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object:list of geniuses from ranker

Leonardo di ser Piero da Vinci was an Italian polymath, painter, sculptor, architect, musician, mathematician, engineer, inventor, anatomist, geologist, cartographer, botanist, and writer. He is..
Marie Skodowska Curie ::: ( KEWR-ee, French: [kyi], Polish: [kiri]; born Maria Salomea Skodowska; 7 November 1867 4 July 1934) was a Polish and naturalized-French physicist and chemist who..
Galileo Galilei ::: ( GAL-il-AY-oh, also US: -EE-oh, Italian: [alilo alili]; 15 February 1564 8 January 1642) was an astronomer, physicist and engineer, sometimes described as a polymath from..
Sir Isaac Newton ::: (25 December 1642 20 March 1726/27) was an English mathematician, physicist, astronomer, theologian, and author (described in his own day as a "natural philosopher") who is widely..
Nikola Tesla was a Serbian American inventor, electrical engineer, mechanical engineer, physicist, and futurist best known for his contributions to the design of the modern alternating current..
Pythagoras of Samos ::: (c.570 c.495 BC) was an ancient Ionian Greek philosopher and the eponymous founder of Pythagoreanism. His political and religious teachings were well known in Magna Graecia..
Socrates ::: (; Ancient Greek: , romanized: Skrts, [skrts]; c.470 399 BC) was a classical Greek (Athenian) philosopher credited as one of the founders of Western philosophy, and as..
Archimedes of Syracuse ::: (; Greek: ; c.287 c.212 BC) was a Greek mathematician, physicist, engineer, inventor, and astronomer. Although few details of his life are known, he is regarded..
Nicolaus Copernicus ::: (; Polish: Mikoaj Kopernik; German: Nikolaus Kopernikus; Niklas Koppernigk; 19 February 1473 24 May 1543) was a Renaissance-era mathematician and astronomer, who formulated a..
Aristotle ::: (; Greek: Aristotls, pronounced [aristotls]; 384322 BC) was a Greek philosopher during the Classical period in Ancient Greece, the founder of the Lyceum and the..
Michael Faraday FRS ::: (; 22 September 1791 25 August 1867) was an English scientist who contributed to the study of electromagnetism and electrochemistry. His main discoveries include the principles..
Alan Mathison Turing ::: (; 23 June 1912 7 June 1954) was an English mathematician, computer scientist, logician, cryptanalyst, philosopher and theoretical biologist. Turing was highly influential in..
Albert Einstein ::: ( EYEN-styne; German: [albt antan] 14 March 1879 18 April 1955) was a German-born theoretical physicist who developed the theory of relativity, one of the two..
Michelangelo di Lodovico Buonarroti Simoni, commonly known as Michelangelo, was an Italian sculptor, painter, architect, poet, and engineer of the High Renaissance who exerted an unparalleled..
Plato ::: (; PLAY-toe Greek: Pltn, pronounced [] in Classical Attic; 428/427 or 424/423 348/347 BC) was an Athenian philosopher during the Classical period in Ancient Greece, founder..
Johannes Kepler ::: (; German: [johans kpl, -ns -]; December 27, 1571 November 15, 1630) was a German astronomer, mathematician, and astrologer. He is a key figure in the 17th-century scientific..
Ludwig van Beethoven ::: ( German: [lutv fan bethofn] baptised 17 December 1770 26 March 1827) was a German composer and pianist. A crucial figure in the transition between..
Euclid ::: (; Ancient Greek: Eukleds, pronounced [eu.kle.ds]; fl. 300 BC), sometimes called Euclid of Alexandria to distinguish him from Euclid of Megara, was a Greek mathematician,..
Johann Carl Friedrich Gauss ::: (; German: Gau [kal fid as] Latin: Carolus Fridericus Gauss; (30 April 1777 23 February 1855) was a German mathematician and physicist who made..
Wilhelm Conrad Rntgen ::: (; German: [vlhlm ntn]; 27 March 1845 10 February 1923) was a German mechanical engineer and physicist, who, on 8 November 1895, produced and detected electromagnetic..
Johann Sebastian Bach ::: (31 March [O.S. 21 March] 1685 28 July 1750) was a German composer and musician of the Baroque period. He is known for instrumental compositions such as the Art of Fugue, the..
Max Karl Ernst Ludwig Planck, ForMemRS ::: (German: [plak]; English: ; 23 April 1858 4 October 1947) was a German theoretical physicist whose discovery of energy quanta won him the Nobel Prize in..
Johannes Gensfleisch zur Laden zum Gutenberg ::: (; c.1400 February 3, 1468) was a German blacksmith, goldsmith, inventor, printer, and publisher who introduced printing to Europe with the printing..
Gottfried Wilhelm ::: (von) Leibniz (sometimes spelled Leibnitz) (; German: [tfit vlhlm fn labnts] or [lapnts]; French: Godefroi Guillaume Leibnitz; 1 July 1646 [O.S. 21 June] 14..
Hippocrates of Kos ::: (; Greek: , translit. Hippokrts ho Kos; c.460 c.370 BC), also known as Hippocrates II, was a Greek physician of the Age of Pericles (Classical Greece), who..
Ren Descartes ::: ( day-KART, also UK: DAY-kart, French: [ne dekat] Latinized: Renatus Cartesius; adjectival form: Cartesian ; 31 March 1596 11 February 1650) was a French philosopher,..
Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart ::: (27 January 1756 5 December 1791), baptised as Johannes Chrysostomus Wolfgangus Theophilus Mozart, was a prolific and influential composer of the classical era. Born in..
Blaise Pascal ::: ( pa-SKAL, also UK: -SKAHL, PASK-l, -al, US: pah-SKAHL, French: [blz paskal]; 19 June 1623 19 August 1662) was a French mathematician, physicist, inventor, writer and Catholic..
Johannes Brahms ::: (German: [johans bams]; 7 May 1833 3 April 1897) was a German composer, pianist, and conductor of the Romantic period. Born in Hamburg into a Lutheran family, Brahms spent much..
Niels Henrik David Bohr ::: (7 October 1885 18 November 1962) was a Danish physicist who made foundational contributions to understanding atomic structure and quantum theory, for which he received the..
Benjamin Franklin ::: (January 17, 1706 [O.S. January 6, 1705] April 17, 1790) was an American polymath and one of the Founding Fathers of the United States. Franklin was a leading author, printer,..
Werner Karl Heisenberg ::: (; German: [vn haznbk]; 5 December 1901 1 February 1976) was a German theoretical physicist and one of the key pioneers of quantum mechanics. He published his..
Charles Robert Darwin, ::: (; 12 February 1809 19 April 1882) was an English naturalist, geologist and biologist, best known for his contributions to the science of evolution. His proposition that all..
Friedrich Wilhelm Nietzsche ::: (, German: [fid vlhlm nit] (listen) or [- nits]; 15 October 1844 25 August 1900) was a German philosopher, cultural critic, composer, poet, philologist,..
Johann Wolfgang von Goethe ::: (, also US: GURT-, GAYT-, -ee; German: [johan vlfa fn t] 28 August 1749 22 March 1832) was a German writer and statesman. His works include:..
Friedrich Daniel Ernst Schleiermacher ::: (German: [fid lama]; November 21, 1768 February 12, 1834) was a German theologian, philosopher, and biblical scholar known for his attempt to..
Enrico Fermi ::: (Italian: [enriko fermi]; 29 September 1901 28 November 1954) was an Italian and naturalized-American physicist and the creator of the world's first nuclear reactor, the Chicago..
Edwin Powell Hubble ::: (November 20, 1889 September 28, 1953) was an American astronomer. He played a crucial role in establishing the fields of extragalactic astronomy and observational cosmology and..
Immanuel Kant ::: (; German: [manuel kant, -nul]; 22 April 1724 12 February 1804) was an influential German philosopher in the Age of Enlightenment. In his doctrine of transcendental idealism,..
Confucius ::: ( kn-FEW-shs; 551479 BC) was a Chinese philosopher and politician of the Spring and Autumn period. The philosophy of Confucius, also known as Confucianism, emphasized personal and..
Homer ::: (; Ancient Greek: Greek pronunciation: [hmros], Hmros) is the legendary author of the Iliad and the Odyssey, two epic poems that are the central works of ancient Greek literature...
Otto Eduard Leopold, Prince of Bismarck, Duke of Lauenburg ::: (Born von Bismarck-Schnhausen; German: Otto Eduard Leopold Frst von Bismarck, Herzog zu Lauenburg; 1 April 1815 30 July 1898), known as..
Karl Friedrich Schinkel was a Prussian architect, city planner, and painter who also designed furniture and stage sets. Schinkel was one of the most prominent architects of Germany and designed both..
Sun Tzu ::: (; Chinese: ; Pinyin transliteration Sunzi) was a Chinese general, military strategist, writer and philosopher who lived in the Eastern Zhou period of ancient China. Sun Tzu is..
Eric Arthur Blair ::: (25 June 1903 21 January 1950), better known by his pen name George Orwell, was an English novelist and essayist, journalist and critic, whose work is characterised by lucid..
Fyodor Mikhailovich Dostoevsky ::: (; Russian:
, tr. Fydor Mikhylovich Dostoyvskiy, IPA: [fdr mxajlvt dstjfskj] 11 November 1821 9 February..
William Shakespeare ::: (bapt. 26 April 1564 23 April 1616) was an English poet, playwright, and actor, widely regarded as the greatest writer in the English language and the world's greatest..
Alexander Graham Bell ::: ('Graham' pronounced ) (March 3, 1847 August 2, 1922) was a Scottish-born American inventor, scientist, and engineer who is credited with inventing and patenting the first..
Johann Christoph Friedrich von Schiller ::: (German: [johan kstf fid fn l]; 10 November 1759 9 May 1805) was a German poet, philosopher, physician, historian, and playwright. During..
Jesus ::: (c.4 BC c.AD 30 / 33), also referred to as Jesus of Nazareth and Jesus Christ, was a first-century Jewish preacher and religious leader. He is the central figure of Christianity. Most..
Franois-Marie Arouet ::: (French: [fswa mai aw]; 21 November 1694 30 May 1778), known by his nom de plume Voltaire (; also US: , French: [vlt]), was a French Enlightenment writer, historian,..
Durante di Alighiero degli Alighieri ::: (Italian: [durante de alijri]; Latin: Dantes), commonly known by his pen name Dante Alighieri or simply as Dante (, also US: , Italian: [dante]; c.1265 ..
James Clerk Maxwell ::: (13 June 1831 5 November 1879) was a Scottish scientist in the field of mathematical physics. His most notable achievement was to formulate the classical theory of..
Samuel Langhorne Clemens ::: (November 30, 1835 April 21, 1910), known by his pen name Mark Twain, was an American writer, humorist, entrepreneur, publisher, and lecturer. He was lauded as the..
Alexander III of Macedon ::: (Greek:  ; 20/21 July 356 BC 10/11 June 323 BC), commonly known as Alexander the Great (Ancient Greek: , romanized: Alxandros ho..
Gregor Johann Mendel ::: (Czech: eho Jan Mendel; 20 July 1822 6 January 1884) (English: ) was a scientist, Augustinian friar and abbot of St. Thomas' Abbey in Brno, Margraviate of Moravia. Mendel was..
Edgar Allan Poe ::: (; born Edgar Poe; January 19, 1809 October 7, 1849) was an American writer, editor, and literary critic. Poe is best known for his poetry and short stories, particularly his tales..
Stephen William Hawking ::: (8 January 1942 14 March 2018) was an English theoretical physicist, cosmologist, and author who was director of research at the Centre for Theoretical Cosmology at the..
Count Lev Nikolayevich Tolstoy ::: (; Russian: , tr. Lev Nikolyevich Tolsty; [lef nklavt tlstoj] 9 September [O.S. 28 August] 1828 20 November [O.S. 7..
Thomas Jefferson was an American Founding Father, the principal author of the Declaration of Independence, and the third President of the United States. He was a spokesman for democracy, and embraced..
The Wright brothers, Orville and Wilbur, were two American brothers, inventors, and aviation pioneers who are credited with inventing and building the world's first successful airplane and making the..
Siddhrtha Gautama ::: (Sanskrit: Siddhtha Gautama, c. 563/480 c. 483/400 BCE) or Siddhattha Gotama ( ) in Pali, also called the Gautama Buddha, the Shakyamuni (i.e. "Sage..
Christian Friedrich Hebbel ::: (18 March 1813 13 December 1863), was a German poet and dramatist...
Friedrich Wilhelm Christian Karl Ferdinand von Humboldt ::: (, also US: , UK: , German: [vlhlm fn hmblt]; 22 June 1767 8 April 1835) was a Prussian philosopher, linguist, government functionary,..
Abraham Lincoln ::: (February 12, 1809 April 15, 1865) was an American statesman and lawyer who served as the 16th president of the United States from 1861 until his assassination in April 1865...
Niccol di Bernardo dei Machiavelli ::: (, Italian: [nikkol mmakjavlli]; 3 May 1469 21 June 1527) was an Italian diplomat, politician, historian, philosopher, writer, playwright and poet of the..
Aristarchus of Samos ::: (; Greek: , Aristarkhos ho Samios; c. 310 c. 230 BC) was an ancient Greek astronomer and mathematician who presented the first known heliocentric model that..
Alfred Lothar Wegener ::: (; German: [alfet vegn]; 1 November 1880 November 1930) was a German polar researcher, geophysicist and meteorologist. During his lifetime he was primarily known for..
Giordano Bruno ::: (, Italian: [dordano bruno]; Latin: Iordanus Brunus Nolanus; born Filippo Bruno, (1548 17 February 1600) was an Italian Dominican friar, philosopher, mathematician, poet,..
Thomas Jeffrey Hanks ::: (born July 9, 1956) is an American actor and filmmaker. Known for both his comedic and dramatic roles, Hanks is one of the most popular and recognizable film stars worldwide, and..
Alessandro di Mariano di Vanni Filipepi ::: (c.1445 May 17, 1510), known as Sandro Botticelli (, Italian: [sandro bottitlli]), was an Italian painter of the Early Renaissance. He belonged to the..
Francis Bacon, 1st Viscount St Alban, ::: (; 22 January 1561 9 April 1626) was an English philosopher and statesman who served as Attorney General and as Lord Chancellor of England. His works are..
Georg Simon Ohm ::: (; German: [ek om]; 16 March 1789 6 July 1854) was a German physicist and mathematician. As a school teacher, Ohm began his research with the new electrochemical cell,..
Alessandro Giuseppe Antonio Anastasio Volta ::: (Italian: [alessandro vlta]; 18 February 1745 5 March 1827) was an Italian physicist, chemist, and pioneer of electricity and power who is credited as..
Charles Babbage ::: (; 26 December 1791 18 October 1871) was an English polymath. A mathematician, philosopher, inventor and mechanical engineer, Babbage originated the concept of a digital..
Erwin Rudolf Josef Alexander Schrdinger ::: (UK: , US: ; German: [vin d]; 12 August 1887 4 January 1961), sometimes written as Erwin Schrodinger or Erwin Schroedinger, was a Nobel..
Girolamo Francesco Maria Mazzola ::: (11 January 1503 24 August 1540), also known as Francesco Mazzola or, more commonly, as Parmigianino (UK: , US: , Italian: [parmidanino]; "the little one from..
Maximilian Karl Emil Weber ::: (21 April 1864 14 June 1920) was a German sociologist, philosopher, jurist, and political economist. His ideas profoundly influenced social theory and social research...
Johann Philipp Reis ::: (German: [as]; January 7, 1834 January 14, 1874) was a self-taught German scientist and inventor. In 1861, he constructed the first make-and-break telephone, today called the..
Richard Phillips Feynman, ForMemRS ::: (; May 11, 1918 February 15, 1988) was an American theoretical physicist, known for his work in the path integral formulation of quantum mechanics, the theory of..
Thomas Hobbes ::: (; 5 April 1588 4 December 1679), in some older texts Thomas Hobbes of Malmesbury, was an English philosopher, considered to be one of the founders of modern political philosophy...
Friedrich Wilhelm Ostwald ::: (2 September [O.S. 21 August] 1853 4 April 1932) was a Baltic German chemist and philosopher. He received the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1909 for his work on catalysis,..
Emily Elizabeth Dickinson ::: (December 10, 1830 May 15, 1886) was an American poet. Dickinson was born in Amherst, Massachusetts, into a prominent family with strong ties to its community. After..
Oscar-Claude Monet ::: (; French: [klod mn]; 14 November 1840 5 December 1926) was a French painter, a founder of French Impressionist painting and the most consistent and prolific practitioner of..
Victor Marie Hugo ::: (French: [vikt mai yo] 26 February 1802 22 May 1885) was a French poet, novelist, and dramatist of the Romantic movement. Hugo is considered to be one of the..
Carl Edward Sagan ::: (; November 9, 1934 December 20, 1996) was an American astronomer, cosmologist, astrophysicist, astrobiologist, author, science popularizer, and science communicator in astronomy..
Publius Vergilius Maro ::: (Classical Latin: [ wr.l.s]; traditional dates October 15, 70 BC September 21, 19 BC), usually called Virgil or Vergil () in English, was an ancient..
Carl Gustav Jung ::: ( YUUNG, German: [kal j]; 26 July 1875 6 June 1961) was a Swiss psychiatrist and psychoanalyst who founded analytical psychology. Jung's work was influential in the fields of..
Johann Gottfried ::: (after 1802, von) Herder (; German: [johan tfit hd]; 25 August 1744 18 December 1803) was a German philosopher, theologian, poet, and literary critic. He is associated..
Antoine-Laurent de Lavoisier ::: (UK: lav-WUZ-ee-ay, US: l-VWAH-zee-ay, French: [twan l d lavwazje]; 26 August 1743 8 May 1794), also Antoine Lavoisier after the French Revolution, was a..
Napoleon Bonaparte ::: (, French: [naple bnpat]; Italian: Napoleone di Buonaparte, pronounced [napoleone di bwnaparte]; 15 August 1769 5 May 1821) was a French statesman and military leader of..
Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel ::: (, German: [ek vlhlm fid hel]; August 27, 1770 November 14, 1831) was a German philosopher and an important figure of German idealism. He achieved..
Martin Luther King Jr. ::: (January 15, 1929 April 4, 1968) was an American Baptist minister and activist who became the most visible spokesperson and leader in the civil rights movement from 1955..
Ernest Rutherford, 1st Baron Rutherford of Nelson, , HFRSE, LLD ::: (30 August 1871 19 October 1937), was a New Zealand physicist who came to be known as the father of nuclear physics. Encyclopdia..
Miguel de Cervantes Saavedra ::: (; US: ; Spanish: [miel de eantes saaea]; 29 September 1547 (assumed) 22 April 1616 NS) was a Spanish writer who is widely regarded as the greatest writer in..
Antonio Lucio Vivaldi ::: (UK: , US: , Italian: [antnjo luto vivaldi] 4 March 1678 28 July 1741) was an Italian Baroque musical composer, virtuoso violinist, teacher, and priest. Born..
Ibn Sina ::: (Persian: ), also known as Abu Ali Sina ( ), Pur Sina (), and often known in the west as Avicenna (; c.980 June 1037) was a Persian Muslim polymath who is..
Friedrich Wilhelm Heinrich Alexander von Humboldt ::: (, also US: , UK: , German: [alksand fn hmblt] 14 September 1769 6 May 1859) was a Prussian polymath, geographer, naturalist,..
Frdric Franois Chopin ::: (, also UK: , US: , French: [p], Polish: [pn]; 1 March 1810 17 October 1849) was a Polish composer and virtuoso pianist of the Romantic era who wrote primarily for..
Thomas Aquinas ::: (; Italian: Tommaso d'Aquino, lit. "Thomas of Aquino"; 1225 7 March 1274) was an Italian Dominican friar, Philosopher, Catholic priest, and Doctor of the Church. He is an immensely..
John Ronald Reuel Tolkien ::: (; 3 January 1892 2 September 1973) was an English writer, poet, philologist, and academic, who is best known as the author of the classic high fantasy works The Hobbit,..
Otto von Guericke ::: ( GAIR-ik-, also US: GWAIR-, -kee, German: [to fn ek]; spelled Gericke until 1666; November 20, 1602 May 11, 1686 [Julian calendar]; November 30, 1602 May 21, 1686..
Augustus ::: (Latin: Imperator Caesar Divi filius Augustus; 23 September 63 BC 19 August AD 14) was a Roman statesman and military leader who was the first emperor of the Roman Empire, reigning from 27..
Heinrich Rudolf Hertz ::: (; German: [han hts]; 22 February 1857 1 January 1894) was a German physicist who first conclusively proved the existence of the electromagnetic waves predicted by..
Johannes Tauler OP ::: (c. 1300 16 June 1361) was a German mystic, a Catholic preacher and a theologian. A disciple of Meister Eckhart, he belonged to the Dominican order. Tauler was known as one of..
Alfred Bernhard Nobel ::: (; Swedish: [alfrd nbl] 21 October 1833 10 December 1896) was a Swedish businessman, chemist, engineer, inventor, and philanthropist. Nobel held 355 different..
Johannes Vermeer ::: (UK: , US: , Dutch: [jons frmer]; October 1632 December 1675) was a Dutch Baroque Period painter who specialized in domestic interior scenes of middle class life. He was a..
Sir Francis Galton, FRS ::: (; 16 February 1822 17 January 1911) was an English Victorian era statistician, polymath, sociologist, psychologist, anthropologist, eugenicist, tropical explorer,..
Guglielmo Marconi, 1st Marquis of Marconi ::: (Italian: [ulmo markoni]; 25 April 1874 20 July 1937) was an Italian inventor, and electrical engineer, known for his pioneering work on..
Tycho Brahe ::: (; born Tyge Ottesen Brahe; 14 December 1546 24 October 1601) was a Danish nobleman, astronomer, and writer known for his accurate and comprehensive astronomical and planetary..
Vincent Willem van Gogh ::: (Dutch: [vnsnt lm v x] 30 March 1853 29 July 1890) was a Dutch post-impressionist painter who is among the most famous and influential figures in the..
Giambattista Vico ::: (born Giovan Battista Vico , Italian: [viko]; 23 June 1668 23 January 1744) was an Italian political philosopher and rhetorician, historian and jurist, of the Age of..
Marcus Aurelius ::: (26 April 121 17 March 180) was Roman emperor from 161 to 180 and a Stoic philosopher. He was the last of the rulers traditionally known as the Five Good Emperors, and the last..
David Hume ::: (born 7 May 1711 NS 25 August 1776) was a Scottish Enlightenment philosopher, historian, economist, and essayist, who is best known today for his highly influential system of..
Arthur Schopenhauer ::: (; German: [at opnha]; 22 February 1788 21 September 1860) was a German philosopher. He is best known for his 1818 work The World as Will and Representation..
Henry Ford ::: (July 30, 1863 April 7, 1947) was an American industrialist and a business magnate, the founder of the Ford Motor Company, and the sponsor of the development of the assembly line..
Jean-Jacques Rousseau ::: (UK: , US: ; French: [ak uso]; 28 June 1712 2 July 1778) was a Genevan philosopher, writer and composer. His political philosophy influenced the progress of the..
Luigi Galvani ::: (, also US: , Italian: [luidi alvani]; Latin: Aloysius Galvanus; 9 September 1737 4 December 1798) was an Italian physician, physicist, biologist and philosopher, who discovered..
Oscar Fingal O'Flahertie Wills Wilde ::: (16 October 1854 30 November 1900) was an Irish poet and playwright. After writing in different forms throughout the 1880s, he became one of London's most..
Hesiod ::: (; Greek: Hsodos) was a Greek poet generally thought by scholars to have been active between 750 and 650 BC, around the same time as Homer. He is generally regarded as the first..
Wernher Magnus Maximilian Freiherr von Braun ::: (March 23, 1912 June 16, 1977) was a German and later American aerospace engineer and space architect. He was the leading figure in the development of..
Isaac Asimov ::: (; c.January 2, 1920 April 6, 1992) was an American writer and professor of biochemistry at Boston University. He was known for his works of science fiction and popular science...
Bertrand Arthur William Russell, 3rd Earl Russell, ::: (; 18 May 1872 2 February 1970) was a British philosopher, logician, mathematician, historian, writer, essayist, social critic, political..
Caroline Lucretia Herschel ::: (; 16 March 1750 9 January 1848) was a German astronomer, whose most significant contributions to astronomy were the discoveries of several comets, including the periodic..
Johann Kaspar ::: (or Caspar) Lavater (Alemannic German: [lvtr]; 15 November 1741 2 January 1801) was a Swiss poet, writer, philosopher, physiognomist and theologian...
Rembrandt Harmenszoon van Rijn ::: (, also US: , Dutch: [rmbrnt rm(n)son vn rin] 15 July 1606 4 October 1669) was a Dutch draughtsman, painter and printmaker. An innovative and..
James Watt ::: (; 30 January 1736 (19 January 1736 OS) 25 August 1819) was a Scottish inventor, mechanical engineer, and chemist who improved on Thomas Newcomen's 1712 Newcomen steam engine with his..
Leonhard Euler ::: ( OY-lr; German: [lr] 15 April 1707 18 September 1783) was a Swiss mathematician, physicist, astronomer, geographer, logician and engineer who made important and..
Carl Linnaeus ::: (; 23 May 1707 10 January 1778), also known after his ennoblement as Carl von Linn (Swedish pronunciation: [k fn lne] (listen)), was a Swedish botanist, zoologist, and..
Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky ::: (English: chy-KOF-skee; Russian: , tr. Pytr Ilych Chaykvskiy, IPA: [ptr ljit tjkofskj] 7 May 1840 [O.S. 25 April] 6..
Johann Reuchlin, Count Palatine by Imperial and Papal Authority ::: (German: [johan lin]; sometimes called Johannes; 29 January 1455 30 June 1522) was a German-born Catholic humanist and a..
Louis Pasteur ::: (, French: [lwi past]; December 27, 1822 September 28, 1895) was a French biologist, microbiologist and chemist renowned for his discoveries of the principles of vaccination,..
John Maynard Keynes, 1st Baron Keynes ::: ( KAYNZ; 5 June 1883 21 April 1946), was a British economist, trained mathematician, whose ideas fundamentally changed the theory and practice of..
Thales of Miletus ::: (; Greek: ( ), Thals, THAY-lees or TAH-lays; c. 624/623 c. 548/545 BC) was a pre-Socratic philosopher, mathematician and astronomer from Miletus in Ionia, Asia..
Johann Friedrich Blumenbach ::: (11 May 1752 22 January 1840) was a German physician, naturalist, physiologist, and anthropologist. He was one of the first to explore the study of the human being as an..
Sren Aabye Kierkegaard ::: ( SORR-n KEER-k-gard, also US: -gor, Danish: [sn kikk] 5 May 1813 11 November 1855) was a Danish philosopher, theologian, poet, social critic and..
Euripides ::: (; Greek: Eurpds, pronounced [eu.ri.p.ds]; c.480 c.406 BC) was a tragedian of classical Athens. Along with Aeschylus and Sophocles, he is one of the three ancient..
Karl Wilhelm Otto Lilienthal ::: (23 May 1848 10 August 1896) was a German pioneer of aviation who became known as the "flying man". He was the first person to make well-documented, repeated,..
George Washington was the first President of the United States, the Commander-in-Chief of the Continental Army, and one of the Founding Fathers of the United States. He presided over the convention..
Jules Gabriel Verne ::: (; French: [yl vn]; 8 February 1828 24 March 1905) was a French novelist, poet, and playwright. Verne's collaboration with the publisher Pierre-Jules Hetzel led to the..
Julius Robert Oppenheimer ::: (; April 22, 1904 February 18, 1967) was an American theoretical physicist and professor of physics at the University of California, Berkeley. Oppenheimer was the wartime..
Sophocles ::: (; Greek: Sophokls, pronounced [so.po.kls]; c. 497/6 winter 406/5 BC) is one of three ancient Greek tragedians whose plays have survived. His first plays were written later..
Democritus ::: (; Greek: , Dmkritos, meaning "chosen of the people"; c. 460 c. 370 BC) was an Ancient Greek pre-Socratic philosopher primarily remembered today for his formulation of an..
Claudius Ptolemy ::: (; Koin Greek: , Kladios Ptolemaos [klwdios ptolmos]; Latin: Claudius Ptolemaeus; c.AD 100 c.170) was a mathematician, astronomer, geographer and..
Friedrich Wilhelm Joseph Schelling ::: (German: [fid vlhlm jozf l]; 27 January 1775 20 August 1854), later (after 1812) von Schelling, was a German philosopher. Standard histories of..
Mikhail Vasilyevich Lomonosov ::: (; Russian:
) , IPA: [mxil vsiljvt lmnosf] November 19 [O.S. November 8] 1711 April 15 [O.S. April 4]..
Charles John Huffam Dickens ::: (; 7 February 1812 9 June 1870) was an English writer and social critic. He created some of the world's best-known fictional characters and is regarded by many as the..
Martin Luther, , ::: (; German: [matin lt]; 10 November 1483 18 February 1546) was a German professor of theology, composer, priest, monk, and a seminal figure in the Protestant..
Sir Alexander Fleming ::: (6 August 1881 11 March 1955) was a Scottish biologist, physician, microbiologist, and pharmacologist. His best-known discoveries are the enzyme lysozyme in 1923 and the..
Epicurus ::: (341270 BC) was an ancient Greek philosopher and sage who founded a highly influential school of philosophy now called Epicureanism. He was born on the Greek island of Samos to Athenian..
Louis Daniel Armstrong ::: (August 4, 1901 July 6, 1971), nicknamed Satchmo, Satch, and Pops, was an American trumpeter, composer, vocalist and occasional actor who was one of the most influential..
Raffaello Sanzio da Urbino ::: (Italian: [raffallo santsjo da urbino]; March 28 or April 6, 1483 April 6, 1520), known as Raphael (, US: ), was an Italian painter and architect of the High..
Adam Smith ::: (16 June [O.S. 5 June] 1723 17 July 1790) was a Scottish economist, philosopher and author as well as a moral philosopher, a pioneer of political economy and a key figure during the..
Thomas Alva Edison ::: (February 11, 1847 October 18, 1931) was an American inventor and businessman who has been described as America's greatest inventor. He developed many devices in fields such as..
Baruch Spinoza ::: (, Dutch: [barux spnoza]; born Benedito de Espinosa, Portuguese: [bnitu pinz]; later Benedict de Spinoza; 24 November 1632 21 February 1677) was a Jewish-Dutch..
Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi ::: (; 2 October 1869 30 January 1948) was an Indian lawyer, anti-colonial nationalist, and political ethicist, who employed nonviolent resistance to lead the successful..
Paul Adrien Maurice Dirac ::: (; 8 August 1902 20 October 1984) was an English theoretical physicist who is regarded as one of the most significant physicists of the 20th century.Dirac made..
Ettore Majorana ::: (, Italian: [ttore majorana]; born on 5 August 1906 probably died after 1959) was an Italian theoretical physicist who worked on neutrino masses. On March 25, 1938, he..
Marcus Tullius Cicero ::: (; Classical Latin: [mar.ks tl.l.s]; 106 BC 7 December 43 BC) was a Roman statesman, orator, lawyer and philosopher, who served as consul in the year 63 BC...
John Stuart Mill ::: (20 May 1806 7 May 1873), usually cited as J. S. Mill, was a British philosopher, political economist, and civil servant. One of the most influential thinkers in the history of..
Florence Nightingale, ::: (; 12 May 1820 13 August 1910) was an English social reformer and statistician, and the founder of modern nursing. Nightingale came to prominence while serving as a manager..
Aeschylus ::: (UK: , ; Greek: Aiskhylos, pronounced [ais.k.los]; c. 525/524 c. 456/455 BC) was an ancient Greek tragedian. He is often described as the father of tragedy. Academics'..
Hypatia ::: (born c. 350370; died 415 AD) was a Hellenistic Neoplatonist philosopher, astronomer, and mathematician, who lived in Alexandria, Egypt, then part of the Eastern Roman Empire. She was a..
Federico Fellini, ::: (Italian: [federiko fellini]; 20 January 1920 31 October 1993) was an Italian film director and screenwriter. Known for his distinct style that blends fantasy and baroque..
Sigmund Freud ::: ( FROYD; German: [zikmnt ft]; born Sigismund Schlomo Freud; 6 May 1856 23 September 1939) was an Austrian neurologist and the founder of psychoanalysis, a clinical method for..
Frederick William Herschel, ::: (; German: Friedrich Wilhelm Herschel; 15 November 1738 25 August 1822) was a German-born British astronomer, composer and brother of fellow astronomer Caroline..
Desiderius Erasmus Roterodamus ::: (; 28 October 1466 12 July 1536), known as Erasmus or Erasmus of Rotterdam, was a Dutch philosopher and Christian humanist who is widely considered to have been the..
Richard Wagner is a film score composer...
Konrad Zacharias Lorenz ::: (German pronunciation: [knat lonts]; 7 November 1903 27 February 1989) was an Austrian zoologist, ethologist, and ornithologist. He shared the 1973 Nobel Prize in..
William Luther Pierce III ::: (September 11, 1933 July 23, 2002) was an American white supremacist, neo-Nazi, anti-Semitic author and political commentator. For more than 30 years, he was one of the..
Fridtjof Wedel-Jarlsberg Nansen ::: (Norwegian: [ftjf nnsn]; 10 October 1861 13 May 1930) was a Norwegian explorer, scientist, diplomat, humanitarian and Nobel Peace Prize laureate. In his..
Emanuel Swedenborg ::: (; Swedish pronunciation ; born Emanuel Swedberg; 29 January 1688 29 March 1772) was a Swedish pluralistic-Christian theologian, scientist, philosopher and mystic. He is best..
Ivan Sergeyevich Turgenev ::: (English: ; Russian: , tr. Ivn Sergyevich Turgnev, IPA: [van srevt trenf]; November 9 [O.S. October 28] 1818 September 3, 1883)..
Johann Gottlieb Fichte ::: (; German: [johan tlip ft]; 19 May 1762 27 January 1814) was a German philosopher who became a founding figure of the philosophical movement known as German..
Otto Weininger ::: (German: [van]; 3 April 1880 4 October 1903) was an Austrian philosopher who lived in the Austro-Hungarian Empire. In 1903, he published the book Geschlecht und Charakter (Sex..
Georg Friedrich Bernhard Riemann ::: (German: [ek fid bnhat iman, gek -] 17 September 1826 20 July 1866) was a German mathematician who made contributions to..
Joseph Arthur de Gobineau ::: (14 July 1816 13 October 1882) was a French aristocrat who is best known today for helping to legitimise racism by use of scientific racist theory and "racial demography"..
Patricia Lee Smith ::: (born December 30, 1946) is an American singer-songwriter, musician, author, and poet who became an influential component of the New York City punk rock movement with her 1975..
Mary Ann Evans ::: (22 November 1819 22 December 1880; alternatively Mary Anne or Marian), known by her pen name George Eliot, was an English novelist, poet, journalist, translator, and one of the..
Ivan Petrovich Pavlov ::: (Russian: , IPA: [van ptrovt pavlf] 26 September [O.S. 14 September] 1849 27 February 1936) was a Russian physiologist known..
Friedrich Weinbrenner was a German architect and city planner admired for his mastery of classical style...
Paracelsus ::: (; 1493/4 24 September 1541), born Theophrastus von Hohenheim (full name Philippus Aureolus Theophrastus Bombastus von Hohenheim), was a Swiss physician, alchemist, and astrologer of the..
John von Neumann ::: (; Hungarian: Neumann Jnos Lajos, pronounced [njmn jano ljo]; December 28, 1903 February 8, 1957) was a Hungarian-American mathematician, physicist, computer scientist,..
Alexander Hamilton ::: (January 11, 1755 or 1757 July 12, 1804) was an American statesman, politician, legal scholar, military commander, lawyer, banker and economist. He was one of the Founding..
Alexander Nikolayevich Scriabin ::: (; Russian:  [lksandr nkavt skrbn]; 6 January 1872 [O.S. 25 December 1871] 27 April [O.S. 14 April] 1915) was a..
David Wark Griffith ::: (January 22, 1875 July 23, 1948) was an American film director. Widely considered as the most important filmmaker of his generation, he pioneered the feature-length movie and..
Charles Pierre Baudelaire ::: (UK: , US: ; French: [al bodl] 9 April 1821 31 August 1867) was a French poet who also produced notable work as an essayist, art critic, and pioneering..
Omar Khayyam ::: (; Persian:

