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now begins generated list of local instances, definitions, quotes, instances in chapters, wordnet info if available and instances among weblinks


OBJECT INSTANCES [0] - TOPICS - AUTHORS - BOOKS - CHAPTERS - CLASSES - SEE ALSO - SIMILAR TITLES

TOPICS
SEE ALSO

AAT
Education
experiment
IMP
injunctions
Levels_/_Stages
Lines
Lojong
training_regiment

AUTH

BOOKS
A_Brief_History_of_Everything
Advanced_Integral
A_Treatise_on_Cosmic_Fire
Blazing_the_Trail_from_Infancy_to_Enlightenment
Core_Integral
Education_in_the_New_Age
Enchiridion
Enchiridion_text
Essential_Integral
Faust
Full_Circle
General_Principles_of_Kabbalah
Guru_Bhakti_Yoga
Heart_of_Matter
How_to_think_like_Leonardo_Da_Vinci
Initiation_Into_Hermetics
Integral_Life_Practice_(book)
Journey_to_the_Lord_of_Power_-_A_Sufi_Manual_on_Retreat
Kosmic_Consciousness
Letters_On_Poetry_And_Art
Letters_On_Yoga
Letters_On_Yoga_III
Letters_On_Yoga_IV
Liber_157_-_The_Tao_Teh_King
Liber_ABA
Life_without_Death
Maps_of_Meaning
Modern_Man_in_Search_of_a_Soul
My_Burning_Heart
On_Thoughts_And_Aphorisms
Plotinus_-_Complete_Works_Vol_01
Plotinus_-_Complete_Works_Vol_02
Plotinus_-_Complete_Works_Vol_03
Plotinus_-_Complete_Works_Vol_04
Poetics
Preparing_for_the_Miraculous
Process_and_Reality
Spiral_Dynamics
The_Act_of_Creation
The_Archetypes_and_the_Collective_Unconscious
the_Book
The_Diamond_Sutra
The_Divine_Milieu
The_Ever-Present_Origin
The_Human_Cycle
The_Integral_Yoga
The_Philosophy_of_History
The_Republic
The_Seals_of_Wisdom
The_Secret_Doctrine
The_Synthesis_Of_Yoga
The_Use_and_Abuse_of_History
The_Way_of_Perfection
The_Wit_and_Wisdom_of_Alfred_North_Whitehead
The_Yoga_Sutras
Thought_Power
Toward_the_Future
Walden,_and_On_The_Duty_Of_Civil_Disobedience

IN CHAPTERS TITLE
1.02_-_The_Development_of_Sri_Aurobindos_Thought
1.04_-_The_Origin_and_Development_of_Poetry.
1.07_-_The_Ideal_Law_of_Social_Development
1.2.1_-_Mental_Development_and_Sadhana
1958-09-17_-_Power_of_formulating_experience_-_Usefulness_of_mental_development
2.1.1.04_-_Reading,_Yogic_Force_and_the_Development_of_Style

IN CHAPTERS CLASSNAME

IN CHAPTERS TEXT
0.00a_-_Introduction
000_-_Humans_in_Universe
0.00_-_INTRODUCTION
0.00_-_The_Book_of_Lies_Text
0.00_-_THE_GOSPEL_PREFACE
0.00_-_The_Wellspring_of_Reality
0.01f_-_FOREWARD
0.01_-_Life_and_Yoga
0.02_-_The_Three_Steps_of_Nature
0.03_-_The_Threefold_Life
0.05_-_The_Synthesis_of_the_Systems
0.06_-_INTRODUCTION
0.06_-_Letters_to_a_Young_Sadhak
0.08_-_Letters_to_a_Young_Captain
01.03_-_Mystic_Poetry
01.04_-_The_Poetry_in_the_Making
01.06_-_On_Communism
0.10_-_Letters_to_a_Young_Captain
01.11_-_The_Basis_of_Unity
01.12_-_Three_Degrees_of_Social_Organisation
01.13_-_T._S._Eliot:_Four_Quartets
0.12_-_Letters_to_a_Student
0.14_-_Letters_to_a_Sadhak
0_1956-10-28
0_1958-02-15
0_1958-09-16_-_OM_NAMO_BHAGAVATEH
0_1958-10-10
0_1958-11-22
0_1958-11-28
0_1959-04-07
0_1959-10-06_-_Sri_Aurobindos_abode
0_1961-01-27
0_1961-01-29
0_1961-02-04
0_1961-02-18
0_1961-03-11
0_1961-03-17
0_1961-06-06
0_1961-11-07
0_1961-12-20
0_1962-02-03
0_1962-03-11
0_1962-05-27
0_1962-07-21
0_1962-07-25
0_1962-07-28
0_1962-09-05
0_1962-09-08
0_1962-11-07
0_1962-11-17
0_1963-01-18
0_1963-05-18
0_1963-06-08
0_1963-06-12
0_1963-07-10
0_1963-08-21
0_1963-09-04
0_1963-09-07
0_1963-09-18
0_1963-09-25
0_1963-11-13
0_1963-11-20
0_1964-07-18
0_1964-08-26
0_1964-09-30
0_1964-10-07
0_1964-10-10
0_1964-11-12
0_1964-12-02
0_1965-03-24
0_1965-04-17
0_1965-04-21
0_1965-05-19
0_1965-05-29
0_1965-06-02
0_1965-06-14
0_1965-06-23
0_1965-07-24
0_1965-08-07
0_1965-09-18
0_1965-09-25
0_1965-10-20
0_1965-11-27
0_1965-12-07
0_1966-02-26
0_1966-03-04
0_1966-04-27
0_1966-05-18
0_1966-07-27
0_1966-09-14
0_1966-09-17
0_1966-09-21
0_1966-10-29
0_1966-11-03
0_1967-02-15
0_1967-04-15
0_1967-04-19
0_1967-06-07
0_1967-07-15
0_1967-07-22
0_1967-08-12
0_1967-09-03
0_1967-10-30
0_1967-12-30
0_1968-01-12
0_1968-04-03
0_1968-04-10
0_1968-04-23
0_1968-05-18
0_1968-06-03
0_1968-06-08
0_1968-06-29
0_1968-08-28
0_1968-10-19
0_1968-11-16
0_1968-12-04
0_1968-12-21
0_1969-02-08
0_1969-03-26
0_1969-04-30
0_1969-05-03
0_1969-05-17
0_1969-06-25
0_1969-06-28
0_1969-08-06
0_1969-08-23
0_1969-10-01
0_1969-10-18
0_1969-10-25
0_1969-11-22
0_1969-11-29
0_1969-12-13
0_1969-12-27
0_1970-03-25
0_1970-03-28
0_1970-04-18
0_1970-05-02
0_1970-06-17
0_1970-07-04
0_1970-08-05
0_1970-09-26
0_1970-10-14
0_1970-11-07
0_1971-03-10
0_1971-04-17
0_1971-06-26
0_1971-09-15
0_1971-10-20
0_1971-12-11
0_1971-12-25
0_1972-02-01
0_1972-04-04
0_1972-04-15
0_1973-01-20
02.01_-_The_World_War
02.02_-_Lines_of_the_Descent_of_Consciousness
02.05_-_Federated_Humanity
02.06_-_The_Integral_Yoga_and_Other_Yogas
02.10_-_Independence_and_its_Sanction
02.11_-_New_World-Conditions
02.13_-_On_Social_Reconstruction
02.13_-_Rabindranath_and_Sri_Aurobindo
03.01_-_The_Evolution_of_Consciousness
03.01_-_The_New_Year_Initiation
03.04_-_Towardsa_New_Ideology
03.06_-_The_Pact_and_its_Sanction
03.07_-_Brahmacharya
03.07_-_The_Sunlit_Path
03.08_-_The_Democracy_of_Tomorrow
03.09_-_Sectarianism_or_Loyalty
03.10_-_Hamlet:_A_Crisis_of_the_Evolving_Soul
03.10_-_The_Mission_of_Buddhism
03.11_-_The_Language_Problem_and_India
03.13_-_Human_Destiny
04.01_-_The_March_of_Civilisation
04.02_-_Human_Progress
04.03_-_The_Eternal_East_and_West
04.06_-_To_Be_or_Not_to_Be
05.01_-_Man_and_the_Gods
05.02_-_Gods_Labour
05.03_-_Bypaths_of_Souls_Journey
05.04_-_The_Immortal_Person
05.06_-_The_Role_of_Evil
05.08_-_An_Age_of_Revolution
05.09_-_The_Changed_Scientific_Outlook
05.12_-_The_Soul_and_its_Journey
05.13_-_Darshana_and_Philosophy
05.18_-_Man_to_be_Surpassed
05.27_-_The_Nature_of_Perfection
05.33_-_Caesar_versus_the_Divine
06.01_-_The_End_of_a_Civilisation
06.03_-_Types_of_Meditation
06.12_-_The_Expanding_Body-Consciousness
06.18_-_Value_of_Gymnastics,_Mental_or_Other
07.07_-_Freedom_and_Destiny
07.17_-_Why_Do_We_Forget_Things?
07.36_-_The_Body_and_the_Psychic
07.37_-_The_Psychic_Being,_Some_Mysteries
08.05_-_Will_and_Desire
08.24_-_On_Food
09.03_-_The_Psychic_Being
09.08_-_The_Modern_Taste
09.18_-_The_Mother_on_Herself
10.04_-_Transfiguration
10.08_-_Consciousness_as_Freedom
10.09_-_Education_as_the_Growth_of_Consciousness
1.009_-_Perception_and_Reality
1.00a_-_DIVISION_A_-_THE_INTERNAL_FIRES_OF_THE_SHEATHS.
1.00a_-_Foreword
1.00a_-_Introduction
1.00b_-_DIVISION_B_-_THE_PERSONALITY_RAY_AND_FIRE_BY_FRICTION
1.00c_-_DIVISION_C_-_THE_ETHERIC_BODY_AND_PRANA
1.00d_-_DIVISION_D_-_KUNDALINI_AND_THE_SPINE
1.00d_-_Introduction
1.00e_-_DIVISION_E_-_MOTION_ON_THE_PHYSICAL_AND_ASTRAL_PLANES
1.00_-_INTRODUCTORY_REMARKS
1.00_-_Main
1.00_-_Preliminary_Remarks
1.00_-_The_way_of_what_is_to_come
10.10_-_Education_is_Organisation
1.01_-_Adam_Kadmon_and_the_Evolution
1.01_-_Archetypes_of_the_Collective_Unconscious
1.01_-_Economy
1.01_-_Foreward
1.01_-_Fundamental_Considerations
1.01_-_Historical_Survey
1.01_-_How_is_Knowledge_Of_The_Higher_Worlds_Attained?
1.01_-_MAPS_OF_EXPERIENCE_-_OBJECT_AND_MEANING
1.01_-_Necessity_for_knowledge_of_the_whole_human_being_for_a_genuine_education.
1.01_-_Newtonian_and_Bergsonian_Time
1.01_-_Our_Demand_and_Need_from_the_Gita
1.01_-_Principles_of_Practical_Psycho_therapy
1.01_-_Seeing
1.01_-_Soul_and_God
1.01_-_THAT_ARE_THOU
1.01_-_the_Call_to_Adventure
1.01_-_The_Cycle_of_Society
1.01_-_The_Ego
1.01_-_The_First_Steps
1.01_-_The_Four_Aids
1.01_-_The_Mental_Fortress
1.01_-_The_Science_of_Living
1.01_-_THE_STUFF_OF_THE_UNIVERSE
1.01_-_Who_is_Tara
1.02.3.1_-_The_Lord
1.02.3.3_-_Birth_and_Non-Birth
1.02.4.1_-_The_Worlds_-_Surya
10.26_-_A_True_Professor
10.27_-_Consciousness
1.02.9_-_Conclusion_and_Summary
10.29_-_Gods_Debt
1.02_-_BEFORE_THE_CITY-GATE
1.02_-_Groups_and_Statistical_Mechanics
1.02_-_Isha_Analysis
1.02_-_MAPS_OF_MEANING_-_THREE_LEVELS_OF_ANALYSIS
1.02_-_Meditating_on_Tara
1.02_-_Self-Consecration
1.02_-_SOCIAL_HEREDITY_AND_PROGRESS
1.02_-_Taras_Tantra
1.02_-_The_7_Habits__An_Overview
1.02_-_The_Age_of_Individualism_and_Reason
1.02_-_The_Child_as_growing_being_and_the_childs_experience_of_encountering_the_teacher.
1.02_-_The_Concept_of_the_Collective_Unconscious
1.02_-_The_Development_of_Sri_Aurobindos_Thought
1.02_-_The_Divine_Teacher
1.02_-_The_Doctrine_of_the_Mystics
1.02_-_The_Eternal_Law
1.02_-_The_Pit
1.02_-_THE_PROBLEM_OF_SOCRATES
1.02_-_The_Recovery
1.02_-_The_Stages_of_Initiation
1.02_-_The_Three_European_Worlds
1.02_-_The_Two_Negations_1_-_The_Materialist_Denial
1.02_-_THE_WITHIN_OF_THINGS
1.02_-_What_is_Psycho_therapy?
1.036_-_Ya-Seen
1.03_-_APPRENTICESHIP_AND_ENCULTURATION_-_ADOPTION_OF_A_SHARED_MAP
1.03_-_Concerning_the_Archetypes,_with_Special_Reference_to_the_Anima_Concept
1.03_-_Fire_in_the_Earth
1.03_-_Meeting_the_Master_-_Meeting_with_others
1.03_-_PERSONALITY,_SANCTITY,_DIVINE_INCARNATION
1.03_-_Physical_Education
1.03_-_Preparing_for_the_Miraculous
1.03_-_Self-Surrender_in_Works_-_The_Way_of_The_Gita
1.03_-_Some_Aspects_of_Modern_Psycho_therapy
1.03_-_Some_Practical_Aspects
1.03_-_Sympathetic_Magic
1.03_-_Tara,_Liberator_from_the_Eight_Dangers
1.03_-_The_Coming_of_the_Subjective_Age
1.03_-_THE_EARTH_IN_ITS_EARLY_STAGES
1.03_-_The_End_of_the_Intellect
1.03_-_THE_GRAND_OPTION
1.03_-_The_Human_Disciple
1.03_-_The_Phenomenon_of_Man
1.03_-_The_Uncreated
1.03_-_Time_Series,_Information,_and_Communication
1.04_-_Body,_Soul_and_Spirit
1.04_-_Feedback_and_Oscillation
1.04_-_Narayana_appearance,_in_the_beginning_of_the_Kalpa,_as_the_Varaha_(boar)
1.04_-_On_Knowledge_of_the_Future_World.
1.04_-_Reality_Omnipresent
1.04_-_SOME_REFLECTIONS_ON_PROGRESS
1.04_-_The_Aims_of_Psycho_therapy
1.04_-_THE_APPEARANCE_OF_ANOMALY_-_CHALLENGE_TO_THE_SHARED_MAP
1.04_-_The_Conditions_of_Esoteric_Training
1.04_-_The_Core_of_the_Teaching
1.04_-_The_Discovery_of_the_Nation-Soul
1.04_-_The_Divine_Mother_-_This_Is_She
1.04_-_The_Future_of_Man
1.04_-_The_Gods_of_the_Veda
1.04_-_The_Need_of_Guru
1.04_-_The_Origin_and_Development_of_Poetry.
1.04_-_The_Paths
1.04_-_The_Sacrifice_the_Triune_Path_and_the_Lord_of_the_Sacrifice
1.04_-_The_Self
1.04_-_What_Arjuna_Saw_-_the_Dark_Side_of_the_Force
1.04_-_Yoga_and_Human_Evolution
1.05_-_2010_and_1956_-_Doomsday?
1.05_-_Adam_Kadmon
1.05_-_Buddhism_and_Women
1.05_-_CHARITY
1.05_-_Christ,_A_Symbol_of_the_Self
1.05_-_Computing_Machines_and_the_Nervous_System
1.05_-_Consciousness
1.05_-_Dharana
1.05_-_Mental_Education
1.05_-_Problems_of_Modern_Psycho_therapy
1.05_-_Qualifications_of_the_Aspirant_and_the_Teacher
1.05_-_Some_Results_of_Initiation
1.05_-_The_Activation_of_Human_Energy
1.05_-_The_Ascent_of_the_Sacrifice_-_The_Psychic_Being
1.05_-_The_Destiny_of_the_Individual
1.05_-_THE_HOSTILE_BROTHERS_-_ARCHETYPES_OF_RESPONSE_TO_THE_UNKNOWN
1.05_-_THE_NEW_SPIRIT
1.05_-_The_Universe__The_0_=_2_Equation
1.05_-_True_and_False_Subjectivism
1.05_-_War_And_Politics
1.05_-_Yoga_and_Hypnotism
1.06_-_Agni_and_the_Truth
1.06_-_A_Summary_of_my_Phenomenological_View_of_the_World
1.06_-_Being_Human_and_the_Copernican_Principle
1.06_-_Dhyana
1.06_-_Five_Dreams
1.06_-_LIFE_AND_THE_PLANETS
1.06_-_Magicians_as_Kings
1.06_-_Psychic_Education
1.06_-_Psycho_therapy_and_a_Philosophy_of_Life
1.06_-_Quieting_the_Vital
1.06_-_The_Ascent_of_the_Sacrifice_2_The_Works_of_Love_-_The_Works_of_Life
1.06_-_The_Objective_and_Subjective_Views_of_Life
1.06_-_The_Sign_of_the_Fishes
1.06_-_The_Transformation_of_Dream_Life
1.070_-_The_Seven_Stages_of_Perfection
1.075_-_Self-Control,_Study_and_Devotion_to_God
1.07_-_A_Song_of_Longing_for_Tara,_the_Infallible
1.07_-_Bridge_across_the_Afterlife
1.07_-_Incarnate_Human_Gods
1.07_-_Note_on_the_word_Go
1.07_-_Savitri
1.07_-_Standards_of_Conduct_and_Spiritual_Freedom
1.07_-_The_Continuity_of_Consciousness
1.07_-_The_Ego_and_the_Dualities
1.07_-_The_Farther_Reaches_of_Human_Nature
1.07_-_The_Fire_of_the_New_World
1.07_-_THE_GREAT_EVENT_FORESHADOWED_-_THE_PLANETIZATION_OF_MANKIND
1.07_-_The_Ideal_Law_of_Social_Development
1.07_-_The_Literal_Qabalah_(continued)
1.07_-_The_Magic_Wand
1.07_-_The_Prophecies_of_Nostradamus
1.07_-_The_Psychic_Center
1.089_-_The_Levels_of_Concentration
1.08a_-_The_Ladder
1.08_-_Civilisation_and_Barbarism
1.08_-_Independence_from_the_Physical
1.08_-_Information,_Language,_and_Society
1.08_-_Karma,_the_Law_of_Cause_and_Effect
1.08_-_Psycho_therapy_Today
1.08_-_RELIGION_AND_TEMPERAMENT
1.08_-_SOME_REFLECTIONS_ON_THE_SPIRITUAL_REPERCUSSIONS_OF_THE_ATOM_BOMB
1.08_-_Sri_Aurobindos_Descent_into_Death
1.08_-_Stead_and_the_Spirits
1.08_-_The_Depths_of_the_Divine
1.08_-_The_Four_Austerities_and_the_Four_Liberations
1.08_-_The_Gods_of_the_Veda_-_The_Secret_of_the_Veda
1.08_-_The_Historical_Significance_of_the_Fish
1.08_-_The_Methods_of_Vedantic_Knowledge
1.08_-_The_Splitting_of_the_Human_Personality_during_Spiritual_Training
1.08_-_The_Supreme_Will
1.08_-_The_Synthesis_of_Movement
1.08_-_The_Three_Schools_of_Magick_3
1.096_-_Powers_that_Accrue_in_the_Practice
1.099_-_The_Entry_of_the_Eternal_into_the_Individual
1.09_-_Civilisation_and_Culture
1.09_-_Equality_and_the_Annihilation_of_Ego
1.09_-_FAITH_IN_PEACE
1.09_-_Fundamental_Questions_of_Psycho_therapy
1.09_-_SELF-KNOWLEDGE
1.09_-_SKIRMISHES_IN_A_WAY_WITH_THE_AGE
1.09_-_Sleep_and_Death
1.09_-_Sri_Aurobindo_and_the_Big_Bang
1.09_-_The_Ambivalence_of_the_Fish_Symbol
1.09_-_The_Crown,_Cap,_Magus-Band
1.09_-_The_Greater_Self
1.09_-_The_Guardian_of_the_Threshold
1.1.01_-_Seeking_the_Divine
1.1.03_-_Brahman
11.03_-_Cosmonautics
1.1.03_-_Man
1.1.04_-_The_Self_or_Atman
1.1.05_-_The_Siddhis
1.10_-_Aesthetic_and_Ethical_Culture
1.10_-_Conscious_Force
1.10_-_Fate_and_Free-Will
1.10_-_GRACE_AND_FREE_WILL
1.10_-_Life_and_Death._The_Greater_Guardian_of_the_Threshold
1.10_-_THE_FORMATION_OF_THE_NOOSPHERE
1.10_-_The_Image_of_the_Oceans_and_the_Rivers
1.10_-_The_Methods_and_the_Means
1.10_-_Theodicy_-_Nature_Makes_No_Mistakes
1.10_-_The_Secret_of_the_Veda
1.10_-_The_Yoga_of_the_Intelligent_Will
11.15_-_Sri_Aurobindo
1.11_-_Correspondence_and_Interviews
1.11_-_Delight_of_Existence_-_The_Problem
1.11_-_FAITH_IN_MAN
1.11_-_GOOD_AND_EVIL
1.11_-_Higher_Laws
1.11_-_The_Kalki_Avatar
1.11_-_The_Reason_as_Governor_of_Life
1.11_-_The_Soul_or_the_Astral_Body
1.11_-_The_Three_Purushas
1.1.2_-_Commentary
1.12_-_Delight_of_Existence_-_The_Solution
1.12_-_God_Departs
1.12_-_SOME_REFLECTIONS_ON_THE_RIGHTS_OF_MAN
1.12_-_The_Divine_Work
1.12_-_The_Office_and_Limitations_of_the_Reason
1.12_-_The_Sociology_of_Superman
1.12_-_The_Superconscient
1.13_-_Conclusion_-_He_is_here
1.13_-_Gnostic_Symbols_of_the_Self
1.13_-_Reason_and_Religion
1.13_-_System_of_the_O.T.O.
1.13_-_The_Divine_Maya
1.13_-_THE_HUMAN_REBOUND_OF_EVOLUTION_AND_ITS_CONSEQUENCES
1.13_-_The_Supermind_and_the_Yoga_of_Works
1.13_-_Under_the_Auspices_of_the_Gods
1.14_-_The_Limits_of_Philosophical_Knowledge
1.1.4_-_The_Physical_Mind_and_Sadhana
1.14_-_The_Principle_of_Divine_Works
1.14_-_The_Secret
1.14_-_The_Structure_and_Dynamics_of_the_Self
1.14_-_The_Supermind_as_Creator
1.14_-_The_Suprarational_Beauty
1.14_-_TURMOIL_OR_GENESIS?
1.15_-_Index
1.15_-_In_the_Domain_of_the_Spirit_Beings
1.15_-_THE_DIRECTIONS_AND_CONDITIONS_OF_THE_FUTURE
1.15_-_The_Supreme_Truth-Consciousness
1.1.5_-_Thought_and_Knowledge
1.15_-_Truth
1.16_-_Advantages_and_Disadvantages_of_Evocational_Magic
1.16_-_Man,_A_Transitional_Being
1.16_-_PRAYER
1.16_-_The_Process_of_Avatarhood
1.16_-_The_Suprarational_Ultimate_of_Life
1.16_-_The_Triple_Status_of_Supermind
1.17_-_DOES_MANKIND_MOVE_BIOLOGICALLY_UPON_ITSELF?
1.17_-_God
1.17_-_Religion_as_the_Law_of_Life
1.17_-_The_Divine_Birth_and_Divine_Works
1.17_-_The_Seven-Headed_Thought,_Swar_and_the_Dashagwas
1.17_-_The_Spiritus_Familiaris_or_Serving_Spirits
1.17_-_The_Transformation
1.18_-_Asceticism
1.18_-_Evocation
1.18_-_Mind_and_Supermind
1.18_-_THE_HEART_OF_THE_PROBLEM
1.18_-_The_Infrarational_Age_of_the_Cycle
1.19_-_Life
1.19_-_ON_THE_PROBABLE_EXISTENCE_AHEAD_OF_US_OF_AN_ULTRA-HUMAN
1.19_-_The_Curve_of_the_Rational_Age
1.201_-_Socrates
1.2.01_-_The_Call_and_the_Capacity
1.2.05_-_Aspiration
12.07_-_The_Double_Trinity
1.2.09_-_Consecration_and_Offering
1.20_-_HOW_MAY_WE_CONCEIVE_AND_HOPE_THAT_HUMAN_UNANIMIZATION_WILL_BE_REALIZED_ON_EARTH?
1.20_-_The_End_of_the_Curve_of_Reason
1.20_-_The_Hound_of_Heaven
1.2.11_-_Patience_and_Perseverance
1.21_-_FROM_THE_PRE-HUMAN_TO_THE_ULTRA-HUMAN,_THE_PHASES_OF_A_LIVING_PLANET
1.21_-_IDOLATRY
1.2.1_-_Mental_Development_and_Sadhana
1.21_-_The_Ascent_of_Life
1.21_-_The_Spiritual_Aim_and_Life
1.22_-_THE_END_OF_THE_SPECIES
1.22_-_The_Necessity_of_the_Spiritual_Transformation
1.2.2_-_The_Place_of_Study_in_Sadhana
1.22_-_The_Problem_of_Life
1.23_-_Conditions_for_the_Coming_of_a_Spiritual_Age
1.23_-_The_Double_Soul_in_Man
1.2.3_-_The_Power_of_Expression_and_Yoga
1.240_-_1.300_Talks
1.240_-_Talks_2
1.24_-_Matter
1.24_-_RITUAL,_SYMBOL,_SACRAMENT
1.25_-_The_Knot_of_Matter
1.26_-_The_Ascending_Series_of_Substance
1.27_-_CONTEMPLATION,_ACTION_AND_SOCIAL_UTILITY
1.27_-_The_Sevenfold_Chord_of_Being
1.28_-_Supermind,_Mind_and_the_Overmind_Maya
1.29_-_The_Myth_of_Adonis
1.300_-_1.400_Talks
1.3.01_-_Peace__The_Basis_of_the_Sadhana
13.02_-_A_Review_of_Sri_Aurobindos_Life
13.05_-_A_Dream_Of_Surreal_Science
1.3.05_-_Silence
1.31_-_Adonis_in_Cyprus
1.3.5.04_-_The_Evolution_of_Consciousness
1.35_-_The_Tao_2
1.400_-_1.450_Talks
1.4.01_-_The_Divine_Grace_and_Guidance
1.4.02_-_The_Divine_Force
1.4.03_-_The_Guru
14.06_-_Liberty,_Self-Control_and_Friendship
1.439
1.43_-_The_Holy_Guardian_Angel_is_not_the_Higher_Self_but_an_Objective_Individual
1.450_-_1.500_Talks
1.46_-_The_Corn-Mother_in_Many_Lands
1.49_-_Thelemic_Morality
1.53_-_Mother-Love
1.550_-_1.600_Talks
1.63_-_Fear,_a_Bad_Astral_Vision
1.63_-_The_Interpretation_of_the_Fire-Festivals
1.64_-_Magical_Power
1.72_-_Education
1.75_-_The_AA_and_the_Planet
1.83_-_Epistola_Ultima
1912_11_28p
1914_12_10p
1916_01_23p
1916_06_07p
1929-04-21_-_Visions,_seeing_and_interpretation_-_Dreams_and_dreaml_and_-_Dreamless_sleep_-_Visions_and_formulation_-_Surrender,_passive_and_of_the_will_-_Meditation_and_progress_-_Entering_the_spiritual_life,_a_plunge_into_the_Divine
1929-05-05_-_Intellect,_true_and_wrong_movement_-_Attacks_from_adverse_forces_-_Faith,_integral_and_absolute_-_Death,_not_a_necessity_-_Descent_of_Divine_Consciousness_-_Inner_progress_-_Memory_of_former_lives
1929-05-26_-_Individual,_illusion_of_separateness_-_Hostile_forces_and_the_mental_plane_-_Psychic_world,_psychic_being_-_Spiritual_and_psychic_-_Words,_understanding_speech_and_reading_-_Hostile_forces,_their_utility_-_Illusion_of_action,_true_action
1950-12-21_-_The_Mother_of_Dreams
1951-01-08_-_True_vision_and_understanding_of_the_world._Progress,_equilibrium._Inner_reality_-_the_psychic._Animals_and_the_psychic.
1951-01-20_-_Developing_the_mind._Misfortunes,_suffering;_developed_reason._Knowledge_and_pure_ideas.
1951-02-08_-_Unifying_the_being_-_ideas_of_good_and_bad_-_Miracles_-_determinism_-_Supreme_Will_-_Distinguishing_the_voice_of_the_Divine
1951-02-17_-_False_visions_-_Offering_ones_will_-_Equilibrium_-_progress_-_maturity_-_Ardent_self-giving-_perfecting_the_instrument_-_Difficulties,_a_help_in_total_realisation_-_paradoxes_-_Sincerity_-_spontaneous_meditation
1951-02-19_-_Exteriorisation-_clairvoyance,_fainting,_etc_-_Somnambulism_-_Tartini_-_childrens_dreams_-_Nightmares_-_gurus_protection_-_Mind_and_vital_roam_during_sleep
1951-02-24_-_Psychic_being_and_entity_-_dimensions_-_in_the_atom_-_Death_-_exteriorisation_-_unconsciousness_-_Past_lives_-_progress_upon_earth_-_choice_of_birth_-_Consecration_to_divine_Work_-_psychic_memories_-_Individualisation_-_progress
1951-03-08_-_Silencing_the_mind_-_changing_the_nature_-_Reincarnation-_choice_-_Psychic,_higher_beings_gods_incarnating_-_Incarnation_of_vital_beings_-_the_Lord_of_Falsehood_-_Hitler_-_Possession_and_madness
1951-03-14_-_Plasticity_-_Conditions_for_knowing_the_Divine_Will_-_Illness_-_microbes_-_Fear_-_body-reflexes_-_The_best_possible_happens_-_Theories_of_Creation_-_True_knowledge_-_a_work_to_do_-_the_Ashram
1951-03-24_-_Descent_of_Divine_Love,_of_Consciousness_-_Earth-_a_symbolic_formation_-_the_Divine_Presence_-_The_psychic_being_and_other_worlds_-_Divine_Love_and_Grace_-_Becoming_consaious_of_Divine_Love_-_Finding_ones_psychic_being_-_Responsibility
1951-03-26_-_Losing_all_to_gain_all_-_psychic_being_-_Transforming_the_vital_-_physical_habits_-_the_subconscient_-_Overcoming_difficulties_-_weakness,_an_insincerity_-_to_change_the_world_-_Psychic_source,_flash_of_experience_-_preparation_for_yoga
1951-04-12_-_Japan,_its_art,_landscapes,_life,_etc_-_Fairy-lore_of_Japan_-_Culture-_its_spiral_movement_-_Indian_and_European-_the_spiritual_life_-_Art_and_Truth
1951-04-17_-_Unity,_diversity_-_Protective_envelope_-_desires_-_consciousness,_true_defence_-_Perfection_of_physical_-_cinema_-_Choice,_constant_and_conscious_-_law_of_ones_being_-_the_One,_the_Multiplicity_-_Civilization-_preparing_an_instrument
1951-04-21_-_Sri_Aurobindos_letter_on_conditions_for_doing_yoga_-_Aspiration,_tapasya,_surrender_-_The_lower_vital_-_old_habits_-_obsession_-_Sri_Aurobindo_on_choice_and_the_double_life_-_The_old_fiasco_-_inner_realisation_and_outer_change
1953-09-16
1953-10-07
1953-10-28
1953-12-16
1954-02-03_-_The_senses_and_super-sense_-_Children_can_be_moulded_-_Keeping_things_in_order_-_The_shadow
1954-02-10_-_Study_a_variety_of_subjects_-_Memory_-Memory_of_past_lives_-_Getting_rid_of_unpleasant_thoughts
1954-02-17_-_Experience_expressed_in_different_ways_-_Origin_of_the_psychic_being_-_Progress_in_sports_-Everything_is_not_for_the_best
1954-03-03_-_Occultism_-_A_French_scientists_experiment
1954-03-24_-_Dreams_and_the_condition_of_the_stomach_-_Tobacco_and_alcohol_-_Nervousness_-_The_centres_and_the_Kundalini_-_Control_of_the_senses
1954-04-14_-_Love_-_Can_a_person_love_another_truly?_-_Parental_love
1954-10-06_-_What_happens_is_for_the_best_-_Blaming_oneself_-Experiences_-_The_vital_desire-soul_-Creating_a_spiritual_atmosphere_-Thought_and_Truth
1954-11-24_-_Aspiration_mixed_with_desire_-_Willing_and_desiring_-_Children_and_desires_-_Supermind_and_the_higher_ranges_of_mind_-_Stages_in_the_supramental_manifestation
1954-12-22_-_Possession_by_hostile_forces_-_Purity_and_morality_-_Faith_in_the_final_success_-Drawing_back_from_the_path
1955-02-09_-_Desire_is_contagious_-_Primitive_form_of_love_-_the_artists_delight_-_Psychic_need,_mind_as_an_instrument_-_How_the_psychic_being_expresses_itself_-_Distinguishing_the_parts_of_ones_being_-_The_psychic_guides_-_Illness_-_Mothers_vision
1955-02-23_-_On_the_sense_of_taste,_educating_the_senses_-_Fasting_produces_a_state_of_receptivity,_drawing_energy_-_The_body_and_food
1955-03-09_-_Psychic_directly_contacted_through_the_physical_-_Transforming_egoistic_movements_-_Work_of_the_psychic_being_-_Contacting_the_psychic_and_the_Divine_-_Experiences_of_different_kinds_-_Attacks_of_adverse_forces
1955-03-23_-_Procedure_for_rejection_and_transformation_-_Learning_by_heart,_true_understanding_-_Vibrations,_movements_of_the_species_-_A_cat_and_a_Russian_peasant_woman_-_A_cat_doing_yoga
1955-04-06_-_Freuds_psychoanalysis,_the_subliminal_being_-_The_psychic_and_the_subliminal_-_True_psychology_-_Changing_the_lower_nature_-_Faith_in_different_parts_of_the_being_-_Psychic_contact_established_in_all_in_the_Ashram
1955-04-13_-_Psychoanalysts_-_The_underground_super-ego,_dreams,_sleep,_control_-_Archetypes,_Overmind_and_higher_-_Dream_of_someone_dying_-_Integral_repose,_entering_Sachchidananda_-_Organising_ones_life,_concentration,_repose
1955-05-18_-_The_Problem_of_Woman_-_Men_and_women_-_The_Supreme_Mother,_the_new_creation_-_Gods_and_goddesses_-_A_story_of_Creation,_earth_-_Psychic_being_only_on_earth,_beings_everywhere_-_Going_to_other_worlds_by_occult_means
1955-05-25_-_Religion_and_reason_-_true_role_and_field_-_an_obstacle_to_or_minister_of_the_Spirit_-_developing_and_meaning_-_Learning_how_to_live,_the_elite_-_Reason_controls_and_organises_life_-_Nature_is_infrarational
1955-06-08_-_Working_for_the_Divine_-_ideal_attitude_-_Divine_manifesting_-_reversal_of_consciousness,_knowing_oneself_-_Integral_progress,_outer,_inner,_facing_difficulties_-_People_in_Ashram_-_doing_Yoga_-_Children_given_freedom,_choosing_yoga
1955-06-15_-_Dynamic_realisation,_transformation_-_The_negative_and_positive_side_of_experience_-_The_image_of_the_dry_coconut_fruit_-_Purusha,_Prakriti,_the_Divine_Mother_-_The_Truth-Creation_-_Pralaya_-_We_are_in_a_transitional_period
1955-06-29_-_The_true_vital_and_true_physical_-_Time_and_Space_-_The_psychics_memory_of_former_lives_-_The_psychic_organises_ones_life_-_The_psychics_knowledge_and_direction
1955-08-03_-_Nothing_is_impossible_in_principle_-_Psychic_contact_and_psychic_influence_-_Occult_powers,_adverse_influences;_magic_-_Magic,_occultism_and_Yogic_powers_-Hypnotism_and_its_effects
1955-09-21_-_Literature_and_the_taste_for_forms_-_The_characters_of_The_Great_Secret_-_How_literature_helps_us_to_progress_-_Reading_to_learn_-_The_commercial_mentality_-_How_to_choose_ones_books_-_Learning_to_enrich_ones_possibilities_...
1955-10-12_-_The_problem_of_transformation_-_Evolution,_man_and_superman_-_Awakening_need_of_a_higher_good_-_Sri_Aurobindo_and_earths_history_-_Setting_foot_on_the_new_path_-_The_true_reality_of_the_universe_-_the_new_race_-_...
1955-10-19_-_The_rhythms_of_time_-_The_lotus_of_knowledge_and_perfection_-_Potential_knowledge_-_The_teguments_of_the_soul_-_Shastra_and_the_Gurus_direct_teaching_-_He_who_chooses_the_Infinite...
1955-10-26_-_The_Divine_and_the_universal_Teacher_-_The_power_of_the_Word_-_The_Creative_Word,_the_mantra_-_Sound,_music_in_other_worlds_-_The_domains_of_pure_form,_colour_and_ideas
1955-11-02_-_The_first_movement_in_Yoga_-_Interiorisation,_finding_ones_soul_-_The_Vedic_Age_-_An_incident_about_Vivekananda_-_The_imaged_language_of_the_Vedas_-_The_Vedic_Rishis,_involutionary_beings_-_Involution_and_evolution
1955-11-16_-_The_significance_of_numbers_-_Numbers,_astrology,_true_knowledge_-_Divines_Love_flowers_for_Kali_puja_-_Desire,_aspiration_and_progress_-_Determining_ones_approach_to_the_Divine_-_Liberation_is_obtained_through_austerities_-_...
1955-11-23_-_One_reality,_multiple_manifestations_-_Integral_Yoga,_approach_by_all_paths_-_The_supreme_man_and_the_divine_man_-_Miracles_and_the_logic_of_events
1956-01-25_-_The_divine_way_of_life_-_Divine,_Overmind,_Supermind_-_Material_body__for_discovery_of_the_Divine_-_Five_psychological_perfections
1956-06-06_-_Sign_or_indication_from_books_of_revelation_-_Spiritualised_mind_-_Stages_of_sadhana_-_Reversal_of_consciousness_-_Organisation_around_central_Presence_-_Boredom,_most_common_human_malady
1956-06-13_-_Effects_of_the_Supramental_action_-_Education_and_the_Supermind_-_Right_to_remain_ignorant_-_Concentration_of_mind_-_Reason,_not_supreme_capacity_-_Physical_education_and_studies_-_inner_discipline_-_True_usefulness_of_teachers
1956-06-20_-_Hearts_mystic_light,_intuition_-_Psychic_being,_contact_-_Secular_ethics_-_True_role_of_mind_-_Realise_the_Divine_by_love_-_Depression,_pleasure,_joy_-_Heart_mixture_-_To_follow_the_soul_-_Physical_process_-_remember_the_Mother
1956-06-27_-_Birth,_entry_of_soul_into_body_-_Formation_of_the_supramental_world_-_Aspiration_for_progress_-_Bad_thoughts_-_Cerebral_filter_-_Progress_and_resistance
1956-08-01_-_Value_of_worship_-_Spiritual_realisation_and_the_integral_yoga_-_Symbols,_translation_of_experience_into_form_-_Sincerity,_fundamental_virtue_-_Intensity_of_aspiration,_with_anguish_or_joy_-_The_divine_Grace
1956-08-15_-_Protection,_purification,_fear_-_Atmosphere_at_the_Ashram_on_Darshan_days_-_Darshan_messages_-_Significance_of_15-08_-_State_of_surrender_-_Divine_Grace_always_all-powerful_-_Assumption_of_Virgin_Mary_-_SA_message_of_1947-08-15
1956-08-22_-_The_heaven_of_the_liberated_mind_-_Trance_or_samadhi_-_Occult_discipline_for_leaving_consecutive_bodies_-_To_be_greater_than_ones_experience_-_Total_self-giving_to_the_Grace_-_The_truth_of_the_being_-_Unique_relation_with_the_Supreme
1956-08-29_-_To_live_spontaneously_-_Mental_formations_Absolute_sincerity_-_Balance_is_indispensable,_the_middle_path_-_When_in_difficulty,_widen_the_consciousness_-_Easiest_way_of_forgetting_oneself
1956-10-10_-_The_supramental_race__in_a_few_centuries_-_Condition_for_new_realisation_-_Everyone_must_follow_his_own_path_-_Progress,_no_two_paths_alike
1956-10-24_-_Taking_a_new_body_-_Different_cases_of_incarnation_-_Departure_of_soul_from_body
1956-11-14_-_Conquering_the_desire_to_appear_good_-_Self-control_and_control_of_the_life_around_-_Power_of_mastery_-_Be_a_great_yogi_to_be_a_good_teacher_-_Organisation_of_the_Ashram_school_-_Elementary_discipline_of_regularity
1956-11-21_-_Knowings_and_Knowledge_-_Reason,_summit_of_mans_mental_activities_-_Willings_and_the_true_will_-_Personal_effort_-_First_step_to_have_knowledge_-_Relativity_of_medical_knowledge_-_Mental_gymnastics_make_the_mind_supple
1956-12-05_-_Even_and_objectless_ecstasy_-_Transform_the_animal_-_Individual_personality_and_world-personality_-_Characteristic_features_of_a_world-personality_-_Expressing_a_universal_state_of_consciousness_-_Food_and_sleep_-_Ordered_intuition
1956-12-19_-_Preconceived_mental_ideas_-_Process_of_creation_-_Destructive_power_of_bad_thoughts_-_To_be_perfectly_sincere
1957-01-09_-_God_is_essentially_Delight_-_God_and_Nature_play_at_hide-and-seek_-__Why,_and_when,_are_you_grave?
1957-01-16_-_Seeking_something_without_knowing_it_-_Why_are_we_here?
1957-02-06_-_Death,_need_of_progress_-_Changing_Natures_methods
1957-03-06_-_Freedom,_servitude_and_love
1957-04-10_-_Sports_and_yoga_-_Organising_ones_life
1957-04-24_-_Perfection,_lower_and_higher
1957-05-01_-_Sports_competitions,_their_value
1957-05-08_-_Vital_excitement,_reason,_instinct
1957-05-15_-_Differentiation_of_the_sexes_-_Transformation_from_above_downwards
1957-06-19_-_Causes_of_illness_Fear_and_illness_-_Minds_working,_faith_and_illness
1957-06-26_-_Birth_through_direct_transmutation_-_Man_and_woman_-_Judging_others_-_divine_Presence_in_all_-_New_birth
1957-07-17_-_Power_of_conscious_will_over_matter
1957-09-11_-_Vital_chemistry,_attraction_and_repulsion
1957-09-18_-_Occultism_and_supramental_life
1957-09-25_-_Preparation_of_the_intermediate_being
1957-10-02_-_The_Mind_of_Light_-_Statues_of_the_Buddha_-_Burden_of_the_past
1957-10-16_-_Story_of_successive_involutions
1957-10-23_-_The_central_motive_of_terrestrial_existence_-_Evolution
1957-10-30_-_Double_movement_of_evolution_-_Disappearance_of_a_species
1957-11-13_-_Superiority_of_man_over_animal_-_Consciousness_precedes_form
1958-01-08_-_Sri_Aurobindos_method_of_exposition_-_The_mind_as_a_public_place_-_Mental_control_-_Sri_Aurobindos_subtle_hand
1958-01-22_-_Intellectual_theories_-_Expressing_a_living_and_real_Truth
1958-02-12_-_Psychic_progress_from_life_to_life_-_The_earth,_the_place_of_progress
1958-03-05_-_Vibrations_and_words_-_Power_of_thought,_the_gift_of_tongues
1958-03-12_-_The_key_of_past_transformations
1958-03-19_-_General_tension_in_humanity_-_Peace_and_progress_-_Perversion_and_vision_of_transformation
1958-04-09_-_The_eyes_of_the_soul_-_Perceiving_the_soul
1958-06-18_-_Philosophy,_religion,_occultism,_spirituality
1958-06-25_-_Sadhana_in_the_body
1958-07-23_-_How_to_develop_intuition_-_Concentration
1958-07-30_-_The_planchette_-_automatic_writing_-_Proofs_and_knowledge
1958-08-06_-_Collective_prayer_-_the_ideal_collectivity
1958-08-27_-_Meditation_and_imagination_-_From_thought_to_idea,_from_idea_to_principle
1958-09-10_-_Magic,_occultism,_physical_science
1958-09-17_-_Power_of_formulating_experience_-_Usefulness_of_mental_development
1958_09_19
1958-09-24_-_Living_the_truth_-_Words_and_experience
1958-10-29_-_Mental_self-sufficiency_-_Grace
1958-11-05_-_Knowing_how_to_be_silent
1958-11-12_-_The_aim_of_the_Supreme_-_Trust_in_the_Grace
1958_11_28
1960_04_07?_-_28
1960_07_06
1961_03_11_-_58
1961_03_17_-_57
1961_05_04_-_60
1961_07_27
1965_05_29
1965_12_26?
1966_09_14
1969_09_31?_-_165
1969_11_13
1969_11_25
1970_01_21
1970_01_28
1970_03_25
1.A_-_ANTHROPOLOGY,_THE_SOUL
1f.lovecraft_-_At_the_Mountains_of_Madness
1f.lovecraft_-_Medusas_Coil
1f.lovecraft_-_Out_of_the_Aeons
1f.lovecraft_-_The_Case_of_Charles_Dexter_Ward
1f.lovecraft_-_The_Dreams_in_the_Witch_House
1f.lovecraft_-_The_Dunwich_Horror
1f.lovecraft_-_The_Electric_Executioner
1f.lovecraft_-_The_Horror_at_Martins_Beach
1f.lovecraft_-_The_Last_Test
1f.lovecraft_-_The_Loved_Dead
1f.lovecraft_-_The_Man_of_Stone
1f.lovecraft_-_The_Mound
1f.lovecraft_-_The_Shadow_out_of_Time
1f.lovecraft_-_The_Shunned_House
1f.lovecraft_-_The_Temple
1f.lovecraft_-_The_Whisperer_in_Darkness
1f.lovecraft_-_Under_the_Pyramids
1f.lovecraft_-_Winged_Death
1.poe_-_Eureka_-_A_Prose_Poem
1.rb_-_Paracelsus_-_Part_III_-_Paracelsus
1.whitman_-_Carol_Of_Occupations
1.whitman_-_Song_of_Myself
1.whitman_-_Song_Of_Myself-_XXI
1.whitman_-_Song_Of_The_Exposition
2.01_-_Habit_1__Be_Proactive
2.01_-_On_Books
2.01_-_THE_ADVENT_OF_LIFE
2.01_-_The_Mother
2.01_-_The_Object_of_Knowledge
2.01_-_The_Therapeutic_value_of_Abreaction
2.01_-_The_Two_Natures
2.01_-_The_Yoga_and_Its_Objects
2.02_-_Brahman,_Purusha,_Ishwara_-_Maya,_Prakriti,_Shakti
2.02_-_Habit_2__Begin_with_the_End_in_Mind
2.02_-_On_Letters
2.02_-_THE_EXPANSION_OF_LIFE
2.02_-_The_Ishavasyopanishad_with_a_commentary_in_English
2.02_-_The_Mother_Archetype
2.02_-_The_Synthesis_of_Devotion_and_Knowledge
2.02_-_Yoga
2.03_-_DEMETER
2.03_-_Karmayogin__A_Commentary_on_the_Isha_Upanishad
2.03_-_On_Medicine
2.03_-_The_Christian_Phenomenon_and_Faith_in_the_Incarnation
2.03_-_THE_ENIGMA_OF_BOLOGNA
2.03_-_The_Mother-Complex
2.03_-_The_Purified_Understanding
2.03_-_The_Supreme_Divine
2.04_-_Positive_Aspects_of_the_Mother-Complex
2.05_-_Habit_3__Put_First_Things_First
2.05_-_Infinite_Worlds
2.05_-_The_Cosmic_Illusion;_Mind,_Dream_and_Hallucination
2.05_-_The_Religion_of_Tomorrow
2.06_-_On_Beauty
2.06_-_Reality_and_the_Cosmic_Illusion
2.06_-_The_Wand
2.06_-_Two_Tales_of_Seeking_and_Losing
2.07_-_I_Also_Try_to_Tell_My_Tale
2.07_-_On_Congress_and_Politics
2.07_-_The_Knowledge_and_the_Ignorance
2.07_-_The_Mother__Relations_with_Others
2.07_-_The_Release_from_Subjection_to_the_Body
2.07_-_The_Supreme_Word_of_the_Gita
2.08_-_ALICE_IN_WONDERLAND
2.08_-_Concentration
2.08_-_God_in_Power_of_Becoming
2.08_-_Memory,_Self-Consciousness_and_the_Ignorance
2.08_-_On_Non-Violence
2.09_-_Memory,_Ego_and_Self-Experience
2.09_-_On_Sadhana
2.09_-_The_Pantacle
2.0_-_THE_ANTICHRIST
2.1.01_-_The_Central_Process_of_the_Sadhana
21.01_-_The_Mother_The_Nature_of_Her_Work
2.1.02_-_Classification_of_the_Parts_of_the_Being
21.02_-_Gods_and_Men
2.1.03_-_Man_and_Superman
21.03_-_The_Double_Ladder
2.10_-_Knowledge_by_Identity_and_Separative_Knowledge
2.1.1.04_-_Reading,_Yogic_Force_and_the_Development_of_Style
2.11_-_The_Modes_of_the_Self
2.1.1_-_The_Nature_of_the_Vital
2.12_-_On_Miracles
2.12_-_The_Origin_of_the_Ignorance
2.12_-_The_Realisation_of_Sachchidananda
2.1.3.3_-_Reading
2.13_-_Exclusive_Concentration_of_Consciousness-Force_and_the_Ignorance
2.13_-_On_Psychology
2.13_-_The_Book
2.13_-_The_Difficulties_of_the_Mental_Being
2.1.3_-_Wrong_Movements_of_the_Vital
2.1.4.2_-_Teaching
2.14_-_On_Movements
2.1.4_-_The_Lower_Vital_Being
2.14_-_The_Origin_and_Remedy_of_Falsehood,_Error,_Wrong_and_Evil
2.14_-_The_Passive_and_the_Active_Brahman
2.14_-_The_Unpacking_of_God
2.1.5.5_-_Other_Subjects
2.15_-_Reality_and_the_Integral_Knowledge
2.16_-_The_Integral_Knowledge_and_the_Aim_of_Life;_Four_Theories_of_Existence
2.1.7.05_-_On_the_Inspiration_and_Writing_of_the_Poem
2.17_-_December_1938
2.17_-_The_Progress_to_Knowledge_-_God,_Man_and_Nature
2.18_-_January_1939
2.18_-_The_Evolutionary_Process_-_Ascent_and_Integration
2.18_-_The_Soul_and_Its_Liberation
2.19_-_Feb-May_1939
2.19_-_Out_of_the_Sevenfold_Ignorance_towards_the_Sevenfold_Knowledge
2.19_-_The_Planes_of_Our_Existence
2.19_-_Union,_Gestation,_Birth
2.2.01_-_The_Outer_Being_and_the_Inner_Being
2.2.01_-_The_Problem_of_Consciousness
2.2.01_-_Work_and_Yoga
2.2.02_-_Becoming_Conscious_in_Work
2.2.02_-_Consciousness_and_the_Inconscient
2.2.03_-_The_Psychic_Being
2.2.03_-_The_Science_of_Consciousness
2.2.04_-_Practical_Concerns_in_Work
2.2.05_-_Creative_Activity
2.20_-_The_Lower_Triple_Purusha
2.20_-_The_Philosophy_of_Rebirth
2.21_-_1940
2.21_-_The_Ladder_of_Self-transcendence
2.21_-_The_Order_of_the_Worlds
2.22_-_Rebirth_and_Other_Worlds;_Karma,_the_Soul_and_Immortality
2.22_-_The_Supreme_Secret
2.2.3_-_Depression_and_Despondency
2.23_-_Man_and_the_Evolution
2.23_-_The_Core_of_the_Gita.s_Meaning
2.2.4_-_Sentimentalism,_Sensitiveness,_Instability,_Laxity
2.24_-_The_Evolution_of_the_Spiritual_Man
2.24_-_The_Message_of_the_Gita
2.25_-_List_of_Topics_in_Each_Talk
2.25_-_The_Triple_Transformation
2.26_-_Samadhi
2.26_-_The_Ascent_towards_Supermind
2.2.7.01_-_Some_General_Remarks
2.27_-_The_Gnostic_Being
2.28_-_The_Divine_Life
2.3.03_-_Integral_Yoga
2.3.03_-_The_Overmind
2.3.04_-_The_Higher_Planes_of_Mind
2.3.05_-_Sadhana_through_Work_for_the_Mother
2.3.07_-_The_Mother_in_Visions,_Dreams_and_Experiences
2.3.08_-_The_Mother's_Help_in_Difficulties
2.3.08_-_The_Physical_Consciousness
2.3.10_-_The_Subconscient_and_the_Inconscient
2.3.1_-_Ego_and_Its_Forms
2.3.2_-_Desire
2.4.01_-_Divine_Love,_Psychic_Love_and_Human_Love
2.4.02.08_-_Contact_with_the_Divine
2.4.02_-_Bhakti,_Devotion,_Worship
2.4.1_-_Human_Relations_and_the_Spiritual_Life
2.4.2_-_Interactions_with_Others_and_the_Practice_of_Yoga
2.4.3_-_Problems_in_Human_Relations
29.04_-_Mothers_Playground
2_-_Other_Hymns_to_Agni
3.00.2_-_Introduction
30.09_-_Lines_of_Tantra_(Charyapada)
30.14_-_Rabindranath_and_Modernism
30.15_-_The_Language_of_Rabindranath
30.16_-_Tagore_the_Unique
3.01_-_Hymn_to_Matter
3.01_-_Natural_Morality
3.01_-_THE_BIRTH_OF_THOUGHT
3.01_-_The_Soul_World
3.01_-_Towards_the_Future
3.02_-_King_and_Queen
3.02_-_Mysticism
3.02_-_SOL
3.02_-_THE_DEPLOYMENT_OF_THE_NOOSPHERE
3.02_-_The_Formulae_of_the_Elemental_Weapons
3.02_-_The_Great_Secret
3.02_-_The_Motives_of_Devotion
3.02_-_The_Practice_Use_of_Dream-Analysis
3.02_-_The_Psychology_of_Rebirth
3.03_-_SULPHUR
3.03_-_The_Consummation_of_Mysticism
3.03_-_The_Four_Foundational_Practices
3.03_-_The_Godward_Emotions
3.03_-_THE_MODERN_EARTH
3.03_-_The_Naked_Truth
3.04_-_Immersion_in_the_Bath
3.04_-_LUNA
3.04_-_The_Formula_of_ALHIM
3.04_-_The_Spirit_in_Spirit-Land_after_Death
3.05_-_SAL
3.05_-_The_Central_Thought
3.05_-_The_Physical_World_and_its_Connection_with_the_Soul_and_Spirit-Lands
3.06_-_Death
3.06_-_The_Delight_of_the_Divine
3.06_-_Thought-Forms_and_the_Human_Aura
3.07_-_The_Formula_of_the_Holy_Grail
3.08_-_The_Mystery_of_Love
3.09_-_Of_Silence_and_Secrecy
3.0_-_THE_ETERNAL_RECURRENCE
3.1.01_-_The_Problem_of_Suffering_and_Evil
3.1.02_-_Spiritual_Evolution_and_the_Supramental
31.04_-_Sri_Ramakrishna
31.08_-_The_Unity_of_India
3.10_-_Punishment
3.10_-_The_New_Birth
3.1.2_-_Levels_of_the_Physical_Being
3.12_-_Of_the_Bloody_Sacrifice
3.1.3_-_Difficulties_of_the_Physical_Being
3.15_-_Of_the_Invocation
3.18_-_Of_Clairvoyance_and_the_Body_of_Light
3.2.01_-_The_Newness_of_the_Integral_Yoga
3.2.02_-_The_Veda_and_the_Upanishads
3.2.03_-_Jainism_and_Buddhism
3.2.04_-_The_Conservative_Mind_and_Eastern_Progress
3.2.05_-_Our_Ideal
32.06_-_The_Novel_Alchemy
3.2.08_-_Bhakti_Yoga_and_Vaishnavism
3.2.09_-_The_Teachings_of_Some_Modern_Indian_Yogis
3.2.10_-_Christianity_and_Theosophy
3.21_-_Of_Black_Magic
3.2.2_-_Sleep
3.2.3_-_Dreams
3.2.4_-_Sex
3.3.01_-_The_Superman
33.11_-_Pondicherry_II
3.3.1_-_Agni,_the_Divine_Will-Force
3.3.1_-_Illness_and_Health
3.3.3_-_Specific_Illnesses,_Ailments_and_Other_Physical_Problems
3.4.01_-_Evolution
3.4.02_-_The_Inconscient
3.4.03_-_Materialism
3.4.1.01_-_Poetry_and_Sadhana
3.5.03_-_Reason_and_Society
3-5_Full_Circle
3.6.01_-_Heraclitus
36.07_-_An_Introduction_To_The_Vedas
36.09_-_THE_SIT_SUKTA
37.05_-_Narada_-_Sanatkumara_(Chhandogya_Upanishad)
3.7.1.01_-_Rebirth
3.7.1.02_-_The_Reincarnating_Soul
3.7.1.03_-_Rebirth,_Evolution,_Heredity
3.7.1.05_-_The_Significance_of_Rebirth
3.7.1.06_-_The_Ascending_Unity
3.7.1.07_-_Involution_and_Evolution
3.7.1.09_-_Karma_and_Freedom
3.7.1.11_-_Rebirth_and_Karma
3.7.1.12_-_Karma_and_Justice
3.7.2.01_-_The_Foundation
3.7.2.03_-_Mind_Nature_and_Law_of_Karma
3.7.2.04_-_The_Higher_Lines_of_Karma
38.02_-_Hymns_and_Prayers
3.8.1.01_-_The_Needed_Synthesis
3.8.1.03_-_Meditation
3.8.1.04_-_Different_Methods_of_Writing
3_-_Commentaries_and_Annotated_Translations
4.01_-_Conclusion_-_My_intellectual_position
4.01_-_INTRODUCTION
4.01_-_THE_COLLECTIVE_ISSUE
4.01_-_The_Presence_of_God_in_the_World
4.01_-_The_Principle_of_the_Integral_Yoga
4.02_-_Autobiographical_Evidence
4.02_-_BEYOND_THE_COLLECTIVE_-_THE_HYPER-PERSONAL
4.02_-_Humanity_in_Progress
4.02_-_The_Integral_Perfection
4.02_-_The_Psychology_of_the_Child_Archetype
4.03_-_Prayer_to_the_Ever-greater_Christ
4.03_-_The_Meaning_of_Human_Endeavor
4.03_-_The_Psychology_of_Self-Perfection
4.03_-_The_Special_Phenomenology_of_the_Child_Archetype
4.03_-_THE_ULTIMATE_EARTH
4.04_-_Conclusion
4.04_-_The_Perfection_of_the_Mental_Being
4.04_-_THE_REGENERATION_OF_THE_KING
4.06_-_THE_KING_AS_ANTHROPOS
4.07_-_Purification-Intelligence_and_Will
4.08_-_THE_RELIGIOUS_PROBLEM_OF_THE_KINGS_RENEWAL
4.09_-_The_Liberation_of_the_Nature
4.0_-_NOTES_TO_ZARATHUSTRA
4.0_-_The_Path_of_Knowledge
4.1.01_-_The_Intellect_and_Yoga
4.10_-_The_Elements_of_Perfection
4.1.1.04_-_Foundations_of_the_Sadhana
4.1.1.05_-_The_Central_Process_of_the_Yoga
4.1.1_-_The_Difficulties_of_Yoga
4.11_-_The_Perfection_of_Equality
4.1.2_-_The_Difficulties_of_Human_Nature
4.15_-_Soul-Force_and_the_Fourfold_Personality
4.16_-_The_Divine_Shakti
4.17_-_The_Action_of_the_Divine_Shakti
4.18_-_Faith_and_shakti
4.19_-_The_Nature_of_the_supermind
4.20_-_The_Intuitive_Mind
4.2.1.03_-_The_Psychic_Deep_Within
4.2.1.06_-_Living_in_the_Psychic
4.21_-_The_Gradations_of_the_supermind
4.2.1_-_The_Right_Attitude_towards_Difficulties
4.2.2_-_Steps_towards_Overcoming_Difficulties
4.22_-_The_supramental_Thought_and_Knowledge
4.2.3.02_-_Signs_of_the_Psychic's_Coming_Forward
4.2.3.04_-_Means_of_Bringing_Forward_the_Psychic
4.2.3.05_-_Obstacles_to_the_Psychic's_Emergence
4.23_-_The_supramental_Instruments_--_Thought-process
4.2.3_-_Vigilance,_Resolution,_Will_and_the_Divine_Help
4.2.5.01_-_Psychisation_and_Spiritualisation
4.2.5.02_-_The_Psychic_and_the_Higher_Consciousness
4.25_-_Towards_the_supramental_Time_Vision
4.3.1_-_The_Hostile_Forces_and_the_Difficulties_of_Yoga
4.4.1.03_-_Both_Ascent_and_Descent_Necessary
4.4.3.03_-_Preparatory_Experiences_and_Descent
4.43_-_Chapter_Three
4.4.4.01_-_The_Descent_of_Peace,_Force,_Light,_Ananda
5.01_-_EPILOGUE
5.01_-_Message
5.01_-_On_the_Mysteries_of_the_Ascent_towards_God
5.02_-_Perfection_of_the_Body
5.03_-_The_Divine_Body
5.04_-_Supermind_and_the_Life_Divine
5.05_-_Supermind_and_Humanity
5.05_-_THE_OLD_ADAM
5.06_-_Supermind_in_the_Evolution
5.06_-_THE_TRANSFORMATION
5.07_-_Mind_of_Light
5.08_-_ADAM_AS_TOTALITY
5.1.02_-_The_Gods
5.2.01_-_Word-Formation
5.2.02_-_Aryan_Origins_-_The_Elementary_Roots_of_Language
5.3.04_-_Roots_in_M
5.3.05_-_The_Root_Mal_in_Greek
5.4.01_-_Notes_on_Root-Sounds
5.4.01_-_Occult_Knowledge
5.4.02_-_Occult_Powers_or_Siddhis
5_-_The_Phenomenology_of_the_Spirit_in_Fairytales
6.02_-_STAGES_OF_THE_CONJUNCTION
6.08_-_THE_CONTENT_AND_MEANING_OF_THE_FIRST_TWO_STAGES
6.09_-_THE_THIRD_STAGE_-_THE_UNUS_MUNDUS
6.0_-_Conscious,_Unconscious,_and_Individuation
6.10_-_THE_SELF_AND_THE_BOUNDS_OF_KNOWLEDGE
7.01_-_The_Soul_(the_Psychic)
7.02_-_The_Mind
7_-_Yoga_of_Sri_Aurobindo
Aeneid
APPENDIX_I_-_Curriculum_of_A._A.
Blazing_P1_-_Preconventional_consciousness
Blazing_P2_-_Map_the_Stages_of_Conventional_Consciousness
Blazing_P3_-_Explore_the_Stages_of_Postconventional_Consciousness
BOOK_II._--_PART_I._ANTHROPOGENESIS.
BOOK_II._--_PART_III._ADDENDA._SCIENCE_AND_THE_SECRET_DOCTRINE_CONTRASTED
BOOK_II._--_PART_II._THE_ARCHAIC_SYMBOLISM_OF_THE_WORLD-RELIGIONS
BOOK_I._--_PART_I._COSMIC_EVOLUTION
BOOK_I._--_PART_III._SCIENCE_AND_THE_SECRET_DOCTRINE_CONTRASTED
BOOK_I._--_PART_II._THE_EVOLUTION_OF_SYMBOLISM_IN_ITS_APPROXIMATE_ORDER
BOOK_V._-_Of_fate,_freewill,_and_God's_prescience,_and_of_the_source_of_the_virtues_of_the_ancient_Romans
BOOK_XIX._-_A_review_of_the_philosophical_opinions_regarding_the_Supreme_Good,_and_a_comparison_of_these_opinions_with_the_Christian_belief_regarding_happiness
BS_1_-_Introduction_to_the_Idea_of_God
ENNEAD_01.04_-_Whether_Animals_May_Be_Termed_Happy.
ENNEAD_04.03_-_Problems_About_the_Soul.
ENNEAD_04.03_-_Psychological_Questions.
ENNEAD_04.04_-_Questions_About_the_Soul.
ENNEAD_04.07_-_Of_the_Immortality_of_the_Soul:_Polemic_Against_Materialism.
ENNEAD_04.08_-_Of_the_Descent_of_the_Soul_Into_the_Body.
ENNEAD_05.01_-_The_Three_Principal_Hypostases,_or_Forms_of_Existence.
ENNEAD_05.03_-_Of_the_Hypostases_that_Mediate_Knowledge,_and_of_the_Superior_Principle.
ENNEAD_05.05_-_That_Intelligible_Entities_Are_Not_External_to_the_Intelligence_of_the_Good.
ENNEAD_05.07_-_Do_Ideas_of_Individuals_Exist?
ENNEAD_05.08_-_Concerning_Intelligible_Beauty.
ENNEAD_06.05_-_The_One_and_Identical_Being_is_Everywhere_Present_In_Its_Entirety.345
ENNEAD_06.05_-_The_One_Identical_Essence_is_Everywhere_Entirely_Present.
ENNEAD_06.07_-_How_Ideas_Multiplied,_and_the_Good.
ENNEAD_06.08_-_Of_the_Will_of_the_One.
Euthyphro
Gorgias
Liber
Liber_111_-_The_Book_of_Wisdom_-_LIBER_ALEPH_VEL_CXI
Liber_46_-_The_Key_of_the_Mysteries
Liber_71_-_The_Voice_of_the_Silence_-_The_Two_Paths_-_The_Seven_Portals
Maps_of_Meaning_text
Meno
MoM_References
r1912_01_14a
r1912_01_15
r1912_01_17
r1912_07_01
r1912_07_16
r1912_07_22
r1912_12_01
r1912_12_03b
r1912_12_05
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r1913_01_31
r1913_02_03
r1913_02_09
r1913_02_13
r1913_09_13
r1913_11_11
r1913_11_13
r1913_12_09
r1913_12_12b
r1913_12_25
r1913_12_28
r1913_12_31
r1914_01_03
r1914_03_27
r1914_04_04
r1914_04_08
r1914_05_12
r1914_05_23
r1914_07_01
r1914_07_10
r1914_07_22
r1914_08_01
r1914_11_04
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r1914_11_24
r1914_11_29
r1914_11_30
r1914_12_13
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r1914_12_16
r1914_12_17
r1914_12_18
r1914_12_20
r1914_12_30
r1915_01_01a
r1915_01_02
r1915_01_09
r1915_01_10
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r1915_05_20
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r1917_08_26
r1917_09_04
r1917_09_07
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r1917_09_13
r1918_02_14
r1918_02_22
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r1918_02_24
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r1918_04_22
r1918_04_30
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r1918_05_14
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r1927_04_13
r1927_04_14
r1927_10_24
Sayings_of_Sri_Ramakrishna_(text)
Sophist
Tablets_of_Baha_u_llah_text
Talks_001-025
Talks_026-050
Talks_051-075
Talks_100-125
Talks_151-175
Talks_600-652
Talks_With_Sri_Aurobindo_1
Talks_With_Sri_Aurobindo_2
The_Act_of_Creation_text
Theaetetus
The_Anapanasati_Sutta__A_Practical_Guide_to_Mindfullness_of_Breathing_and_Tranquil_Wisdom_Meditation
The_Book_of_Certitude_-_P1
The_Coming_Race_Contents
The_Dwellings_of_the_Philosophers
The_Essentials_of_Education
the_Eternal_Wisdom
The_Gold_Bug
The_Gospel_of_Thomas
The_Logomachy_of_Zos
The_Monadology
The_Riddle_of_this_World
The_Shadow_Out_Of_Time
Thus_Spoke_Zarathustra_text
Timaeus

