozzo in Florence, Italy
Wikipedia - Tomb of the Unknown Soldier (Arlington) -- Monument dedicated to U.S. service members who have died without their remains being identified
Wikipedia - Tomb of the Unknown Soldier -- Monument dedicated to the services of an unknown soldier and to the common memories of all soldiers killed in war
Wikipedia - Torment: Tides of Numenera
Wikipedia - Tree of Knowledge (sculpture) -- Monumental sculpture by Lubo Kristek
Wikipedia - Tri-States Monument -- tripoint boundary monument for New Jersey, New York, and Pennsylvania
Wikipedia - Tropaion -- Greco-Roman monument celebrating victory
Wikipedia - Tskaltsitela Gorge Natural Monument -- River gorge in western Georgia
Wikipedia - Tupella Family Tower House -- Cultural heritage monument of Kosovo
Wikipedia - Twenty-Six Martyrs Museum and Monument
Wikipedia - Uhuru Monument -- Monument in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania
Wikipedia - Union Soldiers and Sailors Monument -- U.S. Civil War monument in Baltimore
Wikipedia - United Confederate Veterans Memorial -- Confederate monument in Seattle's Lake View Cemetery
Wikipedia - United Daughters of the Confederacy Monument (Cleveland, Tennessee) -- Monument in Cleveland, Tennessee, United States
Wikipedia - Upper Missouri River Breaks National Monument -- Protected area in Montana
Wikipedia - Vetusta Monumenta -- 1718-1906 series of illustrated antiquarian papers on ancient buildings, sites, and artefacts
Wikipedia - Victory column -- Monument in the form of a column
Wikipedia - Vijaya Stambha -- Victory monument within Chittor Fort in Chittorgarh, Rajasthan, India
Wikipedia - Vinarc i EpM-CM-+rm Catholic Church -- Cultural heritage monument of Kosovo
Wikipedia - Visoki DeM-DM-^Mani -- Cultural heritage monument of Serbia
Wikipedia - Voortrekker Monument -- Monument in Pretoria, South Africa, to commemorate the Voortrekkers who left the Cape Colony between 1835 and 1854
Wikipedia - Vranov nad Dyji Castle -- national monument of the Czech Republic
Wikipedia - Wahat Al Karama -- Monument in Abu Dhabi
Wikipedia - Walled Obelisk -- Roman monument in Constantinople (Istanbul, Turkey)
Wikipedia - Washington Monument -- Obelisk in Washington, D.C.
Wikipedia - We Are Our Mountains -- Monument in Stepanakert, Artsakh
Wikipedia - Westerplatte Monument -- War memorial located in Gdansk, Poland
Wikipedia - Westwork -- Monumental, west-facing entrance section of a Carolingian, Ottonian, or Romanesque church
Wikipedia - Wiki Loves Monuments -- Annual international photography contest
Wikipedia - Wikipedia Monument
Wikipedia - Wikipedia:Wiki Loves Monuments -- Wikiproject
Wikipedia - Windeck Castle (Weinheim) -- Historic monument in Germany
Wikipedia - Witches' Well, Edinburgh -- Monument to accused witches in Edinburgh
Wikipedia - Yelland Stone Rows -- Prehistoric monument in Devon, England
Wikipedia - Yellow House (Venezuela) -- National historical monument of Venezuela in Caracas
Wikipedia - Yount Monument -- Artwork by Brian Maughan
Wikipedia - Zenel Beka Mill -- Cultural heritage monument of Kosovo
Wikipedia - Zeynullah Bey Tower House -- Cultural heritage monument of Kosovo
Wikipedia - Zymer Musiqi House -- Cultural heritage monument of Kosovo
https://www.goodreads.com/book/show/11296370-hel-ni-koji-filosofija-nuo-numenijo-iki-sirijano
https://www.goodreads.com/book/show/12068241-guide-to-national-and-historic-monuments-of-ireland
https://www.goodreads.com/book/show/12450930-fort-mcdowell-monument-dedicatory-services-october-5-1916
https://www.goodreads.com/book/show/1246237.Monuments_to_Money
https://www.goodreads.com/book/show/12753231-monument-14
https://www.goodreads.com/book/show/12753231-monument-14\
https://www.goodreads.com/book/show/12753231.Monument_14__Monument_14___1_
https://www.goodreads.com/book/show/1324209.Propaganda_by_Monuments_and_Other_Stories
https://www.goodreads.com/book/show/13452855-monumentos-ecuestres
https://www.goodreads.com/book/show/1505982.Monuments_Of_The_Incas
https://www.goodreads.com/book/show/17793507-numen-yeye
https://www.goodreads.com/book/show/17876696-numen-yeye-by-biola-olatunde
https://www.goodreads.com/book/show/18310716-numenera-corebook
https://www.goodreads.com/book/show/18407051-numenera-player-s-guide
https://www.goodreads.com/book/show/18686639-monument-to-murder
https://www.goodreads.com/book/show/1905394.Monument
https://www.goodreads.com/book/show/21073380-central-asian-monuments
https://www.goodreads.com/book/show/25614914-world-monuments
https://www.goodreads.com/book/show/25975367-foxe-s-actes-monuments-1563
https://www.goodreads.com/book/show/25997318-rose-of-numen
https://www.goodreads.com/book/show/2866008-numenon
https://www.goodreads.com/book/show/32206765-numen-old-men
https://www.goodreads.com/book/show/32206766-numen-old-men
https://www.goodreads.com/book/show/3232771.Numenon
https://www.goodreads.com/book/show/3232771-numenon
https://www.goodreads.com/book/show/32417001-select-monuments-of-the-doctrine-and-worship-of-the-catholic-church-in-e
https://www.goodreads.com/book/show/34304861-numen
https://www.goodreads.com/book/show/35203581-the-acts-and-monuments-of-john-foxe-vol-1
https://www.goodreads.com/book/show/36202159-monument
https://www.goodreads.com/book/show/37570514-monument
https://www.goodreads.com/book/show/37932123-les-grands-monuments---la-m-moire-de-l-humanit
https://www.goodreads.com/book/show/409258.The_Monuments_of_Mars
https://www.goodreads.com/book/show/4136368-numen-old-men
https://www.goodreads.com/book/show/43522724-minor-monuments
https://www.goodreads.com/book/show/5039852-national-monuments
https://www.goodreads.com/book/show/580589.Charlie_s_Monument
https://www.goodreads.com/book/show/59380.A_Monument_To_The_End_Of_Time
https://www.goodreads.com/book/show/605880.Reversible_Monuments
https://www.goodreads.com/book/show/617505.Monument
https://www.goodreads.com/book/show/6514074-the-monuments-men
https://www.goodreads.com/book/show/6514074.The_Monuments_Men_Allied_Heroes__Nazi_Thieves__and_the_Greatest_Treasure_Hunt_in_History
https://www.goodreads.com/book/show/6585192-some-monument-to-last
https://www.goodreads.com/book/show/6648018-love-is-monumental
https://www.goodreads.com/book/show/737280.Monuments_of_Egypt
https://www.goodreads.com/book/show/745815.Monumental_Propaganda
https://www.goodreads.com/author/show/997288.Paper_Monument
https://familypedia.wikia.org/wiki/Category:People_honored_on_Green_Harbor_Monument
https://familypedia.wikia.org/wiki/File:Concord_Canadian_Exiles_Monument.JPG
https://familypedia.wikia.org/wiki/File:Monument_Scornicesti.jpg
https://familypedia.wikia.org/wiki/File:The_Wallace_Monument_Aerial,_Stirling.jpg
https://familypedia.wikia.org/wiki/Green_Harbor_Monument
https://familypedia.wikia.org/wiki/National_Monument_to_the_Forefathers
https://military.wikia.org/wiki/Wellington_Monument,_London
https://religion.wikia.org/wiki/File:2491_-_KZ_Dachau_-_Catholic_Monument.JPG
https://religion.wikia.org/wiki/File:AdairSpringMonument.jpg
https://religion.wikia.org/wiki/File:Monument_du_coeur_d'Henri_II.jpg
https://religion.wikia.org/wiki/File:Ten_Commandments_Monument.jpg
dedroidify.blogspot - labor-legacy-monument-hart-plaza
Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy - numenius
https://tvtropes.org/pmwiki/pmwiki.php/Film/TheMonumentsMen
https://tvtropes.org/pmwiki/pmwiki.php/Literature/UnfinishedTalesOfNumenorAndMiddleEarth
https://tvtropes.org/pmwiki/pmwiki.php/Main/MonumentalBattle
https://tvtropes.org/pmwiki/pmwiki.php/Main/MonumentalDamage
https://tvtropes.org/pmwiki/pmwiki.php/Main/MonumentalDamageResistance
https://tvtropes.org/pmwiki/pmwiki.php/Main/MonumentalTheft
https://tvtropes.org/pmwiki/pmwiki.php/Main/MonumentalView
https://tvtropes.org/pmwiki/pmwiki.php/Main/MonumentOfHumiliationAndDefeat
https://tvtropes.org/pmwiki/pmwiki.php/Main/StatuesMonumentsAndMemorials
https://tvtropes.org/pmwiki/pmwiki.php/Manga/PlatinumEnd
https://tvtropes.org/pmwiki/pmwiki.php/Music/Monuments
https://tvtropes.org/pmwiki/pmwiki.php/Recap/DoctorWhoS37E2TheGhostMonument
https://tvtropes.org/pmwiki/pmwiki.php/TabletopGame/Numenera
https://tvtropes.org/pmwiki/pmwiki.php/VideoGame/MonumentValley
https://tvtropes.org/pmwiki/pmwiki.php/VideoGame/TormentTidesOfNumenera
https://en.wikiquote.org/wiki/File:A_monument_of_working_class.JPG
https://en.wikiquote.org/wiki/File:Berlin_Wall_victims_monument.jpg
https://en.wikiquote.org/wiki/File:Booker_T_Washington_bust_Booker_T_Washington_National_Monument.JPG
https://en.wikiquote.org/wiki/File:Colonel_William_Prescott_sculpture,_Bunker_Hill_Monument_-_Boston5782.jpg
https://en.wikiquote.org/wiki/File:Confederate_Monument_-_S_face_tight_-_Arlington_National_Cemetery_-_2011.jpg
https://en.wikiquote.org/wiki/File:Dean_Franklin_-_06.04.03_Mount_Rushmore_Monument_(by-sa).jpg
https://en.wikiquote.org/wiki/File:DSC02900_-_Milano_-_Piazza_Beccaria_-_Monumento_a_Cesare_Beccaria_-_Foto_di_Giovanni_Dall%27Orto_-_29-1-2007.jpg
https://en.wikiquote.org/wiki/File:Ethan_Allen_Monument.jpg
https://en.wikiquote.org/wiki/File:Liberty_-_Soldiers%27_and_Sailors%27_Monument_(Cleveland)_-_DSC07985.JPG
https://en.wikiquote.org/wiki/File:Mansudae-Monument-Bow-2014.jpg
https://en.wikiquote.org/wiki/File:Maquette_du_monument_%C3%A0_Antoine_de_Saint-Exup%C3%A9ry.jpg
https://en.wikiquote.org/wiki/File:Martin_Luther_King_Monument,_Uppsala.jpg
https://en.wikiquote.org/wiki/File:Monumento_a_Cervantes_(Madrid)_10m.jpg
https://en.wikiquote.org/wiki/File:Monumento_a_Col%C3%B3n_(Madrid)_06.jpg
https://en.wikiquote.org/wiki/File:Monument_to_E._M._Forster.jpg
https://en.wikiquote.org/wiki/File:Monument_to_slaves_in_Zanzibar.jpg
https://en.wikiquote.org/wiki/File:Periodic_table_monument.jpg
https://en.wikiquote.org/wiki/File:Rotterdam-monument-erasmus.jpg
https://en.wikiquote.org/wiki/File:Statue_of_Liberty_National_Monument_STLI2252.jpg
https://en.wikiquote.org/wiki/File:Torun03MonumentToCopernicus.JPG
https://en.wikiquote.org/wiki/File:VarsaviaMonumentoRivoltaVarsavia2.jpg
https://en.wikiquote.org/wiki/Monument
https://en.wikiquote.org/wiki/Monuments
https://en.wikiquote.org/wiki/Special:GlobalUsage/Dean_Franklin_-_06.04.03_Mount_Rushmore_Monument_(by-sa).jpg
Zenki (1995 - Current) - One thousand years ago there lived the powerful sorcerer, OZ-NAY. OZ-NAY protected the world from evil forces with the help of his powerful guardian deity ZENKI. Fearful that no one other than himself could control the mighty ZENKI, Oz-Nay sealed ZENKI in a stone monument within the walls of the fam...