[om xjjm]; 18 May 1048 4 December 1131) was a Persian mathematician, astronomer, and poet. He was born in Nishapur, in northeastern Iran, and spent most..
Edmund Gustav Albrecht Husserl ::: ( HUUSS-url, also US: HOO-surl, HUUSS-r-l, German: [tmnt hsl]; 8 April 1859 27 April 1938) was a German philosopher who established the school of..
Jean-Baptiste Pierre Antoine de Monet, chevalier de Lamarck ::: (1 August 1744 18 December 1829), often known simply as Lamarck (; French: [batist lamak]), was a French naturalist. He was a..
Jacques Marie mile Lacan ::: (; French: [ak lak]; 13 April 1901 9 September 1981) was a French psychoanalyst and psychiatrist who has been called "the most controversial psycho-analyst since..
Kurt Friedrich Gdel ::: (; German: [kt dl] April 28, 1906 January 14, 1978) was an Austro-Hungarian-born Austrian, and later American, logician, mathematician, and philosopher...
Sextus Empiricus ::: (Greek: ; c. 160 c. 210 CE, dates uncertain), was a physician and philosopher, who likely lived in Alexandria, Rome, or Athens. His philosophical work is the most..
Moses ben Maimon, commonly known as Maimonides ::: ( my-MON-i-deez) and also referred to by the acronym Rambam, was a medieval Sephardic Jewish philosopher who became one of the most prolific and..
Domnikos Theotokpoulos ::: (Greek:
[ominikos eotokopulos]; October 1541 7 April 1614), most widely known as El Greco ("The Greek"), was a Greek painter, sculptor and..
Baron Augustin-Louis Cauchy ::: (; French: [oyst lwi koi]; 21 August 1789 23 May 1857) was a French mathematician, engineer, and physicist who made pioneering contributions to several branches of..
Christoph Martin Wieland ::: (German: [vilant]; 5 September 1733 20 January 1813) was a German poet and writer. He is best-remembered for having written the first Bildungsroman (Geschichte des..
Ludwig Josef Johann Wittgenstein ::: (; German: [lutv vtgntan]; 26 April 1889 29 April 1951) was an Austrian philosopher who worked primarily in logic, the philosophy of mathematics, the..
variste Galois ::: (; French: [evaist alwa]; 25 October 1811 31 May 1832) was a French mathematician and political activist. While still in his teens, he was able to determine a necessary and..
Henrik Steffens ::: (2 May 1773 13 February 1845), was a German philosopher, scientist, and poet...
Honor de Balzac ::: ( BAL-zak, more commonly US: BAWL-, French: [ne d() balzak]; born Honor Balzac; 20 May 1799 18 August 1850) was a French novelist and playwright. The novel sequence La..
Ludwig Andreas von Feuerbach ::: (German: [lutv fbax]; 28 July 1804 13 September 1872) was a German philosopher and anthropologist best known for his book The Essence of Christianity, which..
Antonn Leopold Dvok ::: ( d(-)VOR-zha(h)k, Czech: [antoin lopold dvorak] 8 September 1841 1 May 1904) was a Czech composer, one of the first to achieve worldwide recognition...
Hugo Grotius ::: (; 10 April 1583 28 August 1645), also known as Huig de Groot (Dutch: [y d rot]) or Hugo de Groot (Dutch: [yo d rot]), was a Dutch jurist. Along with the earlier works of..
Luitzen Egbertus Jan Brouwer ::: (; Dutch: [lyts(n) brts jn brur]; 27 February 1881 2 December 1966), usually cited as L. E. J. Brouwer but known to his friends as Bertus, was a Dutch..
William Seward Burroughs II ::: (; February 5, 1914 August 2, 1997) was an American writer and visual artist. Burroughs was a primary figure of the Beat Generation and a major postmodernist author..
Sir David Lean ::: (25 March 1908 16 April 1991) was an English film director, producer, screenwriter and editor. Widely considered as one of the most influential directors of all time, Lean was..
Saint Anselm of Canterbury ::: (; 1033/41109), also called Anselm of Aosta (Italian: Anselmo d'Aosta) after his birthplace and Anselm of Bec (French: Anselme du Bec) after his monastery, was an Italian..
Mary Anning ::: (21 May 1799 9 March 1847) was an English fossil collector, dealer, and palaeontologist who became known around the world for important finds she made in Jurassic marine fossil beds in..
Samuel Benjamin Harris ::: (born April 9, 1967) is an American author, public intellectual, blogger, and podcast host primarily known for his criticism of religion, and Islam in particular. His academic..
Jean de la Bruyre ::: (UK: , UK: , French: [ d la byj]; 16 August 1645 11 May 1696) was a French philosopher and moralist, who was noted for his satire...
Abraham Harold Maslow ::: (; April 1, 1908 June 8, 1970) was an American psychologist who was best known for creating Maslow's hierarchy of needs, a theory of psychological health predicated on..
Viktor Schauberger ::: (30 June 1885 in Holzschlag, Upper Austria 25 September 1958 in Linz, Austria) was an Austrian forest caretaker, naturalist, parascientist, philosopher, inventor and biomimicry..
Geoffrey Chaucer ::: (; c.1343 25 October 1400) was an English poet and author. Widely considered the greatest English poet of the Middle Ages, he is best known for The Canterbury Tales. Chaucer has..
Theodore Lothrop Stoddard ::: (June 29, 1883 May 1, 1950) was an American white supremacist historian, journalist, and political scientist. Stoddard wrote several books which advocated eugenics and..
Abu al-Qasim Abbas ibn Firnas ibn Wirdas al-Takurini ::: (809887 A.D.), also known as Abbas ibn Firnas (Arabic: ), was an Andalusian polymath: an inventor, physician, chemist, engineer,..
Georges-Louis Leclerc, Comte de Buffon ::: (French pronunciation: [ lwi lkl kt d byf]; 7 September 1707 16 April 1788) was a French naturalist, mathematician, cosmologist, and..
Roberta Joan "Joni" Mitchell ::: (ne Anderson; born November 7, 1943) is a Canadian singer-songwriter. Drawing from folk, pop, rock, and jazz, Mitchell's songs often reflect social and environmental..
David mile Durkheim ::: (French: [emil dykm] or [dykajm]; 15 April 1858 15 November 1917) was a Jewish sociologist in France. He formally established the academic discipline andwith W. E. B. Du..
Paul Thomas Mann ::: (UK: MAN, US: MAHN; German: [pal tomas man]; 6 June 1875 12 August 1955) was a German novelist, short story writer, social critic, philanthropist, essayist, and the 1929..
Emil Cioran ::: (Romanian: [emil toran] 8 April 1911 20 June 1995) was a Romanian philosopher and essayist, who published works in both Romanian and French. His work has been noted for..
Jean Sibelius ::: (; Swedish pronunciation ), born Johan Julius Christian Sibelius (8 December 1865 20 September 1957), was a Finnish composer and violinist of the late Romantic and early-modern..
Johann Kaspar Schmidt ::: (25 October 1806 26 June 1856), better known as Max Stirner, was a German philosopher who is often seen as one of the forerunners of nihilism, existentialism, psychoanalytic..
John Milton ::: (9 December 1608 8 November 1674) was an English poet, polemicist, man of letters, and civil servant for the Commonwealth of England under its Council of State and later under Oliver..
Hermann Ludwig Ferdinand von Helmholtz ::: (August 31, 1821 September 8, 1894) was a German physician and physicist who made significant contributions in several scientific fields. The largest German..
Edmond ::: (or Edmund) Halley, FRS (; 8 November [O.S. 29 October] 1656 25 January 1742 [O.S. 14 January 1741]) was an English astronomer, geophysicist, mathematician, meteorologist, and physicist. He..
Antoine "Fats" Domino Jr. ::: (February 26, 1928 October 24, 2017) was an American pianist and singer-songwriter. One of the pioneers of rock and roll music, Domino sold more than 65 million records...
John Dalton FRS ::: (; 6 September 1766 27 July 1844) was an English chemist, physicist, and meteorologist. He is best known for introducing the atomic theory into chemistry, and for his research into..
Ryke Geerd Hamer ::: (17 May 1935 2 July 2017), a German ex-physician, was the originator of Germanic New Medicine, also formerly known as German New Medicine and New Medicine, a system of..
Burrhus Frederic Skinner ::: (March 20, 1904 August 18, 1990), commonly known as B. F. Skinner, was an American psychologist, behaviorist, author, inventor, and social philosopher. He was the Edgar..
Albert Camus ::: (; French: [alb kamy] 7 November 1913 4 January 1960) was a French philosopher, author, and journalist. He won the Nobel Prize in Literature at the age of 44 in 1957, the..
Chrtien de Troyes ::: (French: [ d.twa]) (1135?1185?, fl. c. 11601191) was a French poet and trouvre known for his writing on Arthurian subjects, and for possibly originating the character..
(Achille) Claude Debussy ::: (French: [ail klod dbysi]; 22 August 1862 25 March 1918) was a French composer. He is sometimes seen as the first Impressionist composer, although he vigorously rejected..
James Dewey Watson ::: (born April 6, 1928) is an American molecular biologist, geneticist and zoologist. In 1953, he co-authored with Francis Crick the academic paper proposing the double helix..
George Orson Welles ::: (May 6, 1915 October 10, 1985) was an American actor, director, writer and producer who is remembered for his innovative work in radio, theatre and film. He is considered one of..
Ferdinand de Saussure ::: (; French: [fdin d sosy]; 26 November 1857 22 February 1913) was a Swiss linguist and semiotician. His ideas laid a foundation for many significant developments in both..
Paul-Michel Foucault ::: (UK: FOO-koh, US: foo-KOH, French: [pl mil fuko]; 15 October 1926 25 June 1984), generally known as Michel Foucault, was a French philosopher, historian of ideas, social..
Paul Frederic Simon ::: (born October 13, 1941) is an American singer-songwriter and actor. Simon's musical career has spanned seven decades with his fame and commercial success beginning as half of the..
Gabriel Jos de la Concordia Garca Mrquez ::: (American Spanish: [ajel asi.a makes] 6 March 1927 17 April 2014) was a Colombian novelist, short-story writer, screenwriter and..
Giacomo Taldegardo Francesco di Sales Saverio Pietro Leopardi ::: (US: , Italian: [dakomo leopardi]; 29 June 1798 14 June 1837) was an Italian philosopher, poet, essayist, and philologist. He is..
Heraclitus of Ephesus ::: (; Greek: , translit. Hrkleitos ho Ephsios; c.535 c.475 BCE) was a pre-Socratic Greek philosopher, and a native of the city of Ephesus, then part of..
Paul Joseph Goebbels ::: (German: [pal jozf bls] 29 October 1897 1 May 1945) was a German Nazi politician and Reich Minister of Propaganda of Nazi Germany from 1933 to 1945. He was..
Sequoyah ::: ( Ssiquoya, as he signed his name, or Se-quo-ya, as is often spelled in Cherokee; named in English George Gist or George Guess) (c.17701843), was an American and Cherokee polymath...
Frank Lloyd Wright was an American architect, interior designer, writer, and educator, who designed more than 1,000 structures, 532 of which were completed. Wright believed in designing structures..
Charles Augustus Lindbergh ::: (February 4, 1902 August 26, 1974) was an American aviator, military officer, author, inventor, explorer, and environmental activist, and a spokesperson for the American..
Hans Christian Andersen ::: (; Danish: [hns kstjn ansn] 2 April 1805 4 August 1875) was a Danish author. Although a prolific writer of plays, travelogues, novels, and poems, he is best..
Jacques Derrida ::: (; French: [ak dida]; born Jackie lie Derrida; July 15, 1930 October 9, 2004) was an Algerian-born French-Jewish philosopher best known for developing a form of semiotic..
Laozi ::: (UK: ; US: ; Chinese: Mandarin pronunciation: [lu.ts]; literally "Old Master"), also rendered as Lao Tzu ( or ) and Lao-Tze (), was an ancient Chinese philosopher and writer. He is the..
Filippo Brunelleschi was one of the foremost architects and engineers of the Italian Renaissance. He is perhaps most famous for his development of linear perspective and for engineering the dome of..
Carl Lee Perkins ::: (April 9, 1932 January 19, 1998) was an American singer-songwriter who recorded most notably at the Sun Studio, in Memphis, beginning in 1954. Amongst his best-known songs are..
Amerigo Vespucci ::: (; Italian: [amerio vesputti]; March 9, 1454 February 22, 1512) was an Italian explorer, financier, navigator, and cartographer who was born in the Republic of Florence...
Anders Celsius ::: (27 November 1701 25 April 1744) was a Swedish astronomer, physicist and mathematician. He was professor of astronomy at Uppsala University from 1730 to 1744, but traveled from 1732..
Gabrielle milie Le Tonnelier de Breteuil, Marquise du Chtelet ::: (French pronunciation: [emili dy tl] 17 December 1706 10 September 1749) was a French natural philosopher,..
Saint Francis of Assisi ::: (Italian: San Francesco d'Assisi, Latin: Sanctus Franciscus Assisiensis), born Giovanni di Pietro di Bernardone, informally named as Francesco (1181/1182 3 October 1226),..
Aelius Galenus or Claudius Galenus ::: (Greek: ; September 129 AD c.200/c.216), often Anglicized as Galen and better known as Galen of Pergamon (), was a Greek physician, surgeon and..
Denis Diderot ::: (French: [dni did()o]; 5 October 1713 31 July 1784) was a French philosopher, art critic, and writer, best known for serving as co-founder, chief editor, and contributor to the..
Giacomo Antonio Domenico Michele Secondo Maria Puccini ::: (UK: puu-CHEE-nee, US: poo-, Italian: [dakomo puttini]; 22 December 1858 29 November 1924) was an Italian opera composer who has been..
Karl Paul Polanyi ::: (; Hungarian: Polnyi Kroly [polai karoj]; October 25, 1886 April 23, 1964) was an Austro-Hungarian economic historian, economic anthropologist, economic sociologist,..
Brian Douglas Wilson ::: (born June 20, 1942) is an American musician, singer, songwriter, and record producer who co-founded the Beach Boys. After signing with Capitol Records in 1962, Wilson wrote or..
Rudolf Julius Emanuel Clausius ::: (German pronunciation: [udlf klazis]; 2 January 1822 24 August 1888) was a German physicist and mathematician and is considered one of the central founders..
Michel Eyquem de Montaigne, Lord of Montaigne ::: ( mon-TAYN, French: [mil ekm d mt]; 28 February 1533 13 September 1592) was one of the most significant philosophers of the French Renaissance,..
Walther von der Vogelweide ::: (c. 1170 c. 1230) was a Minnesnger, who composed and performed love-songs and political songs ("Sprche") in Middle High German. Walther has been described as greatest..
Frederick Douglass ::: (born Frederick Augustus Washington Bailey; c.February 1818 February 20, 1895) was an American social reformer, abolitionist, orator, writer, and statesman. After escaping from..
Andr-Marie Ampre ::: (; French: [p]; 20 January 1775 10 June 1836) was a French physicist and mathematician who was one of the founders of the science of classical electromagnetism, which he..
Ibn Rushd ::: (Arabic: ; full name in Arabic:

, romanized: Ab l-Wald Muammad Ibn Amad Ibn Rud; 1126 11 December 1198), often Latinized as Averroes..
Adelbert von Chamisso ::: (German pronunciation: [adlbt fn amso]; 30 January 1781 21 August 1838) was a German poet and botanist, author of Peter Schlemihl, a famous story about a man who..
Jean Paul ::: (German: [ pal]; born Johann Paul Friedrich Richter, 21 March 1763 14 November 1825) was a German Romantic writer, best known for his humorous novels and stories...
Joan of Arc ::: (in French Jeanne d'Arc pronounced [an dak]; c. 1412 30 May 1431), nicknamed "The Maid of Orlans" (French: La Pucelle d'Orlans), is considered a heroine of France for her role..
William James ::: (January 11, 1842 August 27, 1910) was an American philosopher and psychologist, and the first educator to offer a psychology course in the United States. James was a leading thinker..
Francis Bacon ::: (28 October 1909 28 April 1992) was an Irish-born British figurative painter known for his emotionally charged raw imagery and fixation on personal motifs. Best known for his..
William Cuthbert Faulkner ::: (; September 25, 1897 July 6, 1962) was an American writer and Nobel Prize laureate from Oxford, Mississippi. Faulkner wrote novels, short stories, screenplays, poetry,..
William of Ockham ::: (; also Occam, from Latin: Gulielmus Occamus; c. 1287 1347) was an English Franciscan friar, scholastic philosopher, and theologian, who is believed to have been born in Ockham, a..
Ralph Waldo Emerson ::: (May 25, 1803 April 27, 1882) was an American essayist, lecturer, philosopher, and poet who led the transcendentalist movement of the mid-19th century. He was seen as a champion..
Nicolas Lonard Sadi Carnot ::: (French: [kano]; 1 June 1796 24 August 1832) was a French military scientist and physicist, often described as the "father of thermodynamics". Like Copernicus, he..
Avram Noam Chomsky ::: (born December 7, 1928) is an American linguist, philosopher, cognitive scientist, historian, social critic, and political activist. Sometimes called "the father of modern..
George Berkeley ::: (; 12 March 1685 14 January 1753) known as Bishop Berkeley (Bishop of Cloyne) was an Irish philosopher whose primary achievement was the advancement of a theory he called..
Georg Simmel ::: (; German: [zml]; 1 March 1858 26 September 1918) was a German sociologist, philosopher, and critic. Simmel was one of the first generation of German sociologists: his neo-Kantian..
Paul the Apostle ::: (Latin: Paulus; Greek: , romanized: Paulos; Coptic: ; c. 5 c. 64 or 67), commonly known as Saint Paul and also known by his Jewish name Saul of Tarsus (Hebrew: ..
Christopher Columbus ::: (; before 31 October 1451 20 May 1506) was an Italian explorer, navigator, and colonist who completed four voyages across the Atlantic Ocean under the auspices of the Catholic..
Franz Josef Gall ::: (German: [gal]; 9 March 1758 22 August 1828) was a german neuroanatomist, physiologist, and pioneer in the study of the localization of mental functions in the brain. Claimed as..
Eckhart von Hochheim ::: (c.1260 c.1328), commonly known as Meister Eckhart or Eckehart, was a German theologian, philosopher and mystic, born near Gotha, in the Landgraviate of Thuringia (now..
Simone Lucie Ernestine Marie Bertrand de Beauvoir ::: (UK: , US: , French: [simn d bovwa] 9 January 1908 14 April 1986) was a French writer, intellectual, existentialist philosopher,..
Anaximenes of Miletus ::: (; Greek: ; c.586 c.526 BC) was an Ancient Greek Pre-Socratic philosopher active in the latter half of the 6th century BC. The details of his life are..
Alberto Santos-Dumont ::: (Brazilian Portuguese: [awbtu stus dum]; 20 July 1873 23 July 1932) was a Brazilian inventor and aviation pioneer, one of the very few people to have contributed..
Douglas Lancelot Reed ::: (11 March 1895 26 August 1976) was a British journalist, playwright, novelist and author of a number of books of political analysis. His book Insanity Fair (1938) was one of..
Robert Lee Frost ::: (March 26, 1874 January 29, 1963) was an American poet. His work was initially published in England before it was published in America. Known for his realistic depictions of rural..
Carl Philipp Gottfried ::: (or Gottlieb) von Clausewitz (; 1 June 1780 16 November 1831) was a Prussian general and military theorist who stressed the "moral" (meaning, in modern terms, psychological)..
Friedrich August von Hayek ::: (; German: [fid ast hak]; 8 May 1899 23 March 1992), often referred to by his initials F. A. Hayek, was an Anglo-Austrian economist and philosopher best..
Henrik Johan Ibsen ::: (; Norwegian: [hnrk psn]; 20 March 1828 23 May 1906) was a Norwegian playwright and theatre director. As one of the founders of modernism in theatre, Ibsen is often..
Albrecht Altdorfer ::: (c. 1480 12 February 1538) was a German painter, engraver and architect of the Renaissance working in Regensburg, Bavaria. Along with Lucas Cranach the Elder and Wolf Huber he is..
Ferdinand Magellan ::: ( or ; Portuguese: Ferno de Magalhes, IPA: [fnw d mj]; Spanish: Fernando de Magallanes, IPA: [fenando e maaanes]; c. 1480 27 April 1521) was a Portuguese..
Aryabhata ::: (Sanskrit: , IAST: ryabhaa) or Aryabhata I (476550 CE) was the first of the major mathematician-astronomers from the classical age of Indian mathematics and Indian astronomy. His..
Maurice Joly ::: (18291878) was a French publicist and lawyer known for his political satire titled Dialogue aux enfers entre Machiavel et Montesquieu ou la politique de Machiavel au XIXe sicle, that..
Claude Lvi-Strauss ::: (; French: [klod levi stos]; 28 November 1908 30 October 2009) was a Belgium-born French anthropologist and ethnologist whose work was key in the development of the theory of..
Hans-Georg Gadamer ::: (; German: [adam]; February 11, 1900 March 13, 2002) was a German philosopher of the continental tradition, best known for his 1960 magnum opus Truth and Method (Wahrheit und..
Sir Charles Spencer Chaplin ::: (16 April 1889 25 December 1977) was an English comic actor, filmmaker, and composer who rose to fame in the era of silent film. He became a worldwide icon through his..
Slavoj iek ::: ( (listen) SLAH-voy ZHEE-zhek; Slovene: [slaj ik]; born 21 March 1949), a Slovenian philosopher, is a researcher at the Department of Philosophy of the University of Ljubljana..
Weston Andrew Valleau Price ::: (September 6, 1870 January 23, 1948) was a Canadian dentist known primarily for his theories on the relationship between nutrition, dental health, and physical health...
Umberto Eco ::: (5 January 1932 19 February 2016) was an Italian novelist, literary critic, philosopher, semiotician, and university professor. He is widely known for his 1980 novel Il nome della rosa..
David Jon Gilmour ::: ( GHIL-mor; born 6 March 1946) is an English multi-instrumentalist, singer and songwriter who was a member of the progressive rock band Pink Floyd. He joined the group as guitarist..
Gilbert Keith Chesterton, KC*SG ::: (29 May 1874 14 June 1936), was an English writer, philosopher, lay theologian, and literary and art critic. He has been referred to as the "prince of paradox". ..
Antonio Canova was an Italian sculptor from the Republic of Venice who became famous for his marble sculptures that delicately rendered nude flesh. The epitome of the neoclassical style, his work..
Ernst Waldfried Josef Wenzel Mach ::: (; German: [nst max]; 18 February 1838 19 February 1916) was an Austrian physicist and philosopher, noted for his contributions to physics such as study of..
Sergei Vasilyevich Rachmaninoff ::: (
) (1 April [O.S. 20 March] 1873 28 March 1943) was a Russian composer, virtuoso pianist and conductor of the late Romantic period,..
Houston Stewart Chamberlain ::: (; 9 September 1855 9 January 1927) was a British-born German philosopher who wrote works about political philosophy and natural science; he is described by Michael D...
Tintoretto ::: ( TIN-t-RET-oh, Italian: [tintoretto], Venetian: [titoeto]; born Jacopo Comin; late September or early October 1518 31 May 1594) was an Italian painter and a notable exponent of the..
Jan van Eyck ::: ( van EYEK, Dutch: [jn vn ik]; c.before 1390 9 July 1441) was a Flemish painter active in Bruges. He is one of the early innovators of what became known as Early Netherlandish..
Thomas Paine ::: (born Thomas Pain) (February 9, 1737 [O.S. January 29, 1736] June 8, 1809) was an English-born American political activist, philosopher, political theorist, and revolutionary. He..
Carl Gustav Carus ::: (3 January 1789 28 July 1869) was a German physiologist and painter, born in Leipzig, who played various roles during the Romantic era. A friend of Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, he..
John Forbes Nash Jr. ::: (June 13, 1928 May 23, 2015) was an American mathematician who made fundamental contributions to game theory, differential geometry, and the study of partial differential..
Giuseppe Fortunino Francesco Verdi ::: (Italian: [duzppe verdi]; 9 or 10 October 1813 27 January 1901) was an Italian opera composer. He was born near Busseto to a provincial family of moderate..
Edmund Burke ::: (; 12 January [NS] 1729 9 July 1797) was an Anglo-Irish statesman and philosopher. Born in Dublin, Burke served as a member of parliament (MP) between 1766 and 1794 in the House of..
Immanuel Maurice Wallerstein ::: (; born September 28, 1930) is an American sociologist, economic historian and world-systems analyst, arguably best known for his development of the general approach in..
Heinrich Hermann Robert Koch ::: (English: ; German: [k]; 11 December 1843 27 May 1910) was a German physician and microbiologist. As one of the main founders of modern bacteriology, he identified..
Margherita Hack, Knight Grand Cross OMRI ::: (Italian: [marerita (h)ak]; Florence, 12 June 1922 Trieste, 29 June 2013) was an Italian astrophysicist and scientific disseminator. The asteroid 8558..
Pablo Ruiz Picasso ::: (UK: , US: , Spanish: [palo pikaso]; 25 October 1881 8 April 1973) was a Spanish painter, sculptor, printmaker, ceramicist, stage designer, poet and playwright who spent most..
Sri Aurobindo ::: (born Aurobindo Ghose; 15 August 1872 5 December 1950) was an Indian philosopher, yogi, guru, poet, and nationalist. He joined the Indian movement for independence from British rule,..
Sitting Bull ::: (Lakota: Tatka yotake [tatka i.jtak] in Standard Lakota orthography, also nicknamed Hkeni [hkni] or "Slow") was a Hunkpapa Lakota leader who led his people during..
Joseph Rudyard Kipling ::: ( RUD-yrd; 30 December 1865 18 January 1936) was an English journalist, short-story writer, poet, and novelist. He was born in India, which inspired much of his..
Francis Harry Compton Crick ::: (8 June 1916 28 July 2004) was a British molecular biologist, biophysicist, and neuroscientist. In 1953, he co-authored with James Watson the academic paper proposing..
Marco Polo was a Venetian merchant traveller whose travels are recorded in Livres des merveilles du monde, a book that introduced Europeans to Central Asia and China. He learned the mercantile trade..
Cosimo di Giovanni de' Medici, called "the Elder" ::: (Italian: il Vecchio) and posthumously "Father of the Fatherland" (Latin: pater patriae) (10 April 1389 1 August 1464), was an Italian banker and..
Herodotus ::: (c. 484 c. 425 BC) was an ancient Greek historian who was born in Halicarnassus in the Persian Empire (modern-day Bodrum, Turkey). He is known for having written the book The Histories..
Karl Theodor Wilhelm Weierstrass ::: (German: Weierstra [vatas]; 31 October 1815 19 February 1897) was a German mathematician often cited as the "father of modern analysis". Despite leaving..
Fernando Antnio Nogueira Pessoa ::: (Portuguese: [fndu pso]; 13 June 1888 30 November 1935), commonly known as Fernando Pessoa, was a Portuguese poet, writer, literary critic, translator,..
Philip Melanchthon ::: (born Philipp Schwartzerdt; 16 February 1497 19 April 1560) was a German Lutheran reformer, collaborator with Martin Luther, the first systematic theologian of the Protestant..
Genghis Khan ::: (born Temjin, c.1162 August 18, 1227) was the founder and first Great Khan of the Mongol Empire, which became the largest contiguous empire in history after his death. He came to..
Artur Fischer ::: (31 December 1919 27 January 2016) was a German inventor. He is best known for inventing the plastic expanding wall plug.Born in Tumlingen, Artur Fischer was the son of the village..
Pierre-Simon, marquis de Laplace ::: (; French: [pj sim laplas]; 23 March 1749 5 March 1827) was a French scholar whose work was important to the development of engineering, mathematics,..
Augusto C. Sandino ::: (American Spanish: [auusto C. sandino]; May 18, 1895 February 21, 1934), also known as Augusto Nicols Caldern de Sandino y jose de Maria Sandino, was a Nicaraguan..
Pierre-Auguste Renoir, commonly known as Auguste Renoir ::: (; French: [pj oyst nwa]; 25 February 1841 3 December 1919), was a French artist who was a leading painter in the development of the..
Gioachino Antonio Rossini ::: (29 February 1792 13 November 1868) was an Italian composer who gained fame for his 39 operas, although he also wrote many songs, some chamber music and piano pieces, and..
Titus Lucretius Carus ::: (; c. 15 October 99 BC c. 55 BC) was a Roman poet and philosopher. His only known work is the philosophical poem De rerum natura, a didactic work about the tenets and..
Paul Karl Feyerabend ::: (; German: [faabnt]; January 13, 1924 February 11, 1994) was an Austrian-born philosopher of science best known for his work as a professor of philosophy at the..
Hideaki Anno ::: ( , Anno Hideaki, born May 22, 1960) is a Japanese animator, film director, and actor. He is best known for creating the popular anime series Neon Genesis Evangelion. His style has..
James Monroe ::: (; April 28, 1758 July 4, 1831) was an American statesman, lawyer, diplomat and Founding Father who served as the fifth president of the United States from 1817 to 1825. A member of..
Neil Percival Young ::: (born November 12, 1945) is a Canadian singer-songwriter. After embarking on a music career in the 1960s, he moved to Los Angeles, where he formed Buffalo Springfield with..
Alexis Charles-Henri-Maurice Clrel, Viscount de Tocqueville ::: (; French: [algzi d tkvil]; 29 July 1805 16 April 1859) was a French diplomat, political scientist and historian. He was best known..
Piergiorgio Odifreddi ::: (born 13 July 1950 in Cuneo) is an Italian mathematician, logician and aficionado of the history of science, who is also extremely active as a popular science writer and..
Stephen Edwin King is an American author of contemporary horror, supernatural fiction, suspense, science fiction, and fantasy. His books have sold more than 350 million copies, many of which have..
Vilfredo Federico Damaso Pareto ::: (UK: pa-RAY-toh, -EE-, US: p-RAY-toh, Italian: [vilfredo pareto], Ligurian: [paetu]; born Wilfried Fritz Pareto; 15 July 1848 19 August 1923) was an..
mile douard Charles Antoine Zola ::: (, also US: , French: [emil zla]; 2 April 1840 29 September 1902) was a French novelist, playwright, journalist, the best-known practitioner of the literary..
Henry James ::: ((1843-04-15)15 April 1843 (1916-02-28)28 February 1916) was an American-British author regarded as a key transitional figure between literary realism and literary modernism, and is..
William Blake ::: (28 November 1757 12 August 1827) was an English poet, painter, and printmaker. Largely unrecognised during his lifetime, Blake is now considered a seminal figure in the history of..
James Fenimore Cooper ::: (September 15, 1789 September 14, 1851) was an American writer of the first half of the 19th century. His historical romances draw a picture of frontier and American Indian..
Charles Edward Anderson Berry ::: (October 18, 1926 March 18, 2017) was an American singer and songwriter, and one of the pioneers of rock and roll music. With songs such as "Maybellene" (1955), "Roll..
Pyotr Alexeyevich Kropotkin ::: (; Russian: ; December 9, 1842 February 8, 1921) was a Russian activist, revolutionary, scientist, geographer and philosopher who advocated..
Epictetus ::: (; Greek: , Epkttos; c. 55 135 AD) was a Greek Stoic philosopher. He was born a slave at Hierapolis, Phrygia (present day Pamukkale, Turkey) and lived in Rome until his..
Hikaru Utada ::: ( , born January 19, 1983), who has also gone by Utada Hikaru and the mononym Utada (English: , Japanese: [tada]), is a Japanese-American singer-songwriter and producer. Born in..
John Wesley ::: (; 28 June [O.S. 17 June] 1703 2 March 1791) was an English cleric, theologian and evangelist who was a leader of a revival movement within the Church of England known as Methodism. The..
Robert King Merton ::: (born Meyer Robert Schkolnick; 4 July 1910 23 February 2003) was an American sociologist. He spent most of his career teaching at Columbia University, where he attained the rank..
Abu al-Ala al-Maarri ::: (Arabic
Ab al-Al al-Maarr, full name