PRIMARY CLASS

SIMILAR TITLES
development
Developmental Stage Theories
lines of development
Theory of Cognitive Development (Piaget)

DEFINITIONS


TERMS STARTING WITH

developmental ::: a. --> Pertaining to, or characteristic of, the process of development; as, the developmental power of a germ.

developmental psychology: also known as human development. It is the scientific study of the processes which underlie and control growth and change in behaviour over time.

developmental robotics (DevRob)

development environment "programming, tool" An integrated suite of {tools} to aid the {development} of {software} in a particular {language} or for a particular {application}. Usually, this consists of a {compiler} and {editor} and may also include one or more of a {debugger}, {profiler}, and {source code} manager. See also: {IDE}. (1999-08-01)

development environment ::: (programming, tool) An integrated suite of tools to aid the development of software in a particular language or for a particular application. Usually, this consists of a compiler and editor and may also include one or more of a debugger, profiler, and source code manager.See also: IDE. (1999-08-01)

development ::: n. --> The act of developing or disclosing that which is unknown; a gradual unfolding process by which anything is developed, as a plan or method, or an image upon a photographic plate; gradual advancement or growth through a series of progressive changes; also, the result of developing, or a developed state.
The series of changes which animal and vegetable organisms undergo in their passage from the embryonic state to maturity, from a lower to a higher state of organization.


development ::: The process of analysis, design, coding and testing software.

development The process of analysis, design, coding and testing software.

Development (accounting) - The changing of new ideas into commercial propositions.

Developmental Psychology ::: The area of psychology focused on how children grow psychologically to become who they are as adults.

Developmental Test and Evaluation ::: (programming) (DT&E) Activity which focuses on the technological and engineering aspects of a system or piece of equipment. (1996-05-13)

Developmental Test and Evaluation "programming" (DT&E) Activity which focuses on the technological and engineering aspects of a system or piece of equipment. (1996-05-13)

Development areas - Regions with high unemployment which qualify for government help aimed at attracting business. .

Development (economics) - A process to improve the lives of all people in a country. This involves not only raising living standards i.e. goods and services but the promotion of self esteem, dignity and respect, and the enlarging of peoples freedom to choose and to take control of their own lives.

DEVELOPMENT, LAW OF The law of development says that all monads develop their consciousness, that there are forces acting in different ways towards the final goal of life. K 1.41.10

Development Towns ::: New towns established in Israel to provide for urban growth, but essentially to house immigrants since 1950's, succeeding the ma'abarah, transitional camp, which had been widely used since 1948. Its goal was to offer communities both homes and employment opportunities, although it often did not succeed in raising initial lower economic status; used primarily for immigrants of Sephardi and eastern origin.

Development. Tr. from the French. London: Samuel


TERMS ANYWHERE

10 ordinary dreams) are usually in the great mass experiences of the vital plane, a world of supraphysical life, full of variety and interest, with many provinces, luminous or obscure, beauti- ful or perilous, often extremely attractive, where we can get much knowledge loo both of our concealed pans of nature and of things happening to us behind the veil and of others which are of concern for the development of our parts of nature. The vital being in us then may get very much attracted to this range of experience, may want to live more in it and less in the outer life.

2. In psychology, the act or process of exercising the mind, the faculty of connecting judgments; the power and fact of using reason; the thought-processes of discussion, debate, argumentation or inference; the manifestation of the discursive property of the mind; the actual use of arguments with a view to convince or persuade; the art and method or proving or demonstrating; the orderly development of thought with a view to, or the attainment of a conclusion believed to be valid. -- The origin, nature and value of reasoning are debated questions, with their answers ranging from spiritualism (reasoning as the exercise of a faculty of the soul) to materialism (reasoning as an epiphenomenon depending on the brain), with all the modern schools of psychology ordering themselves between them. A few points of agreement might be mentioned here: reasoning follows judgment and apprehension, whichever of the last two thought-processes comes first in our psychological development; reasoning proceeds according to four main types, namely deductive, inductive, presumptive and deceptive; reasoning assumes a belief in its own validity undisturbed by doubt, and implies various logical habits and methods which may be organized into a logical doctrine; reasoning requires a reference to some ultimate principles to justify its progress 3. In logic, Reasoning is the process of inference, it is the process of passing from certain propositions already known or assumed to be true, to another truth distinct from them but following from them; it is a discourse or argument which infers one proposition from another, or from a group of others having some common elements between them. The inference is necessary in the case of deductive reasoning; and contingent, probable or wrong, in the case of inductive, presumptive or deceptive reasoning respectively. -- There are various types of reasoning, and proper methods for each type. The definition, discussion, development and evaluation of these types and methods form an important branch of logic and its subdivisions. The details of the application of reasoning to the various sciences, form the subject of methodology. All these types are reducible to one or the other of the two fundamental processes or reasoning, namely deduction and induction. It must be added that the logical study of reasoning is normative logic does not analyze it simply in its natural development, but with a view to guide it towards coherence, validity or truth. -- T.G.

32-bit application "architecture, operating system" {IBM PC} software that runs in a 32-bit {flat address space}. The term {32-bit application} came about because {MS-DOS} and {Microsoft Windows} were originally written for the {Intel 8088} and {80286} {microprocessors}. These are {16 bit} microprocessors with a {segmented address space}. Programs with more than 64 kilobytes of code and/or data therefore had to switch between {segments} quite frequently. As this operation is quite time consuming in comparison to other machine operations, the application's performance may suffer. Furthermore, programming with segments is more involved than programming in a flat address space, giving rise to some complications in programming languages like "{memory models}" in {C} and {C++}. The shift from 16-bit software to 32-bit software on {IBM PC} {clones} became possible with the introduction of the {Intel 80386} microprocessor. This microprocessor and its successors support a segmented address space with 16-bit and 32 bit segments (more precisely: segments with 16- or 32-bit address offset) or a linear 32-bit address space. For compatibility reasons, however, much of the software is nevertheless written in 16-bit models. {Operating systems} like {Microsoft Windows} or {OS/2} provide the possibility to run 16-bit (segmented) programs as well as 32-bit programs. The former possibility exists for {backward compatibility} and the latter is usually meant to be used for new software development. See also {Win32s}. (1995-12-11)

9PAC "tool" 709 PACkage. A {report generator} for the {IBM 7090}, developed in 1959. [Sammet 1969, p.314. "IBM 7090 Prog Sys, SHARE 7090 9PAC Part I: Intro and Gen Princs", IBM J28-6166, White Plains, 1961]. (1995-02-07):-) {emoticon}; {semicolon}" {less than}"g" "chat" grin. An alternative to {smiley}. [{Jargon File}] (1998-01-18)"gr&d" "chat" Grinning, running and ducking. See {emoticon}. (1995-03-17)= {equals}" {greater than}? {question mark}?? "programming" A {Perl} quote-like {operator} used to delimit a {regular expression} (RE) like "?FOO?" that matches FOO at most once. The normal "/FOO/" form of regular expression will match FOO any number of times. The "??" operator will match again after a call to the "reset" operator. The operator is usually referred to as "??" but, taken literally, an empty RE like this (or "//") actually means to re-use the last successfully matched regular expression or, if there was none, empty string (which will always match). {Unix manual page}: perlop(1). (2009-05-28)@ {commercial at}@-party "event, history" /at'par-tee/ (Or "@-sign party") An antiquated term for a gathering of {hackers} at a science-fiction convention (especially the annual Worldcon) to which only people who had an {electronic mail address} were admitted. The term refers to the {commercial at} symbol, "@", in an e-mail address and dates back to the era when having an e-mail address was a distinguishing characteristic of the select few who worked with computers. Compare {boink}. [{Jargon File}] (2012-11-17)@Begin "text" The {Scribe} equivalent of {\begin}. [{Jargon File}] (2014-11-06)@stake "security, software" A computer security development group and consultancy dedicated to researching and documenting security flaws that exist in {operating systems}, {network} {protocols}, or software. @stake publishes information about security flaws through advisories, research reports, and tools. They release the information and tools to help system administrators, users, and software and hardware vendors better secure their systems. L0pht merged with @stake in January 2000. {@stake home (http://atstake.com/research/redirect.html)}. (2003-06-12)@XX "programming" 1. Part of the syntax of a {decorated name}, as used internally by {Microsoft}'s {Visual C} or {Visual C++} {compilers}. 2. The name of an example {instance variable} in the {Ruby} {programming language}. (2018-08-24)[incr Tcl] "language" An extension of {Tcl} that adds {classes} and {inheritence}. The name is a pun on {C++} - an {object-oriented} extension of {C} - [incr variable] is the Tcl {syntax} for adding one to a variable. [Origin? Availability?] (1998-11-27)\ {backslash}\begin "text, chat" The {LaTeX} command used with \end to delimit an environment within which the text is formatted in a certain way. E.g. \begin{table}...\end{table}. Used humorously in writing to indicate a context or to remark on the surrounded text. For example: \begin{flame} Predicate logic is the only good programming language. Anyone who would use anything else is an idiot. Also, all computers should be tredecimal instead of binary. \end{flame} {Scribe} users at {CMU} and elsewhere used to use @Begin/@End in an identical way (LaTeX was built to resemble Scribe). On {Usenet}, this construct would more frequently be rendered as ""FLAME ON"" and ""FLAME OFF"" (a la {HTML}), or "

aborted ::: a. --> Brought forth prematurely.
Rendered abortive or sterile; undeveloped; checked in normal development at a very early stage; as, spines are aborted branches.


abortion ::: n. --> The act of giving premature birth; particularly, the expulsion of the human fetus prematurely, or before it is capable of sustaining life; miscarriage.
The immature product of an untimely birth.
Arrest of development of any organ, so that it remains an imperfect formation or is absorbed.
Any fruit or produce that does not come to maturity, or anything which in its progress, before it is matured or perfect; a


abort ::: v. i. --> To miscarry; to bring forth young prematurely.
To become checked in normal development, so as either to remain rudimentary or shrink away wholly; to become sterile. ::: n. --> An untimely birth.
An aborted offspring.


accrementition ::: n. --> The process of generation by development of blastema, or fission of cells, in which the new formation is in all respect like the individual from which it proceeds.

Ada Core Technologies "company" (ACT) The company that maintains {GNAT}. Ada Core Technologies was founded in 1994 by the original authors of the GNAT compiler. ACT provides software for {Ada 95} development. {(http://gnat.com/)}. (2000-10-28)

Ada Programming Support Environment "tool, project" (APSE) A program or set of programs to support software development in the Ada language. [Examples?] (1997-06-30)

AD/Cycle "tool, product" Application Development cycle. A set of {SAA}-compatible {IBM}-sponsored products for program development, running on workstations accessing a central repository on a {mainframe}. The stages cover requirements, analysis and design, production of the application, building and testing and maintenance. Technologies used include code generators and {knowledge based systems} as well as languages and debuggers. (1994-10-24)

ADDD "tool" A Depository of Development Documents. A {public domain} Software Engineering Environment from {GMD} developed as part of the {STONE} project. (1995-02-03)

addle ::: n. --> Liquid filth; mire.
Lees; dregs. ::: a. --> Having lost the power of development, and become rotten, as eggs; putrid. Hence: Unfruitful or confused, as brains; muddled.


adhana-ks.etra (sadhan-kshetra) ::: the field of sadhana; the immediate environment, including "movements of birds, beasts, insects, people around", as a field of exercise and experiment, especially for the development of tapas, telepathy and trikaladr.s.t.i. ssadhana adhana sakti

ADL 1. "games" {Adventure Definition Language}. 2. "language" {Ada} Development Language. R.A. Lees, 1989. 3. "programming" {API} Definition Language. A project for Automatic Interface Test Generation. (1995-11-17)

ADS {Aion Development System}

Advanced Research Projects Agency Network "networking" (ARPANET) A pioneering longhaul {wide area network} funded by {DARPA} (when it was still called "ARPA"?). It became operational in 1968 and served as the basis for early networking research, as well as a central {backbone} during the development of the {Internet}. The ARPANET consisted of individual {packet switching} computers interconnected by {leased lines}. {Protocols} used include {FTP} and {telnet}. It has now been replaced by {NSFnet}. [1968 or 1969?] (1994-11-17)

Advanced Revelation "database" (AREV) A {database development environment} for {personal computers} available from {Revelation Software} since 1982. Originally based on the {PICK} {operating system}, there are over one million users worldwide in 1996. (1996-12-12)

Advanced RISC Machine "processor" (ARM, Originally {Acorn} RISC Machine). A series of low-cost, power-efficient 32-bit {RISC} {microprocessors} for embedded control, computing, {digital signal processing}, {games}, consumer {multimedia} and portable applications. It was the first commercial RISC microprocessor (or was the {MIPS R2000}?) and was licensed for production by {Asahi Kasei Microsystems}, {Cirrus Logic}, {GEC Plessey Semiconductors}, {Samsung}, {Sharp}, {Texas Instruments} and {VLSI Technology}. The ARM has a small and highly {orthogonal instruction set}, as do most RISC processors. Every instruction includes a four-bit code which specifies a condition (of the {processor status register}) which must be satisfied for the instruction to be executed. Unconditional execution is specified with a condition "true". Instructions are split into load and store which access memory and arithmetic and logic instructions which work on {registers} (two source and one destination). The ARM has 27 registers of which 16 are accessible in any particular processor mode. R15 combines the {program counter} and processor status byte, the other registers are general purpose except that R14 holds the {return address} after a {subroutine} call and R13 is conventionally used as a {stack pointer}. There are four processor modes: user, {interrupt} (with a private copy of R13 and R14), fast interrupt (private copies of R8 to R14) and {supervisor} (private copies of R13 and R14). The {ALU} includes a 32-bit {barrel-shifter} allowing, e.g., a single-{cycle} shift and add. The first ARM processor, the ARM1 was a prototype which was never released. The ARM2 was originally called the Acorn RISC Machine. It was designed by {Acorn Computers Ltd.} and used in the original {Archimedes}, their successor to the {BBC Micro} and {BBC Master} series which were based on the eight-bit {6502} {microprocessor}. It was clocked at 8 MHz giving an average performance of 4 - 4.7 {MIPS}. Development of the ARM family was then continued by a new company, {Advanced RISC Machines Ltd.} The {ARM3} added a {fully-associative} on-chip {cache} and some support for {multiprocessing}. This was followed by the {ARM600} chip which was an {ARM6} processor {core} with a 4-kilobyte 64-way {set-associative} {cache}, an {MMU} based on the MEMC2 chip, a {write buffer} (8 words?) and a {coprocessor} interface. The {ARM7} processor core uses half the power of the {ARM6} and takes around half the {die} size. In a full processor design ({ARM700} chip) it should provide 50% to 100% more performance. In July 1994 {VLSI Technology, Inc.} released the {ARM710} processor chip. {Thumb} is an implementation with reduced code size requirements, intended for {embedded} applications. An {ARM800} chip is also planned. {AT&T}, {IBM}, {Panasonic}, {Apple Coputer}, {Matsushita} and {Sanyo} either rely on, or manufacture, ARM 32-bit processor chips. {Usenet} newsgroup: {news:comp.sys.arm}. (1997-08-05)

Advantage Gen "language, software" A {CASE} tool for {rapid application development} which generates code from graphical {business process models}. Formerly called Information Engineering Facility (IEF) and produced by {Texas Instruments}, it was then bought by {Sterling Software, Inc.} who renamed it to COOL:Gen to fit into their COOL line of products. {Computer Associates International, Inc.} then acquired {Sterling Software, Inc.}, and renamed the tool "Advantage Gen". In 2003, CA are supporting Advantage Gen and adding support for {J2EE}/{EJB}, enhanced web enablement, {Web services} and {.Net}. {(http://www3.ca.com/Solutions/Product.asp?ID=256)}. (2003-06-23)

aecidium ::: n. --> A form of fruit in the cycle of development of the Rusts or Brands, an order of fungi, formerly considered independent plants.

aetiology ::: n. --> The science, doctrine, or demonstration of causes; esp., the investigation of the causes of any disease; the science of the origin and development of things.
The assignment of a cause.


aftergrowth ::: n. --> A second growth or crop, or (metaphorically) development.

agenesis ::: n. --> Any imperfect development of the body, or any anomaly of organization.

aham sarvasya prabhavo mattah sarvam pravartate ::: I am the birth of everything and from me all proceeds into development of action and movement. [Gita 10.8]

Aion Development System "artificial intelligence, product" (ADS) A commericial {expert system shell} developed by {Aion Corporation} that supported {forward chainging} and {backward chaining} and featured an {object-oriented} {knowledge representation} scheme, graphics and integrated with other {programming languages} like {C} and {Pascal}. ["Expert Systems in Chemistry Research", Markus C. Hemmer]. (2014-10-05)

Ajax "programming" (Asynchronous JavaScript And XML) A collection of techniques for creating interactive {web applications} without having to reload the complete {web page} in response to each user input, thus making the interaction faster. AJAX typically uses the {XMLHttpRequest} browser object to exchange data asynchronously with the {web server}. Alternatively, an {IFrame} object or dynamically added "script" tags may be used instead of XMLHttpRequest. Despite the name, Ajax can combine any browser scripting language (not just {JavaScript}) and any data representation (not just XML). Alternative data formats include {HTML}, plain text or {JSON}. Several Ajax {frameworks} are now available to simplify Ajax development. (2007-10-04)

Aladdin Enterprises "company" A small, privately owned, US software consulting and development company, founded in 1986, best known as the original developer of {Ghostscript}. Address: San Francisco Peninsula, California, USA. Not to be confused with {Aladdin Systems, Inc.}. {Aladdin Enterprises Home (http://aladdin.com/)}. (2003-09-24)

Alan Turing "person" Alan M. Turing, 1912-06-22/3? - 1954-06-07. A British mathematician, inventor of the {Turing Machine}. Turing also proposed the {Turing test}. Turing's work was fundamental in the theoretical foundations of computer science. Turing was a student and fellow of {King's College Cambridge} and was a graduate student at {Princeton University} from 1936 to 1938. While at Princeton Turing published "On Computable Numbers", a paper in which he conceived an {abstract machine}, now called a {Turing Machine}. Turing returned to England in 1938 and during World War II, he worked in the British Foreign Office. He masterminded operations at {Bletchley Park}, UK which were highly successful in cracking the Nazis "Enigma" codes during World War II. Some of his early advances in computer design were inspired by the need to perform many repetitive symbolic manipulations quickly. Before the building of the {Colossus} computer this work was done by a roomful of women. In 1945 he joined the {National Physical Laboratory} in London and worked on the design and construction of a large computer, named {Automatic Computing Engine} (ACE). In 1949 Turing became deputy director of the Computing Laboratory at Manchester where the {Manchester Automatic Digital Machine}, the worlds largest memory computer, was being built. He also worked on theories of {artificial intelligence}, and on the application of mathematical theory to biological forms. In 1952 he published the first part of his theoretical study of morphogenesis, the development of pattern and form in living organisms. Turing was gay, and died rather young under mysterious circumstances. He was arrested for violation of British homosexuality statutes in 1952. He died of potassium cyanide poisoning while conducting electrolysis experiments. An inquest concluded that it was self-administered but it is now thought by some to have been an accident. There is an excellent biography of Turing by Andrew Hodges, subtitled "The Enigma of Intelligence" and a play based on it called "Breaking the Code". There was also a popular summary of his work in Douglas Hofstadter's book "Gödel, Escher, Bach". {(http://AlanTuring.net/)}. (2001-10-09)

ALGOL W "language" A derivative of {ALGOL 60}. It introduced {double precision}, {complex numbers}, bit strings and dynamic data structures. It is {parsed} entirely by {operator precedence} and used the {call-by-value-result} calling convention. ["A Contribution to the Development of Algol", N. Wirth, CACM 9(6):413-431, June 1966]. ["ALGOL W Implementation", H. Bauer et al, TR CS98, Stanford U, 1968]. (1994-11-24)

Almost all the occult systems and disciplines aim at the development and mastery of the overmind.

altitude ::: A general degree of development (i.e., degree of consciousness or degree of complexity), applicable to any given line.

Amdahl Corporation "company" A US computer manufacturer. Amdahl is a major supplier of large {mainframes}, {UNIX} and {Open Systems} software and servers, data storage subsystems, data communications products, applications development software, and a variety of educational and consulting services. Amdahl products are sold in more than 30 countries for use in both open systems and {IBM} plug-compatible mainframe computing environments. Quarterly sales $397M, profits $13M (Aug 1994). In 1997 Amdahl became a division of {Fujitsu}. {(http://amdahl.com/)}. (1995-05-23)

Amiga "computer" A range of home computers first released by {Commodore Business Machines} in early 1985 (though they did not design the original - see below). Amigas were popular for {games}, {video processing}, and {multimedia}. One notable feature is a hardware {blitter} for speeding up graphics operations on whole areas of the screen. The Amiga was originally called the Lorraine, and was developed by a company named "Amiga" or "Amiga, Inc.", funded by some doctors to produce a killer game machine. After the US game machine market collapsed, the Amiga company sold some {joysticks} but no Lorraines or any other computer. They eventually floundered and looked for a buyer. Commodore at that time bought the (mostly complete) Amiga machine, infused some money, and pushed it through the final stages of development in a hurry. Commodore released it sometime[?] in 1985. Most components within the machine were known by nicknames. The {coprocessor} commonly called the "Copper" is in fact the "{Video} Timing Coprocessor" and is split between two chips: the instruction fetch and execute units are in the "Agnus" chip, and the {pixel} timing circuits are in the "Denise" chip (A for address, D for data). "Agnus" and "Denise" were responsible for effects timed to the {real-time} position of the video scan, such as midscreen {palette} changes, {sprite multiplying}, and {resolution} changes. Different versions (in order) were: "Agnus" (could only address 512K of {video RAM}), "Fat Agnus" (in a {PLCC} package, could access 1MB of video RAM), "Super Agnus" (slightly upgraded "Fat Agnus"). "Agnus" and "Fat Agnus" came in {PAL} and {NTSC} versions, "Super Agnus" came in one version, jumper selectable for PAL or NTSC. "Agnus" was replaced by "Alice" in the A4000 and A1200, which allowed for more {DMA} channels and higher bus {bandwidth}. "Denise" outputs binary video data (3*4 bits) to the "Vidiot". The "Vidiot" is a hybrid that combines and amplifies the 12-bit video data from "Denise" into {RGB} to the {monitor}. Other chips were "Amber" (a "flicker fixer", used in the A3000 and Commodore display enhancer for the A2000), "Gary" ({I/O}, addressing, G for {glue logic}), "Buster" (the {bus controller}, which replaced "Gary" in the A2000), "Buster II" (for handling the Zorro II/III cards in the A3000, which meant that "Gary" was back again), "Ramsey" (The {RAM} controller), "DMAC" (The DMA controller chip for the WD33C93 {SCSI adaptor} used in the A3000 and on the A2091/A2092 SCSI adaptor card for the A2000; and to control the {CD-ROM} in the {CDTV}), and "Paula" ({Peripheral}, Audio, {UART}, {interrupt} Lines, and {bus Arbiter}). There were several Amiga chipsets: the "Old Chipset" (OCS), the "Enhanced Chipset" (ECS), and {AGA}. OCS included "Paula", "Gary", "Denise", and "Agnus". ECS had the same "Paula", "Gary", "Agnus" (could address 2MB of Chip RAM), "Super Denise" (upgraded to support "Agnus" so that a few new {screen modes} were available). With the introduction of the {Amiga A600} "Gary" was replaced with "Gayle" (though the chipset was still called ECS). "Gayle" provided a number of improvments but the main one was support for the A600's {PCMCIA} port. The AGA chipset had "Agnus" with twice the speed and a 24-bit palette, maximum displayable: 8 bits (256 colours), although the famous "{HAM}" (Hold And Modify) trick allows pictures of 256,000 colours to be displayed. AGA's "Paula" and "Gayle" were unchanged but AGA "Denise" supported AGA "Agnus"'s new screen modes. Unfortunately, even AGA "Paula" did not support High Density {floppy disk drives}. (The Amiga 4000, though, did support high density drives.) In order to use a high density disk drive Amiga HD floppy drives spin at half the rotational speed thus halving the data rate to "Paula". Commodore Business Machines went bankrupt on 1994-04-29, the German company {Escom AG} bought the rights to the Amiga on 1995-04-21 and the Commodore Amiga became the Escom Amiga. In April 1996 Escom were reported to be making the {Amiga} range again but they too fell on hard times and {Gateway 2000} (now called Gateway) bought the Amiga brand on 1997-05-15. Gateway licensed the Amiga operating system to a German hardware company called {Phase 5} on 1998-03-09. The following day, Phase 5 announced the introduction of a four-processor {PowerPC} based Amiga {clone} called the "{pre\box}". Since then, it has been announced that the new operating system will be a version of {QNX}. On 1998-06-25, a company called {Access Innovations Ltd} announced {plans (http://micktinker.co.uk/aaplus.html)} to build a new Amiga chip set, the {AA+}, based partly on the AGA chips but with new fully 32-bit functional core and 16-bit AGA {hardware register emulation} for {backward compatibility}. The new core promised improved memory access and video display DMA. By the end of 2000, Amiga development was under the control of a [new?] company called {Amiga, Inc.}. As well as continuing development of AmigaOS (version 3.9 released in December 2000), their "Digital Environment" is a {virtual machine} for multiple {platforms} conforming to the {ZICO} specification. As of 2000, it ran on {MIPS}, {ARM}, {PPC}, and {x86} processors. {(http://amiga.com/)}. {Amiga Web Directory (http://cucug.org/amiga.html)}. {amiCrawler (http://amicrawler.com/)}. Newsgroups: {news:comp.binaries.amiga}, {news:comp.sources.amiga}, {news:comp.sys.amiga}, {news:comp.sys.amiga.advocacy}, {news:comp.sys.amiga.announce}, {news:comp.sys.amiga.applications}, {news:comp.sys.amiga.audio}, {news:comp.sys.amiga.datacomm}, {news:comp.sys.amiga.emulations}, {news:comp.sys.amiga.games}, {news:comp.sys.amiga.graphics}, {news:comp.sys.amiga.hardware}, {news:comp.sys.amiga.introduction}, {news:comp.sys.amiga.marketplace}, {news:comp.sys.amiga.misc}, {news:comp.sys.amiga.multimedia}, {news:comp.sys.amiga.programmer}, {news:comp.sys.amiga.reviews}, {news:comp.sys.amiga.tech}, {news:comp.sys.amiga.telecomm}, {news:comp.Unix.amiga}. See {aminet}, {Amoeba}, {bomb}, {exec}, {gronk}, {guru meditation}, {Intuition}, {sidecar}, {slap on the side}, {Vulcan nerve pinch}. (2003-07-05)

Among its members W. Dubislav (1937), K. Grelling, O. Helmer, C. G. Hempel, A. Herzberg, K.. Korsch, H. Reichenbach (q.v.), M. Strauss. Many members of the following groups may be regarded as adherents of Scientific Empiricism: the Berlin Society for Scientific Philosophy, the W arsaw School, the Cambridge School for Analytic Philosophy (q.v.), further, in U. S. A., some of the representatives of contemporary Pragmatism (q.v.), especially C. W. Morris, of Neo-Realism (q.v.), and of Operationalism (q.v.).   Among the individual adherents not belonging to the groups mentioned: E. Kaila (Finland), J. Jörgensen (Denmark), A. Ness (Norway); A. J. Ayer, J. H. Woodger (England); M. Boll (France); K. Popper (now New Zealand); E. Brunswik, H. Gomperz, Felix Kaufmann, R. V. Mises, L. Rougier, E. Zilsel (now in U. S. A.); E. Nagel, W. V. Quine, and many others (in U.S.A.). The general attitude and the views of Scientific Empiricism are in esential agreement with those of Logical Empiricism (see above, 1). Here, the unity of science is especially emphasized, in various respects   There is a logical unity of the language of science; the concepts of different branches of science are not of fundamentally different kinds but belong to one coherent system. The unity of science in this sense is closely connected with the thesis of Physicahsm (q.v.).   There is a practical task in the present stage of development, to come to a better mutual adaptation of terminologies in different branches of science.   There is today no unity of the laws of science. It is an aim of the future development of science to come, if possible, to a simple set of connected, fundamental laws from which the special laws in the different branches of science, including the social sciences, can be deduced. Here also, the analysis of language is regarded as one of the chief methods of the science of science. While logical positivism stressed chiefly the logical side of this analysis, it is here carried out from various directions, including an analysis of the biological and sociological sides of the activities of language and knowledge, as they have been emphasized earlier by Pragmatism (q.v.), especially C. S. Peirce and G. H. Mead. Thus the development leads now to a comprehensive general theory of signs or semiotic (q.v.) as a basis for philosophy The following publications and meetings may be regarded as organs of this movement.   The periodical "Erkenntnis", since 1930, now continued as "Journal of Unified Science"   The "Encyclopedia of Unified Science", its first part ("Foundations of the Unity of Science", 2 vols.) consisting of twenty monographs (eight appeared by 1940). Here, the foundations of various fields of science are discussed, especially from the point of view of the unity of science and scientific procedure, and the relations between the fields. Thus, the work intends to serve as an introduction to the science of science (q.v.).   A series of International Congresses for the Unity of Science was started by a preliminary conference in Prague 1934 (see report, Erkenntnis 5, 1935). The congresses took place at Pans in 1935 ("Actes", Pans 1936; Erkenntnis 5, 1936); at Copenhagen in 1936 (Erkenntnis 6, 1937); at Paris in 1937; at Cambridge, England, in 1938 (Erkenntnis 7, 1938); at Cambridge, Mass., in 1939 (J. Unif. Sc. 9, 1941); at Chicago in 1941.   Concerning the development and the aims of this movement, see O. Neurath and C. W. Morris (for both, see above, I D), further H. Reichenbach, Ziele and Wege der heutigen Naturphilosophie, 1931; S. S. Stevens, "Psychology and the Science of Science", Psych. Bull. 36, 1939 (with bibliography). Bibliographies in "Erkenntnis": 1, 1931, p. 315, p. 335 (Polish authors); 2, 1931, p. 151, p. 189; 5, 1935, p. 185, p. 195 (American authors), p. 199 (Polish authors), p. 409, larger bibliography: in Encycl. Unif. Science, vol. II, No. 10 (to ippetr in 1942). -- R.C.

Amulet "processor" An implementation or the {Advanced RISC Machine} {microprocessor} architecture using the {micropipeline} design style. In April 1994 the Amulet group in the Computer Science department of {Manchester University} took delivery of the AMULET1 {microprocessor}. This was their first large scale asynchronous circuit and the world's first implementation of a commercial microprocessor architecture (ARM) in {asynchronous logic}. Work was begun at the end of 1990 and the design despatched for fabrication in February 1993. The primary intent was to demonstrate that an asynchronous microprocessor can consume less power than a synchronous design. The design incorporates a number of concurrent units which cooperate to give instruction level compatibility with the existing synchronous part. These include an Address unit, which autonomously generates instruction fetch requests and interleaves ({nondeterministic}ally) data requests from the Execution unit; a {Register} file which supplies operands, queues write destinations and handles data dependencies; an Execution unit which includes a multiplier, a shifter and an {ALU} with data-dependent delay; a Data interface which performs byte extraction and alignment and includes an {instruction prefetch} buffer, and a control path which performs {instruction decode}. These units only synchronise to exchange data. The design demonstrates that all the usual problems of processor design can be solved in this asynchronous framework: backward {instruction set} compatibility, {interrupts} and exact {exceptions} for {memory faults} are all covered. It also demonstrates some unusual behaviour, for instance {nondeterministic} prefetch depth beyond a branch instruction (though the instructions which actually get executed are, of course, deterministic). There are some unusual problems for {compiler} {optimisation}, as the metric which must be used to compare alternative code sequences is continuous rather than discrete, and the {nondeterminism} in external behaviour must also be taken into account. The chip was designed using a mixture of custom {datapath} and compiled control logic elements, as was the synchronous ARM. The fabrication technology is the same as that used for one version of the synchronous part, reducing the number of variables when comparing the two parts. Two silicon implementations have been received and preliminary measurements have been taken from these. The first is a 0.7um process and has achieved about 28 kDhrystones running the standard {benchmark} program. The other is a 1 um implementation and achieves about 20 kDhrystones. For the faster of the parts this is equivalent to a synchronous {ARM6} clocked at around 20MHz; in the case of AMULET1 it is likely that this speed is limited by the memory system cycle time (just over 50ns) rather than the processor chip itself. A fair comparison of devices at the same geometries gives the AMULET1 performance as about 70% of that of an {ARM6} running at 20MHz. Its power consumption is very similar to that of the ARM6; the AMULET1 therefore delivers about 80 MIPS/W (compared with around 120 from a 20MHz ARM6). Multiplication is several times faster on the AMULET1 owing to the inclusion of a specialised asynchronous multiplier. This performance is reasonable considering that the AMULET1 is a first generation part, whereas the synchronous ARM has undergone several design iterations. AMULET2 (under development in 1994) was expected to be three times faster than AMULET1 and use less power. The {macrocell} size (without {pad ring}) is 5.5 mm by 4.5 mm on a 1 micron {CMOS} process, which is about twice the area of the synchronous part. Some of the increase can be attributed to the more sophisticated organisation of the new part: it has a deeper {pipeline} than the clocked version and it supports multiple outstanding memory requests; there is also specialised circuitry to increase the multiplication speed. Although there is undoubtedly some overhead attributable to the asynchronous control logic, this is estimated to be closer to 20% than to the 100% suggested by the direct comparison. AMULET1 is code compatible with {ARM6} and is so is capable of running existing {binaries} without modification. The implementation also includes features such as interrupts and memory aborts. The work was part of a broad {ESPRIT} funded investigation into low-power technologies within the European {Open Microprocessor systems Initiative} (OMI) programme, where there is interest in low-power techniques both for portable equipment and (in the longer term) to alleviate the problems of the increasingly high dissipation of high-performance chips. This initial investigation into the role {asynchronous logic} might play has now demonstrated that asynchronous techniques can be applied to problems of the scale of a complete {microprocessor}. {(http://cs.man.ac.uk/amulet)}. (1994-12-08)

Analog Hardware Design Language "language" (AHDL) A language under development by the US Air Force. (1995-04-09)

Anal Stage ::: Freud&

anamorphosis ::: n. --> A distorted or monstrous projection or representation of an image on a plane or curved surface, which, when viewed from a certain point, or as reflected from a curved mirror or through a polyhedron, appears regular and in proportion; a deformation of an image.
Same as Anamorphism, 2.
A morbid or monstrous development, or change of form, or degeneration.


anantagun.a (anantaguna; ananta guna; anantagunam) ::: "the infinite anantaguna qualities of the spirit" of which "Nature is only the power in being and the development in action"; brahman as "an Infinite teeming with innumerable qualities, properties, features"; capable of infinite qualities; same as anantagun.amaya.

anatropous ::: a. --> Having the ovule inverted at an early period in its development, so that the chalaza is as the apparent apex; -- opposed to orthotropous.

"A new humanity means for us the appearance, the development of a type or race of mental beings whose principle of mentality would be no longer a mind in the Ignorance seeking for knowledge but even in its knowledge bound to the Ignorance, a seeker after Light but not its natural possessor, open to the Light but not an inhabitant of the Light, not yet a perfected instrument, truth-conscious and delivered out of the Ignorance. Instead, it would be possessed already of what could be called a mind of Light, a mind capable of living in the truth, capable of being truth-conscious and manifesting in its life a direct in place of an indirect knowledge. Its mentality would be an instrument of the Light and no longer of the Ignorance. At its highest it would be capable of passing into the supermind and from the new race would be recruited the race of supramental beings who would appear as the leaders of the evolution in earth-nature. Even, the highest manifestations of a mind of Light would be an instrumentality of the supermind, a part of it or a projection from it, a stepping beyond humanity into the superhumanity of the supramental principle. Above all, its possession would enable the human being to rise beyond the normalities of his present thinking, feeling and being into those highest powers of the mind in its self-exceedings which intervene between our mentality and supermind and can be regarded as steps leading towards the greater and more luminous principle. This advance like others in the evolution might not be reached and would naturally not be reached at one bound, but from the very beginning it would be inevitable: the pressure of the supermind creating from above out of itself the mind of Light would compel this certainty of the eventual outcome.” Essays in Philosophy and Yoga

“A new humanity means for us the appearance, the development of a type or race of mental beings whose principle of mentality would be no longer a mind in the Ignorance seeking for knowledge but even in its knowledge bound to the Ignorance, a seeker after Light but not its natural possessor, open to the Light but not an inhabitant of the Light, not yet a perfected instrument, truth-conscious and delivered out of the Ignorance. Instead, it would be possessed already of what could be called a mind of Light, a mind capable of living in the truth, capable of being truth-conscious and manifesting in its life a direct in place of an indirect knowledge. Its mentality would be an instrument of the Light and no longer of the Ignorance. At its highest it would be capable of passing into the supermind and from the new race would be recruited the race of supramental beings who would appear as the leaders of the evolution in earth-nature. Even, the highest manifestations of a mind of Light would be an instrumentality of the supermind, a part of it or a projection from it, a stepping beyond humanity into the superhumanity of the supramental principle. Above all, its possession would enable the human being to rise beyond the normalities of his present thinking, feeling and being into those highest powers of the mind in its self-exceedings which intervene between our mentality and supermind and can be regarded as steps leading towards the greater and more luminous principle. This advance like others in the evolution might not be reached and would naturally not be reached at one bound, but from the very beginning it would be inevitable: the pressure of the supermind creating from above out of itself the mind of Light would compel this certainty of the eventual outcome.” Essays in Philosophy and Yoga

animism ::: n. --> The doctrine, taught by Stahl, that the soul is the proper principle of life and development in the body.
The belief that inanimate objects and the phenomena of nature are endowed with personal life or a living soul; also, in an extended sense, the belief in the existence of soul or spirit apart from matter.


anterior self ::: One of the three major aspects of the overall self, along with the proximate and distal self. The anterior self is a person’s sense of the Witness, the pure Self, or “I-I,” shining through the proximate self at whatever stage of self-development. See I-I.

anthropogeny ::: n. --> The science or study of human generation, or the origin and development of man.

Apache Software Foundation "open source, body" (ASF) A consortium that manages the development of the {Apache} {web server}, dozens of {XML}- and {Java}-based projects (under the name {Jakarta}), the {Ant} build tool, the {Geronimo} {J2EE} server, the {SpamAssassin} anti-{SPAM} tool, and much more. {Apache Home (http://apache.org/)}. (2005-01-26)

Apart from philosophy, Descartes' contribution to the development of analytical geometry, the theory of music and the science of optics, are noteworthy achievements.

application development "programming" Writing {computer programs} to meet specific {requirements}; the job of an Application Developer. Application development often includes responsibility for {requirements capture} and/or {testing} as well as actual {programming} (the more limited activity implied by the term {programmer}). (2013-08-15)

Application Developer "job" Someone who does {application development}. (2013-08-15)

Applications Development Manager "job" (Or "Director") The person in a company who plans and oversees multiple projects and {project managers}. The Applications Development Managers works with the {CIO} and senior management to determine systems development strategy and standards. He or she administers department budget and reviews project managers. (2004-03-06)

a record or account, often chronological in approach, of past events, developments, etc.

ARM7 "processor" A {RISC} {microprocessor} architecture from {Advanced RISC Machines} Ltd. (ARM). Building upon the {ARM6} family, the goal of the ARM7 design was to offer higher levels of raw compute performance at even lower levels of power consumption. The ARM7 architecture is now (Dec 1994) the most powerful low voltage {RISC} processor available on the market. The ARM7 offers several architectural extensions which address specific market needs, encompassing fast multiply and innovative embedded {ICE} support. Software development tools are available. The ARM7 architecture is made up of a core CPU plus a range of system peripherals which can be added to a CPU core to give a complete system on a chip, e.g. 4K or 8K {cache}, {Memory Management Unit}, {Write Buffer}, {coprocessor} interface, {ICEbreaker} embedded {ICE} support and {JTAG} {boundary scan}. The {ARM710} {microprocessor} is built around the ARM7 core. {(http://systemv.com/armltd/arm7.html)}. (1995-01-05)

Ars Combinatoria: (Leibniz) An art or technique of deriving or inventing complex concepts by a combination of a relatively few simple ones taken as primitive. This technique was proposed as a valuable subject for study by Leibniz in De Arte Combinatoria (1666) but was never greatly developed by him. Leibniz's program for logic consisted of two main projects: (1) the development of a universal characteristic (characteristica universalis), and (2) the development of a universal mathematics (mathesis universalis (q.v.). The universal characteristic was to be a universal language for scientists and philosophers. With a relatively few basic symbols for the ultimately simple ideas, and a suitable technique for constructing compound ideas out of the simple ones, Leibniz thought that a language could be constructed which would be much more efficient for reasoning and for communication than the vague, complicated, and more or less parochial languages then available. This language would be completely universal in the sense that all scientific and philosophical concepts could be expressed in it, and also in that it would enable scholars m all countries to communicate over the barriers of their vernacular tongues. Leibniz's proposals in this matter, and what work he did on it, are the grand predecessors of a vast amount of research which has been done in the last hundred years on the techniques of language construction, and specifically on the invention of formal rules and procedures for introducing new terms into a language on the basis of terms already present, the general project of constructing a unified language for science and philosophy. L. Couturat, La Logique de Leibniz, Paris, 1901; C. I. Lewis, A Survey of Symbolic Logic, Berkeley, 1918. -- F.L.W.

Artemis microkernel "operating system" A {microkernel} currently under development by Dave Hudson "dave@humbug.demon.co.uk", scheduled for release under {GPL} in May 1995. It is targeted at {embedded} applications on {Intel 80386}, {Intel 486} and {Pentium} based systems. (1995-03-29)

Artifex "programming, tool" A {CASE} environment from {ARTIS} of Turin for the development of large {event-driven} distributed systems. It has code-generation and rapid prototyping features. (1996-01-24)

ASPIK "language, specification" A multiple-style specification language. ["Algebraic Specifications in an Integrated Software Development and Verification System", A. Voss, Diss, U Kaiserslautern, 1985]. (1994-11-30)

Association for Computing "body" (ACM, before 1997 - "Association for Computing Machinery") The largest and oldest international scientific and educational computer society in the industry. Founded in 1947, only a year after the unveiling of {ENIAC}, ACM was established by mathematicians and electrical engineers to advance the science and application of {Information Technology}. {John Mauchly}, co-inventor of the ENIAC, was one of ACM's founders. Since its inception ACM has provided its members and the world of computer science a forum for the sharing of knowledge on developments and achievements necessary to the fruitful interchange of ideas. ACM has 90,000 members - educators, researchers, practitioners, managers, and engineers - who drive the Association's major programs and services - publications, special interest groups, chapters, conferences, awards, and special activities. The ACM Press publishes journals (notably {CACM}), book series, conference proceedings, {CD-ROM}, {hypertext}, {video}, and specialized publications such as curricula recommendations and self-assessment procedures. {(http://info.acm.org/)}. (1998-02-24)

Association for Progressive Communications "body, philosophy" (APC) A world-wide organisation of like-minded computer networks providing a global communications network dedicated to the free and balanced flow of information. The APC defends and promotes non-commercial, productive online space for NGOs (Non-Governmental Organisations) and collaborates with like-minded organisations to ensure that the information and communication needs of civil society are considered in telecommunications, donor and investment policy. A few of APC's partner organisations include The {Institute for Global Communications} (USA), GreenNet (UK), Nicarao (Nicaragua) Enda-Tiers Monde (Senegal) and GlasNet (Ukraine). These organisations serve people working toward goals that include the prevention of warfare, elimination of militarism and poverty, protection of the environment, human rights, social and economic justice, participatory democracy, non-violent conflict resolution, and the promotion of sustainable development. {(http://apc.org/english/)}. E-mail: "apcadmin@apc.org". (2000-10-08)

ATA-4 "storage" (Or "Ultra DMA", "UDMA", "Ultra-ATA", "Ultra-DMA/33") A development of the {Advanced Technology Attachment} specifications which gives nearly twice the maximum {transfer rate} of the {ATA-3} standard ({PIO} Mode 4). ATA-4 Extensions Ultra DMA/33 Synchronous DMA Mode maximum {burst transfer rates}: Mode Cycle Time Transfer Rate ns MB/s 0 235 16 1 160 24 2 120 33 This is achieved by improving timing windows in the {protocol} on the ATA interface; reducing propagation delays by {pipelining} data transfers and transferring data in {synchronous} (strobed) mode. Developed by {Quantum Corporation}, ATA-4 has been freely licensed to manufacturers and is supported by {Intel Corporation}. (1998-09-30)

atrophied ::: p. a. --> Affected with atrophy, as a tissue or organ; arrested in development at a very early stage; rudimentary. ::: p. p. --> of Atrophy

attain ::: 1. To gain as an objective; achieve; reach, arrive at; accomplish. 2. To arrive at, as by virtue of persistence or the passage of time; To reach in the course of development. attained.