Hayate the Combat Butler (2007 - 2008) - Abandoned by his parents and given a monumentally large debt as a Christmas present, 16-year old Ayasaki Hayate is at the lowest point of his life. Desperately trying alter his hapless fate, he decides to kidnap someone to hold for a ransom. Due to an ill choice of words, the girl he tries to kidnap...
The Blunders (1984 - 1984) - For the Blunders, if anything can go wrong it will! Ma and Pa Blunder, Bobby, Patch and Trouble are the worlds most disaster-prone family. Being the world's most disaster-prone family, The Blunders live in Villa Shambles, a monument to the dangers of do-it-yourself by the incompetent.
Under the Hula Moon(1995) - In this comedy thriller, a couple living in Cactus Gulch, dream of escaping the desert and moving to Hawaii. Their little house trailer has become a monument to Hawaii, filled with plastic palms and pink flamingos. The two, Buzzard Wall and his tacky wife Betty, believe that Buzz's new invention, a...
What Have We Learned, Charlie Brown?(1983) - As they begin their journey home from their student exchange term, Charlie Brown and the gang find themselves sidetracked. They have severe car trouble and more importantly, they pass by various monuments to World Wars I & II. With Linus guiding them through these memorials, they learn about the eve...
Totem(1999) - Six people find themselves inexplicably transported to a remote cabin that is surrounded by an invisible barrier. In a nearby graveyard, they discover an ancient, carved stone monument that they dub a "totem pole." Soon, they find themselves trapped in a murderous plot by malevolent forces that can...
Viceroy's House (2017) ::: 6.7/10 -- Not Rated | 1h 46min | Biography, Drama, History | 1 September 2017 -- Viceroy's House Poster -- The final Viceroy of India, Louis Francis Albert Victor Nicholas Mountbatten, 1st Earl Mountbatten of Burma (Hugh Bonneville), is tasked with overseeing the transition of British India to independence, but meets with conflict as different sides clash in the face of monumental change. Director: Gurinder Chadha
https://platinumend.fandom.com/
https://allthetropes.fandom.com/wiki/Monumental_Battle
https://allthetropes.fandom.com/wiki/Monumental_Damage
https://allthetropes.fandom.com/wiki/Monumental_View
https://arrow.fandom.com/wiki/Monument_Point
https://cities.fandom.com/wiki/Colorado_National_Monument
https://dc.fandom.com/wiki/Arrow_(TV_Series)_Episode:_Monument_Point
https://dc.fandom.com/wiki/Washington_Monument
https://dreamemulator.fandom.com/wiki/Monument_Park
https://dreamlords.fandom.com/wiki/Monuments
https://elderscrolls.fandom.com/wiki/Decree_of_Monument
https://elderscrolls.fandom.com/wiki/Gjukar's_Monument
https://elderscrolls.fandom.com/wiki/Monument_of_Change
https://elderscrolls.fandom.com/wiki/Sage_Monument_(Alcaire)
https://elderscrolls.fandom.com/wiki/Xinchei-Konu_Monument
https://eq2.fandom.com/wiki/"Age_of_Monuments"_(Quest_Starter)
https://eq2.fandom.com/wiki/Claymore_Monument
https://eq2.fandom.com/wiki/"The_Age_of_Monuments"_(House_Item)
https://eq2.fandom.com/wiki/The_Age_of_Monuments_(Lore)
https://eq2.fandom.com/wiki/"The_Age_of_Monuments"_(Quest)
https://fallout.fandom.com/wiki/Coastal_monument
https://fallout.fandom.com/wiki/Washington_Monument
https://forgottenrealms.fandom.com/wiki/Monument_of_the_Ancients
https://guildwars.fandom.com/wiki/Hall_of_Monuments
https://ilercavonia.fandom.com/wiki/Monuments_i_conjunts_hist
https://marvel.fandom.com/wiki/Washington_Monument
https://memory-alpha.fandom.com/wiki/Monument
https://monument-valley.fandom.com/wiki/
https://motorstorm.fandom.com/wiki/Monument_Valley
https://mtg.fandom.com/wiki/Numena
https://mythus.fandom.com/wiki/Numen
https://platinumend.fandom.com/wiki/
https://scouting.fandom.com/wiki/Cedar_Breaks_National_Monument
https://scouting.fandom.com/wiki/Grand_Staircase-Escalante_National_Monument
https://skylines.fandom.com/wiki/Monument
https://starfox.fandom.com/wiki/Monument
https://starwars.fandom.com/wiki/Monument_Plaza
https://starwars.fandom.com/wiki/Riot_in_Monument_Plaza
https://starwars.fandom.com/wiki/Scabbard_Monument_of_Krownest
https://tardis.fandom.com/wiki/Eleanora's_monument
https://tardis.fandom.com/wiki/The_Ghost_Monument
https://tardis.fandom.com/wiki/The_Ghost_Monument_(TV_story)
https://the-gamer.fandom.com/wiki/Numen
https://torment.fandom.com/wiki/Numenera
https://torment.fandom.com/wiki/Torment:_Tides_of_Numenera
https://travel.fandom.com/wiki/Mount_Saint_Helens_National_Volcanic_Monument
https://whitewolf.fandom.com/wiki/Hanumen
https://whitewolf.fandom.com/wiki/Numen
https://whitewolf.fandom.com/wiki/Numen_(CofD)
https://whitewolf.fandom.com/wiki/Numen_(cWOD)
https://wowwiki-archive.fandom.com/wiki/Monument_to_Grom_Hellscream
https://wowwiki-archive.fandom.com/wiki/Quest:Guardian_of_the_Monument
https://wowwiki-archive.fandom.com/wiki/Ravencrest_Monument
Koukaku no Pandora -- -- AXsiZ, Studio Gokumi -- 12 eps -- Manga -- Action Sci-Fi Comedy Ecchi -- Koukaku no Pandora Koukaku no Pandora -- Onboard a cruise ship heading to the scenic Cenancle Island, the full-body cyborg Nene Nanakorobi, a bubbly young girl who dreams of world peace, meets inventor Uzal Delilah. The two become fast friends along with Uzal's pet cyborg Clarion, a cat-like combat android. Soon after parting ways, a terrorist attack on the island threatens to shatter the pair's new friendship. In a bid to save her new friend, Uzal gives Nene the ability to use the Pandora Device found in Clarion's body before seemingly dying. With this power, Nene can temporarily master abilities and skills never seen before in the advancing world. -- -- Working together, the two unlikely companions go on various missions—from saving children in shopping mall fires to fighting reckless thieves—all in the name of world peace. But to achieve this goal is not easy. B.U.E.R, a sentient laser in the form of a misshapen teddy bear, threatens to wreck their happy lives with his perverted nature and uncontrollable power. And to make matters worse, Nene's guardian, as well as genius inventor, Takumi Korobase has an undying interest in B.U.E.R. -- -- Burdened with saving the world and keeping B.U.E.R from the hands of evil, Nene and Clarion's desire for world peace seems like a pipe dream. With this monumental goal, could the weight of it all destroy the pair's friendship completely? -- -- -- Licensor: -- Funimation -- 40,234 6.52
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Category:Architectural_monuments
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Category:"A"_Riding_Monument,_Adaminaby
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Category:"A_woman_from_Karabakh"_monument_in_Yerevan
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Category:Cultural_heritage_monument_objects_in_France_with_known_IDs
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Category:Cultural_heritage_monuments
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Category:Cultural_heritage_monuments_in_Bavaria
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Category:Cultural_heritage_monuments_in_Bavaria_not_in_Wikidata
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Category:Cultural_heritage_monuments_in_Bavaria_same_as_Wikidata
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Category:Cultural_heritage_monuments_in_Bavaria_with_known_IDs
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Category:Cultural_heritage_monuments_in_D
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Category:Cultural_heritage_monuments_in_Delitzsch
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Category:Cultural_heritage_monuments_in_Dimbach_(Volkach)
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Category:Cultural_heritage_monuments_in_France_with_known_IDs
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Category:Cultural_heritage_monuments_in_gmina_B
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Category:Cultural_heritage_monuments_in_Kazimierz_Dolny
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Category:Cultural_heritage_monuments_in_Kentron,_Yerevan
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Category:Cultural_heritage_monuments_in_Kleinblittersdorf
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Category:Cultural_heritage_monuments_in_Lebanon
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Category:Cultural_heritage_monuments_in_Malta
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Category:Cultural_heritage_monuments_in_Nordheim_am_Main
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Category:Cultural_heritage_monuments_in_Pangasinan
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Category:Cultural_heritage_monuments_in_Poland
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Category:Cultural_heritage_monuments_in_Poland_with_known_IDs
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Category:Cultural_heritage_monuments_in_Poland_with_old_known_IDs
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Category:Cultural_heritage_monuments_in_Salto
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Category:Cultural_heritage_monuments_in_Sankt_Johann_(Saar)
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Category:Cultural_heritage_monuments_in_Sommerach
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Category:Cultural_heritage_monuments_in_Sopron
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Category:Cultural_heritage_monuments_in_South_Tyrol
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Category:Cultural_heritage_monuments_in_South_Tyrol_same_as_Wikidata
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Category:Cultural_heritage_monuments_in_South_Tyrol_with_known_IDs
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Category:Cultural_heritage_monuments_in_Starokostiantyniv_Raion
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Category:Cultural_heritage_monuments_in_Tarnowskie_G
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Category:Cultural_heritage_monuments_in_Tirol,_South_Tyrol
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Category:Cultural_heritage_monuments_in_Ukraine_with_known_IDs
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Category:Cultural_heritage_monuments_in_Volkach_(Volkach)
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Category:Cultural_heritage_monuments_in_Warsaw-Bielany
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Category:Cultural_heritage_monuments_in_Warsaw-Mokot
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Category:Cultural_heritage_monuments_of_Tlalpan,_D._F.