Ab al-Al Amad ibn Abd Allh ibn Sulaymn al-Tankh..
Jorge Leal Amado de Faria ::: (Brazilian Portuguese: [i law madu di fi.], 10 August 1912 6 August 2001) was a Brazilian writer of the modernist school. He remains the best known of modern..
John R. "Johnny" Cash ::: (February 26, 1932 September 12, 2003) was an American singer-songwriter, guitarist, actor, and author. He is one of the best-selling music artists of all time, having sold..
Andrey Nikolaevich Kolmogorov ::: (Russian: , IPA: [ndrej nklajvt klmorf] (listen), 25 April 1903 20 October 1987) was a Soviet mathematician who made..
Hin-mah-too-yah-lat-kekt ::: (or Hinmatowyalahtqit in Americanist orthography), popularly known as Chief Joseph, Young Joseph, or Joseph the Younger (March 3, 1840 September 21, 1904), was a leader..
Hans Albrecht Bethe ::: (German: [hans albt bet]; July 2, 1906 March 6, 2005) was a German-American nuclear physicist who made important contributions to astrophysics, quantum electrodynamics..
Frank William Abagnale Jr. ::: (; born April 27, 1948) is an American security consultant known for his background as a former con man, check forger, and impostor while he was between the ages of 15 and..
Emmeline Pankhurst ::: (born Emiline Goulden; 15 July 1858 14 June 1928) was a British political activist and organizer of the British suffragette movement who helped women win the right to vote. In..
Clinton Richard Dawkins, ::: (born 26 March 1941) is an English ethologist, evolutionary biologist, and author. He is an emeritus fellow of New College, Oxford, and was the University of Oxford's..
Charles Hardin Holley ::: (September 7, 1936 February 3, 1959), known professionally as Buddy Holly, was an American musician and singer-songwriter who was a central and pioneering figure of mid-1950s..
Anne Louise Germaine de Stal-Holstein ::: (French: [an lwiz mn d stal lstajn]; ne Necker; 22 April 1766 14 July 1817), commonly known as Madame de Stal ( d STAHL, French: [madam d stal]),..
Cyrus Reed Teed ::: (October 18, 1839 December 22, 1908) was a U.S. eclectic physician and alchemist turned religious leader and messiah. In 1869, claiming divine inspiration, Teed took on the name..
Herbert George Wells ::: (21 September 1866 13 August 1946) was an English writer. He was prolific in many genres, writing dozens of novels, short stories, and works of social commentary, history,..
Ellas McDaniel ::: (born Ellas Otha Bates, December 30, 1928 June 2, 2008), known as Bo Diddley, was an American singer, guitarist, songwriter and music producer who played a key role in the transition..
Jonathan Swift ::: (30 November 1667 19 October 1745) was an Anglo-Irish satirist, essayist, political pamphleteer (first for the Whigs, then for the Tories), poet and cleric who became Dean of St..
Niccol ::: (or Nicol) Paganini (Italian: [ni(k)kol ppaanini] 27 October 1782 27 May 1840) was an Italian violinist, violist, guitarist, and composer. He was the most celebrated violin..
Albert Bandura ::: (; born December 4, 1925) is a Canadian-American psychologist who is the David Starr Jordan Professor Emeritus of Social Science in Psychology at Stanford University. Bandura has been..
Giovanni Pastrone, also known by his artistic name Piero Fosco ::: (13 September 1883 - 27 June 1959), was an Italian film pioneer, director, screenwriter, actor and technician. Pastrone was born in..
John Bordley Rawls ::: (; February 21, 1921 November 24, 2002) was an American moral and political philosopher in the liberal tradition. Rawls received both the Schock Prize for Logic and Philosophy..
Oswald Arnold Gottfried Spengler ::: (German: [svalt pl]; 29 May 1880 8 May 1936) was a German historian and philosopher of history whose interests included mathematics, science, and art. He is..
Ray Charles Robinson ::: (September 23, 1930 June 10, 2004), professionally known as simply Ray Charles, was an American singer, songwriter, musician, and composer. Among friends and fellow musicians..
Albert Hofmann ::: (11 January 1906 29 April 2008) was a Swiss scientist known best for being the first person to synthesize, ingest, and learn of the psychedelic effects of lysergic acid diethylamide..
Jane Austen ::: (; 16 December 1775 18 July 1817) was an English novelist known primarily for her six major novels, which interpret, critique and comment upon the British landed gentry at the end of..
Lewis Allan Reed ::: (March 2, 1942 October 27, 2013) was an American musician, singer, songwriter and poet. He was the lead guitarist, singer and principal songwriter for the rock band the Velvet..
Thorstein Veblen ::: (30 July 1857 3 August 1929) was a Norwegian-American economist and sociologist, who during his lifetime emerged as a well-known critic of capitalism. In his best-known book, The..
Paul David Hewson, KBE OL ::: (born 10 May 1960), known by his stage name Bono (), is an Irish singer-songwriter, musician, venture capitalist, businessman, and philanthropist. He is best known as the..
Federico del Sagrado Corazn de Jess Garca Lorca ::: (Spanish pronunciation: [feeiko el saao koaon de xesuz ai.a loka]; 5 June 1898 19 August 1936), known as Federico Garca Lorca..
Herman Melville ::: (born Melvill; August 1, 1819 September 28, 1891) was an American novelist, short story writer, and poet of the American Renaissance period. Among his best-known works are Typee..
Nicholas of Cusa ::: (1401 11 August 1464), also referred to as Nicholas of Kues and Nicolaus Cusanus (), was a German philosopher, theologian, jurist, and astronomer. One of the first German..
Eratosthenes of Cyrene ::: (; Greek:
, romanized: Eratosthnis o Kyrinaos, IPA: [eratostns]; c. 276 BC c.195/194 BC) was a Greek polymath (mathematician, geographer, poet,..
Jerome John "Jerry" Garcia ::: (August 1, 1942 August 9, 1995) was an American singer-songwriter and guitarist, best known for his work as the lead guitarist and as a vocalist with the band the..
Augusta Ada King, Countess of Lovelace ::: (ne Byron; 10 December 1815 27 November 1852) was an English mathematician and writer, chiefly known for her work on Charles Babbage's proposed mechanical..
Pierre Curie ::: ( KEWR-ee, French: [kyi]; 15 May 1859 19 April 1906) was a French physicist, a pioneer in crystallography, magnetism, piezoelectricity and radioactivity. In 1903, he received the..
Carl Hueter ::: (27 November 1838 12 May 1882) was a German surgeon born in Marburg. He was the son of obstetrician Karl Christoph Hueter (18031857). In 1854 began his medical studies in Marburg at..
Jean-Paul Charles Aymard Sartre ::: (, US also ; French: [sat]; 21 June 1905 15 April 1980) was a French philosopher, playwright, novelist, screenwriter, political activist, biographer, and literary..
John William Carson ::: (October 23, 1925 January 23, 2005) was an American television host, comedian, writer, and producer. He is best known as the host of The Tonight Show Starring Johnny Carson..
Dame Agatha Mary Clarissa Christie, Lady Mallowan, ::: (ne Miller; 15 September 1890 12 January 1976) was an English writer. She is known for her 66 detective novels and 14 short story collections,..
Francisco de Vitoria ::: (c.1483 12 August 1546; also known as Francisco de Victoria) was a Spanish Roman Catholic philosopher, theologian, and jurist of Renaissance Spain. He is the founder of the..
Roy Kelton Orbison ::: (April 23, 1936 December 6, 1988) was an American singer, songwriter, and musician known for his impassioned singing style, complex song structures, and dark, emotional ballads...
James Marshall "Jimi" Hendrix ::: (born Johnny Allen Hendrix; November 27, 1942 September 18, 1970) was an American rock guitarist, singer, and songwriter. His mainstream career lasted only four years,..
Andrs Segovia Torres, 1st Marquis of Salobrea ::: (21 February 1893 2 June 1987), known as Andrs Segovia, was a virtuoso Spanish classical guitarist from Linares, Spain. Many professional classical..
Sir Peter Paul Rubens ::: (; Dutch: [ryb(n)s]; 28 June 1577 30 May 1640) was a Flemish artist. He is considered the most influential artist of Flemish Baroque tradition. Rubens's highly charged..
Edward Sapir ::: (; January 26, 1884 February 4, 1939) was an American anthropologist-linguist, who is widely considered to be one of the most important figures in the early development of the..
Walt Whitman ::: (; May 31, 1819 March 26, 1892) was an American poet, essayist, and journalist. A humanist, he was a part of the transition between transcendentalism and realism, incorporating both..
Dolley Todd Madison ::: (ne Payne; May 20, 1768 July 12, 1849) was the wife of James Madison, President of the United States from 1809 to 1817. She was noted for holding Washington social functions in..
Nelson Rolihlahla Mandela ::: (; Xhosa: [xolaa mandla]; 18 July 1918 5 December 2013) was a South African anti-apartheid revolutionary, political leader, and philanthropist who served as..
Imhotep ::: (; Egyptian: -m-tp *j-im-tap, in Unicode hieroglyphs: ..
Charles Wright Mills ::: (19161962) was an American sociologist, and a professor of sociology at Columbia University from 1946 until his death in 1962. Mills was published widely in popular and..
Eugene Luther Gore Vidal ::: (; born Eugene Louis Vidal, October 3, 1925 July 31, 2012) was an American writer and public intellectual known for his patrician manner, epigrammatic wit, and polished..
Hermann Klaus Hugo Weyl, ::: (German: [val]; 9 November 1885 8 December 1955) was a German mathematician, theoretical physicist and philosopher. Although much of his working life was spent in Zrich,..
Hans Sachs ::: (5 November 1494 19 January 1576) was a German Meistersinger ("mastersinger"), poet, playwright, and shoemaker...
Karl Marx ::: (German: [kal maks]; 5 May 1818 14 March 1883) was a German philosopher, economist, historian, sociologist, political theorist, journalist and socialist revolutionary. Born in..
Vespasian was Roman Emperor from AD 69 to AD 79. Vespasian founded the Flavian dynasty that ruled the Empire for twenty seven years. Vespasian was from an equestrian family that rose into the..
Mikhail Alexandrovich Bakunin ::: (; 30 May [O.S. 18 May] 1814 1 July 1876) was a Russian revolutionary anarchist and founder of collectivist anarchism. He is considered among the most influential..
Parmenides of Elea ::: (; Greek: ; fl.late sixth or early fifth century BC) was a pre-Socratic Greek philosopher from Elea in Magna Graecia (Greater Greece, which included Southern..
Themistocles ::: (; Greek: Greek pronunciation: [temistokls] Themistokls; "Glory of the Law"; c. 524459 BC) was an Athenian politician and general. He was one of a new breed of..
Arnold Schoenberg or Schnberg ::: (, US also ; German: [nbk] 13 September 1874 13 July 1951) was an Austrian, and later American, composer, music theorist, teacher, writer, and..
Hero of Alexandria ::: (; Greek: , Heron ho Alexandreus; also known as Heron of Alexandria ; c. 10 AD c. 70 AD) was a mathematician and engineer who was active in his native city of..
Edvard Munch ::: ( MUUNK, Norwegian: [dv mk] 12 December 1863 23 January 1944) was a Norwegian painter, whose best known work, The Scream, has become one of the most iconic images of..
Anna Elisabeth Franziska Adolphine Wilhelmine Louise Maria, Freiin von Droste zu Hlshoff, known as Annette von Droste-Hlshoff ::: (German: [ant fn dsthlshf] 10 or 12 January 1797 ..
Alfred Russel Wallace ::: (8 January 1823 7 November 1913) was a British naturalist, explorer, geographer, anthropologist, and biologist. He is best known for independently conceiving the theory of..
Edvard Hagerup Grieg ::: ( GREEG, Norwegian: [dv hrp r]; 15 June 1843 4 September 1907) was a Norwegian composer and pianist. He is widely considered one of the leading Romantic era..
Murasaki Shikibu ::: ( , English: Lady Murasaki; c. 973 or 978 c. 1014 or 1031) was a Japanese novelist, poet and lady-in-waiting at the Imperial court during the Heian period. She is best known as..
Pope Gregory I ::: (Latin: Gregorius I; c.540 12 March 604), commonly known as Saint Gregory the Great, was Pope from 3 September 590 to 12 March 604 AD. He is famous for instigating the first..
Henry David Thoreau ::: (see name pronunciation; July 12, 1817 May 6, 1862) was an American essayist, poet, and philosopher. A leading transcendentalist, Thoreau is best known for his book Walden, a..
Theodore Roosevelt Jr. ::: ( ROH-z-velt; October 27, 1858 January 6, 1919) was an American statesman, politician, conservationist, naturalist, and writer who served as the 26th president of the..
Thomas Telford FRS, FRSE was a Scottish civil engineer, architect and stonemason, and a noted road, bridge and canal builder. After establishing himself as an engineer of road and canal projects in..
Arno Allan Penzias ::: (; born April 26, 1933) is an American physicist, radio astronomer and Nobel laureate in physics who is co-discoverer of the cosmic microwave background radiation along with Robert..
Norbert Elias ::: (German: [elias]; 22 June 1897 1 August 1990) was a German sociologist who later became a British citizen. He is especially famous for his theory of civilizing/decivilizing..
Constantine the Great ::: (Latin: Flavius Valerius Aurelius Constantinus Augustus; Greek:  Knstantnos ho Mgas; 27 February c. 272 AD 22 May 337 AD), also known as Constantine I,..
Thucydides ::: (; Greek:

Thoukydds [tukydds]; c. 460 c. 400 BC) was an Athenian historian and general. His History of the Peloponnesian War recounts the fifth-century BC war between..
Christian Johann Heinrich Heine ::: (German: [han han]; 13 December 1797 17 February 1856) was a German poet, playwright, journalist, essayist, and literary critic. He is best known outside..
David Russell Gordon Davies ::: (born 3 February 1947) is an English singer, songwriter and guitarist. He is the lead guitarist, backing (and occasional lead) singer for the English rock band The Kinks,..
Not to be confused with Maia Mitchell, Australian actress and singer.Maria Mitchell ::: (; August 1, 1818 June 28, 1889) was an American astronomer, who in 1847 by using a telescope, discovered a..
Cecilia Helena Payne-Gaposchkin ::: (ne Payne; (1900-05-10)May 10, 1900 (1979-12-07)December 7, 1979) was a British-born American astronomer and astrophysicist who proposed in her 1925 doctoral thesis..
Lorenzo de' Medici ::: (Italian pronunciation: [lorntso de mditi], 1 January 1449 8 April 1492) was an Italian statesman, de facto ruler of the Florentine Republic and the most powerful and..
Aleksandr Isayevich Solzhenitsyn ::: (; 11 December 1918 3 August 2008) was a Russian novelist, historian, and short story writer. He was an outspoken critic of the Soviet Union and communism and..
Christian Thomasius ::: (1 January 1655 23 September 1728) was a German jurist and philosopher...
Diego Mara de la Concepcin Juan Nepomuceno Estanislao de la Rivera y Barrientos Acosta y Rodrguez, known as Diego Rivera ::: (Spanish pronunciation: [djeo riea]; December 8, 1886 November 24,..
Howard Phillips Lovecraft ::: (US: ; August 20, 1890 March 15, 1937) was an American writer of weird fiction and horror fiction. Born in Providence, Rhode Island, he spent most of his life there, and..
Aldous Leonard Huxley ::: (26 July 1894 22 November 1963) was an English writer and philosopher. He authored nearly fifty booksboth novels and non-fiction worksas well as wide-ranging essays,..
James Abbott McNeill Whistler ::: (; July 11, 1834 July 17, 1903) was an American artist, active during the American Gilded Age and based primarily in the United Kingdom. He was averse to..
Dame Jane Morris Goodall ::: (; born Valerie Jane Morris-Goodall on 3 April 1934), formerly Baroness Jane van Lawick-Goodall, is an English primatologist and anthropologist. Considered to be the world's..
Franz Kafka ::: (3 July 1883 3 June 1924) was a German-speaking Bohemian novelist and short-story writer, widely regarded as one of the major figures of 20th-century literature. His work, which fuses..
Robert Hooke FRS was an English natural philosopher, architect and polymath. His adult life comprised three distinct periods: as a scientific inquirer lacking money; achieving great wealth and..
Hans Baldung Grien or Grn ::: (c. 1484 September 1545) was a German artist in painting and printmaking who was considered the most gifted student of Albrecht Drer. Throughout his lifetime, Baldung..
Terrence Vance Gilliam ::: (; born 22 November 1940) is an American-born British screenwriter, film director, animator, actor, comedian and former member of the Monty Python comedy troupe. Gilliam has..
Adeline Virginia Woolf ::: (; ne Stephen; 25 January 1882 28 March 1941) was an English writer, considered one of the most important modernist 20th-century authors and also a pioneer in the use of..
Ibn Khaldun ::: (; Arabic:  

, Ab Zayd Abd ar-Ramn ibn Muammad ibn Khaldn al-aram; 27 May 1332 17 March 1406) was a leading Tunisian Arab..
Raja Raja Chozhan I, born Arulmozhi Thevar, popularly known as Raja Raja the Great, is one of the greatest Emperors of India, who ruled between 985 and 1014 CE. He went down in history as the..
Christiaan Huygens ::: ( HY-gnz, also US: HOY-gnz, Dutch: [krstijan y(n)s] Latin: Hugenius; 14 April 1629 8 July 1695), also spelled Huyghens, was a Dutch physicist,..
Hiram King "Hank" Williams ::: (September 17, 1923 January 1, 1953) was an American singer-songwriter and musician. Regarded as one of the most significant and influential American singers and..
Wolfram von Eschenbach ::: (c.1160/80 c.1220) was a German knight and poet, regarded as one of the greatest epic poets of medieval German literature. As a Minnesinger, he also wrote lyric poetry...
Linus Carl Pauling ::: (; February 28, 1901 August 19, 1994) was an American chemist, biochemist, peace activist, author, educator, and husband of American human rights activist Ava Helen Pauling. He..
Thomas Henry Huxley ::: (4 May 1825 29 June 1895) was an English biologist and anthropologist specialising in comparative anatomy. He is known as "Darwin's Bulldog" for his advocacy of Charles..
Erich Seligmann Fromm ::: (; German: [fm]; March 23, 1900 March 18, 1980) was a German Jew who fled the Nazi regime and settled in the US. He was a social psychologist, psychoanalyst, sociologist,..
Andreas Gryphius ::: (2 October 1616 16 July 1664) was a German lyric poet and dramatist...
Franz Joseph Haydn ::: (; German: [fants jozf hadn] 31 March 1732 31 May 1809) was an Austrian composer of the Classical period. He was instrumental in the development of chamber..
Kemal Atatrk ::: (until 1934: Mustafa Kemal Pasha, Ottoman Turkish:

; after 1935: Kaml Atatrk; 19 May 1881 (conventional) 10 November 1938), commonly referred to as Mustafa Kemal..
Hugh Everett III ::: (; November 11, 1930 July 19, 1982) was an American physicist who first proposed the many-worlds interpretation (MWI) of quantum physics, which he termed his "relative state"..
Salvador Domingo Felipe Jacinto Dal i Domnech, 1st Marquis of Dal de Pbol ::: (11 May 1904 23 January 1989), known professionally as Salvador Dal (, Catalan: [slo li], Spanish: [salao..
Jean Lopold Nicolas Frdric, Baron Cuvier ::: (French: [kyvje]; 23 August 1769 13 May 1832), known as Georges Cuvier, was a French naturalist and zoologist, sometimes referred to as the "founding..
Sappho ::: (; Aeolic Greek Psppho; c. 630 c. 570 BC) was an Archaic Greek poet from the island of Lesbos. Sappho is known for her lyric poetry, written to be sung while accompanied by a lyre. In..
Robert Schumann ::: (German: [uman]; 8 June 1810 29 July 1856) was a German composer, pianist, and influential music critic. He is widely regarded as one of the greatest composers of the Romantic..
Captain James Cook ::: (7 November 1728 14 February 1779) was a British explorer, navigator, cartographer, and captain in the Royal Navy. He made detailed maps of Newfoundland prior to making three..
Helen Adams Keller ::: (June 27, 1880 June 1, 1968) was an American author, political activist, and lecturer. She was the first deaf-blind person to earn a Bachelor of Arts degree. The story of Keller..
Edward Hopper ::: (July 22, 1882 May 15, 1967) was an American realist painter and printmaker. While he is best known for his oil paintings, he was equally proficient as a watercolorist and printmaker..
Peter Brian Gabriel ::: (born 13 February 1950) is an English singer, songwriter, record producer and activist who rose to fame as the original lead singer and frontman of the progressive rock band..
Tecumseh ::: ( ti-KUM-s, ti-KUM-see; March 1768 October 5, 1813) was a Native American Shawnee warrior and chief, who became the primary leader of a large, multi-tribal confederacy in the early 19th..
Sir Edward William Elgar, 1st Baronet ::: (; 2 June 1857 23 February 1934) was an English composer, many of whose works have entered the British and international classical concert repertoire. Among..
Daniel Kahneman ::: (; Hebrew: ; born March 5, 1934) is an Israeli-American psychologist and economist notable for his work on the psychology of judgment and decision-making, as well as..
Diana, Princess of Wales ::: (born Diana Frances Spencer; 1 July 1961 31 August 1997), was a member of the British royal family. She was the first wife of Charles, Prince of Wales, and the mother of..
Charles Sanders Peirce ::: (, PURSS; September 10, 1839 April 19, 1914) was an American philosopher, logician, mathematician, and scientist who is sometimes known as "the father of pragmatism". He was..
James Joseph Brown ::: (May 3, 1933 December 25, 2006) was an American singer, songwriter, dancer, musician, record producer and bandleader. A progenitor of funk music and a major figure of..
Charles-Louis de Secondat, Baron de La Brde et de Montesquieu ::: (; French: [mtskj]; 18 January 1689 10 February 1755), generally referred to as simply Montesquieu, was a French judge, man of..
Alfred Charles Kinsey ::: (; June 23, 1894 August 25, 1956) was an American biologist, professor of entomology and zoology, and sexologist who in 1947 founded the Institute for Sex Research at Indiana..
Francisco Jos de Goya y Lucientes ::: (; Spanish: [fanisko xose e oa i lujentes]; 30 March 1746 16 April 1828) was a Spanish romantic painter and printmaker. He is considered the most..
Mary Wollstonecraft ::: (UK: , US: ; 27 April 1759 10 September 1797) was an English writer, philosopher, and advocate of women's rights. Until the late 20th century, Wollstonecraft's life, which..
Muhammad ibn Muhammad ibn al-Hasan al-Ts ::: (Persian:

  18 February 1201 26 June 1274), better known as Nasir al-Din Tusi (Persian: ; or simply Tusi in the..
Johan August Strindberg ::: (; Swedish: [ost strndbrj] 22 January 1849 14 May 1912) was a Swedish playwright, novelist, poet, essayist and painter. A prolific writer who often drew..
Alfred Tarski ::: (; January 14, 1901 October 26, 1983), born Alfred Teitelbaum, was a Polish-American logician and mathematician of Polish-Jewish descent. Educated in Poland at the University of..
Dmitri Dmitriyevich Shostakovich ::: (Russian:  , tr. Dmitriy Dmitrievich Shostakovich, pronounced [dmitrj dmitrjvt stkovt]; 25 September [O.S. 12..
Louis Pierre Althusser ::: (UK: , US: ; French: [altys]; 16 October 1918 22 October 1990) was a French Marxist philosopher. He was born in Algeria and studied at the cole Normale Suprieure in..
William Caxton ::: (c. 1422 c. 1491) was an English merchant, diplomat, and writer. He is thought to be the first person to introduce a printing press into England, in 1476, and as a printer was the..
Theodor W. Adorno ::: (; German: [adno]; born Theodor Ludwig Wiesengrund; September 11, 1903 August 6, 1969) was a German philosopher, sociologist, psychologist and composer known for his critical..
Plutarch ::: (; Greek: , Plotarkhos, Koine Greek: [plutarkos]; c. AD 46 c. 120), later named, upon becoming a Roman citizen, Lucius Mestrius Plutarchus, ( ) was a..
Max Born ::: (German: [maks bn]; 11 December 1882 5 January 1970) was a German-Jewish physicist and mathematician who was instrumental in the development of quantum mechanics. He also made..
Leon Battista Alberti was an Italian humanist author, artist, architect, poet, priest, linguist, philosopher and cryptographer; he epitomised the Renaissance Man. Although he is often characterized..
Empedocles ::: (; Greek: [empedokls], Empedokls; c.494 c.434 BC) was a Greek pre-Socratic philosopher and a citizen of Akragas, a Greek city in Sicily. Empedocles' philosophy is best..
Steven Paul Jobs ::: (; February 24, 1955 October 5, 2011) was an American business magnate, entrepreneur and investor. He was the chairman, chief executive officer (CEO), and co-founder of Apple Inc.,..
The Lumire brothers ::: (UK: , US: ; French: [lymj]), Auguste Marie Louis Nicolas ([oyst mai lwi nikla]; 19 October 1862 10 April 1954) and Louis Jean ([lwi ]; 5 October 1864 7 June 1948),..
Tiziano Vecelli or Vecellio ::: (pronounced [tittsjano vetlljo]; c.1488/90 27 August 1576), known in English as Titian ( TISH-n), was an Italian painter during the Renaissance, considered the..
Diocletian ::: (; Latin: Gaius Aurelius Valerius Diocletianus Augustus), born Diocles (22 December 244 3 December 311), was a Roman emperor from 284 to 305. Born to a family of low status in Dalmatia,..
Hildegard of Bingen ::: (German: Hildegard von Bingen; Latin: Hildegardis Bingensis; 1098 17 September 1179), also known as Saint Hildegard and the Sibyl of the Rhine, was a German Benedictine abbess,..
Charles Lutwidge Dodgson ::: (; 27 January 1832 14 January 1898), better known by his pen name Lewis Carroll, was an English writer of world-famous children's fiction, notably Alice's Adventures in..
Sir George Ivan "Van" Morrison OBE ::: (born 31 August 1945) is a Northern Irish singer-songwriter, instrumentalist and record producer. His professional career began as a teenager in the late 1950s..
Peter the Great ::: (Russian: , tr. Pyotr Velikiy, IPA: [ptr vlikj]), Peter I (Russian: I, tr. Pyotr I, IPA: [ptr prvj]) or Peter Alexeyevich (Russian: ,..
William Godwin ::: (March 3, 1756, Wisbech, Isle of Ely April 7, 1836, London) was an English journalist, political philosopher and novelist. He is considered one of the first exponents of..
Ab Bakr Muhammad ibn Zakariyy al-Rz ::: (Persian:

Abbakr Mohammad-e Zakariyy-ye Rz, also known by his Latinized name Rhazes () or Rasis; 854925 CE), was a Persian..
Garry Kimovich Kasparov ::: (Russian: , Russian pronunciation: [ar kimvt ksparf]; born Garik Kimovich Weinstein, 13 April 1963) is a Russian chess grandmaster,..
Frank Russell Capra ::: (born Francesco Rosario Capra; May 18, 1897 September 3, 1991) was an Italian-American film director, producer and writer who became the creative force behind some of the major..
Anaximander ::: (; Greek: Anaximandros; c.610 c.546 BC), was a pre-Socratic Greek philosopher who lived in Miletus, a city of Ionia (in modern-day Turkey). He belonged to the Milesian..
Sergei Sergeyevich Prokofiev ::: (; Russian: , tr. Sergej Sergejevi Prokofjev; 27 April [O.S. 15 April] 1891 5 March 1953) was a Russian Soviet composer, pianist and..
Saint Augustine of Hippo ::: (; 13 November 354 28 August 430 AD) was a Roman African, early Christian theologian and philosopher from Numidia whose writings influenced the development of the Western..
Hans Lundgren ::: (; Swedish: [dlf lndgren] born 3 November 1957), better known as Dolph Lundgren, is a Swedish actor, filmmaker, and martial artist. Lundgren's breakthrough came in..
Santiago Ramn y Cajal ::: (Spanish: [santjao ramon i kaxal]; 1 May 1852 17 October 1934) was a Spanish neuroscientist and pathologist, specializing in neuroanatomy, particularly the histology of..
Rosalind Elsie Franklin ::: (25 July 1920 16 April 1958) was an English chemist and X-ray crystallographer whose work was central to the understanding of the molecular structures of DNA..
McKinley Morganfield ::: (April 4, 1913 April 30, 1983), known professionally as Muddy Waters, was an American blues singer-songwriter and musician who is often cited as the "father of modern Chicago..
Joseph Vissarionovich Stalin ::: (born Ioseb Besarionis dze Jughashvili; 18 December [O.S. 6] 1878 5 March 1953) was a Georgian revolutionary and Soviet politician who led the Soviet Union from the..
Matthew Arnold ::: (24 December 1822 15 April 1888) was an English poet and cultural critic who worked as an inspector of schools. He was the son of Thomas Arnold, the famed headmaster of Rugby School,..
Jaroslav Heyrovsk ::: (Czech pronunciation: [jaroslav jrofski] (listen)) (December 20, 1890 March 27, 1967) was a Czech chemist and inventor. Heyrovsk was the inventor of the polarographic..
Jules Henri Poincar ::: (UK: , US: , French: [i pwkae] 29 April 1854 17 July 1912) was a French mathematician, theoretical physicist, engineer, and philosopher of science. He is often..
Zachary Taylor ::: (November 24, 1784 July 9, 1850) was the 12th president of the United States, serving from March 1849 until his death in July 1850. Taylor previously was a career officer in the..
Gottlieb Wilhelm Daimler ::: (German: [tlip daml]; 17 March 1834 6 March 1900) was an engineer, industrial designer and industrialist born in Schorndorf (Kingdom of Wrttemberg, a federal state..
Igor Fyodorovich Stravinsky ::: (; Russian: , IPA: [ir fdrvt strvinskj]; 17 June [O.S. 5 June] 1882 6 April 1971) was a Russian-born composer, pianist,..
Gotthold Ephraim Lessing ::: (; German: [ls]; 22 January 1729 15 February 1781) was a German writer, philosopher, dramatist, publicist and art critic, and an outstanding representative of the..
Martin Heidegger ::: (; German: [matin had]; 26 September 1889 26 May 1976) was a German philosopher and a seminal thinker in the Continental tradition of philosophy. He is "widely..
David Byrne ::: (; born 14 May 1952) is a Scottish-American singer, songwriter, musician, record producer, artist, actor, writer and filmmaker who was a founding member, principal songwriter and lead..
Abu Ysuf Yaqb ibn Isq a-abb al-Kind ::: (; Arabic:   ; Latin: Alkindus; c. 801873 AD) was an Arab Muslim philosopher, polymath, mathematician, physician..
Simn Jos Antonio de la Santsima Trinidad Bolvar Palacios Ponte y Blanco ::: (24 July 1783 17 December 1830), generally known as Simn Bolvar (Spanish: [simom bolia] (listen), English: ..
Joseph Lister, 1st Baron Lister, ::: (5 April 1827 10 February 1912), known between 1883 and 1897 as Sir Joseph Lister, Bt., was a British surgeon and a pioneer of antiseptic surgery. Lister promoted..
Sir Joseph Wilson Swan FRS ::: (31 October 1828 27 May 1914) was an English physicist, chemist, and inventor. He is known as an independent early developer of a successful incandescent light bulb, and..
Raymond Frederick Harryhausen ::: (June 29, 1920 May 7, 2013) was an American artist, designer, visual effects creator, writer and producer who created a form of stop-motion model animation known as..
Jorge Francisco Isidoro Luis Borges Acevedo ::: (; Spanish: [boxes] 24 August 1899 14 June 1986) was an Argentine short-story writer, essayist, poet and translator, and a key figure in..
George Herbert Mead ::: (February 27, 1863 April 26, 1931) was an American philosopher, sociologist and psychologist, primarily affiliated with the University of Chicago, where he was one of several..
James Augustine Aloysius Joyce ::: (2 February 1882 13 January 1941) was an Irish novelist, short story writer, poet, teacher, and literary critic. He contributed to the modernist avant-garde and is..
Josiah Willard Gibbs ::: (February 11, 1839 April 28, 1903) was an American scientist who made significant theoretical contributions to physics, chemistry, and mathematics. His work on the applications..
James Howard Woods ::: (born April 18, 1947) is an American actor, voice actor, and producer. His best known roles are Videodrome (1983), Once Upon a Time in America (1984), Casino (1995), Nixon (1995),..
Samuel Johnson ::: (18 September 1709 [OS 7 September] 13 December 1784), often referred to as Dr. Johnson, was an English writer who made lasting contributions to English literature as a poet,..
Elon Reeve Musk ::: (; born June 28, 1971) is a technology entrepreneur, investor, and engineer. He holds South African, Canadian, and U.S. citizenship and is the founder, CEO, and lead designer of..
Moses ::: () was a prophet according to the teachings of the Abrahamic religions. Scholarly consensus sees Moses as a legendary figure and not a historical person, while retaining the possibility that a..
Francesco Petrarca ::: (Italian: [frantesko petrarka]; July 20, 1304 July 18/19, 1374), commonly anglicized as Petrarca (), was an Italian scholar and poet during early Italian Renaissance who was..
Anton Pavlovich Chekhov ::: (Russian:
, tr. Antn Pvlovi hov, IPA: [nton pavvt txf]; 29 January 1860 15 July 1904) was a Russian playwright and short-story writer,..
Percy Lavon Julian ::: (April 11, 1899 April 19, 1975) was a research chemist and a pioneer in the chemical synthesis of medicinal drugs from plants. He was the first to synthesize the natural product..
George Bernard Shaw was an Irish playwright and a co-founder of the London School of Economics. Although his first profitable writing was music and literary criticism, in which capacity he wrote many..
Hipparchus of Nicaea ::: (; Greek: , Hipparkhos; c.190 c.120 BC) was a Greek astronomer, geographer, and mathematician. He is considered the founder of trigonometry but is most famous for his..
Stanley Kubrick ::: (; July 26, 1928 March 7, 1999) was an American film director, screenwriter, and producer. He is frequently cited as one of the most influential filmmakers in cinematic history. His..
John Locke ::: (February 14, 1764 March 29, 1855), was a U.S. Representative from Massachusetts. He was born in Hopkinton, Middlesex County, and attended Andover Academy and Dartmouth College,..
Felix Bloch ::: (23 October 1905 10 September 1983) was a Swiss-American physicist and Nobel physics laureate who worked mainly in the U.S. He and Edward Mills Purcell were awarded the 1952 Nobel Prize..
Eric Patrick Clapton, ::: (born 30 March 1945) is an English rock and blues guitarist, singer, and songwriter. He is the only three-time inductee to the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame: once as a solo artist..
David Hilbert ::: (; German: [davt hlbt]; 23 January 1862 14 February 1943) was a German mathematician and one of the most influential and universal mathematicians of the 19th and early 20th..
Gordon Matthew Thomas Sumner CBE ::: (born 2 October 1951), known as Sting, is an English musician and actor. He was the principal songwriter, lead singer, and bassist for the new wave rock band the..
Howard Robard Hughes Jr. ::: (December 24, 1905 April 5, 1976) was an American business magnate, investor, record-setting pilot, engineer, film director, and philanthropist, known during his lifetime..
Robert Boyle ::: (; 25 January 1627 31 December 1691) was an Anglo-Irish natural philosopher, chemist, physicist, and inventor. Boyle is largely regarded today as the first modern chemist, and..
Hristo Smirnenski ::: (Bulgarian: ), born Hristo Izmirliev, (September 17, 1898, OS - June 18, 1923) was a Bulgarian poet and prose writer who joined the Bulgarian Communist Party and..
Frederick Bean "Tex" Avery ::: (February 26, 1908 August 26, 1980) was an American animator and director, known for producing and directing animated cartoons during the golden age of American..
Isambard Kingdom Brunel, FRS, was an English mechanical and civil engineer who built dockyards, the Great Western Railway, a series of steamships including the first propeller-driven transatlantic..
Gregory Skovoroda, also Hryhorii Skovoroda, or Grigory Skovoroda ::: (Latin: Gregorius Scovoroda, Ukrainian: , Hryhorii Savych Skovoroda; Russian: ,..
Richard Georg Strauss ::: (German pronunciation: [at tas]; 11 June 1864 8 September 1949) was a leading German composer of the late Romantic and early modern eras. He is known for his operas,..
File:Toyotomi Hideyoshi Kaou.svg Toyotomi Hideyoshi ::: ( , March 17, 1537 September 18, 1598) was a preeminent daimy, warrior, general, samurai, and politician of the Sengoku period who is..
Mary Somerville ::: (ne Fairfax, formerly Greig; 26 December 1780 29 November 1872), was a Scottish science writer and polymath. She studied mathematics and astronomy, and was nominated to be jointly..
Petya Stoykova Dubarova ::: (Bulgarian: ) (April 25, 1962 December 4, 1979) was a Bulgarian poet...
Bartolom de las Casas ::: (Spanish: [batolome e las kasas] c. 1484 18 July 1566) was a 16th-century Spanish colonist who acted as a historian and social reformer before becoming a..
Michelangelo Merisi ::: (Michele Angelo Merigi or Amerighi) da Caravaggio (, US: , Italian pronunciation: [mikelandelo merizi da (k)karavaddo]; 28 September 1571 18 July 1610) was an Italian..
Julian I redirects here. There was also a Patriarch Julian I of Antioch who reigned in 471476.Julian ::: (Latin: Flavius Claudius Julianus Augustus; Greek:

; 331/332..
Norman Manuel Abramson ::: (April 1, 1932) is an American engineer and computer scientist, most known for developing the ALOHAnet system for wireless computer communication. Born in Boston,..
Bob Dylan ::: (born May 24, 1941) is an American singer-songwriter, author, poet, and visual artist who has been a major figure in popular culture for more than fifty years. Much of his most celebrated..
Lester Halbert Germer ::: (October 10, 1896 October 3, 1971) was an American physicist. With Clinton Davisson, he proved the wave-particle duality of matter in the DavissonGermer experiment, which was..
William Butler Yeats ::: (13 June 1865 28 January 1939) was an Irish poet and one of the foremost figures of 20th-century literature. A pillar of the Irish literary establishment, he helped to found..
Pierre de Fermat ::: (French: [pj d fma]) (between 31 October and 6 December 1607 12 January 1665) was a French lawyer at the Parlement of Toulouse, France, and a mathematician who is given..
Julie Anne Smith ::: (born December 3, 1960), known professionally as Julianne Moore, is an American-British actress and author. Prolific in film since the early 1990s, she is particularly known for her..
Antonie Philips van Leeuwenhoek ::: ( AHN-t-nee vahn LAY-vn-hook, -huuk, Dutch: [ntoni vn leu(n)uk] 24 October 1632 26 August 1723) was a Dutch businessman and scientist in the..
Andrew Carnegie kar-NAY-gee ::: (November 25, 1835 August 11, 1919) was a Scottish-American industrialist, business magnate, and philanthropist. Carnegie led the expansion of the American steel..
John Craig Venter ::: (born October 14, 1946) is an American biotechnologist, biochemist, geneticist, and businessman. He is known for leading the first draft sequence of the human genome and assembled..
Antoni Gaud i Cornet was a Spanish Catalan architect from Reus and the best known practitioner of Catalan Modernism. Gaud's works reflect an individualized and distinctive style. Most are located..
Henry Charles Bukowski ::: (born Heinrich Karl Bukowski; August 16, 1920 March 9, 1994) was a German-American poet, novelist, and short story writer. His writing was influenced by the social, cultural,..
Antoine Henri Becquerel ::: (; French: [i bkl]; 15 December 1852 25 August 1908) was a French engineer, physicist, Nobel laureate, and the first person to discover evidence of radioactivity. For..
Oliver Cromwell ::: (25 April 1599 3 September 1658) was an English military and political leader. He served as Lord Protector of the Commonwealth of England, Scotland, and Ireland "and of the..
Yunus Emre ::: (Turkish pronunciation: [junus eme]) (12381320) was a Turkish poet and Sufi mystic who greatly influenced Anatolian culture. His name, Yunus, is the equivalent to the English name..
John Michael Crichton ::: (; October 23, 1942 November 4, 2008) was an American author, screenwriter, and film director and producer best known for his work in the science fiction, thriller, and..
James Maury Henson ::: (September 24, 1936 May 16, 1990) was an American puppeteer, animator, cartoonist, actor, inventor, filmmaker, and screenwriter who achieved worldwide notice as the creator of..
Ray Douglas Bradbury ::: (; August 22, 1920 June 5, 2012) was an American author and screenwriter. He worked in a variety of genres, including fantasy, science fiction, horror, and mystery..
Maya Angelou ::: ( born Marguerite Annie Johnson; April 4, 1928 May 28, 2014) was an American poet, singer, memoirist, and civil rights activist. She published seven autobiographies, three..
Maria Theresa Walburga Amalia Christina ::: (German: Maria Theresia; 13 May 1717 29 November 1780) was the only female ruler of the Habsburg dominions and the last of the House of Habsburg. She was the..
Nikolai Ivanovich Lobachevsky ::: (Russian: , IPA: [niklaj vanvt lbtfskj] 1 December [O.S. 20 November] 1792 24 February [O.S. 12 February]..
William Franklin Graham Jr. ::: (November 7, 1918 February 21, 2018) was an American evangelist, a prominent evangelical Christian figure, and an ordained Southern Baptist minister who became..
Peter Townsend is a sound mixer...
Marie Charlotte Carmichael Stopes ::: (15 October 1880 2 October 1958) was a British author, palaeobotanist and campaigner for eugenics and women's rights. She made significant contributions to plant..
Randall Collins ::: (born July 29, 1941) is an American sociologist who has been influential in both his teaching and writing. He has taught in many notable universities around the world and his academic..
Aretha Louise Franklin ::: (March 25, 1942 August 16, 2018) was an American singer, songwriter, pianist, and civil rights activist. Franklin began her career as a child singing gospel at New Bethel..
Samuel Adams ::: (September 27 [O.S. September 16] 1722 October 2, 1803) was an American statesman, political philosopher, and one of the Founding Fathers of the United States. He was a politician in..
Franois-Auguste-Ren Rodin, known as Auguste Rodin, was a French sculptor. Although Rodin is generally considered the progenitor of modern sculpture, he did not set out to rebel against the past. He..
Hendrik Antoon Lorentz ::: (; 18 July 1853 4 February 1928) was a Dutch physicist who shared the 1902 Nobel Prize in Physics with Pieter Zeeman for the discovery and theoretical explanation of the..
Charles Martel ::: (c. 688 22 October 741) was a Frankish statesman and military leader who, as Duke and Prince of the Franks and Mayor of the Palace, was the de facto ruler of Francia from 718 until..
Fidel Alejandro Castro Ruz ::: (American Spanish: [fiel alexando kasto rus]; 13 August 1926 25 November 2016) was a Cuban communist revolutionary and politician who governed the Republic of Cuba..
Sir Alfred Joseph Hitchcock ::: (13 August 1899 29 April 1980) was an English film director and producer, widely regarded as one of the most influential filmmakers in the history of cinema. Known as..
Carson McCullers ::: (February 19, 1917 September 29, 1967) was an American novelist, short story writer, playwright, essayist, and poet. Her first novel, The Heart Is a Lonely Hunter, explores the..
Roger Joseph Boscovich, S.J. ::: (Serbo-Croatian: Ruer Josip Bokovi; pronounced [rder jsip bkoit]; Italian: Ruggiero Giuseppe Boscovich; Latin: Rodericus Iosephus Boscovicus; 18 May 1711 13..
Frank Vincent Zappa ::: (December 21, 1940 December 4, 1993) was an American multi-instrumentalist musician, composer, and bandleader. His work is characterized by nonconformity, free-form..
Gustavus Adolphus ::: (9/19 December 1594 6/16 November 1632, O.S./N.S.), also known in English as Gustav II Adolf or Gustav II Adolph, was the King of Sweden from 1611 to 1632, and is credited for the..
Gilbert Newton Lewis ::: (October 25 (or 23), 1875 March 23, 1946) was an American physical chemist and a former Dean of the College of Chemistry at University of California, Berkeley. Lewis was best..
Peter Ware Higgs ::: (born 29 May 1929) is a British theoretical physicist, emeritus professor in the University of Edinburgh, and Nobel Prize laureate for his work on the mass of subatomic particles.In..
Walter Adolph Georg Gropius was a German architect and founder of the Bauhaus School, who, along with Ludwig Mies van der Rohe, Le Corbusier and Frank Lloyd Wright, is widely regarded as one of the..
Sir Andrew John Wiles ::: (born 11 April 1953) is an English mathematician and a Royal Society Research Professor at the University of Oxford, specialising in number theory. He is best known for proving..
Samuel Cook ::: (January 22, 1931 December 11, 1964), known professionally as Sam Cooke, was an American singer, songwriter, civil-rights activist and entrepreneur. Influential as both a singer and..
Amartya Kumar Sen, ::: (Bengali: [mort:o en]; born 3 November 1933) is an Indian economist and philosopher, who since 1972 has taught and worked in India, the United Kingdom, and the United States...
Stephen Joshua Sondheim ::: (born March 22, 1930) is an American composer and lyricist known for more than a half-century of contributions to musical theatre. Sondheim has received an Academy Award,..
John William Oliver ::: (born 23 April 1977) is an English comedian, writer, producer, political commentator, actor, and television host. Oliver started his career as a stand-up comedian, both in the..
Sergei Pavlovich Korolev ::: (Russian: , IPA: [srgej pavvt krlf] (listen), also transliterated as Sergey Pavlovich Korolyov, Ukrainian:  /..
Franz Liszt ::: (German: [lst]; Hungarian: Liszt Ferencz, in modern usage Liszt Ferenc [list frnts]; 22 October 1811 31 July 1886) was a Hungarian composer, virtuoso pianist, conductor, music..
Brian Harold May, ::: (born 19 July 1947) is an English musician, singer, songwriter and astrophysicist. He is the lead guitarist of the rock band Queen. His songs include "We Will Rock You", "Tie Your..
Lope Flix de Vega y Carpio ::: ( LOH-pay dee VAY-g, Spanish: [lope feliz e ea i kapjo]; 25 November 1562 27 August 1635) was a Spanish playwright, poet, novelist and marine. He was one of..
Mark Elliot Zuckerberg ::: (; born May 14, 1984) is an American technology entrepreneur and philanthropist. Zuckerberg is known for co-founding and leading Facebook as its chairman and chief executive..
Martha Graham ::: (May 11, 1894 April 1, 1991) was an American modern dancer and choreographer. Her style, the Graham technique, reshaped American dance and is still taught worldwide.She danced and..
For other people named Paul Cohen, see Paul Cohen ::: (disambiguation). Not to be confused with Paul Cohn.Paul Joseph Cohen (April 2, 1934 March 23, 2007) was an American mathematician. He is best..
Pierre Louis Moreau de Maupertuis ::: (; French: [mopti]; 1698 27 July 1759) was a French mathematician, philosopher and man of letters. He became the Director of the Acadmie des Sciences, and the..
Levi ben Gershon ::: (12881344), better known by his Graecized name as Gersonides, or by his Latinized name Magister Leo Hebraeus, or in Hebrew by the abbreviation of first letters as RaLBaG, was a..
Percy Williams Bridgman ::: (21 April 1882 20 August 1961) was an American physicist who received the 1946 Nobel Prize in Physics for his work on the physics of high pressures. He also wrote..
Murray Gell-Mann ::: (; September 15, 1929 May 24, 2019) was an American physicist who received the 1969 Nobel Prize in Physics for his work on the theory of elementary particles. He was the Robert..
George Harrison ::: (25 February 1943 29 November 2001) was an English musician, singer-songwriter, and music and film producer who achieved international fame as the lead guitarist of the Beatles...
Lene Vestergaard Hau ::: (born November 13, 1959 in Vejle, Denmark) is a Danish physicist who is currently the Mallinckrodt Professor of Physics and of Applied Physics at Harvard University. She received..
Roger Bacon ::: (; Latin: Rogerus or Rogerius Baconus, Baconis, also Frater Rogerus; c.1219/20 c.1292), also known by the scholastic accolade Doctor Mirabilis, was a medieval English philosopher and..
William Harvey ::: (1 April 1578 3 June 1657) was an English physician who made seminal contributions in anatomy and physiology. He was the first known physician to describe completely, and in detail,..
Paul Jackson Pollock ::: (; January 28, 1912 August 11, 1956) was an American painter and a major figure in the abstract expressionist movement. He was widely noticed for his technique of pouring or..
Stephen Richard Hackett ::: (born 12 February 1950) is an English musician, songwriter, singer, and producer who gained prominence as the lead guitarist of the progressive rock band Genesis from 1971 to..
Milan Kundera ::: (UK: , Czech: [mlan kundra] born 1 April 1929) is a Czech-born French writer who went into exile in France in 1975, and became a naturalised French citizen in 1981. He..
Sir Raymond Douglas Davies, ::: ( DAY-viz; born 21 June 1944) is an English singer, songwriter and musician. He is the lead singer, rhythm guitarist and main songwriter for the Kinks, which he leads..
August Heinrich Hoffmann von Fallersleben ::: (listen ; 2 April 1798 19 January 1874) was a German poet. He is best known for writing "Das Lied der Deutschen", its third stanza now being the national..
Hristo Botev ::: (Bulgarian: , also transliterated as Hristo Botyov) (6 January 1848 [O.S. 25 December 1847] 2 June [O.S. 20 May] 1876), born Hristo Botyov Petkov (Bulgarian: ..
Frederick William Gehring was an American mathematician who worked in the area of complex analysis...
Justin Martyr ::: (Latin: Iustinus Martyr) was an early Christian apologist, and is regarded as the foremost interpreter of the theory of the Logos in the 2nd century. He was martyred, alongside some of..
Thomas Ruggles Pynchon Jr. ::: (, commonly ; born May 8, 1937) is an American novelist. A MacArthur Fellow, he is noted for his dense and complex novels. His fiction and non-fiction writings encompass a..
James Madison Jr. ::: (March 16, 1751 June 28, 1836) was an American statesman, lawyer, diplomat, philosopher, and Founding Father who served as the fourth president of the United States from 1809 to..
Franz Uri Boas ::: (18581942) was a German-born American anthropologist and a pioneer of modern anthropology who has been called the "Father of American Anthropology". His work is associated with the..
Albrecht Drer ::: (; German: [albt dy]; 21 May 1471 6 April 1528) sometimes spelt in English as Durer or Duerer, without umlaut, was a painter, printmaker, and theorist of the German..
Claude Bernard ::: (French: [bna]; 12 July 1813 10 February 1878) was a French physiologist. Historian I. Bernard Cohen of Harvard University called Bernard "one of the greatest of all men of..
Ibn Arabi ::: (Arabic: ) (26 July 1165 16 November 1240), full name Ab Abd Allh Muammad ibn Al ibn Muammad ibnArab al-tim a- (Arabic:  


Pierre Gassendi ::: (French: [pj gasdi]; also Pierre Gassend, Petrus Gassendi; 22 January 1592 24 October 1655) was a French philosopher, priest, astronomer, and mathematician. While he held a..
Ambrose Gwinnett Bierce ::: (June 24, 1842 circa 1914) was an American short story writer, journalist, poet, and Civil War veteran. Bierce's book The Devil's Dictionary was named as one of "The 100..
Taqi al-Din Muhammad ibn Ma'ruf ash-Shami al-Asadi ::: (Arabic:

, Ottoman Turkish:

) (15261585) was an Ottoman polymath active in..
Freddie Mercury ::: (born Farrokh Bulsara; 5 September 1946 24 November 1991) was a British singer, songwriter, record producer, and lead vocalist of the rock band Queen. Regarded as one of the..
Solomon ::: (; Hebrew: , Shlomoh), also called Jedidiah (Hebrew Yedidyah), was, according to the Hebrew Bible, Old Testament, Quran, and Hadiths, a fabulously wealthy and wise king of..
Ludwig Eduard Boltzmann ::: (German pronunciation: [lutv bltsman]; February 20, 1844 September 5, 1906) was an Austrian physicist and philosopher whose greatest achievement was in the..
William Bradford ::: (c. 19 March 1590 May 9, 1657) was an English Puritan separatist originally from the West Riding of Yorkshire in Northern England. He moved to Leiden in Holland in order to escape..
Benjamin Banneker ::: (November 9, 1731 October 9, 1806) was a free African-American almanac author, surveyor, naturalist, and farmer. Born in Baltimore County, Maryland, to a free African-American..
Karl Landsteiner, , ::: (14 June 1868 26 June 1943) was an Austrian biologist, physician, and immunologist. He distinguished the main blood groups in 1900, having developed the modern system of..
Ronald William Howard ::: (born March 1, 1954) is an American filmmaker and actor. Howard first came to prominence as a child actor, guest starring in several television series, most notably in an..
Russell Amos Kirk ::: (October 19, 1918 April 29, 1994) was an American political theorist, moralist, historian, social critic, and literary critic, known for his influence on 20th-century American..
Ibn Battuta ::: (; Arabic:

; fully Ab Abd al-Lh Muammad ibn Abd al-Lh l-Lawt -an ibn Baah; Arabic:  