ATX "hardware, standard" An {open} {PC} {motherboard} specification by {Intel}. ATX is a development of the {Baby AT} specification with the motherboard rotated 90 degrees in the chassis. The {CPU} and {SIMM} sockets have been relocated away from the {expansion card} slots meaning that all the slots support full-length cards. More {I/O} functions are integrated on the motherboard. As the longer edge of the board is now at the back of the chassis, there is more space for connectors; also, the I/O opening on the back panel of the chassis has been defined as double the previous height, allowing vendors to add extra on-board I/O functions over and above the standard. Most {Pentium Pro} boards use this {form factor}. As well as the motherboard size, layout, and placement, the ATX specification also includes requirements for power supply and fan specification and location. The full size ATX board measures 305mm wide by 244mm deep. There is also a Mini-ATX form factor, 284mm by 208mm. {Home (http://developer.intel.com/design/motherbd/atx.htm)}. (2001-07-16)

AudioOne "tool, music" Digital recording and editing software developed by {BizTrack Software Development} for the dance, music, and audio industries. AudioOne includes a waveform recorder that allows signal manipulation, editing, and recording. (1996-09-28)

Aufklärung: In general, this German word and its English equivalent Enlightenment denote the self-emancipation of man from mere authority, prejudice, convention and tradition, with an insistence on freer thinking about problems uncritically referred to these other agencies. According to Kant's famous definition "Enlightenment is the liberation of man from his self-caused state of minority, which is the incapacity of using one's understanding without the direction of another. This state of minority is caused when its source lies not in the lack of understanding, but in the lack of determination and courage to use it without the assistance of another" (Was ist Aufklärung? 1784). In its historical perspective, the Aufklärung refers to the cultural atmosphere and contrlbutions of the 18th century, especially in Germany, France and England [which affected also American thought with B. Franklin, T. Paine and the leaders of the Revolution]. It crystallized tendencies emphasized by the Renaissance, and quickened by modern scepticism and empiricism, and by the great scientific discoveries of the 17th century. This movement, which was represented by men of varying tendencies, gave an impetus to general learning, a more popular philosophy, empirical science, scriptural criticism, social and political thought. More especially, the word Aufklärung is applied to the German contributions to 18th century culture. In philosophy, its principal representatives are G. E. Lessing (1729-81) who believed in free speech and in a methodical criticism of religion, without being a free-thinker; H. S. Reimarus (1694-1768) who expounded a naturalistic philosophy and denied the supernatural origin of Christianity; Moses Mendelssohn (1729-86) who endeavoured to mitigate prejudices and developed a popular common-sense philosophy; Chr. Wolff (1679-1754), J. A. Eberhard (1739-1809) who followed the Leibnizian rationalism and criticized unsuccessfully Kant and Fichte; and J. G. Herder (1744-1803) who was best as an interpreter of others, but whose intuitional suggestions have borne fruit in the organic correlation of the sciences, and in questions of language in relation to human nature and to national character. The works of Kant and Goethe mark the culmination of the German Enlightenment. Cf. J. G. Hibben, Philosophy of the Enlightenment, 1910. --T.G. Augustinianism: The thought of St. Augustine of Hippo, and of his followers. Born in 354 at Tagaste in N. Africa, A. studied rhetoric in Carthage, taught that subject there and in Rome and Milan. Attracted successively to Manicheanism, Scepticism, and Neo-Platontsm, A. eventually found intellectual and moral peace with his conversion to Christianity in his thirty-fourth year. Returning to Africa, he established numerous monasteries, became a priest in 391, Bishop of Hippo in 395. Augustine wrote much: On Free Choice, Confessions, Literal Commentary on Genesis, On the Trinity, and City of God, are his most noted works. He died in 430.   St. Augustine's characteristic method, an inward empiricism which has little in common with later variants, starts from things without, proceeds within to the self, and moves upwards to God. These three poles of the Augustinian dialectic are polarized by his doctrine of moderate illuminism. An ontological illumination is required to explain the metaphysical structure of things. The truth of judgment demands a noetic illumination. A moral illumination is necessary in the order of willing; and so, too, an lllumination of art in the aesthetic order. Other illuminations which transcend the natural order do not come within the scope of philosophy; they provide the wisdoms of theology and mysticism. Every being is illuminated ontologically by number, form, unity and its derivatives, and order. A thing is what it is, in so far as it is more or less flooded by the light of these ontological constituents.   Sensation is necessary in order to know material substances. There is certainly an action of the external object on the body and a corresponding passion of the body, but, as the soul is superior to the body and can suffer nothing from its inferior, sensation must be an action, not a passion, of the soul. Sensation takes place only when the observing soul, dynamically on guard throughout the body, is vitally attentive to the changes suffered by the body. However, an adequate basis for the knowledge of intellectual truth is not found in sensation alone. In order to know, for example, that a body is multiple, the idea of unity must be present already, otherwise its multiplicity could not be recognized. If numbers are not drawn in by the bodily senses which perceive only the contingent and passing, is the mind the source of the unchanging and necessary truth of numbers? The mind of man is also contingent and mutable, and cannot give what it does not possess. As ideas are not innate, nor remembered from a previous existence of the soul, they can be accounted for only by an immutable source higher than the soul. In so far as man is endowed with an intellect, he is a being naturally illuminated by God, Who may be compared to an intelligible sun. The human intellect does not create the laws of thought; it finds them and submits to them. The immediate intuition of these normative rules does not carry any content, thus any trace of ontologism is avoided.   Things have forms because they have numbers, and they have being in so far as they possess form. The sufficient explanation of all formable, and hence changeable, things is an immutable and eternal form which is unrestricted in time and space. The forms or ideas of all things actually existing in the world are in the things themselves (as rationes seminales) and in the Divine Mind (as rationes aeternae). Nothing could exist without unity, for to be is no other than to be one. There is a unity proper to each level of being, a unity of the material individual and species, of the soul, and of that union of souls in the love of the same good, which union constitutes the city. Order, also, is ontologically imbibed by all beings. To tend to being is to tend to order; order secures being, disorder leads to non-being. Order is the distribution which allots things equal and unequal each to its own place and integrates an ensemble of parts in accordance with an end. Hence, peace is defined as the tranquillity of order. Just as things have their being from their forms, the order of parts, and their numerical relations, so too their beauty is not something superadded, but the shining out of all their intelligible co-ingredients.   S. Aurelii Augustini, Opera Omnia, Migne, PL 32-47; (a critical edition of some works will be found in the Corpus Scriptorum Ecclesiasticorum Latinorum, Vienna). Gilson, E., Introd. a l'etude de s. Augustin, (Paris, 1931) contains very good bibliography up to 1927, pp. 309-331. Pope, H., St. Augustine of Hippo, (London, 1937). Chapman, E., St. Augustine's Philos. of Beauty, (N. Y., 1939). Figgis, J. N., The Political Aspects of St. Augustine's "City of God", (London, 1921). --E.C. Authenticity: In a general sense, genuineness, truth according to its title. It involves sometimes a direct and personal characteristic (Whitehead speaks of "authentic feelings").   This word also refers to problems of fundamental criticism involving title, tradition, authorship and evidence. These problems are vital in theology, and basic in scholarship with regard to the interpretation of texts and doctrines. --T.G. Authoritarianism: That theory of knowledge which maintains that the truth of any proposition is determined by the fact of its having been asserted by a certain esteemed individual or group of individuals. Cf. H. Newman, Grammar of Assent; C. S. Peirce, "Fixation of Belief," in Chance, Love and Logic, ed. M. R. Cohen. --A.C.B. Autistic thinking: Absorption in fanciful or wishful thinking without proper control by objective or factual material; day dreaming; undisciplined imagination. --A.C.B. Automaton Theory: Theory that a living organism may be considered a mere machine. See Automatism. Automatism: (Gr. automatos, self-moving) (a) In metaphysics: Theory that animal and human organisms are automata, that is to say, are machines governed by the laws of physics and mechanics. Automatism, as propounded by Descartes, considered the lower animals to be pure automata (Letter to Henry More, 1649) and man a machine controlled by a rational soul (Treatise on Man). Pure automatism for man as well as animals is advocated by La Mettrie (Man, a Machine, 1748). During the Nineteenth century, automatism, combined with epiphenomenalism, was advanced by Hodgson, Huxley and Clifford. (Cf. W. James, The Principles of Psychology, Vol. I, ch. V.) Behaviorism, of the extreme sort, is the most recent version of automatism (See Behaviorism).   (b) In psychology: Psychological automatism is the performance of apparently purposeful actions, like automatic writing without the superintendence of the conscious mind. L. C. Rosenfield, From Beast Machine to Man Machine, N. Y., 1941. --L.W. Automatism, Conscious: The automatism of Hodgson, Huxley, and Clifford which considers man a machine to which mind or consciousness is superadded; the mind of man is, however, causally ineffectual. See Automatism; Epiphenomenalism. --L.W. Autonomy: (Gr. autonomia, independence) Freedom consisting in self-determination and independence of all external constraint. See Freedom. Kant defines autonomy of the will as subjection of the will to its own law, the categorical imperative, in contrast to heteronomy, its subjection to a law or end outside the rational will. (Fundamental Principles of the Metaphysics of Morals, § 2.) --L.W. Autonomy of ethics: A doctrine, usually propounded by intuitionists, that ethics is not a part of, and cannot be derived from, either metaphysics or any of the natural or social sciences. See Intuitionism, Metaphysical ethics, Naturalistic ethics. --W.K.F. Autonomy of the will: (in Kant's ethics) The freedom of the rational will to legislate to itself, which constitutes the basis for the autonomy of the moral law. --P.A.S. Autonymy: In the terminology introduced by Carnap, a word (phrase, symbol, expression) is autonymous if it is used as a name for itself --for the geometric shape, sound, etc. which it exemplifies, or for the word as a historical and grammatical unit. Autonymy is thus the same as the Scholastic suppositio matertalis (q. v.), although the viewpoint is different. --A.C. Autotelic: (from Gr. autos, self, and telos, end) Said of any absorbing activity engaged in for its own sake (cf. German Selbstzweck), such as higher mathematics, chess, etc. In aesthetics, applied to creative art and play which lack any conscious reference to the accomplishment of something useful. In the view of some, it may constitute something beneficent in itself of which the person following his art impulse (q.v.) or playing is unaware, thus approaching a heterotelic (q.v.) conception. --K.F.L. Avenarius, Richard: (1843-1896) German philosopher who expressed his thought in an elaborate and novel terminology in the hope of constructing a symbolic language for philosophy, like that of mathematics --the consequence of his Spinoza studies. As the most influential apostle of pure experience, the posltivistic motive reaches in him an extreme position. Insisting on the biologic and economic function of thought, he thought the true method of science is to cure speculative excesses by a return to pure experience devoid of all assumptions. Philosophy is the scientific effort to exclude from knowledge all ideas not included in the given. Its task is to expel all extraneous elements in the given. His uncritical use of the category of the given and the nominalistic view that logical relations are created rather than discovered by thought, leads him to banish not only animism but also all of the categories, substance, causality, etc., as inventions of the mind. Explaining the evolution and devolution of the problematization and deproblematization of numerous ideas, and aiming to give the natural history of problems, Avenarius sought to show physiologically, psychologically and historically under what conditions they emerge, are challenged and are solved. He hypothesized a System C, a bodily and central nervous system upon which consciousness depends. R-values are the stimuli received from the world of objects. E-values are the statements of experience. The brain changes that continually oscillate about an ideal point of balance are termed Vitalerhaltungsmaximum. The E-values are differentiated into elements, to which the sense-perceptions or the content of experience belong, and characters, to which belongs everything which psychology describes as feelings and attitudes. Avenarius describes in symbolic form a series of states from balance to balance, termed vital series, all describing a series of changes in System C. Inequalities in the vital balance give rise to vital differences. According to his theory there are two vital series. It assumes a series of brain changes because parallel series of conscious states can be observed. The independent vital series are physical, and the dependent vital series are psychological. The two together are practically covariants. In the case of a process as a dependent vital series three stages can be noted: first, the appearance of the problem, expressed as strain, restlessness, desire, fear, doubt, pain, repentance, delusion; the second, the continued effort and struggle to solve the problem; and finally, the appearance of the solution, characterized by abating anxiety, a feeling of triumph and enjoyment.   Corresponding to these three stages of the dependent series are three stages of the independent series: the appearance of the vital difference and a departure from balance in the System C, the continuance with an approximate vital difference, and lastly, the reduction of the vital difference to zero, the return to stability. By making room for dependent and independent experiences, he showed that physics regards experience as independent of the experiencing indlvidual, and psychology views experience as dependent upon the individual. He greatly influenced Mach and James (q.v.). See Avenarius, Empirio-criticism, Experience, pure. Main works: Kritik der reinen Erfahrung; Der menschliche Weltbegriff. --H.H. Averroes: (Mohammed ibn Roshd) Known to the Scholastics as The Commentator, and mentioned as the author of il gran commento by Dante (Inf. IV. 68) he was born 1126 at Cordova (Spain), studied theology, law, medicine, mathematics, and philosophy, became after having been judge in Sevilla and Cordova, physician to the khalifah Jaqub Jusuf, and charged with writing a commentary on the works of Aristotle. Al-mansur, Jusuf's successor, deprived him of his place because of accusations of unorthodoxy. He died 1198 in Morocco. Averroes is not so much an original philosopher as the author of a minute commentary on the whole works of Aristotle. His procedure was imitated later by Aquinas. In his interpretation of Aristotelian metaphysics Averroes teaches the coeternity of a universe created ex nihilo. This doctrine formed together with the notion of a numerical unity of the active intellect became one of the controversial points in the discussions between the followers of Albert-Thomas and the Latin Averroists. Averroes assumed that man possesses only a disposition for receiving the intellect coming from without; he identifies this disposition with the possible intellect which thus is not truly intellectual by nature. The notion of one intellect common to all men does away with the doctrine of personal immortality. Another doctrine which probably was emphasized more by the Latin Averroists (and by the adversaries among Averroes' contemporaries) is the famous statement about "two-fold truth", viz. that a proposition may be theologically true and philosophically false and vice versa. Averroes taught that religion expresses the (higher) philosophical truth by means of religious imagery; the "two-truth notion" came apparently into the Latin text through a misinterpretation on the part of the translators. The works of Averroes were one of the main sources of medieval Aristotelianlsm, before and even after the original texts had been translated. The interpretation the Latin Averroists found in their texts of the "Commentator" spread in spite of opposition and condemnation. See Averroism, Latin. Averroes, Opera, Venetiis, 1553. M. Horten, Die Metaphysik des Averroes, 1912. P. Mandonnet, Siger de Brabant et l'Averroisme Latin, 2d ed., Louvain, 1911. --R.A. Averroism, Latin: The commentaries on Aristotle written by Averroes (Ibn Roshd) in the 12th century became known to the Western scholars in translations by Michael Scottus, Hermannus Alemannus, and others at the beginning of the 13th century. Many works of Aristotle were also known first by such translations from Arabian texts, though there existed translations from the Greek originals at the same time (Grabmann). The Averroistic interpretation of Aristotle was held to be the true one by many; but already Albert the Great pointed out several notions which he felt to be incompatible with the principles of Christian philosophy, although he relied for the rest on the "Commentator" and apparently hardly used any other text. Aquinas, basing his studies mostly on a translation from the Greek texts, procured for him by William of Moerbecke, criticized the Averroistic interpretation in many points. But the teachings of the Commentator became the foundation for a whole school of philosophers, represented first by the Faculty of Arts at Paris. The most prominent of these scholars was Siger of Brabant. The philosophy of these men was condemned on March 7th, 1277 by Stephen Tempier, Bishop of Paris, after a first condemnation of Aristotelianism in 1210 had gradually come to be neglected. The 219 theses condemned in 1277, however, contain also some of Aquinas which later were generally recognized an orthodox. The Averroistic propositions which aroused the criticism of the ecclesiastic authorities and which had been opposed with great energy by Albert and Thomas refer mostly to the following points: The co-eternity of the created word; the numerical identity of the intellect in all men, the so-called two-fold-truth theory stating that a proposition may be philosophically true although theologically false. Regarding the first point Thomas argued that there is no philosophical proof, either for the co-eternity or against it; creation is an article of faith. The unity of intellect was rejected as incompatible with the true notion of person and with personal immortality. It is doubtful whether Averroes himself held the two-truths theory; it was, however, taught by the Latin Averroists who, notwithstanding the opposition of the Church and the Thomistic philosophers, gained a great influence and soon dominated many universities, especially in Italy. Thomas and his followers were convinced that they interpreted Aristotle correctly and that the Averroists were wrong; one has, however, to admit that certain passages in Aristotle allow for the Averroistic interpretation, especially in regard to the theory of intellect.   Lit.: P. Mandonnet, Siger de Brabant et l'Averroisme Latin au XIIIe Siecle, 2d. ed. Louvain, 1911; M. Grabmann, Forschungen über die lateinischen Aristotelesübersetzungen des XIII. Jahrhunderts, Münster 1916 (Beitr. z. Gesch. Phil. d. MA. Vol. 17, H. 5-6). --R.A. Avesta: See Zendavesta. Avicehron: (or Avencebrol, Salomon ibn Gabirol) The first Jewish philosopher in Spain, born in Malaga 1020, died about 1070, poet, philosopher, and moralist. His main work, Fons vitae, became influential and was much quoted by the Scholastics. It has been preserved only in the Latin translation by Gundissalinus. His doctrine of a spiritual substance individualizing also the pure spirits or separate forms was opposed by Aquinas already in his first treatise De ente, but found favor with the medieval Augustinians also later in the 13th century. He also teaches the necessity of a mediator between God and the created world; such a mediator he finds in the Divine Will proceeding from God and creating, conserving, and moving the world. His cosmogony shows a definitely Neo-Platonic shade and assumes a series of emanations. Cl. Baeumker, Avencebrolis Fons vitae. Beitr. z. Gesch. d. Philos. d. MA. 1892-1895, Vol. I. Joh. Wittman, Die Stellung des hl. Thomas von Aquino zu Avencebrol, ibid. 1900. Vol. III. --R.A. Avicenna: (Abu Ali al Hosain ibn Abdallah ibn Sina) Born 980 in the country of Bocchara, began to write in young years, left more than 100 works, taught in Ispahan, was physician to several Persian princes, and died at Hamadan in 1037. His fame as physician survived his influence as philosopher in the Occident. His medical works were printed still in the 17th century. His philosophy is contained in 18 vols. of a comprehensive encyclopedia, following the tradition of Al Kindi and Al Farabi. Logic, Physics, Mathematics and Metaphysics form the parts of this work. His philosophy is Aristotelian with noticeable Neo-Platonic influences. His doctrine of the universal existing ante res in God, in rebus as the universal nature of the particulars, and post res in the human mind by way of abstraction became a fundamental thesis of medieval Aristotelianism. He sharply distinguished between the logical and the ontological universal, denying to the latter the true nature of form in the composite. The principle of individuation is matter, eternally existent. Latin translations attributed to Avicenna the notion that existence is an accident to essence (see e.g. Guilelmus Parisiensis, De Universo). The process adopted by Avicenna was one of paraphrasis of the Aristotelian texts with many original thoughts interspersed. His works were translated into Latin by Dominicus Gundissalinus (Gondisalvi) with the assistance of Avendeath ibn Daud. This translation started, when it became more generally known, the "revival of Aristotle" at the end of the 12th and the beginning of the 13th century. Albert the Great and Aquinas professed, notwithstanding their critical attitude, a great admiration for Avicenna whom the Arabs used to call the "third Aristotle". But in the Orient, Avicenna's influence declined soon, overcome by the opposition of the orthodox theologians. Avicenna, Opera, Venetiis, 1495; l508; 1546. M. Horten, Das Buch der Genesung der Seele, eine philosophische Enzyklopaedie Avicenna's; XIII. Teil: Die Metaphysik. Halle a. S. 1907-1909. R. de Vaux, Notes et textes sur l'Avicennisme Latin, Bibl. Thomiste XX, Paris, 1934. --R.A. Avidya: (Skr.) Nescience; ignorance; the state of mind unaware of true reality; an equivalent of maya (q.v.); also a condition of pure awareness prior to the universal process of evolution through gradual differentiation into the elements and factors of knowledge. --K.F.L. Avyakta: (Skr.) "Unmanifest", descriptive of or standing for brahman (q.v.) in one of its or "his" aspects, symbolizing the superabundance of the creative principle, or designating the condition of the universe not yet become phenomenal (aja, unborn). --K.F.L. Awareness: Consciousness considered in its aspect of act; an act of attentive awareness such as the sensing of a color patch or the feeling of pain is distinguished from the content attended to, the sensed color patch, the felt pain. The psychologlcal theory of intentional act was advanced by F. Brentano (Psychologie vom empirischen Standpunkte) and received its epistemological development by Meinong, Husserl, Moore, Laird and Broad. See Intentionalism. --L.W. Axiological: (Ger. axiologisch) In Husserl: Of or pertaining to value or theory of value (the latter term understood as including disvalue and value-indifference). --D.C. Axiological ethics: Any ethics which makes the theory of obligation entirely dependent on the theory of value, by making the determination of the rightness of an action wholly dependent on a consideration of the value or goodness of something, e.g. the action itself, its motive, or its consequences, actual or probable. Opposed to deontological ethics. See also teleological ethics. --W.K.F. Axiologic Realism: In metaphysics, theory that value as well as logic, qualities as well as relations, have their being and exist external to the mind and independently of it. Applicable to the philosophy of many though not all realists in the history of philosophy, from Plato to G. E. Moore, A. N. Whitehead, and N, Hartmann. --J.K.F. Axiology: (Gr. axios, of like value, worthy, and logos, account, reason, theory). Modern term for theory of value (the desired, preferred, good), investigation of its nature, criteria, and metaphysical status. Had its rise in Plato's theory of Forms or Ideas (Idea of the Good); was developed in Aristotle's Organon, Ethics, Poetics, and Metaphysics (Book Lambda). Stoics and Epicureans investigated the summum bonum. Christian philosophy (St. Thomas) built on Aristotle's identification of highest value with final cause in God as "a living being, eternal, most good."   In modern thought, apart from scholasticism and the system of Spinoza (Ethica, 1677), in which values are metaphysically grounded, the various values were investigated in separate sciences, until Kant's Critiques, in which the relations of knowledge to moral, aesthetic, and religious values were examined. In Hegel's idealism, morality, art, religion, and philosophy were made the capstone of his dialectic. R. H. Lotze "sought in that which should be the ground of that which is" (Metaphysik, 1879). Nineteenth century evolutionary theory, anthropology, sociology, psychology, and economics subjected value experience to empirical analysis, and stress was again laid on the diversity and relativity of value phenomena rather than on their unity and metaphysical nature. F. Nietzsche's Also Sprach Zarathustra (1883-1885) and Zur Genealogie der Moral (1887) aroused new interest in the nature of value. F. Brentano, Vom Ursprung sittlicher Erkenntnis (1889), identified value with love.   In the twentieth century the term axiology was apparently first applied by Paul Lapie (Logique de la volonte, 1902) and E. von Hartmann (Grundriss der Axiologie, 1908). Stimulated by Ehrenfels (System der Werttheorie, 1897), Meinong (Psychologisch-ethische Untersuchungen zur Werttheorie, 1894-1899), and Simmel (Philosophie des Geldes, 1900). W. M. Urban wrote the first systematic treatment of axiology in English (Valuation, 1909), phenomenological in method under J. M. Baldwin's influence. Meanwhile H. Münsterberg wrote a neo-Fichtean system of values (The Eternal Values, 1909).   Among important recent contributions are: B. Bosanquet, The Principle of Individuality and Value (1912), a free reinterpretation of Hegelianism; W. R. Sorley, Moral Values and the Idea of God (1918, 1921), defending a metaphysical theism; S. Alexander, Space, Time, and Deity (1920), realistic and naturalistic; N. Hartmann, Ethik (1926), detailed analysis of types and laws of value; R. B. Perry's magnum opus, General Theory of Value (1926), "its meaning and basic principles construed in terms of interest"; and J. Laird, The Idea of Value (1929), noteworthy for historical exposition. A naturalistic theory has been developed by J. Dewey (Theory of Valuation, 1939), for which "not only is science itself a value . . . but it is the supreme means of the valid determination of all valuations." A. J. Ayer, Language, Truth and Logic (1936) expounds the view of logical positivism that value is "nonsense." J. Hessen, Wertphilosophie (1937), provides an account of recent German axiology from a neo-scholastic standpoint.   The problems of axiology fall into four main groups, namely, those concerning (1) the nature of value, (2) the types of value, (3) the criterion of value, and (4) the metaphysical status of value.   (1) The nature of value experience. Is valuation fulfillment of desire (voluntarism: Spinoza, Ehrenfels), pleasure (hedonism: Epicurus, Bentham, Meinong), interest (Perry), preference (Martineau), pure rational will (formalism: Stoics, Kant, Royce), apprehension of tertiary qualities (Santayana), synoptic experience of the unity of personality (personalism: T. H. Green, Bowne), any experience that contributes to enhanced life (evolutionism: Nietzsche), or "the relation of things as means to the end or consequence actually reached" (pragmatism, instrumentalism: Dewey).   (2) The types of value. Most axiologists distinguish between intrinsic (consummatory) values (ends), prized for their own sake, and instrumental (contributory) values (means), which are causes (whether as economic goods or as natural events) of intrinsic values. Most intrinsic values are also instrumental to further value experience; some instrumental values are neutral or even disvaluable intrinsically. Commonly recognized as intrinsic values are the (morally) good, the true, the beautiful, and the holy. Values of play, of work, of association, and of bodily well-being are also acknowledged. Some (with Montague) question whether the true is properly to be regarded as a value, since some truth is disvaluable, some neutral; but love of truth, regardless of consequences, seems to establish the value of truth. There is disagreement about whether the holy (religious value) is a unique type (Schleiermacher, Otto), or an attitude toward other values (Kant, Höffding), or a combination of the two (Hocking). There is also disagreement about whether the variety of values is irreducible (pluralism) or whether all values are rationally related in a hierarchy or system (Plato, Hegel, Sorley), in which values interpenetrate or coalesce into a total experience.   (3) The criterion of value. The standard for testing values is influenced by both psychological and logical theory. Hedonists find the standard in the quantity of pleasure derived by the individual (Aristippus) or society (Bentham). Intuitionists appeal to an ultimate insight into preference (Martineau, Brentano). Some idealists recognize an objective system of rational norms or ideals as criterion (Plato, Windelband), while others lay more stress on rational wholeness and coherence (Hegel, Bosanquet, Paton) or inclusiveness (T. H. Green). Naturalists find biological survival or adjustment (Dewey) to be the standard. Despite differences, there is much in common in the results of the application of these criteria.   (4) The metaphysical status of value. What is the relation of values to the facts investigated by natural science (Koehler), of Sein to Sollen (Lotze, Rickert), of human experience of value to reality independent of man (Hegel, Pringle-Pattlson, Spaulding)? There are three main answers:   subjectivism (value is entirely dependent on and relative to human experience of it: so most hedonists, naturalists, positivists);   logical objectivism (values are logical essences or subsistences, independent of their being known, yet with no existential status or action in reality);   metaphysical objectivism (values   --or norms or ideals   --are integral, objective, and active constituents of the metaphysically real: so theists, absolutists, and certain realists and naturalists like S. Alexander and Wieman). --E.S.B. Axiom: See Mathematics. Axiomatic method: That method of constructing a deductive system consisting of deducing by specified rules all statements of the system save a given few from those given few, which are regarded as axioms or postulates of the system. See Mathematics. --C.A.B. Ayam atma brahma: (Skr.) "This self is brahman", famous quotation from Brhadaranyaka Upanishad 2.5.19, one of many alluding to the central theme of the Upanishads, i.e., the identity of the human and divine or cosmic. --K.F.L.

“Avatarhood would have little meaning if it were not connected with the evolution. The Hindu procession of the ten Avatars is itself, as it were, a parable of evolution. First the Fish Avatar, then the amphibious animal between land and water, then the land animal, then the Man-Lion Avatar, bridging man and animal, then man as dwarf, small and undeveloped and physical but containing in himself the godhead and taking possession of existence, then the rajasic, sattwic, nirguna Avatars, leading the human development from the vital rajasic to the sattwic mental man and again the overmental superman. Krishna, Buddha and Kalki depict the last three stages, the stages of the spiritual development—Krishna opens the possibility of overmind, Buddha tries to shoot beyond to the supreme liberation but that liberation is still negative, not returning upon earth to complete positively the evolution; Kalki is to correct this by bringing the Kingdom of the Divine upon earth, destroying the opposing Asura forces. The progression is striking and unmistakable.” Letters on Yoga

A. V. Vasihev, Space, Time, Motion, translated by H. M. Lucas and C. P. Sanger, with an introduction by Bertrand Russell, London. 1924, and New York, 1924. Religion, Philosophy of: The methodic or systematic investigation of the elements of religious consciousness, the theories it has evolved and their development and historic relationships in the cultural complex. It takes account of religious practices only as illustrations of the vitality of beliefs and the inseparableness of the psychological from thought reality in faith. It is distinct from theology in that it recognizes the priority of reason over faith and the acceptance of creed, subjecting the latter to a logical analysis. As such, the history of the Philosophy of Religion is coextensive with the free enquiry into religious reality, particularly the conceptions of God, soul, immortality, sin, salvaition, the sacred (Rudolf Otto), etc., and may be said to have its roots in any society above the pre-logical, mythological, or custom-controlled level, first observed in Egypt, China, India, and Greece. Its scientific treatment is a subsidiary philosophic discipline dates from about Kant's Religion innerhalb der Grenzen der reinen Vernunft and Hegel's Philosophie der Religion, while in the history of thought based on Indian and Greek speculation, sporadic sallies were made by all great philosophers, especially those professing an idealism, and by most theologians.

B 1. {byte}. 2. "language" A systems language written by {Ken Thompson} in 1970 mostly for his own use under {Unix} on the {PDP-11}. B was later improved by Kerninghan(?) and Ritchie to produce {C}. B was used as the systems language on {Honeywell}'s {GCOS-3}. B was, according to Ken, greatly influenced by {BCPL}, but the name B had nothing to do with BCPL. B was in fact a revision of an earlier language, {bon}, named after Ken Thompson's wife, Bonnie. ["The Programming Language B", S.C. Johnson & B.W. Kernighan, CS TR 8, Bell Labs (Jan 1973)]. [Features? Differences from C?] (1997-02-02) 3. "language" A simple {interactive} {programming language} designed by {Lambert Meertens} and {Steven Pemberton}. B was the predecessor of {ABC}. B was the first published (and implemented) language to use indentation for block structure. {(ftp://ftp.uni-kl.de/pub/languages/B.tar.Z)}. ["Draft Proposal for the B Language", Lambert Meertens, CWI, Amsterdam, 1981]. [{(http://python-history.blogspot.com/2011/07/karin-dewar-indentation-and-colon.html)}]. 4. "language, specification" A specification language by Jean-Raymond Abrial of {B Core UK}, Magdalen Centre, Oxford Science Park, Oxford OX4 4GA. B is related to {Z} and supports development of {C} code from specifications. B has been used in major {safety-critical system} specifications in Europe, and is currently attracting increasing interest in industry. It has robust, commercially available tool support for specification, design, proof and code generation. E-mail: "Ib.Sorensen@comlab.ox.ac.uk". (1995-04-24)

babel ::: “The legend of the Tower of Babel speaks of the diversity of tongues as a curse laid on the race; but whatever its disadvantages, and they tend more and more to be minimised by the growth of civilisation and increasing intercourse, it has been rather a blessing than a curse, a gift to mankind rather than a disability laid upon it. The purposeless exaggeration of anything is always an evil, and an excessive pullulation of varying tongues that serve no purpose in the expression of a real diversity of spirit and culture is certainly a stumbling-block rather than a help: but this excess, though it existed in the past, is hardly a possibility of the future. The tendency is rather in the opposite direction. In former times diversity of language helped to create a barrier to knowledge and sympathy, was often made the pretext even of an actual antipathy and tended to a too rigid division. The lack of sufficient interpenetration kept up both a passive want of understanding and a fruitful crop of active misunderstandings. But this was an inevitable evil of a particular stage of growth, an exaggeration of the necessity that then existed for the vigorous development of strongly individualised group-souls in the human race. These disadvantages have not yet been abolished, but with closer intercourse and the growing desire of men and nations for the knowledge of each other’s thought and spirit and personality, they have diminished and tend to diminish more and more and there is no reason why in the end they should not become inoperative.” The Human Cycle

babel ::: "The reference is to the mythological story of the construction of the Tower of Babel, which appears to be an attempt to explain the diversity of human languages. According to Genesis, the Babylonians wanted to make a name for themselves by building a mighty city and tower ‘with its top in the heavens". God disrupted the work by so confusing the language of the workers that they could no longer understand one another. The tower was never completed and the people were dispersed over the face of the earth.” (Encyclopaedia Britannica) Glossary and Index of Proper Names in Sri Aurobindo"s Works     Sri Aurobindo: "The legend of the Tower of Babel speaks of the diversity of tongues as a curse laid on the race; but whatever its disadvantages, and they tend more and more to be minimised by the growth of civilisation and increasing intercourse, it has been rather a blessing than a curse, a gift to mankind rather than a disability laid upon it. The purposeless exaggeration of anything is always an evil, and an excessive pullulation of varying tongues that serve no purpose in the expression of a real diversity of spirit and culture is certainly a stumbling-block rather than a help: but this excess, though it existed in the past, is hardly a possibility of the future. The tendency is rather in the opposite direction. In former times diversity of language helped to create a barrier to knowledge and sympathy, was often made the pretext even of an actual antipathy and tended to a too rigid division. The lack of sufficient interpenetration kept up both a passive want of understanding and a fruitful crop of active misunderstandings. But this was an inevitable evil of a particular stage of growth, an exaggeration of the necessity that then existed for the vigorous development of strongly individualised group-souls in the human race. These disadvantages have not yet been abolished, but with closer intercourse and the growing desire of men and nations for the knowledge of each other"s thought and spirit and personality, they have diminished and tend to diminish more and more and there is no reason why in the end they should not become inoperative.” The Human Cycle

Babism: An initially persecuted and later schismatizing religious creed founded in Persia prior to the middle of the last century. International in its appeal the number of its followers increased largely in America. As a development against orthodox Mohammedanism, the Babis deny the finality of any revelation. The sect's former extreme pantheistic tendency and metaphysical hairsplittings have been effectively subordinated to more pronounced ethical imperatives. -- H.H.

BABYLON "artificial intelligence" A {development environment} for {expert systems}. BABYLON includes {frames}, {constraints}, a {prolog}-like logic formalism and a description language for diagnostic applications. It requires {Common Lisp}. Version 2.3, 1994-06-22 included ports to {MCL}, {TI CL}, {Allegro CL}, {CLisp}, {CMU CL}. Contact: Juergen Walther, AI Research Division, {GMD}. {CMU AI archive (http://www-cgi.cs.cmu.edu/afs/cs/project/ai-repository/ai/areas/expert/systems/babylon/0.html)} (2019-05-27)

BackOffice "software" A suite of network {server} software from {Microsoft} that includes {Windows NT} Server, BackOffice Server (for the integrated development, deployment, and management of BackOffice applications in departments, branch offices, and medium sized businesses); {Exchange Server}; {Proxy Server}; {Site Server} for {intranet} publishing, management, and search; Site Server Commerce Edition For comprehensive {Internet commerce} transactions; {Small Business Server} for business operations, resource management, and customer relations; {SNA Server} for the integration of existing and new systems and data; {SQL Server} for scalable, reliable database and data-warehousing; {Systems Management Server} (SMS) for centralised change- and {configuration-management}. {(http://microsoft.com/backofficeserver/)}. (2000-12-16)

bare metal 1. New computer hardware, unadorned with such snares and delusions as an {operating system}, an {HLL}, or even {assembler}. Commonly used in the phrase "programming on the bare metal", which refers to the arduous work of {bit bashing} needed to create these basic tools for a new computer. Real bare-metal programming involves things like building {boot PROMs} and {BIOS} chips, implementing basic {monitors} used to test {device drivers}, and writing the assemblers that will be used to write the compiler back ends that will give the new computer a real development environment. 2. "Programming on the bare metal" is also used to describe a style of {hand-hacking} that relies on bit-level peculiarities of a particular hardware design, especially tricks for speed and space optimisation that rely on crocks such as overlapping instructions (or, as in the famous case described in {The Story of Mel}, interleaving of opcodes on a magnetic drum to minimise fetch delays due to the device's rotational latency). This sort of thing has become less common as the relative costs of programming time and computer resources have changed, but is still found in heavily constrained environments such as industrial embedded systems, and in the code of hackers who just can't let go of that low-level control. See {Real Programmer}. In the world of personal computing, bare metal programming is often considered a {Good Thing}, or at least a necessary evil (because these computers have often been sufficiently slow and poorly designed to make it necessary; see {ill-behaved}). There, the term usually refers to bypassing the BIOS or OS interface and writing the application to directly access device registers and computer addresses. "To get 19.2 kilobaud on the serial port, you need to get down to the bare metal." People who can do this sort of thing well are held in high regard. [{Jargon File}]

basic structures of consciousness ::: 1. “Empty” levels of consciousness used as a general measure of vertical development. A measure of the degree or “altitude” of awareness in any particular stream. These altitudes are often described using the colors of the natural rainbow: Infrared, Magenta, Red, Amber, Orange, Green, Teal, Turquoise, Indigo, Violet, Ultraviolet, and Clear Light. 2. Enduring structures that are actually laid down along these markers of altitude and thus are roughly synonymous with basic levels of consciousness. These are the rungs in any developmental ladder. Cognitive development, for instance, is often used since it is necessary but not sufficient for development in other lines.

BBN Technologies "company" A company, originally known as Bolt, Beranek and Newman, Inc. (BBN), based in Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA. BBN were awarded the original contract to build the {ARPANET} and have been extensively involved in {Internet} development. They are responsible for managing {NNSC}, {CSNET}, and {NEARnet}. The language {LOGO} was developed at BBN, as was the {BBN Butterfly} supercomputer. {BBN Home (http://bbn.com/)}. (2003-11-10)

developmental ::: a. --> Pertaining to, or characteristic of, the process of development; as, the developmental power of a germ.

development ::: n. --> The act of developing or disclosing that which is unknown; a gradual unfolding process by which anything is developed, as a plan or method, or an image upon a photographic plate; gradual advancement or growth through a series of progressive changes; also, the result of developing, or a developed state.
The series of changes which animal and vegetable organisms undergo in their passage from the embryonic state to maturity, from a lower to a higher state of organization.


below the human race in evolutionary development.

Berkeley Software Design, Inc "company" (BSDI) A company that sells {BSD/OS}, a commercial version of {Berkeley Standard Distribution} {Unix}, networking, and Internet technologies originally developed by the {Computer Systems Research Group} (CSRG) at the {University of California at Berkeley}. Leading CSRG computer scientists founded BSDI in 1991. BSDI's BSD/OS represents over 20 years of development by the worldwide BSD technical community. BSD technology is known worldwide for its powerful, flexible and portable architecture and advanced development environments. BSDI designs, develops, markets, and supports the {BSD/OS} {operating system}, {Internet} server software for {IBM PCs}, and other products. BSDI planned to release an Internet gateway product for {Novell} {IPX} networks in 1995. {(http://bsdi.com/)}. E-mail: "bsdi-info@bsdi.com". Address: 5575 Tech Center Drive,

beta testing "programming" Evaluation of a pre-release (potentially unreliable) version of a piece of {software} (or possibly {hardware}) by making it available to selected users ("beta testers") before it goes on general distribution. Beta testign aims to discover {bugs} that only occur in certain environments or under certain patterns of use, while reducing the volume of feedback to a manageable level. The testers benefit by having earlier access to new products, features and fixes. Beta testing may be preceded by "alpha testing", performed in-house by a handful of users (e.g. other developers or friends), who can be expected to give rapid, high quality feedback on design and {usability}. Once the product is considered to be usable for its intended purpose it then moves on to "beta testing" by a larger, but typically still limited, number of ordinary users, who may include external customers. Some companies such as {Google} or {Degree Jungle (http://www.degreejungle.com/rankings/best-online-colleges)} stretch the definition, claiming their products are "in beta" for many months by millions of users. The term derives from early 1960s terminology for {product cycle} checkpoints, first used at {IBM} but later standard throughout the industry. "{Alpha test}" was the {unit test}, {module test} or {component test} phase; "Beta Test" was initial {system test}. These themselves came from earlier A- and B-tests for hardware. The A-test was a feasibility and manufacturability evaluation done before any commitment to design and development. The B-test was a demonstration that the engineering model functioned as specified. The C-test (corresponding to today's beta) was the B-test performed on early samples of the production design. (2013-06-09)

bhas.a (bhasha; bhasa) ::: language; the linguistic faculty (bhas.asakti), one of the "special powers" whose development is related to literary work (sahitya); the study of languages and reading of texts for the sake of cultivating this faculty.

biff /bif/ To notify someone of incoming mail. From the {BSD} utility "biff(1)", which was in turn named after a friendly golden Labrador who used to chase frisbees in the halls at UCB while {4.2BSD} was in development (it had a well-known habit of barking whenever the mailman came). No relation to {BIFF}. [{Jargon File}]

b) In Axiology: The doctrine that moral and aesthetic values represent the subjective feelings and reactions of individual minds and have no status independent of such reactions. Ethical subjectivism finds typical expression in Westermarck's doctrine that moral judgments have reference to our emotions of approval and disapproval. See The Origin and Development of Moral Ideas. Vol. 1, Ch. l. -- L.W.

Binomic forces: Extra-biological forces, which influence the direction and development of life. I.e. all physical, chemical and other environmental forces which affect living organisms in any way. The second law of thermo-dynamics seems to vitalists to be an exception to their view that the creative life-force evolves upwards. Nonetheless natural selection is influenced by binomic forces. -- C.K.D.

B. In ontology, power is often synonymous with potency (q.v.) Aristotle, who is mainly responsible for the development of this notion (Metaph. IV (5) 12.), distinguishes three aspects of it as a source of change, as a capacity of performing, and as a state in virtue of which things are unchangeable by themselves. Hobbes accepts only the first of these meanings, namely that power is the source of motion. Various questions are involved in the analysis of the notion of power, as, for example, whether power is an accident or a perfection of substance, and whether it is distinct from it.

biogeny ::: n. --> A doctrine that the genesis or production of living organisms can take place only through the agency of living germs or parents; -- opposed to abiogenesis.
Life development generally.


biology ::: n. --> The science of life; that branch of knowledge which treats of living matter as distinct from matter which is not living; the study of living tissue. It has to do with the origin, structure, development, function, and distribution of animals and plants.

blastula ::: n. --> That stage in the development of the ovum in which the outer cells of the morula become more defined and form the blastoderm.

blivet /bliv'*t/ [allegedly from a World War II military term meaning "ten pounds of manure in a five-pound bag"] 1. An intractable problem. 2. A crucial piece of hardware that can't be fixed or replaced if it breaks. 3. A tool that has been hacked over by so many incompetent programmers that it has become an unmaintainable tissue of hacks. 4. An out-of-control but unkillable development effort. 5. An embarrassing bug that pops up during a customer demo. 6. In the subjargon of computer security specialists, a denial-of-service attack performed by hogging limited resources that have no access controls (for example, shared spool space on a multi-user system). This term has other meanings in other technical cultures; among experimental physicists and hardware engineers of various kinds it seems to mean any random object of unknown purpose (similar to hackish use of {frob}). It has also been used to describe an amusing trick-the-eye drawing resembling a three-pronged fork that appears to depict a three-dimensional object until one realises that the parts fit together in an impossible way. [{Jargon File}]

blog-driven development {cut-and-waste code}

blossom ::: n. --> The flower of a plant, or the essential organs of reproduction, with their appendages; florescence; bloom; the flowers of a plant, collectively; as, the blossoms and fruit of a tree; an apple tree in blossom.
A blooming period or stage of development; something lovely that gives rich promise.
The color of a horse that has white hairs intermixed with sorrel and bay hairs; -- otherwise called peach color.


B-Method "programming, tool" A system for rigorous or formal development of software using the notion of {Abstract Machines} to specify and design software systems. The B-Method is supported by the {B-Toolkit}. Abstract Machines are specified using the Abstract Machine Notation (AMN) which is in turn based on the mathematical theory of {Generalised Substitutions}. (1995-03-13)

BOLERO "programming" {Software AG}'s {object-oriented} development environment and {application server} for Electronic Business applications. (1999-03-06)

boomeritis ::: A dysfunction whose name originates from its first and most famous victim: the Boomer generation (those born roughly between 1940-1960). The pathological combination of Green and Red altitude in any of the self-related lines of development. Also known as the “Mean Green Meme” (MGM) when used in reference to the Spiral Dynamics model of value memes.

Borland Software Corporation "company" A company that sells a variety of {PC} software development and {database} systems. Borland was founded in 1983 and initially became famous for their low-cost software, particularly {Turbo Pascal}, {Turbo C}, and {Turbo Prolog}. Current and past products include the {Borland C++} C++ and C developement environment, the {Paradox} and {dBASE} {databases}, {Delphi}, {JBuilder}, and {InterBase}. Borland has approximately 1000 employees worldwide and has operations in Australia, Canada, France, Germany, Japan, Netherlands, and the United Kingdom. Borland sold {Quattro} Pro to {Novell} in 1994 for $100M. Novell later sold the product to {Corel Corporation}, who also bought {Paradox}. dBASE was sold in March(?) 1999 to {dBase Inc.} In Febuary 1998 Borland bought {Visigenic Software, Inc.}. The company changed its name to Inprise Corporation on 1998-04-29 and then on 2000-11-14 they announced they were changing it back to Borland from the first quarter of 2001. Quarterly sales $69M, profits $61M (Aug 1994). $56M, $6.4M (July 2001) {(http://borland.com/)}. Headquarters: 100 Borland Way, Scotts Valley, CA, 95066, USA. Telephone: +1 (408) 431 1000. (2002-03-16)

Brahman or of the Self docs not usually come at the beginning of a sadhana or in the first years or for many years. It comes so to a very few. Most would say that a slow development is the best one can hope for in the first years and only when the nature is ready and fully concentrated towards the Divine can the definitive experience come. To some rapid prepdhitory experiences can come at a comparatively early stage, but even they cannot escape the labour of the consciousness which will make these experiences culminate in the realisation that is enduring and complete. It is not a question of liking or disliking, it is a matter of fact and truth and experience. It is the fact that people who arc cheerful and ready to go step by step, even by slow steps if need be, do actually march faster and more surely than those who are impatient and in haste.

braille "human language" /breyl/ (Often capitalised) A class of {writing systems}, intended for use by blind and low-vision users, which express {glyphs} as raised dots. Currently employed braille standards use eight dots per cell, where a cell is a glyph-space two dots across by four dots high; most glyphs use only the top six dots. Braille was developed by Louis Braille (pronounced /looy bray/) in France in the 1820s. Braille systems for most languages can be fairly trivially converted to and from the usual script. Braille has several totally coincidental parallels with digital computing: it is {binary}, it is based on groups of eight bits/dots and its development began in the 1820s, at the same time {Charles Babbage} proposed the {Difference Engine}. Computers output Braille on {braille displays} and {braille printers} for hard copy. {British Royal National Institute for the Blind (http://rnib.org.uk/wesupply/fctsheet/braille.htm)}. (1998-10-19)

B-Toolkit "tool, programming, product" A set of software tools designed to support a rigorous or formal development of software systems using the {B-Method}. The Toolkit also provides a development environment automating the management of all associated files, ensuring that the entire development, including code and documentation, is always in a consistent state. The Toolkit includes: a specification, design and code configuration management system, including integrity and dependency management and source file editing facilities; a set of software specification and design analysis tools, which includes {syntax} checkers, type checkers and a specification animator; a set of verification tools, which includes a proof-obligation generator and automatic and interactive provers; a set of coding tools, which includes a translator, linker, rapid prototyping facilities and a reusable specification/code module library; a documentation tool for automatically producing fully cross-referenced and indexed type-set documents from source files; a re-making tool for automatically re-checking and re-generating specifications, designs, code and documentation after modifications to source files. A normal licence costs 25,000 pounds, academic 6,250 pounds. (1995-03-13)

build "programming, systems" To process all of a project's {source code} and other digital assets or resources in order to produce a deployable product. In the simplest case this might mean compiling one file of {C} source to produce an {executable} file. More complex builds would typically involve compiling multiple source files, building library modules, packaging intermediate build products (e.g. {Java} {class files} in a {jar file}), adding or updating version information and other data about the product (e.g. intended deployment {platform}), running tests and interacting with a {source code control} system. The build process is normally automated using tools such as {Unix} {make}, {Apache} {ant} or as part of an {integrated development environment}. This is taken one step further by {continuous integration} set-ups which periodically build the system while you are working on it. (2011-12-16)

"But the Titan will have nothing of all this; it is too great and subtle for his comprehension. His instincts call for a visible, tangible mastery and a sensational domination. How shall he feel sure of his empire unless he can feel something writhing helpless under his heel, — if in agony, so much the better? What is exploitation to him, unless it diminishes the exploited? To be able to coerce, exact, slay, overtly, irresistibly, — it is this that fills him with the sense of glory and dominion. For he is the son of division and the strong flowering of the Ego. To feel the comparative limitation of others is necessary to him that he may imagine himself immeasurable; for he has not the real, self-existent sense of infinity which no outward circumstance can abrogate. Contrast, division, negation of the wills and lives of others are essential to his self-development and self-assertion. The Titan would unify by devouring, not by harmonising; he must conquer and trample what is not himself either out of existence or into subservience so that his own image may stand out stamped upon all things and dominating all his environment.” Essays in Philosophy and Yoga

By way of connoting different types of society, many contemporary Marxists, especially in the U.S.S.R., building upon Marx's analysis of the two phases of "communist society" ("Gotha Program") designate the first or lower phase by the term socialism, the second or higher by the term communism (q.v.). The general features of socialist society (identified by Soviet thinkers with the present phase of development of the U.S.S.R.) are conceived as follows: Economic collective ownership of the means of production, such as factories, industrial equipment, the land, and of the basic apparatus of distribution and exchange, including the banking system; the consequent abolition of classes, private profit, exploitation, surplus value, (q.v.) private hiring and firing and involuntary unemployment; an integrated economy based on long time planning in terms of needs and use. It is held that only under these economic conditions is it possible to apply the formula, "from each according to ability, to each according to work performed", the first part of which implies continuous employment, and the second part, the absence of private profit. Political: a state based upon the dictatorship of the proletariat (q.v.) Cultural the extension of all educational and cultural facilities through state planning; the emancipation of women through unrestricted economic opportunities, the abolition of race discrimination through state enforcement, a struggle against all cultural and social institutions which oppose the socialist society and attempt to obstruct its realization. Marx and Engels held that socialism becomes the inevitable outgrowth of capitalism because the evolution of the latter type of society generates problems which can only be solved by a transition to socialism. These problems are traced primarily to the fact that the economic relations under capitalism, such as individual ownership of productive technics, private hiring and firing in the light of profits and production for a money market, all of which originally released powerful new productive potentialities, come to operate, in the course of time, to prevent full utilization of productive technics, and to cause periodic crises, unemployment, economic insecurity and consequent suffering for masses of people. Marx and Engels regarded their doctrine of the transformation of capitalist into socialist society as based upon a scientific examination of the laws of development of capitalism and a realistic appreciation of the role of the proletariat. (q.v.) Unlike the Utopian socialism (q.v.) of St. Simon, Fourier, Owen (q.v.) and others, their socialism asserted the necessity of mass political organization of the working classes for the purpose of gaining political power in order to effect the transition from capitalism, and also foresaw the probability of a contest of force in which, they held, the working class majority would ultimately be victorious. The view taken is that Marx was the first to explain scientifically the nature of capitalist exploitation as based upon surplus value and to predict its necessary consequences. "These two great discoveries, the materialist conception of history and the revelation of the secret of capitalist production by means of surplus value we owe to Marx. With these discoveries socialism became a science . . ." (Engels: Anti-Dühring, pp. 33-34.) See Historical materialism. -- J.M.S.

call ::: “All Yoga is in its nature a new birth; it is a birth out of the ordinary, the mentalised material life of man into a higher spiritual consciousness and a greater and diviner being. No Yoga can be successfully undertaken and followed unless there is a strong awakening to the necessity of that larger spiritual existence. The soul that is called to this deep and vast inward change, may arrive in different ways to the initial departure. It may come to it by its own natural development which has been leading it unconsciously towards the awakening; it may reach it through the influence of a religion or the attraction of a philosophy; it may approach it by a slow illumination or leap to it by a sudden touch or shock; it may be pushed or led to it by the pressure of outward circumstances or by an inward necessity, by a single word that breaks the seals of the mind or by long reflection, by the distant example of one who has trod the path or by contact and daily influence. According to the nature and the circumstances the call will come.” The Synthesis of Yoga

call ::: Sri Aurobindo: "All Yoga is in its nature a new birth; it is a birth out of the ordinary, the mentalised material life of man into a higher spiritual consciousness and a greater and diviner being. No Yoga can be successfully undertaken and followed unless there is a strong awakening to the necessity of that larger spiritual existence. The soul that is called to this deep and vast inward change, may arrive in different ways to the initial departure. It may come to it by its own natural development which has been leading it unconsciously towards the awakening; it may reach it through the influence of a religion or the attraction of a philosophy; it may approach it by a slow illumination or leap to it by a sudden touch or shock; it may be pushed or led to it by the pressure of outward circumstances or by an inward necessity, by a single word that breaks the seals of the mind or by long reflection, by the distant example of one who has trod the path or by contact and daily influence. According to the nature and the circumstances the call will come.” *The Synthesis of Yoga

CALL. ::: The soul may arrive in different ways to the initial departure. It may come to it by its own natural development which has been leading it unconsciously towards the awaken- ing ; it may reach it through (he influence of a religion or the attraction of a philosophy ; it may approach it by a slow illumi- nation or leap to it by the pressure of outward circumstances or by an inward necessity, by a single word that breaks the seals of the mind or by long reflection, by the distant example of one who has trod the path or by contact and daily influence.

cambrian ::: a. --> Of or pertaining to Cambria or Wales.
Of or pertaining to the lowest subdivision of the rocks of the Silurian or Molluscan age; -- sometimes described as inferior to the Silurian. It is named from its development in Cambria or Wales. See the Diagram under Geology. ::: n.


Caml Light A small portable implementation of a version of {CAML} by Xavier Leroy "Xavier.Leroy@inria.fr" and Damien Doligez of {INRIA}. Caml Light uses a {bytecode interpreter} written in {C}. It adds a {Modula-2}-like {module} system, {separate compilation}, {lazy streams} for parsing and printing, graphics primitives and an interface with {C}. Version 0.6 runs on {Unix}, {MS-DOS}, {Macintosh}, {Atari ST} and {Amiga}. It includes an {interpreter}, {compiler}, {Emacs} mode, libraries, {scanner generator}, {parser generator}, {run-time support} and an interactive development environment. The latest version, as of April 2003, is 0.75 and runs on {Unix}, {Macintosh} and {Windows}. The development of Caml Light has been stopped; current development is on {Objective Caml}. {(http://caml.inria.fr/distrib-caml-light-eng.html)}. {(ftp://ftp.inria.fr/lang/caml-light/)}. E-mail: "caml@inria.fr". Mailing list: "caml-list@inria.fr". {Usenet} newsgroup: {news:comp.lang.ml}. (2003-04-12)

Candle Part of the {Scorpion} environment development system. (1994-11-09)

canker ::: n. --> A corroding or sloughing ulcer; esp. a spreading gangrenous ulcer or collection of ulcers in or about the mouth; -- called also water canker, canker of the mouth, and noma.
Anything which corrodes, corrupts, or destroy.
A disease incident to trees, causing the bark to rot and fall off.
An obstinate and often incurable disease of a horse&


can't happen "programming" The traditional program comment for code executed under a condition that should never be true, for example a file size computed as negative. Often, such a condition being true indicates data corruption or a faulty {algorithm}; it is almost always handled by emitting a fatal error message and terminating or crashing, since there is little else that can be done. Some case variant of "can't happen" is also often the text emitted if the "impossible" error actually happens. Although "can't happen" events are genuinely infrequent in production code, programmers wise enough to check for them habitually are often surprised at how frequently they are triggered during development and how many headaches checking for them turns out to head off. See also {firewall code}, {professional programming}. [{Jargon File}] (1996-05-10)

Carnap's work has been devoted especially to formal logic and its applications to problems of epistemology and the philosophy of science. His writings in formal logic include a textbook of mathematical logic and a comprehensive monograph devoted to logical syntax, a new branch of logical research to whose development Carnap has greatly contributed.

Cassirer, Ernst: (1874-) Has been chiefly interested in developing the position of the neo-Kantian Philosophy of the Marburg School as it relates to scientific knowledge. Looking at the history of modern philosophy as a progressive formulation of this position, he has sought to extend it by detailed analyses of contemporary scientific developments. Of note are Cassirer's investigations in mathematics, his early consideration of chemical knowledge, and his treatment of Einstein's relativity theory. Main works: Das Erkenntntsprobleme, 3 vols. (1906); Substanz-u-Funktionsbegriff, 1910 (tr. Substance and Function); Philosophie der Symbolischen Forme (1923); Phanom. der Erkenntnis, 1929; Descartes; Leibniz. -- C.K.D.

Castration Anxiety ::: According to Freud&

Cause: (Lat. causa) Anything responsible for change, motion or action. In the history of philosophy numerous interpretations were given to the term. Aristotle distinguished among the material cause, or that out of which something arises, the formal cause, that is, the pattern or essence determining the creation of a thing, the efficient cause, or the force or agent producing an effect; and the final cause, or purpose. Many thinkers spoke also of the first cause, usually conceived as God. During the Renaissance, with the development of scientific interest in nature, cause was usually conceived as an object. Today, it is generally interpteted as energy or action, whether or not connected with matter. According to Newton, "to the same natural effects we must, as far as possible, assign the same causes." But J. S. Mill contended, in his doctrine of the plurality of causes, that an effect, or a kind of effect (e.g. heat or death) may be produced by various causes. The first clear formulation of the principle was given by Leukippus "Nothing happens without a ground but everything through a cause and of necessity." -- R.B.W.

center of gravity ::: A phrase used to describe an individual or group’s central point of development. An individual’s center of gravity typically hovers around their level of proximate-self development in the self-identity stream. In groups, it usually "resides" in the dominant mode of discourse.

cephalization ::: n. --> Domination of the head in animal life as expressed in the physical structure; localization of important organs or parts in or near the head, in animal development.

Chakra / Centre ::: Conscious centres and sources of all the dynamic powers of our being organising their action through the plexuses and arranged in an ascending series from the lowest physical to the highest mind centre and spiritual centre called the thousand-petalled lotus where ascending Nature, the Serpent Power of the Tantrics, meets the Brahman and is liberated into the Divine Being. These centres are closed or half-closed within us and have to be opened before their full potentiality can be manifested in our physical nature: but once they are opened and completely active, no limit can easily be set to the development of their potencies and the total transformation to be possible.
   Ref: CWSA Vol. 13, Page: 551


Characteristica Universalis: The name given by Leibniz to his projected (but only partially realized) "universal language" for the formulation of knowledge. This language was to be ideographic, with simple characters standing for simple concepts, and combinations of them for compound ideas, so that all knowledge could be expressed in terms which all could easily learn to use and understand. It represents an adumbration of the more recent and more successful logistic treatment of mathematics and science. It is to be distinguished, however, from the "universal calculus," also projected by Leibniz, which was to be the instrument for the development and manipulation of systems in the universal language. -- W.K.F.

Characterology: This name originally was used for types; thus in Aristotle and Theophrastus, and even much later, e.g. in La Bruyere. Gradually it came to signify something individual; a development paralleled by the replacement of "typical" figures on the stage by individualities. There is no agreement, even today, on the definition; confusion reigns especially because of an insufficient distinction between character, personality, and person. But all agree that character manifests itself in the behavior of a person. One can distinguish a merely descriptive approach, one of classification, and one of interpretation. The general viewpoints of interpretation influence also description and classification, since they determine what is considered "important" and lay down the rules by which to distinguish and to classify. One narrow interpretation looks at character mainly as the result of inborn properties, rooted in organic constitution; character is considered, therefore, as essentially unchangeable and predetermined. The attempts at establishing correlations between character and body-build (Kretschmer a.o.) are a special form of such narrow interpretation. It makes but little difference if, besides inborn properties, the influence of environmental factors is acknowledged. The rationalistic interpretation looks at character mainly as the result of convictions. These convictions are seen as purely intellectual in extreme rationalism (virtue is knowledge, Socrates), or as referring to the value-aspect of reality which is conceived as apprehended by other than merely intellectual operations. Thus, Spranger gives a classification according to the "central values" dominating a man's behavior. (Allport has devised practical methods of character study on this basis.) Since the idea a person has of values and their order may change, character is conceived as essentially mutable, even if far going changes may be unfrequent. Character-education is the practical application of the principles of characterology and thus depends on the general idea an author holds in regard to human nature. Character is probably best defined as the individual's way of preferring or rejecting values. It depends on the innate capacities of value-apprehension and on the way these values are presented to the individual. Therefore the enormous influence of social factors. -- R.A.

childhood ::: 1. The time or state of being a child. 2. The early stage in the existence or development of something. childhood"s.