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Category:"Demeanor_of_Eternity"_monument_in_Yerevan
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Category:'Fire_of_Eternal_Glory'_Monument,_Pyatigorsk
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Category:Geological_and_paleontological_monuments_in_Moldova
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Category:"Grateful_Russia_to_its_defenders"_monument
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Category:Historical_monuments_in_Bucharest_(Monuments_and_memorials)
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Category:Historical_monuments_in_C
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Category:Historical_monuments_in_Cluj-Napoca
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Category:Historical_monuments_in_Craiova
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Category:Historical_monuments_in_Curtea_de_Arge
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Category:Historical_monuments_in_D
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Category:Historical_monuments_in_Gorj_County
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Category:Historical_monuments_in_Media
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Category:Historical_monuments_in_Romania
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Category:Historical_monuments_in_S
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Category:Historical_monuments_in_Timi
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Category:Historical_monuments_in_V
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Category:Home_Army_monuments
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Category:Hydrological_monuments_of_Moldova
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Category:Images_from_Wiki_Loves_Monuments
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Category:Images_from_Wiki_Loves_Monuments_2018_in_the_Philippines
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Category:'Klyatva'_monument_in_Troitsk_(Chelyabinsk_Oblast)
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Category:"Monument_of_Pain_and_Defiance"_by_Ante_Gr
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Category:"Monument_of_Resistance_and_Freedom"_by_Ante_Gr
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Category:Monuments_and_memorials
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Category:Monuments_and_memorials_featuring_symbols
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Category:Monuments_and_memorials_in_
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Category:Monuments_and_memorials_in_Azerbaijan
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Category:Monuments_and_memorials_in_Bucharest
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Category:Monuments_and_memorials_in_Budapest_District_I
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Category:Monuments_and_memorials_in_New_South_Wales
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Category:Monuments_and_memorials_in_Rizal_(province)
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Category:Monuments_and_memorials_in_Stockholm
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Category:Monuments_and_memorials_in_Tammela
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Category:Monuments_and_memorials_to_George_Gordon_Byron
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Category:Monuments_and_memorials_to_philosophers
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Category:Monuments_and_memorials_to_Polish_exiles_in_the_Russian_Empire_and_the_Soviet_Union
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Category:Monuments_and_memorials_to_Robert_Burns
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Category:Monuments_and_memorials_to_science
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Category:Monuments_and_memorials_to_Shakespeare
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Category:Monuments_and_memorials_to_the_Protestant_Reformation
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Category:Monuments_and_memorials_to_Todor_Zhivkov
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Category:Monuments_and_memorials_to_veterans_in_the_Philippines
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Category:Monuments_and_memorials_to_women
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Category:Monuments_historiques_class
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Category:Monuments_historiques_in_France_by_name
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Category:Monuments_historiques_in_Poissy
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Category:Monuments_historiques_inscrits
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Category:Monuments_historiques_in_Yvelines_(priories)
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Category:Monuments_of_Dachau_memorial
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Category:Monument_to_Constantinus_I_Magnus_(Milan)
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Category:Monument_to_Edward_III_of_England_in_Westminster_Abbey
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Category:Naphtusya_(natural_monument)
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Category:Natural_monuments_in_Dub
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Category:Natural_monuments_in_Ocni
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Category:Natural_monuments_in_R
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Category:Natural_monuments_in_Toru
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Category:Objets_monuments_historiques_class
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Category:Objets_monuments_historiques_in_France_by_name
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Category:Objets_monuments_historiques_in_Marne_(tapestries)
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Category:Photographs_by_Dietmar_Rabich/Wiki_Loves_Monuments
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Category:Positivist_Monument_of_Francis_and_Clare_of_Assisi
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Category:Religious_monuments
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Category:Warsaw_Uprising_monuments
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Commons:Wiki_Loves_Monuments_2015
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:1904_Demolition_of_the_single_Triumphal_Arch_for_the_central_monument_of_Parc_du_Cinquantenaire_in_Brussels.jpg
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:6658_-_Roma_-_Ettore_Ferrari,_Monumento_a_Giordano_Bruno_(1889)_-_Foto_Giovanni_Dall'Orto,_6-Apr-2008.jpg
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Adaminaby_A_Riding_Monument_001.JPG
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Adaminaby_A_Riding_Monument_002.JPG
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Adaminaby_A_Riding_Monument_Water_Supply_Plaque.JPG
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Allan_Lyra_no_Monumento.jpg
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:AlphabetMonumentByblosLebanon.jpg
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Arev_Baghdasaryan's_monument_in_Yerevan_(1).jpg
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Arev_Baghdasaryan's_monument_in_Yerevan_(2).jpg
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Arev_Baghdasaryan's_monument_in_Yerevan_(3).jpg
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Arev_Baghdasaryan's_monument_in_Yerevan_(4).jpg
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Arev_Baghdasaryan's_monument_in_Yerevan_(5).jpg
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Arev_Baghdasaryan's_monument_in_Yerevan_(6).jpg
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Burns_Monument,_Alloway._Ayrshire_Wreath._1854.jpg
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Burns_Monument_Centre,_Kay_Park,_Kilmarnock,_East_Ayrshire.jpg
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Cascade_of_Yerevan,_Armenia_First_Christian_Country_Monument,_Armenia,_2013-09-01,_VM.jpg
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Cascade_of_Yerevan,_Armenia_First_Christian_Country_Monument,_Armenia,_2013-09-01,_VM.jpg#file
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Cascade_of_Yerevan,_Armenia_First_Christian_Country_Monument,_Armenia,_2013-09-01,_VM.jpg#filehistory
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Cascade_of_Yerevan,_Armenia_First_Christian_Country_Monument,_Armenia,_2013-09-01,_VM.jpg#filelinks
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Cascade_of_Yerevan,_Armenia_First_Christian_Country_Monument,_Armenia,_2013-09-01,_VM.jpg#globalusage
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Cascade_of_Yerevan,_Armenia_First_Christian_Country_Monument,_Armenia,_2013-09-01,_VM.jpg#metadata
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:!!_Commemorative_monument_and_shade_on_St_James_Cavallier.jpg
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Constantine_monument_in_Nis.jpg
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Constantine_the_Great_monument.jpg
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Constantine_the_Great_monument.P4170125.jpg
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Covenanters_Monument,_Edinburgh.jpg
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Day_3-_The_"big_stone"_Monument_in_Treblinka_(45077802).jpg
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:De-Numen.ogg
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Finkenstein_Faak_am_See_Kreisverkehr_Rosental_Strasse_Bikermonument_20022016_0601.jpg
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:From_a_Grateful_Russia_to_its_Defenders_Monument_2005-06-22.jpg
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:From_a_Grateful_Russia_to_its_Defenders_Monument_Reverse_2005-06-23.jpg
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Greenwood_Cemetery._(Jas._G._Bennett's_monument.)_(NYPL_b11708029-G91F176_006F).tiff
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:"Hifu-no-Oka"_Memorial_monument.jpg
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Historic_monuments,_Byblos_-_UNESCO_-_PHOTO0000002590_0000.tiff
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Historic_monuments,_Byblos_-_UNESCO_-_PHOTO0000002590_0001.tiff
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:James_Thomson_Monument_-_geograph.org.uk_-_105802.jpg
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Kryvyi_Rih_-_monument.jpg
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Martyrs'_Monument,_Greyfriars_Kirkyard.jpg
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Minimum_Monument_art_installation_by_Nele_Azevedo_in_Chamberlain_Square,_Birmingham_UK.JPG
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Monumento_a_Artigas_(Salto).jpg
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Monumento_a_Juan_Canut_de_Bon_01.jpg
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Monumento_a_Juan_Canut_de_Bon_02.jpg
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Monumento_a_Nicol
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Monumento_Nicol
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Monument_van_de_Engelse_resident_Thomas_Parr_te_Benkoelen,_KITLV_105825.tiff
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Reloj_Monumental.jpg
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:RUS-2016-SPB-Monument_to_Nicholas_I_of_Russia.jpg
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Salvation_Army_Monument,_Kensico_Cemetery,_2011.JPG
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Sevastopol_Monument_to_flooded_ships_IMG_4272_1725.jpg
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:St_Michael,_Stanton_Harcourt,_Oxon_-_Wall_monument_-_geograph.org.uk_-_1610437.jpg
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Wiki_Loves_Monuments_Logo_notext.svg