   ) (February 25, 1304..
Milton Friedman ::: (; July 31, 1912 November 16, 2006) was an American economist who received the 1976 Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences for his research on consumption analysis, monetary..
Jack Kirby ::: (born Jacob Kurtzberg (); August 28, 1917 February 6, 1994) was an American comic book artist, writer and editor, widely regarded as one of the medium's major innovators and one of its..
Vasco da Gama, 1st Count of Vidigueira ::: (European Portuguese: [vaku m]; c. 1460s 24 December 1524), was a Portuguese explorer and the first European to reach India by sea. His initial..
Diana Patience Beverly Ross ::: (8 July 1910 4 May 2000), relative of Robert Ross, was an English children's author and occasional and longtime resident of Shaw, near Melksham, in Wiltshire. A graduate..
Auguste Marie Louis Nicolas Lumire was a film producer and a fim director...
David Howell Evans ::: (born 8 August 1961), better known by his stage name the Edge (or just Edge), is an Irish musician and songwriter best known as the lead guitarist, keyboardist and backing vocalist..
Stephen Tyrone Colbert ::: ( kohl-BAIR; born May 13, 1964) is an American comedian, writer, producer, political commentator, actor, and television host. He is best known for hosting the satirical Comedy..
John Adams Jr. ::: (October 30, 1735 July 4, 1826) was an American statesman, attorney, diplomat, writer, and Founding Father who served as the second president of the United States from 1797 to 1801...
Orestes Augustus Brownson ::: (September 16, 1803 April 17, 1876) was a New England intellectual and activist, preacher, labor organizer, and noted Catholic convert and writer. Brownson was a..
Sir Roger Penrose ::: (born 8 August 1931) is an English mathematical physicist, mathematician and philosopher of science. He is Emeritus Rouse Ball Professor of Mathematics at the University of Oxford..
Karl Paul Reinhold Niebuhr ::: (18921971) was an American Reformed theologian, ethicist, commentator on politics and public affairs, and professor at Union Theological Seminary for more than 30 years...
Walter Elias Disney ::: (; December 5, 1901 December 15, 1966) was an American entrepreneur, animator, voice actor and film producer. A pioneer of the American animation industry, he introduced several..
John Henry Newman, ::: (21 February 1801 11 August 1890) was a theologian and poet, first an Anglican priest and later a Catholic priest and cardinal, who was an important and controversial figure in..
Jean-Baptiste Poquelin ::: (baptised 15 January 1622; died 17 February 1673), known by his stage name Molire (UK: , US: , French: [mlj]), was a French playwright, actor and poet, widely regarded as..
Rodman Edward Serling ::: (December 25, 1924 June 28, 1975) was an American screenwriter, playwright, television producer, and narrator known for his live television dramas of the 1950s and his..
Theodor Schwann ::: (German pronunciation: [teodo van]; 7 December 1810 11 January 1882) was a German physician and physiologist. His most significant contribution to biology is considered to be..
Abu al-Hasan Ahmad ibn Yahya ibn Ishaq al-Rawandi ::: (Arabic:
   ), commonly known as Ibn al-Rawandi (Arabic: ; 827911 CE), was an early skeptic of..
Mstislav Leopoldovich "Slava" Rostropovich ::: (Russian: , romanized: Mstislav Leopol'dovi Rostropovi, pronounced [rstrpovt]; 27 March 1927 27 April 2007)..
John William Cummings ::: (October 8, 1948 September 15, 2004), known professionally as Johnny Ramone, was an American guitarist and songwriter, best known for being the guitarist for the punk rock..
Thomas Earl Petty ::: (October 20, 1950 October 2, 2017) was an American singer-songwriter, multi-instrumentalist, record producer, and actor. He was the lead singer of Tom Petty and the Heartbreakers,..
Grard de Nerval ::: (French: [ea d nval]; 22 May 1808 26 January 1855) was the nom-de-plume of the French writer, poet, and translator Grard Labrunie, a major figure of French romanticism, best..
Jacques Bergier ::: (French: [bje]; maybe born Yakov Mikhailovich Berger; (Russian:
); Odessa, 21 August [O.S. 8 August] 1912 Paris, 23 November 1978) was a chemical..
Tokugawa Ieyasu ::: (, January 31, 1543 June 1, 1616) was the founder and first shgun of the Tokugawa shogunate of Japan, which effectively ruled Japan from the Battle of Sekigahara in 1600 until..
Samuel Barclay Beckett ::: (; 13 April 1906 22 December 1989) was an Irish novelist, playwright, short story writer, theatre director, poet, and literary translator. A resident of Paris for most of his..
Ludwig Heinrich Edler von Mises ::: (German: [lutv fn mizs]; 29 September 1881 10 October 1973) was an Austrian School economist, historian, and sociologist. Mises wrote and lectured..
John William Strutt, 3rd Baron Rayleigh, ::: (; 12 November 1842 30 June 1919), was a British scientist who made extensive contributions to both theoretical and experimental physics. He spent all of..
Gaius Julius Caesar ::: (12 July 100 BC 15 March 44 BC) was a Roman general and statesman who played a critical role in the events that led to the demise of the Roman Republic and the rise of the Roman..
Prof William John Macquorn Rankine ::: () LLD (5 July 1820 24 December 1872) was a Scottish mechanical engineer who also contributed to civil engineering, physics and mathematics. He was a founding..
Donato di Niccol di Betto Bardi ::: (c.1386 13 December 1466), better known as Donatello (English: Italian: [donatllo]), was an Italian sculptor of the Renaissance. Born in Florence, he studied..
Sir Arthur Charles Clarke ::: (16 December 1917 19 March 2008) was a British science fiction writer, science writer and futurist, inventor, undersea explorer, and television series host. He co-wrote..
Erving Goffman ::: (11 June 1922 19 November 1982) was a Canadian-American sociologist, social psychologist, and writer, considered by some "the most influential American sociologist of the twentieth..
Henry Cavendish FRS ::: (; 10 October 1731 24 February 1810) was an English natural philosopher, scientist, and an important experimental and theoretical chemist and physicist. He is noted for his..
Plotinus ::: (; Greek: , Pltinos; c.204/5 270) was a major Hellenistic philosopher who lived in Roman Egypt. In his philosophy, described in the Enneads, there are three principles: the One,..
Cheikh Anta Diop was a historian, anthropologist, physicist, and politician who studied the human race's origins and pre-colonial African culture. Cheikh Anta Diop University, in Dakar, Senegal, is..
Joseph Maurice Ravel ::: (; French: [ozf mis avl]; 7 March 1875 28 December 1937) was a French composer, pianist and conductor. He is often associated with impressionism along with his elder..
Philip Milton Roth ::: (March 19, 1933 May 22, 2018) was an American novelist and short-story writer. Roth's fiction, regularly set in his birthplace of Newark, New Jersey, is known for its intensely..
Julius Wilhelm Richard Dedekind ::: (6 October 1831 12 February 1916) was a German mathematician who made important contributions to abstract algebra (particularly ring theory), axiomatic foundation..
Sir Humphry Davy, 1st Baronet ::: (17 December 1778 29 May 1829) was a Cornish chemist and inventor, who is best remembered today for isolating, using electricity, a series of elements for the first..
Franois Roland Truffaut ::: (UK: TROO-foh, TRUUF-oh, US: troo-FOH, French: [fswa l tyfo]; 6 February 1932 21 October 1984) was a French film director, screenwriter, producer, actor, and film..
Henry Nicola Mancini ::: (born April 16, 1924 June 14, 1994) was an American composer, conductor, arranger, pianist and flutist who is best remembered for his many film and television scores. Often..
Sir Timothy John Berners-Lee ::: (born 8 June 1955), also known as TimBL, is an English engineer and computer scientist, best known as the inventor of the World Wide Web. He is currently a Professorial..
Athanasius Kircher, S.J. ::: (sometimes erroneously spelled Kirchner; Latin: Athanasius Kircherus, 2 May 1602 28 November 1680) was a German Jesuit scholar and polymath who published around 40 major..
John Cameron Fogerty ::: (born May 28, 1945) is an American musician, singer, and songwriter. Together with Doug Clifford, Stu Cook, and his brother Tom Fogerty, he founded the band Creedence Clearwater..
Bhimrao Ramji Ambedkar ::: (14 April 1891 6 December 1956), popularly known as Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar, was an Indian jurist, economist, politician and social reformer who inspired the Dalit Buddhist..
Sir Joseph John Thomson ::: (18 December 1856 30 August 1940) was an English physicist and Nobel Laureate in Physics, credited with the discovery and identification of the electron, the first..
Angela Isadora Duncan ::: (May 26, 1877 or May 27, 1878 September 14, 1927) was an American and French dancer who performed to acclaim throughout Europe. Born in California, she lived in Western Europe..
Mary Temple Grandin ::: (born August 29, 1947) is an American professor of animal science at Colorado State University, consultant to the livestock industry on animal behavior, and autism spokesperson...
Paul Czanne ::: (US: or UK: ; French: [pl sezan]; 19 January 1839 22 October 1906) was a French artist and Post-Impressionist painter whose work laid the foundations of the transition from the..
Alfred James Lotka ::: (March 2, 1880 December 5, 1949) was a US mathematician, physical chemist, and statistician, famous for his work in population dynamics and energetics. An American biophysicist,..
Svante August Arrhenius ::: (; 19 February 1859 2 October 1927) was a Swedish scientist. Originally a physicist, but often referred to as a chemist, Arrhenius was one of the founders of the science of..
Ctesibius or Ktesibios or Tesibius ::: (Greek: ; fl. 285222 BCE) was a Greek inventor and mathematician in Alexandria, Ptolemaic Egypt. He wrote the first treatises on the science of compressed..
Edward Teller ::: (Hungarian: Teller Ede; January 15, 1908 September 9, 2003) was a Hungarian-American theoretical physicist who is known colloquially as "the father of the hydrogen bomb" (see the..
Frantz Fanon ::: (French: [fts fan]; 20 July 1925 6 December 1961), also known as Ibrahim Frantz Fanon, was a French West Indian psychiatrist, political philosopher, revolutionary, and writer from..
Madison Grant ::: (November 19, 1865 May 30, 1937) was an American lawyer, writer, and zoologist known primarily for his work as a eugenicist/racist and conservationist as one of the leading thinkers..
Lewis Brian Hopkins Jones ::: (28 February 1942 3 July 1969) was an English musician, best known as the founder and the original leader of the Rolling Stones. Initially a slide guitarist, Jones would..
Clive Staples Lewis ::: (29 November 1898 22 November 1963) was a British writer and lay theologian. He held academic positions in English literature at both Oxford University (Magdalen College,..
Elizabeth II ::: (born 21 April 1926) is Queen of the United Kingdom and the other Commonwealth realms.Elizabeth was born in London as the first child of the Duke and Duchess of York, later King George..
Franz Peter Schubert ::: (German: [fants pet ubt]; 31 January 1797 19 November 1828) was an Austrian composer of the late Classical and early Romantic eras. Despite his short lifetime,..
J. Doyne Farmer ::: (born 22 June 1952) is an American complex systems scientist and entrepreneur with interests in chaos theory, complexity and econophysics. He is a Professor of Mathematics at Oxford..
Anne Conway ::: (also known as Viscountess Conway; ne Finch; 14 December 1631 23 February 1679) was an English philosopher whose work, in the tradition of the Cambridge Platonists, was an influence on..
Jacques Rancire ::: (French: [sj]; born 1940) is a French philosopher, Professor of Philosophy at European Graduate School in Saas-Fee and former Professor of Philosophy at the University of Paris..
Aaron Hillel Swartz ::: (November 8, 1986 January 11, 2013) was an American computer programmer, entrepreneur, writer, political organizer, and Internet hacktivist. He was involved in the development..
Percy Bysshe Shelley ::: ( (listen) BISH; 4 August 1792 8 July 1822) was one of the major English Romantic poets, who is regarded by some as among the finest lyric and philosophical poets in the..
Thch Nht Hnh ::: (; Vietnamese: [tk t hj] born as Nguy
n Xun Bo on October 11, 1926) is a Vietnamese Buddhist monk and peace activist, founder of the Plum Village..
Alfred North Whitehead ::: (15 February 1861 30 December 1947) was an English mathematician and philosopher. He is best known as the defining figure of the philosophical school known as process..
Albert Arnold Gore Jr. ::: (born March 31, 1948) is an American politician and environmentalist who served as the 45th vice president of the United States from 1993 to 2001. Gore was Bill Clinton's..
Carrie Chapman Catt ::: (January 9, 1859 March 9, 1947) was an American women's suffrage leader who campaigned for the Nineteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution, which gave U.S. women the..
Jeremy Bentham ::: (; 15 February 1748 [O.S. 4 February 1747] 6 June 1832) was an English philosopher, jurist, and social reformer regarded as the founder of modern utilitarianism.Bentham defined as..
John Quincy Adams ::: ( July 11, 1767 February 23, 1848) was an American statesman, diplomat, lawyer, and diarist who served as the sixth president of the United States from 1825 to 1829. He..
James Newell Osterberg Jr. ::: (born April 21, 1947), better known as Iggy Pop, is an American singer, songwriter, musician, record producer, and actor. Designated the "Godfather of Punk", he was the..
Johanna "Hannah" Cohn Arendt ::: (, also US: , German: [ant]; 14 October 1906 4 December 1975), also known as Hannah Arendt Bluecher, was a German-American philosopher and political theorist. Her..
Geoffrey Arnold Beck ::: (born 24 June 1944) is an English rock guitarist. He is one of the three noted guitarists to have played with the Yardbirds (the other two being Eric Clapton and Jimmy Page)...
Roger Harry Daltrey ::: (born 1 March 1944) is an English singer and actor. He is a founder, member, and lead singer of the rock band the Who. Daltrey is known for his powerful voice and energetic stage..
William Henry Gates III ::: (born October 28, 1955) is an American business magnate, investor, author, philanthropist, and humanitarian. He is best known as the principal founder of Microsoft..
Marilyn Monroe ::: (born Norma Jeane Mortenson; June 1, 1926 August 4, 1962) was an American actress, model, and singer. Famous for playing comic "blonde bombshell" characters, she became one of the..
Sir James Paul McCartney ::: (born 18 June 1942) is an English singer, songwriter, musician, composer, and record and film producer who gained worldwide fame as bass player for the Beatles. His..
Joseph-Louis Lagrange ::: (born Giuseppe Luigi Lagrangia or Giuseppe Ludovico De la Grange Tournier; 25 January 1736 10 April 1813), also reported as Giuseppe Luigi Lagrange or Lagrangia, was an..
Otis Ray Redding Jr. ::: (September 9, 1941 December 10, 1967) was an American singer, songwriter, record producer, arranger, and talent scout. He is considered one of the greatest singers in the..
David Ricardo ::: (18 April 1772 11 September 1823) was a British political economist, one of the most influential of the classical economists along with Thomas Malthus, Adam Smith and James Mill...
Rachel Louise Carson ::: (May 27, 1907 April 14, 1964) was an American marine biologist, author, and conservationist whose book Silent Spring and other writings are credited with advancing the global..
Haile Selassie I ::: (Ge'ez: , romanized: qdamawi hayl sllas, Amharic pronunciation: [hal sllase] born Lij Tafari Makonnen Woldemikael; 23 July 1892 27 August 1975) was..
Henry Brooks Adams ::: (February 16, 1838 March 27, 1918) was an American historian and member of the Adams political family, descended from two U.S. Presidents. As a young Harvard graduate, he was..
Clinton Joseph Davisson ::: (October 22, 1881 February 1, 1958) was an American physicist who won the 1937 Nobel Prize in Physics for his discovery of electron diffraction in the famous Davisson-Germer..
Hans Florian Zimmer ::: (German pronunciation: [hans floian tsm] born 12 September 1957) is a German film score composer and record producer. Zimmer's works are notable for integrating..
Joseph Fidler Walsh ::: (born November 20, 1947) is an American rock singer, guitarist, and songwriter. In a career spanning more than 50 years, he has been a member of five successful rock bands: James..
Hunter Stockton Thompson ::: (July 18, 1937 February 20, 2005) was an American journalist and author, and the founder of the gonzo journalism movement. He first rose to prominence with the publication..
David Lloyd George, 1st Earl Lloyd-George of Dwyfor, ::: (17 January 1863 26 March 1945) was a British statesman and Liberal politician. He was the last Liberal to serve as Prime Minister of the..
Boudica or Boudicca ::: (; also Boadicea or Boudicea , and known in Welsh as Buddug Welsh pronunciation: [b]) was a queen of the British Celtic Iceni tribe who led an uprising against the..
Charlemagne ::: (English: ; French: [alma]) or Charles the Great (2 April 742 28 January 814), numbered Charles I, was king of the Franks from 768, king of the Lombards from 774, and emperor of the..
Phidias or Pheidias was a Greek sculptor, painter and architect, who lived in the 5th century BC, and is commonly regarded as one of the greatest of all sculptors of Classical Greece: Phidias' Statue..
Vladimir Vladimirovich Nabokov ::: (; Russian:  [vdimr nbokf] (listen), also known by the pen name Vladimir Sirin (Russian: ); 22 April [O.S. 10..
Marie-Georges-Jean Mlis ::: (; French: [meljs]; 8 December 1861 21 January 1938), was a French illusionist and film director who led many technical and narrative developments in the earliest days of..
Erik Homburger Erikson ::: (born Erik Salomonsen; 15 June 1902 12 May 1994) was a German-American developmental psychologist and psychoanalyst known for his theory on psychological development of human..
Air Commodore Sir Frank Whittle, ::: (1 June 1907 9 August 1996) was a British Royal Air Force air officer. He is credited with single-handedly inventing the turbojet engine. A patent was submitted by..
Kip Stephen Thorne ::: (born June 1, 1940) is an American theoretical physicist and Nobel laureate, known for his contributions in gravitational physics and astrophysics. A longtime friend and colleague..
John Ray FRS ::: (29 November 1627 17 January 1705) was an English naturalist widely regarded as one of the earliest of the English parson-naturalists. Until 1670, he wrote his name as John Wray. From..
Andreas Vesalius ::: (; 31 December 1514 15 October 1564) was a 16th-century Flemish anatomist, physician, and author of one of the most influential books on human anatomy, De humani corporis fabrica..
William Gilbert ::: (; 24 May 1544 30 November 1603), also known as Gilberd, was an English physician, physicist and natural philosopher. He passionately rejected both the prevailing Aristotelian..
John Kenneth Galbraith ::: (October 15, 1908 April 29, 2006), also known as Ken Galbraith, was a Canadian-born economist, public official, and diplomat, and a leading proponent of 20th-century..
John Winston Ono Lennon ::: (born John Winston Lennon, 9 October 1940 8 December 1980) was an English singer, songwriter and peace activist who gained worldwide fame as the rhythm guitarist for the..
Jacques Martin Barzun ::: (; November 30, 1907 October 25, 2012) was a French-American historian known for his studies of the history of ideas and cultural history. He wrote about a wide range of..
Dwight David "Ike" Eisenhower ::: ( EYE-zn-how-r; October 14, 1890 March 28, 1969) was an American army general and statesman who served as the 34th president of the United States from 1953 to 1961...
George Roger Waters ::: (born 6 September 1943) is an English songwriter, singer, bassist, and composer. In 1965, he co-founded the progressive rock band Pink Floyd. Waters initially served solely as the..
John Griffith London ::: (born John Griffith Chaney; January 12, 1876 November 22, 1916) was an American novelist, journalist, and social activist. A pioneer in the world of commercial magazine..
Joseph John Campbell ::: (March 26, 1904 October 30, 1987) was an American Professor of Literature at Sarah Lawrence College who worked in comparative mythology and comparative religion. His work..
Jean-Baptiste le Rond d'Alembert ::: (; French: [ batist l dalb]; 16 November 1717 29 October 1783) was a French mathematician, mechanician, physicist, philosopher, and music theorist...
Sir Arthur Ignatius Conan Doyle ::: (22 May 1859 7 July 1930) was a Scottish writer, who created the character Sherlock Holmes. Originally a physician, in 1887 he published A Study in Scarlet, the..
Donato Bramante was an Italian architect, who introduced Renaissance architecture to Milan and the High Renaissance style to Rome, where his plan for St. Peter's Basilica formed the basis of design..
Bartolomeu Loureno de Gusmo ::: (December 1685 18 November 1724) was a Portuguese priest and naturalist, who was a pioneer of lighter-than-air airship design...
Pope Paul VI ::: (Latin: Paulus VI; Italian: Paolo VI; born Giovanni Battista Enrico Antonio Maria Montini (Italian pronunciation: [dovani batista enriko antnjo maria montini]); 26..
William Wordsworth ::: (7 April 1770 23 April 1850) was an English Romantic poet who, with Samuel Taylor Coleridge, helped to launch the Romantic Age in English literature with their joint publication..
Alexander Sergeyevich Pushkin ::: (English: ; Russian: , tr. Aleksndr Sergyevich Pshkin, IPA: [lksandr sre(j)vt pukn] 6 June [O.S. 26 May] 1799 ..
George Denis Patrick Carlin ::: (May 12, 1937 June 22, 2008) was an American stand-up comedian, actor, author, and social critic. He was known for his black comedy and reflections on politics, the..
Nettie Maria Stevens ::: (July 7, 1861 May 4, 1912) was an early American geneticist credited with the discovery of sex chromosomes. In 1905, soon after the rediscovery of Mendel's paper on genetics in..
Neil deGrasse Tyson ::: (; born October 5, 1958) is an American astrophysicist, author, and science communicator. Since 1996, he has been the Frederick P. Rose Director of the Hayden Planetarium at the..
Mary Teresa Bojaxhiu ::: (born Anjez Gonxhe Bojaxhiu, Albanian: [az nd bjadiu]; 26 August 1910 5 September 1997), commonly known as Mother Teresa and honoured in the Roman Catholic Church..
Georg Ferdinand Ludwig Philipp Cantor ::: ( KAN-tor; German: [ek fdinant lutv flp kant]; March 3 [O.S. February 19] 1845 January 6, 1918) was a German mathematician. He created set..
Shota Rustaveli ::: (Georgian: , c. 1160after c. 1220), mononymously known simply as Rustaveli, was a medieval Georgian poet. He is considered to be the pre-eminent poet of the Georgian..
Dimcho Debelyanov ::: (Bulgarian: ) (28 March 1887 2 October 1916) was a Bulgarian poet and author. Born to a prosperous tailoring family in Koprivshtitsa, Bulgaria, Debelyanov..
Thomas Crombie Schelling ::: (April 14, 1921 December 13, 2016) was an American economist and professor of foreign policy, national security, nuclear strategy, and arms control at the School of Public..
Mary was a first-century BC Galilean Jewish woman of Nazareth, and the mother of Jesus, according to the New Testament. The gospels of Matthew and Luke in the New Testament and the Quran describe..
Stephen Gary "Woz" Wozniak ::: (; born August 11, 1950) is an American inventor, electronics engineer, programmer, philanthropist, and technology entrepreneur. In 1976 he co-founded Apple Inc., which..
Alain Badiou ::: (; French: [al badju] (listen) ; born 17 January 1937) is a French philosopher, formerly chair of Philosophy at the cole normale suprieure (ENS) and founder of the faculty of..
Jonas Edward Salk ::: (; October 28, 1914 June 23, 1995) was an American medical researcher and virologist. He discovered and developed one of the first successful polio vaccines. Born in New York..
Piero Sraffa ::: (5 August 1898 3 September 1983) was an influential Italian economist who served as lecturer of economics at the University of Cambridge. His book Production of Commodities by Means of..
Daniel Bernoulli FRS ::: (German pronunciation: [bnli]; 29 January 1700 17 March 1782) was a Swiss mathematician and physicist and was one of the many prominent mathematicians in the Bernoulli..
Igor Ivanovich Sikorsky ::: (Russian: , IPA: [ir vanvit skorskj] (listen), tr. gor' Ivnovi Sikrskij; May 25, 1889 October 26, 1972) was a Russian-American..
William Thomson, 1st Baron Kelvin, ::: (26 June 1824 17 December 1907) was an Irish-Scottish (of Ulster Scots heritage) mathematical physicist and engineer who was born in Belfast in 1824. At the..
Jos Protasio Rizal Mercado y Realonda ::: (Spanish pronunciation: [xose risal]; June 19, 1861 December 30, 1896) was a Filipino nationalist and polymath during the tail end of the Spanish colonial..
Jean-Baptiste-Claude Delisle de Sales or Jean-Baptiste Isoard de Lisle ::: (29 April 1741 22 September 1816) was a French philosopher noted for his multi-edition, multi-volume opus The Philosophy of..
Selman Abraham Waksman ::: (July 22, 1888 August 16, 1973) was a Ukrainian-born, Jewish-American inventor, biochemist and microbiologist whose research into the decomposition of organisms that live in..
Zeno of Citium ::: (; Greek: , Znn ho Kitieus; c. 334 c. 262 BC) was a Hellenistic philosopher of Phoenician origin from Citium (, Kition), Cyprus. Zeno was the founder of the..
Luis Buuel Portols ::: (Spanish pronunciation: [lwis uwel potoles]; 22 February 1900 29 July 1983) was a Spanish born Mexican filmmaker who worked in France, Mexico and Spain.When Buuel died..
Sir Fred Hoyle FRS ::: (24 June 1915 20 August 2001) was an English astronomer who formulated the theory of stellar nucleosynthesis. He also held controversial stances on other scientific mattersin..
Edward Jenner, FRS FRCPE ::: (17 May 1749 26 January 1823) was an English physician and scientist who was the pioneer of smallpox vaccine, the world's first vaccine. The terms vaccine and vaccination..
John Logie Baird FRSE ::: (; 13 August 1888 14 June 1946) was a Scottish engineer, innovator, one of the inventors of the mechanical television, demonstrating the first working television system on 26..
Susan Sontag ::: (; January 16, 1933 December 28, 2004) was an American writer, filmmaker, philosopher, teacher, and political activist. She mostly wrote essays, but also published novels; she..
Giotto di Bondone, known as Giotto, was an Italian painter and architect from Florence in the late Middle Ages. He is generally considered the first in a line of great artists who contributed to the..
Christopher Eric Hitchens ::: (13 April 1949 15 December 2011) was an English-American author, columnist, essayist, orator, journalist, and social critic. Hitchens was the author, co-author, editor, or..
John Graham Mellor ::: (21 August 1952 22 December 2002), known by his name from May of 1975, Joe Strummer, was a British musician, singer, composer, actor and songwriter who was the co-founder,..
Marvin Neil Simon ::: (July 4, 1927 August 26, 2018) was an American playwright, screenwriter and author. He wrote more than 30 plays and nearly the same number of movie screenplays, mostly adaptations..
William "Smokey" Robinson Jr. ::: (born February 19, 1940) is an American singer, songwriter, record producer, and former record executive. Robinson was the founder and frontman of the Motown vocal group..
Robert Nesta Marley, ::: (6 February 1945 11 May 1981) was a Jamaican singer and songwriter. Considered one of the pioneers of reggae, his musical career was marked by blending elements of reggae,..
Giovanni Francesco Barbieri ::: (February 8, 1591 December 22, 1666), better known as Guercino, or il Guercino [wertino], was an Italian Baroque painter and draftsman from Cento in the Emilia..
John James Marshall ::: (September 24, 1755 July 6, 1835) was an American politician and lawyer who served as the fourth Chief Justice of the United States from 1801 to 1835. Marshall remains the..
Vincent Leonard Price Jr. ::: (May 27, 1911 October 25, 1993) was an American actor best known for his performances in horror films, although his career spanned other genres, including film noir,..
Charles-douard Jeanneret-Gris, who was better known as Le Corbusier, was a Swiss-French architect, designer, painter, urban planner, writer, and one of the pioneers of what is now called modern..
Pope John XXIII ::: (Latin: Ioannes; Italian: Giovanni; born Angelo Giuseppe Roncalli, Italian pronunciation: [andelo duzppe rokalli]; 25 November 1881 3 June 1963) was head of the Catholic..
Eugne Henri Paul Gauguin ::: (UK: , US: ; French: [n i pl o]; 7 June 1848 8 May 1903) was a French post-Impressionist artist. Unappreciated until after his death, Gauguin is now recognized..
Charles Goodyear ::: (December 29, 1800 July 1, 1860) was an American self-taught chemist and manufacturing engineer who developed vulcanized rubber, for which he received patent number 3633 from the..
Sylvia Plath ::: (; October 27, 1932 February 11, 1963) was an American poet, novelist, and short-story writer. Born in Boston, Massachusetts, she studied at Smith College and Newnham College at the..
Susan B. Anthony ::: (February 15, 1820 March 13, 1906) was an American social reformer and women's rights activist who played a pivotal role in the women's suffrage movement. Born into a Quaker family..
Thomas Samuel Kuhn ::: (; July 18, 1922 June 17, 1996) was an American philosopher of science whose 1962 book The Structure of Scientific Revolutions was influential in both academic and popular..
Alan Harvey Guth ::: (; born February 27, 1947) is an American theoretical physicist and cosmologist. Guth has researched elementary particle theory (and how particle theory is applicable to the early..
Donald Hugh Henley ::: (born July 22, 1947) is an American musician, singer, songwriter, record producer and founding member of the Eagles. He was the drummer and co-lead vocalist for the Eagles from..
Abram Samoilovitch Besicovitch ::: (or Besikovitch) (Russian: ; 23 January 1891 2 November 1970) was a Russian mathematician, who worked mainly in England. He was born in..
Michael Latham Powell ::: (30 September 1905 19 February 1990) was an English film director, celebrated for his partnership with Emeric Pressburger. Through their production company "The Archers", they..
Aung San Suu Kyi ::: (; Burmese:
; MLCTS: aung hcan: cu. krany Burmese pronunciation: [ s s t]; born 19 June 1945) is a Burmese politician, diplomat, author, and Nobel Peace Prize..
Gustav Mahler ::: (German: [mal]; 7 July 1860 18 May 1911) was an Austro-Bohemian late-Romantic composer, and one of the leading conductors of his generation. As a composer he acted as a bridge..
Calvin Coolidge ::: (born John Calvin Coolidge Jr.; ; July 4, 1872 January 5, 1933) was an American politician and lawyer who served as the 30th president of the United States from 1923 to 1929. A..
Charles Martin Jones ::: (September 21, 1912 February 22, 2002) was an American animator, filmmaker, cartoonist, author, artist, and screenwriter, best known for his work with Warner Bros. Cartoons on..
James Ephraim Lovelock, ::: (born 26 July 1919) is an independent scientist, environmentalist, and futurist. He is best known for proposing the Gaia hypothesis, which postulates that the Earth functions..
Michael Joseph Oakeshott FBA ::: (; 11 December 1901 19 December 1990) was an English philosopher and political theorist who wrote about philosophy of history, philosophy of religion, aesthetics,..
Gilles Deleuze ::: (; French: [il dlz]; 18 January 1925 4 November 1995) was a French philosopher who, from the early 1950s until his death in 1995, wrote on philosophy, literature, film, and fine..
George Washington Carver ::: (1860s January 5, 1943), was an American agricultural scientist and inventor. He actively promoted alternative crops to cotton and methods to prevent soil depletion.While a..
The 14th Dalai Lama ::: (born 6 July 1935) is the current Dalai Lama. Dalai Lamas are important monks of the Gelug school, the newest school of Tibetan Buddhism, which was formally headed by the Ganden..
Benjamin Disraeli, 1st Earl of Beaconsfield, ::: (21 December 1804 19 April 1881), was a British politician of the Conservative Party who twice served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom. He..
Galerius ::: (; Latin: Gaius Galerius Valerius Maximianus Augustus; circa 250 April or May 311) was Roman emperor from 305 to 311. During his reign, he campaigned, aided by Diocletian, against the..
Judith Pamela Butler ::: (born 1956) is an American philosopher and gender theorist whose work has influenced political philosophy, ethics, and the fields of third-wave feminist, queer, and literary..
Ren Franois Ghislain Magritte ::: (French: [ne fswa il mait]; 21 November 1898 15 August 1967) was a Belgian Surrealist artist. He became well known for creating a number of witty and..
Anna Whitlock ::: (13 June 1852 16 June 1930), was a Swedish reform pedagogue, journalist, suffragette and feminist. She was co-founder and twice chairperson of the National Association for Women's..
Maurice John Cowling ::: (6 September 1926 24 August 2005) was a British historian and a Fellow of Peterhouse, Cambridge...
Mrz Muhammad Traghay bin Shhrukh ::: (Chagatay:

  , Persian:

  ), better known as Ulugh Beg ( ) (March 22, 1394 in Sultaniyeh, Persia ..
Sir Charles Scott Sherrington ::: (27 November 1857 4 March 1952) was an English neurophysiologist, histologist, bacteriologist, and a pathologist, Nobel laureate and president of the Royal Society in..
Albert Schweitzer ::: (14 January 1875 4 September 1965) was an Alsatian polymath. He was a theologian, organist, writer, humanitarian, philosopher, and physician. A Lutheran, Schweitzer challenged..
Sojourner Truth ::: (; born Isabella [Belle] Baumfree; c.1797 November 26, 1883) was an African-American abolitionist and women's rights activist. Truth was born into slavery in Swartekill, Ulster..
Thomas Young FRS ::: (13 June 1773 10 May 1829) was a British polymath and physician. Young made notable scientific contributions to the fields of vision, light, solid mechanics, energy, physiology,..
Sir Muhammad Iqbal ::: (; Urdu:

; 9 November 1877 21 April 1938), widely known as Allama Iqbal was a poet, philosopher and politician, as well as an academic, barrister and scholar in..
David Foster Wallace ::: (February 21, 1962 September 12, 2008) was an American writer and university professor in the disciplines of English and creative writing. His novel Infinite Jest (1996) was..
Edson Arantes do Nascimento, KBE ::: (Brazilian Portuguese: [ts (w)tiz du nsimtu]; born 23 October 1940), known as Pel ([pel]), is a Brazilian retired professional footballer who played as..
George Boole ::: (; 2 November 1815 8 December 1864) was a largely self-taught English mathematician, philosopher and logician, most of whose short career was spent as the first professor of..
Roald Dahl ::: (; 13 September 1916 23 November 1990) was a British novelist, short story writer, poet, screenwriter, and fighter pilot. His books have sold more than 250 million copies worldwide.Born..
Joseph Frank Keaton ::: (October 4, 1895 February 1, 1966), known professionally as Buster Keaton, was an American actor, comedian, film director, producer, screenwriter, and stunt performer. He is..
Neferneferuaten Nefertiti ::: () (c. 1370 c. 1330 BC) was an Egyptian queen and the Great Royal Wife (chief consort) of Akhenaten, an Egyptian Pharaoh. Nefertiti and her husband were known for a..
Sister Nivedita ::: (Bengali pronunciation: [sister nibedita] listen ; born Margaret Elizabeth Noble; 28 October 1867 13 October 1911) was an Irish teacher, author, social activist, school founder..
Cahit Arf ::: (Turkish: [dahit af]; 11 October 1910 26 December 1997) was a Turkish mathematician. He is known for the Arf invariant of a quadratic form in characteristic 2 (applied in knot theory ..
Janis Lyn Joplin ::: (January 19, 1943 October 4, 1970) was an American rock, soul, and blues singer-songwriter, and one of the most successful and widely known rock stars of her era. After releasing..
Joseph Alos Schumpeter ::: (German: [mpet]; 8 February 1883 8 January 1950) was an Austrian political economist. Born in Moravia, he briefly served as Finance Minister of Austria in 1919. In..
Patrick Joseph McGoohan ::: (19 March 1928 13 January 2009) was an Irish-American actor, screenwriter and director. He began his career in the United Kingdom in the 1950s, relocating to the United..
Ignaz Philipp Semmelweis ::: (German: [nats zmlvas]; Hungarian: Semmelweis Ignc Flp; 1 July 1818 13 August 1865) was a Hungarian physician of ethnic-German ancestry, now known as an early..
Zeno of Elea ::: (; Greek: ; c.495 c.430 BC) was a pre-Socratic Greek philosopher of Magna Graecia and a member of the Eleatic School founded by Parmenides. Aristotle called him the..
Norbert Wiener ::: (November 26, 1894 March 18, 1964) was an American mathematician and philosopher. He was a professor of mathematics at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT). A child..
Ghazali ::: (Arabic: ) is an Arabic surname, it may refer to: Abu Hamed Mohammad ibn Mohammad Ghazali (c. 10581111), Persian Islamic scholar and reviver Ahmad Ghazali (c. 10611123 or 1126),..
Sir Brajendra Nath Seal ::: (Bengali: ; September 3, 1864 1938) was a renowned Bengali Indian humanist philosopher. He was one of the greatest original thinkers of the Brahmo Samaj and..
Mehmed II, also known as Muhammed bin Murad, Mehmed the Conqueror, Grand Turk, Kayser-i Rm and Turcarum Imperator, and Fatih Sultan Mehmed, was an Ottoman sultan who ruled first for a short time..
Rabindranath Tagore ::: ( born Robindronath Thakur, 7 May 1861 7 August 1941), and also known by his sobriquets Gurudev, Kabiguru, and Biswakabi, was a polymath, poet, musician, and artist..
Alexander Fedorovich Mozhaysky ::: (also transliterated as Mozhayski, Mozhayskii and Mozhayskiy; Russian: ) (March 21 [O.S. March 9] 1825 1 April [O.S. March 20] 1890)..
Francis Sellers Collins ::: (born April 14, 1950) is an American physician-geneticist who discovered the genes associated with a number of diseases and led the Human Genome Project. He is director of the..
Leonardo Wilhelm DiCaprio ::: (, Italian: [dikaprjo]; born November 11, 1974) is an American actor, film producer, and environmentalist. His accolades include an Academy Award and three Golden Globe..
Truman Garcia Capote ::: (; born Truman Streckfus Persons, September 30, 1924 August 25, 1984) was an American novelist, short story writer, screenwriter, playwright, and actor. Several of his short..
Ivan Yakovych Franko ::: (Ukrainian: , pronounced [ivn jkovt frnk]) (August 27 [O.S. August 15] 1856 May 28 [O.S. May 15] 1916) was a Ukrainian poet, writer, social and..
Edward Osborne Wilson ::: (born June 10, 1929), usually cited as E. O. Wilson, is an American biologist, theorist, naturalist and author. His biological specialty is myrmecology, the study of ants, on..
Konstantin Eduardovich Tsiolkovsky ::: (Russian: , IPA: [knstntin dardvt tslkofskj] 17 September [O.S. 5 September] 1857 19 September..
"Count Saint-Germain" redirects here. Also see St. Germain ::: (Theosophy). For other uses of St. Germain see Saint-Germain (disambiguation). The Comte de Saint Germain (French pronunciation: [kt d..
Hezrfen Ahmed elebi was a legendary Ottoman aviator of Constantinople ::: (present day Istanbul), reported in the writings of traveler Evliya elebi to have achieved sustained unpowered flight. ..
Amenhotep, son of Hapu, was an architect, a priest, a scribe, and a public official, who held a number of offices under Amenhotep III. He is said to have been born at the end of Thutmose III's reign,..
Diogenes ::: ( dy-OJ-in-eez; Ancient Greek: , romanized: Diogns [di.ons]), also known as Diogenes the Cynic (
, Diogns ho Kyniks), was a Greek philosopher and one of..
Josip Broz ::: (Cyrillic: , pronounced [jsip brz]; 7 May 1892 4 May 1980), commonly known as Tito (; Cyrillic: , pronounced [tto]), was a Yugoslav communist revolutionary and..
Lesya Ukrainka ::: (Ukrainian: ) (born Larysa Petrivna Kosach-Kvitka (Ukrainian: -) (February 25 [O.S. February 13] 1871 August 1 [O.S. July 19] 1913) is one of..
Ala al-Dn Ali ibn Muhammed ::: (1403 16 December 1474), known as Ali Qushji (Ottoman Turkish/Persian language: , kuu falconer in Turkish; Latin: Ali Kushgii) was an astronomer,..
Jean Piaget ::: (UK: , US: , French: [ pja]; 9 August 1896 16 September 1980) was a Swiss psychologist known for his work on child development. Piaget's theory of cognitive development and..
Ivan Minchov Vazov ::: (Bulgarian: ) (June 27, 1850 OS September 22, 1921) was a Bulgarian poet, novelist and playwright, often referred to as "the Patriarch of Bulgarian literature"...
Charles-Camille Saint-Sans ::: (French: [al kamij s s(s)]; 9 October 1835 16 December 1921) was a French composer, organist, conductor and pianist of the Romantic era. His best-known works..
William Erwin Eisner ::: (March 6, 1917 January 3, 2005) was an American cartoonist, writer, and entrepreneur. He was one of the earliest cartoonists to work in the American comic book industry, and..
Howard Duane Allman ::: (November 20, 1946 October 29, 1971) was an American guitarist, session musician, and founder and leader of the Allman Brothers Band. The Allman Brothers Band was formed in..
Michael Geoffrey Jones ::: (born 26 June 1955) is a British musician, singer and songwriter best known as the lead guitarist, co-lead vocalist, co-founder and songwriter for The Clash until 1983. In..
Sir Thomas More ::: (7 February 1478 6 July 1535), venerated in the Catholic Church as Saint Thomas More, was an English lawyer, social philosopher, author, statesman, and noted Renaissance humanist...
Herbert Marshall McLuhan ::: (; July 21, 1911 December 31, 1980) was a Canadian philosopher. His work is one of the cornerstones of the study of media theory. Born in Edmonton, Alberta, McLuhan..
Theodor Seuss Geisel ::: ( or March 2, 1904 September 24, 1991) was an American children's author, political cartoonist, illustrator, poet, animator, screenwriter, and filmmaker. He is..
Elizabeth I ::: (7 September 1533 24 March 1603) was Queen of England and Ireland from 17 November 1558 until her death on 24 March 1603. Sometimes called The Virgin Queen, Gloriana or Good Queen Bess,..
Jacqueline Lee Kennedy Onassis ::: (ne Bouvier ; July 28, 1929 May 19, 1994) was First Lady of the United States during the presidency of John F. Kennedy and was regarded then and afterward as an..
Sir Chandrashekhara Venkata Raman ::: (; 7 November 1888 21 November 1970) was an Indian physicist born in the former Madras Province in India (presently the state of Tamil Nadu), who carried out..
Richard Buckminster "Bucky" Fuller was an American neo-futuristic architect, systems theorist, author, designer, and inventor. Fuller published more than 30 books, coining or popularizing terms such..
Charles Monroe "Sparky" Schulz ::: (; November 26, 1922 February 12, 2000) was an American cartoonist and creator of the comic strip Peanuts (which featured the characters Charlie Brown and Snoopy,..
Ennio Morricone ::: (November 10, 1928 July 6, 2020) was an Italian composer, orchestrator, conductor, and trumpet player who wrote music in a wide range of styles. Morricone composed over 400 scores..
Terence Kemp McKenna ::: (November 16, 1946 April 3, 2000) was an American ethnobotanist, mystic, psychonaut, lecturer, author, and an advocate for the responsible use of naturally occurring..
John Hancock ::: (January 23, 1737 [O.S. January 12, 1736] October 8, 1793) was an American merchant, statesman, and prominent Patriot of the American Revolution. He served as president of the Second..
Ab Rayn Muammad ibn Amad Al-Brn ::: (Persian:

Ab Rayn Brn; New Persian: Ab Rayn Brn) (973after 1050), known as Biruni (Persian: ) or Al-Biruni..
Helena Petrovna Blavatsky ::: (Russian: , Yelena Petrovna Blavatskaya; 12 August [O.S. 31 July] 1831 8 May 1891) was a Russian occultist, philosopher, and author who..
Miriam Palma Defensor Santiago ::: (15 June 1945 29 September 2016) was a Filipino academic, lawyer, judge, author, and statesman, who served in all three branches of the Philippine government:..
Carl Ransom Rogers ::: (January 8, 1902 February 4, 1987) was an American psychologist and among the founders of the humanistic approach (or client-centered approach) to psychology. Rogers is widely..
Manabendra Nath Roy ::: (21 March 1887 26 January 1954), born Narendra Nath Bhattacharya, was an Indian revolutionary, radical activist and political theorist, as well as a noted philosopher in the..
Robert Anton Wilson ::: (born Robert Edward Wilson; January 18, 1932 January 11, 2007) was an American author, novelist, essayist, editor, playwright, poet, futurist, and self-described agnostic..
Steven Tyler ::: (born Steven Victor Tallarico; March 26, 1948) is an American singer, songwriter, actor, and former television panelist. He is best known as the lead singer of the Boston-based rock band..
William James Sidis ::: (; April 1, 1898 July 17, 1944) was an American child prodigy with exceptional mathematical and linguistic skills. He is notable for his 1920 book The Animate and the Inanimate,..
Ferdinand Adolf Heinrich August Graf von Zeppelin ::: (8 July 1838 8 March 1917) was a German general and later inventor of the Zeppelin rigid airships; he founded the company Luftschiffbau Zeppelin...
Gudrun Ensslin ::: (German: [udun nslin]; 15 August 1940 18 October 1977) was a founder of the West German far-left militant group Red Army Faction (Rote Armee Fraktion, or RAF, also known as..
David Robert Jones ::: (8 January 1947 10 January 2016), known professionally as David Bowie (, BOH-ee), was an English singer-songwriter and actor. He was a leading figure in the music industry and is..
Laura Cereta ::: (September 1469 1499), was one of the great female humanist and feminist writers of fifteenth-century Italy. Cereta was the first to put womens issues and her friendships with women..
Leon Winiarski ::: (18651915) was a Polish sociologist. Pupil of Vilfredo Pareto and later Professor of Sociology at the University of Geneva...
Isidore Marie Auguste Franois Xavier Comte ::: (pronounced [oyst kt] 19 January 1798 5 September 1857) was a French philosopher and writer who formulated the doctrine of positivism. He is..
Thomas Newcomen ::: (; February 1664 5 August 1729) was an English inventor who created the atmospheric engine, the first practical fuel-burning engine in 1712. He was an ironmonger by trade and a..
Paul Gardner Allen ::: (January 21, 1953 October 15, 2018) was an American business magnate, investor, researcher, humanitarian, and philanthropist. He co-founded Microsoft alongside Bill Gates in..
John Towner Williams ::: (born February 8, 1932) is an American composer, conductor, and pianist. Widely regarded as one of the greatest American composers of all time, he has composed some of the most..
Abdallah ibn Abi Quhafah ::: (Arabic:   ; c. 573 CE 23 August 634 CE), popularly known as Abu Bakr (Arabic: ), was a companion andthrough his daughter Aishaa father-in-law..
Major Walter Reed, M.D., U.S. Army ::: (September 13, 1851 November 22, 1902), was a U.S. Army physician who in 1901 led the team that confirmed the theory of the Cuban doctor Carlos Finlay that yellow..
Thomas Edward Yorke ::: (born 7 October 1968) is an English musician and was born in Northamptonshire. He is a singer, songwriter and musician for Radiohead, mainly playing guitar and keyboard. He was..
James Hugh Calum Laurie, ::: (; born 11 June 1959) is an English actor, director, singer, musician, comedian and author. Laurie first gained recognition for his work as one half of the comedy double act..
Sarat Chandra Chattopadhyay, alternatively spelt as Sarat Chandra Chatterjee ::: (15 September 1876 16 January 1938), was a Bengali novelist and short story writer. He is arguably the most popular..
Eugene Wesley Roddenberry ::: (August 19, 1921 October 24, 1991) was an American television screenwriter, producer and creator of the original Star Trek television series, and its first spin-off The..
Ernst Ingmar Bergman ::: (14 July 1918 30 July 2007) was a Swedish director, writer, and producer who worked in film, television, theatre and radio. Considered to be among the most accomplished and..
Bankimchandra Chatterjee or Bankimchandra Chatjee ::: (27 June 18388 April 1894) was an Indian writer, poet and journalist. He was the composer of Vande Mataram, originally in Sanskrit stotra..
Lucille Dsire Ball ::: (August 6, 1911 April 26, 1989) was an American actress, comedian, model, entertainment studio executive and producer. She was the star of the self-produced sitcoms I Love..
Julio Cortzar, born Julio Florencio Cortzar American Spanish: [xuljo kotasa] ::: (26 August 1914 12 February 1984) was an Argentine novelist, short story writer, and essayist. Known as..
Nikolai Mikhailovich Amosov, Doctor of Science, Professor ::: (December 6, 1913, Olkhovo, Novgorod Governorate, Russian Empire December 12, 2002, Kiev, Ukraine) was a Soviet and Ukrainian doctor of..
Jrgen Habermas ::: (UK: , US: ; German: [jn habmas]; born 18 June 1929) is a German philosopher and sociologist in the tradition of critical theory and pragmatism. His work addresses..
Rudolf Carnap ::: (; German: [kanap]; 18 May 1891 14 September 1970) was a German-language philosopher who was active in Europe before 1935 and in the United States thereafter. He was a major..
Hedy Lamarr ::: (), born Hedwig Eva Maria Kiesler; November 9, 1914 January 19, 2000) was an Austrian-born American film actress and inventor.After a brief early film career in Czechoslovakia,..
Alfred Ernst Rosenberg was a Baltic German philosopher and an influential ideologue of the Nazi Party. Rosenberg was first introduced to Adolf Hitler by Dietrich Eckart; he later held several..
Marc Zakharovich Chagall ::: (born Moishe Zakharovich Shagal; 6 July [O.S. 24 June] 1887 28 March 1985) was a Russian-French artist of Belarusian Jewish origin. An early modernist, he was associated..
Thomas Stearns Eliot ::: (26 September 1888 4 January 1965), "one of the twentieth century's major poets", was also an essayist, publisher, playwright, and literary and social critic. Born in St...
John Marwood Cleese ::: (; born 27 October 1939) is an English actor, voice actor, comedian, screenwriter, and producer. He achieved success at the Edinburgh Festival Fringe and as a scriptwriter and..
Kobayashi Kiyochika ::: (
, 10 September 1847 28 November 1915) was a Japanese ukiyo-e artist, best known for his ukiyo-e colour woodblock prints and newspaper illustrations. His work documents..
Octavio Paz Lozano ::: (March 31, 1914 April 19, 1998) was a Mexican poet and diplomat. For his body of work, he was awarded the 1981 Miguel de Cervantes Prize, the 1982 Neustadt International Prize..
John Michael Stipe ::: (born January 4, 1960) is an American singer-songwriter and was the lead singer of the alternative rock band R.E.M. from their formation in 1980 until their dissolution in..
Philip Kindred Dick ::: (December 16, 1928 March 2, 1982) was an American writer known for his work in science fiction. His work explored philosophical, social, and political themes, with stories..
Thomas Edward Lawrence, ::: (16 August 1888 19 May 1935) was a British archaeologist, army officer, diplomat, and writer. He was renowned for his liaison role during the Sinai and Palestine Campaign..
Roberto Calasso ::: (born 30 May 1941 in Florence) is an Italian writer and publisher. Apart from his mother tongue, Calasso is fluent in French, English, Spanish, German, Latin and ancient Greek. He..
Muammad ibn Ms al-Khwrizm ::: (Persian: Muammad Khwrizm

; c.780 c.850), Arabized as al-Khwarizmi with al- and formerly Latinized as Algorithmi, was a Persian scholar who..
Benjamin Earl King ::: (born Benjamin Earl Nelson, September 28, 1938 April 30, 2015) was an American soul and R&B singer and record producer. He is best known as the singer and co-composer of Stand by..
Peter Edward "Ginger" Baker ::: (born 19 August 1939) is an English drummer and a founder of the rock band Cream. His work in the 1960s earned him the reputation of "rock's first superstar drummer",..
Neil Alden Armstrong ::: (August 5, 1930 August 25, 2012) was an American astronaut and aeronautical engineer who was the first person to walk on the Moon. He was also a naval aviator, test pilot, and..
Anthony Giddens, Baron Giddens ::: (born 18 January 1938) is a British sociologist who is known for his theory of structuration and his holistic view of modern societies. He is considered to be one of..
Elaine Morgan OBE, FRSL ::: (7 November 1920 12 July 2013), was a Welsh writer for television and the author of several books on evolutionary anthropology, especially the aquatic ape hypothesis. The..
Feliks Karol Koneczny Polish pronunciation: [fliks karl kntn] ::: (1 November 1862, Krakw 10 February 1949, Krakw) was a Polish historian and social philosopher. He founded the original..
John Jay ::: (December 23, 1745 May 17, 1829) was an American statesman, patriot, diplomat, Founding Father of the United States, negotiator and signatory of the Treaty of Paris of 1783, second..
Euclid of Megara ::: (; also Euclides, Eucleides; Greek: ; c. 435 c. 365 BC) was a Greek Socratic philosopher who founded the Megarian school of philosophy. He was a pupil of..
Harriet Elisabeth Beecher Stowe ::: (; June 14, 1811 July 1, 1896) was an American abolitionist and author. She came from the Beecher family, a famous religious family, and is best known for her novel..
Michio Kaku ::: (; born January 24, 1947) is an American theoretical physicist, futurist, and popularizer of science (science communicator). He is a professor of theoretical physics in the City College..
David Van Cortlandt Crosby ::: (born August 14, 1941) is an American singer-songwriter and musician. In addition to his solo career, he was a founding member of both the Byrds and Crosby, Stills &..
John Calvin ::: (;French: Jean Calvin [ kalv]; born Jehan Cauvin; 10 July 1509 27 May 1564) was a French theologian, pastor and reformer in Geneva during the Protestant Reformation. He was a..
Sir Julian Sorell Huxley ::: (22 June 1887 14 February 1975) was a British evolutionary biologist, eugenicist, and internationalist. He was a proponent of natural selection, and a leading figure in..
Jamini Roy ::: (11 April 1887 24 April 1972) was an Indian painter. He was honoured with the State award of Padma Bhushan in 1954 . He was one of the most famous pupils of Rabindranath Tagore, whose..
Gerard Peter Kuiper ::: (English: ; Dutch pronunciation: [kypr]; born Gerrit Pieter Kuiper; December 7, 1905 December 23, 1973) was a DutchAmerican astronomer, planetary scientist, selenographer,..
Matteo Ricci, S.J. ::: (Italian pronunciation: [matto ritti]; Latin: Mattheus Riccius Maceratensis; 6 October 1552 11 May 1610), was an Italian Jesuit priest and one of the founding figures of..
Bad az-Zaman Abu l-Izz ibn Isml ibn ar-Razz al-Jazar ::: (11361206, Arabic:
, IPA: [ldzri]) was a Muslim polymath: a..
Emma Goldman ::: (June 27 [O.S. June 15], 1869 May 14, 1940) was an anarchist political activist and writer. She played a pivotal role in the development of anarchist political philosophy in North..
Emma Charlotte Duerre Watson ::: (born 15 April 1990) is an English actress, model and activist. Born in Paris and brought up in Oxfordshire, Watson attended the Dragon School and trained as an actress..
Mozi ::: (; Chinese: ; pinyin: Mz; WadeGiles: Mo Tzu ; Latinized as Micius ; c. 470 c. 391 BC), original name Mo Di (Chinese: ), was a Chinese philosopher during the Hundred Schools of Thought..
Stephen John Ditko ::: (; November 2, 1927 c. June 29, 2018) was an American comics artist and writer best known as the artist and co-creator, with Stan Lee, of the Marvel Comics superheroes Spider-Man..
Chester Arthur Burnett ::: (June 10, 1910 January 10, 1976), known as Howlin' Wolf, was a Chicago blues singer, guitarist, and harmonica player, originally from Mississippi. With a booming voice and..
Mikhail Sergeyevich Gorbachev ::: (born 2 March 1931) is a Russian and formerly Soviet politician. The eighth and last leader of the Soviet Union, he was General Secretary of its governing Communist..
Gibran Khalil Gibran ::: (; Arabic:  / ALA-LC: Jubrn Khall Jubrn or Jibrn Khall Jibrn), commonly known as Khalilalso "Kahlil", as he used to sign his name in EnglishGibran..
Emiliano Zapata Salazar ::: (Spanish pronunciation: [emiljano sapata]; 8 August 1879 10 April 1919) was a leading figure in the Mexican Revolution, the main leader of the peasant revolution in the..
Prince Nikoloz "Tato" Baratashvili ::: (Georgian: "" ; 4 December 1817 21 October 1845) was a Georgian poet. He was one of the first Georgians to marry modern nationalism with..
Hayao Miyazaki ::: ( , Miyazaki Hayao, born January 5, 1941) is a Japanese animator, filmmaker, screenwriter, author, and manga artist. A co-founder of Studio Ghibli, a film and animation studio, he..
Diego Rodrguez de Silva y Velzquez ::: (Spanish: [djeo elake]; baptized June 6, 1599 August 6, 1660) was a Spanish painter, the leading artist in the court of King Philip IV, and one of the..
Ernest Miller Hemingway ::: (July 21, 1899 July 2, 1961) was an American journalist, novelist, short-story writer, and sportsman. His economical and understated stylewhich he termed the iceberg..
Sir William Jenner, 1st Baronet, GCB, QHP, FRCP, FRS ::: (30 January 1815 11 December 1898) was a significant English physician primarily known for having discovered the distinction between typhus and..
Josef Jungmann ::: (16 July 1773 in Hudlice, near Beroun 14 November 1847 in Prague) was a Czech poet and linguist, and a leading figure of the Czech National Revival. Together with Josef Dobrovsk, he..
Joseph Priestley ::: (; 24 March [O.S. 13 March] 1733 6 February 1804) was an 18th-century English Separatist theologian, natural philosopher, chemist, innovative grammarian, multi-subject educator,..
Camille Anna Paglia ::: (; born April 2, 1947) is an American feminist academic and social critic. Paglia has been a professor at the University of the Arts in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, since 1984. She..
Gert Mittring ::: (born in Stuttgart on May 26, 1966) is a German mental calculator. He was inspired by the late Wim Klein. He has competed in the MSO mental calculation event every year since 2004,..
Flix Rubn Garca Sarmiento ::: (January 18, 1867 February 6, 1916), known as Rubn Daro (US: dah-REE-oh, Spanish: [ruen dai.o]), was a Nicaraguan poet who initiated the Spanish-American..
Sbastien-Roch Nicolas, known in his adult life as Nicolas Chamfort and as Sbastien Nicolas de Chamfort ::: (French: [f]; 6 April 1741 13 April 1794), was a French writer, best known for his..
Stevland Hardaway Morris ::: (born May 13, 1950), better known by his stage name Stevie Wonder, is an American singer, songwriter, musician and record producer. A prominent figure in popular music, he is..
Shen Kuo ::: (Chinese: ; 10311095) or Shen Gua, courtesy name Cunzhong () and pseudonym Mengqi (now usually given as Mengxi) Weng (), was a Chinese polymathic scientist and statesman of the Song..
Gregory LeNoir Allman ::: (December 8, 1947 May 27, 2017) was an American singer-songwriter and musician. He was known for performing in the Allman Brothers Band. Allman grew up with an interest in..
Satyendra Nath Bose, ::: (Bengali: Styendronath Bosu, IPA: [otendronat bou]; 1 January 1894 4 February 1974) was an Indian physicist specialising in theoretical physics. He is..
Robert Burns ::: (25 January 1759 21 July 1796), also known familiarly as Rabbie Burns, the National Bard, Bard of Ayrshire and the Ploughman Poet and various other names and epithets, was a Scottish..
John Dewey ::: (; October 20, 1859 June 1, 1952) was an American philosopher, psychologist, and educational reformer whose ideas have been influential in education and social reform. Dewey is one of..
Wendy McElroy ::: (born 1951) is a Canadian individualist feminist and anarcho-capitalist writer. She was a co-founder along with Carl Watner and George H. Smith of The Voluntaryist magazine in 1982 and..
Edward Leedskalnin ::: (Latvian: Edvards Liedskalni) (January 12, 1887 December 7, 1951) was a Latvian emigrant to the United States and self-taught engineer who single-handedly built the Coral..
John Amos Comenius ::: (Czech: Jan Amos Komensk; German: Johann Amos Comenius; Latinized: Ioannes Amos Comenius; 28 March 1592, Moravian Slovakia 15 November 1670, Amsterdam) was a Czech philosopher,..
Swami Pranavananda also known as Yugacharya Srimat Swami Pranavananda Ji Maharaj, was the founder of the organization known as the Bharat Sevashram Sangha. He is remembered for his pioneering efforts..
Jean Baudrillard ::: (UK: BOHD-rih-yar, US: BOHD-ree-AR, French: [ bodija]; 27 July 1929 6 March 2007) was a French sociologist, philosopher and cultural theorist. He is best known for his..
Justinus Andreas Christian Kerner ::: (18 September 1786, in Ludwigsburg, Baden-Wrttemberg, Germany 21 February 1862, in Weinsberg, Baden-Wrttemberg) was a German poet, practicing physician, and..
Elvis Aaron Presley ::: (January 8, 1935 August 16, 1977), also known mononymously as Elvis, was an American singer and actor. Regarded as one of the most significant cultural icons of the 20th..
William Sanford Nye ::: (born November 27, 1955), popularly known as Bill Nye the Science Guy, is an American science communicator, television presenter, and mechanical engineer. He is best known as the..
Muhammad Ali ::: (; born Cassius Marcellus Clay Jr.; January 17, 1942 June 3, 2016) was an American professional boxer, activist, and philanthropist. Nicknamed "The Greatest," he is widely regarded as..
Jeffrey Preston Bezos ::: (; n Jorgensen; January 12, 1964) is an American technology entrepreneur, investor, and philanthropist. He is the founder, CEO, and president of, Inc. Bezos was born..
Koca Mi'mr Sinn was the chief Ottoman architect and civil engineer for sultans Suleiman the Magnificent, Selim II, and Murad III. He was responsible for the construction of more than 300 major..
Jan Werich ::: (Czech: [jan vrx]; 6 February 1905 31 October 1980) was a Czech actor, playwright and writer...
Ronald Ernest Paul ::: (born August 20, 1935) is an American author, physician, and retired politician who served as the U.S. Representative for Texas's 22nd congressional district from 1976 to 1977 and..
Al-Farabi ::: (; Persian:

Ab Nar Muammad ibn Muammad al Frb; known in the West as Alpharabius; c. 872 between 14 December, 950 and 12 January, 951) was a renowned..
William Wilberforce ::: (24 August 1759 29 July 1833) was a British politician, philanthropist, and a leader of the movement to abolish the slave trade. A native of Kingston upon Hull, Yorkshire, he..
Bertrand de Jouvenel des Ursins ::: (31 October 1903 1 March 1987) was a French philosopher, political economist, and futurist...
Thomas Sowell ::: (; born June 30, 1930) is an American economist and social theorist who is currently a Senior Fellow at the Hoover Institution, Stanford University. Sowell was born in North Carolina,..
Townsend Harris ::: (October 3, 1804 February 25, 1878) was a successful New York City merchant and minor politician, and the first United States Consul General to Japan. He negotiated the "Harris..
Sir Ronald Aylmer Fisher ::: (17 February 1890 29 July 1962) was a British statistician and geneticist. For his work in statistics, he has been described as "a genius who almost single-handedly..
Stephen John Fry ::: (born 24 August 1957) is an English actor, comedian and writer. He and Hugh Laurie are the comic double act Fry and Laurie, who starred in A Bit of Fry & Laurie and Jeeves and..
Muhammad ::: (Arabic:

, pronounced [muammad]; c. 570 CE 8 June 632 CE) was an Arab religious, social and political leader and the founder of Islam. According to Islamic doctrine, he was a..
Giovanni Boccaccio ::: (UK: , US: , Italian: [dovanni bokkatto]; 16 June 1313 21 December 1375) was an Italian writer, poet, correspondent of Petrarch, and an important Renaissance humanist...
John Davison Rockefeller Sr. ::: (July 8, 1839 May 23, 1937) was an American business magnate and philanthropist. He is widely considered the wealthiest American of all time, and the richest person..
asan Ibn al-Haytham ::: (Latinized as Alhazen ; full name Ab Al al-asan ibn al-asan ibn al-Haytham  
; c.965 c.1040) was an Arab mathematician, astronomer, and..
James Patrick Page ::: (born 9 January 1944) is an English musician, songwriter, and record producer who achieved international success as the guitarist and founder of the rock band Led Zeppelin. Page..
Khlid ibn al-Wald ibn al-Mughrah al-Makhzm ::: (Arabic:  

; 585642), commonly known as simply Khalid ibn al-Wald, and also known by his kunya as, Abu Sulaiman was..
Hatshepsut ::: (; also Hatchepsut; Egyptian: t-ps.wt "Foremost of Noble Ladies"; 15071458 BC) was the fifth pharaoh of the Eighteenth Dynasty of Egypt. She was the second historically-confirmed..
Rosa Louise McCauley Parks ::: (February 4, 1913 October 24, 2005) was an American activist in the civil rights movement best known for her pivotal role in the Montgomery bus boycott. The United States..
Samuel Taylor Coleridge ::: (; 21 October 1772 25 July 1834) was an English poet, literary critic, philosopher and theologian who, with his friend William Wordsworth, was a founder of the Romantic..
Edward Witten ::: (born August 26, 1951) is an American theoretical physicist and professor of mathematical physics at the Institute for Advanced Study in Princeton, New Jersey. Witten is a researcher in..
King Camp Gillette ::: (January 5, 1855 July 9, 1932) was an American businessman. He invented a best selling version of the safety razor. Several models were in existence before Gillette's design...
Henry Valentine Miller ::: (December 26, 1891 June 7, 1980) was an American writer. He was known for breaking with existing literary forms and developing a new type of semi-autobiographical novel that..
Nasreddin or Nasreddin Hodja or Molla Nasreddin Hooja ::: () was a Seljuq satirist, born in Hortu Village in Sivrihisar, Eskiehir Province, present-day Turkey and died in 13th century in Akehir, near..
Muhammad Ali Pasha al-Mas'ud ibn Agha ::: (Ottoman Turkish:

; Arabic:

/ ALA-LC: Muammad Al Bsh; Albanian: Mehmet Ali Pasha; Turkish: Kavalal Mehmet Ali..
Avempace ::: (c.1085 1138) is the Latinate form of Ibn Bjja (Arabic: ), full name Ab Bakr Muammad Ibn Yay ibn a-igh at-Tjb Ibn Bjja (