Chin hsin: Exerting one's mind to the utmost; complete development of one's mental constitution, by which one knows his nature and thereby Heaven. (Mencius, Wang Yang-ming, 1473-1529, and Tai Tung-yuan, 1723-1777.) -- W.T.C Chin tan: Medicine of immortality. (Taoist alchemy, especially Pao-p'o Tzu, c 268-c 334.) See Wai tan. -- W.T.C.

Chit ::: Chit, the divine Consciousness, is not our mental selfawareness; that we shall find to be only a form, a lower and limited mode or movement. As we progress and awaken to the soul in us and things, we shall realise that there is a consciousness also in the plant, in the metal, in the atom, in electricity, in everything that belongs to physical nature; we shall find even that it is not really in all respects a lower or more limited mode than the mental, on the contrary it is in many "inanimate" forms more intense, rapid, poignant, though less evolved towards the surface. But this also, this consciousness of vital and physical Nature is, compared with Chit, a lower and th
   refore a limited form, mode and movement. These lower modes of consciousness are the conscious-stuff of inferior planes in one indivisible existence. In ourselves also there is in our subconscious being an action which is precisely that of the "inanimate" physical Nature whence has been constituted the basis of our physical being, another which is that of plantlife, and another which is that of the lower animal creation around us. All these are so much dominated and conditioned by the thinking and reasoning conscious-being in us that we have no real awareness of these lower planes; we are unable to perceive in their own terms what these parts of us are doing, and receive it very imperfectly in the terms and values of the thinking and reasoning mind. Still we know well enough that there is an animal in us as well as that which is characteristically human,—something which is a creature of conscious instinct and impulse, not
   reflective or rational, as well as that which turns back in thought and will on its experience, meets it from above with the light and force of a higher plane and to some degree controls, uses and modifies it. But the animal in man is only the head of our subhuman being; below it there is much that is also sub-animal and merely vital, much that acts by an instinct and impulse of which the constituting consciousness is withdrawn behind the surface. Below this sub-animal being, there is at a further depth the subvital. When we advance in that ultra-normal self-knowledge and experience which Yoga brings with it, we become aware that the body too has a consciousness of its own; it has habits, impulses, instincts, an inert yet effective will which differs from that of the rest of our being and can resist it and condition its effectiveness. Much of the struggle in our being is due to this composite existence and the interaction of these varied and heterogeneous planes on each other. For man here is the result of an evolution and contains in himself the whole of that evolution up from the merely physical and subvital conscious being to the mental creature which at the top he is. But this evolution is really a manifestation and just as we have in us these subnormal selves and subhuman planes, so are there in us above our mental being supernormal and superhuman planes. There Chit as the universal conscious-stuff of existence takes other poises, moves out in other modes, on other principles and by other faculties of action. There is above the mind, as the old Vedic sages discovered, a Truth-plane, a plane of self-luminous, self-effective Idea, which can be turned in light and force upon our mind, reason, sentiments, impulses, sensations and use and control them in the sense of the real Truth of things just as we turn our mental reason and will upon our sense-experience and animal nature to use and control them in the sense of our rational and moral perceptions. There is no seeking, but rather natural possession; no conflict or separation between will and reason, instinct and impulse, desire and experience, idea and reality, but all are in harmony, concomitant, mutually effective, unified in their origin, in their development and in their effectuation. But beyond this plane and attainable through it are others in which the very Chit itself becomes revealed, Chit the elemental origin and primal completeness of all this varied consciousness which is here used for various formation and experience. There will and knowledge and sensation and all the rest of our faculties, powers, modes of experience are not merely harmonious, concomitant, unified, but are one being of consciousness and power of consciousness. It is this Chit which modifies itself so as to become on the Truthplane the supermind, on the mental plane the mental reason, will, emotion, sensation, on the lower planes the vital or physical instincts, impulses, habits of an obscure force not in superficially conscious possession of itself. All is Chit because all is Sat; all is various movement of the original Consciousness because all is various movement of the original Being. When we find, see or know Chit, we find also that its essence is Ananda or delight of self-existence. To possess self is to possess self-bliss; not to possess self is to be in more or less obscure search of the delight of existence. Chit eternally possesses its self-bliss; and since Chit is the universal conscious-stuff of being, conscious universal being is also in possession of conscious self-bliss, master of the universal delight of existence. The Divine whether it manifests itself in All-Quality or in No-Quality, in Personality or Impersonality, in the One absorbing the Many or in the One manifesting its essential multiplicity, is always in possession of self-bliss and all-bliss because it is always Sachchidananda. For us also to know and possess our true Self in the essential and the universal is to discover the essential and the universal delight of existence, self-bliss and all-bliss. For the universal is only the pouring out of the essential existence, consciousness and delight; and wherever and in whatever form that manifests as existence, there the essential consciousness must be and th
   refore there must be an essential delight.
   Ref: CWSA Vol. 23-24, Page: 387 - 88 - 89


chondrogenesis ::: n. --> The development of cartilage.

chorion ::: n. --> The outer membrane which invests the fetus in the womb; also, the similar membrane investing many ova at certain stages of development.
The true skin, or cutis.
The outer membrane of seeds of plants.


chrysalis ::: 1. The hard sheath encasing the larvae from which the mature insect emerges. 2. A protected stage of development.

cicatricle ::: n. --> The germinating point in the embryo of a seed; the point in the yolk of an egg at which development begins.

climax ::: the highest or most intense point in the development or resolution of something; culmination.

combativeness ::: n. --> The quality of being combative; propensity to contend or to quarrel.
A cranial development supposed to indicate a combative disposition.


Communism: (Marxian) In its fullest sense, that stage of social development, which, following socialism (q.v.) is conceived to be characterized by an economy of abundance on a world wide scale in which the state as a repressive force (army, jails, police and the like) is considered unnecessary because irreconcilable class antagonisms will have disappeared, and it will be possible to apply the principle, "from each according to ability, to each according to need" (Marx "Gotha Program"). It is held that the release of productive potentialities resulting from socialized ownership of the means of production will create a general sufficiency of economic goods which in turn will afford the possibility of educational and cultural development for all, and that under such conditions people will learn to live in accordance with valued standards without the compulsion of physical force represented by a special apparatus of state power. It is considered that by intelligent planning, both economic and cultural, it will then be possible to eradicate the antagonism between town and country and the opposition between physical and mental labor. It is now considered in the U.S.S.R. that the principal features of communist society, with the exception of the "withering away" of the state, may be attained in one country of an otherwise capitalist world. Trotsky considered this a false version of Marxism. -- J.M.S.

Concrete Operational Stage ::: According to Piaget, the stage of cognitive development where a child between the ages of 7 and 12 begins thinking more globally and outside of the self but is still deficient in abstract thought.

Concursus dei (or divinus): (Lat. Divine concurrent activity) The divine activity in its relation to the finite causes in the development of the world and the free will of man. The term suggests that divine activity runs parallel with the activity of things and creatures. The concursus dei is differently conceived depending on whether the stress is laid on the divine action or on the action of secondary causes. -- H.H.

conduct ::: n. --> The act or method of conducting; guidance; management.
Skillful guidance or management; generalship.
Convoy; escort; guard; guide.
That which carries or conveys anything; a channel; a conduit; an instrument.
The manner of guiding or carrying one&


Confucius taught that "it is man that can make truth great, and not truth that can make man great." Consequently he emphasized moral perfection, true manhood (jen), moral order (li) the Golden Mean (Chung Yung) and the superior man (chun tzu). To this end, knowledge must be directed, names must be rectified (cheng ming), and social relationships harmonized (wu lun). The whole program involved the investigation of things, the extension of knowledge, sincerity of the will, rectification of the heart, cultivation of the personal life, regulation of family life, national order, and finally, world peace. Mencius (371-289 B.C.) carried this further, holding that we not only should be good, but must be good, as human nature is originally good. True manhood (jen) and righteousness (i) are considered man's mind and path, respectively. Government must be established on the basis of benevolence (jen cheng) as against profit and force. Hsun Tzu (c 335-c 288 B.C.) believing human nature to be evil, stressed moral accumulation and education, especially through the rectification of names, music, and the rule of propriety (li). In the book of Chung Yung (Central Harmony, the Golden Mean, third or fourth century B.C.), the doctrine of central harmony is set forth. Our central self or moral being is conceived to be the great basis of existence and harmony or moral order is the universal law in the world. From then on, the relationship between man and the universe became one of direct correspondence. The idea of macrocosmos-rnicrocosmos relationship largely characterized the Confucianism of medieval China. The most glorious development of Confucianism is found in Neo-Confucianism, from the eleventh century to this day. For a summary of medieval Confucianism and Neo-Confucianism, see Chinese philosophy. -- W.T.C.

contain ::: 1. To be capable of holding. 2. To halt the spread or development of; check, esp. of opposition. 3. To hold or keep within limits; restrain. contained, contains, containing, all-containing, All-containing.

cosmogonic ::: relating to a theory or story of the origin and development of the universe, the solar system, or the earth-moon system.

Cosmogony: (Gr. cosmos a. gonia, producing or creating the world) Is a pictorial treatment of the way in which the world or the universe came into being. In contrast to the most primitive civilizations, the great ethnic stocks of mankind have originated cosmogonies. The basal principles common to all mythological cosmogonies are: They deduce the creation of the world either from the fewest possible elements or from a single material principle such as water, ocean, earth, air, mud of river, slime, two halves of an egg, body of a giant, or from a spiritual or abstract principle such as an anthropomorphic god, deities, chaos, time, night, That. The genesis being a slow development characterized by an orderly sequence of periods, the creation process is variously divided into definite periods of specified units of years. The process of creation being self-originating, in its final stages the genealogy and origin of deities is a large admixture. There is no apparent ethical import attached to the cosmogonies. Few of them assume the idea of design as underlying the creation. They hold that the world had a beginning in time. The process of creation from less perfect to more perfect, from an original chaos to the final creation of man, the predominance of water in the original condition of the earth, the evolution of a spiritual or luminous principle reacting on the primeval water and the emphasis upon the godlike origin of man or his immediate relation to the deity, are all permeating threads of cosmogonic myths. In dualistic religions the world originates as a result of a hostile conflict of two opposing principles, or as a result of the parallel development of two opposing forces. The conception of creation ex nihilo was almost universally unknown in antiquity. -- H.H.

crannoge ::: n. --> One of the stockaded islands in Scotland and Ireland which in ancient times were numerous in the lakes of both countries. They may be regarded as the very latest class of prehistoric strongholds, reaching their greatest development in early historic times, and surviving through the Middle Ages. See also Lake dwellings, under Lake.

Cross Sectional Study ::: A research study that examines the effects of development (maturation) by examining different subjects at various ages

Cross Sequential Study ::: A research study that examines the effects of development (maturation) by combining longitudinal and cross sectional studies

croup ::: n. --> The hinder part or buttocks of certain quadrupeds, especially of a horse; hence, the place behind the saddle.
An inflammatory affection of the larynx or trachea, accompanied by a hoarse, ringing cough and stridulous, difficult breathing; esp., such an affection when associated with the development of a false membrane in the air passages (also called membranous croup). See False croup, under False, and Diphtheria.


Culture: (Lat. cultura, from colo, cultivate) The intrinsic value of society. Syn. with civilization. Employed by Spengler to define a civilization in its creative growth-period. The means, i.e. the tools, customs and institutions, of social groups; or the employment of such means. In psychology, the enlightenment or education of the individual. Some distinguish culture from civilization (q.v.) the former being the effect on personal development and expression (art, science, religion) of the institutions, materials and social organization identified with the latter. -- J.K.F.

cultus ::: n. sing. & pl. --> Established or accepted religious rites or usages of worship; state of religious development. Cf. Cult, 2.

darwinian ::: a. --> Pertaining to Darwin; as, the Darwinian theory, a theory of the manner and cause of the supposed development of living things from certain original forms or elements. ::: n. --> An advocate of Darwinism.

Definition: In the development of a logistic system (q. v.) it is usually desirable to introduce new notations, beyond what is afforded by the primitive symbols alone, by means of syntactical definitions or nominal definitions, i.e., conventions which provide that certain symbols or expressions shall stand (as substitutes or abbreviations) for particular formulas of the system. This may be done either by particular definitions, each introducing a symbol or expression to stand for some one formula, or by schemata of definition, providing that any expression of a certain form shall stand for a certain corresponding formula (so condensing many -- often infinitely many -- particular definitions into a single schema). Such definitions, whether particular definitions or schemata, are indicated, in articles herein by the present writer, by an arrow →, the new notation introduced (the definiendum) being placed at the left, or base of the arrow, and the formula for which it shall stand (the definiens) being placed at the right, or head, of the arrow. Another sign commonly employed for the same purpose (instead of the arrow) is the equality sign = with the letters Df, or df, appearing either as a subscript or separately after the definiens.

dentition ::: n. --> The development and cutting of teeth; teething.
The system of teeth peculiar to an animal.


depth ::: The degree of development. In the Upper-Left quadrant, depth refers to degree of consciousness, and in the Upper-Right quadrant, it refers to degree of complexity. However, generally speaking, all four quadrants exhibit depth of increasing complexity.

Determination: (Lat. determinare, to limit) The limitation of a reality or thought to a narrower field than its original one. In a monistic philosophy the original, single principle must be considered as narrowed down to various genera and species, and eventually to individual existence if such be admitted, in order to introduce that differentiation of reality which is required in a multiple world. In Platonism, the Forms or Ideas are one for each type of thing but are "determined" to multiple existence by the addition of matter (Timaeus). Neo-Platonism is even more interested in real determination, since the One is the logical antecedent of the Many. Here determination is effected by the introduction of negations, or privations, into successive emanations of the One. With Boethius, mediaeval philosophy became concerned with the determination of being-in-general to an actual manifold of things. In Boethianism there is a fusion of the question of real determination with that of logical limitation of concepts. In modern thought, the problem is acute in Spinozism: universal substance (substantia, natura, Deus) must be reduced to an apparent manifold through attributes, modes to the individual. Determination is said to be by way of negation, according to Spinoza (Epist. 50), and this means that universal substance is in its perfect form indeterminate, but is thought to become determinate by a sort of logical loss of absolute perfection. The theory is brought to an almost absurd simplicity in the Ontology of Chr. Wolff, where being is pictured as successively determined to genera, species and individual. Determination is also an important factor in the developmental theories of Hegel and Bergson. -- V.J.B.

Developmental Psychology ::: The area of psychology focused on how children grow psychologically to become who they are as adults.

differentiation ::: n. --> The act of differentiating.
The act of distinguishing or describing a thing, by giving its different, or specific difference; exact definition or determination.
The gradual formation or production of organs or parts by a process of evolution or development, as when the seed develops the root and the stem, the initial stem develops the leaf, branches, and flower buds; or in animal life, when the germ evolves the


Dilthey, Wilhelm: (1833-1911) A devoted student of biography, he constructed a new methodology and a new interpretation of the study of society and culture. He formulated the doctrine of Verstehungs-psychologie, which is basic to the study of social ends and values. He was the founder of Lebensphilosophie. Being the first humanistic philosopher historian of his age, he led in the comprehensive research in the history of intellectual development. Main works: Einlettung in die Geisteswessenschaften, 1883; Der Erlebnis und die Dtchtung, 1905; Das Wesen der Philosophie, 1907, Der Aufbau der geschichtlichen Welt in der Geisteswissenschaften, 1910, Die Typen der Weltanschauung, 1911; Gesammelte Schriften, 9 vols., 1922-35. --H.H. Dimension: (scientific) 1. Any linear series or order of elements. 2. Any quantity of a given kind, capable of increase or decrease over a certain range, a variable. 3. In the physical system: mass, length and time. -- A.C.B.

diphygenic ::: a. --> Having two modes of embryonic development.

discipline ::: n. --> The treatment suited to a disciple or learner; education; development of the faculties by instruction and exercise; training, whether physical, mental, or moral.
Training to act in accordance with established rules; accustoming to systematic and regular action; drill.
Subjection to rule; submissiveness to order and control; habit of obedience.
Severe training, corrective of faults; instruction by


Driesch, Hans Adolf Eduard: (1867-1940) An experimental biologist turned philosopher, he as a rationalist became the most prominent defender of a renovated vitalism. He excludes the physical-chemical level of reality from his vitalism. He asserts that every organism has its own entelechy. For what he terms phylogenetic development, a more inclusive vitalism of the whole evolutionary process, he postulates a super-personal phylogenetic entelechy. He offers an a priori justification of his vitalistic theory, and treats incisively the logic of the psychological. Main works: Philosophy of the Organism; Ordnungslehre, 1912; Wirklichkeitslehre, 1917; Alltagsrätsel des Seelenlebens, 1938; "Kausalität und Vitalismus" in Jahrbuch der Schopenhauer Gesellschaft, XVI, 1939.

dynamo-electric ::: a. --> Pertaining to the development of electricity, especially electrical currents, by power; producing electricity or electrical currents by mechanical power.

ectrotic ::: a. --> Having a tendency to prevent the development of anything, especially of a disease.

Edmund Husserl (1859-1938) was the first to apply the name "Phänomenologie" to a whole philosophy. His usage, moreover, has largely determined the senses commonly attached to it and cognate words in the Twentieth Century. In his Logische Untersuchungen (1900-01), Husserl gave the name to such investigations and theories as make up most of that work and of the only published volume of his Philosophie der Arithmetik (1891). This established what was to remain the primary denotation of the term in all his later writings. On the other hand -- owing to changes in his concept of his unchanging theme -- the explicit connotation of the term, as used by him, underwent development and differentiation.

egg ::: n. --> The oval or roundish body laid by domestic poultry and other birds, tortoises, etc. It consists of a yolk, usually surrounded by the "white" or albumen, and inclosed in a shell or strong membrane.
A simple cell, from the development of which the young of animals are formed; ovum; germ cell.
Anything resembling an egg in form. ::: v. t.


Egocentriclty ::: The main idea in it is always one’s own sadhana, one’s own endeavour, one’s own development, perfec- tion, siddhi. It is inevitable for most, for without that personal endeavour there would not be sufficient will or push to bring about the first necessary changes. But none of these things — development, perfection or siddhi — can really come in any degree of completeness or unmixed finality until this egocentric attitude changes into the God-centric, until it becomes the deve- lopment, perfection, siddhi of the Divine Consciousness, its will and its instrumentarion in this body — and that can only be when these things become secondary, and bhakti for the Divine,

Egocentric ::: The thinking in the preoperational stage of cognitive development where children believe everyone sees the world fro the same perspective as he or she does.

Ehrenfels, Maria Christian Julius Leopold Karl, Freiherr von: (1859-1932) As one of the leaders of the "Brentano School", he affirmed that the fundamental factor in valuation was desire. His principal interest was to trace the way in which desires and motives generate values. He described for the most part the development, the conflict, the hierarchy, and the obsolescence of values. Having a major influence upon the analytic approach to value theory, his outlook was relativistic and evolutionary. Main works: Uber Gestaltqualitäten (1890), System der Werttheorie (1897); Sexualethik (1907). -- H.H.

electro-magnetism ::: n. --> The magnetism developed by a current of electricity; the science which treats of the development of magnetism by means of voltaic electricity, and of the properties or actions of the currents evolved.

embryo ::: 1. Any organism in a developmental stage preceding birth. 2. The beginning or rudimentary stage of anything.

embryogenic ::: a. --> Pertaining to the development of an embryo.

embryogeny ::: n. --> The production and development of an embryo.

embryology ::: n. --> The science which relates to the formation and development of the embryo in animals and plants; a study of the gradual development of the ovum until it reaches the adult stage.

E. Nagel, The formation of modern conceptions of formal logic tn the development of geometry, Osiris, vol. 7 (1939), pp. 142-224.

endogeny ::: n. --> Growth from within; multiplication of cells by endogenous division, as in the development of one or more cells in the interior of a parent cell.

environment ::: n. --> Act of environing; state of being environed.
That which environs or surrounds; surrounding conditions, influences, or forces, by which living forms are influenced and modified in their growth and development.


ephyra ::: n. --> A stage in the development of discophorous medusae, when they first begin to swim about after being detached from the strobila. See Strobila.

Epiphenomenon: (Gr. epi + phenomenon, from phainein, to appear) A by-product of a basic process which exerts no appreciable influence on the subsequent development of the process. -- L.W.

Eriugena, Joannes Scottus: (800/815 - c. 800) Was of Irish birth and early education. He came to the Court of Charles the Bald, son of Charlemagne, as a teacher c. 845. A good linguist, he translated works of Maximus, Gregory of Nyssa and the Pseudo-Dionysius from Greek to Latin. His thought is partly Augustinian, partly a personal development inspired by the Greek Fathers. He has been accused of Pantheism. Chief works: De Praedestinatione, De divisione Naturae (PL 122). M. Cippuyns, Jean S.. Erigene, sa vie, son oevre, sa pensee (Louvain-Paris, 1933). -- V.J.B.

Eusebius of Caesarea: (265-340) Is one of the first great historians of the Christian Church. He was born at Caesarea, in Palestine, studied at the school of Pamphilus, became Bishop of Caesarea in 313. His works are in Greek and include a Chronicle, Ecclesiastical History, and a treatise On Theophanies (PG 19-24). His philosophical views are those of a Christian Platonist and he contributed to the development of the allegorical method of Scriptural exegesis. -- V.J. B.

Evolutionism: This is the view that the universe and life in all of its manifestations and nature in all of their aspects are the product of development. Apart from the religious ideas of initial creation by fiat, this doctrine finds variety of species to be the result of change and modification and growth and adaptation rather than from some form of special creation of each of the myriads of organic types and even of much in the inorganic realm. Contrary to the popular notion, evolution is not a product of modern thought. There has been an evolution of evolutionary hypotheses from earliest Indian and Greek speculation down to the latest pronouncement of scientific theory. Thales believed all life to have had a marine origin and Anaximander, Anaximenes, Empedocles, the Atomists and Aristotle all spoke in terms of development and served to lay a foundation for a true theory of evolution. It is in the work of Charles Darwin, however, that clarity and proof is presented for the explanation of his notion of natural selection and for the crystallization of evolution as a prime factor in man's explanation of all phases of his mundane existence. The chief criticism leveled at the evolutionists, aside from the attacks of the religionists, is based upon their tendency to forget that not all evolution means progress. See Charles Darwin, Herbert Spencer, Thomas Hemy Huxley, Natural Selection, Evolutionary Ethics. Cf. A. Lalande, L'Idee de dissolution opposee a celle de l'evolution (1899), revised ed. (1930): Les Illusions evolutionistes. -- L.E.D.

evolution ::: n. --> The act of unfolding or unrolling; hence, in the process of growth; development; as, the evolution of a flower from a bud, or an animal from the egg.
A series of things unrolled or unfolded.
The formation of an involute by unwrapping a thread from a curve as an evolute.
The extraction of roots; -- the reverse of involution.
A prescribed movement of a body of troops, or a vessel


Evolution: The development of organization. The working out of a definite end; action by final causation. For Comte, the successive stages of historical development are necessary. In biology, the series of phylogenetic changes in the structure or behavior of organisms, best exemplified by Charles Darwin's Origin of Species. In cosmology, cosmogony is the theory of the generation of the existing universe in space and time. Opposite of: epigenesis. See Emergent evolution, Evolutionism. Cf. T. Osborn, From the Greeks to Darwin. -- J.K.F.

excrescence ::: n. --> An excrescent appendage, as, a wart or tumor; anything growing out unnaturally from anything else; a preternatural or morbid development; hence, a troublesome superfluity; an incumbrance; as, an excrescence on the body, or on a plant.

Explanation: In general: the process, art, means or method of making a fact or a statement intelligible; the result and the expression of what is made intelligible; the meaning attributed to anything by one who makes it intelligible; a genetic description, causal development, systematic clarification, rational exposition, scientific interpretation, intelligible connection, ordered manifestation of the elements of a fact or a statement. A. More technically, the method of showing discursively that a phenomenon or a group of phenomena obeys a law, by means of causal relations or descriptive connections, or briefly, the methodical analysis of a phenomenon for the purpose of stating its cause. The process of explanation suggests the real preformation or potential presence of the consequent in the antecedent, so that the phenomenon considered may be evolved, developed, unrolled out of its conditioning antecedents. The process and the value of a scientific explanation involve the question of the relation between cause and law, as these two terms may be identified (Berkeley) or distinguished (Comte). Hence modern theories range between extreme idealism and logical positivism. Both these extremes seem to be unsatisfactory: the former would include too much into science, while the latter would embrace a part of it only, namely the knowledge of the scientific laws. Taking into account Hume's criticism of causality and Mill's reasons for accepting causality, Russell proposes what seems to be a middle course, namely that regular sequences suggest causal relations, that causal relations are one special class of scientific generalization, that is one-way sequences in time, and that causal relations as such should not be used in the advanced stages of scientific generalization, functional relations being sufficient in all cases. However satisfactory in methodology, this view may not cover all the implications of the problem. B. There are three specific types of causal explanation, and their results may be combined: genetic or in terms of the direct and immediate conditions or causes producing a phenomenon (formal and efficient cause); descriptive, or in terms of the material elements of the phenomenon (material cause); teleological, or in terms of the ultimate end to be attained (final cause), either in accordance with the nature of the event or with the intention of the agent. The real causes of a phenomenon cannot be identified always, because the natural process of change or becoming escapes complete rationalization. But the attempt to rationalize the real by causal explanation, need not be abandoned in favor of a limited genetic description (postulational or functional) of the laws which may account for the particular phenomenon.

ferment ::: 1. A state of agitation or of turbulent change or development. 2. A process of nature involving the addition of yeasts, moulds and certain bacteria (to liquids or solids) causing an effervescence or internal commotion, with evolution of heat, in the substance operated on, and a resulting alteration of its properties.

fetus ::: n. --> The young or embryo of an animal in the womb, or in the egg; often restricted to the later stages in the development of viviparous and oviparous animals, embryo being applied to the earlier stages.

First Tier ::: A phrase used to summarize the first six major levels of values development according to Clare Graves and Spiral Dynamics: Survival Sense, Kin Spirits, Power Gods, Truth Force, Strive Drive, and Human Bond. First-Tier stages are characterized by a belief that “my values are the only correct values.” This lies in contrast to Second-Tier levels of development, wherein individuals recognize the importance of all value systems. Integral Theory uses First Tier to refer to the first six degrees or levels of developmental altitude (Infrared, Magenta, Red, Amber, Orange, and Green).

Fixation ::: In Freud&

flowered ::: flower 1. Blossomed or bloomed. Also fig. 2. Decorated with flowers. 3. Came into full development; matured; blossomed.

Formal Operational Stage ::: Pavlov&

formative ::: a. --> Giving form; having the power of giving form; plastic; as, the formative arts.
Serving to form; derivative; not radical; as, a termination merely formative.
Capable of growth and development; germinal; as, living or formative matter. ::: n.


formed ::: imp. & p. p. --> of Form ::: a. --> Arranged, as stars in a constellation; as, formed stars.
Having structure; capable of growth and development; organized; as, the formed or organized ferments. See Ferment, n.


forth ::: adv. --> Forward; onward in time, place, or order; in advance from a given point; on to end; as, from that day forth; one, two, three, and so forth.
Out, as from a state of concealment, retirement, confinement, nondevelopment, or the like; out into notice or view; as, the plants in spring put forth leaves.
Beyond a (certain) boundary; away; abroad; out.
Throughly; from beginning to end.


For the later development of the conception of substance, see Thomas Aquinas, especially De Ente et Essentia, ch. 2.

Freud, Sigmund ::: Dr. Freud is often referred to as the father of clinical psychology.  His extensive theory of personality development (psychoanalytical theory) is the cornerstone for modern psychological thought, and consists of (1) the psychosexual stages of development, (2) the structural  model of personality (id, ego, superego), and (3) levels of consciousness (conscious, subconscious, and unconscious).  See Psychoanalysis.

fulcrum ::: A developmental milestone within the self-identity stream, or the proximate-self line of development. Fulcrums follow a general 1-2-3 process: fusion or identification with one’s current level of self-development; differentiation or disidentification from that level; and integration of the new level with the previous level. AQAL theory, and Integral Psychology in specific, focus on anywhere from nine to ten developmental fulcrums.

gamomorphism ::: n. --> That stage of growth or development in an organism, in which the reproductive elements are generated and matured in preparation for propagating the species.

gastrula ::: n. --> An embryonic form having its origin in the invagination or pushing in of the wall of the planula or blastula (the blastosphere) on one side, thus giving rise to a double-walled sac, with one opening or mouth (the blastopore) which leads into the cavity (the archenteron) lined by the inner wall (the hypoblast). See Illust. under Invagination. In a more general sense, an ideal stage in embryonic development. See Gastraea.

gastrulation ::: n. --> The process of invagination, in embryonic development, by which a gastrula is formed.

genetical ::: a. --> Pertaining to, concerned with, or determined by, the genesis of anything, or its natural mode of production or development.

Genetic: (Gr. genesis, origin) Having to do with the origin and the development of anything. -- K.F.

Genital Stage ::: Freud&

Genres: Types of art to which special rules and independent developments were attributed. For example: in poetry -- epic, lyric, dramatic; in painting -- historic, portrait, landscape; in music -- oratorical, symphonic, operatic. -- L.V.

Geometry: Originally abstracted from the measurement of, and the study of relations of position among, material objects, geometry received in Euclid's Elements (c. 300 B.C.) a treatment which (despite, of course, certain defects by modern standards) became the historical model for the abstract deductive development of a mathematical discipline. The general nature of the subject of geometry may be illustrated by reference to the synthetic geometry of Euclid, and the analytic geometry which resulted from the introduction of coordinates into Euclidean geometry by Descartes (1637) (q.v.). In the mathematical usage of today the name geometry is given to any abstract mathematical discipline of a certain general type, as thus illustrated, without any requirement of applicability to spatial relations among physical objects or the like.

germination ::: n. --> The process of germinating; the beginning of vegetation or growth in a seed or plant; the first development of germs, either animal or vegetable.

germs ::: initial stages in development or evolution as germ cells or ancestral forms; rudiments of living organisms.

gestation ::: the period of development from conception until birth; pregnancy.

growth ::: n. --> The process of growing; the gradual increase of an animal or a vegetable body; the development from a seed, germ, or root, to full size or maturity; increase in size, number, frequency, strength, etc.; augmentation; advancement; production; prevalence or influence; as, the growth of trade; the growth of power; the growth of intemperance. Idle weeds are fast in growth.
That which has grown or is growing; anything produced; product; consequence; effect; result.


haematoblast ::: n. --> One of the very minute, disk-shaped bodies found in blood with the ordinary red corpuscles and white corpuscles; a third kind of blood corpuscle, supposed by some to be an early stage in the development of the red corpuscles; -- called also blood plaque, and blood plate.

haematogenesis ::: n. --> The origin and development of blood.
The transformation of venous arterial blood by respiration; hematosis.


Ha-Levi, Judah: (b. ca. 1080, d. ca. 1140) Poet and philosopher. His Kuzari (Arabic Kitab Al-Khazari), written in dialogue form, has a double purpose. First, as its subtitle, A Book of Proofs and Arguments in Defense of the Humiliated Religion, indicates, it aims to prove the dignity and worth of Judaism. Secondly, he endeavors to show the insufficiency of philosophy and the superiority of the truths of revealed religion to those arrived at by logic. The admission of both Christianity and Islam that Judaism is their source proves the first. The exaltation of intuition as a means of certainty in matters of religion, and the claim that the prophet is the highest type of man rather than the philosopher purposes to substantiate the second. He endows the Jewish people with a special religio-ethical sense which is their share only and constitutes a quasi-biological quality. He assigns also a special importance to Palestine as a contributory factor in the spiritual development of his people, for only there can this religio-ethical sense come to full expression. -- M.W.

Hartmann, Eduard von: (1842-1906) Hybridizing Schopenhauer's voluntarism with Hegel's intellectualism, and stimulated by Schelling, the eclectic v.H. sought to overcome irrationalism and rationalism by postulating the Unconscious, raised into a neutral absolute which has in it both will and idea in co-ordination. Backed by an encyclopaedic knowledge he showed, allegedly inductively, how this generates all values in a conformism or correlationism which circumvents a subjective monistic idealism no less than a phenomenalism by means of a transcendental realism. Writing at a time when vitalists were hard put to be endeavored to synthesize the new natural sciences and teleology by assigning to mechanistic causility a special function in the natural process under a more generalized and deeper purposiveness. Dispensing with a pure rationalism, but without taking refuge in a vital force, v.H. was then able to establish a neo-vitalism. In ethics he transcended an original pessimism, flowing from the admittance of the alogical and dis-teleological, in a qualified optimism founded upon an evolutionary hypothesis which regards nature with its laws subservient to the logical, as a species of the teleological, and to reason which, as product of development, redeems the irrational will once it has been permitted to create a world in which existence means unhappiness.

hastings sands ::: --> The lower group of the Wealden formation; -- so called from its development around Hastings, in Sussex, England.

Herder, Johann Gottfried: (1744-1803) A founder of modern religious humanism, he explained human history as a consequence of the nature of man and of man's physical environment. Held implicitly to the view that society is basically an organic whole. Accounted for the differences in culture and institutions of different peoples as being due to geographical conditions. Although history is a process of the education of the human species, it has no definite goal of perfection and development. The vehicle of living culture is a distinct Volk or Nation with its distinct language and traditions. As a child of the Enlightenment, Herder had a blind faith in nature, in man and in the ultimate development of reason and justice.

heterocercy ::: n. --> Unequal development of the tail lobes of fishes; the possession of a heterocercal tail.

He was the first to recognize a fundamental critical difference between the philosopher and the scientist. He found those genuine ideals in the pre-Socratic period of Greek culture which he regarded as essential standards for the deepening of individuality and real culture in the deepest sense, towards which the special and natural sciences, and professional or academic philosophers failed to contribute. Nietzsche wanted the philosopher to be prophetic, originally forward-looking in the clarification of the problem of existence. Based on a comprehensive critique of the history of Western civilization, that the highest values in religion, morals and philosophy have begun to lose their power, his philosophy gradually assumed the will to power, self-aggrandizement, as the all-embracing principle in inorganic and organic nature, in the development of the mind, in the individual and in society. More interested in developing a philosophy of life than a system of academic philosophy, his view is that only that life is worth living which develops the strength and integrity to withstand the unavoidable sufferings and misfortunes of existence without flying into an imaginary world.

Hindu Ethics: See Indian Ethics. Hindu Aesthetics: See Indian Aesthetics. Hindu Philosophy: See Indian Philosophy. Historical materialism: The social philosophy of dialectical materialism. The application of the general principles of dialectical materialism to the specific field of human history, the development of human society. One of the chief problems Marx dealt with was that of the basic causal agent in the movement of human history. He states his thesis as follows:

histogenesis ::: n. --> The formation and development of organic tissues; histogeny; -- the opposite of histolysis.
Germ history of cells, and of the tissues composed of cells.


histogenetic ::: a. --> Tissue-producing; connected with the formation and development of the organic tissues.

histonomy ::: n. --> The science which treats of the laws relating to organic tissues, their formation, development, functions, etc.

Historically, philosophers have, in the main, taken the latter approach in both parts of ethics, and we may confine our remaining space to it. On this approach a theory of value is a theorv as to what is to be pursued or sought, and a theory of obligation, a theory as to what is to be done. Now, of these two parts of ethic, philosophers have generally been concerned primarily with the latter, busying themselves with the former only secondarily, usually because it seemed to them that one must know what ends are good before one can know what acts are tn be performed. They all offer both a theory of value and a theory of obligition, but it was not until the 19th and 20th centuries that value-theory became a separate discipline studied for its own sake -- a development in which important roles were played by Kant, Lotze, Ritschl, certain European economists, Brentano, Meinong, von Ehrenfels, W. M. Urban, R. B. Perry, and others.

Historicism: The view that the history of anything is a sufficient explanation of it, that the values of anything can be accounted for through the discovery of its origins, that the nature of anything is entirely comprehended in its development, as for example, that the properties of the oak tree are entirely accounted for by an exhaustive description of its development from the acorn. The doctrine which discounts the fallaciousness of the historical fallacy. Applied by some critics to the philosophy of Hegel and Karl Marx. -- J.K.F.

Historiography: (Gr. histor + graphein, to write) The art of recording history (q.v.). History: (Gr. histor, learned) Ambiguously used to denote either (a) events or (b) records of the past. The term historiography (q.v.) is used for (b). Also ambiguous in denoting natural as well as human events, or records of either. History of Art: Vasari (16th century) began the history of the artists. Winckelmann (18th century) began the history of art, that is of the development of the clements comprised in works of art. The history of art today is directed towards a synthesis of the personalities of the artists and of their reaction to tradition and environment. -- L.V.

History, Philosophy of: History investigates the theories concerning the development of man as a social being within the limits of psychophysical causality. Owing to this double puipose the philosophy of history has to study the principles of historiography, and, first of all, their background, their causes and underlying laws, their meaning and motivation. This can be called the metaphysics of history. Secondly, it concerns itself with the cognitive part, i.e. with historic understanding, and then it is called the logic of history. While in earlier times the philosophy of history was predominantly metaphysics, it has turned more and more to the methodology or logic of history. A complete philosophy of history, however, ought to consider the metaphysical as well as the logical problems involved.

homodemic ::: a. --> A morphological term signifying development, in the case of multicellular organisms, from the same unit deme or unit of the inferior orders of individuality.

hotbed ::: n. --> A bed of earth heated by fermenting manure or other substances, and covered with glass, intended for raising early plants, or for nourishing exotics.
A place which favors rapid growth or development; as, a hotbed of sedition.


Hu Shih, The Development of the Logical Method in Ancient China, The Oriental Book Co., Shanghai, 1922. Ching: (a) The classics, whether Confucian or Taoist. Formerly spelled king.

Hutcheson, Francis: (1694-1746) A prominent Scottish philosopher. Born in Drumalig, Ulster, educated at Glasgow, died in Dublin. The influence of his doctrine of "moral sense," stressing inborn conscience, or "moral feeling," was very wide, he was also the original author of the phrase "the greatest happiness for the greatest number," utilized by J. Bentham (q.v.) for the development of utilitarianism (q.v.) His principal work is Inquiry into the Origin of Our Ideas of Beauty and Virtue. -- R.B.W.

hyaline ::: a. --> Glassy; resembling glass; consisting of glass; transparent, like crystal. ::: n. --> A poetic term for the sea or the atmosphere.
The pellucid substance, present in cells in process of development, from which, according to some embryologists, the cell


hypertrophy ::: n. --> A condition of overgrowth or excessive development of an organ or part; -- the opposite of atrophy.

Hypothesis: In general, an assumption, a supposition, a conjecture, a postulate, a condition, an antecedent, a contingency, a possibility, a probability, a principle, a premiss, a ground or foundation, a tentative explanation, a probable cause, a theoretical situation, an academic question, a specific consideration, a conceded statement, a theory or view for debate or action, a likely relation, the conditioning of one thing by another. In logic, the conditional clause or antecedent in a hypothetical proposition. Also a thesis subordinate to a more general one. In methodology, a principle offered as a conditional explanation of a fact or a group of facts; or again, a provisional assumption about the ground of certain phenomena, used as a guiding norm in making observations and experiments until verified or disproved by subsequent evidence. A hypothesis is conditional or provisional, because it is based on probable and insufficient arguments or elements; yet, it is not an arbitrary opinion, but a justifiable assumption with some foundation in fact, this accounts for the expectation of some measure of agreement between the logical conclusion or implications drawn from a hypothesis, and the phenomena which are known or which may be determined by further tests. A scientific hypothesis must be   proposed after the observations it must explain (a posteriori),   compatible with established theories,   reasonable and relevant,   fruitful in its applications and controllable,   general in terms and more fundamental than the statements it has to explain. A hypothesis is descriptive (forecasting the external circumstances of the event) or explanatory (offering causal accounts of the event). There are two kinds of explanatory hypotheses   the hypothesis of law (or genetic hypothesis) which attempts to determine the manner in which the causes or conditions of a phenomenon operate and   the hypothesis of cause (or causal hypothesis) which attempt to determine the causes or conditions for the production of the phenomenon. A working hypothesis is a preliminary assumption based on few, uncertain or obscure elements, which is used provisionally as a guiding norm in the investigation of certain phenomena. Often, the difference between a working hypothesis and a scientific hypothesis is one of degree; and in any case, a hypothesis is seldom verified completely with all its detailed implications. The Socratic Method of Hypothesis, as developed by Plato in the Phaedo particularly, consists in positing an assumption without questioning its value, for the purpose of determining and analyzing its consequences only when these are clearly debated and judged, the assumption itself is considered for justification or rejection. Usually, a real condition is taken as a ground for inferences, as the aim of the method is to attain knowledge or to favor action. Plato used more specially the word "hypothesis" for the assumptions of geometry (postulates and nominal definitions) Anstotle extended this use to cover the immediate principles of mathematics. It may be observed that the modern hypothetico-deductive method in logical and mathematical theories, is a development of the Socratic method stripped of its ontological implications and purposes.

idiot ::: n. --> A man in private station, as distinguished from one holding a public office.
An unlearned, ignorant, or simple person, as distinguished from the educated; an ignoramus.
A human being destitute of the ordinary intellectual powers, whether congenital, developmental, or accidental; commonly, a person without understanding from birth; a natural fool; a natural; an innocent.


If it opens, then there will be an increasing union with the higher consciousness and it will be able to share the experiences and the developments in the mind and >ital.

:::   "If there is an evolution in material Nature and if it is an evolution of being with consciousness and life as its two key-terms and powers, this fullness of being, fullness of consciousness, fullness of life must be the goal of development towards which we are tending and which will manifest at an early or later stage of our destiny. The Self, the Spirit, the Reality that is disclosing itself out of the first inconscience of life and matter, would evolve its complete truth of being and consciousness in that life and matter. It would return to itself, — or, if its end as an individual is to return into its Absolute, it could make that return also, — not through a frustration of life but through a spiritual completeness of itself in life. Our evolution in the Ignorance with its chequered joy and pain of self-discovery and world-discovery, its half-fulfilments, its constant finding and missing, is only our first state. It must lead inevitably towards an evolution in the Knowledge, a self-finding and self-unfolding of the Spirit, a self-revelation of the Divinity in things in that true power of itself in Nature which is to us still a Supernature.” The Life Divine

“If there is an evolution in material Nature and if it is an evolution of being with consciousness and life as its two key-terms and powers, this fullness of being, fullness of consciousness, fullness of life must be the goal of development towards which we are tending and which will manifest at an early or later stage of our destiny. The Self, the Spirit, the Reality that is disclosing itself out of the first inconscience of life and matter, would evolve its complete truth of being and consciousness in that life and matter. It would return to itself,—or, if its end as an individual is to return into its Absolute, it could make that return also,—not through a frustration of life but through a spiritual completeness of itself in life. Our evolution in the Ignorance with its chequered joy and pain of self-discovery and world-discovery, its half-fulfilments, its constant finding and missing, is only our first state. It must lead inevitably towards an evolution in the Knowledge, a self-finding and self-unfolding of the Spirit, a self-revelation of the Divinity in things in that true power of itself in Nature which is to us still a Supernature.” The Life Divine

If we regard the Powers of the Reality as so many Godheads, we can say that the Overmind releases a million Godheads into action, each empowered to create its own world, each world capable of relation, communication and interplay with the others. There are in the Veda different formulations of the nature of the Gods: it is said they are all one Existence to which the sages give different names; yet each God is worshipped as if he by himself is that Existence, one who is all the other Gods together or contains them in his being; and yet again each is a separate Deity acting sometimes in unison with companion deities, sometimes separately, sometimes even in apparent opposition to other Godheads of the same Existence. In the Supermind all this would be held together as a harmonised play of the one Existence; in the Overmind each of these three conditions could be a separate action or basis of action and have its own principle of development and consequences and yet each keep the power to combine with the others in a more composite harmony. As with the One Existence, so with its Consciousness and Force. The One Consciousness is separated into many independent forms of consciousness and knowledge; each follows out its own line of truth which it has to realise. The one total and many-sided Real-Idea is split up into its many sides; each becomes an independent Idea-Force with the power to realise itself. The one Consciousness-Force is liberated into its million forces, and each of these forces has the right to fulfil itself or to assume, if needed, a hegemony and take up for its own utility the other forces. So too the Delight of Existence is loosed out into all manner of delights and each can carry in itself its independent fullness or sovereign extreme. Overmind thus gives to the One Existence-Consciousness-Bliss the character of a teeming of infinite possibilities which can be developed into a multitude of worlds or thrown together into one world in which the endlessly variable…

..if we suppose the unity to be unbroken, we then arrive at the existence of consciousness in all forms of the Force which is at work in the world. Even if there be no conscient or superconscient Purusha inhabiting all forms, yet is there in those forms a conscious force of being of which even their outer parts overtly or inertly partake. Necessarily, in such a view, the word consciousness changes its meaning. It is no longer synonymous with mentality but indicates a self-aware force of existence of which mentality is a middle term; below mentality it sinks into vital and material movements which are for us subconscient; above, it rises into the supramental which is for us the superconscient. But in all it is one and the same thing organising itself differently. This is, once more, the Indian conception of Chit which, as energy, creates the worlds. Essentially, we arrive at that unity which materialistic Science perceives from the other end when it asserts that Mind cannot be another force than Matter, but must be merely development and outcome of material energy. Indian thought at its deepest affirms on the other hand that Mind and Matter are rather different grades of the same energy, different organisations of one conscious Force of Existence.
   Ref: CWSA Vol. 21-22, Page: 95-96 ::: The essence of consciousness is the power to be aware of itself and its objects, and in its true nature this power must be direct, self-fulfilled and complete: if it is in us indirect, incomplete, unfulfilled in its workings, dependent on constructed instruments, it is because consciousness here is emerging from an original veiling Inconscience and is yet burdened and enveloped with the first Nescience proper to the Inconscient.
   Ref: CWSA Vol. 21-22, Page: 1053


If we would understand the difference of this global Overmind Consciousness from our separative and only imperfectly synthetic mental consciousness, we may come near to it if we compare the strictly mental with what would be an overmental view of activities in our material universe. To the Overmind, for example, all religions would be true as developments of the one eternal religion, all philosophies would be valid each in its own field as a statement of its own universe-view from its own angle, all political theories with their practice would be the legitimate working out of an Idea Force with its right to application and practical development in the play of the energies of Nature. In our separative consciousness, imperfectly visited by glimpses of catholicity and universality, these things exist as opposites; each claims to be the truth and taxes the others with error and falsehood, each feels impelled to refute or destroy the others in order that itself alone may be the Truth and live: at best, each must claim to be superior, admit all others only as inferior truth-expressions. An overmental Intelligence would refuse to entertain this conception or this drift to exclusiveness for a moment; it would allow all to live as necessary to the whole or put each in its place in the whole or assign to each its field of realisation or of endeavour. This is because in us consciousness has come down completely into the divisions of the Ignorance; Truth is no longer either an Infinite or a cosmic whole with many possible formulations, but a rigid affirmation holding any other affirmation to be false because different from itself and entrenched in other limits. Our mental consciousness can indeed arrive in its cognition at a considerable approach towards a total comprehensiveness and catholicity, but to organise that in action and life seems to be beyond its power. Evolutionary Mind, manifest in individuals or collectivities, throws up a multiplicity of divergent viewpoints, divergent lines of action and lets them work themselves out side by side or in collision or in a certain intermixture; it can make selective harmonies, but it cannot arrive at the harmonic control of a true totality. Cosmic Mind must have even in the evolutionary Ignorance, like all totalities, such a harmony, if only of arranged accords and discords; there is too in it an underlying dynamism of oneness: but it carries the completeness of these things in its depths, perhaps in a supermind-overmind substratum, but does not impart it to individual Mind in the evolution, does not bring it or has not yet brought it from the depths to the surface. An Overmind world would be a world of harmony; the world of Ignorance in which we live is a world of disharmony and struggle. …

I. Logic of History The historical objects under observation (man, life, society, biological and geological conditions) are so diverse that even slight mistakes in evaluation of items and of the historical whole may lead to false results. This can be seen from the modern logic of history. In the 18th century, G. B. Vico contended, under the deep impression of the lawfulness prevailing in natural sciences, that historical events also follow each other according to unswerving natural laws. He assumed three stages of development, that of fantasy, of will, and of science. The encyclopedists and Saint-Simon shared his view. The individual is immersed, and driven on, by the current of social tendencies, so that Comte used to speak of an "histoire sans noms". His three stages of development were the theological, metaphysical, and scientific stage. H. Spencer and A. Fouillee regard social life as an organism unfolding itself according to immanent laws, either of racial individuality (Gobineau, Vocher de Lapauge) or of a combination of social, physical, and personal forces (Taine). The spirit of a people and of an age outweigh completely the power of an individual personality which can work only along socially conditioned tendencies. The development of a nation always follows the same laws, it may vary as to time and whereabouts but never as to the form (Burkhardt, Lamprecht). To this group of historians belong also O. Spengler and K. Marx; "Fate" rules the civilization of peoples and pushes them on to their final destination.

immature ::: a. --> Not mature; unripe; not arrived at perfection of full development; crude; unfinished; as, immature fruit; immature character; immature plans.
Premature; untimely; too early; as, an immature death.


". . . imperfection is not a thing to be at all deplored, but rather a privilege and a promise, for it opens out to us an immense vista of self-development and self-exceeding.” The Human Cycle etc.*

“… imperfection is not a thing to be at all deplored, but rather a privilege and a promise, for it opens out to us an immense vista of self-development and self-exceeding.” The Human Cycle etc.

In addition to syntactical or nominal definition we may distinguish another kind of definition, which is applicable only in connection with interpreted logistic systems, and which we shall call semantical definition. This consists in introducing a new symbol or notation by assigning a meaning to it. In an interpreted logistic system, a nominal definition carries with it implicitly a semantical definition, in that it is intended to give to the definiendum the meaning expressed by the definiens; but two different nominal definitions may correspond to the same semantical definition. Consider, for example, the two following schemata of nominal definition in the propositional calculus (Logic, formal, § 1): [A] ⊃ [B] → ∼A ∨ B. [A] ⊃ [B] → ∼[A ∼B]. As nominal definitions these are inconsistent, since they represent [A] ⊃ [B] as standing for different formulas: either one, but not both, could be used in a development of the propositional calculus. But the corresponding semantical definitions would be identical if -- as would be possible -- our interpretation of the propositional calculus were such that the two definientia had the same meaning for any particular A and B.

In a legal sense, any claim against others, recognized by law. Political rights, the capacity of exercizing certain functions in the formation and administration of government -- the right to vote, to be elected to public office, etc. Natural rights, as against positive rights, those claims or liberties which are not derived from positive law but from a "higher law", the law of nature. The right to live, the right to work, the "pursuit of happiness", the right to self-development are sometimes considered natural rights. -- W.E.

In a mathematical development of the real number system or the complex number system, an appropriate set of postulates may be the starting point. Or the non-negative integers may first be introduced (by postulates or otherwise -- see arithmetic, foundations of) and from these the above outlined extensions may be provided for by successive logical constructions, in any one of several alternative ways.

In contributing some elements of a "universal calculus" he may be said to have been the first serious student of symbolic logic. He devised a symbolism for such concepts and relations as "and", "or", implication between concepts, class inclusion, class and conceptual equivalence, etc. One of his sets of symbolic representations for the four standard propositions of traditional logic coincides with the usage of modern logic He anticipated in the principles of his calculus many of the important rules of modern symbolic systems. His treatment, since it was primarily intensional, neglected important extensional features of recent developments, but, on the other hand, called attention to certain intensional distinctions now commonly neglected.

incubation ::: n. --> A sitting on eggs for the purpose of hatching young; a brooding on, or keeping warm, (eggs) to develop the life within, by any process.
The development of a disease from its causes, or its period of incubation. (See below.)
A sleeping in a consecrated place for the purpose of dreaming oracular dreams.


In general, patristic philosophy is differentiated from medieval and modern philosophies in that it failed to distinguish adequately between the conclusions of reason and the facts of revelation. Philosophy, theology and the truths of religion made one amorphous body of truth. However, three stages mark the development of patristic thought.

ingrowth ::: n. --> A growth or development inward.

In his chief work, the Ethica, Spinoza's teaching is expressed in a manner for which geometry supplies the model. This expository device served various purposes. It may be interpreted as a clue to Spinoza's ideal of knowledge. So understood, it represents the condensed and ordered expression, not of 'philosophy' alone, but rather of all knowledge, 'philosophy' and 'science', as an integrated system. In such an ideal ordering of ideas, (rational) theology and metaphysics provide the anchorage for the system. On the one hand, the theology-metaphysics displays the fundamental principles (definitions, postulates, axioms) upon which the anchorage depends, and further displays in deductive fashion the primary fund of ideas upon which the inquiries of science, both 'descriptive' and 'normative' must proceed. On the other hand, the results of scientific inquiry are anchored at the other end, by a complementary metaphysico-theological development of their significance. Ideally, there obtains, for Spinoza, both an initial theology and metaphysics -- a necessary preparation for science -- and a culminating theology and metaphysics, an interpretative absorption of the conclusions of science.

In respect to the field of ethics in general, Soviet philosophers have lately been developing the doctrine known as socialist or proletarian humanism. As distinguished from "bourgeois humanism", this term signifies that system of social institutions and personal values designed to insure that there be no underprivileged gioup or class de facto excluded from full participation in the good life conceived in terms of the educational and cultural development of the individual and the full enjoyment of the things of this world. Such objectives, it is held, are only possible of attainment in a classless society where there is economic security for all. The view taken is that the freedoms and liberties proclaimed by "bourgeois humanism" represented a great historical advance, but one that was, in general, limited in application to the emancipation of the bourgeoisie (q.v.) from the restrictions of feudalism while retaining and making use, to greater or lesser extent, of slavery, serfdom and a system of private capitalism invoking the precarious economic existence and cultural darkness of large proletarian masses. While it is held that there is an absolute light binding upon all, vaguely expressed in such formulations as, each for all and all for each, it is asserted that in class society, the position and class interest of one class may motivate it to oppose a genuine application of this right, whereas the class interest of another class may coincide with such an application. It is held that the proletariat is in this latter position, for its class interest as well as its moral obligation is considered to be in abolishing itself as a proletariat, which is taken to mean, abolishing classes generally.

In scholasticism: The English term translates three Latin terms which, in Scholasticism, have different significations. Ens as a noun is the most general and most simple predicate; as a participle it is an essential predicate only in regard to God in Whom existence and essence are one, or Whose essence implies existence. Esse, though used sometimes in a wider sense, usually means existence which is defined as the actus essendi, or the reality of some essence. Esse quid or essentia designates the specific nature of some being or thing, the "being thus" or the quiddity. Ens is divided into real and mental being (ens rationis). Though the latter also has properties, it is said to have essence only in an improper way. Another division is into actual and potential being. Ens is called the first of all concepts, in respect to ontology and to psychology; the latter statement of Aristotle appears to be confirmed by developmental psychology. Thing (res) and ens are synonymous, a res may be a res extra mentem or only rationis. Every ens is: something, i.e. has quiddity, one, true, i.e. corresponds to its proper nature, and good. These terms, naming aspects which are only virtually distinct from ens, are said to be convertible with ens and with each other. Ens is an analogical term, i.e. it is not predicated in the same manner of every kind of being, according to Aquinas. In Scotism ens, however, is considered as univocal and as applying to God in the same sense as to created beings, though they be distinguished as entia ab alto from God, the ens a se. See Act, Analogy, Potency, Transcendentals. -- R.A.

Integration: (Lat. integrare, to make whole) The act of making a whole out of parts. In mathematics, a limiting process which may be described in vague terms as summing up an infinite number of infinitesimals, part of the calculus. In psychology, the combination of psycho-physical elements into a complex unified organization. In cosmology, the synthetic philosophy of Spencer holds that the evolutionary process is marked by two movements: integration and differentiation. Integration consists in the development of more and more complex organizations. Inverse of: differentiation (q.v.). -- J.K.F.

integration ::: n. --> The act or process of making whole or entire.
The operation of finding the primitive function which has a given function for its differential coefficient. See Integral.
In the theory of evolution: The process by which the manifold is compacted into the relatively simple and permanent. It is supposed to alternate with differentiation as an agent in development.


In the field of the philosophy of religion, Platonism becomes obscure. There is little doubt that Plato paid only lip-service to the anthropomorphic polytheism of Athenian religion. Many of the attributes of the Idea of the Good are those of an eternal God. The Republic (Book II) pictures the Supreme Being as perfect, unchangeable and the author of truth. Similar rationalizations are found throughout the Laws. Another current of religious thought is to be found m the Timaeus, Politicus and Sophist. The story of the making of the universe and man by the Demiurgus is mythic and yet it is in many points a logical development of his theory of Ideas. The World-Maker does not create things from nothing, he fashions the world out of a pre-existing chaos of matter by introducing patterns taken from the sphere of Forms. This process of formation is also explained, in the Timaeus (54 ff), in terms of various mathematical figures. In an early period of the universe, God (Chronos) exercised a sort of Providential care over things in this world (Politicus, 269-275), but eventually man was left to his own devices. The tale of Er, at the end of the Republic, describes a judgment of souls after death, their separation into the good and the bad, and the assignment of various rewards and punishments. H. Stephanus et J. Serranus (ed.), Platonis Opera (Paris, 1578), has provided the standard pagination, now used in referring to the text of Plato, it is not a critical edition. J. Burnet (ed.), Platonis Opera, 5 vol. (Oxford, 1899-1907). Platon, Oeuvres completes, texte et trad., Collect. G. Bude (Paris, 1920 ff.). The Dialogues of Plato, transl. B. Jowett, 3rd ed. (Oxford, 1920). W. Pater, Plato and Platonism (London, 1909). A. E. Taylor, Plato, the Man and his Work (N. Y., 1927). P. Shorey, What Plato Said (Chicago, 1933). A. Dies, Autour de Platon, 2 vol. (Paris, 1927). U. von Wilamowitz-Moellendorf, Platon, 2 vol. (Berlin, 1919). John Burnet, Platonism (Berkeley, 1928). Paul Elmer More, Platonism (Oxford, 1931). Constantm Ritter, Essence of Plato's Philosophy (London, 1933). Leon Robin, Platon (Paris, 1935). Paul Shorey, Platonism, Ancient and Modern (Berkeley, 1938). A. E. Taylor, Platontsm and Its Influence (London, 1924). F. J. E. Woodbridge, The Son of Apollo (Boston, 1929). C. Bigg, The Christian Platomsts of Alexandria (Oxford, 1913). T. Whittaker, The Neo-Platonists (Cambridge, 1918, 2nd ed ). John H. Muirhead, The Platonic Tradition in Angle-Saxon Philosophy (New York, 1931). F. J. Powicke, The Cambridge Platonists (Boston, 1927). -- V.J.B.