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Woman's_Christian_Temperance_Union_monument,_Griffin.JPG
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Woman's_Christian_Temperance_Union_monument_-_Uxbridge,_Massachusetts_-_DSC02836.JPG
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Special:MyLanguage/Commons:Wiki_Loves_Monuments
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Special:WhatLinksHere/Category:"A"_Riding_Monument,_Adaminaby
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Special:WhatLinksHere/Category:"A_woman_from_Karabakh"_monument_in_Yerevan
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Special:WhatLinksHere/Category:"Demeanor_of_Eternity"_monument_in_Yerevan
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Special:WhatLinksHere/Category:"Grateful_Russia_to_its_defenders"_monument
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Special:WhatLinksHere/Category:"Monument_of_Pain_and_Defiance"_by_Ante_Gr
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Special:WhatLinksHere/Category:"Monument_of_Resistance_and_Freedom"_by_Ante_Gr
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Special:WhatLinksHere/File:Cascade_of_Yerevan,_Armenia_First_Christian_Country_Monument,_Armenia,_2013-09-01,_VM.jpg
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/User_talk:Brandmeister~commonswiki#File:1941-45_monument.jpg
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/User_talk:Brandmeister~commonswiki#File:Sorge_monument.jpg
https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?title=Category:"A"_Riding_Monument,_Adaminaby
https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?title=Category:"A_woman_from_Karabakh"_monument_in_Yerevan
https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?title=Category:Cultural_heritage_monuments_in_Portuguese_Empire_with_known_IDs
https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?title=Category:"Demeanor_of_Eternity"_monument_in_Yerevan
https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?title=Category:"Grateful_Russia_to_its_defenders"_monument
https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?title=Category:"Monument_of_Pain_and_Defiance"_by_Ante_Gr
https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?title=Category:"Monument_of_Resistance_and_Freedom"_by_Ante_Gr
https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?title=Category:Rijksmonument_complex_ID_same_as_Wikidata
https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?title=Category_talk:"A"_Riding_Monument,_Adaminaby
https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?title=Category_talk:"A_woman_from_Karabakh"_monument_in_Yerevan
https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?title=Category_talk:"Demeanor_of_Eternity"_monument_in_Yerevan
https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?title=Category_talk:"Grateful_Russia_to_its_defenders"_monument
https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?title=Category_talk:"Monument_of_Pain_and_Defiance"_by_Ante_Gr
https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?title=Category_talk:"Monument_of_Resistance_and_Freedom"_by_Ante_Gr
https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:1941-45_monument.jpg
https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Cascade_of_Yerevan,_Armenia_First_Christian_Country_Monument,_Armenia,_2013-09-01,_VM.jpg
https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Sorge_monument.jpg
https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?title=File_talk:Cascade_of_Yerevan,_Armenia_First_Christian_Country_Monument,_Armenia,_2013-09-01,_VM.jpg
https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?title=Special:Book&bookcmd=book_creator&referer=Category:"A"+Riding+Monument,+Adaminaby
https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?title=Special:Book&bookcmd=book_creator&referer=Category:"A+woman+from+Karabakh"+monument+in+Yerevan
https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?title=Special:Book&bookcmd=book_creator&referer=Category:"Demeanor+of+Eternity"+monument+in+Yerevan
https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?title=Special:Book&bookcmd=book_creator&referer=Category:"Grateful+Russia+to+its+defenders"+monument
https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?title=Special:Book&bookcmd=book_creator&referer=Category:"Monument+of+Pain+and+Defiance"+by+Ante+Gr
https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?title=Special:Book&bookcmd=book_creator&referer=Category:"Monument+of+Resistance+and+Freedom"+by+Ante+Gr
https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?title=Special:Categories&offset="A_woman_from_Karabakh"_monument_in_Yerevan&limit=20
https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?title=Special:CreateAccount&returnto=Category:"A"+Riding+Monument,+Adaminaby
https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?title=Special:CreateAccount&returnto=Category:"A+woman+from+Karabakh"+monument+in+Yerevan
https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?title=Special:CreateAccount&returnto=Category:"Demeanor+of+Eternity"+monument+in+Yerevan
https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?title=Special:CreateAccount&returnto=Category:"Grateful+Russia+to+its+defenders"+monument
https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?title=Special:CreateAccount&returnto=Category:"Monument+of+Pain+and+Defiance"+by+Ante+Gr
https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?title=Special:CreateAccount&returnto=Category:"Monument+of+Resistance+and+Freedom"+by+Ante+Gr
https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?title=Special:CreateAccount&returnto=File:Cascade+of+Yerevan,+Armenia+First+Christian+Country+Monument,+Armenia,+2013-09-01,+VM.jpg
https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?title=Special:UploadWizard&categories="A_woman_from_Karabakh"_monument_in_Yerevan
https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?title=Special:UploadWizard&categories="Demeanor_of_Eternity"_monument_in_Yerevan
https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?title=Special:UploadWizard&categories="Monument_of_Pain_and_Defiance"_by_Ante_Gr
https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?title=Special:UploadWizard&categories="Monument_of_Resistance_and_Freedom"_by_Ante_Gr
https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?title=Special:UserLogin&returnto=Category:"A"+Riding+Monument,+Adaminaby
https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?title=Special:UserLogin&returnto=Category:"A+woman+from+Karabakh"+monument+in+Yerevan
https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?title=Special:UserLogin&returnto=Category:"Demeanor+of+Eternity"+monument+in+Yerevan
https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?title=Special:UserLogin&returnto=Category:"Grateful+Russia+to+its+defenders"+monument
https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?title=Special:UserLogin&returnto=Category:"Monument+of+Pain+and+Defiance"+by+Ante+Gr
https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?title=Special:UserLogin&returnto=Category:"Monument+of+Resistance+and+Freedom"+by+Ante+Gr
https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?title=Special:UserLogin&returnto=File:Cascade+of+Yerevan,+Armenia+First+Christian+Country+Monument,+Armenia,+2013-09-01,+VM.jpg
14th New Jersey Volunteer Infantry Monument
1996 World Monuments Watch
1998 World Monuments Watch
2000 World Monuments Watch
2002 World Monuments Watch
2004 World Monuments Watch
2006 World Monuments Watch
2008 World Monuments Watch
2010 World Monuments Watch
32nd Indiana Monument
44th New York Monument
51st (Highland) Division Monument (Beaumont-Hamel)
Aayi Mandapam (monument)
Adam Mickiewicz Monument
Adam Mickiewicz Monument, Gorzw Wielkopolski
Adam Mickiewicz Monument, Krakw
Adam Mickiewicz Monument, Vilnius
Adam Mickiewicz Monument, Warsaw
Admiral Hood Monument
Admission Day Monument
African Burial Ground National Monument
African Renaissance Monument
Afrikaans Language Monument
Agate Fossil Beds National Monument
Agiya Tree Monument
Agua Fria National Monument
A Happening of Monumental Proportions
Alexander Fadeev Monument
Alexander Numenius
Alibates Flint Quarries National Monument
Al-Shaheed Monument
Alyosha Monument
Alyosha Monument, Murmansk
Alyosha Monument, Plovdiv
America's Response Monument
American Battle Monuments Commission
Ames Monument
Amis des monuments rouennais
Anchor Monument (Matveev Kurgan)
Ancient monument
Ancient Monuments and Archaeological Areas Act 1979
Ancient Monuments Consolidation and Amendment Act 1913
Ancient monuments in Ujjain
Ancient monuments of Java
Ancient Monuments of the Mississippi Valley
Ancient Monuments Protection Act 1882
Ancient Monuments Protection Act 1900
Ancient Monuments Protection Act 1910
Anda Monument
Aniakchak National Monument and Preserve
Anna Livia (monument)
Antiquities and Monuments Office
Antiquities and Monuments Ordinance
Approving the location of the National Liberty Monument
Archaeological Protected Monuments in Sri Lanka
Arthur Ashe Monument
Artsivi Gorge Natural Monument
Artyomka Monument
Arusha Declaration Monument
Atatrk Monument
Atatrk Monument (Artvin)
Atatrk Monument (zmir)
Atatrk Monument (Mersin)
Aviator Monument (Stockholm)
Aviator Monument (Warsaw)
Aztec Ruins National Monument
Backgammon player (monument)
Baiterek (monument)
Balbo Monument
Bandelier National Monument
Barclay de Tolly Monument
Battle Monument
Battle Monument, Trenton, New Jersey
Battle Monument (West Point)
Battle of Britain Monument, London
Battle of Dutton's Hill Monument
Battle of Liberty Place Monument
Bear Monument
Bears Ears National Monument
Beckley Furnace Industrial Monument
Beethoven Monument
Beethoven Monument (Mexico City)
BelmontPaul Women's Equality National Monument
Bennington Battle Monument
Berlin Wall Monument (Chicago)
Berry and MacFarlane Monument
Berryessa Snow Mountain National Monument
Bessang Pass Natural Monument
Birmingham Civil Rights National Monument
Bismarck monument
Bismarck Monument (Hamburg)
Bohdan Khmelnytsky Monument, Kyiv
Bolesaw III Wrymouth Monument, Pock
Bolzano Victory Monument
Bonifacio Monument
Booker T. Washington National Monument
Boot Monument
Boston Massacre Monument
Britannia Monument
British Antarctic Monument Trust
Brock's Monument
Buck Island Reef National Monument
Bucky O'Neill Monument
Buddhist Monuments in the Hry-ji Area
Bukhansan Monument
Bunker Hill Monument
Buzludzha monument
Cabot rock monument
Cadaver monument
California Coastal National Monument
California Coastal National Monument Expansion Act of 2013
CambodiaVietnam Friendship Monument
Camp Merritt Memorial Monument
Camp Nelson Heritage National Monument
Camposanto Monumentale di Pisa
Canyon de Chelly National Monument
Canyons of the Ancients National Monument
Cape Krusenstern National Monument
Captain Andrew Offutt Monument
Captain Nathan Hale Monument
Captain William Clark Monument
Capulin Volcano National Monument
Cargill Monument
Casa Grande Ruins National Monument
CascadeSiskiyou National Monument
Casimir Pulaski Monument (Savannah, Georgia)
Castle Mountains National Monument
Category:Monuments and memorials in Canada
Category:Monuments and memorials to Peter the Great
Cedar Breaks National Monument
Cedar Breaks National Monument Caretaker's Cabin
Cedar Breaks National Monument Visitor Center
Cerro ielol Natural Monument
Csar E. Chvez National Monument
Cezayirli Gazi Hasan Paa Monument
Chambeshi Monument
Charaxes numenes
Charles Young Buffalo Soldiers National Monument
Chteau-Thierry American Monument
Chekhov Monument in Taganrog
Chimney Rock National Monument
Chiricahua National Monument Historic Designed Landscape
Chitharal Jain Monuments
Cholera Monument Grounds and Clay Wood
Choragic Monument of Lysicrates
Cimitero Monumentale di Milano
Civil War Monument (Cambridge, Massachusetts)
Civil War Monument (Denver)
Civil War Monuments in Washington, D.C.