Dorothy Milne Murdock ::: (1961 December 25, 2015), better known by her pen names Acharya S and D. M. Murdock, was an American writer who supported the Christ myth theory, the theory according to which..
Jiddu Krishnamurti ::: (; 12 May 1895 17 February 1986) was an Indian philosopher, speaker and writer. In his early life he was groomed to be the new World Teacher but later rejected this mantle and..
Anna Eleanor Roosevelt ::: (; October 11, 1884 November 7, 1962) was an American political figure, diplomat and activist. She served as the First Lady of the United States from March 4, 1933 to April..
Muhammad Ali Jinnah ::: (born Mahomedali Jinnahbhai; 25 December 1876 11 September 1948) was a lawyer, politician and the founder of Pakistan. Jinnah served as the leader of the All-India Muslim League..
Michel de Nostredame ::: (depending on the source, 14 or 21 December 1503 1 or 2 July 1566), usually Latinised as Nostradamus, was a French astrologer, physician and reputed seer, who is best known for..
Suleiman I ::: (Ottoman Turkish:
Sultan Sleyman- Evvel; Turkish: Birinci Sleyman, Kanun Sultan Sleyman or Muhteem Sleyman; 6 November 1494 6 September 1566), commonly known as..
Alan Wilson Watts ::: (6 January 1915 16 November 1973) was a British philosopher who interpreted and popularised Eastern philosophy for a Western audience. Born in Chislehurst, England, he moved to..
Thomas Moore ::: (28 May 1779 25 February 1852) was an Irish poet, singer, songwriter, and entertainer, now best remembered for the lyrics of "The Minstrel Boy" and "The Last Rose of Summer". As Lord..
Hillary Diane Rodham Clinton ::: (born Hillary Diane Rodham, October 26, 1947) is an American politician, diplomat, lawyer, writer and public speaker. She was First Lady of the United States from 1993 to..
Paul Erds ::: (Hungarian: Erds Pl [rd pal]; 26 March 1913 20 September 1996) was a renowned Hungarian mathematician. He was one of the most prolific mathematicians and producers of..
Irving Babbitt ::: (August 2, 1865 July 15, 1933) was an American academic and literary critic, noted for his founding role in a movement that became known as the New Humanism, a significant influence..
Jacques-Louis David ::: (French: [aklwi david]; 30 August 1748 29 December 1825) was a French painter in the Neoclassical style, considered to be the preeminent painter of the era. In the 1780s his..
Sir Henry Morton Stanley ::: (born John Rowlands; 28 January 1841 10 May 1904) was a Welsh journalist and explorer who was famous for his exploration of central Africa and his search for missionary..
Cai Lun ::: ([tsi lwn]; Chinese: ; CE 48121), courtesy name Jingzhong (), was a Chinese eunuch, inventor, and politician of the Han dynasty. He is traditionally regarded as the inventor of paper..
Sir Winston Leonard Spencer-Churchill ::: (30 November 1874 24 January 1965) was a British politician, army officer, and writer. He was Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1940 to 1945, when he..
Rudolf Joseph Lorenz Steiner was an Austrian philosopher, social reformer, architect, and esotericist. Steiner gained initial recognition at the end of the nineteenth century as a literary critic and..
Henrietta Swan Leavitt ::: (; July 4, 1868 December 12, 1921) was an American astronomer. A graduate of Radcliffe College, she worked at the Harvard College Observatory as a "computer", tasked with..
Howard Zinn ::: (August 24, 1922 January 27, 2010) was an American historian, playwright, and socialist thinker. He was chair of the history and social sciences department at Spelman College, and a..
Akinwande Oluwole Babatunde Soyinka ::: (Yoruba: Akinwnd Oluwol Babtnd Syink; born 13 July 1934), known as Wole Soyinka (pronounced [wl jk]), is a Nigerian playwright, poet and essayist...
This article is about Zera Yacob, the 17th century philosopher. For the Prince, see Zera Yacob Amha Selassie, Crown Prince of Ethiopia. For the emperor, see Zara Yaqob.Zera Yacob ::: (; Ge'ez: :..
Cleopatra VII Philopator ::: (Koin Greek: , romanized: Kleoptr Philoptr; 69 10 or 12 August 30 BC) was the last active ruler of the Ptolemaic Kingdom of Egypt, nominally..
Jean-Luc Godard ::: (French: [lyk da]; born 3 December 1930) is a French-Swiss film director, screenwriter and film critic. He rose to prominence as a pioneer of the 1960s French New Wave film..
Roger Keith "Syd" Barrett ::: (6 January 1946 7 July 2006) was an English singer, songwriter, and musician who co-founded the rock band Pink Floyd in 1965. Characterised for his English-accented..
John Fitzgerald Kennedy ::: (May 29, 1917 November 22, 1963), often referred to by initials JFK and Jack, was an American politician who served as the 35th president of the United States from January..
Valentin Louis Georges Eugne Marcel Proust ::: (; French: [masl pust]; 10 July 1871 18 November 1922), known as Marcel Proust, was a French novelist, critic, and essayist best known for his..
Friedrich Ludwig Gottlob Frege ::: (; German: [tlop fre]; 8 November 1848 26 July 1925) was a German philosopher, logician, and mathematician. He worked as a mathematics professor at the..
George Mason IV ::: (December 11, 1725 [O.S. November 30, 1725] October 7, 1792) was an American planter, politician and delegate to the U.S. Constitutional Convention of 1787, one of three delegates..
Ravi Shankar, ::: (IPA: [robi kor]; 7 April 1920 11 December 2012), born Robindro Shaunkor Chowdhury (Rabindra Shankar Chowdhury in Hindi), his name often preceded by the title Pandit (Master)..
Theodora ::: (; Greek: ; c. 500 28 June 548) was empress of the Eastern Roman Empire by marriage to Emperor Justinian I. She was one of the most influential and powerful of the Eastern Roman..
Lorne Michaels, ::: (born Lorne David Lipowitz; November 17, 1944), is a Canadian-American television producer, writer, actor and comedian best known for creating and producing Saturday Night Live and..
Haji Bektash Veli or j Bakt Wal ::: (Persian:   Ottoman Turkish: , romanized: Hac Bekta- Veli, Albanian: Haxhi Bektash Veliu) was an Alevi Muslim mystic, saint,..
Elizabeth Cady Stanton ::: (November 12, 1815 October 26, 1902) was an American suffragist, social activist, abolitionist, and leading figure of the early women's rights movement. Her Declaration of..
Douglas Noel Adams ::: (11 March 1952 11 May 2001) was an English author, screenwriter, essayist, humorist, satirist and dramatist. Adams was author of The Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy, which..
Michael Trent Reznor ::: (born May 17, 1965) is an American singer, songwriter, musician, record producer, and film score composer. He is the founder, lead vocalist, and principal songwriter of the..
Helene Bertha Amalie "Leni" Riefenstahl ::: (German: [ifntal]; 22 August 1902 8 September 2003) was a German film director and actress.Born in 1902, Leni Riefenstahl grew up with her brother..
Carmen Miranda ::: (Brazilian Portuguese: [kam mid]; born Maria do Carmo Miranda da Cunha; February 9, 1909 August 5, 1955), was a Portuguese-born Brazilian samba singer, dancer, Broadway..
John Moses Browning ::: (January 23, 1855 November 26, 1926) was an American firearms designer who developed many varieties of military and civilian firearms, cartridges, and gun mechanisms many of..
Benjamin Jonson ::: (c. 11 June 1572 c. 16 August 1637) was an English playwright and poet, whose artistry exerted a lasting impact upon English poetry and stage comedy. He popularised the comedy of..
Aim Fernand David Csaire ::: (; French: [me sez]; 26 June 1913 17 April 2008) was a Francophone and French poet, author and politician from the region of Martinique. He was "one of the founders of..
Madhvacharya ::: (Madhvcrya; Kannada: ; Sanskrit pronunciation: [mdataj]; CE 12381317 ), sometimes anglicised as Madhva Acharya, and also known as Prna Praja and nanda Trtha,..
Laura Jeanne Reese Witherspoon ::: (born March 22, 1976) is an American actress, producer, and entrepreneur. The recipient of several accolades, including an Academy Award and a Primetime Emmy Award, she..
Jan Ingemar Stenmark ::: (Swedish pronunciation: [()mar stenmark]; born 18 March 1956 in Joesj, Sweden) is a former World Cup alpine ski racer from Sweden. He is regarded as one of the most..
Raymond Albert "Ray" Kroc ::: (October 5, 1902 January 14, 1984) was an American fast-food tycoon. He joined the California company McDonald's in 1954, after the McDonald brothers had franchised 6..
Michel Serres ::: (French: [s]; 1 September 1930 1 June 2019) was a French philosopher, theorist and writer. His works are notable for discussing subjects like death, angels and time. They are also..
Jerome David Salinger ::: (; January 1, 1919 January 27, 2010) was an American writer known for his novel The Catcher in the Rye. He was raised in Manhattan and began writing short stories while in..
Robert Francis Kennedy ::: (November 20, 1925 June 6, 1968) was an American politician and lawyer who served as the 64th United States Attorney General from January 1961 to September 1964, and as a..
Ashoke Sen, FRS ::: (; born 1956) is an Indian theoretical physicist and distinguished professor at the Harish-Chandra Research Institute, Allahabad. He is also the Morningstar Visiting professor at MIT..
Stan Lee ::: (born Stanley Martin Lieber ; December 28, 1922 November 12, 2018) was an American comic book writer, editor, publisher, and producer. He rose through the ranks of a family-run business to..
Charles Haddon Spurgeon ::: (19 June 1834 31 January 1892) was an English Particular Baptist preacher. Spurgeon remains highly influential among Christians of various denominations, among whom he is..
Irving Kristol ::: (; January 22, 1920 September 18, 2009) was an American journalist who was dubbed the "godfather of neoconservatism". As the founder, editor, and contributor to various magazines, he..
Ab Ms Jbir ibn Hayyn ::: (Arabic/Persian , often given the nisbas, al-Azdi, al-Kufi, al-Tusi or al-Sufi; fl. c. 721 c. 815), is the supposed author of an enormous number and variety of..
Sir Christopher Frank Carandini Lee ::: (27 May 1922 7 June 2015) was an English actor, singer and author. With a career spanning nearly 70 years, Lee was well known for portraying villains and became..
Dhan Gopal Mukerji ::: (Bengali:  Dhan Gpl Mukhpdhyy.) (6 July 1890 14 July 1936) was the first successful Indian man of letters in the United States and winner of Newbery..
Arthur Asher Miller ::: (October 17, 1915 February 10, 2005) was an American playwright, essayist, and a controversial figure in the twentieth-century American theater. Among his most popular plays are..
Andrew James Somers ::: (born 31 December 1942), known professionally as Andy Summers, is an English guitarist who was a member of the rock band the Police. Summers has recorded solo albums, collaborated..
Matthew Abraham Groening ::: ( (listen) GRAY-ning; born February 15, 1954) is an American cartoonist, writer, producer, animator, and voice actor. He is the creator of the comic strip Life in Hell..
George Gordon Byron, 6th Baron Byron ::: (22 January 1788 19 April 1824), known simply as Lord Byron, was an English poet, peer, and politician who became a revolutionary in the Greek War of..
Steven Allan Spielberg ::: (; born December 18, 1946) is an American filmmaker. He is considered one of the founding pioneers of the New Hollywood era and one of the most popular directors and producers..
Jall ad-Dn Muhammad Rm ::: (Persian:

), also known as Jall ad-Dn Muhammad Balkh (

), Mevln/Mawln (
, "our master"), Mevlev/Mawlaw (
, "my..
Franklin Delano Roosevelt ::: (, ; January 30, 1882 April 12, 1945), often referred to by initials FDR, was an American statesman and political leader who served as the 32nd president of the United..
Vladimir Ilyich Ulyanov ::: (22 April 1870 21 January 1924), better known by his alias Lenin, was a Russian revolutionary, politician, and political theorist. He served as head of government of Soviet..
Flora Tristan ::: (7 April 1803 14 November 1844) was a French-Peruvian socialist writer and activist. She made important contributions to early feminist theory, and argued that the progress of women's..
Chloe Anthony Wofford "Toni" Morrison ::: (born Chloe Ardelia Wofford; February 18, 1931 August 5, 2019) was an American novelist, essayist, editor, teacher, and professor emeritus at Princeton..
Gamal Abdel Nasser Hussein ::: (UK: , US: ; Arabic:
, romanized: Jaml Abdu n-Nir usayn, Egyptian Arabic: [ml bdennse esen]; 15 January 1918 28 September 1970)..
Edward Gibbon FRS ::: (; 8 May 1737 16 January 1794) was an English historian, writer and Member of Parliament. His most important work, The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire, was..
John Keats ::: (; 31 October 1795 23 February 1821) was an English Romantic poet. He was one of the main figures of the second generation of Romantic poets, along with Lord Byron and Percy Bysshe..
Thiruvalluvar, commonly known as Valluvar, was a celebrated Tamil poet and philosopher. He is best known for authoring the Thirukkua, a collection of couplets on ethics, political and economical..
Grigori Yakovlevich Perelman ::: (Russian: , IPA: [rorj jakvlvt prlman] born 13 June 1966) is a Russian mathematician. He has made contributions..
Harry Houdini ::: (; born Erik Weisz, later Ehrich Weiss or Harry Weiss; March 24, 1874 October 31, 1926) was a Hungarian-born American illusionist and stunt performer, noted for his sensational..
Robert James Fischer ::: (March 9, 1943 January 17, 2008) was an American chess grandmaster and the eleventh World Chess Champion. Many consider him to be the greatest chess player of all time.Fischer..
Richard Wayne Penniman ::: (December 5, 1932 May 9, 2020), known as Little Richard, was an American musician, singer and songwriter. Penniman influenced numerous singers and musicians across musical..
Edward Joseph "Ed" Snowden is an American computer professional who leaked classified information from the National Security Agency to the mainstream media, starting in June 2013. A former system..
In Abrahamic religions, Noah ::: ( NOH-) was the tenth and last of the pre-Flood patriarchs. His story is contained in the Hebrew Bible, in the Book of Genesis, chapters 59. The Genesis flood narrative..
Swami Vivekananda ::: (Bengali: [ami bibekanndo] 12 January 1863 4 July 1902), born Narendranath Datta (Bengali: [nrendronat dto]), was an Indian Hindu monk, a chief disciple of the..
Margaret Mead ::: (December 16, 1901 November 15, 1978) was an American cultural anthropologist who featured frequently as an author and speaker in the mass media during the 1960s and 1970s. She earned..
Steven Arthur Pinker ::: (born September 18, 1954) is a Canadian-American cognitive psychologist, linguist, and popular science author. He is Johnstone Family Professor in the Department of Psychology at..
Abigail Adams ::: (ne Smith; November 22, [O.S. November 11] 1744 October 28, 1818) was the wife and closest advisor of John Adams, as well as the mother of John Quincy Adams. She is sometimes..
John the Apostle ::: (Aramaic: Yohann Shli; Hebrew:  Yohanan ben Zavdi; Koine Greek: ; Coptic: or
; Latin: Ioannes; c. AD 6 c. 100) was one of the Twelve..
Ramakrishna Paramahansa Ramkia Promhonga ; 18 February 1836 16 August 1886), born Ramakrishna "Gadadhar" Chattopadhyay, was an Indian Hindu mystic and saint in 19th century Bengal...
Magnus Hirschfeld ::: (14 May 1868 14 May 1935) was a German physician and sexologist educated primarily in Germany; he based his practice in Berlin-Charlottenburg during the Weimar period. An..
George Herman "Babe" Ruth Jr. ::: (February 6, 1895 August 16, 1948) was an American professional baseball player whose career in Major League Baseball (MLB) spanned 22 seasons, from 1914 through 1935...
Timothy Francis Leary ::: (October 22, 1920 May 31, 1996) was an American psychologist and writer known for advocating the exploration of the therapeutic potential of psychedelic drugs under controlled..
Paul-Marie Verlaine ::: (; French: [vln]; 30 March 1844 8 January 1896) was a French poet associated with the Decadent movement. He is considered one of the greatest representatives of the fin de..
Amalie Emmy Noether ::: (German: [nt]; 23 March 1882 14 April 1935) was a German mathematician who made important contributions to abstract algebra and theoretical physics. She invariably used the..
Madeleine Jana Korbel Albright ::: (born Marie Jana Korbelov; May 15, 1937) is an American politician and diplomat. She is the first female United States Secretary of State in U.S. history, having..
Martin Van Buren ::: ( van BEWR-n; born Maarten Van Buren, Dutch pronunciation: [mart(n) vn byr(n)]; December 5, 1782 July 24, 1862) was an American statesman who served as the eighth president..
Mihai Eminescu ::: (Romanian pronunciation: [mihaj eminesku] born Mihail Eminovici; 15 January 1850 15 June 1889) was a Romantic poet, novelist, and journalist, generally regarded as the..
Christina ::: (18 December 1626 19 April 1689), the only surviving legitimate child of King Gustavus Adolphus of Sweden and his wife Maria Eleonora of Brandenburg, reigned as Queen of Sweden from 1632..
Stephen Edelston Toulmin ::: (; 25 March 1922 4 December 2009) was a British philosopher, author, and educator. Influenced by Ludwig Wittgenstein, Toulmin devoted his works to the analysis of moral..
Glenn Lewis Frey ::: (; November 6, 1948 January 18, 2016) was an American singer, songwriter, actor and founding member of the rock band the Eagles. Frey was the lead singer and frontman for the..
David ::: (Hebrew: ) is described in the Hebrew Bible as the third king of the United Kingdom of Israel and Judah, after Ishbaal. In the biblical narrative, David is a young shepherd who gains fame..
Martin Buber ::: (Hebrew: ; German: Martin Buber; Yiddish: ; February 8, 1878 June 13, 1965) was an Austrian philosopher best known for his philosophy of dialogue, a form..
Martin Charles Scorsese ::: (, Italian: [skorseze; -ese]; born November 17, 1942) is an American-Italian filmmaker and historian, whose career spans more than 50 years. Scorsese's body of work..
Satyajit Ray ::: (Bengali pronunciation: [todit rai] 2 May 1921 23 April 1992) was an Indian filmmaker, screenwriter, music composer, graphic artist, lyricist and author, widely..
Lokenath Brahmachari, who is called Baba Lokenath or simply Lokenath, was an 18th-century saint and philosopher in Bengal, most notably preached by Nityagopal Saha...
Sir Thomas Sean Connery ::: (25 August 1930 31 October 2020) was a retired Scottish actor and producer, who during his life won an Academy Award, two BAFTA Awards, one being a BAFTA Academy Fellowship..
Vallabhbhai Jhaverbhai Patel ::: (31 October 1875 15 December 1950), popularly known as Sardar Patel, was an Indian politician. He served as the first Deputy Prime Minister of India. He was an Indian..
Peter Wilton Cushing, OBE ::: (26 May 1913 11 August 1994) was an English actor best known for his roles in the Hammer Productions horror films of the 1950s, 1960s, and 1970s, as well as his..
Sir Jagadish Chandra Bose ::: (;, IPA: [dodi tndro bosu]; 30 November 1858 23 November 1937), also spelled Jagdish and Jagadis, was a polymath, physicist, biologist, biophysicist, botanist and..
Ronald Wilson Reagan ::: (; February 6, 1911 June 5, 2004) was an American politician who served as the 40th president of the United States from 1981 to 1989. Prior to his presidency, he was a..
Joanne Rowling ::: ( "rolling"; born 31 July 1965), better known by her pen name J. K. Rowling, is a British novelist, screenwriter, producer, and philanthropist. She is best known for writing the Harry..
Dylan Marlais Thomas ::: (27 October 1914 9 November 1953) was a Welsh poet and writer whose works include the poems "Do not go gentle into that good night" and "And death shall have no dominion"; the..
Walter Leland Cronkite Jr. ::: (November 4, 1916 July 17, 2009) was an American broadcast journalist who served as anchorman for the CBS Evening News for 19 years (19621981). During the heyday of CBS..
Pope John Paul II ::: (Latin: Ioannes Paulus II; Italian: Giovanni Paolo II; Polish: Jan Pawe II; born Karol Jzef Wojtya [karl juzv vjtwa]; 18 May 1920 2 April 2005) was the Pope of the..
Osman Hamdi Bey ::: (30 December 1842 24 February 1910) was an Ottoman administrator, intellectual, art expert and also a prominent and pioneering painter. He was also an accomplished archaeologist,..
Umar ::: (), also spelled Omar (; Arabic:
Umar ibn al-Khab [omr-, mr bn alxttb], "Umar, Son of Al-Khattab"; c. 584 CE 3 November 644 CE), was one of the most powerful..
Bruce Frederick Joseph Springsteen ::: (born September 23, 1949), nicknamed "The Boss", is an American singer-songwriter who is a solo artist and is the leader of the E Street Band. Springsteen received..
Malcolm X ::: (May 19, 1925 February 21, 1965) was an American Muslim minister and human rights activist who was a popular figure during the civil rights movement. He is best known for his..
Abraham, originally Abram, is the common patriarch of the Abrahamic religions. In Judaism, he is the founding father of the covenant of the pieces, the special relationship between the Jewish people..
Jonathan Richard Guy Greenwood ::: (born 5 November 1971) is an English musician and composer. He is the lead guitarist and keyboardist of the alternative rock band Radiohead, and has written a number of..
Ashraf Ghani Ahmadzai ::: (Pashto/Dari:

; born 19 May 1949) is an Afghan politician and current president of Afghanistan, elected on 21 September 2014. An anthropologist by..
Jacque Fresco ::: (March 13, 1916 May 18, 2017) was an American futurist and self-described social engineer. Self-taught, he worked in a variety of positions related to industrial design. Fresco wrote..
Hemanta Mukherjee also known as Hemant Kumar ::: (16 June 1920 26 September 1989); was an Indian music director and singer who sang in Bengali, Hindi and other Indian languages. He is also one of the..
William Jefferson Clinton ::: (born William Jefferson Blythe III; August 19, 1946) is an American politician who served as the 42nd president of the United States from 1993 to 2001. Prior to the..
Sir Karl Raimund Popper ::: (28 July 1902 17 September 1994) was an Austrian-born British philosopher and professor.Generally regarded as one of the 20th century's greatest philosophers of science,..
Michelle LaVaughn Robinson Obama ::: (ne Robinson; born January 17, 1964) is an American lawyer, university administrator and writer, who was the first lady of the United States from 2009 to 2017. She..
Kurt Donald Cobain ::: (February 20, 1967 April 5, 1994) was an American singer, songwriter, and musician, best known as the guitarist and frontman of the rock band Nirvana. He is remembered as one of..
Ayaan Hirsi Ali ::: (; Dutch: [ajan irsi ali] Somali: Ayaan Xirsi Cali Arabic:  / ALA-LC: Ayn irs 'Al; born Ayaan Hirsi Magan, 13 November 1969) is a Somali-born..
Ayn Rand ::: (; born Alisa Zinovyevna Rosenbaum; February 2 [O.S. January 20] 1905 March 6, 1982) was a Russian-American writer and philosopher. She is known for her two best-selling novels, The..
Matthew Paige Damon ::: (born October 8, 1970) is an American actor, film producer and screenwriter. He is ranked among Forbes magazine's most bankable stars and is one of the highest-grossing actors of..
Ingram Cecil Connor III ::: (November 5, 1946 September 19, 1973), known professionally as Gram Parsons, was an American singer, songwriter, guitarist and pianist. Parsons is best known for his work..
Ronald Franklin Asheton ::: (July 17, 1948 c. January 6, 2009) was an American guitarist, bassist and co-songwriter with Iggy Pop for the rock band the Stooges. He formed the Stooges along with Pop and..
Julian Paul Assange ::: (; n Hawkins; 3 July 1971) is an Australian editor, publisher, and activist who founded WikiLeaks in 2006. WikiLeaks came to international attention in 2010 when it published a..
Francis Ford Coppola ::: (, Italian: [kppola]; born April 7, 1939) is an American film director, producer, screenwriter, film composer, and vintner. He was a central figure in the New Hollywood..
Stephen Lawrence Schwartz ::: (born March 6, 1948) is an American musical theatre lyricist and composer. In a career spanning over four decades, Schwartz has written such hit musicals as Godspell (1971),..
Vyasa ::: (; Sanskrit: , literally "Compiler") is the legendary author of the Mahabharata, Vedas and Puranas, some of the most important works in the Hindu tradition. He is also called Veda Vysa..
Pope Innocent III ::: (Latin: Innocentius III; 1160 or 1161 16 July 1216), born Lotario dei Conti di Segni (anglicized as Lothar of Segni) reigned from 8 January 1198 to his death in 1216. Pope..
Yeshayahu Leibowitz ::: (Hebrew: ; 29 January 1903 18 August 1994) was an Israeli Orthodox Jewish public intellectual and polymath. He was professor of biochemistry, organic chemistry,..
Curtis Lee Mayfield ::: (June 3, 1942 December 26, 1999) was an American singer-songwriter, guitarist, and record producer, and one of the most influential musicians behind soul and politically..
Andy Warhol was an American artist who was a leading figure in the visual art movement known as pop art. His works explore the relationship between artistic expression, celebrity culture and..
Jerry Lee Lewis ::: (born September 29, 1935) is an American singer-songwriter, musician, and pianist, often known by his nickname, The Killer. He has been described as "rock & roll's first great wild..
Daniel Clement Dennett III ::: (born March 28, 1942) is an American philosopher, writer, and cognitive scientist whose research centers on the philosophy of mind, philosophy of science, and philosophy of..
Jeffrey Scott Buckley ::: (November 17, 1966 May 29, 1997), raised as Scott Moorhead, was an American singer, songwriter and guitarist. After a decade as a session guitarist in Los Angeles, Buckley..
Ann Clare Boothe Luce ::: (March 10, 1903 October 9, 1987) was an American author, politician, U.S. Ambassador and public conservative figure. She was the first American woman appointed to a major..
Kazi Nazrul Islam ::: (Bengali: , Bengali pronunciation: [kazi nozrul islam] 25 May 1899 29 August 1976) was a Bengali poet, writer, musician, anti-colonial revolutionary and..
John Rogers Commons ::: (October 13, 1862 May 11, 1945) was an American institutional economist, Georgist, progressive and labor historian at the University of WisconsinMadison...
Lee Strasberg ::: (born Israel Lee Strassberg; November 17, 1901 February 17, 1982) was a Polish-American actor, director, and theatre practitioner. He co-founded, with directors Harold Clurman and..
Robert Alan Krieger ::: (born January 8, 1946) is an American guitarist and singer-songwriter best known as the guitarist of the rock band The Doors; as such he has been inducted into the Rock and Roll..
Robert Southey ::: ( or ; 12 August 1774 21 March 1843) was an English poet of the Romantic school, one of the Lake Poets along with William Wordsworth and Samuel Taylor Coleridge, and England's Poet..
George Carter III ::: (born July 28, 1945) is an inventor who created Photon, the first commercialized version of laser tag, as well as other inventions such as the personal watercraft and certain..
Barack Hussein Obama born August 4, 1961is an American attorney and politician who served as the 44th president of the United States from 2009 to 2017. A member of the Democratic Party, he was the..
Pranav Mistry ::: (born 14 May 1981) is a computer scientist and inventor. He is the Global Senior Vice President of Research at Samsung and the head of Think Tank Team. He is best known for his work on..
Quentin Jerome Tarantino ::: (; born March 27, 1963) is an American filmmaker, actor, film programmer, and cinema owner. His films are characterized by nonlinear storylines, satirical subject matter, an..
Subhas Chandra Bose ::: (23 January 1897 18 August 1945) was an Indian nationalist whose defiant patriotism made him a hero in India, but whose attempt during World War II to rid India of British rule..
Theodor Herzl ::: (; German: [htsl]; Hebrew: Te'odor Hertsel; Hungarian: Herzl Tivadar; Hebrew name given at his brit milah Binyamin Ze'ev (Hebrew: ), also known..
John Patrick McEnroe Jr. ::: (born February 16, 1959) is an American retired tennis player. He was known for his shot-making artistry and volleying skills, and for confrontational on-court behavior that..
Count Georges Vacher de Lapouge ::: (French: [vae d lapu]; 12 December 1854 20 February 1936) was a French anthropologist and a theoretician of eugenics and racialism. He is known as the founder of..
Phillip Harvey Spector ::: (December 26, 1939 January 16, 2021) was an American record producer, musician, and songwriter who developed the Wall of Sound, a music production formula he described as a..
Sir Timothy Miles Bindon Rice ::: (born 10 November 1944) is an English author and lyricist. He is best known for his collaborations with Andrew Lloyd Webber, with whom he wrote Joseph and the Amazing..
Rajneesh ::: (born Chandra Mohan Jain, 11 December 1931 19 January 1990), also known as Acharya Rajneesh, Bhagwan Shree Rajneesh, and later as Osho (), was an Indian spiritual guru, philosopher, and..
John Symon Asher Bruce ::: (14 May 1943 25 October 2014) was a Scottish musician, singer and songwriter known primarily for his contributions to the British supergroup Cream, which also included the..
Indira Priyadarshini Gandhi ::: (Hindi: [ndra andi] ne Nehru; 19 November 1917 31 October 1984) was an Indian politician, stateswoman and a central figure of the Indian National..
George Walton Lucas Jr. ::: (born May 14, 1944) is an American filmmaker and entrepreneur. Lucas created the Star Wars and Indiana Jones franchises and founded Lucasfilm, LucasArts and Industrial Light &..
Murray Newton Rothbard ::: (; March 2, 1926 January 7, 1995) was an American heterodox economist of the Austrian School, historian, and a political theorist whose writings and personal influence played..
Sayyid Ruhollah Msavi Khomeini ::: (UK: khom-AY-nee, US: khohm-; Persian:

[ruhollhe xomejni] 24 September 1902 3 June 1989), also known in the Western world..
Janet Louise Yellen ::: (born August 13, 1946) is an American economist who was the 15th chair of the Federal Reserve from 2014 to 2018, the first woman to hold the role. She is a professor emerita at..
Alex Steyermark is a film director...
Elizabeth Ann Warren ::: (ne Herring; born June 22, 1949) is an American politician and former academic serving as the senior United States Senator from Massachusetts since 2013. She was formerly a law..
Thomas Woodrow Wilson ::: (December 28, 1856 February 3, 1924) was an American statesman, lawyer, and academic who served as the 28th president of the United States from 1913 to 1921. A member of the..
Guy Louis Debord ::: (; French: [gi db]; 28 December 1931 30 November 1994) was a French Marxist theorist, philosopher, filmmaker, member of the Letterist International, founder of a Letterist..
Alexander II ::: (Russian: II , tr. Aleksandr II Nikolayevich, IPA: [lksandr ftroj nklajvt]; 29 April 1818 13 March 1881) was the Emperor of Russia from 2 March 1855..
Robert Anthony Plant ::: (born 20 August 1948) is an English singer, songwriter, and musician, best known as the lead singer and lyricist of the rock band Led Zeppelin. Plant enjoyed great success with..
Chien-Shiung Wu ::: (simplified Chinese: ; traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: W Jinxing; May 31, 1912 February 16, 1997) was a Chinese-American experimental physicist who made significant..
Pierre Bourdieu ::: (French: [budj]; 1 August 1930 23 January 2002) was a French sociologist, anthropologist, philosopher and public intellectual.Bourdieu's work was primarily concerned with the..
Nasuh bin Karagz bin Abdullah el-Visokavi el-Bosnav, or Nasuh el-Matraki ibn Karaoz ibn Abdullah el-Visokavi el-Bosnevi, commonly known as Matrak Nasuh ::: (Turkish pronunciation: [matakt..
James Abram Garfield ::: (November 19, 1831 September 19, 1881) was the 20th president of the United States, serving from March 4, 1881 until his death by assassination six and a half months later. He..
Annelies Marie "Anne" Frank ::: (German: [anlis mai fak], Dutch: [nlis mari frk]); 12 June 1929 February or March 1945) was a German-born Dutch-Jewish diarist. One of the most..
Maximilien Franois Marie Isidore de Robespierre ::: (French: [ f.swa ma.i i.zi.d d .bs.pj]; 6 May 1758 28 July 1794) was a French lawyer and politician, as well as one of the..
Sidney Arthur Lumet ::: ( loo-MET; June 25, 1924 April 9, 2011) was an American director, producer, and screenwriter with over 50 films to his credit. He was nominated five times for the Academy Award:..
Jean Omer Marie Gabriel Monnet ::: (French: [ mn]; 9 November 1888 16 March 1979) was a French political economist and diplomat. An influential supporter of European unity, he is considered as one..
Jaime Royal "Robbie" Robertson, OC ::: (born July 5, 1943), is a Canadian musician, songwriter, film composer, producer, actor, and author. Robertson is best known for his work as lead guitarist and..
Kwame Nkrumah PC ::: (21 September 1909 27 April 1972) was a Ghanaian politician and revolutionary. He was the first Prime Minister and President of Ghana, having led the Gold Coast to independence..
Jonathan Edwards was a Protestant preacher, philosopher, and theologian. Edwards "is widely acknowledged to be America's most important and original philosophical theologian," and one of America's..
Zygmunt Bauman ::: (; 19 November 1925 9 January 2017) was a Polish sociologist and philosopher. He was driven out of Poland by a political purge in 1968 engineered by the Communist government of the..
Andrei Arsenyevich Tarkovsky ::: (Russian: , IPA: [ndrej rsenjvt trkofskj]; 4 April 1932 29 December 1986) was a Russian filmmaker, writer, and film..
Donald Richard DeLillo ::: (born November 20, 1936) is an American novelist, short story writer, playwright, screenwriter and essayist. His works have covered subjects as diverse as television, nuclear..
Carmelo Pompilio Realino Antonio Bene, known as Carmelo Bene ::: (1 September 1937 16 March 2002) was an Italian actor, poet, film director and screenwriter. He was an important exponent of the Italian..
Niklas Luhmann ::: (; German: [luman]; December 8, 1927 November 6, 1998) was a German sociologist, philosopher of social science, and a prominent thinker in systems theory, who is considered one of..
Lee Jun-fan ::: (Chinese: ; November 27, 1940 July 20, 1973), known professionally as Bruce Lee (Chinese: ), was a Hong Kong-American actor, director, martial artist, martial arts instructor, and..
James Douglas Morrison ::: (December 8, 1943 July 3, 1971) was an American singer, songwriter and poet, who served as the lead vocalist of the rock band the Doors. Due to his poetic lyrics, distinctive..
Paul Ralph Ehrlich ::: (born May 29, 1932) is an American biologist, best known for his warnings about the consequences of population growth and limited resources. He is the Bing Professor of Population..
Hasdai ben Abraham Crescas ::: (Catalan: [hzaj e ua kesks]; Hebrew: ; c. 1340 in Barcelona, Catalonia 1410/11 in Zaragoza, Aragon) was a Catalan-Jewish philosopher and a renowned..
Bidhan Chandra Roy MD DSc MRCP, FRCS; ::: (1 July 1882 1 July 1962) was an eminent Indian physician, educationist, philanthropist, freedom fighter and politician who served as the Chief Minister of..
Heywood "Woody" Allen ::: (born December 1, 1935) is an American director, writer, actor, and comedian whose career spans more than six decades. He began his career as a comedy writer in the 1950s,..
James Vernon Taylor ::: (born March 12, 1948) is an American singer-songwriter and guitarist. A five-time Grammy Award winner, he was inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame in 2000. He is one of..
Eric Voegelin ::: (born Erich Hermann Wilhelm Vgelin; German: [fglin]; January 3, 1901 January 19, 1985) was a German-American political philosopher. He was born in Cologne, and educated in..
King Solomon boxed professionally for five years in the super featherweight division out of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania with a record of 7 wins, 1 loss, and 3 draws. His most famous opponent was..
Carlos Santana audio ::: (born July 20, 1947) is a Mexican and American guitarist who rose to fame in the late 1960s and early 1970s with his band Santana, which pioneered a fusion of rock and roll and..
Avul Pakir Jainulabdeen Abdul Kalam ::: ( 15 October 1931 27 July 2015) was an aerospace scientist who served as the 11th President of India from 2002 to 2007. He was born and raised in..
Richard Milhous Nixon ::: (January 9, 1913 April 22, 1994) was an American politician who served as the 37th president of the United States from 1969 until 1974. The only president to resign the..
Mara Eva Duarte de Pern ::: (UK: , US: , Spanish: [mai.a ea wate e peon]; 7 May 1919 26 July 1952) was the wife of Argentine President Juan Pern (18951974) and First Lady of Argentina..
Mark Lavon "Levon" Helm ::: (May 26, 1940 April 19, 2012) was an American musician and actor who achieved fame as the drummer and one of the vocalists for the Band. Helm was known for his deeply..
Raila Amolo Odinga is a Kenyan politician who served as the Prime Minister of Kenya from 2008 to 2013 and Leader of the Opposition since 2013. He was the Member of Parliament ::: (MP) for Langata from..
Sir Elton Hercules John ::: (born 25 March 1947) is an English singer, songwriter, pianist, and composer. He has worked with lyricist Bernie Taupin since 1967; they have collaborated on more than 30..
Richard Christopher Wakeman ::: (born 18 May 1949) is an English keyboardist, songwriter, producer, television and radio presenter, and author. He is best known for being in the progressive rock band Yes..
Sarojini Naidu was an Indian independence activist and poet who earned the sobriquet of Nightingale of India. She was born in a Bengali Hindu family in Hyderabad. She was educated in Chennai, London..
Alfred Matthew "Weird Al" Yankovic ::: ( YANG-k-vik; born October 23, 1959) is an American singer-songwriter, record producer, satirist, actor, voice actor, music video director, comedian, and author...
James Knox Polk ::: (November 2, 1795 June 15, 1849) was the 11th president of the United States, serving from 1845 to 1849. He previously was Speaker of the House of Representatives (18351839) and..
Judit Polgr ::: (born 23 July 1976) is a Hungarian chess grandmaster. She is generally considered the strongest female chess player of all time. Since September 2015, she has been inactive. In 1991,..
Terence Graham Parry Jones ::: (February 1, 1942 - January 21, 2020) is a Welsh actor, writer, comedian, film director and historian was a member of the Monty Python comedy troupe. After graduating from..
Taylor Alison Swift ::: (born December 13, 1989) is an American singer-songwriter. She is known for narrative songs about her personal life, which have received widespread media coverage. Born and raised..
Margaret Hilda Thatcher, Baroness Thatcher, ::: (ne Roberts; 13 October 1925 8 April 2013) was a British stateswoman who served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1979 to 1990 and Leader of..
Konstantin Sergeievich Stanislavski ::: (n Alexeiev; Russian: ; 17 January [O.S. 5 January] 1863 7 August 1938) was a seminal Russian theatre practitioner. He was..
Anthony Joseph Pereira ::: (born September 10, 1950) better known by his stage name, Joe Perry, is an American musician, songwriter and vocalist, who is best known as the lead guitarist and founding..
Lafayette Ronald Hubbard ::: ( HUB-rd; March 13, 1911 January 24, 1986) was an American author of science fiction and fantasy stories, and the founder of the Church of Scientology. In 1950, Hubbard..
Zbigniew Kazimierz Brzezinski ::: ( ZBIG-nyef br-ZIN-skee, Polish: [zbif kaimj bijski] March 28, 1928 May 26, 2017) was a Polish-American diplomat and political scientist. He..
Levi Stubbs ::: (born Levi Stubbles, June 6, 1936 October 17, 2008) was an American baritone singer, best known as the lead vocalist of the R&B group the Four Tops, who released a variety of Motown hit..
John Joseph Lydon ::: (born 31 January 1956), also known by his stage name Johnny Rotten, is an English singer, songwriter and musician. He is best known as the lead singer of the late-1970s British punk..
William McKinley Jr. ::: (January 29, 1843 September 14, 1901) was the 25th president of the United States, serving from March 4, 1897, until his assassination six months into his second term. During..
George Galloway ::: (born 16 August 1954) is a British politician, broadcaster and writer. Between 1987 and 2015, except for a period between 20102012, he was a Member of Parliament for four..
Kareem Abdul-Jabbar ::: (born April 16, 1947) is an American retired professional basketball player who played 20 seasons in the National Basketball Association (NBA) for the Milwaukee Bucks and the Los..
Zinedine Yazid Zidane ::: (French pronunciation: [zinedin jazid zidan]; born 23 June 1972), nicknamed "Zizou" (pronounced [zizu]), is a French former professional football player and current manager of..
George Raymond Richard Martin ::: (born George Raymond Martin, September 20, 1948), also known as GRRM, is an American novelist and short story writer in the fantasy, horror, and science fiction genres,..
Christopher Edward Nolan, ::: (born 30 July 1970) is an English-American film director, screenwriter, and producer, who is known for making personal, distinctive films within the Hollywood mainstream. He..
Willy Stwer ::: (22 May 1864 31 May 1931) was a German artist, illustrator and author during the Imperial Period. He is best known for nautical paintings and lithographs. Many of his works depict..
Michael Gerard Tyson ::: (born June 30, 1966) is an American former professional boxer who competed from 1985 to 2005. He reigned as the undisputed world heavyweight champion and holds the record as the..
Eric Idle ::: (born 29 March 1943) is an English comedian, actor, voice actor, author, singer-songwriter, musician, writer, and comedic composer. Idle was a member of the British surreal comedy group..
Joel Coen is a film and television producer, screenwriter, film director and film editor...
Randal Howard Paul ::: (born January 7, 1963) is an American politician and physician serving as the junior United States Senator from Kentucky since 2011, alongside Majority Leader Mitch McConnell. He..
Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru ::: (; Hindi: [darlal neru] 14 November 1889 27 May 1964) was an Indian independence activist, and subsequently, the first Prime Minister of India and a..
William Gary Busey ::: (; born June 29, 1944) is an American actor. A prolific character actor, Busey has appeared in over 150 films, including Lethal Weapon (1987), Predator 2 (1990), Point Break..
Tristan Tzara ::: (French: [tist dzaa]; Romanian: [tristan tsara]; born Samuel or Samy Rosenstock, also known as S. Samyro; 16 April [O.S. 4 April] 1896 25 December 1963) was a Romanian and..
Taras Hryhorovych Shevchenko ::: (9 March [O.S. 25 February] 1814 10 March [O.S. 26 February] 1861) was an Ukrainian poet, writer, artist, public and political figure, as well as folklorist and..
Declan Patrick MacManus, OBE ::: (born 25 August 1954), better known by his stage name Elvis Costello, is an English pop/rock musician, singer, songwriter, composer, record producer, author, television..
Andre Romelle Young ::: (born February 18, 1965), known professionally as Dr. Dre, is an American rapper, record producer and entrepreneur. He is the founder and CEO of Aftermath Entertainment and Beats..
Richard Stuart Linklater ::: (born July 30, 1960) is an American filmmaker. Linklater is known for his realistic and natural humanist films, which revolve mainly around suburban culture and the effects..
Marilyn vos Savant ::: (; born 1946) is an American magazine columnist, author, lecturer, and playwright. She was listed as having the highest recorded intelligence quotient (IQ) in the Guinness Book of..
Raoul Vaneigem ::: (Dutch pronunciation: [raul vnim]; born 21 March 1934) is a Belgian writer known for his 1967 book The Revolution of Everyday Life. He was born in Lessines (Hainaut, Belgium)..
Nicholas Evan Berg ::: (April 2, 1978 May 7, 2004) was an American freelance radio-tower repairman who went to Iraq after the United States' invasion of Iraq. He was Jewish. Berg was abducted and..
Marvin Gaye ::: (born Marvin Pentz Gay Jr.; April 2, 1939 April 1, 1984) was an American singer, songwriter, and record producer. He helped to shape the sound of Motown in the 1960s, first as an..
Empress Dowager Cixi ::: (Chinese:
; pinyin: Cx Tihu; [ts. ti.xu]; Manchu: Tsysi taiheo; 29 November 1835 15 November 1908), of the Manchu Yehe Nara clan, was a Chinese empress dowager..
Mary Abigail Wambach ::: (born June 2, 1980) is an American retired soccer player, coach, two-time Olympic gold medalist and FIFA Women's World Cup champion. A six-time winner of the U.S. Soccer Athlete..
Addison Mitchell McConnell Jr. ::: (born February 20, 1942) is an American politician serving as Kentuckys senior United States Senator and as Senate Majority Leader. McConnell is the second Kentuckian..
Sir Michael Philip Jagger ::: (born 26 July 1943) is an English singer, songwriter, actor, and film producer who gained worldwide fame as the lead singer and one of the founder members of the Rolling..
James Cleveland "Jesse" Owens ::: (September 12, 1913 March 31, 1980) was an American track and field athlete and four-time gold medalist in the 1936 Olympic Games. Owens specialized in the sprints and..
Clarice Lispector ::: (December 10, 1920 December 9, 1977) was a Brazilian novelist and short story writer acclaimed internationally for her innovative novels and short stories. Born to a Jewish..
Robert Frederick Zenon Geldof, ::: (; born 5 October 1951) is an Irish singer-songwriter, author, political activist, and occasional actor. He rose to prominence as the lead singer of the Irish rock..
Walter Trier ::: (25 June 1890, Prague 8 July 1951 Craigleith, near Collingwood, Ontario, Canada) was an illustrator, best known for his work for the children's books of Erich Kstner and the covers of..
William Scott Goldberg ::: (born December 27, 1966) is an American actor, professional wrestler, former football player, and former mixed martial artist color commentator. He is currently signed to WWE...
Ban Zhao ::: (Chinese: ; 45 c. 116 CE), courtesy name Huiban (Chinese: ; pinyin: Hubn; WadeGiles: Hui4-Pan1), was a Chinese historian, philosopher, and politician. She was the first known female..
Angela Dorothea Merkel ::: (, German: [aela mkl]; ne Kasner; born 17 July 1954) is a German politician serving as Chancellor of Germany since 2005. She served as the leader of the centre-right..
Keith Richards ::: (born 18 December 1943) is an English musician, singer, and songwriter, best known as the co-founder, guitarist, secondary vocalist, and co-principal songwriter of the Rolling Stones...
Carlos Fuentes Macas ::: (; Spanish: [kalos fwentes] November 11, 1928 May 15, 2012) was a Mexican novelist and essayist. Among his works are The Death of Artemio Cruz (1962), Aura..
Rosario Castellanos Figueroa ::: (Spanish pronunciation: [rosajo kasteanos]; 25 May 1925 7 August 1974) was a Mexican poet and author. She was one of Mexico's most important literary voices in the..
Prince Rogers Nelson ::: (June 7, 1958 April 21, 2016) was an American singer, songwriter, musician, record producer, dancer, actor, and filmmaker. With a career spanning four decades, Prince was known..
George Edward Clinton ::: (born July 22, 1941) is an American singer, songwriter, bandleader, and record producer. His Parliament-Funkadelic collective (which primarily recorded under the distinct band..
Lalon also known as Fakir Lalon Shah, Lalon Shah, Lalon Fakir or Mahatma Lalon ::: (Bengali: ; c. 1772 17 October 1890; Bengali: 1 Kartik 1179) was a prominent Bengali philosopher, Baul saint,..
William Henry Pratt ::: (23 November 1887 2 February 1969), better known by his stage name Boris Karloff (), was an English actor who was primarily known for his roles in horror films. He portrayed..
Sly Stone ::: (born Sylvester Stewart, March 15, 1943) is an American musician, songwriter, and record producer who is most famous for his role as frontman for Sly and the Family Stone, a band that..
Stephen Glenn Martin ::: (born August 14, 1945) is an American actor, comedian, writer, filmmaker, and musician. Martin came to public notice in the 1960s as a writer for The Smothers Brothers Comedy..
Graham Arthur Chapman ::: (8 January 1941 4 October 1989) was an English comedian, writer, actor, author, and one of the six members of the British surreal comedy group Monty Python. He played..
Anthony Frank Iommi ::: (; born 19 February 1948) is an English guitarist, songwriter and producer. He was lead guitarist and one of the four founding members of the heavy metal band Black Sabbath. He..
Audrey Hepburn ::: (born Audrey Kathleen Ruston; 4 May 1929 20 January 1993) was a British actress and humanitarian. Recognised as a film and fashion icon, Hepburn was active during Hollywood's Golden..
Paul Davis Ryan ::: (born January 29, 1970) is an American politician who served as the 54th speaker of the United States House of Representatives from October 2015 to January 2019. He was also the 2012..
Aleister Crowley ::: (; born Edward Alexander Crowley; 12 October 1875 1 December 1947) was an English occultist, ceremonial magician, poet, painter, novelist, and mountaineer. He founded the religion..
Victor Michael Cruz ::: (born November 11, 1986) is a former American football wide receiver. He played college football at UMass, and signed with the New York Giants as an undrafted free agent in 2010...
Edwin Stanton Porter ::: (April 21, 1870 April 30, 1941) was an American film pioneer, most famous as a producer, director, studio manager and cinematographer with the Edison Manufacturing Company and..
Sid Vicious ::: (born John Simon Ritchie, 10 May 1957 2 February 1979) was an English bassist and vocalist. He achieved fame as a member of the punk rock band the Sex Pistols, replacing Glen Matlock,..
Tina Turner ::: (born Anna Mae Bullock, November 26, 1939) is an internationally recognized singer, songwriter, and actress. She is originally from the United States, and has been a Swiss citizen since..
Pope Francis ::: (Latin: Franciscus; Italian: Francesco; Spanish: Francisco; born Jorge Mario Bergoglio; 17 December 1936) is the head of the Catholic Church and sovereign of the Vatican City State...
Valeria Messalina ::: ([warja mssalina], sometimes spelled Messallina; c.17/2048), was the third wife of the Roman emperor Claudius. She was a paternal cousin of Emperor Nero, a second cousin of..
Andrew Lloyd Webber, Baron Lloyd-Webber ::: (born 22 March 1948) is an English composer and impresario of musical theatre. Several of his musicals have run for more than a decade both in the West End and..
Nebuchadnezzar II was a Chaldean king of the Neo-Babylonian Empire, who reigned c. 605 BC 562 BC. Both the construction of the Hanging Gardens of Babylon and the destruction of Jerusalem's temple..
Phineas Taylor Barnum ::: (; July 5, 1810 April 7, 1891) was an American showman, politician, and businessman remembered for promoting celebrated hoaxes and for founding the Barnum & Bailey Circus..
Ulrich Beck was a German sociologist. His work focused on questions of uncontrollability, ignorance and uncertainty in the modern age, and he coined the terms "risk society" and "second modernity"...
Christopher Michael Pratt ::: (born June 21, 1979) is an American actor. He rose to prominence for his television roles, particularly as Andy Dwyer in the NBC sitcom Parks and Recreation (20092015), for..
Henry Makow is a Canadian author, campaigner against homosexuality, public opponent of Zionism and Freemasonry, conspiracy theorist and the inventor of the boardgame Scruples...
Chanakya ::: (IAST: Cakya, pronunciation ) was an ancient Indian teacher, philosopher, economist, jurist and royal advisor. He is traditionally identified as Kauilya or Vishnugupta, who authored the..
Frederick William Engdahl ::: (born August 9, 1944) is an American writer based in Germany. He identifies himself as a "economic researcher, historian and freelance journalist."..
Paul Thomas Anderson ::: (born June 26, 1970) is an American film director, producer and screenwriter. Born in Los Angeles, Anderson developed an interest in filmmaking from a young age. An alumnus of..
Titus was Roman Emperor from 79 to 81. A member of the Flavian dynasty, Titus succeeded his father Vespasian upon his death, thus becoming the first Roman Emperor to come to the throne after his own..
Trajan ::: (; Latin: Imperator Caesar Nerva Traianus Divi Nervae filius Augustus; 18 September 53 8 August 117) was Roman emperor from 98 to 117. Officially declared by the Senate optimus princeps..
Ruth Bader Ginsburg ::: (March 15, 1933-September 18, 2020) was an American lawyer and jurist who was an Associate Justice of the U.S. Supreme Court. Ginsburg was appointed by President Bill Clinton and..
Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington, ::: (1 May 1769 14 September 1852) was an Anglo-Irish soldier and Tory statesman who was one of the leading military and political figures of 19th-century..
George Walker Bush ::: (born July 6, 1946) is an American politician and businessman who served as the 43rd president of the United States from 2001 to 2009. He had previously served as the 46th governor..
Arthur Ira Garfunkel ::: (born November 5, 1941) is an American singer, poet, and actor. He is best known for his partnership with Paul Simon in the folk rock duo Simon & Garfunkel. Highlights of his..
Alexandar Zivojinovich, ::: (born 27 August 1953), better known by his stage name Alex Lifeson, is a Canadian musician, singer, songwriter, and record producer, best known as the guitarist of the..
Cecil John Rhodes ::: (5 July 1853 26 March 1902) was a British businessman, mining magnate and politician in southern Africa who served as Prime Minister of the Cape Colony from 1890 to 1896. An..
Madonna Louise Ciccone ::: (, Italian: [tikkone]; born August 16, 1958) is an American singer, songwriter, actress, and businesswoman. Referred to as the "Queen of Pop" since the 1980s, Madonna is..
Max Horkheimer ::: (; German: [hkham]; February 14, 1895 July 7, 1973) was a German philosopher and sociologist who was famous for his work in critical theory as a member of the 'Frankfurt..
Bla Ferenc Dezs Blask ::: (Hungarian: [bel frnts d blko]; 20 October 1882 16 August 1956), better known as Bela Lugosi (; Hungarian: [luoi]), was a Hungarian-American actor best..
Christopher Russell Edward Squire ::: (4 March 1948 27 June 2015) was an English musician, singer and songwriter best known as the bassist and a founding member of the progressive rock band Yes. He was..
John Alec Entwistle ::: (9 October 1944 27 June 2002) was an English bass guitarist, singer, songwriter, and film and music producer. In a music career that spanned more than 40 years, Entwistle was..
Angelina Jolie ::: (; ne Voight, formerly Jolie Pitt, born June 4, 1975) is an American actress, filmmaker, and humanitarian. The recipient of such accolades as an Academy Award and three Golden Globe..
George Timothy Clooney ::: (born May 6, 1961) is an American actor and filmmaker. He is the recipient of three Golden Globe Awards and two Academy Awards, one for acting in Syriana (2006) and the other..
Keith John Moon ::: (23 August 1946 7 September 1978) was an English drummer for the rock band the Who. He was noted for his unique style and his eccentric, often self-destructive behaviour. His..
Bjrk Gumundsdttir ::: (born 21 November 1965) is an Icelandic singer, songwriter, record producer, actress and DJ. Over her four-decade career, she has developed an eclectic musical style that draws..
Geddy Lee Weinrib, ::: (born Gary Lee Weinrib; July 29, 1953), known professionally as Geddy Lee, is a Canadian musician, singer, and songwriter best known as the lead vocalist, bassist, and keyboardist..
Benito Amilcare Andrea Mussolini ::: (, also US: , Italian: [benito mussolini]; 29 July 1883 28 April 1945) was Prime Minister of the Kingdom of Italy from the fascists' takeover of state power in..
Vladimir Vladimirovich Putin ::: (; Russian: , romanized: Vladmir Vladmirovi Ptin; born 7 October 1952) is the President of Russia since 2012, previously holding the..
Angus McKinnon Young ::: (born 31 March 1955) is an Australian guitarist, best known as the co-founder, lead guitarist, songwriter and only constant member of the Australian hard rock band AC/DC. He is..
Mario Lopez Jr. ::: (born October 10, 1973) is an American actor and entertainment journalist. He has appeared on several television series, in films, and on Broadway. He is known for his portrayal of..
John Michael "Ozzy" Osbourne ::: (born 3 December 1948) is an English singer, songwriter, actor and reality television star who rose to prominence during the 1970s as the lead vocalist of the heavy metal..
Peter Lawrence Buck ::: (born December 6, 1956) is an American musician and songwriter who is best known as co-founder and lead guitarist of the alternative rock band R.E.M. Throughout his career with..
David Michael Letterman ::: (born April 12, 1947) is an American television host, comedian, writer, producer and automobile racing team owner. He hosted late night television talk shows for 33 years,..
Lance Edward Armstrong ::: (born Lance Edward Gunderson; September 18, 1971) is an American former professional road racing cyclist, infamous for the biggest doping scandal in cycling history. At age 16,..
William Melvin Hicks ::: (December 16, 1961 February 26, 1994) was an American stand-up comedian, social critic, satirist and musician. His materialencompassing a wide range of social issues including..
Travis Cordell Kalanick is an American entrepreneur. He is the co-founder of the peer-to-peer file-sharing company Red Swoosh and the transportation network company, Uber. In 2014, he entered the..
Stephen Philip Jones ::: (born 3 September 1955) is an English rock guitarist, singer, actor and radio DJ, best known as a guitarist with the Sex Pistols. Following the split of the Sex Pistols, he..
Raymond Kurzweil ::: ( KURZ-wyle; born February 12, 1948) is an American inventor and futurist. He is involved in fields such as optical character recognition (OCR), text-to-speech synthesis, speech..
Usain St Leo Bolt ::: (; born 21 August 1986) is a retired Jamaican sprinter. He is a world record holder in the 100 metres, 200 metres and 4 100 metres relay. Owing to his achievements and dominance..
Lee Louis Daniels ::: (born December 24, 1959) is an American film and television writer, director, and producer. He produced Monster's Ball and directed Precious, which received six Academy Award..
Sri Krishna is a film score composer...
Mohammad Rabie ::: (born 1978) is an Egyptian writer. He studied civil engineering in Higher Technological Institute. His novel Kawkab Anbar (2010) won the Sawiris Cultural Award in 2011. He has since..
Ronald Wayne Van Zant ::: (January 15, 1948 October 20, 1977) was an American musician, known as the lead vocalist, primary lyricist, and founding member of the Southern rock band Lynyrd Skynyrd. He..
Sergei Mikhailovich Eisenstein ::: (Russian:
, IPA: [srej mxajlvt jzntejn], tr. Sergey Mikhaylovich Eizenshteyn; 22 January [O.S. 10 January] 1898 11..
Sacha Noam Baron Cohen ::: (born 13 October 1971) is an English actor, comedian, writer, and producer. He is known for his creation and portrayal of fictional satirical characters, including Ali G, Borat..
Albert Leornes Greene ::: (born April 13, 1946), often known as The Reverend Al Green, is an American singer, songwriter and record producer, best known for recording a series of soul hit singles in the..
Franck Henry Pierre Ribry ::: (French pronunciation: [fk ibei]; born 7 April 1983) is a French professional footballer who plays for Serie A club Fiorentina. He primarily plays as a winger,..
Vincent James Russo ::: (born January 24, 1961) is an American author, podcaster, and professional wrestling booker, writer, and pundit. He is notable for his tenures with the World Wrestling Federation..
Glenn Lee Beck ::: (born February 10, 1964) is an American conservative political commentator, radio host and television producer. He is the CEO, founder, and owner of Mercury Radio Arts, the parent..
Amy Beth Schumer ::: (born June 1, 1981) is an American stand-up comedian and actress. She ventured into comedy in the early 2000s before appearing as a contestant on the fifth season of the NBC reality..
Xun Kuang ::: (; Chinese: ; pinyin: Xn Kung [yn kw]; c. 310 c. 235 BC, alt. c. 314 c. 217 BC), also widely known as Xunzi (; Chinese: ; pinyin: Xnz; WadeGiles: Hsn-tzu, "Master Xun"),..
Jack Leroy Wilson Jr. ::: (June 9, 1934 January 21, 1984) was an American soul singer and performer. A tenor with a four-octave range, Wilson was a prominent figure in the transition of rhythm and..
Cristiano Ronaldo dos Santos Aveiro GOIH ComM ::: (born 5 February 1985) is a Portuguese professional footballer who plays as a forward for Serie A club Juventus and captains the Portugal national team...
Sir George Cayley, 6th Baronet ::: (27 December 1773 15 December 1857) was an English engineer, inventor, and aviator. He is one of the most important people in the history of aeronautics. Many..
Avital Ronell ::: (; born 15 April 1952) is an American academic who writes about continental philosophy, literary studies, psychoanalysis, feminist philosophy, political philosophy, and ethics. She is a..
W. Axl Rose ::: (born February 6, 1962) is an American singer, songwriter, record producer and musician. He is the lead vocalist of the hard rock band Guns N' Roses, and has also been the band's sole..
Abhaya Caranravinda Bhaktivednta Svmi ::: (born Abhay Charan De; 1 September 1896 14 November 1977) was an Indian spiritual teacher and the founder-preceptor of the International Society for Krishna..
Lionel Brockman Richie Jr. ::: (born June 20, 1949) is an American singer, songwriter, actor, and record producer. Richie's style of ballads with the Commodores and in his solo career launched him as one..
Russell Edward Brand ::: (born 4 June 1975) is an English comedian, actor, radio host, author, and activist. After beginning his career as a stand-up comedian and later becoming an MTV presenter, Brand..
Sonia Maria Sotomayor ::: (Spanish: [sonja sotomao]; born June 25, 1954) is an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States, appointed by President Barack Obama in May 2009 and..
Roger McGuinn ::: (James Roger McGuinn, born James Joseph McGuinn III; July 13, 1942) is an American musician. He is best known for being the frontman of the Byrds. He was inducted into the Rock and..
Timothy "T. V." Smith ::: (born 5 April 1956) is an English singer-songwriter, who was part of punk band The Adverts in the late 1970s. Since then he has fronted other bands, as well as pursuing a solo..
Paul Labile Pogba is a French professional footballer who plays for Italian club Juventus in Serie A. He operates primarily as a central midfielder and is comfortable at playing both in attack and..
David Blaine White ::: (born April 4, 1973) is an American illusionist, endurance artist and extreme performer. He is best known for his high-profile feats of endurance, and has set and broken several..
Joseph Smith Jr. ::: (December 23, 1805 June 27, 1844) was an American religious leader and founder of Mormonism and the Latter Day Saint movement. When he was 24, Smith published the Book of Mormon. ..
Helen of Anjou ::: (Serbian: Jelena Anujska/ , pronounced [jlna nujska]; c. 1236 8 February 1314) was the Queen consort of the Serbian Kingdom, as spouse of King Stefan Uro I...
Karim Mostafa Benzema ::: (French pronunciation: [kaim bnzema]; born 19 December 1987) is a French professional footballer who plays as a striker for Spanish club Real Madrid and the France national..
Marcus Ardel Taulauniu Mariota ::: (born October 30, 1993) is an American football quarterback for the Tennessee Titans of the National Football League (NFL). He was drafted by the Titans second overall..
Sarada Devi ; Sharod Debi ) ::: (22 December 1853 20 July 1920), born Khemankari/ Thakurmani/ Saradamani Mukhopadhyay , was the wife and spiritual consort of Sri Ramakrishna, a nineteenth-century..
Steven Lee Cropper ::: (born October 21, 1941), also known as "Steve "The Colonel" Cropper", is an American guitarist, songwriter and record producer. He is the guitarist of the Stax Records house band,..
Saul Hudson ::: (born July 23, 1965), better known by his stage name Slash, is a BritishAmerican musician and songwriter. He is the lead guitarist of the American hard rock band Guns N' Roses, with whom..
Anthony Charles Lynton Blair ::: (born 6 May 1953) is a British politician who served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1997 to 2007 and Leader of the Labour Party from 1994 to 2007. He was..
Lawrence Peter "Yogi" Berra ::: (May 12, 1925 September 22, 2015) was an American professional baseball catcher, who later took on the roles of manager and coach. He played 19 seasons in Major League..
Muammar Mohammed Abu Minyar Gaddafi ::: (; c.1942 20 October 2011), commonly known as Colonel Gaddafi, was a Libyan revolutionary, politician, and political theorist. He governed Libya as..
Mesut zil ::: (German pronunciation: [mezut zil], Turkish: [mesut zil]; born 15 October 1988) is a German professional footballer who plays for Premier League club Arsenal. zil plays mostly as..
Michael Joseph Pennington ::: (born 5 September 1970), known professionally as Johnny Vegas, is an English actor and comedian, known for his portly figure and his alter-egos' angry rants, surreal humour ..
Kim Il-sung ::: (officially transcribed Kim Il Sung; English pronunciation: ; Korean: ; Korean pronunciation: [kimils]; born Kim Sng-ju (); 15 April 1912 8 July 1994) was the first leader of..
Brian Denis Cox ::: (born 1 June 1946) is a Scottish actor who works with the Royal Shakespeare Company, where he gained recognition for his portrayal of King Lear. Cox is also known for appearing in..
Elizabeth Angela Marguerite Bowes-Lyon was the wife of King George VI and the mother of Queen Elizabeth II and Princess Margaret, Countess of Snowdon. She was Queen consort of the United Kingdom and..
Adam ::: (Hebrew: , Modern: Adam, Tiberian: m; Arabic:
, romanized: dam; Greek: , romanized: Adm; Latin: Adam) is a figure in the Book of Genesis in the Hebrew Bible and in the..
Narayana Guru ::: (August 28, 1855 September 20, 1928) was a spiritual leader and social reformer in India. Born into a family of the Ezhava caste in an era when people from such communities were..
Atal Bihari Vajpayee ::: (Hindustani pronunciation: [l bhai adpai]; 25 December 1924 16 August 2018) was an Indian politician, statesman and a poet who served three terms as the Prime..
Uthman ibn Affan ::: (Arabic:
, romanized: Uthmn ibn Affn), also known in English by the Turkish and Persian rendering Osman (579/583 17 June 656), was, a son-in-law and notable..
Saddam Hussein Abd al-Majid al-Tikriti ::: (; Arabic:

addm usayn Abd al-Mad al-Tikrt; 28 April 1937 30 December 2006) was President of Iraq from 16 July 1979 until..
Arsne Charles Ernest Wenger ::: (French pronunciation: [asn v]; born 22 October 1949) is a French football manager and former player. He was the manager of Arsenal from 1996 to 2018, where he..
Al-Hasan ibn Ali ibn Abi Talib ::: (Arabic:   , romanized: Al-asan ibn Al ibn Ab lib; 624670 CE), commonly known as Hasan or Hassan, was the eldest son of Ali and..
Al-usayn ibn Al ibn Abi Talib ::: (Arabic:   ; 10 October 626 10 October 680; also transliterated as Husayn ibn Ali, Husain, Hussain and Hussein) was a..
Umar ibn Abd al-Aziz ::: (Arabic:
, romanized: Umar ibn Abd al-Azz; 2 November 682 c.5 February 720), commonly known as Umar II, was the eighth Umayyad caliph, ruling from 22..
Edward Nathan George Jr. ::: (born September 24, 1973) is a former professional American football player who was a running back in the National Football League (NFL) for nine seasons. He played college..
Pallewatte Gamaralalage Maithripala Yapa Sirisena ::: (Sinhala:
; Tamil:   ; born 3 September 1951) is a Sri Lankan..
Ronaldo is a Portuguese and Spanish equivalent of the name Ronald. Notable people known as Ronaldo include: Ronaldo ::: (Brazilian footballer) (born 1976), Ronaldo Lus Nazrio de Lima, was known as..
Thierry Daniel Henry ::: (French pronunciation: [tji i]; born 17 August 1977) is a French professional football coach and former player who was most recently the manager of Ligue 1 club..
Narendra Damodardas Modi ::: (Gujarati pronunciation: [nendr dmodds modi]; born 17 September 1950) is an Indian politician serving as the 14th and current Prime Minister of India since 2014...

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