In the formal development of a logistic system, since no reference may be made to an intended interpretation, semantical definitions are precluded, and must be replaced by corresponding nominal definitions.

"In the social relations which men carry on they enter into definite relations that are indispensible and independent of their will. These relations of production correspond to a definite stage of development of their material powers of production. . . . At a certain stage of their development the material forces of production in society come in conflict with the existing relations of production, or -- what is but a legal expression for the same thing -- with the property relations within which they had been at work before. From forms of development of the forces of production these relations turn into their fetters. Then comes the period of social revolution. With the change of the economic foundation the entire immense superstructure is more or less rapidly transformed. In considering such transformations the distinction should always be made between the material transformation of the economic conditions of production which can be determined with the precision of natural science, and the legal, political, religious, aesthetic or philosophic -- in short, ideological forms in which men become conscious of this conflict and fight it out." (Marx: Contribution to the Critique of Political Economy, p. 12.) -- J.M.S.

In this simultaneous development of multitudinous independent or combined Powers or Potentials there is yet—or there is as yet—no chaos, no conflict, no fall from Truth or Knowledge. The Overmind is a creator of truths, not of illusions or falsehoods: what is worked out in any given overmental energism or movement is the truth of the Aspect, Power, Idea, Force, Delight which is liberated into independent action, the truth of the consequences of its reality in that independence. There is no exclusiveness asserting each as the sole truth of being or the others as inferior truths: each God knows all the Gods and their place in existence; each Idea admits all other ideas and their right to be; each Force concedes a place to all other forces and their truth and consequences; no delight of separate fulfilled existence or separate experience denies or condemns the delight of other existence or other experience. The Overmind is a principle of cosmic Truth and a vast and endless catholicity is its very spirit; its energy is an all-dynamism as well as a principle of separate dynamisms: it is a sort of inferior Supermind,—although it is concerned predominantly not with absolutes, but with what might be called the dynamic potentials or pragmatic truths of Reality, or with absolutes mainly for their power of generating pragmatic or creative values, although, too, its comprehension of things is more global than integral, since its totality is built up of global wholes or constituted by separate independent realities uniting or coalescing together, and although the essential unity is grasped by it and felt to be basic of things and pervasive in their manifestation, but no longer as in the Supermind their intimate and ever-present secret, their dominating continent, the overt constant builder of the harmonic whole of their activity and nature….

involutionary given(s) ::: Items presupposed to be given or deposited by involution, already operating, for example, at the moment of the Big Bang and forward. These might include Eros/Agape (the morphogenetic tilt of manifestation), Prototypical Forms, certain mathematical laws, as well as the twenty tenets. Other examples of involutionary givens might include Whitehead’s eternal objects (shape, color, etc.) and Sheldrake’s pregiven constants (energy, form, causation, development, creativity). See evolutionary given(s).

:::   "I regard the spiritual history of mankind and especially of India as a constant development of a divine purpose, not a book that is closed, the lines of which have to be constantly repeated.” Letters on Yoga

“I regard the spiritual history of mankind and especially of India as a constant development of a divine purpose, not a book that is closed, the lines of which have to be constantly repeated.” Letters on Yoga

Its first manifestation took place in Egypt where Judaism came in contact with Hellenic culture, and the result was the development of an extensive speculation among the Jews of Alexandria, the most important representative of which was Philo (q.v.). With the disappearance of the Egyptian Diaspora its philosophy vanished and only slight vestiges of its teachings can be traced in the early Agadic literature.

I. Vienna Circle; Logical Positivsm, Logical Empiricism. The Vienna Circle, founded by M. Schlick (q.v.) in 1924, ending with his death in 1936. Among its members: G. Bergmann, R. Carnap (q.v.), H. Feigl, Ph. Frank (q.v.), K. G&oUML;del (q.v.), H. Hahn (d. 1934), O. Neurath, F Waismann. Seen historically, the movement shows influences from three sides   the older empiricism and positivism, especially Hume, Mill, Mach;   methodology of empirical science, as developed by scientists since about the middle of the 19th century, e.g., Helmholtz, Mach, Poincare. Duhem, Boltzmann, Einstein;   symbolic logic and logical analysis of language as developed especially by Frege, Whitehead and Russell, Wittgenstein. Russell (q.v.) was the first to combine these trends and therefore had an especially strong influence. The views developed in the V. C. have been called Logical Positivism (A. E. Blumberg and H. Feigl, J. Phil. 28, 1931); many members now prefer the term "Logical Empiricism". Among the characteristic features: emphasis on scientific attitude and on co-operation, hence emphasis on intersubjective (q.v.) language and unity of science. Empiricism: every knowledge that is factual (see Meaning, Kinds of, 1), is connected with experiences in such a way that verification or direct or indirect confirmation is possible (see Verification).   The emphasis on logical analysis of language (see Semiotic) distinguishes this movement from earlier empiricism and positivism. The task of philosophy is amlysis of knowledge, especially of science; chief method: analysis of the language of science (see Semiotic; Meaning, Kinds of). Publications concerning the historical development of this movement and its chief views: Wissenschaftliche Weltauffassung: Der Wiener Kreis, Wien 1929 (with bibliography). O. Neurath, Le Developpement du Cercle de Vienne, et l'Avenir de l'Empirisme Logique, 1935. C. W. Morris, Logical Positivism, Pragmatism, and Scientific Empiricism, Paris 1937. E. Nagel, "Impressions and Appraisals of Analytic Philosophy in Europe", I, II, tic Empiricism in Germany, and the Present State of its Problems. Ibid. E. Nagel, "The Fight for Clarity: Logical Empiricism", Amer. Scholar, 1938. Many papers by members of the group have been published in "Erkenntnis" since 1930, now continued as "Journal of Unified Science".   Compare M. Black, "Relations between Logical Positivism and the Cambridge School of Analysis", J. Un. Sc. 8, 1940. II. Scientific Empiricism. A wider movement, comprising besides Logical Empiricism other groups and individuals with related views in various countries. Also called Unity of Science Movement.

J. L. Coolidge, A History of Geometrical Methods, New York, 1940. Mathesis universalis: Universal mathematics. One major part of Leibniz's program for logic was the development of a universal mathematics or universal calculus for manipulating, i.e. performing deductions in, the universal language (characteristica universalis). This universal language, he thought, could be constructed on the basis of a relatively few simple terms and, when constructed, would be of immense value to scientists and philosophers in reasoning as well as in communication. Leibniz's studies on the subject of a universal mathematics are the starting point in modern philosophy of the development of symbolic, mathematical logic. -- F.L.W.

karma ::: action, work; the work or function of a man; the power which by its continuity and development as a subjective and objective force determines the nature and eventuality of the soul's repeated existences. ::: karmani [plural]

Karma ::: The doctrine of reincarnation and Karma tells us that the soul has a past which shaped its present birth and existence; it has a future which our present action is shaping; our past has taken and our future will take the form of recurring terrestrial births and Karma, our own action, is the power which by its continuity and development as a subjective and objective force determines the whole nature and eventuality of these repeated existences.

karyokinesis ::: n. --> The indirect division of cells in which, prior to division of the cell protoplasm, complicated changes take place in the nucleus, attended with movement of the nuclear fibrils; -- opposed to karyostenosis. The nucleus becomes enlarged and convoluted, and finally the threads are separated into two groups which ultimately become disconnected and constitute the daughter nuclei. Called also mitosis. See Cell development, under Cell.

Kempen, Thomas Hemerken van: (1380-1471) Also called Thomas a Kempis, was born at Kempen in Holland, received his early education and instruction in music at the monastery of the Brethren of the Common Life, at Deventer. He attended no university but attained a high degree of spiritual development. His Imitation of Christ is one of the most famous, and most used, books of Catholic spiritual meditation; it has been printed in nearly all languages and is found in innumerable editions. There seems to be no valid reason for questioning his authorship of the work. -- V.J.B.

Kosmic address ::: The “location” of a referent (or “real object”) in the AQAL matrix, including its altitude (i.e., degree of development) and its perspective (i.e., the quadrant in which it resides).

landmarks ::: 1. Prominent identifying features of a landscape. 2. Events marking important stages of development.

Latency Stage ::: Freud&

law ::: “… all cosmic and real Law is a thing not imposed from outside, but from within, all development is self-development, all seed and result are seed of a Truth of things and result of that seed determined out of its potentialities. For the same reason no Law is absolute, because only the infinite is absolute, and everything contains within itself endless potentialities quite beyond its determined form and course, which are only determined through a self-limitation by Idea proceeding from an infinite liberty within.” The Life Divine

ledgment ::: n. --> A string-course or horizontal suit of moldings, such as the base moldings of a building.
The development of the surface of a body on a plane, so that the dimensions of the different sides may be easily ascertained.


Leibniz's philosophy was the dawning consciousness of the modern world (Dewey). So gradual and continuous, like the development of a monad, so all-inclusive was the growth of his mind, that his philosophy, as he himself says, "connects Plato with Democritus, Aristotle with Descartes, the Scholastics with the moderns, theology and morals with reason." The reform (if all science was to be effected by the use of two instruments, a universal scientific language and a calculus of reasoning. He advocated a universal language of ideographic symbols in which complex concepts would be expressed by combinations of symbols representing simple concepts or by new symbols defined as equivalent to such a complex. He believed that analysis would enable us to limit the number of undefined concepts to a few simple primitives in terms of which all other concepts could be defined. This is the essential notion back of modern logistic treatments.

levels ::: A level is a general measure of higher and lower. While the terms “structures,” “stages,” and “waves” are sometimes loosely used to refer to “levels,” each term has their own important nuances. Any specific level has an actual structure. Levels tend to unfold in a sequence and thus progress through stages. Finally, levels are not rigidly separated from each other but are rather fluid and overlapping waves. In short, levels are abstract measures that represent fluid yet qualitatively distinct classes of recurrent patterns within developmental lines. Some examples include egocentric, ethnocentric, worldcentric, planetcentric, and Kosmocentric.

Life then reveals itself as essentially the same everywhere from the atom to man, the atom containing the subconscious stuff and movement of being which are released into consciousness in the animal, with plant life as a midway stage in the evolution. Life is really a universal operation of Conscious-Force acting subconsciously on and in Matter; it is the operation that creates, maintains, destroys and re-creates forms or bodies and attempts by play of nerve-force, that is to say, by currents of interchange of stimulating energy to awake conscious sensation in those bodies. In this operation there are three stages; the lowest is that in which the vibration is still in the sleep of Matter, entirely subconscious so as to seem wholly mechanical; the middle stage is that in which it becomes capable of a response still submental but on the verge of what we know as consciousness; the highest is that in which life develops conscious mentality in the form of a mentally perceptible sensation which in this transition becomes the basis for the development of sense-mind and intelligence. It is in the middle stage that we catch the idea of Life as distinguished from Matter and Mind, but in reality it is the same in all the stages and always a middle term between Mind and Matter, constituent of the latter and instinct with the former. It is an operation of Conscious-Force which is neither the mere formation of substance nor the operation of mind with substance and form as its object of apprehension; it is rather an energising of conscious being which is a cause and support of the formation of substance and an intermediate source and support of conscious mental apprehension. Life, as this intermediate energising of conscious being, liberates into sensitive action and reaction a form of the creative force of existence which was working subconsciently or inconsciently, absorbed in its own substance; it supports and liberates into action the apprehensive consciousness of existence called mind and gives it a dynamic instrumentation so that it can work not only on its own forms but on forms of life and matter; it connects, too, and supports, as a middle term between them, the mutual commerce of the two, mind and matter. This means of commerce Life provides in the continual currents of her pulsating nerve-energy which carry force of the form as a sensation to modify Mind and bring back force of Mind as will to modify Matter. It is th
   refore this nerve-energy which we usually mean when we talk of Life; it is the Prana or Life-force of the Indian system. But nerve-energy is only the form it takes in the animal being; the same Pranic energy is present in all forms down to the atom, since everywhere it is the same in essence and everywhere it is the same operation of Conscious-Force,—Force supporting and modifying the substantial existence of its own forms, Force with sense and mind secretly active but at first involved in the form and preparing to emerge, then finally emerging from their involution. This is the whole significance of the omnipresent Life that has manifested and inhabits the material universe.
   Ref: CWSA Vol. 21-22, Page: 198-199


lines ::: Relatively independent streams or capacities that proceed through levels of development. Howard Gardner’s theory of Multiple Intelligences is one example of the study of developmental lines. There is evidence for over a dozen developmental lines, including cognitive, moral, self-identity, aesthetic, kinesthetic, linguistic, musical, and mathematical. Integral Theory generally classifies these lines according to one of three types: cognitive lines (as studied by Jean Piaget, Robert Kegan, Kurt Fischer, etc.); selfrelated lines (e.g., morals, self-identity, needs, etc.); and capacities or talents (e.g., musical capacity, kinesthetic capacity, introspective capacity). Cognitive development is necessary but not sufficient for development in the self-related lines and appears to be necessary for most of the capacities.

Longitudinal Study ::: A research design that assesses the effects of development (maturation) by using the same subjects over an extended period of time

magneto-electricity ::: n. --> Electricity evolved by the action of magnets.
That branch of science which treats of the development of electricity by the action of magnets; -- the counterpart of electro-magnetism.


manas-citta (manas-chitta; manas chitta) ::: the emotional mind, "the life of sensations and emotions which are at the mercy of the outward touches of life and matter and their positive or negative reactions, joy and grief, pleasure and pain", constituting a "surface desire-soul" behind which is "the subliminal soul in us open to the universal delight [ananda] which the cosmic soul takes in its own existence and in the existence of the myriad souls that represent it and in the operations of mind, life and matter by which Nature lends herself to their play and development".

Manas (Sense-mind) ::: …the manas is a development from the external chitta; it is a first organising of the crude stuff of the consciousness excited and aroused by external contacts, bahya-sparsa.
   Ref: CSA Vol. 23-24, Page: 663


maqam :::   station; place; position; state of spiritual development

Marcus Aurelius: (121-180 A.D.) The Roman Emperor who as a Stoic endowed chairs in Athens for the four great philosophical schools of the Academy, the Lyceum, The Garden and the Stoa. Aurelius' Stoicism, tempered by his friend Fronto's humanism, held to a rational world-order and providence as well as to a notion of probable truth rather than of the Stoic infallibilism. In the famous 12 books of Meditations, the view is prominent that death was as natural as birth and development was the end of the individual and should elicit the fear of no one. His harsh treatment of the Christians did not coincide with his mild nature which may have reflected the changed character of Stoicism brought on by the decadence of Rome.

Maslow, Abraham ::: Humanistic Theorist most famous for the development of the Hierarchy of Needs.

mature ::: superl. --> Brought by natural process to completeness of growth and development; fitted by growth and development for any function, action, or state, appropriate to its kind; full-grown; ripe.
Completely worked out; fully digested or prepared; ready for action; made ready for destined application or use; perfected; as, a mature plan.
Of or pertaining to a condition of full development; as, a man of mature years.


maturity ::: n. --> The state or quality of being mature; ripeness; full development; as, the maturity of corn or of grass; maturity of judgment; the maturity of a plan.
Arrival of the time fixed for payment; a becoming due; termination of the period a note, etc., has to run.


maturity ::: the state of being complete in natural growth or development; perfect or ready.

Mean: In general, that which in some way mediates or occupies a middle position among various things or between two extremes. Hence (especially in the plural) that through which an end is attained; in mathematics the word is used for any one of various notions of average; in ethics it represents moderation, temperance, prudence, the middle way. In mathematics:   The arithmetic mean of two quantities is half their sum; the arithmetic mean of n quantities is the sum of the n quantities, divided by n. In the case of a function f(x) (say from real numbers to real numbers) the mean value of the function for the values x1, x2, . . . , xn of x is the arithmetic mean of f(x1), f(x2), . . . , f(xn). This notion is extended to the case of infinite sets of values of x by means of integration; thus the mean value of f(x) for values of x between a and b is ∫f(x)dx, with a and b as the limits of integration, divided by the difference between a and b.   The geometric mean of or between, or the mean proportional between, two quantities is the (positive) square root of their product. Thus if b is the geometric mean between a and c, c is as many times greater (or less) than b as b is than a. The geometric mean of n quantities is the nth root of their product.   The harmonic mean of two quantities is defined as the reciprocal of the arithmetic mean of their reciprocals. Hence the harmonic mean of a and b is 2ab/(a + b).   The weighted mean or weighted average of a set of n quantities, each of which is associated with a certain number as weight, is obtained by multiplying each quantity by the associated weight, adding these products together, and then dividing by the sum of the weights. As under A, this may be extended to the case of an infinite set of quantities by means of integration. (The weights have the role of estimates of relative importance of the various quantities, and if all the weights are equal the weighted mean reduces to the simple arithmetic mean.)   In statistics, given a population (i.e., an aggregate of observed or observable quantities) and a variable x having the population as its range, we have:     The mean value of x is the weighted mean of the values of x, with the probability (frequency ratio) of each value taken as its weight. In the case of a finite population this is the same as the simple arithmetic mean of the population, provided that, in calculating the arithmetic mean, each value of x is counted as many times over as it occurs in the set of observations constituting the population.     In like manner, the mean value of a function f(x) of x is the weighted mean of the values of f(x), where the probability of each value of x is taken as the weight of the corresponding value of f(x).     The mode of the population is the most probable (most frequent) value of x, provided there is one such.     The median of the population is so chosen that the probability that x be less than the median (or the probability that x be greater than the median) is ½ (or as near ½ as possible). In the case of a finite population, if the values of x are arranged in order of magnitude     --repeating any one value of x as many times over as it occurs in the set of observations constituting the population     --then the middle term of this series, or the arithmetic mean of the two middle terms, is the median.     --A.C. In cosmology, the fundamental means (arithmetic, geometric, and harmonic) were used by the Greeks in describing or actualizing the process of becoming in nature. The Pythagoreans and the Platonists in particular made considerable use of these means (see the Philebus and the Timaeus more especially). These ratios are among the basic elements used by Plato in his doctrine of the mixtures. With the appearance of the qualitative physics of Aristotle, the means lost their cosmological importance and were thereafter used chiefly in mathematics. The modern mathematical theories of the universe make use of the whole range of means analyzed by the calculus of probability, the theory of errors, the calculus of variations, and the statistical methods. In ethics, the 'Doctrine of the Mean' is the moral theory of moderation, the development of the virtues, the determination of the wise course in action, the practice of temperance and prudence, the choice of the middle way between extreme or conflicting decisions. It has been developed principally by the Chinese, the Indians and the Greeks; it was used with caution by the Christian moralists on account of their rigorous application of the moral law.   In Chinese philosophy, the Doctrine of the Mean or of the Middle Way (the Chung Yung, literally 'Equilibrium and Harmony') involves the absence of immoderate pleasure, anger, sorrow or joy, and a conscious state in which those feelings have been stirred and act in their proper degree. This doctrine has been developed by Tzu Shu (V. C. B.C.), a grandson of Confucius who had already described the virtues of the 'superior man' according to his aphorism "Perfect is the virtue which is according to the mean". In matters of action, the superior man stands erect in the middle and strives to follow a course which does not incline on either side.   In Buddhist philosophy, the System of the Middle Way or Madhyamaka is ascribed more particularly to Nagarjuna (II c. A.D.). The Buddha had given his revelation as a mean or middle way, because he repudiated the two extremes of an exaggerated ascetlsm and of an easy secular life. This principle is also applied to knowledge and action in general, with the purpose of striking a happy medium between contradictory judgments and motives. The final objective is the realization of the nirvana or the complete absence of desire by the gradual destruction of feelings and thoughts. But while orthodox Buddhism teaches the unreality of the individual (who is merely a mass of causes and effects following one another in unbroken succession), the Madhyamaka denies also the existence of these causes and effects in themselves. For this system, "Everything is void", with the legitimate conclusion that "Absolute truth is silence". Thus the perfect mean is realized.   In Greek Ethics, the doctrine of the Right (Mean has been developed by Plato (Philebus) and Aristotle (Nic. Ethics II. 6-8) principally, on the Pythagorean analogy between the sound mind, the healthy body and the tuned string, which has inspired most of the Greek Moralists. Though it is known as the "Aristotelian Principle of the Mean", it is essentially a Platonic doctrine which is preformed in the Republic and the Statesman and expounded in the Philebus, where we are told that all good things in life belong to the class of the mixed (26 D). This doctrine states that in the application of intelligence to any kind of activity, the supreme wisdom is to know just where to stop, and to stop just there and nowhere else. Hence, the "right-mean" does not concern the quantitative measurement of magnitudes, but simply the qualitative comparison of values with respect to a standard which is the appropriate (prepon), the seasonable (kairos), the morally necessary (deon), or generally the moderate (metrion). The difference between these two kinds of metretics (metretike) is that the former is extrinsic and relative, while the latter is intrinsic and absolute. This explains the Platonic division of the sciences into two classes: those involving reference to relative quantities (mathematical or natural), and those requiring absolute values (ethics and aesthetics). The Aristotelian analysis of the "right mean" considers moral goodness as a fixed and habitual proportion in our appetitions and tempers, which can be reached by training them until they exhibit just the balance required by the right rule. This process of becoming good develops certain habits of virtues consisting in reasonable moderation where both excess and defect are avoided: the virtue of temperance (sophrosyne) is a typical example. In this sense, virtue occupies a middle position between extremes, and is said to be a mean; but it is not a static notion, as it leads to the development of a stable being, when man learns not to over-reach himself. This qualitative conception of the mean involves an adaptation of the agent, his conduct and his environment, similar to the harmony displayed in a work of art. Hence the aesthetic aspect of virtue, which is often overstressed by ancient and neo-pagan writers, at the expense of morality proper.   The ethical idea of the mean, stripped of the qualifications added to it by its Christian interpreters, has influenced many positivistic systems of ethics, and especially pragmatism and behaviourism (e.g., A. Huxley's rule of Balanced Excesses). It is maintained that it is also involved in the dialectical systems, such as Hegelianism, where it would have an application in the whole dialectical process as such: thus, it would correspond to the synthetic phase which blends together the thesis and the antithesis by the meeting of the opposites. --T.G. Mean, Doctrine of the: In Aristotle's ethics, the doctrine that each of the moral virtues is an intermediate state between extremes of excess and defect. -- O.R.M.

Medieval Chinese philosophy was essentially a story of the synthesis of indigenous philosophies and the development of Buddhism. In the second century B.C., the Yin Yang movement identified itself with the common and powerful movement under the names of the Yellow Emperor and Lao Tzu (Huang Lao). This, in turn, became interfused with Confucianism and produced the mixture which was the Eclectic Sinisticism lasting till the tenth century A.D. In both Huai-nan Tzu (d. 122 B.C.), the semi-Taoist, and Tung Chung-shu (177-104- B.C.), the Confucian, Taoist metaphysics and Confucian ethics mingled with each other, with yin and yang as the connecting links. As the cosmic order results from the harmony of yin and yang in nature, namely, Heaven and Earth, so the moral order results from the harmony of yang and yin in man, such as husband and wife, human nature and passions, and love and hate. The Five Agents (wu hsing), through which the yin yang principles operate, have direct correspondence not only with the five directions, the five metals, etc., in nature, but also with the five Constant Virtues, the five senses, etc., in man, thus binding nature and man in a neat macrocosm-microcosm relationship. Ultimately this led to superstition, which Wang Ch'ung (27-c. 100 A.D.) vigorously attacked. He reinstated naturalism on a rational ground by accepting only reason and experience, and thus promoted the critical spirit to such an extent that it gave rise to a strong movement of textual criticism and an equally strong movement of free political thought in the few centuries after him.

megalops ::: n. --> A larva, in a stage following the zoea, in the development of most crabs. In this stage the legs and abdominal appendages have appeared, the abdomen is relatively long, and the eyes are large. Also used adjectively.
A large fish; the tarpum.


melanism ::: n. --> An undue development of dark-colored pigment in the skin or its appendages; -- the opposite of albinism.
A disease; black jaundice. See Mel/na.


melotype ::: n. --> A picture produced by a process in which development after exposure may be deferred indefinitely, so as to permit transportation of exposed plates; also, the process itself.

metamorphosis ::: n. --> Change of form, or structure; transformation.
A change in the form or function of a living organism, by a natural process of growth or development; as, the metamorphosis of the yolk into the embryo, of a tadpole into a frog, or of a bud into a blossom. Especially, that form of sexual reproduction in which an embryo undergoes a series of marked changes of external form, as the chrysalis stage, pupa stage, etc., in insects. In these intermediate stages sexual reproduction is usually impossible, but they


method ::: n. --> An orderly procedure or process; regular manner of doing anything; hence, manner; way; mode; as, a method of teaching languages; a method of improving the mind.
Orderly arrangement, elucidation, development, or classification; clear and lucid exhibition; systematic arrangement peculiar to an individual.
Classification; a mode or system of classifying natural objects according to certain common characteristics; as, the method of


Methodology: The systematic analysis and organization of the rational and experimental principles and processes which must guide a scientific inquiry, or which constitute the structure of the special sciences more particularly. Methodology, which is also called scientific method, and more seldom methodeutic, refers not only to the whole of a constituted science, but also to individual problems or groups of problems within a science. As such it is usually considered as a branch of logic; in fact, it is the application of the principles and processes of logic to the special objects of the various sciences; while science in general is accounted for by the combination of deduction and induction as such. Thus, methodology is a generic term exemplified in the specific method of each science. Hence its full significance can be understood only by analyzing the structure of the special sciences. In determining that structure, one must consider the proper object of the special science, the manner in which it develops, the type of statements or generalizations it involves, its philosophical foundations or assumptions, and its relation with the other sciences, and eventually its applications. The last two points mentioned are particularly important: methods of education, for example, will vary considerably according to their inspiration and aim. Because of the differences between the objects of the various sciences, they reveal the following principal methodological patterns, which are not necessarily exclusive of one another, and which are used sometimes in partial combination. It may be added that their choice and combination depend also in a large degree on psychological motives. In the last resort, methodology results from the adjustment of our mental powers to the love and pursuit of truth. There are various rational methods used by the speculative sciences, including theology which adds certain qualifications to their use. More especially, philosophy has inspired the following procedures:   The Soctattc method of analysis by questioning and dividing until the essences are reached;   the synthetic method developed by Plato, Aristotle and the Medieval thinkers, which involves a demonstrative exposition of the causal relation between thought and being;   the ascetic method of intellectual and moral purification leading to an illumination of the mind, as proposed by Plotinus, Augustine and the mystics;   the psychological method of inquiry into the origin of ideas, which was used by Descartes and his followers, and also by the British empiricists;   the critical or transcendental method, as used by Kant, and involving an analysis of the conditions and limits of knowledge;   the dialectical method proceeding by thesis, antithesis and synthesis, which is promoted by Hegelianlsm and Dialectical Materialism;   the intuitive method, as used by Bergson, which involves the immediate perception of reality, by a blending of consciousness with the process of change;   the reflexive method of metaphysical introspection aiming at the development of the immanent realities and values leading man to God;   the eclectic method (historical-critical) of purposive and effective selection as proposed by Cicero, Suarez and Cousin; and   the positivistic method of Comte, Spencer and the logical empiricists, which attempts to apply to philosophy the strict procedures of the positive sciences. The axiomatic or hypothetico-deductive method as used by the theoretical and especially the mathematical sciences. It involves such problems as the selection, independence and simplification of primitive terms and axioms, the formalization of definitions and proofs, the consistency and completeness of the constructed theory, and the final interpretation. The nomological or inductive method as used by the experimental sciences, aims at the discovery of regularities between phenomena and their relevant laws. It involves the critical and careful application of the various steps of induction: observation and analytical classification; selection of similarities; hypothesis of cause or law; verification by the experimental canons; deduction, demonstration and explanation; systematic organization of results; statement of laws and construction of the relevant theory. The descriptive method as used by the natural and social sciences, involves observational, classificatory and statistical procedures (see art. on statistics) and their interpretation. The historical method as used by the sciences dealing with the past, involves the collation, selection, classification and interpretation of archeological facts and exhibits, records, documents, archives, reports and testimonies. The psychological method, as used by all the sciences dealing with human behaviour and development. It involves not only introspective analysis, but also experimental procedures, such as those referring to the relations between stimuli and sensations, to the accuracy of perceptions (specific measurements of intensity), to gradation (least noticeable differences), to error methods (average error in right and wrong cases), and to physiological and educational processes.

microphthalmy ::: n. --> An unnatural smallness of the eyes, occurring as the result of disease or of imperfect development.

Mind of Light ::: A new humanity means for us the appearance, the development of a type or race of mental beings whose principle of mentality would be no longer a mind in the Ignorance seeking for knowledge but even in its knowledge bound to the Ignorance, a seeker after Light but not its natural possessor, open to the Light but not an inhabitant of the Light, not yet a perfected instrument, truth-conscious and delivered out of the Ignorance. Instead, it would be possessed already of what could be called a mind of Light, a mind capable of living in the truth, capable of being truth-conscious and manifesting in its life a direct in place of an indirect knowledge
   Ref: CWSA Vol. 13, Page: 585


Missing definition "introduction" First, this is an (English language) __computing__ dictionary. It includes lots of terms from related fields such as mathematics and electronics, but if you're looking for (or want to submit) words from other subjects or general English words or other languages, try {(http://wikipedia.org/)}, {(http://onelook.com/)}, {(http://yourdictionary.com/)}, {(http://www.dictionarist.com/)} or {(http://reference.allrefer.com/)}. If you've already searched the dictionary for a computing term and it's not here then please __don't tell me__. There are, and always will be, a great many missing terms, no dictionary is ever complete. I use my limited time to process the corrections and definitions people have submitted and to add the {most frequently requested missing terms (missing.html)}. Try one of the sources mentioned above or {(http://techweb.com/encyclopedia/)}, {(http://whatis.techtarget.com/)} or {(http://google.com/)}. See {the Help page (help.html)} for more about missing definitions and bad cross-references. (2014-09-20)! {exclamation mark}!!!Batch "language, humour" A daft way of obfuscating text strings by encoding each character as a different number of {exclamation marks} surrounded by {question marks}, e.g. "d" is encoded as "?!!!!?". The language is named after the {MSDOS} {batch file} in which the first converter was written. {esoteric programming languages} {wiki entry (http://esolangs.org/wiki/!!!Batch)}. (2014-10-25)" {double quote}

Mo chia: The School of Mo Tzu (Moh Tzu, Mo Ti, between 500 and 396 B.C.) and his followers. This utilitarian and scientific minded philosopher, whose doctrines are embodied in Mo Tzu, advocated: "benefit" (li), or the promotion of general welfare and removal of evil, through the increase of population and of benevolence and righteousness toward this practical objective, the elimination of war, and the suppression of wasteful musical events and elaborate funerals; "universal love" (chien ai), or treating others, their families, and their countries as one's own, to the end that the greatest amount of benefit will be realized; agreement with the superiors (shang t'ung); a method of reasoning which involves a foundation, a survey, and application (san piao); the belief in Heaven and the spirits both as a religious sanction of governmental measures and as an effective way of promotion of peace and welfare. For the development of his teachings by his followers, see Mo che. -- W.T.C.

moment ::: n. **1. An indefinitely short period of time; an instant. 2. Now, the present instant. 3. A particular period of importance, influence, or significance in a series of events or developments 4. A specific instant or point in time. moment"s, moments, moments", momentless, moment-beats, moment-ridden. v. moments. 5.** Brings significance to the moment.

monaxial ::: a. --> Having only one axis; developing along a single line or plane; as, monaxial development.

monerula ::: n. --> A germ in that stage of development in which its form is simply that of a non-nucleated mass of protoplasm. It precedes the one-celled germ. So called from its likeness to a moner.

monogenesis ::: n. --> Oneness of origin; esp. (Biol.), development of all beings in the universe from a single cell; -- opposed to polygenesis. Called also monism.
That form of reproduction which requires but one parent, as in reproduction by fission or in the formation of buds, etc., which drop off and form new individuals; asexual reproduction.
The direct development of an embryo, without metamorphosis, into an organism similar to the parent organism; --


monomorphous ::: a. --> Having but a single form; retaining the same form throughout the various stages of development; of the same or of an essentially similar type of structure; -- opposed to dimorphic, trimorphic, and polymorphic.

monophyletic ::: a. --> Of or pertaining to a single family or stock, or to development from a single common parent form; -- opposed to polyphyletic; as, monophyletic origin.

morphosis ::: n. --> The order or mode of development of an organ or part.

morula ::: n. --> The sphere or globular mass of cells (blastomeres), formed by the clevage of the ovum or egg in the first stages of its development; -- called also mulberry mass, segmentation sphere, and blastosphere. See Segmentation.

Münsterberg, Hugo: (1863-1916) German-born philosopher and psychologist, for many years professor of psychology at Harvard University. One of the advance guard of present axiological development, he is affiliated with the ideological criticism stemming from Fichte. Agrees that pure reason is endowed with a priori principles which enable it to achieve objective super-individual affirmations which transcend and which can neither be confirmed nor denied by psychological investigation. Main works: Der Ursprung d. Sittlichkeit, 1889; Beiträge z. Experim. Psychol., 1889-92; Psychol. u. Lehre, 1906; Philos. der Werte, 1908 (Eng. tr. The External Values); Grundzüge d. Psychotechnik, 1914. -- H.H.

muscardine ::: n. --> A disease which is very destructive to silkworms, and which sometimes extends to other insects. It is attended by the development of a fungus (provisionally called Botrytis bassiana). Also, the fungus itself.

muscle ::: n. --> An organ which, by its contraction, produces motion.
The contractile tissue of which muscles are largely made up.
Muscular strength or development; as, to show one&


“My researches first convinced me that words, like plants, like animals, are in no sense artificial products, but growths,—living growths of sound with certain seed-sounds as their basis. Out of these seed-sounds develop a small number of primitive root-words with an immense progeny which have their successive generations and arrange themselves in tribes, clans, families, selective groups each having a common stock and a common psychological history. For the factor which presided over the development of language was the association, by the nervous mind of primitive man, of certain general significances or rather of certain general utilities and sense-values with articulate sounds. The process of this association was also in no sense artificial but natural, governed by simple and definite psychological laws.” The Secret of the Veda

nascent ::: a. --> Commencing, or in process of development; beginning to exist or to grow; coming into being; as, a nascent germ.
Evolving; being evolved or produced.


Nascent: A term applied to a thing or a state of mind at an early stage of its development when it is as yet scarcely recognizable. See Nascency. The term, as applied by H. Spencer (Psychology, § 195) to psychological states, foreshadowed the later theory of the subconscious. See Subconscious; Latency. -- L.W.

Natorp, Paul: (1854-1924) Collaborating with Cohen, Natorp applied the transcendental method to an interpretation of Plato, to psychology and to the methodology of the exact sciences. Like Cohen, Natorp really did not contribute to the scientific development of critical philosophy but prepared the way for philosophical mysticism. Cf. Platos Ideenlehre, 1903; Kant u. d. Marburger Schule, 1915. -- J. K.

  "Nature, because she is a power of spirit, is essentially qualitative in her action. One may almost say that Nature is only the power in being and the development in action of the infinite qualities of the spirit, . . . .” *The Synthesis of Yoga

“Nature, because she is a power of spirit, is essentially qualitative in her action. One may almost say that Nature is only the power in being and the development in action of the infinite qualities of the spirit, …” The Synthesis of Yoga

neoplasia ::: n. --> Growth or development of new material; neoplasty.

nirukta ::: etymology; philology, part of sahitya: the study of the origins and development of language, especially with reference to Sanskrit, with the aim of creating "a science which can trace the origins, growth & structure of the Sanscrit language, discover its primary, secondary & tertiary forms & the laws by which they develop from each other, trace intelligently the descent of every meaning of a word in Sanscrit from its original root sense, account for all similarities & identities of sense, discover the reason of unexpected divergences, trace the deviations which separated Greek & Latin from the Indian dialect, discover & define the connection of all three with the Dravidian forms of speech".

nondevelopment ::: n. --> Failure or lack of development.

Note on the Indian Sign-Language. Certain general principles concerning gesture speech may be established, by considering the sign-language of the North American Indian which seems to be the most developed. A sign-language is established when equally powerful tribes of different tongues come into contact. Better gestures are composed and undesirable ones are weeded out, partly as a result of tribal federations and partly through the development of technical skills and crafts. Signs come into being, grow and die, according to the needs of the time and to the changes in practical processes. Stimulus of outside intercourse is necessary to keep alive the interest required for the maintenance and growth of a gesture speech; without it, the weaker tribe is absorbed in the stronger, and the vocal language most easily acquired prevails. Sign-languages involve a basic syntax destined to convey the fundamental meanings without refinement and in abbreviated form. Articles, prepositions and conjunctions are omitted; adjectives follow nouns; verbs are used in the present tense; nouns and verbs are used in the singular, while the idea of plurality is expressed in some other way. The use of signals with the smoke, the pony, the mirror, the blanket and the drum (as is also the case with the African tam-tams) may be considered as an extension of the sign-language, though they are related more directly to the general art of signalling. -- T.G.

nutriment ::: n. --> That which nourishes; anything which promotes growth and repairs the natural waste of animal or vegetable life; food; aliment.
That which promotes development or growth.


obsoleteness ::: n. --> The state of being obsolete, or no longer used; a state of desuetude.
Indistinctness; want of development.


Occult and spiritual ::: The spiritual realisation is of primary importance and indispensable. I would consider it best to have the spiritual and psychic development first and have it with the same fullness before entering the occult regions. Those who enter the latter first may find their spiritual realisation much delayed ; others fall into the ma^ traps of the occult and do not come out in this life. Some no doubt can cany on both together, the occult and the spiritual, and make them help each other ; but the process I suggest is the safer.

odontogeny ::: n. --> Generetion, or mode of development, of the teeth.

odontology ::: n. --> The science which treats of the teeth, their structure and development.

". . . One Being and Consciousness is involved here in Matter. Evolution is the method by which it liberates itself; consciousness appears in what seems to be inconscient, and once having appeared is self-impelled to grow higher and higher and at the same time to enlarge and develop towards a greater and greater perfection. Life is the first step of this release of consciousness; mind is the second; but the evolution does not finish with mind, it awaits a release into something greater, a consciousness which is spiritual and supramental. The next step of the evolution must be towards the development of Supermind and Spirit as the dominant power in the conscious being. For only then will the involved Divinity in things release itself entirely and it become possible for life to manifest perfection.” On Himself

“… One Being and Consciousness is involved here in Matter. Evolution is the method by which it liberates itself; consciousness appears in what seems to be inconscient, and once having appeared is self-impelled to grow higher and higher and at the same time to enlarge and develop towards a greater and greater perfection. Life is the first step of this release of consciousness; mind is the second; but the evolution does not finish with mind, it awaits a release into something greater, a consciousness which is spiritual and supramental. The next step of the evolution must be towards the development of Supermind and Spirit as the dominant power in the conscious being. For only then will the involved Divinity in things release itself entirely and it become possible for life to manifest perfection.” On Himself

ontogeny ::: n. --> The history of the individual development of an organism; the history of the evolution of the germ; the development of an individual organism, -- in distinction from phylogeny, or evolution of the tribe. Called also henogenesis, henogeny.

— on what you are to be, i.e., on the development of the new consciousness rather than on this negative side.

oogenesis ::: n. --> The development, or mode of origin, of the ova.

Oral Stage ::: Freud&

organogenesis ::: n. --> The origin and development of organs in animals and plants.
The germ history of the organs and systems of organs, -- a branch of morphogeny.


ovicell ::: n. --> One of the dilatations of the body wall of Bryozoa in which the ova sometimes undegro the first stages of their development. See Illust. of Chilostoma.

oviduct ::: n. --> A tube, or duct, for the passage of ova from the ovary to the exterior of the animal or to the part where further development takes place. In mammals the oviducts are also called Fallopian tubes.

palingenesy ::: n. --> A new birth; a re-creation; a regeneration; a continued existence in different manner or form.
That form of evolution in which the truly ancestral characters conserved by heredity are reproduced in development; original simple descent; -- distinguished from kenogenesis. Sometimes, in zoology, the abrupt metamorphosis of insects, crustaceans, etc.


Parallel with these developments was the growth of Buddhism in China, a story too long to relate here. Many Buddhist doctrines, latent in India, were developed in China. The nihilism of Madhyamika (Sun-lan, c. 450-c. 1000) to the effect that reality is Void in the sense of being "devoid" of any specific character, was brought to fullness, while the idealism of Vijnaptimatravada (Yogacara, Fahsiang, 563-c. 1000), which claimed that reality in its imaginary, dependent and absolute aspects is "representation-only," was pushed to the extreme. But these philosophies failed because their extreme positions were not consonant with the Chinese Ideal of the golden mean. In the meantime, China developed her own Buddhist philosophy consistent with her general philosophical outlook. We need only mention the Hua-yen school (Avatamisaka, 508) which offered a totalistic philosophy of "all in one" and "one in all," the T'ien-t'ai school (c. 550) which believes in the identity of the Void, Transitoriness, and the Mean, and in the "immanence of 3,000 worlds in one moment of thought," and the Chin-t'u school (Pure Land, c. 500) which bases its doctrine of salvation by faith and salvation for all on the philosophy of the universality of Buddha-nature. These schools have persisted because they accepted both noumenon and phenomenon, both ens and non-ens, and this "both-and" spirit is predominantly characteristic of Chinese philosophy.

parinami. ::: change; modification; transformation; evolution; development

pathogeny ::: n. --> The generation, and method of development, of disease; as, the pathogeny of yellow fever is unsettled.
That branch of pathology which treats of the generation and development of disease.


pathology ::: the scientific study of the nature of disease and its causes, processes, development, and consequences and in other uses, a departure or deviation from a normal condition.

Patience ::: In a more deep and spiritual sense a concrete realisation is that which makes the thing realised more real, dynamic, intimately present to the consciousness than any physical thing can be. Such a realisation of the personal Divine or of the impersonal Brahman or of the Self does not usually come at the beginning of a sadhana or in the first years or for many years. It comes so to a very few. Most would say that a slow development is the best one can hope for in the first years and only when the nature is ready and fully concentrated towards the Divine can the definitive experience come. To some rapid preparatory experiences can come at a comparatively early stage, but even they cannot escape the labour of the consciousness which will make these experiences culminate in the realisation that is enduring and complete. It is a matter of fact and truth and experience, not of liking or disliking.
   Ref: CWSA Vol. 35, Page: 240-41


pauper ::: n. --> A poor person; especially, one development on private or public charity. Also used adjectively; as, pouper immigrants, pouper labor.

pemphigus ::: n. --> A somewhat rare skin disease, characterized by the development of blebs upon different part of the body.

perfection ::: n. --> The quality or state of being perfect or complete, so that nothing requisite is wanting; entire development; consummate culture, skill, or moral excellence; the highest attainable state or degree of excellence; maturity; as, perfection in an art, in a science, or in a system; perfection in form or degree; fruits in perfection.
A quality, endowment, or acquirement completely excellent; an ideal faultlessness; especially, the divine attribute of complete excellence.


Periods of despondency and inactivity or even degenency and depravity in India have kept pice with disastrous political developments. But a joy in life's pursuits is evident from the earliest Vedic period and is to be traced in the multifariousness of Indian culture and the colorful Indian history itself which has left the Hindus one of the ancient races still virile among nations and capable of assimilation without itself becoming extinct. Happiness may be enjoyed even in the severest penance and asceticism for which India is noted, while a certain concomitant heroism seems undeniable.

Phallic Stage ::: Freud&

philology ::: n. --> Criticism; grammatical learning.
The study of language, especially in a philosophical manner and as a science; the investigation of the laws of human speech, the relation of different tongues to one another, and historical development of languages; linguistic science.
A treatise on the science of language.


phylogeny ::: n. --> The history of genealogical development; the race history of an animal or vegetable type; the historic exolution of the phylon or tribe, in distinction from ontogeny, or the development of the individual organism, and from biogenesis, or life development generally.

physiogeny ::: n. --> The germ history of the functions, or the history of the development of vital activities, in the individual, being one of the branches of ontogeny. See Morphogeny.

physiophyly ::: n. --> The tribal history of the functions, or the history of the paleontological development of vital activities, -- being a branch of phylogeny. See Morphophyly.

pioneers ::: those who venture into the unknown to open up new areas of thought, research, or development, that others may follow: forerunners.

plantule ::: n. --> The embryo which has begun its development in the act of germination.

planula ::: n. --> In embryonic development, a vesicle filled with fluid, formed from the morula by the divergence of its cells in such a manner as to give rise to a central space, around which the cells arrange themselves as an envelope; an embryonic form intermediate between the morula and gastrula. Sometimes used as synonymous with gastrula.
The very young, free-swimming larva of the coelenterates. It usually has a flattened oval or oblong form, and is entirely covered with cilia.


Platonic Realism: See Realism. Platonism: The philosophy of Plato marks one of the high points in the development of Greek philosophical genius Platomsm is characterised by a partial contempt for sense knowledge and empirical studies, by a high regard for mathematics and its method, by a longing for another and better world, by a frankly spiritualistic view of life, by its use of a method of discussion involving an accumulation of ever more profound insights rather than the formal logic of Aristotle, and, above all, by an unswerving faith in the capacity of the human mind to attain absolute truth and to use this truth in the rational direction of human life and affairs.

Platonism as a political philosophy finds its best known exposition in the theory of the ideal state in the Republic. There, Plato described a city in which social justice would be fully realized. Three classes of men are distinguished: the philosopher kings, apparently a very small group whose education has been alluded to above, who would be the rulers because by nature and by training they were the best men for the job. They must excel particularly in their rational abilities: their special virtue is philosophic wisdom; the soldiers, or guardians of the state, constitute the second class; their souls must be remarkable for the development of the spirited, warlike element, under the control of the virtue of courage; the lowest class is made up of the acquisitive group, the workers of every sort whose characteristic virtue is temperance. For the two upper classes, Plato suggested a form of community life which would entail the abolition of monogamous marriage, family life, and of private property. It is to be noted that this form of semi-communism was suggested for a minority of the citizens only (Repub. III and V) and it is held to be a practical impossibility in the Laws (V, 739-40), though Plato continued to think that some form of community life is theoretically best for man. In Book VIII of the Republic, we find the famous classification of five types of political organization, ranging from aristocracy which is the rule of the best men, timocracy, in which the rulers are motivated by a love of honor, oligarchy, in which the rulers seek wealth, democracy, the rule of the masses who are unfit for the task, to tyranny, which is the rule of one man who may have started as the champion of the people but who governs solely for the advancement of his own, selfish interests.

Plekhanov, George Valentinovich: (1856-1918) Was a Russian Marxist who became the philosophical leader of the Menshevik faction of the pre-Revolutionary Russian Social Democratic Workers' Party, opposing Lenin, the leader of the Bolshevik wing. In spite of what are regarded as his political errors, such as his support of the war of 1914-1918 and his negative attitude to the Revolution of October, 1917, contemporary Soviet thinkers regard Plekhanov's works as containing valuable expositions of Marxist philosophy. Among his writings in this field are, Our Disputes (1885), On the Problem of the Development of the Monistic View of History (1895), Essays on the History of Materilism (1896), On the Materialist Conception of History (1897), On the Problem of the Role of the Individual in History (1898).

plica ::: v. --> A disease of the hair (Plica polonica), in which it becomes twisted and matted together. The disease is of Polish origin, and is hence called also Polish plait.
A diseased state in plants in which there is an excessive development of small entangled twigs, instead of ordinary branches.
The bend of the wing of a bird.


Political Personalism: The doctrine that the state is under obligation to provide opportunity to each citizen for the highest possible physical, mental, and spiritual development, because personality is the supreme achievement of the social order. A movement in France represented by the journal Esprit. -- R.T.F.

Postulate: See Mathematics. Potency: (Scholastic) Potency is opposed to act as asserted of being. It means the capacity of being or of being thus. Prime matter (q.v.) is pure potency, indetermined in regard to actual corporeal being. Any change or development or, generally, becoming presupposes a corresponding potency. Some potencies belong to the nature of a thing, others are merely passive and consist in non-repugnance. Thus to be thrown is not due to a potency strictly speaking in the stone which has, in regard to this a "merely obediential" potency. The first kind is also called operative potency. -- R.A.

potency ::: 1. Efficacy; effectiveness; strength. 2. Inherent capacity for growth and development; potentiality. potencies.

Power of vision is sometimes inborn and habitual even with- out any effort of development, sometimes it wakes up of itself and becomes abundant or needs only a little practice to deve- . lop ; it is not necessarily a sign of spiritual attainment, but usually when by practice of yoga one begins to go inside or live within, the power of subtle vision awakes to a greater or less extent ; but this does not alwa^ happen easily, especially if one has been habituated to live mnch in the intelfect or in art out- ward vital consciousness.

precocity ::: n. --> The quality or state of being precocious; untimely ripeness; premature development, especially of the mental powers; forwardness.

Preoperational Stage ::: Piaget&

pre/trans fallacy ::: In any recognized developmental sequence, the confusion of a pre-X stage and a trans-X stage simply because both are non-X. This fallacy has two major forms: the reduction of trans-X to pre-X and the elevation of pre-X to trans-X. For example, the confusion of pre-rational and trans-rational, pre-personal and trans-personal, or pre-conventional and post-conventional.

primary ::: a. --> First in order of time or development or in intention; primitive; fundamental; original.
First in order, as being preparatory to something higher; as, primary assemblies; primary schools.
First in dignity or importance; chief; principal; as, primary planets; a matter of primary importance.
Earliest formed; fundamental.
Illustrating, possessing, or characterized by, some


prodigy ::: n. --> Something extraordinary, or out of the usual course of nature, from which omens are drawn; a portent; as, eclipses and meteors were anciently deemed prodigies.
Anything so extraordinary as to excite wonder or astonishment; a marvel; as, a prodigy of learning.
A production out of ordinary course of nature; an abnormal development; a monster.


proliferation ::: n. --> The continuous development of cells in tissue formation; cell formation.
The production of numerous zooids by budding, especially when buds arise from other buds in succession.


proximate self ::: One of the three major aspects of the overall self, along with the distal and anterior self. The proximate self is the intimately subjective self, which is experienced as an “I” or “I/me.” It is also the equivalent of the self-identity stream. Wilber’s fulcrums of development refer to the stages of proximate self-sense development.

pseudofilaria ::: n. --> One of the two elongated vibratile young formed by fission of the embryo during the development of certain Gregarinae. html{color:

pseudovum ::: n. --> An egglike germ produced by the agamic females of some insects and other animals, and by the larvae of certain insects. It is capable of development without fertilization. See Illust. of Paedogenesis.

psychic being ::: the evolving soul of the individual, the divine portion in him which evolves from life to life, growing by its experiences until it becomes a fully conscious being. From its place behind the heart-centre, the psychic being supports the mind, life and body, aiding their growth and development. The term "soul" is often used as a synonym for "psychic being", but strictly speaking there is a distinction: the soul is the psychic essence, the psychic being is the soul-personality put forward and developed by the psychic essence to represent it in the evolution. ::: See also psychic.

Psychoanalytic Theory ::: Theory developed by Freud consisting of the structural model of personality, topographical model of personality, defense mechanisms, drives, and the psychosexual stages of development. The primary driving force behind the theory is the id, ego and superego and the division of consciousness into the conscious mind, the pre/subconscious, and the unconscious.

pyaemia ::: n. --> A form of blood poisoning produced by the absorption into the blood of morbid matters usually originating in a wound or local inflammation. It is characterized by the development of multiple abscesses throughout the body, and is attended with irregularly recurring chills, fever, profuse sweating, and exhaustion.

Pythagoreanism: The doctrines (philosophical, mathematical, moral, and religious) of Pythagoras (c. 572-497) and of his school which flourished until about the end of the 4th century B.C. The Pythagorean philosophy was a dualism which sharply distinguished thought and the senses, the soul and the body, the mathematical forms of things and their perceptible appearances. The Pythagoreans supposed that the substances of all things were numbers and that all phenomena were sensuous expressions of mathematical ratios. For them the whole universe was harmony. They made important contributions to mathematics, astronomv, and physics (acoustics) and were the first to formulate the elementary principles and methods of arithmetic and geometry as taught in the first books of Euclid. But the Pythagorean sect was not only a philosophical and mathematical school (cf. K. von Fritz, Pythagorean Politics in Southern Italy, 1941), but also a religious brotherhood and a fellowship for moral reformation. They believed in the immortality and transmigration (see Metempsychosis) of the soul which they defined as the harmony of the body. To restore harmony which was confused by the senses was the goal of their Ethics and Politics. The religious ideas were closely related to those of the Greek mysteries which sought by various rites and abstinences to purify and redeem the soul. The attempt to combine this mysticism with their mathematical philosophy, led the Pythagoreans to the development of an intricate and somewhat fantastic symbolism which collected correspondences between numbers and things and for example identified the antithesis of odd and even with that of form and matter, the number 1 with reason, 2 with the soul, etc. Through their ideas the Pythagoreans had considerable effect on the development of Plato's thought and on the theories of the later Neo-platonists.

ramification ::: n. --> The process of branching, or the development of branches or offshoots from a stem; also, the mode of their arrangement.
A small branch or offshoot proceeding from a main stock or channel; as, the ramifications of an artery, vein, or nerve.
A division into principal and subordinate classes, heads, or departments; also, one of the subordinate parts; as, the ramifications of a subject or scheme.
The production of branchlike figures.


rampancy ::: n. --> The quality or state of being rampant; excessive action or development; exuberance; extravagance.

Realistic Idealism recognizes the reality of non-ideal types of being, but relegates them to a subordinate status with respect either to quantity of being or power. This view is either atheistic or theistic. Realistic theism admits the existence of one or more kinds of non-mental being considered as independently co-eternal with God, eternally dependent upon Deity, or as a divine creation. Platonic Idealism, as traditionally interpreted, identifies absolute being with timeless Ideas or disembodied essences. Thtse, organically united in the Good, are the archetypes and the dynamic causes of existent, material things. The Ideas are also archetypes of rational thought, and the goal of fine art and morality. Axiological Idealism, a modern development of Platonism and Kantianism, maintains that the category of Value is logically and metaphysically prior to that of Being.

Recursion, definition by: A method of introducing, or "defining," functions from non-negative integers to non-negative integers, which, in its simplest form, consists in giving a pair of equations which specify the value of the function when the argument (or a particular one of the arguments) is 0, and supply a method of calculating the value of the function when the argument (that particular one of the arguments) is x+l, from the value of the function when the argument (that particular one of the arguments) is x. Thus a monadic function f is said to be defined by primitive recursion in terms of a dyadic function g -- the function g being previously known or given -- by the pair of equations, f(0) = A, f(S(x)) = g(x, f(x)), where A denotes some particular non-negative integer, and S denotes the successor function (so that S(x) is the same as x+l), and x is a variable (the second equation being intended to hold for all non-negative integers x). Similarly the dyadic function f is said to be defined by primitive recursion in terms of a triadic function g and a monadic function h by the pair of equations, f(a, 0) = h(a), f(a, S(x)) = g(a, x, f(a,x)), the equations being intended to hold for all non-negative integers a and x. Likewise for functions f of more than two variables. -- As an example of definition by primitive recursion we may take the "definition" of addition (i.e., of the dyadic function plus) employed by Peano in the development of arithmetic from his postulates (see the article Arithmetic, foundations of): a+0 = a, a+S(x) = S(a+x). This comes under the general form of definition by primitive recursion, just given, with h and g taken to be such functions that h(a) = a and g(a, x, y) = S(y). Another example is Peano's introduction of multiplication by the pair of equations aX0 = 0, aXS(x) = (aXx)+a. Here addition is taken as previously defined, and h(a) = 0, g(a, x, y) = y + a.

referent ::: The actual phenomenon signified by any sign or symbol. All referents exist within developmental worldspaces. See Integral Semiotics.

Regression ::: A defense mechanism where one reverts to an earlier stage of development.

Reichenbach, Hans: Born Sept. 26, 1891, Hamburg, Germany. Successively Privatdozent at the College of Engineering at Stuttgart, Professor of philosophy in the universities of Berlin, Istanbul (1933-1938), University of California at Los Angeles (since 1938); the leading figure of the Berlin group in the development of recent logical empiricism. See Scientific Empiricism.

reptilia ::: n. pl. --> A class of air-breathing oviparous vertebrates, usually covered with scales or bony plates. The heart generally has two auricles and one ventricle. The development of the young is the same as that of birds.

retarding ::: delaying or slowing down (the progress, speed, or development) of (something); hindering.

retrogression ::: n. --> The act of retrograding, or going backward; retrogradation.
Backward development; a passing from a higher to a lower state of organization or structure, as when an animal, approaching maturity, becomes less highly organized than would be expected from its earlier stages or known relationship. Called also retrograde development, and regressive metamorphism.


Reversibility ::: A child&

rhinoscleroma ::: n. --> A rare disease of the skin, characterized by the development of very hard, more or less flattened, prominences, appearing first upon the nose and subsequently upon the neighboring parts, esp. the lips, palate, and throat.

ritualism ::: n. --> A system founded upon a ritual or prescribed form of religious worship; adherence to, or observance of, a ritual.
Specifically :(a) The principles and practices of those in the Church of England, who in the development of the Oxford movement, so-called, have insisted upon a return to the use in church services of the symbolic ornaments (altar cloths, encharistic vestments, candles, etc.) that were sanctioned in the second year of Edward VI., and never, as they maintain, forbidden by competennt


rudimentary ::: a. --> Of or pertaining to rudiments; consisting in first principles; elementary; initial; as, rudimental essays.
Very imperfectly developed; in an early stage of development; embryonic.


rudiment ::: n. --> That which is unformed or undeveloped; the principle which lies at the bottom of any development; an unfinished beginning.
Hence, an element or first principle of any art or science; a beginning of any knowledge; a first step.
An imperfect organ or part, or one which is never developed. ::: v. t.