Coleophora numeniella
Collingwood Monument
Collyer Monument
Colonel Robert A. Smith Monument
Colorado National Monument
Colored Soldiers Monument in Frankfort
Columbus Monument, Barcelona
Comit de Conservation des Monuments de l'Art Arabe
Commission to Preserve National Monuments of Bosnia and Herzegovina
Confederate Cemetery Monument (Tennessee)
Confederate Last Stand Monument
Confederate Martyrs Monument in Jeffersontown
Confederate Mass Grave Monument in Somerset
Confederate Monument at Crab Orchard
Confederate Monument (Cadiz, Kentucky)
Confederate Monument (Camden, Alabama)
Confederate Monument (Fort Worth, Texas)
Confederate Monument (Franklin, Tennessee)
Confederate Monument in Augusta
Confederate Monument in Cynthiana
Confederate Monument in Danville
Confederate Monument in Frankfort
Confederate Monument in Georgetown
Confederate Monument in Glasgow
Confederate Monument in Harrodsburg
Confederate Monument in Lawrenceburg
Confederate Monument in Louisville
Confederate Monument in Owensboro
Confederate Monument in Owingsville
Confederate Monument in Paducah
Confederate Monument in Perryville
Confederate Monument in Russellville
Confederate Monument in Versailles
Confederate Monument (Murray, Kentucky)
Confederate Monument of Bardstown
Confederate Monument of Bowling Green
Confederate Monument of Morganfield
Confederate Monument (Ozark, Alabama)
Confederate Mothers Monument
Confederate Soldier Monument in Caldwell
Confederate Soldier Monument in Lexington
Confederate Soldiers and Sailors Monument (Birmingham, Alabama)
Confederate Soldiers Martyrs Monument in Eminence
Confederate Soldiers Monument (Austin, Texas)
Confederate Soldiers Monument (Durham, North Carolina)
Consejo de Monumentos Nacionales
Corona Founders Monument
Corpus Inscriptionum et Monumentorum Religionis Mithriacae
Craters of the Moon National Monument and Preserve
Cueva del Milodn Natural Monument
Cultural monument (Czech Republic)
Cultural monuments in Lichte
Declared monuments of Ho Chi Minh City
Declared monuments of Hong Kong
Democracy Monument
Demolition of monuments to Vladimir Lenin in Ukraine
Denton Confederate Soldier Monument
Devils Garden (Grand StaircaseEscalante National Monument)
Devils Postpile National Monument
Dinosaur National Monument
Dirgantara Monument
Doubleday Hill Monument
Draft:Monument to Panfilov's Guardsmen, Moscow
Drums of Our Fathers Monument
East Monument Historic District
Edward VII Monument (Montreal)
Effigy Mounds National Monument
Eisenhower Monument
Elijah P. Lovejoy Monument
El Malpais National Monument
El Monumento de la Recordacin
El Pueblo de Los ngeles Historical Monument
Emperor William monuments
English church monuments
Ensuring Public Involvement in the Creation of National Monuments Act
Equestrian Monument of Cosimo I
Equestrian Monument of Ferdinando I
Equestrian Monument of Niccol da Tolentino
Equestrian monument to Vittorio Emanuele II, Florence
Estadio Monumental
Estadio Monumental Antonio Vespucio Liberti
Estadio Monumental David Arellano
Estadio Monumental de Jauja
Estadio Monumental de Maturn
Estadio Monumental Isidro Romero Carbo
Estadio Monumental Jos Fierro
Estadio Monumental "U"
Estadio Monumental Virgen de Chapi
Estadio Nuevo Monumental
Estdio Olmpico Monumental
Explorers' Monument
Falla monument
Fallen Monument Park
Fannin Memorial Monument
Farhad and Shirin Monument
Federal Inventory of Landscapes and Natural Monuments
Federal Monuments Office
Firemen's Monument (Hoboken, New Jersey)
First City Monument Bank
First Division Monument
First Jos Rizal Monument (Daet)
Five-Columns Monument
Flagler Monument Island
Florissant Fossil Beds National Monument
Former Indian National Army Monument
Fort Frederica National Monument
Fort Matanzas National Monument
Fort Pulaski National Monument
Fort Union National Monument
Fossil Butte National Monument
Four Corners Monument
Four Southern Poets Monument
Frederic Chopin Monument, Warsaw
Frdric Chopin Monument, elazowa Wola
Freedom Monument
Freedom Monument (Baghdad)
Freedom Monument, Bydgoszcz
Freedom Riders National Monument
From Monument to Masses
Fulford-by-the-Sea Monument
Funerary Monument to Sir John Hawkwood
Fyrish Monument
Gapyeong Canada Monument
Garfield Monument
Garibaldi Monument in Taganrog
General Felix K. Zollicoffer Monument
General Maister Monument (Brdar)
Gentry Grand Army of the Republic Monument
George Armstrong Custer Equestrian Monument
George Davis Monument
George-tienne Cartier Monument
George Washington Birthplace National Monument
Gergovie Monument
Ghana Museums and Monuments Board
Gila Cliff Dwellings National Monument
Gloria Victis (Confederate monument)
Gloucester Valley Battle Monument
GoetheSchiller Monument
GoetheSchiller Monument (Milwaukee)
GoetheSchiller Monument (San Francisco)
GoetheSchiller Monument (Syracuse)
Go for Broke Monument
Goguryeo Monument, Chungju
Gold Butte National Monument
Golden Warrior Monument
Gopachal rock cut Jain monuments
Gordon Monument
Gospodor Monument Park
Grand CanyonParashant National Monument
Grand Portage National Monument
Grand StaircaseEscalante National Monument
Grave monument from Kallithea
Greatest Hits on Monument
Great Pyramid Monument
Great Siege Monument
Grey's Monument
Group of Monuments at Mahabalipuram
Gruta do Lago Azul Natural Monument
Guayabo National Monument
Guntupalli Group of Buddhist Monuments
Gyrowheel Monument
Hagerman Fossil Beds National Monument
Hanford Reach National Monument
Hans Christian rsted Monument
Hardy Monument
Haymarket Martyrs' Monument
Hazen Brigade Monument
Henry Wadsworth Longfellow Monument
Hermann Heights Monument
Herndon Monument
Heroes Monument
Heroes Monument, Jakarta
Heyward Shepherd monument
Historical Monuments Commission
Historical monuments in Pristina
Historical monuments in trpce
Historic Centre of Saint Petersburg and Related Groups of Monuments
Historic Monuments and Sites of Hiraizumi
Historic Monuments of Ancient Kyoto (Kyoto, Uji and Otsu Cities)
Historic monument (Switzerland)
Historic Sites and Monuments in Antarctica
Ho Chi Minh Monument
Hohokam Pima National Monument
Homestead National Monument of America
Hope for Peace Monument
Horse Monument to Platov
Hovenweep National Monument
Huguenot Monument
Humban-Numena
Hunnestad Monument
Illinois Centennial Monument
Immovable Cultural Monuments of National Significance
Independence Monument
Independence Monument, Ashgabat
Independence Monument, Kyiv
Independence Monument, Lome
Independence Monument, Phnom Penh
Indies Monument
Indio Comahue Monument
Institute for Protection of Cultural Monuments and National Museum
Institute of Cultural Monuments (Albania)
International Council on Monuments and Sites
International Day For Monuments and Sites
Islamic monuments in Kosovo
Islotes de Puihuil Natural Monument
James A. Garfield Monument
January 20 (monument)
Japanese Lantern Monument
Jewel Cave National Monument
John B. Castleman Monument
John Day Fossil Beds National Monument
John Lennon Peace Monument
John Young Monument
Josef Dobrovsk Monument
Jzef Pisudski Monument in Warsaw
Jzef Pisudski Monument, Turek
Jzef Pisudski Monument, Warsaw
Jzef Poniatowski Monument, Warsaw
Julian Tuwim Monument, d
Juneau Monument
Jurassic National Monument
Kaleshwari Group of Monuments
Karl Marx Monument
Kasha-Katuwe Tent Rocks National Monument
Katahdin Woods and Waters National Monument
Keyboard Monument
Khajuraho Group of Monuments
King Jagiello Monument
Krt-Aika Monument
Kurukpr Monumental Church
Kukayas Monument
Kyffhuser Monument
L'Ecole Polytechnique Monument
Lahuen adi Natural Monument
La Monumental
Las Limas Monument 1
Lava Beds National Monument
Laws protecting monuments by country
Lenin Monument, Pavlovskaya Street
Lessing Monument
Letter Carriers' Monument
Levoa, Spi Castle and the associated cultural monuments
Liberty Monument
Lincoln Goodale Monument
Lincoln Monument (Dixon, Illinois)
Lincoln Monument (Philadelphia)
Lincoln Monument (Wabash, Indiana)
Lincoln Vicksburg Monument
Lion Monument
List of American Civil War monuments in Kentucky
List of ancient monuments in Rome
List of Archaeological Protected Monuments in Jaffna District
List of buildings, sites, and monuments in New York City
List of communist monuments in Ukraine
List of Confederate monuments and memorials
List of Confederate monuments and memorials in Georgia
List of cultural monuments in Luenec
List of cultural monuments in Rimavsk Sobota
List of Designated Monuments in Sint Maarten
List of firefighting monuments and memorials
List of historical monuments in Bastia
List of historical monuments in Ireland
List of historic monuments in Romania
List of Historic Monuments (Poland)
List of Holodomor memorials and monuments
List of Los Angeles Historic-Cultural Monuments in Silver Lake, Angelino Heights, and Echo Park
List of Los Angeles Historic-Cultural Monuments in South Los Angeles
List of Los Angeles Historic-Cultural Monuments in the San Fernando Valley
List of martyrs' monuments and memorials
List of megalithic monuments in Cork
List of memorials and monuments at Arlington National Cemetery
List of memorials and monuments at Mount Herzl
List of MexicanAmerican War monuments and memorials
List of monuments and memorials in Taganrog
List of monuments and memorials removed during the George Floyd protests
List of monuments and memorials to Christopher Columbus
List of monuments and memorials to the KurdishTurkish conflict
List of monuments and memorials to women's suffrage
List of monuments damaged by conflict in the Middle East during the 21st century
List of monuments erected by the United Daughters of the Confederacy
List of Monuments, Fine Arts, and Archives personnel
List of monuments in Achham, Nepal
List of monuments in Arghakhanchi, Nepal
List of monuments in Baglung, Nepal
List of monuments in Bagmati Province
List of monuments in Bagmati Zone
List of monuments in Baitadi, Nepal
List of monuments in Bajhang, Nepal
List of monuments in Bajura, Nepal
List of monuments in Banke, Nepal
List of monuments in Bara, Nepal
List of monuments in Bardiya, Nepal
List of monuments in Bhaktapur, Nepal
List of monuments in Bheri Zone
List of monuments in Bhojpur, Nepal
List of monuments in Budanilkantha, Nepal
List of monuments in Chandragiri, Nepal
List of monuments in Chiinu
List of monuments in Chitwan, Nepal
List of monuments in Dadeldhura, Nepal
List of monuments in Dailekh, Nepal
List of monuments in Dakshinkali, Nepal
List of monuments in Dang, Nepal
List of monuments in Darchula, Nepal
List of monuments in Dhankuta, Nepal
List of monuments in Dhanusha, Nepal
List of monuments in Dhawalagiri Zone