Samadbi or Yogic trance retires to increasing depths accord* lag as it dran^ farther and farther away from the nonnal or waking state and enters into degrees of consciousness less and less communicable to the waking mind, less and less ready to receive a summons from the waking world. Beyond a certain point the trance becomes complete and it is then almost or quite impossible to awaken or calf back the soul that has receded into them ; it can only come back by its own will or at most by a violent shock of physical appeal dangerous to the sj'stem owing to the abrupt upheaval of return. There are said to be supreme states of trance in which the soul persisting for too long a lime cannot return ; for it loses its hold on the cord which binds it to the consciousness of life, and the body is left, maintained indeed in its set position, not dead by dissolution, but incapable of recovering the ensouled life which had rnhahifed it. finally, the Yogin acquires at a certain stage of development the power of abandoning his body definitively without the ordinary pheno- mena of death, by an act of will, or by a process of withdrawing the pranic life-force through the gate of the upward life-current

Samadhi or Yogic trance retires to increasing depths according as it draws farther and farther away from the normal or waking state and enters into degrees of consciousness less and less communicable to the waking mind, less and less ready to receive a summons from the waking world. Beyond a certain point the trance becomes complete and it is then almost or quite impossible to awaken or call back the soul that has receded into them; it can only come back by its own will or at most by a violent shock of physical appeal dangerous to the system owing to the abrupt upheaval of return. There are said to be supreme states of trance in which the soul persisting for too long a time cannot return; for it loses its hold on the cord which binds it to the consciousness of life, and the body is left, maintained indeed in its set position, not dead by dissolution, but incapable of recovering the ensouled life which had inhabited it. Finally, the Yogin acquires at a certain stage of development the power of abandoning his body definitively without the ordinary phenomena of death, by an act of will,1 or by a process of withdrawing the pranic life-force through the gate of the upward life-current (udana), opening for it a way through the mystic brahmarandhra in the head. By departure from life in the state of Samadhi he attains directly to that higher status of being to which he aspires.
   Ref: CWSA Vol. 23-24, Page: 520-21


Sarama ::: a Vedic goddess whose action is "a forerunner of the dawn Sarama of Truth in the human mind", depicted in "the figure of the divine hound which was . . . a possibly later development of the Vedic imagery"; she represents the discovering intuition, a faculty "which goes straight to the Truth by the straight path of the Truth and not through the crooked paths of doubt and error".

sarcoma ::: n. --> A tumor of fleshy consistence; -- formerly applied to many varieties of tumor, now restricted to a variety of malignant growth made up of cells resembling those of fetal development without any proper intercellular substance.

Scheler, Max (1874-1928) was originally a disciple of Rudolf Eucken, but joined early -- at the University of Munich -- the Husserl circle of phenomenologists, of which school he became one of the leading exponents. Moving from Kantianism and Eucken-personalism into phenomenology, he later espoused successively positions which may be called a synthesis between phenomenology and Catholic philosophy, sociological dynamism, and ideo-realistic humanism. He was the psychologist, ethicist, and religious and social philosopher of the phenomenological movement. In common with other phenomenologists, Scheler's doctrine begins with the assertion of an inherent correlation of the essences of objects with the essences of intentional experience. His unique contributions lie in the comprehensiveness of his vision, in his interpretation of the value-qualities of being; of emotional experience, especially love, as the key for the disclosure of being; of a hierarchy of concrete ("material" as against formal) values; of an analysis of "resentment" as a thorough grudge (rancour) perverted emotional attitude towards the values of life; of his definition of "person" as the concrete unity of acts; of his acknowledgment of total personality beyond individual persons; of his definition of "ethos" as a preferential system of values determinative for the validity of any specific thought-form; of his development of the sociology of knowledge as a distinct discipline within cultural sociology; and of his working out of a philosophical anthropology showing man's position in and towards the whole of being. His most important works include: Die transzendentale und die psychologische Methode (1900); Der Formalismus in der Ethik und die materiale Wertethik (1916); Vom Ewigen in Menschen (1921); Wesen und Formen der Sympathie (1923); Schriften zur Soziologie und Weltanschauungslehre (3 vols., 1923-1924); Die Wissensformen und dte Gesellschaft (1926); Die Stellung des Menschen in Kosmos (1928); Philosophische Weltanschauung (1929); Zur Ethik und Erkenntnislehre (1933).

Schelling, Friedrich Wilhelm Joseph von (1775-1854) Founder of the philosophy of identity which holds that subject and object coincide in the Absolute, a state to be realized in intellectual intuition. Deeply involved in romanticism, Schelling's philosophy of nature culminates in a transcendental idealism where nature and spirit are linked in a series of developments by unfolding powers or potencies, together forming one great organism in which nature is dynamic visible spirit and spirit invisible nature. Freedom and necessity are different refractions of the same reality. Supplementing science -- which deals with matter as extinguished spirit and endeavors to rise from nature to intelligence -- philosophy investigates the development of spirit, theoretically practically, and artistically, converts the subjective into the objective, and shows how the world soul or living principle animates the whole. Schelling's monism recognizes nature and spirit as real and ideal poles respectively, the latter being the positive one. It is pantheistic and aesthetic in that it allows the world process to create with free necessity unconsciously at first in the manner of an artist. Art is perfect union of freedom and necessity, beauty reflects the infinite in the finite. History is the progressive revelation of the Absolute. The ultimate thinking of Schelling headed toward mysticism in which man, his personality expanded into the infinite, becomes absorbed into the absolute self, free from necessity, contingency, consciousness, and personality. Sämmtliche Werke, 14 vols. (1856, re-edited 1927). Cf. Kuno Fischer, Schellings Leben, Werke und Lehre; E. Brehier, Schelling, 1912; V. Jankelevitch, L'Odysee de la conscience dans la derniere philosophie de Schelling, 1933. -- K.F.L.

Science of Science: The analysis and description of science from various points of view, including logic, methodology, sociology, and history of science. One of the chief tasks of the science of science is the ana1ysis of the language of science (see Semiotic). Scientific empiricism (q.v.) emphasizes the role of the science of science, and tries to clarify the different aspects. Some empiricists believe that the chief task of philosophy is the development of the logic and methodology of science, and that most of the problems of traditional philosophy, as far as they have cognitive meaning (see Meaning, Kinds of, 1, 5), may be construed as problems of the science of science. -- R.C.

scrofula ::: n. --> A constitutional disease, generally hereditary, especially manifested by chronic enlargement and cheesy degeneration of the lymphatic glands, particularly those of the neck, and marked by a tendency to the development of chronic intractable inflammations of the skin, mucous membrane, bones, joints, and other parts, and by a diminution in the power of resistance to disease or injury and the capacity for recovery. Scrofula is now generally held to be tuberculous in character, and may develop into general or local tuberculosis

Second Tier ::: Used to summarize the Flex Flow and Global View stages of value systems development from the Spiral Dynamics model. These stages are defined by their capacity to see the relative importance of all value systems, as opposed to First-Tier value systems, which declare their values to be the only correct values. Integral Theory uses Second Tier to refer to the Teal and Turquoise levels of developmental altitude.

seed-sounds ::: Sri Aurobindo: "My researches first convinced me that words, like plants, like animals, are in no sense artificial products, but growths, — living growths of sound with certain seed-sounds as their basis. Out of these seed-sounds develop a small number of primitive root-words with an immense progeny which have their successive generations and arrange themselves in tribes, clans, families, selective groups each having a common stock and a common psychological history. For the factor which presided over the development of language was the association, by the nervous mind of primitive man, of certain general significances or rather of certain general utilities and sense-values with articulate sounds. The process of this association was also in no sense artificial but natural, governed by simple and definite psychological laws.” *The Secret of the Veda

self-evolution ::: n. --> Evolution of one&

"Sense is in fact the mental contact of the embodied consciousness with its surroundings. This contact is always essentially a mental phenomenon; but in fact it depends chiefly upon the development of certain physical organs of contact with objects and with their properties to whose images it is able by habit to give their mental values. What we call the physical senses have a double element, the physical-nervous impression of the object and the mental-nervous value we give to it, and the two together make up our seeing, hearing, smell, taste, touch with all those varieties of sensation of which they, and the touch chiefly, are the starting-point or first transmitting agency.” The Synthesis of Yoga

“Sense is in fact the mental contact of the embodied consciousness with its surroundings. This contact is always essentially a mental phenomenon; but in fact it depends chiefly upon the development of certain physical organs of contact with objects and with their properties to whose images it is able by habit to give their mental values. What we call the physical senses have a double element, the physical-nervous impression of the object and the mental-nervous value we give to it, and the two together make up our seeing, hearing, smell, taste, touch with all those varieties of sensation of which they, and the touch chiefly, are the starting-point or first transmitting agency.” The Synthesis of Yoga

Sense-mind ::: The manas is a development from the external chitta; it is a first organising of the crude stuff of the consciousness excited and aroused by external contacts, bahya-sparsa.
   Ref: CWSA Vol. 23-24, Page: 663


Sensorimotor Stage ::: The first stage in Piaget&

sequacious ::: a. --> Inclined to follow a leader; following; attendant.
Hence, ductile; malleable; pliant; manageable.
Having or observing logical sequence; logically consistent and rigorous; consecutive in development or transition of thought.


slavophile ::: n. --> One, not being a Slav, who is interested in the development and prosperity of that race.

smaran.a ::: memory, attention; remembrance of brahman or the isvara; conscious attention to the development of the siddhi as a whole or to any part of it; especially, mental attention stimulating the experience of physical ananda.

Social Learning Theory ::: Developmental theory arguing that personality is learned through the interactions with the environment.

sociology ::: n. --> That branch of philosophy which treats of the constitution, phenomena, and development of human society; social science.

soil ::: 1. The top layer of the earth"s surface. 2. A particular kind of earth or ground such as sandy soil. 3. Any place or condition providing the opportunity for growth or development. 4. A country, land, or region, esp. one"s native land. temple-soil.

soul ::: Sri Aurobindo: "The word ‘soul", as also the word ‘psychic", is used very vaguely and in many different senses in the English language. More often than not, in ordinary parlance, no clear distinction is made between mind and soul and often there is an even more serious confusion, for the vital being of desire — the false soul or desire-soul — is intended by the words ‘soul" and ‘psychic" and not the true soul, the psychic being.” *Letters on Yoga

  "The word soul is very vaguely used in English — as it often refers to the whole non-physical consciousness including even the vital with all its desires and passions. That was why the word psychic being has to be used so as to distinguish this divine portion from the instrumental parts of the nature.” *Letters on Yoga

  "The word soul has various meanings according to the context; it may mean the Purusha supporting the formation of Prakriti, which we call a being, though the proper word would be rather a becoming; it may mean, on the other hand, specifically the psychic being in an evolutionary creature like man; it may mean the spark of the Divine which has been put into Matter by the descent of the Divine into the material world and which upholds all evolving formations here.” *Letters on Yoga

  "A distinction has to be made between the soul in its essence and the psychic being. Behind each and all there is the soul which is the spark of the Divine — none could exist without that. But it is quite possible to have a vital and physical being supported by such a soul essence but without a clearly evolved psychic being behind it.” *Letters on Yoga

  "The soul and the psychic being are practically the same, except that even in things which have not developed a psychic being, there is still a spark of the Divine which can be called the soul. The psychic being is called in Sanskrit the Purusha in the heart or the Chaitya Purusha. (The psychic being is the soul developing in the evolution.)” *Letters on Yoga

  "The soul or spark is there before the development of an organised vital and mind. The soul is something of the Divine that descends into the evolution as a divine Principle within it to support the evolution of the individual out of the Ignorance into the Light. It develops in the course of the evolution a psychic individual or soul individuality which grows from life to life, using the evolving mind, vital and body as its instruments. It is the soul that is immortal while the rest disintegrates; it passes from life to life carrying its experience in essence and the continuity of the evolution of the individual.” *Letters on Yoga

  ". . . for the soul is seated within and impervious to the shocks of external events. . . .” *Essays on the Gita

  ". . . the soul is at first but a spark and then a little flame of godhead burning in the midst of a great darkness; for the most part it is veiled in its inner sanctum and to reveal itself it has to call on the mind, the life-force and the physical consciousness and persuade them, as best they can, to express it; ordinarily, it succeeds at most in suffusing their outwardness with its inner light and modifying with its purifying fineness their dark obscurities or their coarser mixture. Even when there is a formed psychic being able to express itself with some directness in life, it is still in all but a few a smaller portion of the being — ‘no bigger in the mass of the body than the thumb of a man" was the image used by the ancient seers — and it is not always able to prevail against the obscurity or ignorant smallness of the physical consciousness, the mistaken surenesses of the mind or the arrogance and vehemence of the vital nature.” *The Synthesis of Yoga

". . . the soul is an eternal portion of the Supreme and not a fraction of Nature.” The Life Divine

"The true soul secret in us, — subliminal, we have said, but the word is misleading, for this presence is not situated below the threshold of waking mind, but rather burns in the temple of the inmost heart behind the thick screen of an ignorant mind, life and body, not subliminal but behind the veil, — this veiled psychic entity is the flame of the Godhead always alight within us, inextinguishable even by that dense unconsciousness of any spiritual self within which obscures our outward nature. It is a flame born out of the Divine and, luminous inhabitant of the Ignorance, grows in it till it is able to turn it towards the Knowledge. It is the concealed Witness and Control, the hidden Guide, the Daemon of Socrates, the inner light or inner voice of the mystic. It is that which endures and is imperishable in us from birth to birth, untouched by death, decay or corruption, an indestructible spark of the Divine.” The Life Divine

*Soul, soul"s, Soul"s, souls, soulless, soul-bridals, soul-change, soul-force, Soul-Forces, soul-ground, soul-joy, soul-nature, soul-range, soul-ray, soul-scapes, soul-scene, soul-sense, soul-severance, soul-sight, soul-slaying, soul-space,, soul-spaces, soul-strength, soul-stuff, soul-truth, soul-vision, soul-wings, world-soul, World-Soul.



Soviet philosophy: The contemponiy development of the philosophy of dialecticil materialism in the U. S. S. R.

Spencer, Herbert: (1820-1903) was the great English philosopher who devoted a life time to the formulation and execution of a plan to follow the idea of development as a first principle through all the avenues of human thought. A precursor of Darwin with his famous notion of all organic evolution as a change "from homogeneity to heterogenity," from the simple to the complex, he nevertheless was greatly influenced by the Darwinian hypothesis and employed its arguments in his monumental works in biology, psychology, sociology and ethics. He aimed to interpret life, mind and society in terms of matter, motion and force. In politics, he evidenced from his earliest writings a strong bias for individualism. See Evolutionism, Charles Darwin. -- L.E.D.

spermatogenesis ::: n. --> The development of the spermatozoids.

Spiral Dynamics ::: A theoretical model focusing on the development of value memes, or “vMemes,” from First Tier (Survival Sense, Kin Spirits, Power Gods, Truth Force, Strive Drive, and Human Bond) to Second Tier (Flex Flow and Global View). Conceived by Don Beck and Christopher Cowan, and based on research by Clare Graves.

spiritual ::: The word “spiritual” has at least four major usages: 1. “Spiritual” refers to the highest levels in any developmental line (e.g., transrational cognition, transpersonal self-identity, etc.). 2. “Spiritual” is a separate developmental line itself (e.g., Fowler’s stages of faith). 3. “Spiritual” refers to a state or peak experience (e.g., nature mysticism). 4. “Spiritual” means a particular attitude or orientation, like openness, wisdom, or compassion, which can be present at virtually any state or stage.

sporogony ::: n. --> The growth or development of an animal or a zooid from a nonsexual germ.

Sri Aurobindo: ". . . all cosmic and real Law is a thing not imposed from outside, but from within, all development is self-development, all seed and result are seed of a Truth of things and result of that seed determined out of its potentialities. For the same reason no Law is absolute, because only the infinite is absolute, and everything contains within itself endless potentialities quite beyond its determined form and course, which are only determined through a self-limitation by Idea proceeding from an infinite liberty within.” The Life Divine

Sri Aurobindo: "Avatarhood would have little meaning if it were not connected with the evolution. The Hindu procession of the ten Avatars is itself, as it were, a parable of evolution. First the Fish Avatar, then the amphibious animal between land and water, then the land animal, then the Man-Lion Avatar, bridging man and animal, then man as dwarf, small and undeveloped and physical but containing in himself the godhead and taking possession of existence, then the rajasic, sattwic, nirguna Avatars, leading the human development from the vital rajasic to the sattwic mental man and again the overmental superman. Krishna, Buddha and Kalki depict the last three stages, the stages of the spiritual development — Krishna opens the possibility of overmind, Buddha tries to shoot beyond to the supreme liberation but that liberation is still negative, not returning upon earth to complete positively the evolution; Kalki is to correct this by bringing the Kingdom of the Divine upon earth, destroying the opposing Asura forces. The progression is striking and unmistakable.” *Letters on Yoga

Sri Aurobindo: "His [the Titan"s] instincts call for a visible, tangible mastery and a sensational domination. How shall he feel sure of his empire unless he can feel something writhing helpless under his heel, — if in agony, so much the better? What is exploitation to him, unless it diminishes the exploited? To be able to coerce, exact, slay, overtly, irresistibly, — it is this that fills him with the sense of glory and dominion. For he is the son of division and the strong flowering of the Ego. To feel the comparative limitation of others is necessary to him that he may imagine himself immeasurable; for he has not the real, self-existent sense of infinity which no outward circumstance can abrogate. Contrast, division, negation of the wills and lives of others are essential to his self-development and self-assertion. The Titan would unify by devouring, not by harmonising; he must conquer and trample what is not himself either out of existence or into subservience so that his own image may stand out stamped upon all things and dominating all his environment.” Essays in Philosophy and Yoga

Sri Aurobindo: “His [the Titan’s] instincts call for a visible, tangible mastery and a sensational domination. How shall he feel sure of his empire unless he can feel something writhing helpless under his heel,—if in agony, so much the better? What is exploitation to him, unless it diminishes the exploited? To be able to coerce, exact, slay, overtly, irresistibly,—it is this that fills him with the sense of glory and dominion. For he is the son of division and the strong flowering of the Ego. To feel the comparative limitation of others is necessary to him that he may imagine himself immeasurable; for he has not the real, self-existent sense of infinity which no outward circumstance can abrogate. Contrast, division, negation of the wills and lives of others are essential to his self-development and self-assertion. The Titan would unify by devouring, not by harmonising; he must conquer and trample what is not himself either out of existence or into subservience so that his own image may stand out stamped upon all things and dominating all his environment.” Essays in Philosophy and Yoga

Sri Aurobindo: “The legend of the Tower of Babel speaks of the diversity of tongues as a curse laid on the race; but whatever its disadvantages, and they tend more and more to be minimised by the growth of civilisation and increasing intercourse, it has been rather a blessing than a curse, a gift to mankind rather than a disability laid upon it. The purposeless exaggeration of anything is always an evil, and an excessive pullulation of varying tongues that serve no purpose in the expression of a real diversity of spirit and culture is certainly a stumbling-block rather than a help: but this excess, though it existed in the past, is hardly a possibility of the future. The tendency is rather in the opposite direction. In former times diversity of language helped to create a barrier to knowledge and sympathy, was often made the pretext even of an actual antipathy and tended to a too rigid division. The lack of sufficient interpenetration kept up both a passive want of understanding and a fruitful crop of active misunderstandings. But this was an inevitable evil of a particular stage of growth, an exaggeration of the necessity that then existed for the vigorous development of strongly individualised group-souls in the human race. These disadvantages have not yet been abolished, but with closer intercourse and the growing desire of men and nations for the knowledge of each other’s thought and spirit and personality, they have diminished and tend to diminish more and more and there is no reason why in the end they should not become inoperative.” The Human Cycle. Babel-builders’.

Sri Aurobindo: "The Unknown is not the Unknowable; it need not remain the unknown for us, unless we choose ignorance or persist in our first limitations. For to all things that are not unknowable, all things in the universe, there correspond in that universe faculties which can take cognisance of them, and in man, the microcosm, these faculties are always existent and at a certain stage capable of development. We may choose not to develop them; where they are partially developed, we may discourage and impose on them a kind of atrophy. But, fundamentally, all possible knowledge is knowledge within the power of humanity.” *The Life Divine

Stage ::: A period of development that occurs at about the same time for each person. Developmental and Personality theories are often made up of a series of stages.

stage ::: n. 1. A raised platform on which theatrical performances are presented. 2. The scene of any action. 3. The distance between two places of rest on a journey; each of the portions of a journey. 4. A level, degree, or period of time or development in the course of a process. 5. A point in the course of a life, an action or series of events. stages, earth-stage. v. 6. staged. Represented, produced, or exhibited on or as if on a stage.

stages ::: A term used to emphasize the sequential unfolding of levels of development. See levels.

Stage Theory ::: The idea that an individual must pass through one stage of development before he or she can reach the next stage.

states ::: States are fleeting, temporary aspects of phenomena found in all four quadrants. In the Upper Left, for example, there are the three great natural states of waking, dreaming, and deep dreamless sleep; meditative states; and peak experiences (all of which can be accessed by virtually any level of development). Other examples of states include brain states in the Upper Right; cultural states (e.g., mass hysteria) in the Lower Left; and weather states in the Lower Right.

stature ::: 1. The natural height of a human or animal in an upright position. 2. Degree of development attained; level of achievement. thought-stature.

-statured ::: bearing a certain stature or degree of development. Titan-statured.

sterilize ::: v. t. --> To make sterile or unproductive; to impoverish, as land; to exhaust of fertility.
To deprive of the power of reproducing; to render incapable of germination or fecundation; to make sterile.
To destroy all spores or germs in (an organic fluid or mixture), as by heat, so as to prevent the development of bacterial or other organisms.


strobila ::: n. --> A form of the larva of certain Discophora in a state of development succeeding the scyphistoma. The body of the strobila becomes elongated, and subdivides transversely into a series of lobate segments which eventually become ephyrae, or young medusae.
A mature tapeworm.


structure ::: The stable pattern of any occasion. In Integral Theory, structure most often refers to the unique, enduring pattern and actual structure of a level of development. See levels.

stunted ::: inhibited in growth or development; arrested.

subtle vision ("s) ::: Sri Aurobindo: " This power of vision is sometimes inborn and habitual even without any effort of development, sometimes it wakes up of itself and becomes abundant or needs only a little practice to develop; it is not necessarily a sign of spiritual attainment, but usually when by practice of yoga one begins to go inside or live within, the power of subtle vision awakes to a greater or less extent; . . . .”*Letters on Yoga

"It is not necessary to have the mind quiet in order to see the lights — that depends only on the opening of the subtle vision in the centre which is in the forehead between the eyebrows. Many people get that as soon as they start sadhana. It can even be developed by effort and concentration without sadhana by some who have it to a small extent as an inborn faculty.” Letters on Yoga

"When the centres begin to open, inner experiences such as the seeing of light or images through the subtle vision in the forehead centre or psychic experiences and perceptions in the heart, become frequent — gradually one becomes aware of one"s inner being as separate from the outer, and what can be called a yogic consciousness with all its deeper movements develops in the place of the ordinary superficial mental and vital movements.” Letters on Yoga


Sufism: A classical development of mysticism and a reaction from the legalism and rigidity of orthodox Islam. Being a sect seeking to attain a nearer fellowship with God by scrupulous observation of the religious law, it represents an infiltration into Islam of the Christian-gnostic type of piety with its charismatic and ascetic features. Gained many of its converts from the heterodox Moslems in Persia. -- H.H.

Sympathy: On psychological levels, a participation in and feeling for other living beings in adversity or other emotional phases, not always painful, which may or may not lead to participating or alleviating action, explained naturalistically as a general instinct inherent in all creatures, ethically sometimes as an original altruism, sociologically as acquired in the civilisatory process through needs of co-operation, mutual aid, and fellow-feeling in family and group action. Stressed particularly in Hinduism, fostered along with pity (q.v.) in Christianity, discussed and recommended as a shrewd social expedient by such men as Hobbes, Bentham, and Adam Smith, Schopenhauer raised sympathy Mitleid), as an equivalent to love, into an ethical principle which Nietzsche repudiated because to him it increases suffering and through weakness hinders development. Sympathy, as a cultural force, becomes progressively more evident in the increasing establishment of benevolent institutions, such as hospitals, asylums, etc., a more general altruism and ejection (Clifford), an extension of kindness even to animals (first taught by Buddhism, see Ahimsa), reform and relief movements of all kinds, etc. Still regarded highly as a praiseworthy virtue, it has been gradually rid of its dependence on individual ethical culture by scientific conditioning in social planning on a huge scale. See v. Orelli, Die philosophischen Auffassungen des Mttleids (1912); Scheler, Wesen und Formen der Sympathie (1926). -- K.F.L.

Syntax language: See Object language. Syntax, logical: "By the logical syntax of a language," according to Carnap, "we mean the formal theory of the linguistic forms of that language -- the systematic statement of the formal rules which govern it together with the development of the consequences which follow from these rules. A theory, a rule, a definition, or the like is to be called formal when no reference is made in it either to the meaning of the symbols or to the sense of the expressions, but simply and solely to the kinds and order of the symbols from which the expressions are constructed."

Tao chia: The Taoist school, the followers of Lao Tzu, Chuang Tzu, Lieh Tzu, etc., who "urged men to unity of spirit, teaching that all activities should be in harmony with the unseen (Tao), with abundant liberality toward all things in nature. As to method, they accept the orderly sequence of nature from the Yin Yang school, select the good points of Confucianists and Mohists, and combine with these the important points of the Logicians and Legalists. In accordance with the changes of the seasons, they respond to the development of natural objects."

Term: In common English usage the word "term"' is syntactical or semantical in character, and means simply a word (or phrase), or a word associated with its meaning. The phrase "undefined term" as used in mathematical postulate theory (see mathematics) is perhips best referred to this common meaning of "term " In traditional logic, a term is a concept appearing as subject or predicate (q.v.). of a categorical proposition; also, a word or phrase denoting such a concept. The word "term" has also been employed in a syntactical sense in various special developments of logistic systems (q.v.), usually in a way suggested by the traditional usage.

The diversity of concepts that Husserl himself expressed by the word "phenomenology" has been a source of diverse usages among thinkeis who came under his influence and are often referred to as "the phenomenological school." Husserl himself always meant by "phenomenology" a science of the subjective and its intended objects qua intentional; this core of sense pervades the development of his own concept of phenomenology as eidetic, transcendental, constitutive. Some thinkers, appropriating only the psychological version of this central concept, have developed a descriptive intentional psychology -- sometimes empirical, sometimes eidetic -- under the title "phenomenology." On the other hand, Husserl's broader concept of eidetic science based on seeing essences and essentially necessary relations -- especially his concept of material ontology -- has been not only adopted but made central by others, who define phenomenology accordingly. Not uncommonly, these groups reject Husserl's method of transcendental-phenomenological reduction and profess a realistic metaphysics. Finally, there are those who, emphasizing Husserl's cardinal principle that evidence -- seeing something that is itself presented -- is the only ultimate source of knowledge, conceive their phenomenology more broadly and etymologically, as explication of that which shows itself, whatever may be the latter 's nature and ontologicil status. -- D.C.

The employment of definition by recursion in the development of arithmetic from Peano's postulates, or in the Frege-Russell derivation of arithmetic from logic, requires justification, which most naturallv takes the form of finding a method of replacing a definition by recursion by a nominal definition, or a contextual definition, serving the same purpose. In particular it is possible, by a method due to Dedekind or by any one of a number of modifications of it, to prove the existence of a function f satisfying the conditions expressed by an admissible set of recursion equations, and f may then be given a definition employing descriptions as the function f such that the recursion equations, with suitable quantifiers prefixed, hold. See the paper of Kalmar cited below.

The field of vision, like every other field of activity of the human mind, is a mixed world and there is in it not only truth but much half-inith and error. For the rash and unwary to enter into it may bring confusion and misleading inspiration and false voices, and it is safer to have some sure guidance from those who know and have spiritual and psychic experience One must look at this field calmly and with discrimination, but to shut the gates and reject this or other supraphysical experiences is to limit oneself and arrest the inner development.

The first laboratory of experimental psychology was founded at Leipzig in 1879 by Wundt, who has been called "the first professional psychologist." With such research as that of Stumpf on sound; G. E. Müller on psycho-physics, color and learning; Ebbinghaus on memory; and Kulpe and the Würzburg school on the "higher thought processes," experimental psychology made rapid strides within the next two decades. In America, the chief standard bearer of Wundtian psychology was Titchener. Among the others who were instrumental in the introduction and development of experimental psychology in America, may be mentioned James, Hall, Münsterberg, Cattell, and Watson.

"The gospel of true supermanhood gives us a generous ideal for the progressive human race and should not be turned into an arrogant claim for a class or individuals. It is a call to man to do what no species has yet done or aspired to do in terrestrial history, evolve itself consciously into the next superior type already half foreseen by the continual cyclic development of the world-idea in Nature"s fruitful musings . . . .” The Supramental Manifestation*

“The gospel of true supermanhood gives us a generous ideal for the progressive human race and should not be turned into an arrogant claim for a class or individuals. It is a call to man to do what no species has yet done or aspired to do in terrestrial history, evolve itself consciously into the next superior type already half foreseen by the continual cyclic development of the world-idea in Nature’s fruitful musings ….” The Supramental Manifestation

The historical antecedents of experimental psychology are various. From British empiricism and the psychological philosophy of Locke, Berkeley and Hume came associationism (see Associationism), the psychological implications of which were more fully developed by Herbart and Bain. Associationism provided the conceptual framework and largely colored the procedures of early experimental psychology. Physics and physiology gave impetus to experiments on sensory phenomena while physiology and neurology fostered studies of the nervous system and reflex action. The names of Helmholtz, Johannes Müller, E. H. Weber and Fechner are closely linked with this phase of the development of experimental psychology. The English biologist Galton developed the statistical methods of Quetelet for the analysis of data on human variation and opened the way for the mental testing movement; the Russian physiologist Pavlov, with his researches on "conditioned reflexes," contributed an experimental technique which has proved of paramount importance for the psychologist. Even astronomy made its contribution; variations in reaction time of different observers having long been recognized by astronomers as an important source of error in their observations.

"The inner Divinity is the eternal Avatar in man; the human manifestation is its sign and development in the external world.” Essays on the Gita

“The inner Divinity is the eternal Avatar in man; the human manifestation is its sign and development in the external world.” Essays on the Gita

"The Jivatman is for me the Unborn who presides over the individual being and its developments, associated with it but above it and them and who by the very nature of his existence knows himself as universal and transcendent no less than individual and feels the Divine to be his origin, the truth of his being, the master of his nature, the very stuff of his existence.” Letters on Yoga

“The Jivatman is for me the Unborn who presides over the individual being and its developments, associated with it but above it and them and who by the very nature of his existence knows himself as universal and transcendent no less than individual and feels the Divine to be his origin, the truth of his being, the master of his nature, the very stuff of his existence.” Letters on Yoga

them and has to aci upon them as an Influence rather than by its sovereign right of direct action ; its direct action becomes normal and preponderant only at a high stage of development or by yoga. A perception of inith which is inherent in the deepest substance of the consciousness, a sense of the good, true, beautiful, the Divine, is its privilege.

The most radical changes in this concept of phenomenology and its relations to other disciplines had taken place before Husserl wrote his Ideen zu einer reinen Phänomenologie und phänomenologischen Philosophie, of which the only published volume, "General Introduction to Pure Phenomenology," appeared in 1913. They resulted from a development having two main aspects.

The most strange development was Ch'an (Meditation, Zen, c. 500). It is basically a method of "direct intuition into the heart to find Buddha-nature," a method based, on the one hand, on the eightfold negation of production and extinction, annihilation and permanence, unity and diversity, and coming and departing, and, on the other hand, on the affirmation of the reality of the Buddha-nature in all things. Its sole reliance on meditation was most un-Chinese, but it imposed on the Chinese mind a severe mental and spiritual discipline which was invigorating as well as fascinating. For this reason, it exerted tremendous influence not only on Taoism which had much in common with it and imitated it in every way, but also on Neo-Confucianism, which stood in diametrical opposition to it.

Theocracy: (Gr. theos, god, kratos, government, power) A view of political organization in which God is sole ruler. All political laws come under what is held to be the Divine Will. Church and State become one. Examples the development of the Hebrew ideal and Judaism, Mohammedan politics, Calvinism in Geneva, Puritan New England. -- V.F.

The origin, nature, and the continued existence or immortality of the soul is widely discussed in Jewish philosophy. As to origin, Saadia believes that each individual soul is created by God -- considering, of course, creation a continuous process -- and that it is of a fine spiritual substance. As to its faculties, he accepts the Aristotelian-Platonic division of the soul into three parts, namely, the appetitive, emotional, and cognitive. Ibn Daud thinks that the soul exists prior to the body potentially, i.e., that the angels endow the body with form; he further considers it a substance but says that it undergoes a process of development. The more it thinks the more perfect it becomes, and the thoughts are called acquired reason, it is this acquired reason, or being perfected which remains immortal. Maimonides does not discuss the origin of the soul, but deals more with its parts. To the three of Saadia he adds the imaginative and the conative. Gersonides' view resembles somewhat that of Ibn Daud, except that he does not speak of its origin and limits himself to the intellect. The intellect, says he, is only a capacity residing in the lower soul, and that capacity is gradually developed by the help of the Active Intellect into an acquired and ultimately into an active reason. All thinkers insist on immortality, but with Saadia and ha-Levi it seems that the entire soul survives, while the Aristotelians assert that only the intellect is immortal. Maimonides is not explicit on the subject, yet we may surmise that even the more liberal thinkers did not subscribe to Averroes' theory of unitas intellectus, and they believed that the immortal intellect is endowed with consciousness of personality. To this trend of connecting immortality with rational reflection Crescas took exception, and asserts that it is not pure thought which leads to survival, but that the soul is immortal because it is a spiritual being, and it is perfected by its love for God and the doing of good.

The physical mind is that which is fixed on physical objects and happenings, sees and understands these only, and deals with them according to their own nature, but can with difficulty respond to the higher forces. Left to itself, it Is skeptical of the existence of supra-physical things of which it has no direct experience and to which it can find no due ; even when it has spiritual experi- ences, it forgets them easily, loses (he impression and result and finds it difficult to believe. To enlighten the physical mind by the consciousness of the higher spiritual and Supramental planes is one object of this yoga, just as to enlighten it by the power of the higher vital and higher mental elements of the being is the greatest part of human self-development, civilisation and culture.

The position taken is that investigation reveals basic, recurrent patterns of change, expressible as laws of materialist dialectics, which are seen as relevant to every level of existence, and, because validated by past evidence, as indispensable hypotheses in guiding further investigation. These are Law of interpenetration, unity and strife of opposites. (All existences, being complexes of opposing elements and forces, have the character of a changing unity. The unity is considered temporary, relative, while the process of change, expressed by interpenetration and strife, is continuous, absolute.) Law of transformation of quantity into quality and vice versa. (The changes which take place in nature are not merely quantitative; their accumulation eventually precipitates new qualities in a transition which appears as a sudden leap in comparison to the gradualness of the quantitative changes up to that point. The new quality is considered as real as the original quality. It is not mechanically reducible to it it is not merely a larger amount of the former quality, but something into which that has developed.) Law of negation of negation. (The series of quantitative changes and emerging qualities is unending. Each state or phase of development is considered a synthesis which resolves the contradictions contained in the preceding synthesis and which generates its own contradictions on a different qualitative level.) These laws, connecting ontology with logic, are contrasted to the formalistic laws of identity, difference and excluded middle of which they are considered qualitatively enriched reconstructions. Against the ontology of the separateness and self-identity of each thing, the dialectical laws emphasize the interconnectedness of all things and self-development of each thing. An A all parts of which are always becoming non-A may thus be called non-A as well as A. The formula, A is A and cannot be non-A, becomes, A is A and also non-A, that is, at or during the same instant: there is no instant, it is held, during which nothing happens. The view taken is that these considerations apply as much to thought and concepts, as to things, that thought is a process, that ideas gain their logical content through interconnectedness with other ideas, out of and into which they develop.

  "The progress of Life involves the development and interlocking of an immense number of things that are in conflict with each other and seem often to be absolute oppositions and contraries. To find amid these oppositions some principle or standing-ground of unity, some workable lever of reconciliation which will make possible a larger and better development on a basis of harmony and not of conflict and struggle, must be increasingly the common aim of humanity in its active life-evolution, if it at all means to rise out of life"s more confused, painful and obscure movement, out of the compromises made by Nature with the ignorance of the Life-mind and the nescience of Matter. This can only be truly and satisfactorily done when the soul discovers itself in its highest and completest spiritual reality and effects a progressive upward transformation of its life-values into those of the spirit; for there they will all find their spiritual truth and in that truth their standing-ground of mutual recognition and reconciliation. The spiritual is the one truth of which all others are the veiled aspects, the brilliant disguises or the dark disfigurements, and in which they can find their own right form and true relation to each other.” *The Human Cycle, etc.

“The progress of Life involves the development and interlocking of an immense number of things that are in conflict with each other and seem often to be absolute oppositions and contraries. To find amid these oppositions some principle or standing-ground of unity, some workable lever of reconciliation which will make possible a larger and better development on a basis of harmony and not of conflict and struggle, must be increasingly the common aim of humanity in its active life-evolution, if it at all means to rise out of life’s more confused, painful and obscure movement, out of the compromises made by Nature with the ignorance of the Life-mind and the nescience of Matter. This can only be truly and satisfactorily done when the soul discovers itself in its highest and completest spiritual reality and effects a progressive upward transformation of its life-values into those of the spirit; for there they will all find their spiritual truth and in that truth their standing-ground of mutual recognition and reconciliation. The spiritual is the one truth of which all others are the veiled aspects, the brilliant disguises or the dark disfigurements, and in which they can find their own right form and true relation to each other.” The Human Cycle, etc.

The scientific study of primitive leligions, with such well known names as E. B. Tylor, F. B. Jevons, W. H. R. Rivers, J. G. Frazer, R. H. Codrington, Spencer and Gillen, E. Westermarck, E. Durkheim, L. Levy-Bruhl; the numerous outlines of the development of religion since Hume's Natural History of Religion and E. Caird's Evolution of Religion; the prolific literature dealing with individual religions of a higher type, the science of comparative religion with such namea as that of L. H. Jordan, the many excellent treitises on the psychology of religion including Wm. James' Varieties of Religious Experience; the sacred literature of all peoples in various editions together with a voluminous theological exegesis, Church history and, finally, the history of dogma, especially the monumental work of von Harnack, -- all are contributing illustrative material to the Philosophy of Religion which became stimulated to scientific efforts through the positivism of Spencer, Huxley, Lewes, Tyndall, and others, and is still largely oriented by the progress in science, as may be seen, e.g., by the work of Emile Boutroux, S. Alexander (Space, Time and Deity), and A. N. Whitehead.

“The soul or spark is there before the development of an organised vital and mind. The soul is something of the Divine that descends into the evolution as a divine Principle within it to support the evolution of the individual out of the Ignorance into the Light. It develops in the course of the evolution a psychic individual or soul individuality which grows from life to life, using the evolving mind, vital and body as its instruments. It is the soul that is immortal while the rest disintegrates; it passes from life to life carrying its experience in essence and the continuity of the evolution of the individual.” Letters on Yoga

The subconscient is universal as well as individual like all the other main parts of the Nature. But there are different parts or planes of the subconscient. All upon earth is based on the Inconscient as it is called, though it is not really inconscient at all, but rather a complete "sub"-conscience, a suppressed or involved consciousness, in which there is everything but nothing is formulated or expressed. The subconscient lies between this Inconscient and the conscious mind, life and body. It contains the potentiality of all the primitive reactions to life which struggle out to the surface from the dull and inert strands of Matter and form by a constant development a slowly evolving and self-formulating consciousness; it contains them not as ideas, perceptions or conscious reactions but as the fluid substance of these things. But also all that is consciously experienced sinks down into the subconscient, not as precise though submerged memories but as obscure yet obstinate impressions of experience, and these can come up at any time as dreams, as mechanical repetitions of past thought, feelings, action, etc., as "complexes" exploding into action and event, etc., etc. The subconscient is the main cause why all things repeat themselves and nothing ever gets changed except in appearance. It is the cause why people say character cannot be changed, the cause also of the constant return of things one hoped to have got rid of for ever. All seeds are there and all Sanskaras of the mind, vital and body,—it is the main support of death and disease and the last fortress (seemingly impregnable) of the Ignorance. All too that is suppressed without being wholly got rid of sinks down there and remains as seed ready to surge up or sprout up at any moment.
   Ref: SABCL Vol. 22-23-24, Page: 354


The subject of the philosophy of religion is regarded in conservative circles not as a discipline given to free philosophical inquiry but as a particular religion's philosophy. In this form it is a more or less disguised apologetics or defense of an already accepted religious faith. While the data for this subject include the so-called classical religions, philosophy of religion, in the genuinely philosophical sense, takes for its material religious expressions of all types, whether classical or not, together with all the psychological material available on the nature of the human spirit and man's whole cultural development. -- V.F.

The Zermelo set theory has an adequacy to the logical development of mathematics comparable to that of the functional calculus of order omega (§ 6). Indeed, as here actually formulated, its adequacy for mathematics apparently exceeds that of the functional calculus; however, this should not be taken as an essential difference, since both systems are incomplete, in accordance with Gödel'a theorem (§ 6), but are capable of extension.

Third Tier ::: Conventionally, a tier is just an arbitrary grouping of stages. Integral Theory often highlights three tiers: First Tier, which consists of the levels up to and including Green altitude; Second Tier, which consists of Teal and Turquoise altitude; and Third Tier, which includes all post-Turquoise levels of development (Indigo, Violet, Ultraviolet, and Clear Light).

“ This power of vision is sometimes inborn and habitual even without any effort of development, sometimes it wakes up of itself and becomes abundant or needs only a little practice to develop; it is not necessarily a sign of spiritual attainment, but usually when by practice of yoga one begins to go inside or live within, the power of subtle vision awakes to a greater or less extent; …”Letters on Yoga

"Though man is infinitely greater than the plant or the animal, he is not perfect in his own nature like the plant and the animal. This imperfection is not a thing to be at all deplored, but rather a privilege and a promise, for it opens out to us an immense vista of self-development and self-exceeding. Man at his highest is a half-god who has risen up out of the animal Nature and is splendidly abnormal in it, but the thing which he has started out to be, the whole god, is something so much greater than what he is that it seems to him as abnormal to himself as he is to the animal. This means a great and arduous labour of growth before him, but also a splendid crown of his race and his victory. A kingdom is offered to him beside which his present triumphs in the realms of mind or over external Nature will appear only as a rough hint and a poor beginning. The Human Cycle

“Though man is infinitely greater than the plant or the animal, he is not perfect in his own nature like the plant and the animal. This imperfection is not a thing to be at all deplored, but rather a privilege and a promise, for it opens out to us an immense vista of self-development and self-exceeding. Man at his highest is a half-god who has risen up out of the animal Nature and is splendidly abnormal in it, but the thing which he has started out to be, the whole god, is something so much greater than what he is that it seems to him as abnormal to himself as he is to the animal. This means a great and arduous labour of growth before him, but also a splendid crown of his race and his victory. A kingdom is offered to him beside which his present triumphs in the realms of mind or over external Nature will appear only as a rough hint and a poor beginning. The Human Cycle

threatening ::: 1. That foreshadows evil or tragic developments. 2. Causing alarm, as by being imminent; ominous; sinister.

Titan ::: : “His [the Titan’s] instincts call for a visible, tangible mastery and a sensational domination. How shall he feel sure of his empire unless he can feel something writhing helpless under his heel,—if in agony, so much the better? What is exploitation to him, unless it diminishes the exploited? To be able to coerce, exact, slay, overtly, irresistibly,—it is this that fills him with the sense of glory and dominion. For he is the son of division and the strong flowering of the Ego. To feel the comparative limitation of others is necessary to him that he may imagine himself immeasurable; for he has not the real, self-existent sense of infinity which no outward circumstance can abrogate. Contrast, division, negation of the wills and lives of others are essential to his self-development and self-assertion. The Titan would unify by devouring, not by harmonising; he must conquer and trample what is not himself either out of existence or into subservience so that his own image may stand out stamped upon all things and dominating all his environment.” Essays in Philosophy and Yoga

To keep up work helps to keep up the balance between the internal experience and the external development; otherwise one-sidedness and want of measure and balance may develop. hforcover, it is necessary to keep the .sadhana of work for t e

trachymedusae ::: n. pl. --> A division of acalephs in which the development is direct from the eggs, without a hydroid stage. Some of the species are parasitic on other medusae.

transformation ::: n. --> The act of transforming, or the state of being transformed; change of form or condition.
Any change in an organism which alters its general character and mode of life, as in the development of the germ into the embryo, the egg into the animal, the larva into the insect (metamorphosis), etc.; also, the change which the histological units of a tissue are prone to undergo. See Metamorphosis.
Change of one from of material into another, as in


transitional structure ::: A structure that is replaced by subsequent, higher structures (e.g., structures in moral development). The self-related lines are mostly transitional structures, contrasted with enduring structures or those that tend to remain in existence once they emerge (even though they might be subsumed by higher structures).

transmutation ::: n. --> The act of transmuting, or the state of being transmuted; as, the transmutation of metals.
The change or reduction of one figure or body into another of the same area or solidity, but of a different form, as of a triangle into a square.
The change of one species into another, which is assumed to take place in any development theory of life; transformism.


tubercular ::: a. --> Having tubercles; affected with tubercles; tubercled; tuberculate.
Like a tubercle; as, a tubercular excrescence.
Characterized by the development of tubercles; as, tubercular diathesis.


tuberculization ::: n. --> The development of tubercles; the condition of one who is affected with tubercles.

Two things render that culmination more facile than it would otherwise be. Overmind in the descent towards material creation has originated modifications of itself,—Intuition especially with its penetrative lightning flashes of truth lighting up local points and stretches of country in our consciousness,—which can bring the concealed truth of things nearer to our comprehension, and, by opening ourselves more widely first in the inner being and then as a result in the outer surface self also to the messages of these higher ranges of consciousness, by growing into them, we can become ourselves also intuitive and overmental beings, not limited by the intellect and sense, but capable of a more universal comprehension and a direct touch of truth in its very self and body. In fact flashes of enlightenment from these higher ranges already come to us, but this intervention is mostly fragmentary, casual or partial; we have still to begin to enlarge ourselves into their likeness and organise in us the greater Truth activities of which we are potentially capable. But, secondly, Overmind, Intuition, even Supermind not only must be, as we have seen, principles inherent and involved in the Inconscience from which we arise in the evolution and inevitably destined to evolve, but are secretly present, occult actively with flashes of intuitive emergence in the cosmic activity of Mind, Life and Matter. It is true that their action is concealed and, even when they emerge, it is modified by the medium, material, vital, mental in which they work and not easily recognisable. Supermind cannot manifest itself as the Creator Power in the universe from the beginning, for if it did, the Ignorance and Inconscience would be impossible or else the slow evolution necessary would change into a rapid transformation scene. Yet at every step of the material energy we can see the stamp of inevitability given by a supramental creator, in all the development of life and mind the play of the lines of possibility and their combination which is the stamp of Overmind intervention. As Life and Mind have been released in Matter, so too must in their time these greater powers of the concealed Godhead emerge from the involution and their supreme Light descend into us from above. …

types ::: Horizontal styles available to any developmental level within the quadrants. Examples of types include Myers-Briggs, Enneagram, masculine and feminine in the Upper Left; body types in the Upper Right; cultural types in the Lower Left; and types of biomes in the Lower Right.

uddiyana bandha. ::: a lower abdominal lock often described as bringing the navel to the base of the spine; most important bandha as it supports the breathing and encourages the development of strong core muscles

ultimate ::: 1. Lying beyond all others; forming the final aim or object. 2. Coming at the end of a process, course of action, etc., or as the last in a succession or series; arrived at as a final result or in the last resort. 3. Not to be improved upon or surpassed; greatest; highest. 4. Putting an end to further continuance, development, or action; final, decisive.

unfold ::: v. t. --> To open the folds of; to expand; to spread out; as, to unfold a tablecloth.
To open, as anything covered or close; to lay open to view or contemplation; to bring out in all the details, or by successive development; to display; to disclose; to reveal; to elucidate; to explain; as, to unfold one&


UNITY. ::: When there is the development of the Self-realisa- lion or of the cosmic consciousness or if there is il)e emptiness which is the preiiminary condition for these things, (here comes an automatic tendency for a unity with all — their alTcctions, mentai, vital, physical may easily touch. One has to keep oneself free.

unknown ::: “The Unknown is not the Unknowable; it need not remain the unknown for us, unless we choose ignorance or persist in our first limitations. For to all things that are not unknowable, all things in the universe, there correspond in that universe faculties which can take cognisance of them, and in man, the microcosm, these faculties are always existent and at a certain stage capable of development. We may choose not to develop them; where they are partially developed, we may discourage and impose on them a kind of atrophy. But, fundamentally, all possible knowledge is knowledge within the power of humanity.” The Life Divine

unorganized ::: a. --> Not organized; being without organic structure; specifically (Biol.), not having the different tissues and organs characteristic of living organisms, nor the power of growth and development; as, the unorganized ferments. See the Note under Ferment, n., 1.

upgrowth ::: n. --> The process or result of growing up; progress; development.

utthapana ::: (literally) raising, elevating; "the state of not being subutthapana ject to the pressure of physical forces", the second member of the sarira catus.t.aya, called utthapana or levitation because of its third and final stage (tertiary utthapana) in which "gravitation is conquered", but usually referring to either of two earlier stages (primary utthapana and secondary utthapana) in which "the habit by which the bodily nature associates certain forms and degrees of activity with strain, fatigue, incapacity" is rectified, resulting in a great increase in "the power, freedom, swiftness, effectiveness of the work whether physical or mental which can be done with this bodily instrument"; exercise for the development of utthapana (such as walking for primary utthapana). utth utthapana-sakti

Value: The contemporary use of the term "value" and the discipline now known as the theory of value or axiology are relatively recent developments in philosophy, being largely results of certain 19th and 20th century movements. See Ethics. "Value" is used both as a noun and as a verb. As a noun it is sometimes abstract, sometimes concrete. As an abstract noun it designates the property of value or of being valuable. In this sense "value" is often used as equivalent to "worth" or "goodness," in which case evil is usually referred to as "disvalue." But it is also used more broadly to cover evil or badness as well as goodness, just as "temperature" is used to cover both heat and cold. Then evil is referred to as negative value and goodness as positive value.

vasoformative ::: a. --> Concerned in the development and formation of blood vessels and blood corpuscles; as, the vasoformative cells.

Vedic Religion: Or the Religion of the Vedas (q.v.). It is thoroughly cosmological, inspirational and ritualistic, priest and sacrifice playing an important role. It started with belief in different gods, such as Indra, Agni, Surya, Vishnu, Ushas, the Maruts, usually interpreted as symbolizing the forces of nature, but with the development of Hinduism it deteriorated into a worship of thousands of gods corresponding to the diversification of function and status in the complex social organism. Accompanying there was a pronounced tendency toward magic even in Vedic times, while the more elevated thoughts which have found expression in magnificent praises of the one or the other deity finally became crystallized in the philosophic thought of the Upanishads (q.v.). There is a distinct break, however, between Vedic culture with its free and autochthonous religious consciousness and the rigidly caste and custom controlled religion as we know it in India today, as also the religion of bhakti (q.v.). -- K.F.L.

^Vhcn this growth of the inner sleep consciousness begins, there is often a pull to go inside and pursue the development even when there is no fatigue or need of sleep. Another cause aids this pull. It is usually the vital part of the inner being that first awakes in sleep and the first dream experiences (as opposed

viable ::: a. --> Capable of living; born alive and with such form and development of organs as to be capable of living; -- said of a newborn, or a prematurely born, infant.

Vishnuism: (Visnuism) One of the major philosophico-religious groups into which Hinduism has articulated itself. It glorifies Vishnu as the supreme being who creates and maintains the world periodically by means of his bhuti and kriya saktis (q.v.) or powers of becoming and producing, corresponding to the causae materialis et efficiens. The place of man's soul in this development is explained variously depending on the relation it maintains to the world-ground conceived in Vishnuite fashion. -- K.F.L.

vision-logic ::: The cognitive stage necessary to support integral consciousness. Typically subdivided into early, middle, and late vision-logic. Early vision-logic differentiates reality into relativistic systems, while middle and late vision-logic add up and integrate those perspectives into systems of systems. Vision-logic is often referred to as the first “postformal” stage of cognitive development since it is immediately beyond or “after” formal operational cognition. However, it is not yet “transrational,” but rather the limit of rational thought. Vision-logic is, in a sense, the bridge between the mental and the transmental.

vitiligo ::: n. --> A rare skin disease consisting in the development of smooth, milk-white spots upon various parts of the body.

vivarta ::: ["turning round", changing from one state to another, development of the universe from brahman considered as the sole real reality, the phenomenal world considered as apparent or illusory form]; the world as a purely subjective evolution, not real as objective facts.

vMeme ::: Short for value meme, a term used in Spiral Dynamics to denote a level of value systems development.

waves ::: A synonym for stages emphasizing the fluid, overlapping nature of levels of development. See levels.

Wilber-Combs Lattice ::: The general idea (arrived at independently by Ken Wilber and Allan Combs) that a person at virtually any stage of awareness can experience any major state, but will interpret those state-experiences according to their respective stage. The result is a grid of developmental stages intersecting with and interpreting various states.

With the aid of Gödel's device of representing sequences of primitive symbols and sequences of formulas by means of numbers, it is possible to give a more exact definition of the notion of effectiveness by making it correspond to that of recursiveness (q. v.) of numerical functions. E.g., a criterion for recognizing primitive formulas is effective if it determines a general recursive monadic function of natural numbers whose value is 0 when the argument is the number of a primitive formula, 1 for any other natural number as argument. The adequacy of this technical definition to represent the intuitive notion of effectiveness as described above is not immediately clear, but is placed beyond any real doubt by developments for details of which the reader is referred to Hilbert-Bernays and Turing (see references below).

xanthoma ::: n. --> A skin disease marked by the development or irregular yellowish patches upon the skin, especially upon the eyelids; -- called also xanthelasma.

Yoga is in essence the union of the soul with the immortal being and consciousness and delight of the Divine effected through human nature with a result of development Into the

Yoga ::: Yoga is in essence the union of the soul with the immortal being and consciousness and delight of the Divine, effected through the human nature with a result of development into the divine nature of being, whatever that may be, so far as we can conceive it in mind and realise it in spiritual activity.
   Ref: CWSA Vol. 23-24, Page: 587


zooid ::: a. --> Pertaining to, or resembling, an animal. ::: n. --> An organic body or cell having locomotion, as a spermatic cell or spermatozooid.
An animal in one of its inferior stages of development, as one of the intermediate forms in alternate generation.