List of monuments in Dolakha, Nepal
List of monuments in Dolpa, Nepal
List of monuments in Doti, Nepal
List of monuments in El Jadida
List of monuments in Gandaki Province
List of monuments in Gandaki Zone
List of monuments in Gorkha, Nepal
List of monuments in Gulmi, Nepal
List of monuments in Hanuman Dhoka, Kathmandu
List of monuments in Humla, Nepal
List of monuments in Ilam, Nepal
List of monuments in Jajarkot, Nepal
List of monuments in Janakpur Zone
List of monuments in Jhapa, Nepal
List of monuments in Jumla, Nepal
List of monuments in Kageshwari Manohara, Nepal
List of monuments in Kailali, Nepal
List of monuments in Kalikot, Nepal
List of monuments in Kanchanpur, Nepal
List of monuments in Kapilvastu, Nepal
List of monuments in Karnali Province
List of monuments in Karnali Zone
List of monuments in Kaski, Nepal
List of monuments in Kathmandu, Nepal
List of monuments in Kavrepalanchok, Nepal
List of monuments in Khotang, Nepal
List of monuments in Kirtipur, Nepal
List of monuments in Koshi Zone
List of monuments in Lalitpur, Nepal
List of monuments in Lamjung, Nepal
List of monuments in Lumbini Province
List of monuments in Lumbini Zone
List of monuments in Mahakali Zone
List of monuments in Mahottari, Nepal
List of monuments in Makwanpur, Nepal
List of monuments in Malta
List of monuments in Manang, Nepal
List of monuments in Mechi Zone
List of monuments in Metropolis 10, Kathmandu
List of monuments in Metropolis 11, Kathmandu
List of monuments in Metropolis 12, Kathmandu
List of monuments in Metropolis 13, Kathmandu
List of monuments in Metropolis 14, Kathmandu
List of monuments in Metropolis 15, Kathmandu
List of monuments in Metropolis 16, Kathmandu
List of monuments in Metropolis 17, Kathmandu
List of monuments in Metropolis 18, Kathmandu
List of monuments in Metropolis 19, Kathmandu
List of monuments in Metropolis 1, Kathmandu
List of monuments in Metropolis 20, Kathmandu
List of monuments in Metropolis 2, Kathmandu
List of monuments in Metropolis 3, Kathmandu
List of monuments in Metropolis 4, Kathmandu
List of monuments in Metropolis 5, Kathmandu
List of monuments in Metropolis 6, Kathmandu
List of monuments in Metropolis 7, Kathmandu
List of monuments in Metropolis 8, Kathmandu
List of monuments in Metropolis 9, Kathmandu
List of monuments in Morang, Nepal
List of monuments in Mugu, Nepal
List of monuments in Mustang, Nepal
List of monuments in Myagdi, Nepal
List of Monuments in Nakhchivan
List of monuments in Narayani Zone
List of monuments in Nawalparasi, Nepal
List of monuments in Nepal
List of monuments in Nuwakot, Nepal
List of monuments in Okhaldhunga, Nepal
List of monuments in Palpa, Nepal
List of monuments in Panchthar, Nepal
List of monuments in Parbat, Nepal
List of monuments in Parsa, Nepal
List of monuments in Prizren
List of monuments in Pyuthan, Nepal
List of monuments in Ramechhap, Nepal
List of monuments in Rapti Zone
List of monuments in Rasuwa, Nepal
List of monuments in Rautahat, Nepal
List of monuments in Rolpa, Nepal
List of monuments in Rukum, Nepal
List of monuments in Rupandehi, Nepal
List of monuments in Sagarmatha Zone
List of monuments in Salyan, Nepal
List of monuments in Sankhuwasabha, Nepal
List of monuments in Saptari, Nepal
List of monuments in Sarlahi, Nepal
List of monuments in Seti Zone
List of monuments in Shankharapur, Nepal
List of monuments in Sindhuli, Nepal
List of monuments in Siraha, Nepal
List of monuments in Solukhumbu, Nepal
List of monuments in Sudurpashchim Province
List of monuments in Sunsari, Nepal
List of monuments in Surkhet, Nepal
List of monuments in Syangja, Nepal
List of monuments in Tanahun, Nepal
List of monuments in Taplejung, Nepal
List of monuments in Tarakeshwar, Nepal
List of monuments in Terhathum, Nepal
List of monuments in Tokha, Nepal
List of monuments in Udayapur, Nepal
List of monuments of Italy
List of Monuments of National Importance in Agra circle
List of Monuments of National Importance in Agra district
List of Monuments of National Importance in Ahmedabad district
List of Monuments of National Importance in Allahabad district
List of Monuments of National Importance in Andhra Pradesh
List of Monuments of National Importance in Arunachal Pradesh
List of Monuments of National Importance in Assam
List of Monuments of National Importance in Aurangabad circle
List of Monuments of National Importance in Bangalore circle
List of Monuments of National Importance in Belgaum district
List of Monuments of National Importance in Bidar district
List of Monuments of National Importance in Bihar
List of Monuments of National Importance in Bijapur district, Karnataka
List of Monuments of National Importance in Chennai circle
List of Monuments of National Importance in Chhattisgarh
List of Monuments of National Importance in Dadra and Nagar Haveli and Daman and Diu
List of Monuments of National Importance in Delhi
List of Monuments of National Importance in Dharwad district
List of Monuments of National Importance in Goa
List of Monuments of National Importance in Gujarat
List of Monuments of National Importance in Gulbarga district
List of Monuments of National Importance in Haryana
List of Monuments of National Importance in Himachal Pradesh
List of Monuments of National Importance in Jammu and Kashmir
List of Monuments of National Importance in Jharkhand
List of Monuments of National Importance in Kanchipuram district
List of Monuments of National Importance in Karnataka
List of Monuments of National Importance in Kerala
List of Monuments of National Importance in Lalitpur district, India
List of Monuments of National Importance in Lucknow circle
List of Monuments of National Importance in Lucknow circle/North
List of Monuments of National Importance in Lucknow circle/South
List of Monuments of National Importance in Madhya Pradesh
List of Monuments of National Importance in Madhya Pradesh/East
List of Monuments of National Importance in Madhya Pradesh/West
List of Monuments of National Importance in Maharashtra
List of Monuments of National Importance in Manipur
List of Monuments of National Importance in Meghalaya
List of Monuments of National Importance in Mumbai circle
List of Monuments of National Importance in Nagaland
List of Monuments of National Importance in Odisha
List of Monuments of National Importance in Patna circle, Uttar Pradesh
List of Monuments of National Importance in Puducherry
List of Monuments of National Importance in Pudukkottai district
List of Monuments of National Importance in Punjab, India
List of Monuments of National Importance in Raichur district
List of Monuments of National Importance in Rajasthan
List of Monuments of National Importance in Sikkim
List of Monuments of National Importance in Thrissur circle, Tamil Nadu
List of Monuments of National Importance in Tripura
List of Monuments of National Importance in Uttara Kannada district
List of Monuments of National Importance in Uttarakhand
List of Monuments of National Importance in Uttar Pradesh
List of Monuments of National Importance in West Bengal
List of monuments of Pope John Paul II
List of monuments of the Gettysburg Battlefield
List of monuments of the Roman Forum
List of monuments of Tolyatti
List of monuments to Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington
List of monuments to Ludwig van Beethoven
List of most visited palaces and monuments
List of National Historic Monuments of Argentina
List of National Monuments in Connacht
List of National Monuments in Leinster
List of National Monuments in Munster
List of National Monuments in Ulster
List of National Monuments of Bosnia and Herzegovina
List of National Monuments of Chile
List of National Monuments of Chile in Aysn Region
List of National Monuments of Eswatini
List of national monuments of Portugal
List of National Monuments of Sierra Leone
List of national monuments of Taiwan
List of Natural Monuments in Kalikot
List of natural monuments in Karnali Pradesh
List of natural monuments in Nepal
List of natural monuments in Province No. 2
List of People's Heroes of Yugoslavia monuments
List of People's Heroes of Yugoslavia monuments in Bosnia and Herzegovina
List of People's Heroes of Yugoslavia monuments in Croatia
List of People's Heroes of Yugoslavia monuments in North Macedonia
List of People's Heroes of Yugoslavia monuments in Serbia
List of People's Heroes of Yugoslavia monuments in Slovenia
List of Registered Monuments (Japan)
List of Religious Cultural Monuments of Albania
List of Rijksmonuments
List of rijksmonuments in Friesland
List of scheduled monuments
List of scheduled monuments in Anglesey
List of scheduled monuments in Blaenau Gwent
List of scheduled monuments in Bridgend
List of scheduled monuments in Caerphilly
List of scheduled monuments in Cardiff
List of scheduled monuments in Cheshire (10661539)
List of scheduled monuments in Cheshire dated to before 1066
List of scheduled monuments in Cheshire since 1539
List of scheduled monuments in Conwy
List of scheduled monuments in Denbighshire
List of scheduled monuments in Flintshire
List of scheduled monuments in North Somerset
List of scheduled monuments in Sedgemoor
List of scheduled monuments in South Somerset
List of scheduled monuments in the Vale of Glamorgan
List of scheduled monuments in Wrexham
List of scheduled prehistoric monuments in Carmarthenshire
List of Scheduled prehistoric Monuments in north Pembrokeshire
List of scheduled prehistoric monuments in Powys (Montgomeryshire)
List of scheduled Roman to modern monuments in Carmarthenshire
List of sites and monuments in Kenya
List of Sons and Daughters of Utah Pioneers historic monuments
List of SpanishAmerican War monuments and memorials
List of Special Places of Scenic Beauty, Special Historic Sites and Special Natural Monuments
List of types of funerary monument
List of Vietnam War monuments and memorials
List of war museums and monuments in Vietnam
List of World War II monuments and memorials in North Macedonia
List of Yugoslav World War II monuments and memorials in Croatia
List of Yugoslav World War II monuments and memorials in Montenegro
List of Yugoslav World War II monuments and memorials in Serbia
Lists of monuments and memorials
Lists of scheduled monuments in Cheshire
Lists of scheduled monuments in Wales
Little Bighorn Battlefield National Monument
Living monument
LivingstoneStanley Monument
Lone Tree Monument
Los Angeles Historic-Cultural Monument
Los Pinginos Natural Monument
Lower Monumental Dam
Loyalty (monument)
Lumberman's Monument
Lundeberg Derby Monument
Luther Monument (Washington, D.C.)
Luther Monument (Worms)
Macdonald Monument
Macrae Monument
Maisonneuve Monument
Maitland Monument
Major John Andr Monument
Mansu Hill Grand Monument
Maria Konopnicka Monument, Wrzenia
Marianas Trench Marine National Monument
Martyrs' Monument, Beirut
Massacre of Glencoe Monument
Matthew Perry Monument (Newport, Rhode Island)
Matthias Corvinus Monument
Mausolea and Monuments Trust
Mechanics Monument
Medal of Honor Monument
Medgar and Myrlie Evers Home National Monument
Mehmetik Monument
Melaka Warrior Monument
Memorials and monuments to victims of the Titanic
METU Atatrk Monument
Michigan Soldiers' and Sailors' Monument
Millennium Monument
Mill Springs Battlefield National Monument
Misty Fjords National Monument
Montezuma Castle National Monument
Monument
Monumenta Germaniae Historica
Monumenta Historica Britannica
Monumental
Monumental Arch of Palmyra
Monumental Axis
Monumental brass
Monumental brasses of Gloucestershire
Monumental brass of John Rudying
Monumental Cemetery of Staglieno
Monumental church complex of Sant Pere de Terrassa
Monumental Clock of Pachuca
Monumental crosses
Monumentale (Milan Metro)
Monumental inscription
Monumental: In Search of America's National Treasure
Monumental Island
Monumental Marathon
Monumental masonry
Monumental Possession
Monumental propaganda
Monumental Ro Parapit
Monumental sculpture
Monumental Square (Alcaraz)
Monument and Memorial Ossuary to the Defenders of Belgrade
Monument and the Cemetery to the Liberators of Belgrade 1806
Monumenta Nipponica
Monumenta Serica
Monumenta Slavorum
Monument au Fantme
Monument aux braves de N.D.G.
Monument Ave.
Monument Avenue
Monument Avenue 10K
Monument Beach, Massachusetts
Monument Class Description
Monument, Colorado
Monument Creek
Monument Creek (Spring Brook tributary)
Monument de la Lgion Etrangre (Bonifacio)
Monument (disambiguation)
Monument du 22 Novembre 1970, Conakry
Monument Gardens (Bah World Centre)
Monument Hill
Monument Hills, California
Monument historique
Monument House
Monument Indi-Nederland
Monument istoric
Monument, Kansas
Monument Lab
Monument Mall
Monument (Miss May I album)
Monument Mountain
Monument Mountain (reservation)
Monument Municipal Airport
Monument-National
Monumento
Monumento a la abolicin de la esclavitud
Monumento a la Mujer
Monumento a la Revolucin
Monumento al Jbaro Puertorriqueo
Monumento all'Indiano, Florence
Monumento a los Cados por Espaa (Madrid)
Monumento a los hroes de El Polvorn
Monumento a los hroes de El Polvorn (mausoleum)
Monumento a los hroes de El Polvorn (obelisk)
Monument of Gratitude to France
Monument of Jews and Poles Common Martyrdom, Warsaw
Monument of Liberty
Monument of Liberty, Chiinu
Monument of Liberty, Istanbul
Monument of Liberty, Ruse
Monument of Lihula
Monument of Prusias II
Monument of Shahrokndin
Monument of Sivrihisar Airplane
Monument of Sokoowo
Monument of Ten Commandments
Monument of the Eponymous Heroes
Monument of the War of Independence
Monument of Zalongo
Monument, Oregon
Monument Park
Monument Park, Pretoria
Monument Park (Yankee Stadium)
Monument Peak
Monument, Pennsylvania
Monument Records
Monument Rock Wilderness
Monuments and Historic Sites of Zambia
Monuments and Melodies
Monuments and memorials to Horatio Nelson, 1st Viscount Nelson
Monuments, Fine Arts, and Archives program
Monuments Men Foundation for the Preservation of Art
Monuments (metal band)
Monuments of Australia
Monuments of Brugherio
Monuments of Japan
Monuments of National Importance of India
Monument Square
Monument SquareEagle Street Historic District
Monument Square, London
Monument Square (Portland, Maine)
Monuments relating to the Haymarket affair
Monuments to an Elegy
Monuments to the Warsaw Uprising
Monument to 1300 Years of Bulgaria, Shumen
Monument to Aleksandr Khanzhonkov
Monument to Alexander II (Moscow)
Monument to Alfonso XII
Monument to Balzac
Monument to Bartolom Mitre
Monument to Carlo Goldoni
Monument to Christopher Columbus
Monument to Christopher Columbus (Paseo de la Reforma)
Monument to Cuauhtmoc
Monument to Dante
Monument to Endre Ady, Zalu
Monument to Enrico Martnez
Monument to Friedrich Engels
Monument to Fyodor Tolbukhin
Monument to Garibaldi (Rome)
Monument to General Manfredo Fanti, Florence
Monument to Giovanni delle Bande Nere, Florence
Monument to Giuseppe Garibaldi (Buenos Aires)
Monument to Hispanidad (Madrid)
Monument to Isabella the Catholic (Granada)
Monument to Isabella the Catholic (Madrid)
Monument to Joe Louis
Monument to Jovan Cviji
Monument to Magdeburg Rights (Kyiv)
Monument to Michael Jackson
Monument to Michael the Brave, Guruslu
Monument to Minin and Pozharsky
Monument to Mos Bianchi
Monument to Nicholas I
Monument to Nil Filatov
Monument to Nizami Ganjavi in Chiinu
Monument to Party Founding
Monument to Peter I (St. Michael's Castle)
Monument Tortura Nunca Mais
Monument to Salavat Yulaev
Monument to Savonarola in Piazza Savonarola
Monument to Sir Alexander Ball
Monument to Soviet Tank Crews
Monument to Soviet War Veterans, Avala
Monument to Taras Shevchenko (Shakhty)
Monument to the Antarctic Treaty
Monument to the Bandeiras
Monument to the Battle of Monte Cassino, Warsaw
Monument to the Battle of the Nations
Monument to the Belarusians who died for Ukraine
Monument to the Communications Workers of Don
Monument to the Conquerors of Space
Monument to the Dead of World War II
Monument to the Defenders of Bauska
Monument to the fallen for Tn Silesia
Monument to the Fallen, Riccia
Monument to the Fallen Shipyard Workers of 1970
Monument to the French Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen
Monument to the Ghetto Heroes
Monument to the Great Fire of London
Monument to the guerrilla fighters of the Mordechaj Anielewicz Unit of the People's Guard
Monument to the heroes of Perekop
Monument to the Heroes of the Air
Monument to the Heroes of the Black Army
Monument to the Heroes of the Engineer Arm
Monument to the Independence of Brazil
Monument to the laboratory mouse
Monument to the Liberators of Soviet Latvia and Riga from the German Fascist Invaders
Monument to the Liberator Soldier (Kharkiv)
Monument to the Marquis of the Duero (Madrid)
Monument to the Masses
Monument to the Memory of Children - Victims of the Holocaust
Monument to the Peaceful Liberation of Tibet
Monument to the People's Heroes
Monument to the Revolution of 1905 (Matveev Kurgan)
Monument to the Revolution of the people of Moslavina
Monument to the sailors and fishermen perished in the sea
Monument to the Serbian and Albanian Partisans
Monument to the Soviet Army, Sofia
Monument to the Sun
Monument to the Tsar Liberator
Monument to the Unknown Soldier, Baghdad
Monument to the Victims of the Intervention
Monument to the Victims of the Soviet Occupation
Monument to the Victorious Fatherland Liberation War
Monument to the Victory of Chacabuco
Monument to the X-ray and Radium Martyrs of All Nations
Monument to Those Who Saved the World
Monument to Time End
Monument to Ubaldino Peruzzi, Florence
Monument to Vasco Nez de Balboa (Madrid)
Monument to veterinarians (Rostov-on-Don)
Monument to victims of the attack against Alfonso XIII
Monument to Victims of the Wola Massacre
Monument to Viriathus (Zamora)
Monument to Vladimir Vysotsky (Rostov-on-Don)
Monument to Vojvoda Vuk
Monument to Women Memorial Garden
Monument to World War II Orthodox victims, Biaystok
Monument to Yuri Gagarin
Monumentum Adulitanum
Monumentum pro Gesualdo
Monument Valley
Monument Valley Film Festival
Monument Valley Park
Monument Valley (video game)
Monument with Standing Beast
Morgan Morgan Monument
Mormon Pioneer Memorial Monument
Mormon Trail Monument
Mother's Monument
Motherland Monument
Motherland Monument (Matveev Kurgan)
Mount St. Helens National Volcanic Monument
Muir Woods National Monument
Muse des Matriaux du Centre de Recherche sur les Monuments Historiques
Muse national des Monuments Franais
Mysteries at the Monument
Nathan Bedford Forrest Monument
Nathan Bedford Forrest Monument (Memphis, Tennessee)
National Ascension Monument
National Canadian Liberation Monument
National Commission for Museums and Monuments
National Geological Monuments of India
National Indimonument
National Kaiser Wilhelm Monument
National monument
National Monument (Amsterdam)
National Monument at Vtkov
National Monument (Indonesia)
National monument (Ireland)
National Monument (Malaysia)
National Monument of Scotland
National Monuments Council
National Monuments Council (South Africa and Namibia)
National Monuments of Colombia
National Monuments of Mexico
National monuments of Singapore
National monuments of Spain
National Monuments of Zimbabwe
National Monuments Record
National Monuments Record of Scotland
National Monument to the Forefathers
National Monument to the U.S. Constitution
National Press Monument
National Register of Historic Monuments in Romania
National Women's Monument
Natural Bridges National Monument
Natural monument
Natural monument (Brazil)
Natural monuments of North Korea
Natural monuments of South Korea
Navajo National Monument
Nazodelavo Cave Natural Monument
Nelson Monument, Edinburgh
Nelson Monument, Portsdown Hill
Nereid Monument
Neutrality Monument
Newborn monument
Newkirk Viaduct Monument
New York Monuments Commission
Nicolaus Copernicus Monument, Krakw
Nicolaus Copernicus Monument, Montreal
Nicolaus Copernicus Monument, Toru
Nicolaus Copernicus Monument, Warsaw
North Borneo War Monument
Northeast Canyons and Seamounts Marine National Monument
Numen
Numenera
Numenes
Numenes siletti
Numenius
Numenius of Apamea
Numen (journal)
Numenoides
Numenta
Oliver P. Morton (monument)