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1:Wisdom is the fruit of a balanced development. ~ Alfred North Whitehead
2:But it must truly be development of the faith, not alteration of the faith. ~ Saint Vincent of Lerins,
3:Beauty of whatever kind, in its supreme development, invariably excites the sensitive soul to tears. ~ Edgar Allan Poe,
4:Each stage of development, remember, has a dialectic of progress - in plain language, every new development is good news, bad news. ~ ken-wilber,
5:Success is the development of the power with which to get whatever one wants in life without interfering with the rights of others. ~ Napoleon Hill,
6:Development into forms is an imperative rule of effective manifestation. ~ Sri Aurobindo, The Synthesis Of Yoga, Life and Yoga,
7:Action in the world is given us first as a means for our self-development and self-fulfilment. ~ Sri Aurobindo, The Synthesis Of Yoga, The Divine Work,
8:It does not help for spiritual knowledge to be ignorant of the things of this world. ~ Sri Aurobindo, Letters on Yoga - IV, Mental Development and Sadhana,
9:The Lord has provided different forms of worship to suit different people with different capacities in different stages of development. ~ Sri Ramakrishna,
10:There can be no national development without national liberty. ~ Sri Aurobindo, Bande Mataram - I, Shall India be Free? - National Development and Foreign Rule,
11:The development of capacities is not only permissible but right, when it can be made part of the Yoga ~ Sri Aurobindo, Letters on Yoga - II, Consecration and Offering,
12:The consciousness is there throughout in our occult parts of being, the development is in the manifesting Nature. ~ Sri Aurobindo, The Life Divine, The Philosophy of Rebirth,
13:Without strict Brahmacharya it is not possible for any one to hold fast to great ideals. To secure the full development and vitality of the body, brain and mind, Brahmacharya is essential. ~ SWAMI BRAHMANANDA,
14:The development of the free individual is, we have said, the first condition for the development of the perfect society. ~ Sri Aurobindo, The Human Cycle, Civilisation and Barbarism,
15:The group-man follows in the wake of the individual and is always far behind the highest individual development. ~ Sri Aurobindo, The Human Cycle, The Drive towards Economic Centralisation,
16:Above us, within us, around us is the AllStrength and it is that that we have to rely on for our work, our development, our transforming change. ~ Sri Aurobindo, Letters on Yoga - IV, Sleep,
17:... outside of the book-knowledge which is necessary to our professional training, I think I got most of my development from the good conversation to which I have always had the luck to access. ~ Alfred North Whitehead,
18:The State is a convenience, and a rather clumsy convenience, for our common development; it ought never to be made an end in itself. ~ Sri Aurobindo, The Human Cycle, The Inadequacy of the State Idea,
19:We perceive that this miraculous development is not the result of our own efforts: an eternal Perfection is moulding us into its own image
   ~ Sri Aurobindo, The Synthesis Of Yoga, The Four Aids [63],
20:This apparent paradox of a development draped in the colours of revolt is a constant psychological feature of all human evolution. ~ Sri Aurobindo, The Future Poetry, The Movement of Modern Literature - I,
21:Without being sceptical no spiritual progress is possible, for blind adoration is only the first stage in the spiritual development of the soul. ~ Sri Aurobindo, Bande Mataram - II, Spirituality and Nationalism,
22:The individual, standing alone, cannot develop; he depends on the support and assistance of the group to which he belongs. ~ Sri Aurobindo, Bande Mataram - I, Shall India be Free? - National Development and Foreign Rule,
23:To arrive by the shortest way at the largest development of spiritual power and being and divinise by it a liberated nature in the whole range of human living is our inspiring motive.
   ~ Sri Aurobindo, The Synthesis Of Yoga,
24:But these structures, forming different levels, are to be regarded as succeeding one another according to a law of development, such that each one brings about a more inclusive and stable equilibrium for the processes that emerge from the preceding level. ~ Jean Piaget,
25:If humans do not understand a proof, then it doesn't count as maths, says Voevodsky. 'The future of mathematics is more a spiritual discipline than an applied art. One of the important functions of mathematics is the development of the human mind.'
   ~ Vladimir Voevodsky,
26:This growth of the conscious being, an expansion, an increasing self-expression, a more and more harmonised development of his constituent members is the whole meaning and all the pith of human existence.
   ~ Sri Aurobindo, The Synthesis Of Yoga,
27:Man has an infinite capacity for self-development. Equally, he has an infinite capacity for self-destruction. A human being may be clinically alive and yet, despite all appearances, spiritually dead." ~ Idries Shah, (1924-1996) author and teacher in the Sufi tradition, Wikipedia.,
28:With each person the guidance works differently according to his nature, the conditions of his life, his cast of consciousness, his stage of development, his need of farther experience. ~ Sri Aurobindo, Letters on Yoga - II, The Divine Grace and Guidance,
29:Russell commented that the development of such gifted individuals (referring to polymaths) required a childhood period in which there was little or no pressure for conformity, a time in which the child could develop and pursue his or her own interests no matter how unusual or bizarre. ~ Carl Sagan,
30:The development of the experience in its rapidity, its amplitude, the intensity and power of its results, depends primarily, in the beginning of the path and long after, on the aspiration and personal effort of the sadhaka.
   ~ Sri Aurobindo, The Synthesis Of Yoga, [58],
31:Proving your proficiency in a skill is far more valuable to an employer than simply stating the number of years you've spent doing it.
   ~ Marcus Tomlinson, How to become an Expert Software Engineer (and Get any Job you want): A programmers guide to the secret art of free and open source software development,
32:It is for this meaningful development of consciousness by thought, will, emotion, desire, action and experience, leading in the end to a supreme divine self-discovery, that Man, the mental being, has entered into the material body.
   ~ Sri Aurobindo, The Synthesis Of Yoga, Self-Surrender in Works,
33:Man's law of progress progress perfection man
He [man] needs the help of the secret Divine above his mentality in his superconscient self; he needs the help also of the secret Divine around him in Nature and in his fellow-men. ~ Sri Aurobindo, The Human Cycle, The Ideal Law of Social Development,
34:My ideal is growth, expansion, development on national lines. I have no words of condemnation for my nation. I tell,"You have done well; only try to do better." Great things have been done in the past in this land, & there is both time & room for greater things to be done yet.~ Swami Vivekananda,
35:We must recognize that the attempt to set forth the temporal course commonly referred to as the "evolution of mankind" is merely an attempt to structure events for convenient accessibility. Consequently, we must exclude from our discussion as far as possible such misleading notions as "development" and "progress." ~ Jean Gebser,
36:To be "integrally developed" does not mean that you have to excel in all the known intelligences, or that all of your lines have to be at level 3. But it does mean that you develop a very good sense of what your own psychograph is actually like, so that with a much more Integral self-image you can plan your future development. ~ Ken Wilber,
37:The Self in man enlarging light and knowledge and harmonising will with light and knowledge so as to fulfil in life what he has seen in his increasing vision and idea of the Self, this is man's source and law of progress and the secret of his impulse towards perfection. ~ Sri Aurobindo, The Human Cycle: The Ideal Law of Social Development
38:Only the individual can think, and thereby create new values for society ~ nay, even set up new moral standards to which the life of the community conforms. Without creative, independently thinking and judging personalities the upward development of society is as unthinkable as the development of the individual personality without the nourishing soil of the community.,
39:Nor does he achieve his destiny as the individual Man for the sake of the individual soul alone,—a lonely salvation is not his complete ideal,—but for the world also or rather for God in the world, for God in all as well as above all and not for God solely and separately in one. ~ Sri Aurobindo, The Human Cycle, The Ideal Law of Social Development,
40:Everything good is costly, and the development of personality is one of the most costly of all things. I t is a matter of saying yea to oneself, of taking oneself as the most serious of tasks, of being conscious of everything one does, and keeping it constantly before one's eyes in all its dubious aspects-truly a task that taxes us to the utmost. ~ Carl Jung, Psychological Reflections,
41:God & the World is my subject, ... the conditions in which the kingdom of heaven on earth can be converted from a dream into a possibility, - by the willed evolution in man of his higher nature, by a steady self-purification and a development in the light of this divine knowledge towards the fulfilment of his own supra-material, supra-intellectual nature.
   ~ Sri Aurobindo, Isha Upanishad,
42:In researching this problem, I did an extensive data search of several hundred hierarchies, taken from systems theory, ecological science, Kabalah, developmental psychology, Yo-gachara Buddhism, moral development, biological evolution, Vedanta Hinduism, Neo-Confucianism, cosmic and stellar evolution, Hwa Yen, the Neoplatonic corpus-an entire spectrum of premodern, modern, and postmodern nests.
   ~ Ken Wilber, Marriage of Sense and Soul, 1998,
43:John McCarthy (September 4, 1927 - October 24, 2011) was an American computer scientist and cognitive scientist. McCarthy was one of the founders of the discipline of artificial intelligence.[1] He coined the term artificial intelligence (AI), developed the Lisp programming language family, significantly influenced the design of the ALGOL programming language, popularized timesharing, and was very influential in the early development of AI.
   ~ Wikipedia,
44:An ocean of electric Energy
Formlessly formed its strange wave-particles
Constructing by their dance this solid scheme, ~ Sri Aurobindo, Savitri, The Godheads of the Little Life
Wave-particles
The dictum that each has his own way is not true; each has his own way of following the common way and the "own way" may often be very defective. ~ Sri Aurobindo, Letters on Yoga - IV, Mental Development and Sadhana,
45:Alan Mathison Turing OBE FRS (/ˈtjʊərɪŋ/; 23 June 1912 - 7 June 1954) was an English computer scientist, mathematician, logician, cryptanalyst and theoretical biologist. He was highly influential in the development of theoretical computer science, providing a formalisation of the concepts of algorithm and computation with the Turing machine, which can be considered a model of a general purpose computer.[2][3][4] Turing is widely considered to be the father of theoretical computer science and artificial intelligence.[5]
   ~ Wikipedia,
46:7. Don't entertain such thoughts of imperfection, lack of qualities, etc. You are already perfect. Get rid of the ideas of imperfection and need for development. There is nothing to realize or annihilate. You are the Self. The ego does not exist. Pursue the enquiry and see if there is anything to be realised or annihilated. See if there is any mind to be controlled. Even the effort is being made by the mind which does not exist. ~ Sri Ramana Maharshi, Surpassing Love and Grace An Offering from His Devotees,
47:No government has the right to decide on the truth of scientific principles, nor to prescribe in any way the character of the questions investigated. Neither may a government determine the aesthetic value of artistic creations, nor limit the forms of literacy or artistic expression. Nor should it pronounce on the validity of economic, historic, religious, or philosophical doctrines. Instead it has a duty to its citizens to maintain the freedom, to let those citizens contribute to the further adventure and the development of the human race. ~ Richard P Feynman,
48:The aim of a complete course of development is to divest the basic structures of any sense of exclusive self, and thus free the basic needs from their contamination by the needs of the separate self sense. When the basic structures are freed from the immortality projects of the separate self, they are free to return to their natural functional relationships .... when hungry, we eat; when tired, we sleep. The self has been returned to the Self, all self-needs have been met and discarded; and the basic needs alone remain. ~ Ken Wilber, Integral Psychology, p. 253,
49:The integral Yoga, refusing to rely upon the fragile stuff of mental and moral ideals, puts its whole emphasis in this field on three central dynamic processes -- the development of the true soul or psychic being to take the place of the false soul of desire, the sublimation of human into divine love, the elevation of consciousness from its mental to its spiritual and supramental plane by whose power alone both the soul and the life-force can be utterly delivered from the veils and prevarications of the Ignorance.
   ~ Sri Aurobindo, The Synthesis Of Yoga, [T4],
50:To return to the question of the development of the Will. It is always something to pluck up the weeds, but the flower itself needs tending. Having crushed all volitions in ourselves, and if necessary in others, which we find opposing our real Will, that Will itself will grow naturally with greater freedom. But it is not only necessary to purify the temple itself and consecrate it; invocations must be made. Hence it is necessary to be constantly doing things of a positive, not merely of a negative nature, to affirm that Will.
   ~ Aleister Crowley, Liber ABA, Book 4, Magick, Part 2,
51:conditions of the psychic opening :::
For the opening of the psychic being, concentration on the Mother and self-offering to her are the direct way. The growth of Bhakti which you feel is the first sign of the psychic development. A sense of the Mother's presence or force or the remembrance of her supporting and strengthening you is the next sign. Eventually, the soul within begins to be active in aspiration and psychic perception guiding the mind to the right thoughts, the vital to the right movements and feelings, showing and rejecting all that has to be put away and turning the whole being in all its movements to the Divine alone. ~ Sri Aurobindo, Letters On Yoga - III,
52:the essential conditions for the growth of the psychic :::
In order to strengthen the contact and aid, if possible, the development of the conscious psychic personality, one should, while concentrating, turn towards it, aspire to know it and feel it, open oneself to receive its influence, and take great care, each time that one receives an indication from it, to follow it very scrupulously and sincerely. To live in a great aspiration, to take care to become inwardly calm and remain so always as far as possible, to cultivate a perfect sincerity in all the activities of one's being - these are the essential conditions for the growth of the psychic being.
   ~ The Mother, Some Answers From The Mother,
53:Similarly, the existence of Allah has multiplicity and the many Names. It is this or that according to what appears from it of the universe which demands the realities of the Divine Names by its development. They are doubled by it and stand in opposition to the unity of multiplicity. It is one by source in respect to its essence, as the primal substance (hayûla) is a single source in respect to its essence, while it has many forms which it supports by its essence. It is the same with Allah through the forms of tajalli which are manifested from Him. So the locii of the tajalli are the forms of the universe, in spite of the intelligible unity (ahadiyya). Look at the excellence of this divine instruction which Allah gives by granting its recognition to whoever He wishes among His slaves. ~ Ibn Arabi,
54:Finally, in terms of overall spiritual intelligence-which we have been briefly tracking-on the other side of the leading edge of evolution we have 3 or 4 higher, at this point mostly potential, levels of development, including levels of spiritual intelligence. Individually, their basic strcture-rungs are referred to as para-mind, meta-mind, overmind, and supermind; collectively, they are called 3rd tier. What all 3rd-tier structures have in common is some degree of direct transpersonal identity and experience. Further, each 3rd-tier structure of consciousness is integrated, in some fashion, with a particular state of consciousness (often, para-mental with the gross, meta-mental with subtle, overmind with causal/Witnessing, and supermind with nondual, although this varies with each individual's actual history).
   ~ Ken Wilber?,
55:I have read your account of your sadhana. There is nothing to say, I think, - for it is all right - except that the most important thing for you is to develop the psychic fire in the heart and the aspiration for the psychic being to come forward as the leader of the sadhana. When the psychic does so, it will show you the 'undetected ego-knots' of which you speak and loosen them or burn them in the psychic fire. This psychic development and the psychic change of mind, vital and physical consciousness is of the utmost importance because it makes safe and easy the descent of the higher consciousness and the spiritual transformation without which the supramental must always remain far distant. Powers etc. have their place, but a very minor one so long as this is not done.
   ~ Sri Aurobindo, Letters On Yoga - III,
56:The condition of today's world cannot be transformed by technocratic rationality, since both technocracy and rationality are apparently nearing their apex.

Nor can it be transcended by preaching or admonishing a return to ethics and morality, or in fact, by any form of return to the past.

We have only one option: in examining the manifestations of our age, we must penetrate them with sufficient breadth and depth that we do not come under the demonic and destructive spell.

We must not focus our view merely on these phenomena, but rather on the humus of the decaying world beneath, where the seedlings of the future are growing, immeasurable in their potential and vigor.

Since our insight into the energies pressing toward development aids their unfolding, the seedlings and inceptive beginnings must be made visible and comprehensible." ~ Jean Gebser,
57:The Seven Da Vincian Principles are:
   Curiosità - An insatiably curious approach to life and an unrelenting quest for continuous learning.
   Dimostrazione - A commitment to test knowledge through experience, persistence, and a willingness to learn from mistakes.
   Sensazione - The continual refinement of the senses, especially sight, as the means to enliven experience.
   Sfumato (literally "Going up in Smoke") - A willingness to embrace ambiguity, paradox, and uncertainty.
   Arte/Scienza - The development of the balance between science and art, logic and imagination. "Whole-brain" thinking.
   Corporalità - The cultivation of grace, ambidexterity, fitness, and poise.
   Connessione - A recognition of and appreciation for the interconnectedness of all things and phenomena. Systems thinking.
   ~ Michael J. Gelb, How to Think Like Leonardo da Vinci: Seven Steps to Genius Every Day,
58: The purpose of creation, is lila. The concept of lila escapes all the traditional difficulties in assigning purpose to the creator. Lila is a purpose-less purpose, a natural outflow, a spontaneous self-manifestation of the Divine. The concept of lila, again, emphasizes the role of delight in creation. The concept of Prakriti and Maya fail to explain the bliss aspect of Divine. If the world is manifestation of the Force of Satcitananda, the deployment of its existence and consciousness, its purpose can be nothing but delight. This is the meaning of delight. Lila, the play, the child's joy, the poet's joy, the actor's joy, the mechanician's joy of the soul of things eternally young, perpetually inexhaustible, creating and recreating Himself in Himself for the sheer bliss of that self-creation, of that self-representation, Himself the play, Himself the player, Himself the playground ~ Sri Aurobindo, Philosophy of Social Development, pp-39-40
59:55: A similar rejection is a necessary self-restraint and a spiritual discipline for the immature seeker, since such powers may be a great, even a deadly peril; for their supernormality may easily feed in him an abnormal exaggeration of the ego. Power in itself may be dreaded as a temptation by the aspirant to perfection, because power can abase as well as elevate; nothing is more liable to misuse. But when new capacities come as an inevitable result of the growth into a greater consciousness and a greater life and that growth is part of the very aim of the spiritual being within us, this bar does not operate; for a growth of the being into supernature and its life in supernature cannot take place or cannot be complete without bringing with it a greater power of consciousness and a greater power of life and the spontaneous development of an instrumentation of knowledge and force normal to that supernature. ~ Sri Aurobindo, The Life Divine, 2.08,
60:Even on Earth, the first steps in this direction had been taken. There were millions of men, doomed in earlier ages, who now lived active and happy lives thanks to artificial limbs, kidneys, lungs, and hearts. To this process there could be only one conclusion - however far off it might be.

And eventually even the brain might go. As the seat of consciousness, It was not essential; the development of electronic intelligence had proved that. The conflict between mind and machine might be resolved at last in the eternal truce of complete symbiosis.

But was even this the end? A few mystically inclined biologists went still further. They speculated, taking their cues from the beliefs of many religions, that mind would eventually free itself from matter. The robot body, like the flesh-and-blood one, would be no more than a stepping-stone to something which, long ago, men bad called "spirit."

And if there was anything beyond that, its name could only be God.
   ~ Arthur C Clarke, 2001: A Space Odyssey,
61:ALL YOGA is in its nature a new birth; it is a birth out of the ordinary, the mentalised material life of man into a higher spiritual consciousness and a greater and diviner being. No Yoga can be successfully undertaken and followed unless there is a strong awakening to the necessity of that larger spiritual existence. The soul that is called to this deep and vast inward change, may arrive in different ways to the initial departure. It may come to it by its own natural development which has been leading it unconsciously towards the awakening; it may reach it through the influence of a religion or the attraction of a philosophy; it may approach it by a slow illumination or leap to it by a sudden touch or shock; it may be pushed or led to it by the pressure of outward circumstances or by an inward necessity, by a single word that breaks the seals of the mind or by long reflection, by the distant example of one who has trod the path or by contact and daily influence. According to the nature and the circumstances the call will come.
   ~ Sri Aurobindo, The Synthesis Of Yoga, Self-Consecration,
62:  Swami Vivekananda summarised Yoga under four headings, and I do not think that one can improve on that classification. His four are: Gnana, Raja, Bhakti and Hatha, and comprise all divisions that it is desirable to make. As soon as one begins to add such sections as Mantra Yoga, you are adding to without enriching the classification, and once you begin Where are you to stop? But I honestly believe that the excessive simplication given in Eight Lectures on Yoga is a practical advantage. Any given type of Yogas is the work of a lifetime and for that reason alone it is desirable to confine oneself from the beginning to an absolutely simple programme.

  What then is the difference between Yoga and Magick? Magick is extraversion, the discovery of and subsequently the classification of and finally the control of new worlds on new planes. So far as it concerns the development of the mind its object and method are perfectly simple. What is wanted is exaltation. The aim is to identify oneself with the highest essence of whatever world is under consideration. ~ Aleister Crowley, Magick Without Tears, 1.83 - Epistola Ultima,
63:If we regard the Powers of the Reality as so many Godheads, we can say that the Overmind releases a million Godheads into action, each empowered to create its own world, each world capable of relation, communication and interplay with the others.
There are in the Veda different formulations of the nature of the Gods: it is said they are all one Existence to which the sages give different names; yet each God is worshipped as if he by himself is that Existence, one who is all the other Gods together or contains them in his being; and yet again each is a separate Deity acting sometimes in unison with companion deities, sometimes separately, sometimes even in apparent opposition to other Godheads of the same Existence. In the Supermind all this would be held together as a harmonised play of the one Existence; in the Overmind each of these three conditions could be a separate action or basis of action and have its own principle of development and consequences and yet each keep the power to combine with the others in a more composite harmony. ~ Sri Aurobindo, The Life Divine, Supermind Mind and the Overmind Maya,
64:Do not be over-eager for experience, - for experiences you can always get, having once broken the barrier between the physical mind and the subtle planes. What you have to aspire for most is the improved quality of the recipient consciousness in you - discrimination in the mind, the unattached impersonal Witness look on all that goes on in you and around you, purity in the vital, calm equanimity, enduring patience, absence of pride and the sense of greatness - and more especially, the development of the psychic being in you - surrender, self-giving, psychic humility, devotion. It is a consciousness made up of these things, cast in this mould that can bear without breaking, stumbling or deviation into error the rush of lights, powers and experiences from the supraphysical planes. An entire perfection in these respects is hardly possible until the whole nature from the highest mind to the subconscient physical is made one in the light that is greater than Mind; but a sufficient foundation and a consciousness always self-observant, vigilant and growing in these things is indispensable
   - for perfect purification is the basis of the perfect siddhi. ~ ?,
65:It can be expected that the orthodox Christian will at first reject the theories about the Christ which occultism presents; at the same time, this same orthodox Christian will find it increasingly difficult to induce the intelligent masses of people to accept the impossible Deity and the feeble Christ, which historical Christianity has endorsed. A Christ Who is present and living, Who is known to those who follow Him, Who is a strong and able executive, and not a sweet and sentimental sufferer, Who has never left us but Who has worked for two thousand years through the medium of His disciples, the inspired men and women of all faiths, all religions, and all religious persuasions; Who has no use for fanaticism or hysterical devotion, but Who loves all men persistently, intelligently and optimistically, Who sees divinity in them all, and Who comprehends the techniques of the evolutionary development of the human consciousness (mental, emotional and physical, producing civilizations and cultures appropriate to a particular point in evolution) - these ideas the intelligent public can and will accept. p. 589/90 ~ Alice Bailey, in The Externalization of the Hierarchy (1957)
66:Ordinarily, man is limited in all these parts of his being and he can grasp at first only so much of the divine truth as has some large correspondence to his own nature and its past development and associations. Therefore God meets us first in different limited affirmations of his divine qualities and nature; he presents himself to the seeker as an absolute of the things he can understand and to which his will and heart can respond; he discloses some name and aspect of his Godhead.

This is what is called in Yoga the is.t.a-devata, the name and form elected by our nature for its worship. In order that the human being may embrace this Godhead with every part of himself, it is represented with a form that answers to its aspects and qualities and which becomes the living body of God to the adorer. These are those forms of Vishnu, Shiva, Krishna, Kali, Durga, Christ, Buddha, which the mind of man seizes on for adoration. Even the monotheist who worships a formless Godhead, yet gives to him some form of quality, some mental form or form of Nature by which he envisages and approaches him. But to be able to see a living form, a mental body, as it were, of the Divine gives to the approach a greater closeness and sweetness. ~ Sri Aurobindo, The Synthesis Of Yoga, The Mystery of Love,
67:About the only law that I think relates to the genre is that you should not try to explain, to find neat explanations for what happens, and that the object of the thing is to produce a sense of the uncanny. Freud in his essay on the uncanny wrote that the sense of the uncanny is the only emotion which is more powerfully expressed in art than in life, which I found very illuminating; it didn't help writing the screen-play, but I think it's an interesting insight into the genre. And I read an essay by the great master H.P. Lovecraft where he said that you should never attempt to explain what happens, as long as what happens stimulates people's imagination, their sense of the uncanny, their sense of anxiety and fear. And as long as it doesn't, within itself, have any obvious inner contradictions, it is just a matter of, as it were, building on the imagination (imaginary ideas, surprises, etc.), working in this area of feeling. I think also that the ingeniousness of a story like this is something which the audience ultimately enjoys; they obviously wonder as the story goes on what's going to happen, and there's a great satisfaction when it's all over not having been able to have anticipated the major development of the story, and yet at the end not to feel that you have been fooled or swindled. ~ Stanley Kubrick,
68:
   Sweet Mother, Just as there is a methodical progression of exercises for mental and physical education, isn't there a similar method to progress towards Sri Aurobindo's yoga?
It should vary with each individual.
Could you make a step-by-step programme for me to follow daily?

The mechanical regularity of a fixed programme is indispensable for physical, mental and vital development; but this mechanical rigidity has little or no effect on spiritual development where the spontaneity of an absolute sincerity is indispensable. Sri Aurobindo has written very clearly on this subject. And what he has written on it has appeared in The Synthesis Of Yoga.
   However, as an initial help to set you on the path, I can tell you: (1) that on getting up, before starting the day, it is good to make an offering of this day to the Divine, an offering of all that one thinks, all that one is, all that one will do; (2) and at night, before going to sleep, it is good to review the day, taking note of all the times one has forgotten or neglected to make an offering of one's self or one's action, and to aspire or pray that these lapses do not recur. This is a minimum, a very small beginning - and it should increase with the sincerity of your consecration. 31 March 1965
   ~ The Mother, Some Answers From The Mother, [T1],
69:keep faith :::
We must have faith that always what is for the best happens. We may for the moment not consider it as the best because we are ignorant and also blind, because we do not see the consequences of things and what will happen later. But we must keep the faith that if it is like that, if we rely on the Divine, if we give Him the full charge of ourselves, if we let Him decide everything for us, well, we must know that it is always what is best for us that happens. This is an absolute fact. To the extent to which you surrender, the best happens to you. This may not be in conformity with what you would like, your preferences or desire, because these things are blind: it is the best from thespiritual point of view, the best for your progress, your development, your spiritual growth, your true life. It is always that. And you must keep this faith, because faith is the expression of a trust in the Divine and the full self-giving you make to the Divine. And when you make it, it is something absolutely marvellous. That's a fact, these are not just words, you understand, it is a fact. When you look back, all kinds of things which you did not understand when they happened to you, you realise as just the thing which was necessary in order to compel you to make the needed progress. Always, without exception. It is our blindness which prevents us from seeing it. ~ The Mother,
70:the fourth aid, time, kala :::
   The sadhaka who has all these aids is sure of his goal. Even a fall will be for him only a means of rising and death a passage towards fulfilment. For once on this path, birth and death become only processes in the development of his being and the stages of his journey.
   Time is the remaining aid needed for the effectivity of the process. Time presents itself to human effort as an enemy or a friend, as a resistance, a medium or an instrument. But always it is really the instrument of the soul.
   Time is a field of circumstances and forces meeting and working out a resultant progression whose course it measures. To the ego it is a tyrant or a resistance, to the Divine an instrument. Therefore, while our effort is personal, Time appears as a resistance, for it presents to us all the obstruction of the forces that conflict with our own. When the divine working and the personal are combined in our consciousness, it appears as a medium and a condition. When the two become one, it appears as a servant and instrument.
   The ideal attitude of the sadhaka towards Time is to have an endless patience as if he had all eternity for his fulfilment and yet to develop the energy that shall realise now and with an ever-increasing mastery and pressure of rapidity till it reaches the miraculous instantaneousness of the supreme divine Transformation.
   ~ Sri Aurobindo, The Synthesis Of Yoga, The Four Aids,
71:the first necessity; :::
   The first necessity is to dissolve that central faith and vision in the mind which concentrate it on its development and satisfaction and interests in the old externalised order of things. It is imperative to exchange this surface orientation for the deeper faith and vision which see only the Divine and seek only after the Divine. The next need is to compel all our lower being to pay homage to this new faith and greater vision. All our nature must make an integral surrender; it must offer itself in every part and every movement to that which seems to the unregenerated sensemind so much less real than the material world and its objects. Our whole being - soul, mind, sense, heart, will, life, body - must consecrate all its energies so entirely and in such a way that it shall become a fit vehicle for the Divine. This is no easy task; for everything in the world follows the fixed habit which is to it a law and resists a radical change. And no change can be more radical than the revolution attempted in the integral Yoga. Everything in us has constantly to be called back to the central faith and will and vision. Every thought and impulse has to be reminded in the language of the Upanishad that That is the divine Brahman and not this which men here adore. Every vital fibre has to be persuaded to accept an entire renunciation of all that hitherto represented to it its own existence.
   ~ Sri Aurobindo, The Synthesis Of Yoga, Self-Consecration, 72,
72:Supermind, on the other hand, as a basic structure-rung (conjoined with nondual Suchness) can only be experienced once all the previous junior levels have emerged and developed, and as in all structure development, stages cannot be skipped. Therefore, unlike Big Mind, supermind can only be experienced after all 1st-, 2nd-, and 3rd-tier junior stages have been passed through. While, as Genpo Roshi has abundantly demonstrated, Big Mind state experience is available to virtually anybody at almost any age (and will be interpreted according to the View of their current stage), supermind is an extremely rare recognition. Supermind, as the highest structure-rung to date, has access to all previous structures, all the way back to Archaic-and the Archaic itself, of course, has transcended and included, and now embraces, every major structural evolution going all the way back to the Big Bang. (A human being literally enfolds and embraces all the major transformative unfoldings of the entire Kosmic history-strings to quarks to subatomic particles to atoms to molecules to cells, all the way through the Tree of Life up to its latest evolutionary emergent, the triune brain, the most complex structure in the known natural world.) Supermind, in any given individual, is experienced as a type of omniscience-the supermind, since it transcends and includes all of the previous structure-rungs, and inherently is conjoined with the highest nondual Suchness state, has a full and complete knowledge of all of the potentials in that person. It literally knows all, at least for the individual.
   ~ Ken Wilber?,
73:Concentrating the Attention:
   Whatever you may want to do in life, one thing is absolutely indispensable and at the basis of everything, the capacity of concentrating the attention. If you are able to gather together the rays of attention and consciousness on one point and can maintain the concentration with a presistent will, nothing can resist it - whatever it may be, from the most material physical development to the highest spiritual one. But this discipline must be followed in a constant and, it may be said, imperturbable way; not that you should always be concentrated on the same thing - thats not what I mean, I mean learning to concentrate. And materially, for studies, sports, all physical or mental development, it is absolutely indispensble. And the value of an individual is proportionate to the value of his attention. And from the spiritual point of view it is still more important. There is no spiritual obstacle which can resist a penetrating power of concentration. For instance, the discovery of the psychic being, union with the inner Divine, opening to the higher spheres, all can be obtained by an intense and obstinate power of concentration - but one must learn how to do it. There is nothing in the human or even in the superhuman field, to which the power of concentration is not the key. You can be the best athlete, you can be the best student, you can be an artistic, literary or scientific genius, you can be the greatest saint with that faculty. And everyone has in himself a tiny little beginning of it - it is given to everybody, but people do not cultivate it.
   ~ The Mother, Questions And Answers 1957-1958,
74:the second aid, the need for effort and aspiration, utsaha :::
   The development of the experience in its rapidity, its amplitude, the intensity and power of its results, depends primarily, in the beginning of the path and long after, on the aspiration and personal effort of the sadhaka. The process of Yoga is a turning of the human soul from the egoistic state of consciousness absorbed in the outward appearances and attractions of things to a higher state in which the Transcendent and Universal can pour itself into the individiual mould and transform it. The first determining element in the siddhi is, therefore, the intensity of the turning, the force which directs the soul inward. The power of aspiration of the heart, the force of the will, the concentration of the mind, the perseverance and determination of the applied energy are the measure of that intensity. The ideal sadhaka should be able to say in the Biblical phrase, 'My zeal for the Lord has eaten me up.' It is this zeal for the Lord, -utsaha, the zeal of the whole nature for its divine results, vyakulata, the heart's eagerness for the attainment of the Divine, - that devours the ego and breaks up the petty limitations ...
   So long as the contact with the Divine is not in some considerable degree established, so long as there is not some measure of sustained identity, sayujya, the element of personal effort must normally predominate. But in proportion as this contact establishes itself, the sadhaka must become conscious that a force other than his own, a force transcending his egoistic endeavour and capacity, is at work in him and to this Power he learns progressively to submit himself and delivers up to it the charge of his Yoga.
   ~ Sri Aurobindo, The Synthesis Of Yoga, The Four Aids,
75:When, in last week's aphorism, Sri Aurobindo opposed - as one might say - "knowledge" to "Wisdom", he was speaking of knowledge as it is lived in the average human consciousness, the knowledge which is obtained through effort and mental development, whereas here, on the contrary, the knowledge he speaks of is the essential Knowledge, the supramental divine Knowledge, Knowledge by identity. And this is why he describes it here as "vast and eternal", which clearly indicates that it is not human knowledge as we normally understand it.
Many people have asked why Sri Aurobindo said that the river is "slender". This is an expressive image which creates a striking contrast between the immensity of the divine, supramental Knowledge - the origin of this inspiration, which is infinite - and what a human mind can perceive of it and receive from it.
Even when you are in contact with these domains, the portion, so to say, which you perceive, is minimal, slender. It is like a tiny little stream or a few falling drops and these drops are so pure, so brilliant, so complete in themselves, that they give you the sense of a marvellous inspiration, the impression that you have reached infinite domains and risen very high above the ordinary human condition. And yet this is nothing in comparison with what is still to be perceived.
I have also been asked if the psychic being or psychic consciousness is the medium through which the inspiration is perceived.
Generally, yes. The first contact you have with higher regions is a psychic one. Certainly, before an inner psychic opening is achieved, it is difficult to have these inspirations. It can happen as an exception and under exceptional conditions as a grace, but the true contact comes through the psychic; because the psychic consciousness is certainly the medium with the greatest affinity with the divine Truth. ~ The Mother, On Thoughts And Aphorisms,
76:Shastra is the knowledge and teaching laid down by intuition, experience and wisdom, the science and art and ethic of life, the best standards available to the race. The half-awakened man who leaves the observance of its rule to follow the guidance of his instincts and desires, can get pleasure but not happiness; for the inner happiness can only come by right living. He cannot move to perfection, cannot acquire the highest spiritual status. The law of instinct and desire seems to come first in the animal world, but the manhood of man grows by the pursuit of truth and religion and knowledge and a right life. The Shastra, the recognised Right that he has set up to govern his lower members by his reason and intelligent will, must therefore first be observed and made the authority for conduct and works and for what should or should not be done, till the instinctive desire nature is schooled and abated and put down by the habit of self-control and man is ready first for a freer intelligent self-guidance and then for the highest supreme law and supreme liberty of the spiritual nature.
   For the Shastra in its ordinary aspect is not that spiritual law, although at its loftiest point, when it becomes a science and art of spiritual living, Adhyatma-shastra, - the Gita itself describes its own teaching as the highest and most secret Shastra, - it formulates a rule of the self-transcendence of the sattwic nature and develops the discipline which leads to spiritual transmutation. Yet all Shastra is built on a number of preparatory conditions, dharmas; it is a means, not an end. The supreme end is the freedom of the spirit when abandoning all dharmas the soul turns to God for its sole law of action, acts straight from the divine will and lives in the freedom of the divine nature, not in the Law, but in the Spirit. This is the development of the teaching which is prepared by the next question of Arjuna. ~ Sri Aurobindo, Essays On The Gita,
77:The most outward psychological form of these things is the mould or trend of the nature towards certain dominant tendencies, capacities, characteristics, form of active power, quality of the mind and inner life, cultural personality or type. The turn is often towards the predominance of the intellectual element and the capacities which make for the seeking and finding of knowledge and an intellectual creation or formativeness and a preoccupation with ideas and the study of ideas or of life and the information and development of the reflective intelligence. According to the grade of the development there is produced successively the make and character of the man of active, open, inquiring intelligence, then the intellectual and, last, the thinker, sage, great mind of knowledge. The soul-powers which make their appearance by a considerable development of this temperament, personality, soul-type, are a mind of light more and more open to all ideas and knowledge and incomings of Truth; a hunger and passion for knowledge, for its growth in ourselves, for its communication to others, for its reign in the world, the reign of reason and right and truth and justice and, on a higher level of the harmony of our greater being, the reign of the spirit and its universal unity and light and love; a power of this light in the mind and will which makes all the life subject to reason and its right and truth or to the spirit and spiritual right and truth and subdues the lower members to their greater law; a poise in the temperament turned from the first to patience, steady musing and calm, to reflection, to meditation, which dominates and quiets the turmoil of the will and passions and makes for high thinking and pure living, founds the self-governed sattwic mind, grows into a more and more mild, lofty, impersonalised and universalised personality. This is the ideal character and soul-power of the Brahmana, the priest of knowledge. ~ Sri Aurobindo, The Synthesis Of Yoga, 4:15 - Soul-Force and the Fourfold Personality
78:middle vision logic or paradigmatic ::: (1:25) Cognition is described as middle-vision logic, or paradigmatic in that it is capable of co-ordinating the relations between systems of systems, unifying them into principled frameworks or paradigms. This is an operation on meta-systems and allows for the view described above, a view of human development itself. Self-sense at teal is called Autonomous or Strategist and is characterized by the emergent capacity to acknowledge and cope with inner conflicts in needs, ... and values. All of which are part of a multifacted and complex world. Teal sees our need for autonomy and autonomy itself as limited because emotional interdependence is inevitable. The contradictory aspects of self are weaved into an identity that is whole, integrated and commited to generating a fulfilling life.

Additionally, Teal allows individuals to link theory and practice, perceive dynamic systems interactions, recognize and strive for higher principles, understand the social construction of reality, handle paradox and complexity, create positive-sum games and seek feedback from others as a vital source for growth. Values embrace magnificence of existence, flexibility, spontaneioty, functionality, the integration of differences into interdependent systems and complimenting natural egalitarianism with natural ranking. Needs shift to self-actualization, and morality is in both terms of universal ethical principles and recognition of the developmental relativity of those universals. Teal is the first wave that is truly able to see the limitations of orange and green morality, it is able to uphold the paradox of universalism and relativism. Teal in its decision making process is able to see ... deep and surface features of morality and is able to take into consideration both those values when engaging in moral action. Currently Teal is quite rare, embraced by 2-5% of the north american and european population according to sociological research. ~ Essential Integral, L4.1-53, Middle Vision Logic,
79:This inner Guide is often veiled at first by the very intensity of our personal effort and by the ego's preoccupation with itself and its aims. As we gain in clarity and the turmoil of egoistic effort gives place to a calmer self-knowledge, we recognise the source of the growing light within us. We recognise it retrospectively as we realise how all our obscure and conflicting movements have been determined towards an end that we only now begin to perceive, how even before our entrance into the path of the Yoga the evolution of our life has been designedly led towards its turning point. For now we begin to understand the sense of our struggles and efforts, successes and failures. At last we are able to seize the meaning of our ordeals and sufferings and can appreciate the help that was given us by all that hurt and resisted and the utility of our very falls and stumblings. We recognise this divine leading afterwards, not retrospectively but immediately, in the moulding of our thoughts by a transcendent Seer, of our will and actions by an all-embracing Power, of our emotional life by an all-attracting and all-assimilating Bliss and Love. We recognise it too in a more personal relation that from the first touched us or at the last seizes us; we feel the eternal presence of a supreme Master, Friend, Lover, Teacher. We recognise it in the essence of our being as that develops into likeness and oneness with a greater and wider existence; for we perceive that this miraculous development is not the result of our own efforts; an eternal Perfection is moulding us into its own image. One who is the Lord or Ishwara of the Yogic philosophies, the Guide in the conscious being ( caitya guru or antaryamin ), the Absolute of the thinker, the Unknowable of the Agnostic, the universal Force of the materialist, the supreme Soul and the supreme Shakti, the One who is differently named and imaged by the religions, is the Master of our Yoga.
   ~ Sri Aurobindo, The Synthesis Of Yoga, The Four Aids, 62 [T1],
80:indifference to things of the body :::
   This detachment of the mind must be strengthened by a certain attitude of indifference to the things of the body; we must not care essentially about its sleep or its waking, its movement or its rest, its pain or its pleasure, its health or ill-health, its vigour or its fatigue, its comfort or its discomfort, or what it eats or drinks. This does not mean that we shall not keep the body in right order so far as we can; we have not to fall into violent asceticisms or a positive neglect of the physical frame. But we have not either to be affected in mind by hunger or thirst or discomfort or ill-health or attach the importance which the physical and vital man attaches to the things of the body, or indeed any but a quite subordinate and purely instrumental importance. Nor must this instrumental importance be allowed to assume the proportions of a necessity; we must not for instance imagine that the purity of the mind depends on the things we eat or drink, although during a certain stage restrictions in eating and drinking are useful to our inner progress; nor on the other hand must we continue to think that the dependence of the mind or even of the life on food and drink is anything more than a habit, a customary relation which Nature has set up between these principles. As a matter of fact the food we take can be reduced by contrary habit and new relation to a minimum without the mental or vital vigour being in any way reduced; even on the contrary with a judicious development they can be trained to a greater potentiality of vigour by learning to rely on the secret fountains of mental and vital energy with which they are connected more than upon the minor aid of physical aliments. This aspect of self-discipline is however more important in the Yoga of self-perfection than here; for our present purpose the important point is the renunciation by the mind of attachment to or dependence on the things of the body.
   ~ Sri Aurobindo, The Synthesis Of Yoga, The Release from Subjection to the Body,
81:the spiritual force behind adoration :::
   All love, indeed, that is adoration has a spiritual force behind it, and even when it is offered ignorantly and to a limited object, something of that splendor appears through the poverty of the rite and the smallness of its issues. For love that is worship is at once an aspiration and a preparation: it can bring even within its small limits in the Ignorance a glimpse of a still more or less blind and partial but surprising realisation; for there are moments when it is not we but the One who loves and is loved in us, and even a human passion can be uplifted and glorified by a slight glimpse of this infinite Love and Lover. It is for this reason that the worship of the god, the worship of the idol, the human magnet or ideal are not to be despised; for these are steps through which the human race moves towards that blissful passion and ecstasy of the Infinite which, even in limiting it, they yet represent for our imperfect vision when we have still to use the inferior steps Nature has hewn for our feet and admit the stages of our progress. Certain idolatries are indispensable for the development of our emotional being, nor will the man who knows be hasty at any time to shatter this image unless he can replace it in the heart of the worshipper by the Reality it figures. Moreover, they have this power because there is always something in them that is greater than their forms and, even when we reach the supreme worship, that abides and becomes a prolongation of it or a part of its catholic wholeness. our knowledge is still imperfect in us, love incomplete if even when we know That which surpasses all forms and manifestations, we cannot still accept the Divine in creature and object, in man, in the kind, in the animal, in the tree, in the flower, in the work of our hands, in the Nature-Force which is then no longer to us the blind action of a material machinery but a face and power of the universal Shakti: for in these things too is the presence of the Eternal.
   ~ Sri Aurobindo, The Synthesis Of Yoga, Ascent of the Sacrifice - 2, The Works of Love - The Works of Life, 159,
82:It is not very easy for the customary mind of man, always attached to its past and present associations, to conceive of an existence still human, yet radically changed in what are now our fixed circumstances.We are in respect to our possible higher evolution much in the position of the original Ape of the Darwinian theory. It would have been impossible for that Ape leading his instinctive arboreal life in primeval forests to conceive that there would be one day an animal on the earth who would use a new faculty called reason upon the materials of his inner and outer existence, who would dominate by that power his instincts and habits, change the circumstances of his physical life, build for himself houses of stone, manipulate Nature's forces, sail the seas, ride the air, develop codes of conduct, evolve conscious methods for his mental and spiritual development. And if such a conception had been possible for the Ape-mind, it would still have been difficult for him to imagine that by any progress of Nature or long effort of Will and tendency he himself could develop into that animal. Man, because he has acquired reason and still more because he has indulged his power of imagination and intuition, is able to conceive an existence higher than his own and even to envisage his personal elevation beyond his present state into that existence. His idea of the supreme state is an absolute of all that is positive to his own concepts and desirable to his own instinctive aspiration,-Knowledge without its negative shadow of error, Bliss without its negation in experience of suffering, Power without its constant denial by incapacity, purity and plenitude of being without the opposing sense of defect and limitation. It is so that he conceives his gods; it is so that he constructs his heavens. But it is not so that his reason conceives of a possible earth and a possible humanity. His dream of God and Heaven is really a dream of his own perfection; but he finds the same difficulty in accepting its practical realisation here for his ultimate aim as would the ancestral Ape if called upon to believe in himself as the future Man. ~ Sri Aurobindo, The Life Divine, Ego and the Dualities,
83:But usually the representative influence occupies a much larger place in the life of the sadhaka. If the Yoga is guided by a received written Shastra, - some Word from the past which embodies the experience of former Yogins, - it may be practised either by personal effort alone or with the aid of a Guru. The spiritual knowledge is then gained through meditation on the truths that are taught and it is made living and conscious by their realisation in the personal experience; the Yoga proceeds by the results of prescribed methods taught in a Scripture or a tradition and reinforced and illumined by the instructions of the Master. This is a narrower practice, but safe and effective within its limits, because it follows a well-beaten track to a long familiar goal.

For the sadhaka of the integral Yoga it is necessary to remember that no written Shastra, however great its authority or however large its spirit, can be more than a partial expression of the eternal Knowledge. He will use, but never bind himself even by the greatest Scripture. Where the Scripture is profound, wide, catholic, it may exercise upon him an influence for the highest good and of incalculable importance. It may be associated in his experience with his awakening to crowning verities and his realisation of the highest experiences. His Yoga may be governed for a long time by one Scripture or by several successively, - if it is in the line of the great Hindu tradition, by the Gita, for example, the Upanishads, the Veda. Or it may be a good part of his development to include in its material a richly varied experience of the truths of many Scriptures and make the future opulent with all that is best in the past. But in the end he must take his station, or better still, if he can, always and from the beginning he must live in his own soul beyond the limitations of the word that he uses. The Gita itself thus declares that the Yogin in his progress must pass beyond the written Truth, - sabdabrahmativartate - beyond all that he has heard and all that he has yet to hear, - srotavyasya srutasya ca. For he is not the sadhaka of a book or of many books; he is a sadhaka of the Infinite. ~ Sri Aurobindo, The Synthesis Of Yoga, The Four Aids,
84:This is the real sense and drive of what we see as evolution: the multiplication and variation of forms is only the means of its process. Each gradation contains the possibility and the certainty of the grades beyond it: the emergence of more and more developed forms and powers points to more perfected forms and greater powers beyond them, and each emergence of consciousness and the conscious beings proper to it enables the rise to a greater consciousness beyond and the greater order of beings up to the ultimate godheads of which Nature is striving and is destined to show herself capable. Matter developed its organised forms until it became capable of embodying living organisms; then life rose from the subconscience of the plant into conscious animal formations and through them to the thinking life of man. Mind founded in life developed intellect, developed its types of knowledge and ignorance, truth and error till it reached the spiritual perception and illumination and now can see as in a glass dimly the possibility of supermind and a truthconscious existence. In this inevitable ascent the mind of Light is a gradation, an inevitable stage. As an evolving principle it will mark a stage in the human ascent and evolve a new type of human being; this development must carry in it an ascending gradation of its own powers and types of an ascending humanity which will embody more and more the turn towards spirituality, capacity for Light, a climb towards a divinised manhood and the divine life.
   In the birth of the mind of Light and its ascension into its own recognisable self and its true status and right province there must be, in the very nature of things as they are and very nature of the evolutionary process as it is at present, two stages. In the first, we can see the mind of Light gathering itself out of the Ignorance, assembling its constituent elements, building up its shapes and types, however imperfect at first, and pushing them towards perfection till it can cross the border of the Ignorance and appear in the Light, in its own Light. In the second stage we can see it developing itself in that greater natural light, taking its higher shapes and forms till it joins the supermind and lives as its subordinate portion or its delegate.
   ~ Sri Aurobindo, Essays In Philosophy And Yoga, Mind of Light, 587,
85:There is one point in particular I would like to single out and stress, namely, the notion of evolution. It is common to assume that one of the doctrines of the perennial philosophy... is the idea of involution-evolution. That is, the manifest world was created as a "fall" or "breaking away" from the Absolute (involution), but that all things are now returning to the Absolute (via evolution). In fact, the doctrine of progressive temporal return to Source (evolution) does not appear anywhere, according to scholars as Joseph Campbell, until the axial period (i.e. a mere two thousand years ago). And even then, the idea was somewhat convoluted and backwards. The doctrine of the yugas, for example, sees the world as proceeding through various stages of development, but the direction is backward: yesterday was the Golden Age, and time ever since has been a devolutionary slide downhill, resulting in the present-day Kali-Yuga. Indeed, this notion of a historical fall from Eden was ubiquitous during the axial period; the idea that we are, at this moment, actually evolving toward Spirit was simply not conceived in any sort of influential fashion.

But sometime during the modern era-it is almost impossible to pinpoint exactly-the idea of history as devolution (or a fall from God) was slowly replaced by the idea of history as evolution (or a growth towards God). We see it explicitly in Schelling (1775-1854); Hegel (1770-1831) propounded the doctrine with a genius rarely equaled; Herbert Spencer (1820-1903) made evolution a universal law, and his friend Charles Darwin (1809-1882) applied it to biology. We find it next appearing in Aurobindo (1872-1950), who gave perhaps its most accurate and profound spiritual context, and Pierre Teilhard de Chardin (1881-1955) who made it famous in the West.

But here is my point: we might say that the idea of evolution as return-to-Spirit is part of the perennial philosophy, but the idea itself, in any adequate form, is no more than a few hundred years old. It might be 'ancient' as timeless, but it is certainly not ancient as "old."...

This fundamental shift in the sense or form of the perennial philosophy-as represented in, say, Aurobindo, Hegel, Adi Da, Schelling, Teilhard de Chardin, Radhakrishnan, to name a few-I should like to call the "neoperennial philosophy." ~ Ken Wilber, The Eye Of Spirit,
86:higher mind or late vision logic ::: Even more rare, found stably in less than 1% of the population and even more emergent is the turquoise altitude.

Cognition at Turquoise is called late vision-logic or cross-paradigmatic and features the ability to connect meta-systems or paradigms, with other meta-systems. This is the realm of coordinating principles. Which are unified systems of systems of abstraction to other principles. ... Aurobindo indian sage and philosopher offers a more first-person account of turquoise which he called higher-mind, a unitarian sense of being with a powerful multiple dynamism capable of formation of a multitude of aspects of knowledge, ways of action, forms and significances of becoming of all of which a spontaneous inherient knowledge.

Self-sense at turquoise is called Construct-aware and is the first stage of Cook-Greuter's extension of Loveigers work on ego-development. The Construct-aware stage sees individuals for the first time as exploring more and more complex thought-structures with awareness of the automatic nature of human map making and absurdities which unbridaled complexity and logical argumentation can lead. Individuals at this stage begin to see their ego as a central point of reference and therefore a limit to growth. They also struggle to balance unique self-expressions and their concurrent sense of importance, the imperical and intuitive knowledge that there is no fundamental subject-object separation and the budding awareness of self-identity as temporary which leads to a decreased ego-desire to create a stable self-identity. Turquoise individuals are keenly aware of the interplay between awareness, thought, action and effects. They seek personal and spiritual transformation and hold a complex matrix of self-identifications, the adequecy of which they increasingly call into question. Much of this already points to Turquoise values which embrace holistic and intuitive thinking and alignment to universal order in a conscious fashion.

Faith at Turquoise is called Universalising and can generate faith compositions in which conceptions of Ultimate Reality start to include all beings. Individuals at Turquoise faith dedicate themselves to transformation of present reality in the direction of transcendent actuality. Both of these are preludes to the coming of Third Tier. ~ Essential Integral, L4.1-54, Higher Mind,
87:The majority of Buddhists and Buddhist teachers in the West are green postmodern pluralists, and thus Buddhism is largely interpreted in terms of the green altitude and the pluralistic value set, whereas the greatest Buddhist texts are all 2nd tier, teal (Holistic) or higher (for example, Lankavatara Sutra, Kalachakra Tantra, Longchenpa's Kindly Bent to Ease Us, Nagarjuna's Madhyamaka treatises, and so forth).

This makes teal (Holistic), or Integral 2nd tier in general, the lowest deeply adequate level with which to interpret Buddhism, ultimate Reality, and Suchness itself. Thus, interpreting Suchness in pluralistic terms (or lower) would have to be viewed ultimately as a dysfunction, certainly a case of arrested development, and one requiring urgent attention in any Fourth Turning.

These are some of the problems with interpreting states (in this case, Suchness states) with a too-low structure (in short, a severe misinterpretation and thus misunderstanding of the Ultimate). As for interpreting them with dysfunctional structures (of any altitude), the problem more or less speaks for itself. Whether the structure in itself is high enough or not, any malformation of the structure will be included in the interpretation of any state (or any other experience), and hence will deform the interpretation itself, usually in the same basic ways as the structure itself is deformed. Thus, for example, if there is a major Fulcrum-3 (red altitude) repression of various bodily states (sex, aggression, power, feelings), those repressions will be interpreted as part of the higher state itself, and so the state will thus be viewed as devoid of (whereas this is actually a repression of) any sex, aggression, power, feelings, or whatever it is that is dis-owned and pushed into the repressed submergent unconscious. If there is an orange altitude problem with self-esteem (Fulcrum-5), that problem will be magnified by the state experience, and the more intense the state experience, the greater the magnification. Too little self-esteem, and even profound spiritual experiences can be interpreted as "I'm not worthy, so this state-which seems to love me unconditionally-must be confused." If too much self-esteem, higher experiences are misinterpreted, not as a transcendence of the self, but as a reward for being the amazing self I am-"the wonder of being me." ~ Ken Wilber, The Religion Of Tomorrow,
88:the three stages of the ascent :::
   There are three stages of the ascent, -at the bottom the bodily life enslaved to the pressure of necessity and desire, in the middle the mental, the higher emotional and psychic rule that feels after greater interests, aspirations, experiences, ideas, and at the summits first a deeper psychic and spiritual state and then a supramental eternal consciousness in which all our aspirations and seekings discover their own intimate significance.In the bodily life first desire and need and then the practical good of the individual and the society are the governing consideration, the dominant force. In the mental life ideas and ideals rule, ideas that are half-lights wearing the garb of Truth, ideals formed by the mind as a result of a growing but still imperfect intuition and experience. Whenever the mental life prevails and the bodily diminishes its brute insistence, man the mental being feels pushed by the urge of mental Nature to mould in the sense of the idea or the ideal the life of the individual, and in the end even the vaguer more complex life of the society is forced to undergo this subtle process.In the spiritual life, or when a higher power than Mind has manifested and taken possession of the nature, these limited motive-forces recede, dwindle, tend to disappear. The spiritual or supramental Self, the Divine Being, the supreme and immanent Reality, must be alone the Lord within us and shape freely our final development according to the highest, widest, most integral expression possible of the law of our nature. In the end that nature acts in the perfect Truth and its spontaneous freedom; for it obeys only the luminous power of the Eternal. The individual has nothing further to gain, no desire to fulfil; he has become a portion of the impersonality or the universal personality of the Eternal. No other object than the manifestation and play of the Divine Spirit in life and the maintenance and conduct of the world in its march towards the divine goal can move him to action. Mental ideas, opinions, constructions are his no more; for his mind has fallen into silence, it is only a channel for the Light and Truth of the divine knowledge. Ideals are too narrow for the vastness of his spirit; it is the ocean of the Infinite that flows through him and moves him for ever.
   ~ Sri Aurobindo, The Synthesis Of Yoga, The Supreme Will,
89:meta-systemic operations ::: As the 1950's and 60s begin to roll around the last stage of first tier emerged as a cultural force. With the Green Altitude we see the emergence of Pluralistic, Multicultural, Post-Modern world-views.

Cognition is starting to move beyond formal-operations into the realm of co-ordinating systems of abstractions, in what is called Meta-systemic Cognition. While formal-operations acted upon the classes and relations between members of classes. Meta-systemic operations start at the level of relating systems to systems. The focus of these investigations is placed upon comparing, contrasting, transforming and synthesizing entire systems, rather than components of one system. This emergent faculty allows self-sense to focus around a heightened sense of individuality and an increased ability for emotional resonance. The recognition of individual differences, the ability to tolerate paradox and contradiction, and greater conceptual complexity all provide for an understanding of conflict as being both internally and externally caused. Context plays a major role in the creation of truth and individual perspective. With each being context dependent and open to subjective interpretation, meaning each perspective and truth are rendered relative and are not able to be judged as better or more true than any other. This fuels a value set that centers on softness over cold rationality. Sensitivity and preference over objectivity.

Along with a focus on community harmony and equality which drives the valuing of sensitivity to others, reconcilation, consensus, dialogue, relationship, human development, bonding, and a seeking of a peace with the inner-self. Moral decisions are based on rights, values, or principles that are agreeable to all individuals composing a society based on fair and beneficial practices. All of this leads to the Equality movements and multiculturalism. And to the extreme form of relativitism which we saw earlier as context dependant nature of all truth including objective facts.

Faith at the green altitude is called Conjunctive, and allows the self to integrate what was unrecognized by the previous stages self-certainty and cognitive and affective adaptation to reality. New features at this level of faith include the unification of symbolic power with conceptual meaning, an awareness of ones social unconscious, a reworking of ones past, and an opening to ones deeper self. ~ Essential Integral, 4.1-52, Meta-systemic Operations,
90:Why do we forget things?

   Ah! I suppose there are several reasons. First, because one makes use of the memory to remember. Memory is a mental instrument and depends on the formation of the brain. Your brain is constantly growing, unless it begins to degenerate, but still its growth can continue for a very, very long time, much longer than that of the body. And in this growth, necessarily some things will take the place of others. And as the mental instrument develops, things which have served their term or the transitory moment in the development may be wiped out to give place to the result. So the result of all that you knew is there, living in itself, but the road traversed to reach it may be completely blurred. That is, a good functioning of the memory means remembering only the results so as to be able to have the elements for moving forward and a new construction. That is more important than just retaining things rigidly in the mind.
   Now, there is another aspect also. Apart from the mental memory, which is something defective, there are states of consciousness. Each state of consciousness in which one happens to be registers the phenomena of a particular moment, whatever they may be. If your consciousness remains limpid, wide and strong, you can at any moment whatsoever, by concentrating, call into the active consciousness what you did, thought, saw, observed at any time before; all this you can remember by bringing up in yourself the same state of consciousness. And that, that is never forgotten. You could live a thousand years and you would still remember it. Consequently, if you don't want to forget, it must be your consciousness which remembers and not your mental memory. Your mental memory will be wiped out inevitably, get blurred, and new things will take the place of the old ones. But things of which you are conscious you do not forget. You have only to bring up the same state of consciousness again. And thus one can remember circumstances one has lived thousands of years ago, if one knows how to bring up the same state of consciousness. It is in this way that one can remember one's past lives. This never gets blotted out, while you don't have any more the memory of what you have done physically when you were very young. You would be told many things you no longer remember. That gets wiped off immediately. For the brain is constantly changing and certain weaker cells are replaced by others which are much stronger, and by other combinations, other cerebral organisations. And so, what was there before is effaced or deformed.
   ~ The Mother, Questions And Answers 1954,
91:... one of the major personality traits was neuroticism, the tendency to feel negative emotion. He [Jung] never formalized that idea in his thinking. Its a great oversight in some sense because the capacity to experience negative emotion, when thats exaggerated that seems to be the core feature of everything we that we regard as psychopathology. Psychiatric and psychological illness. Not the only thing but its the primary factor. So.

Q: What is the best way to avoid falling back into nihilistic behaviours and thinking?
JBP:Well, a large part of that I would say is habit. The development and maintainance of good practices. Habits. If you find yourself desolute, neurotic, if your thought tends in the nihilistic direction and you tend to fall apart, organizing your life across multiple dimensions is a good antidote its not exactly thinking.
Do you have an intimate relationship? If not then well probably you could use one.
Do you have contact with close family members, siblings, children, parents, or even people who are more distantly related. If not, you probably need that.
Do you see your friends a couple of times a week? And do something social with them?
Do you have a way of productively using your time outside of employment?
Are you employed?
Do you have a good job? Or at least a job that is practically sufficient and enables you to work with people who you like working with? Even if the job itself is mundane or repetitive or difficult sometimes the relationships you establish in an employment situation like that can make the job worthwhile.
Have you regulated your response to temptations? Pornography, alcohol abuse, drug abuse, is that under control?