Oljato-Monument Valley
Oljato-Monument Valley, Arizona
OljatoMonument Valley, Utah
Open Hand Monument
Oregon Caves National Monument and Preserve
Organ MountainsDesert Peaks National Monument
Orpheus Monument
Oshaktas Monument
Otan Qorgaushylar Monument
Pacific Remote Islands Marine National Monument
Pakistan Monument
Paleochristian and Byzantine monuments of Thessaloniki
Papahnaumokukea Marine National Monument
Peacekeeping Monument
Peace Monument
Peace Monument of Glendale
Peel Monument
Penshaw Monument
Persian Inscriptions on Indian Monuments
Philopappos Monument
Pilgrim Monument
Pink Dolphin Monument
Pipe Spring National Monument
Pipestone National Monument
Plaza de Toros Monumental de Valencia
Plaza Monumental Romn Eduardo Sandia
Political Martyrs' Monument
Pompeys Pillar National Monument
Pontes Capixabas Natural Monument
Portugaliae Monumenta Historica
Preeren Monument (Ljubljana)
President Lincoln and Soldiers' Home National Monument
Princeton Battle Monument
Prison Ship Martyrs' Monument
Prison Ship Martyrs' Monument Preservation Act
Profaning a monument
Prometheus Cave Natural Monument
Prospect Hill Monument
Prussian National Monument for the Liberation Wars
Public Monuments and Sculpture Association
Pukkwan Victory Monument
Pullman National Monument
Queen Elizabeth Way Monument
Racton Monument
Rainbow Bridge National Monument
Raoul Wallenberg Monument, London
R. D. Whitehead Monument
Regulator Maria Monument
Removal of Confederate monuments and memorials
Republic Monument
Respect to Mehmetik Monument
Reunification Monument, Copenhagen
Rhode Island Red Monument
Richard Wagner Monument
Rijksmonument
Rimsky-Korsakov Monument
Rio Grande del Norte National Monument
Rizal Monument (Calamba)
Robert E. Lee Monument
Robert E. Lee Monument (Marianna, Arkansas)
Robespierre Monument
Rochambeau Monument (Newport, Rhode Island)
Roman Dmowski Monument, Warsaw
Roman Monuments, Cathedral of St Peter and Church of Our Lady in Trier
Rose Atoll Marine National Monument
Rouen Monumental Cemetery
Royal Commission on the Ancient and Historical Monuments of Scotland
Royal Commission on the Ancient and Historical Monuments of Wales
Royal Commission on the Historical Monuments of England
Royal field with the monument to Pemysl, the Ploughman
Russell Cave National Monument
RussiaGeorgia Friendship Monument
Russian Monument (Liechtenstein)
Russian Monument, Sofia
Salar de Surire Natural Monument
Salinas Pueblo Missions National Monument
Salvador Allende Monument, Montreal
Sam Houston Monument
Samuel Hahnemann Monument
Sand to Snow National Monument
San Gabriel Mountains National Monument
San Jacinto Monument
San Juan Islands National Monument
San Martn Monument, Neuqun
San Martn Pajapan Monument 1
Santa Fe And Salt Lake Trail Monument
Santa Rosa and San Jacinto Mountains National Monument
Saratoga Battle Monument
Save Iraqi culture monument
Scheduled monument
Scheduled monuments and listed buildings in Exeter
Scheduled monuments in Bath and North East Somerset
Scheduled monuments in Birmingham
Scheduled monuments in Carmarthenshire
Scheduled monuments in Ceredigion
Scheduled monuments in Coventry
Scheduled monuments in Derbyshire
Scheduled monuments in Greater Manchester
Scheduled monuments in Gwynedd
Scheduled monuments in Leicester
Scheduled monuments in Maidstone
Scheduled monuments in Mendip
Scheduled monuments in Pembrokeshire
Scheduled monuments in Powys
Scheduled monuments in Shetland
Scheduled monuments in Somerset
Scheduled monuments in South Yorkshire
Scheduled monuments in Taunton Deane
Scheduled monuments in the West Midlands
Scheduled monuments in West Somerset
Scheduled monuments in West Somerset (AG)
Scheduled monuments in West Somerset (HZ)
Scientific Monument Moises Bertoni
Scott Monument
Scotts Bluff National Monument
Scrobipalpa monumentella
Seattle George Monument
Sebastopol Monument
Selamat Datang Monument
Sergeant Floyd Monument
Shakespeare's funerary monument
Sherman Monument
Shevchenko Monument (Ottawa)
Shipka Monument
Shoshone Cavern National Monument
Sibelius Monument (Helsinki)
Silesian Insurgents' Monument
Simeon Monument
Sites and monuments record
Skanderbeg Monument
Smelt Monument
Society for the Preservation of Ancient Norwegian Monuments
Soco Monument
Soldier's Monument
Soldier Monument (Matveev Kurgan)
Soldiers' and Sailors' Monument
Soldiers' and Sailors' Monument (Cleveland)
Soldiers' and Sailors' Monument (Indianapolis)
Soldiers' and Sailors' Monument (Manhattan)
Soldiers' and Sailors' Monument (New Haven)
Soldiers and Sailors Monument (Syracuse, New York)
Soldiers and Sailors Monument (Troy, New York)
Somerset Monument, Hawkesbury
Somoto Canyon National Monument
SpanishAmerican War Soldier's Monument
Stalin Monument (Budapest)
Stalin Monument (Prague)
Statue of Liberty National Monument
Statues and monuments of patriots on the Janiculum
Stefan Starzyski Monument
Stephen the Great Monument
StewartScreven Monument
Stonewall National Monument
Strengthen the Arm of Liberty Monument (Fayetteville, Arkansas)
Strengthen the Arm of Liberty Monument (Pine Bluff, Arkansas)
Suvorov Monument (Azov)
T-34 Tank Monument (Matveev Kurgan)
Tadeusz Kociuszko Monument (Chicago)
Tadeusz Kociuszko Monument, Krakw
Tadeusz Kociuszko Monument, Warsaw
Tell Monument
Ten Commandments Monument
Texas Capitol Vietnam Veterans Monument
The Astronaut Monument
The Branting Monument
The Equator monument
The Fort Dearborn Massacre Monument
The Ghost Monument
The Layer Monument
The Monument Airport
The Monuments Men
The monument to Victor Ponedelnik (Rostov-on-Don)
Theodore Roosevelt Monument Assemblage
The Russian-Bashkir Friendship Monument
Third Bastion of the Trinity Fortress Monument
This Is the Place Monument
Thomas A. Hendricks Monument
Thomas Parr Monument
Timiryazev monument
Timpanogos Cave National Monument
Timpoong and Hibok-Hibok Natural Monument
T J Byrnes Monument
Tocantins Fossil Trees Natural Monument
Torment: Tides of Numenera
Torre Monumental
Totem Pole (Monument Valley)
Tower Ladder (Devils Tower National Monument)
Treue der Union Monument
Tribuna Monumental
Tripoli Monument (sculpture)
Trout Creek (Monument Creek tributary)
Tskaltsitela Gorge Natural Monument
Tule Lake National Monument
Tuskegee Confederate Monument
Tuzigoot National Monument
Tyndale Monument
Types of megalithic monuments in northeastern Germany
Uhuru Monument
Ulmus minor 'Monumentalis'
Ulsan Industrial Center Monument
Umschlagplatz Monument
Union Confederate Monument
Union Monument, Iai
Union Monument in Louisville
Union Monument, Trgu Lpu
United Daughters of the Confederacy Monument (Cleveland, Tennessee)
Unknown Confederate Soldier Monument in Horse Cave
Unknown Sailor Monument
Unveiling of the Gunduli monument
Uran Togoo - Tulga Uul Natural Monument
Urdaneta Park Landmark Monument
User:Khozinskii/Unique restoration of the unique monument of the Great Victory
USS Maine National Monument
Vpenice (natural monument)
Vercingtorix monument
Vereniging Natuurmonumenten
Vermilion Cliffs National Monument
Veterans of Foreign Wars Monument
Victims of Iai Pogrom Monument
Victor Emmanuel II Monument
Victoria Monument, Liverpool
Victory Monument
Victory Monument (Ankara)
Victory Monument (Bangkok)
Victory Monument (Chicago)
Victory Monument (Tolyatti)
Virgin Islands Coral Reef National Monument
Virgin Mary Monument, Timioara
Vladimir Lenin monument, Kyiv
Vodnik Monument
Voortrekker Monument
Waco Mammoth National Monument
Wallace's Monument, Ayrshire
Wallace Monument
Walnut Canyon National Monument
Washington Monument
Washington Monument (Baltimore)
Washington Monument (Milwaukee)
Washington Monument Syndrome
Washington StreetMonument Circle Historic District
Wesselnyi Monument
Westerplatte Monument
West Irian Liberation Monument
Wikipedia Monument
Willy Brandt Monument (Warsaw)
WolfeMontcalm Monument
Woodrow Wilson Monument
World Athletes Monument
World Monuments Fund
World War II Valor in the Pacific National Monument
Wupatki National Monument
Yagul Natural Monument
Yalova Earthquake Monument
Yekatit 12 monument
Yogya Kembali Monument
Yonaguni Monument
Yucca House National Monument
Yugoslav World War II monuments and memorials
egota Monument
Zhong'anlun Monument



convenience portal:
recent: Section Maps - index table - favorites
Savitri -- Savitri extended toc
Savitri Section Map -- 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
authors -- Crowley - Peterson - Borges - Wilber - Teresa - Aurobindo - Ramakrishna - Maharshi - Mother
places -- Garden - Inf. Art Gallery - Inf. Building - Inf. Library - Labyrinth - Library - School - Temple - Tower - Tower of MEM
powers -- Aspiration - Beauty - Concentration - Effort - Faith - Force - Grace - inspiration - Presence - Purity - Sincerity - surrender
difficulties -- cowardice - depres. - distract. - distress - dryness - evil - fear - forget - habits - impulse - incapacity - irritation - lost - mistakes - obscur. - problem - resist - sadness - self-deception - shame - sin - suffering
practices -- Lucid Dreaming - meditation - project - programming - Prayer - read Savitri - study
subjects -- CS - Cybernetics - Game Dev - Integral Theory - Integral Yoga - Kabbalah - Language - Philosophy - Poetry - Zen
6.01 books -- KC - ABA - Null - Savitri - SA O TAOC - SICP - The Gospel of SRK - TIC - The Library of Babel - TLD - TSOY - TTYODAS - TSZ - WOTM II
8 unsorted / add here -- Always - Everyday - Verbs


change css options:
change font "color":
change "background-color":
change "font-family":
change "padding":
change "table font size":
last updated: 2022-04-28 02:42:01
2858 site hits