I would say differentiate the problem. Theres multiple dimensions of attainment, ambition, pleasure, responsibility all of that that make up a life, and to the degree that is it possible you want to optimize your functioning on as many of those dimensions as possible.
You might also organize your schedule to the degree that you have that capacity for discipline.
Do you get enough sleep?
Do you go to bed at a regular time?
Do you get up at a regular time?
Do you eat regularly and appropriately and enought and not too much?
Are your days and your weeks and your months characterized by some tolerable, repeatable structure? That helps you meet your responsibilities but also shields you from uncertainly and chaos and provides you with multiple sources of reward?
Those are all the questions decompose the problem into, the best way of avoiding falling into nihilistic behaviours and thinking. ~ Jordan B. Peterson, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Q-geMoCsNAw,
92:
   Sweet Mother, can the psychic express itself without the mind, the vital and the physical?

It expresses itself constantly without them. Only, in order that the ordinary human being may perceive it, it has to express itself through them, because the ordinary human being is not in direct contact with the psychic. If it was in direct contact with the psychic it would be psychic in its manifestation - and all would be truly well. But as it is not in contact with the psychic it doesn't even know what it is, it wonders all bewildered what kind of a being it can be; so to reach this ordinary human consciousness it must use ordinary means, that is, go through the mind, the vital and the physical.

One of them may be skipped but surely not the last, otherwise one is no longer conscious of anything at all. The ordinary human being is conscious only in his physical being, and only in relatively rare moments is he conscious of his mind, just a little more frequently of his vital, but all this is mixed up in his consciousness, so much so that he would be quite unable to say "This movement comes from the mind, this from the vital, this from the physical." This already asks for a considerable development in order to be able to distinguish within oneself the source of the different movements one has. And it is so mixed that even when one tries, at the beginning it is very difficult to classify and separate one thing from another.

It is as when one works with colours, takes three or four or five different colours and puts them in the same water and beats them up together, it makes a grey, indistinct and incomprehensi- ble mixture, you see, and one can't say which is red, which blue, which green, which yellow; it is something dirty, lots of colours mixed. So first of all one must do this little work of separating the red, blue, yellow, green - putting them like this, each in its corner. It is not at all easy.

I have met people who used to think themselves extremely intelligent, by the way, who thought they knew a lot, and when I spoke to them about the different parts of the being they looked at me like this (gesture) and asked me, "But what are you speaking about?" They did not understand at all. I am speaking of people who have the reputation of being intelligent. They don't understand at all. For them it is just the consciousness; it is the consciousness-"It is my consciousness" and then there is the neighbour's consciousness; and again there are things which do not have any consciousness. And then I asked them whether animals had a consciousness; so they began to scratch their heads and said, "Perhaps it is we who put our consciousness in the animal when we look at it," like that...
   ~ The Mother, Questions And Answers 1955,
93:At it's narrowest (although this is a common and perhaps the official position; need to find ref in What is Enlightenment) "integral", "turquois" (Spiral Dynamics), and "second tier" (ditto) are all synonms, and in turn are equivalent to Wilber IV / AQAL/Wilber V "Post-metaphysical" AQAL. This is the position that "Integral = Ken Wilber". It constitutes a new philosophical school or meme-set, in the tradition of charismatic spiritual teachers of all ages, in which an articulate, brilliant, and popular figure would arise, and gather a following around him- or her-self. After the teacher passes on, their teaching remains through books and organisations dedicated to perpetuating that teaching; although without the brilliant light of the Founder, things generally become pretty stultifying, and there is often little or no original development. Even so, the books themselves continue to inspire, and many people benefit greatly from these tecahings, and can contact the original Light of the founders to be inspired by them on the subtle planes. Some late 19th, 20th, and early 21st century examples of such teachers, known and less well-known, are Blavatsky, Theon, Steiner, Aurobindo, Gurdjieff, Crowley, Alice Bailey, Carl Jung, Ann Ree Colton, and now Ken Wilber. Also, many popular gurus belong in this category. It could plausibly be suggested that the founders of the great world religions started out no different, but their teaching really caught on n a big way.

...

At its broadest then, the Integral Community includes not only Wilber but those he cites as his influences and hold universal and evolutionary views or teachings, as well as those who, while influenced by him also differ somewhat, and even those like Arthur M Young that Wilber has apparently never heard of. Nevertheless, all share a common, evolutionary, "theory of everything" position, and, whilst they may differ on many details and even on many major points, taken together they could be considered a wave front for a new paradigm, a memetic revolution. I use the term Daimon of the Integral Movement to refer to the spiritual being or personality of light that is behind and working through this broader movement.

Now, this doesn't mean that this daimon is necessarily a negative entity. I see a lot of promise, a lot of potential, in the Integral Approach. From what I feel at the moment, the Integral Deva is a force and power of good.

But, as with any new spiritual or evolutionary development, there is duality, in that there are forces that hinder and oppose and distort, as well as forces that help and aid in the evolution and ultimate divinisation of the Earth and the cosmos. Thus even where a guru does give in the dark side (as very often happens with many gurus today) there still remains an element of Mixed Light that remains (one finds this ambiguity with Sai Baba, with Da Free John, and with Rajneesh); and we find this same ambiguity with the Integral Community regarding what seems to me a certain offputting devotional attitude towards Wilber himself. The light will find its way, regardless. However, an Intregral Movement that is caught up in worship of and obedience to an authority figure, will not be able to achieve what a movement unfettered by such shackles could. ~ M Alan Kazlev, Kheper, Wilber, Integral,
94:If this is the truth of works, the first thing the sadhaka has to do is to recoil from the egoistic forms of activity and get rid of the sense of an "I" that acts. He has to see and feel that everything happens in him by the plastic conscious or subconscious or sometimes superconscious automatism of his mental and bodily instruments moved by the forces of spiritual, mental, vital and physical Nature. There is a personality on his surface that chooses and wills, submits and struggles, tries to make good in Nature or prevail over Nature, but this personality is itself a construction of Nature and so dominated, driven, determined by her that it cannot be free. It is a formation or expression of the Self in her, - it is a self of Nature rather than a self of Self, his natural and processive, not his spiritual and permanent being, a temporary constructed personality, not the true immortal Person. It is that Person that he must become. He must succeed in being inwardly quiescent, detach himself as the observer from the outer active personality and learn the play of the cosmic forces in him by standing back from all blinding absorption in its turns and movements. Thus calm, detached, a student of himself and a witness of his nature, he realises that he is the individual soul who observes the works of Nature, accepts tranquilly her results and sanctions or withholds his sanction from the impulse to her acts. At present this soul or Purusha is little more than an acquiescent spectator, influencing perhaps the action and development of the being by the pressure of its veiled consciousness, but for the most part delegating its powers or a fragment of them to the outer personality, - in fact to Nature, for this outer self is not lord but subject to her, anı̄sa; but, once unveiled, it can make its sanction or refusal effective, become the master of the action, dictate sovereignly a change of Nature. Even if for a long time, as the result of fixed association and past storage of energy, the habitual movement takes place independent of the Purusha's assent and even if the sanctioned movement is persistently refused by Nature for want of past habit, still he will discover that in the end his assent or refusal prevails, - slowly with much resistance or quickly with a rapid accommodation of her means and tendencies she modifies herself and her workings in the direction indicated by his inner sight or volition. Thus he learns in place of mental control or egoistic will an inner spiritual control which makes him master of the Nature-forces that work in him and not their unconscious instrument or mechanic slave. Above and around him is the Shakti, the universal Mother and from her he can get all his inmost soul needs and wills if only he has a true knowledge of her ways and a true surrender to the divine Will in her. Finally, he becomes aware of that highest dynamic Self within him and within Nature which is the source of all his seeing and knowing, the source of the sanction, the source of the acceptance, the source of the rejection. This is the Lord, the Supreme, the One-in-all, Ishwara-Shakti, of whom his soul is a portion, a being of that Being and a power of that Power. The rest of our progress depends on our knowledge of the ways in which the Lord of works manifests his Will in the world and in us and executes them through the transcendent and universal Shakti. ~ Sri Aurobindo, The Synthesis Of Yoga, The Supreme Will, 216,
95:In our world error is continually the handmaid and pathfinder of Truth; for error is really a half-truth that stumbles because of its limitations; often it is Truth that wears a disguise in order to arrive unobserved near to its goal. Well, if it could always be, as it has been in the great period we are leaving, the faithful handmaid, severe, conscientious, clean-handed, luminous within its limits, a half-truth and not a reckless and presumptuous aberration.
   A certain kind of Agnosticism is the final truth of all knowledge. For when we come to the end of whatever path, the universe appears as only a symbol or an appearance of an unknowable Reality which translates itself here into different systems of values, physical values, vital and sensational values, intellectual, ideal and spiritual values. The more That becomes real to us, the more it is seen to be always beyond defining thought and beyond formulating expression. "Mind attains not there, nor speech."3 And yet as it is possible to exaggerate, with the Illusionists, the unreality of the appearance, so it is possible to exaggerate the unknowableness of the Unknowable. When we speak of It as unknowable, we mean, really, that It escapes the grasp of our thought and speech, instruments which proceed always by the sense of difference and express by the way of definition; but if not knowable by thought, It is attainable by a supreme effort of consciousness. There is even a kind of Knowledge which is one with Identity and by which, in a sense, It can be known. Certainly, that Knowledge cannot be reproduced successfully in the terms of thought and speech, but when we have attained to it, the result is a revaluation of That in the symbols of our cosmic consciousness, not only in one but in all the ranges of symbols, which results in a revolution of our internal being and, through the internal, of our external life. Moreover, there is also a kind of Knowledge through which That does reveal itself by all these names and forms of phenomenal existence which to the ordinary intelligence only conceal It. It is this higher but not highest process of Knowledge to which we can attain by passing the limits of the materialistic formula and scrutinising Life, Mind and Supermind in the phenomena that are characteristic of them and not merely in those subordinate movements by which they link themselves to Matter.
   The Unknown is not the Unknowable; it need not remain the unknown for us, unless we choose ignorance or persist in our first limitations. For to all things that are not unknowable, all things in the universe, there correspond in that universe faculties which can take cognisance of them, and in man, the microcosm, these faculties are always existent and at a certain stage capable of development. We may choose not to develop them; where they are partially developed, we may discourage and impose on them a kind of atrophy. But, fundamentally, all possible knowledge is knowledge within the power of humanity. And since in man there is the inalienable impulse of Nature towards self-realisation, no struggle of the intellect to limit the action of our capacities within a determined area can for ever prevail. When we have proved Matter and realised its secret capacities, the very knowledge which has found its convenience in that temporary limitation, must cry to us, like the Vedic Restrainers, 'Forth now and push forward also in other fields.'
   ~ Sri Aurobindo, The Life Divine,
96:DHARANA

NOW that we have learnt to observe the mind, so that we know how it works to some extent, and have begun to understand the elements of control, we may try the result of gathering together all the powers of the mind, and attempting to focus them on a single point.

   We know that it is fairly easy for the ordinary educated mind to think without much distraction on a subject in which it is much interested. We have the popular phrase, "revolving a thing in the mind"; and as long as the subject is sufficiently complex, as long as thoughts pass freely, there is no great difficulty. So long as a gyroscope is in motion, it remains motionless relatively to its support, and even resists attempts to distract it; when it stops it falls from that position. If the earth ceased to spin round the sun, it would at once fall into the sun. The moment then that the student takes a simple subject - or rather a simple object - and imagines it or visualizes it, he will find that it is not so much his creature as he supposed. Other thoughts will invade the mind, so that the object is altogether forgotten, perhaps for whole minutes at a time; and at other times the object itself will begin to play all sorts of tricks.

   Suppose you have chosen a white cross. It will move its bar up and down, elongate the bar, turn the bar oblique, get its arms unequal, turn upside down, grow branches, get a crack around it or a figure upon it, change its shape altogether like an Amoeba, change its size and distance as a whole, change the degree of its illumination, and at the same time change its colour. It will get splotchy and blotchy, grow patterns, rise, fall, twist and turn; clouds will pass over its face. There is no conceivable change of which it is incapable. Not to mention its total disappearance, and replacement by something altogether different!

   Any one to whom this experience does not occur need not imagine that he is meditating. It shows merely that he is incapable of concentrating his mind in the very smallest degree. Perhaps a student may go for several days before discovering that he is not meditating. When he does, the obstinacy of the object will infuriate him; and it is only now that his real troubles will begin, only now that Will comes really into play, only now that his manhood is tested. If it were not for the Will-development which he got in the conquest of Asana, he would probably give up. As it is, the mere physical agony which he underwent is the veriest trifle compared with the horrible tedium of Dharana.

   For the first week it may seem rather amusing, and you may even imagine you are progressing; but as the practice teaches you what you are doing, you will apparently get worse and worse. Please understand that in doing this practice you are supposed to be seated in Asana, and to have note-book and pencil by your side, and a watch in front of you. You are not to practise at first for more than ten minutes at a time, so as to avoid risk of overtiring the brain. In fact you will probably find that the whole of your willpower is not equal to keeping to a subject at all for so long as three minutes, or even apparently concentrating on it for so long as three seconds, or three-fifths of one second. By "keeping to it at all" is meant the mere attempt to keep to it. The mind becomes so fatigued, and the object so incredibly loathsome, that it is useless to continue for the time being. In Frater P.'s record we find that after daily practice for six months, meditations of four minutes and less are still being recorded.

   ~ Aleister Crowley, Liber ABA,
97:Although a devout student of the Bible, Paracelsus instinctively adopted the broad patterns of essential learning, as these had been clarified by Pythagoras of Samos and Plato of Athens. Being by nature a mystic as well as a scientist, he also revealed a deep regard for the Neoplatonic philosophy as expounded by Plotinus, Iamblichus, and Proclus. Neo­platonism is therefore an invaluable aid to the interpretation of the Paracelsian doctrine.
   Paracelsus held that true knowledge is attained in two ways, or rather that the pursuit of knowledge is advanced by a two-fold method, the elements of which are completely interdependent. In our present terminology, we can say that these two parts of method are intuition and experience. To Paracelsus, these could never be divided from each other.
   The purpose of intuition is to reveal certain basic ideas which must then be tested and proven by experience. Experience, in turn, not only justifies intuition, but contributes certain additional knowledge by which the impulse to further growth is strengthened and developed. Paracelsus regarded the separation of intuition and experience to be a disaster, leading inevitably to greater error and further disaster. Intuition without experience allows the mind to fall into an abyss of speculation without adequate censorship by practical means. Experience without intuition could never be fruitful because fruitfulness comes not merely from the doing of things, but from the overtones which stimulate creative thought. Further, experience is meaningless unless there is within man the power capable of evaluating happenings and occurrences. The absence of this evaluating factor allows the individual to pass through many kinds of experiences, either misinterpreting them or not inter­ preting them at all. So Paracelsus attempted to explain intuition and how man is able to apprehend that which is not obvious or apparent. Is it possible to prove beyond doubt that the human being is capable of an inward realization of truths or facts without the assistance of the so-called rational faculty?
   According to Paracelsus, intuition was possible because of the existence in nature of a mysterious substance or essence-a universal life force. He gave this many names, but for our purposes, the simplest term will be appropriate. He compared it to light, further reasoning that there are two kinds of light: a visible radiance, which he called brightness, and an invisible radiance, which he called darkness. There is no essential difference between light and darkness. There is a dark light, which appears luminous to the soul but cannot be sensed by the body. There is a visible radiance which seems bright to the senses, but may appear dark to the soul. We must recognize that Paracelsus considered light as pertaining to the nature of being, the total existence from which all separate existences arise. Light not only contains the energy needed to support visible creatures, and the whole broad expanse of creation, but the invisible part of light supports the secret powers and functions of man, particularly intuition. Intuition, therefore, relates to the capacity of the individual to become attuned to the hidden side of life. By light, then, Paracelsus implies much more than the radiance that comes from the sun, a lantern, or a candle. To him, light is the perfect symbol, emblem, or figure of total well-being. Light is the cause of health. Invisible light, no less real if unseen, is the cause of wisdom. As the light of the body gives strength and energy, sustaining growth and development, so the light of the soul bestows understanding, the light of the mind makes wisdom possible, and the light of the spirit confers truth. Therefore, truth, wisdom, understanding, and health are all manifesta­ tions or revelations ot one virtue or power. What health is to the body, morality is to the emotions, virtue to the soul, wisdom to the mind, and reality to the spirit. This total content of living values is contained in every ray of visible light. This ray is only a manifestation upon one level or plane of the total mystery of life. Therefore, when we look at a thing, we either see its objective, physical form, or we apprehend its inner light Everything that lives, lives in light; everything that has an existence, radiates light. All things derive their life from light, and this light, in its root, is life itself. This, indeed, is the light that lighteth every man who cometh into the world. ~ Manly P Hall, Paracelsus,
98:To what gods shall the sacrifice be offered? Who shall be invoked to manifest and protect in the human being this increasing godhead?

Agni first, for without him the sacrificial flame cannot burn on the altar of the soul. That flame of Agni is the seven-tongued power of the Will, a Force of God instinct with Knowledge. This conscious and forceful will is the immortal guest in our mortality, a pure priest and a divine worker, the mediator between earth and heaven. It carries what we offer to the higher Powers and brings back in return their force and light and joy into our humanity.

Indra, the Puissant next, who is the power of pure Existence self-manifested as the Divine Mind. As Agni is one pole of Force instinct with knowledge that sends its current upward from earth to heaven, so Indra is the other pole of Light instinct with force which descends from heaven to earth. He comes down into our world as the Hero with the shining horses and slays darkness and division with his lightnings, pours down the life-giving heavenly waters, finds in the trace of the hound, Intuition, the lost or hidden illuminations, makes the Sun of Truth mount high in the heaven of our mentality.

Surya, the Sun, is the master of that supreme Truth, - truth of being, truth of knowledge, truth of process and act and movement and functioning. He is therefore the creator or rather the manifester of all things - for creation is out-bringing, expression by the Truth and Will - and the father, fosterer, enlightener of our souls. The illuminations we seek are the herds of this Sun who comes to us in the track of the divine Dawn and releases and reveals in us night-hidden world after world up to the highest Beatitude.

Of that beatitude Soma is the representative deity. The wine of his ecstasy is concealed in the growths of earth, in the waters of existence; even here in our physical being are his immortalising juices and they have to be pressed out and offered to all the gods; for in that strength these shall increase and conquer.

Each of these primary deities has others associated with him who fulfil functions that arise from his own. For if the truth of Surya is to be established firmly in our mortal nature, there are previous conditions that are indispensable; a vast purity and clear wideness destructive of all sin and crooked falsehood, - and this is Varuna; a luminous power of love and comprehension leading and forming into harmony all our thoughts, acts and impulses, - this is Mitra; an immortal puissance of clear-discerning aspiration and endeavour, - this is Aryaman; a happy spontaneity of the right enjoyment of all things dispelling the evil dream of sin and error and suffering, - this is Bhaga. These four are powers of the Truth of Surya. For the whole bliss of Soma to be established perfectly in our nature a happy and enlightened and unmaimed condition of mind, vitality and body are necessary. This condition is given to us by the twin Ashwins; wedded to the daughter of Light, drinkers of honey, bringers of perfect satisfactions, healers of maim and malady they occupy our parts of knowledge and parts of action and prepare our mental, vital and physical being for an easy and victorious ascension.

Indra, the Divine Mind, as the shaper of mental forms has for his assistants, his artisans, the Ribhus, human powers who by the work of sacrifice and their brilliant ascension to the high dwelling-place of the Sun have attained to immortality and help mankind to repeat their achievement. They shape by the mind Indra's horses, the chariot of the Ashwins, the weapons of the Gods, all the means of the journey and the battle. But as giver of the Light of Truth and as Vritra-slayer Indra is aided by the Maruts, who are powers of will and nervous or vital Force that have attained to the light of thought and the voice of self-expression. They are behind all thought and speech as its impellers and they battle towards the Light, Truth and Bliss of the supreme Consciousness.

There are also female energies; for the Deva is both Male and Female and the gods also are either activising souls or passively executive and methodising energies. Aditi, infinite Mother of the Gods, comes first; and there are besides five powers of the Truthconsciousness, - Mahi or Bharati, the vast Word that brings us all things out of the divine source; Ila, the strong primal word of the Truth who gives us its active vision; Saraswati, its streaming current and the word of its inspiration; Sarama, the Intuition, hound of heaven who descends into the cavern of the subconscient and finds there the concealed illuminations; Dakshina, whose function is to discern rightly, dispose the action and the offering and distribute in the sacrifice to each godhead its portion. Each god, too, has his female energy.

All this action and struggle and ascension is supported by Heaven our Father and Earth our Mother Parents of the Gods, who sustain respectively the purely mental and psychic and the physical consciousness. Their large and free scope is the condition of our achievement. Vayu, master of life, links them together by the mid-air, the region of vital force. And there are other deities, - Parjanya, giver of the rain of heaven; Dadhikravan, the divine war-horse, a power of Agni; the mystic Dragon of the Foundations; Trita Aptya who on the third plane of existence consummates our triple being; and more besides.

The development of all these godheads is necessary to our perfection. And that perfection must be attained on all our levels, - in the wideness of earth, our physical being and consciousness; in the full force of vital speed and action and enjoyment and nervous vibration, typified as the Horse which must be brought forward to upbear our endeavour; in the perfect gladness of the heart of emotion and a brilliant heat and clarity of the mind throughout our intellectual and psychical being; in the coming of the supramental Light, the Dawn and the Sun and the shining Mother of the herds, to transform all our existence; for so comes to us the possession of the Truth, by the Truth the admirable surge of the Bliss, in the Bliss infinite Consciousness of absolute being. ~ Sri Aurobindo, Hymns to the Mystic Fire, The Doctrine of the Mystics,
99:Intuition And The Value Of Concentration :::
   Mother, how can the faculty of intuition be developed?

   ... There are different kinds of intuition, and we carry these capacities within us. They are always active to some extent but we don't notice them because we don't pay enough attention to what is going on in us. Behind the emotions, deep within the being, in a consciousness seated somewhere near the level of the solar plexus, there is a sort of prescience, a kind of capacity for foresight, but not in the form of ideas: rather in the form of feelings, almost a perception of sensations. For instance, when one is going to decide to do something, there is sometimes a kind of uneasiness or inner refusal, and usually, if one listens to this deeper indication, one realises that it was justified. In other cases there is something that urges, indicates, insists - I am not speaking of impulses, you understand, of all the movements which come from the vital and much lower still - indications which are behind the feelings, which come from the affective part of the being; there too one can receive a fairly sure indication of the thing to be done. These are forms of intuition or of a higher instinct which can be cultivated by observation and also by studying the results. Naturally, it must be done very sincerely, objectively, without prejudice. If one wants to see things in a particular way and at the same time practise this observation, it is all useless. One must do it as if one were looking at what is happening from outside oneself, in someone else. It is one form of intuition and perhaps the first one that usually manifests. There is also another form but that one is much more difficult to observe because for those who are accustomed to think, to act by reason - not by impulse but by reason - to reflect before doing anything, there is an extremely swift process from cause to effect in the half-conscious thought which prevents you from seeing the line, the whole line of reasoning and so you don't think that it is a chain of reasoning, and that is quite deceptive. You have the impression of an intuition but it is not an intuition, it is an extremely rapid subconscious reasoning, which takes up a problem and goes straight to the conclusions. This must not be mistaken for intuition. In the ordinary functioning of the brain, intuition is something which suddenly falls like a drop of light. If one has the faculty, the beginning of a faculty of mental vision, it gives the impression of something coming from outside or above, like a little impact of a drop of light in the brain, absolutely independent of all reasoning. This is perceived more easily when one is able to silence one's mind, hold it still and attentive, arresting its usual functioning, as if the mind were changed into a kind of mirror turned towards a higher faculty in a sustained and silent attention. That too one can learn to do. One must learn to do it, it is a necessary discipline.
   When you have a question to solve, whatever it may be, usually you concentrate your attention here (pointing between the eyebrows), at the centre just above the eyes, the centre of the conscious will. But then if you do that, you cannot be in contact with intuition. You can be in contact with the source of the will, of effort, even of a certain kind of knowledge, but in the outer, almost material field; whereas, if you want to contact the intuition, you must keep this (Mother indicates the forehead) completely immobile. Active thought must be stopped as far as possible and the entire mental faculty must form - at the top of the head and a little further above if possible - a kind of mirror, very quiet, very still, turned upwards, in silent, very concentrated attention. If you succeed, you can - perhaps not immediately - but you can have the perception of the drops of light falling upon the mirror from a still unknown region and expressing themselves as a conscious thought which has no connection with all the rest of your thought since you have been able to keep it silent. That is the real beginning of the intellectual intuition.
   It is a discipline to be followed. For a long time one may try and not succeed, but as soon as one succeeds in making a mirror, still and attentive, one always obtains a result, not necessarily with a precise form of thought but always with the sensations of a light coming from above. And then, if one can receive this light coming from above without entering immediately into a whirl of activity, receive it in calm and silence and let it penetrate deep into the being, then after a while it expresses itself either as a luminous thought or as a very precise indication here (Mother indicates the heart), in this other centre.
   Naturally, first these two faculties must be developed; then, as soon as there is any result, one must observe the result, as I said, and see the connection with what is happening, the consequences: see, observe very attentively what has come in, what may have caused a distortion, what one has added by way of more or less conscious reasoning or the intervention of a lower will, also more or less conscious; and it is by a very deep study - indeed, almost of every moment, in any case daily and very frequent - that one succeeds in developing one's intuition. It takes a long time. It takes a long time and there are ambushes: one can deceive oneself, take for intuitions subconscious wills which try to manifest, indications given by impulses one has refused to receive openly, indeed all sorts of difficulties. One must be prepared for that. But if one persists, one is sure to succeed.
   And there comes a time when one feels a kind of inner guidance, something which is leading one very perceptibly in all that one does. But then, for the guidance to have its maximum power, one must naturally add to it a conscious surrender: one must be sincerely determined to follow the indication given by the higher force. If one does that, then... one saves years of study, one can seize the result extremely rapidly. If one also does that, the result comes very rapidly. But for that, it must be done with sincerity and... a kind of inner spontaneity. If one wants to try without this surrender, one may succeed - as one can also succeed in developing one's personal will and making it into a very considerable power - but that takes a very long time and one meets many obstacles and the result is very precarious; one must be very persistent, obstinate, persevering, and one is sure to succeed, but only after a great labour.
   Make your surrender with a sincere, complete self-giving, and you will go ahead at full speed, you will go much faster - but you must not do this calculatingly, for that spoils everything! (Silence) Moreover, whatever you may want to do in life, one thing is absolutely indispensable and at the basis of everything, the capacity of concentrating the attention. If you are able to gather together the rays of attention and consciousness on one point and can maintain this concentration with a persistent will, nothing can resist it - whatever it may be, from the most material physical development to the highest spiritual one. But this discipline must be followed in a constant and, it may be said, imperturbable way; not that you should always be concentrated on the same thing - that's not what I mean, I mean learning to concentrate.
   And materially, for studies, sports, all physical or mental development, it is absolutely indispensable. And the value of an individual is proportionate to the value of his attention.
   And from the spiritual point of view it is still more important.
   There is no spiritual obstacle which can resist a penetrating power of concentration. For instance, the discovery of the psychic being, union with the inner Divine, opening to the higher spheres, all can be obtained by an intense and obstinate power of concentration - but one must learn how to do it. There is nothing in the human or even in the superhuman field, to which the power of concentration is not the key. You can be the best athlete, you can be the best student, you can be an artistic, literary or scientific genius, you can be the greatest saint with that faculty. And everyone has in himself a tiny little beginning of it - it is given to everybody, but people do not cultivate it.
   ~ The Mother, Questions And Answers 1957-1958,
100:The Science of Living

To know oneself and to control oneself

AN AIMLESS life is always a miserable life.

Every one of you should have an aim. But do not forget that on the quality of your aim will depend the quality of your life.

   Your aim should be high and wide, generous and disinterested; this will make your life precious to yourself and to others.

   But whatever your ideal, it cannot be perfectly realised unless you have realised perfection in yourself.

   To work for your perfection, the first step is to become conscious of yourself, of the different parts of your being and their respective activities. You must learn to distinguish these different parts one from another, so that you may become clearly aware of the origin of the movements that occur in you, the many impulses, reactions and conflicting wills that drive you to action. It is an assiduous study which demands much perseverance and sincerity. For man's nature, especially his mental nature, has a spontaneous tendency to give a favourable explanation for everything he thinks, feels, says and does. It is only by observing these movements with great care, by bringing them, as it were, before the tribunal of our highest ideal, with a sincere will to submit to its judgment, that we can hope to form in ourselves a discernment that never errs. For if we truly want to progress and acquire the capacity of knowing the truth of our being, that is to say, what we are truly created for, what we can call our mission upon earth, then we must, in a very regular and constant manner, reject from us or eliminate in us whatever contradicts the truth of our existence, whatever is opposed to it. In this way, little by little, all the parts, all the elements of our being can be organised into a homogeneous whole around our psychic centre. This work of unification requires much time to be brought to some degree of perfection. Therefore, in order to accomplish it, we must arm ourselves with patience and endurance, with a determination to prolong our life as long as necessary for the success of our endeavour.

   As you pursue this labour of purification and unification, you must at the same time take great care to perfect the external and instrumental part of your being. When the higher truth manifests, it must find in you a mind that is supple and rich enough to be able to give the idea that seeks to express itself a form of thought which preserves its force and clarity. This thought, again, when it seeks to clothe itself in words, must find in you a sufficient power of expression so that the words reveal the thought and do not deform it. And the formula in which you embody the truth should be manifested in all your feelings, all your acts of will, all your actions, in all the movements of your being. Finally, these movements themselves should, by constant effort, attain their highest perfection.

   All this can be realised by means of a fourfold discipline, the general outline of which is given here. The four aspects of the discipline do not exclude each other, and can be followed at the same time; indeed, this is preferable. The starting-point is what can be called the psychic discipline. We give the name "psychic" to the psychological centre of our being, the seat within us of the highest truth of our existence, that which can know this truth and set it in movement. It is therefore of capital importance to become conscious of its presence in us, to concentrate on this presence until it becomes a living fact for us and we can identify ourselves with it.

   In various times and places many methods have been prescribed for attaining this perception and ultimately achieving this identification. Some methods are psychological, some religious, some even mechanical. In reality, everyone has to find the one which suits him best, and if one has an ardent and steadfast aspiration, a persistent and dynamic will, one is sure to meet, in one way or another - outwardly through reading and study, inwardly through concentration, meditation, revelation and experience - the help one needs to reach the goal. Only one thing is absolutely indispensable: the will to discover and to realise. This discovery and realisation should be the primary preoccupation of our being, the pearl of great price which we must acquire at any cost. Whatever you do, whatever your occupations and activities, the will to find the truth of your being and to unite with it must be always living and present behind all that you do, all that you feel, all that you think.

   To complement this movement of inner discovery, it would be good not to neglect the development of the mind. For the mental instrument can equally be a great help or a great hindrance. In its natural state the human mind is always limited in its vision, narrow in its understanding, rigid in its conceptions, and a constant effort is therefore needed to widen it, to make it more supple and profound. So it is very necessary to consider everything from as many points of view as possible. Towards this end, there is an exercise which gives great suppleness and elevation to the thought. It is as follows: a clearly formulated thesis is set; against it is opposed its antithesis, formulated with the same precision. Then by careful reflection the problem must be widened or transcended until a synthesis is found which unites the two contraries in a larger, higher and more comprehensive idea.

   Many other exercises of the same kind can be undertaken; some have a beneficial effect on the character and so possess a double advantage: that of educating the mind and that of establishing control over the feelings and their consequences. For example, you must never allow your mind to judge things and people, for the mind is not an instrument of knowledge; it is incapable of finding knowledge, but it must be moved by knowledge. Knowledge belongs to a much higher domain than that of the human mind, far above the region of pure ideas. The mind has to be silent and attentive to receive knowledge from above and manifest it. For it is an instrument of formation, of organisation and action, and it is in these functions that it attains its full value and real usefulness.

   There is another practice which can be very helpful to the progress of the consciousness. Whenever there is a disagreement on any matter, such as a decision to be taken, or an action to be carried out, one must never remain closed up in one's own conception or point of view. On the contrary, one must make an effort to understand the other's point of view, to put oneself in his place and, instead of quarrelling or even fighting, find the solution which can reasonably satisfy both parties; there always is one for men of goodwill.

   Here we must mention the discipline of the vital. The vital being in us is the seat of impulses and desires, of enthusiasm and violence, of dynamic energy and desperate depressions, of passions and revolts. It can set everything in motion, build and realise; but it can also destroy and mar everything. Thus it may be the most difficult part to discipline in the human being. It is a long and exacting labour requiring great patience and perfect sincerity, for without sincerity you will deceive yourself from the very outset, and all endeavour for progress will be in vain. With the collaboration of the vital no realisation seems impossible, no transformation impracticable. But the difficulty lies in securing this constant collaboration. The vital is a good worker, but most often it seeks its own satisfaction. If that is refused, totally or even partially, the vital gets vexed, sulks and goes on strike. Its energy disappears more or less completely and in its place leaves disgust for people and things, discouragement or revolt, depression and dissatisfaction. At such moments it is good to remain quiet and refuse to act; for these are the times when one does stupid things and in a few moments one can destroy or spoil the progress that has been made during months of regular effort. These crises are shorter and less dangerous for those who have established a contact with their psychic being which is sufficient to keep alive in them the flame of aspiration and the consciousness of the ideal to be realised. They can, with the help of this consciousness, deal with their vital as one deals with a rebellious child, with patience and perseverance, showing it the truth and light, endeavouring to convince it and awaken in it the goodwill which has been veiled for a time. By means of such patient intervention each crisis can be turned into a new progress, into one more step towards the goal. Progress may be slow, relapses may be frequent, but if a courageous will is maintained, one is sure to triumph one day and see all difficulties melt and vanish before the radiance of the truth-consciousness.

   Lastly, by means of a rational and discerning physical education, we must make our body strong and supple enough to become a fit instrument in the material world for the truth-force which wants to manifest through us.

   In fact, the body must not rule, it must obey. By its very nature it is a docile and faithful servant. Unfortunately, it rarely has the capacity of discernment it ought to have with regard to its masters, the mind and the vital. It obeys them blindly, at the cost of its own well-being. The mind with its dogmas, its rigid and arbitrary principles, the vital with its passions, its excesses and dissipations soon destroy the natural balance of the body and create in it fatigue, exhaustion and disease. It must be freed from this tyranny and this can be done only through a constant union with the psychic centre of the being. The body has a wonderful capacity of adaptation and endurance. It is able to do so many more things than one usually imagines. If, instead of the ignorant and despotic masters that now govern it, it is ruled by the central truth of the being, you will be amazed at what it is capable of doing. Calm and quiet, strong and poised, at every minute it will be able to put forth the effort that is demanded of it, for it will have learnt to find rest in action and to recuperate, through contact with the universal forces, the energies it expends consciously and usefully. In this sound and balanced life a new harmony will manifest in the body, reflecting the harmony of the higher regions, which will give it perfect proportions and ideal beauty of form. And this harmony will be progressive, for the truth of the being is never static; it is a perpetual unfolding of a growing perfection that is more and more total and comprehensive. As soon as the body has learnt to follow this movement of progressive harmony, it will be possible for it to escape, through a continuous process of transformation, from the necessity of disintegration and destruction. Thus the irrevocable law of death will no longer have any reason to exist.

   When we reach this degree of perfection which is our goal, we shall perceive that the truth we seek is made up of four major aspects: Love, Knowledge, Power and Beauty. These four attributes of the Truth will express themselves spontaneously in our being. The psychic will be the vehicle of true and pure love, the mind will be the vehicle of infallible knowledge, the vital will manifest an invincible power and strength and the body will be the expression of a perfect beauty and harmony.

   Bulletin, November 1950

   ~ The Mother, On Education,
101:Mental Education

OF ALL lines of education, mental education is the most widely known and practised, yet except in a few rare cases there are gaps which make it something very incomplete and in the end quite insufficient.

   Generally speaking, schooling is considered to be all the mental education that is necessary. And when a child has been made to undergo, for a number of years, a methodical training which is more like cramming than true schooling, it is considered that whatever is necessary for his mental development has been done. Nothing of the kind. Even conceding that the training is given with due measure and discrimination and does not permanently damage the brain, it cannot impart to the human mind the faculties it needs to become a good and useful instrument. The schooling that is usually given can, at the most, serve as a system of gymnastics to increase the suppleness of the brain. From this standpoint, each branch of human learning represents a special kind of mental gymnastics, and the verbal formulations given to these various branches each constitute a special and well-defined language.

   A true mental education, which will prepare man for a higher life, has five principal phases. Normally these phases follow one after another, but in exceptional individuals they may alternate or even proceed simultaneously. These five phases, in brief, are:

   (1) Development of the power of concentration, the capacity of attention.
   (2) Development of the capacities of expansion, widening, complexity and richness.
   (3) Organisation of one's ideas around a central idea, a higher ideal or a supremely luminous idea that will serve as a guide in life.
   (4) Thought-control, rejection of undesirable thoughts, to become able to think only what one wants and when one wants.
   (5) Development of mental silence, perfect calm and a more and more total receptivity to inspirations coming from the higher regions of the being.

   It is not possible to give here all the details concerning the methods to be employed in the application of these five phases of education to different individuals. Still, a few explanations on points of detail can be given.

   Undeniably, what most impedes mental progress in children is the constant dispersion of their thoughts. Their thoughts flutter hither and thither like butterflies and they have to make a great effort to fix them. Yet this capacity is latent in them, for when you succeed in arousing their interest, they are capable of a good deal of attention. By his ingenuity, therefore, the educator will gradually help the child to become capable of a sustained effort of attention and a faculty of more and more complete absorption in the work in hand. All methods that can develop this faculty of attention from games to rewards are good and can all be utilised according to the need and the circumstances. But it is the psychological action that is most important and the sovereign method is to arouse in the child an interest in what you want to teach him, a liking for work, a will to progress. To love to learn is the most precious gift that one can give to a child: to love to learn always and everywhere, so that all circumstances, all happenings in life may be constantly renewed opportunities for learning more and always more.

   For that, to attention and concentration should be added observation, precise recording and faithfulness of memory. This faculty of observation can be developed by varied and spontaneous exercises, making use of every opportunity that presents itself to keep the child's thought wakeful, alert and prompt. The growth of the understanding should be stressed much more than that of memory. One knows well only what one has understood. Things learnt by heart, mechanically, fade away little by little and finally disappear; what is understood is never forgotten. Moreover, you must never refuse to explain to a child the how and the why of things. If you cannot do it yourself, you must direct the child to those who are qualified to answer or point out to him some books that deal with the question. In this way you will progressively awaken in the child the taste for true study and the habit of making a persistent effort to know.

   This will bring us quite naturally to the second phase of development in which the mind should be widened and enriched.

   You will gradually show the child that everything can become an interesting subject for study if it is approached in the right way. The life of every day, of every moment, is the best school of all, varied, complex, full of unexpected experiences, problems to be solved, clear and striking examples and obvious consequences. It is so easy to arouse healthy curiosity in children, if you answer with intelligence and clarity the numerous questions they ask. An interesting reply to one readily brings others in its train and so the attentive child learns without effort much more than he usually does in the classroom. By a choice made with care and insight, you should also teach him to enjoy good reading-matter which is both instructive and attractive. Do not be afraid of anything that awakens and pleases his imagination; imagination develops the creative mental faculty and through it study becomes living and the mind develops in joy.

   In order to increase the suppleness and comprehensiveness of his mind, one should see not only that he studies many varied topics, but above all that a single subject is approached in various ways, so that the child understands in a practical manner that there are many ways of facing the same intellectual problem, of considering it and solving it. This will remove all rigidity from his brain and at the same time it will make his thinking richer and more supple and prepare it for a more complex and comprehensive synthesis. In this way also the child will be imbued with the sense of the extreme relativity of mental learning and, little by little, an aspiration for a truer source of knowledge will awaken in him.

   Indeed, as the child grows older and progresses in his studies, his mind too ripens and becomes more and more capable of forming general ideas, and with them almost always comes a need for certitude, for a knowledge that is stable enough to form the basis of a mental construction which will permit all the diverse and scattered and often contradictory ideas accumulated in his brain to be organised and put in order. This ordering is indeed very necessary if one is to avoid chaos in one's thoughts. All contradictions can be transformed into complements, but for that one must discover the higher idea that will have the power to bring them harmoniously together. It is always good to consider every problem from all possible standpoints so as to avoid partiality and exclusiveness; but if the thought is to be active and creative, it must, in every case, be the natural and logical synthesis of all the points of view adopted. And if you want to make the totality of your thoughts into a dynamic and constructive force, you must also take great care as to the choice of the central idea of your mental synthesis; for upon that will depend the value of this synthesis. The higher and larger the central idea and the more universal it is, rising above time and space, the more numerous and the more complex will be the ideas, notions and thoughts which it will be able to organise and harmonise.

   It goes without saying that this work of organisation cannot be done once and for all. The mind, if it is to keep its vigour and youth, must progress constantly, revise its notions in the light of new knowledge, enlarge its frame-work to include fresh notions and constantly reclassify and reorganise its thoughts, so that each of them may find its true place in relation to the others and the whole remain harmonious and orderly.

   All that has just been said concerns the speculative mind, the mind that learns. But learning is only one aspect of mental activity; the other, which is at least equally important, is the constructive faculty, the capacity to form and thus prepare action. This very important part of mental activity has rarely been the subject of any special study or discipline. Only those who want, for some reason, to exercise a strict control over their mental activities think of observing and disciplining this faculty of formation; and as soon as they try it, they have to face difficulties so great that they appear almost insurmountable.

   And yet control over this formative activity of the mind is one of the most important aspects of self-education; one can say that without it no mental mastery is possible. As far as study is concerned, all ideas are acceptable and should be included in the synthesis, whose very function is to become more and more rich and complex; but where action is concerned, it is just the opposite. The ideas that are accepted for translation into action should be strictly controlled and only those that agree with the general trend of the central idea forming the basis of the mental synthesis should be permitted to express themselves in action. This means that every thought entering the mental consciousness should be set before the central idea; if it finds a logical place among the thoughts already grouped, it will be admitted into the synthesis; if not, it will be rejected so that it can have no influence on the action. This work of mental purification should be done very regularly in order to secure a complete control over one's actions.

   For this purpose, it is good to set apart some time every day when one can quietly go over one's thoughts and put one's synthesis in order. Once the habit is acquired, you can maintain control over your thoughts even during work and action, allowing only those which are useful for what you are doing to come to the surface. Particularly, if you have continued to cultivate the power of concentration and attention, only the thoughts that are needed will be allowed to enter the active external consciousness and they then become all the more dynamic and effective. And if, in the intensity of concentration, it becomes necessary not to think at all, all mental vibration can be stilled and an almost total silence secured. In this silence one can gradually open to the higher regions of the mind and learn to record the inspirations that come from there.

   But even before reaching this point, silence in itself is supremely useful, because in most people who have a somewhat developed and active mind, the mind is never at rest. During the day, its activity is kept under a certain control, but at night, during the sleep of the body, the control of the waking state is almost completely removed and the mind indulges in activities which are sometimes excessive and often incoherent. This creates a great stress which leads to fatigue and the diminution of the intellectual faculties.

   The fact is that like all the other parts of the human being, the mind too needs rest and it will not have this rest unless we know how to provide it. The art of resting one's mind is something to be acquired. Changing one's mental activity is certainly one way of resting; but the greatest possible rest is silence. And as far as the mental faculties are concerned a few minutes passed in the calm of silence are a more effective rest than hours of sleep.

   When one has learned to silence the mind at will and to concentrate it in receptive silence, then there will be no problem that cannot be solved, no mental difficulty whose solution cannot be found. When it is agitated, thought becomes confused and impotent; in an attentive tranquillity, the light can manifest itself and open up new horizons to man's capacity. Bulletin, November 1951

   ~ The Mother, On Education,
102:One little picture in this book, the Magic Locket, was drawn by 'Miss Alice Havers.' I did not state this on the title-page, since it seemed only due, to the artist of all these (to my mind) wonderful pictures, that his name should stand there alone.
The descriptions, of Sunday as spent by children of the last generation, are quoted verbatim from a speech made to me by a child-friend and a letter written to me by a lady-friend.
The Chapters, headed 'Fairy Sylvie' and 'Bruno's Revenge,' are a reprint, with a few alterations, of a little fairy-tale which I wrote in the year 1867, at the request of the late Mrs. Gatty, for 'Aunt Judy's Magazine,' which she was then editing.
It was in 1874, I believe, that the idea first occurred to me of making it the nucleus of a longer story.
As the years went on, I jotted down, at odd moments, all sorts of odd ideas, and fragments of dialogue, that occurred to me--who knows how?--with a transitory suddenness that left me no choice but either to record them then and there, or to abandon them to oblivion. Sometimes one could trace to their source these random flashes of thought--as being suggested by the book one was reading, or struck out from the 'flint' of one's own mind by the 'steel' of a friend's chance remark but they had also a way of their own, of occurring, a propos of nothing --specimens of that hopelessly illogical phenomenon, 'an effect without a cause.' Such, for example, was the last line of 'The Hunting of the Snark,' which came into my head (as I have already related in 'The Theatre' for April, 1887) quite suddenly, during a solitary walk: and such, again, have been passages which occurred in dreams, and which I cannot trace to any antecedent cause whatever. There are at least two instances of such dream-suggestions in this book--one, my Lady's remark, 'it often runs in families, just as a love for pastry does', the other, Eric Lindon's badinage about having been in domestic service.

And thus it came to pass that I found myself at last in possession of a huge unwieldy mass of litterature--if the reader will kindly excuse the spelling --which only needed stringing together, upon the thread of a consecutive story, to constitute the book I hoped to write. Only! The task, at first, seemed absolutely hopeless, and gave me a far clearer idea, than I ever had before, of the meaning of the word 'chaos': and I think it must have been ten years, or more, before I had succeeded in classifying these odds-and-ends sufficiently to see what sort of a story they indicated: for the story had to grow out of the incidents, not the incidents out of the story I am telling all this, in no spirit of egoism, but because I really believe that some of my readers will be interested in these details of the 'genesis' of a book, which looks so simple and straight-forward a matter, when completed, that they might suppose it to have been written straight off, page by page, as one would write a letter, beginning at the beginning; and ending at the end.

It is, no doubt, possible to write a story in that way: and, if it be not vanity to say so, I believe that I could, myself,--if I were in the unfortunate position (for I do hold it to be a real misfortune) of being obliged to produce a given amount of fiction in a given time,--that I could 'fulfil my task,' and produce my 'tale of bricks,' as other slaves have done. One thing, at any rate, I could guarantee as to the story so produced--that it should be utterly commonplace, should contain no new ideas whatever, and should be very very weary reading!
This species of literature has received the very appropriate name of 'padding' which might fitly be defined as 'that which all can write and none can read.' That the present volume contains no such writing I dare not avow: sometimes, in order to bring a picture into its proper place, it has been necessary to eke out a page with two or three extra lines : but I can honestly say I have put in no more than I was absolutely compelled to do.
My readers may perhaps like to amuse themselves by trying to detect, in a given passage, the one piece of 'padding' it contains. While arranging the 'slips' into pages, I found that the passage was 3 lines too short. I supplied the deficiency, not by interpolating a word here and a word there, but by writing in 3 consecutive lines. Now can my readers guess which they are?

A harder puzzle if a harder be desired would be to determine, as to the Gardener's Song, in which cases (if any) the stanza was adapted to the surrounding text, and in which (if any) the text was adapted to the stanza.
Perhaps the hardest thing in all literature--at least I have found it so: by no voluntary effort can I accomplish it: I have to take it as it come's is to write anything original. And perhaps the easiest is, when once an original line has been struck out, to follow it up, and to write any amount more to the same tune. I do not know if 'Alice in Wonderland' was an original story--I was, at least, no conscious imitator in writing it--but I do know that, since it came out, something like a dozen storybooks have appeared, on identically the same pattern. The path I timidly explored believing myself to be 'the first that ever burst into that silent sea'--is now a beaten high-road: all the way-side flowers have long ago been trampled into the dust: and it would be courting disaster for me to attempt that style again.

Hence it is that, in 'Sylvie and Bruno,' I have striven with I know not what success to strike out yet another new path: be it bad or good, it is the best I can do. It is written, not for money, and not for fame, but in the hope of supplying, for the children whom I love, some thoughts that may suit those hours of innocent merriment which are the very life of Childhood; and also in the hope of suggesting, to them and to others, some thoughts that may prove, I would fain hope, not wholly out of harmony with the graver cadences of Life.
If I have not already exhausted the patience of my readers, I would like to seize this opportunity perhaps the last I shall have of addressing so many friends at once of putting on record some ideas that have occurred to me, as to books desirable to be written--which I should much like to attempt, but may not ever have the time or power to carry through--in the hope that, if I should fail (and the years are gliding away very fast) to finish the task I have set myself, other hands may take it up.
First, a Child's Bible. The only real essentials of this would be, carefully selected passages, suitable for a child's reading, and pictures. One principle of selection, which I would adopt, would be that Religion should be put before a child as a revelation of love--no need to pain and puzzle the young mind with the history of crime and punishment. (On such a principle I should, for example, omit the history of the Flood.) The supplying of the pictures would involve no great difficulty: no new ones would be needed : hundreds of excellent pictures already exist, the copyright of which has long ago expired, and which simply need photo-zincography, or some similar process, for their successful reproduction. The book should be handy in size with a pretty attractive looking cover--in a clear legible type--and, above all, with abundance of pictures, pictures, pictures!
Secondly, a book of pieces selected from the Bible--not single texts, but passages of from 10 to 20 verses each--to be committed to memory. Such passages would be found useful, to repeat to one's self and to ponder over, on many occasions when reading is difficult, if not impossible: for instance, when lying awake at night--on a railway-journey --when taking a solitary walk-in old age, when eyesight is failing or wholly lost--and, best of all, when illness, while incapacitating us for reading or any other occupation, condemns us to lie awake through many weary silent hours: at such a time how keenly one may realise the truth of David's rapturous cry "O how sweet are thy words unto my throat: yea, sweeter than honey unto my mouth!"
I have said 'passages,' rather than single texts, because we have no means of recalling single texts: memory needs links, and here are none: one may have a hundred texts stored in the memory, and not be able to recall, at will, more than half-a-dozen--and those by mere chance: whereas, once get hold of any portion of a chapter that has been committed to memory, and the whole can be recovered: all hangs together.
Thirdly, a collection of passages, both prose and verse, from books other than the Bible. There is not perhaps much, in what is called 'un-inspired' literature (a misnomer, I hold: if Shakespeare was not inspired, one may well doubt if any man ever was), that will bear the process of being pondered over, a hundred times: still there are such passages--enough, I think, to make a goodly store for the memory.
These two books of sacred, and secular, passages for memory--will serve other good purposes besides merely occupying vacant hours: they will help to keep at bay many anxious thoughts, worrying thoughts, uncharitable thoughts, unholy thoughts. Let me say this, in better words than my own, by copying a passage from that most interesting book, Robertson's Lectures on the Epistles to the Corinthians, Lecture XLIX. "If a man finds himself haunted by evil desires and unholy images, which will generally be at periodical hours, let him commit to memory passages of Scripture, or passages from the best writers in verse or prose. Let him store his mind with these, as safeguards to repeat when he lies awake in some restless night, or when despairing imaginations, or gloomy, suicidal thoughts, beset him. Let these be to him the sword, turning everywhere to keep the way of the Garden of Life from the intrusion of profaner footsteps."
Fourthly, a "Shakespeare" for girls: that is, an edition in which everything, not suitable for the perusal of girls of (say) from 10 to 17, should be omitted. Few children under 10 would be likely to understand or enjoy the greatest of poets: and those, who have passed out of girlhood, may safely be left to read Shakespeare, in any edition, 'expurgated' or not, that they may prefer: but it seems a pity that so many children, in the intermediate stage, should be debarred from a great pleasure for want of an edition suitable to them. Neither Bowdler's, Chambers's, Brandram's, nor Cundell's 'Boudoir' Shakespeare, seems to me to meet the want: they are not sufficiently 'expurgated.' Bowdler's is the most extraordinary of all: looking through it, I am filled with a deep sense of wonder, considering what he has left in, that he should have cut anything out! Besides relentlessly erasing all that is unsuitable on the score of reverence or decency, I should be inclined to omit also all that seems too difficult, or not likely to interest young readers. The resulting book might be slightly fragmentary: but it would be a real treasure to all British maidens who have any taste for poetry.
If it be needful to apologize to any one for the new departure I have taken in this story--by introducing, along with what will, I hope, prove to be acceptable nonsense for children, some of the graver thoughts of human life--it must be to one who has learned the Art of keeping such thoughts wholly at a distance in hours of mirth and careless ease. To him such a mixture will seem, no doubt, ill-judged and repulsive. And that such an Art exists I do not dispute: with youth, good health, and sufficient money, it seems quite possible to lead, for years together, a life of unmixed gaiety--with the exception of one solemn fact, with which we are liable to be confronted at any moment, even in the midst of the most brilliant company or the most sparkling entertainment. A man may fix his own times for admitting serious thought, for attending public worship, for prayer, for reading the Bible: all such matters he can defer to that 'convenient season', which is so apt never to occur at all: but he cannot defer, for one single moment, the necessity of attending to a message, which may come before he has finished reading this page,' this night shalt thy soul be required of thee.'
The ever-present sense of this grim possibility has been, in all ages, 1 an incubus that men have striven to shake off. Few more interesting subjects of enquiry could be found, by a student of history, than the various weapons that have been used against this shadowy foe. Saddest of all must have been the thoughts of those who saw indeed an existence beyond the grave, but an existence far more terrible than annihilation--an existence as filmy, impalpable, all but invisible spectres, drifting about, through endless ages, in a world of shadows, with nothing to do, nothing to hope for, nothing to love! In the midst of the gay verses of that genial 'bon vivant' Horace, there stands one dreary word whose utter sadness goes to one's heart. It is the word 'exilium' in the well-known passage

Omnes eodem cogimur, omnium
Versatur urna serius ocius
Sors exitura et nos in aeternum
Exilium impositura cymbae.

Yes, to him this present life--spite of all its weariness and all its sorrow--was the only life worth having: all else was 'exile'! Does it not seem almost incredible that one, holding such a creed, should ever have smiled?
And many in this day, I fear, even though believing in an existence beyond the grave far more real than Horace ever dreamed of, yet regard it as a sort of 'exile' from all the joys of life, and so adopt Horace's theory, and say 'let us eat and drink, for to-morrow we die.'
We go to entertainments, such as the theatre--I say 'we', for I also go to the play, whenever I get a chance of seeing a really good one and keep at arm's length, if possible, the thought that we may not return alive. Yet how do you know--dear friend, whose patience has carried you through this garrulous preface that it may not be your lot, when mirth is fastest and most furious, to feel the sharp pang, or the deadly faintness, which heralds the final crisis--to see, with vague wonder, anxious friends bending over you to hear their troubled whispers perhaps yourself to shape the question, with trembling lips, "Is it serious?", and to be told "Yes: the end is near" (and oh, how different all Life will look when those words are said!)--how do you know, I say, that all this may not happen to you, this night?
And dare you, knowing this, say to yourself "Well, perhaps it is an immoral play: perhaps the situations are a little too 'risky', the dialogue a little too strong, the 'business' a little too suggestive.
I don't say that conscience is quite easy: but the piece is so clever, I must see it this once! I'll begin a stricter life to-morrow." To-morrow, and to-morrow, and tomorrow!

"Who sins in hope, who, sinning, says,
'Sorrow for sin God's judgement stays!'
Against God's Spirit he lies; quite stops Mercy with insult; dares, and drops,
Like a scorch'd fly, that spins in vain
Upon the axis of its pain,
Then takes its doom, to limp and crawl,
Blind and forgot, from fall to fall."

Let me pause for a moment to say that I believe this thought, of the possibility of death--if calmly realised, and steadily faced would be one of the best possible tests as to our going to any scene of amusement being right or wrong. If the thought of sudden death acquires, for you, a special horror when imagined as happening in a theatre, then be very sure the theatre is harmful for you, however harmless it may be for others; and that you are incurring a deadly peril in going. Be sure the safest rule is that we should not dare to live in any scene in which we dare not die.
But, once realise what the true object is in life--that it is not pleasure, not knowledge, not even fame itself, 'that last infirmity of noble minds'--but that it is the development of character, the rising to a higher, nobler, purer standard, the building-up of the perfect Man--and then, so long as we feel that this is going on, and will (we trust) go on for evermore, death has for us no terror; it is not a shadow, but a light; not an end, but a beginning!
One other matter may perhaps seem to call for apology--that I should have treated with such entire want of sympathy the British passion for 'Sport', which no doubt has been in by-gone days, and is still, in some forms of it, an excellent school for hardihood and for coolness in moments of danger.
But I am not entirely without sympathy for genuine 'Sport': I can heartily admire the courage of the man who, with severe bodily toil, and at the risk of his life, hunts down some 'man-eating' tiger: and I can heartily sympathize with him when he exults in the glorious excitement of the chase and the hand-to-hand struggle with the monster brought to bay. But I can but look with deep wonder and sorrow on the hunter who, at his ease and in safety, can find pleasure in what involves, for some defenceless creature, wild terror and a death of agony: deeper, if the hunter be one who has pledged himself to preach to men the Religion of universal Love: deepest of all, if it be one of those 'tender and delicate' beings, whose very name serves as a symbol of Love--'thy love to me was wonderful, passing the love of women'--whose mission here is surely to help and comfort all that are in pain or sorrow!

'Farewell, farewell! but this I tell
To thee, thou Wedding-Guest!
He prayeth well, who loveth well
Both man and bird and beast.
He prayeth best, who loveth best
All things both great and small;
For the dear God who loveth us,
He made and loveth all.' ~ Lewis Carroll, Sylvie and Bruno,

*** WISDOM TROVE ***

1:Income seldom exceeds personal development. ~ jim-rohn, @wisdomtrove
2:The development of the mind comes through movement ~ maria-montessori, @wisdomtrove
3:Soul development should take precedence over all things. ~ edgar-cayce, @wisdomtrove
4:What we want is progress, development, realisation. ~ swami-vivekananda, @wisdomtrove
5:Businesses that grow by development and improvement do not die. ~ henry-ford, @wisdomtrove
6:The greatest gift you can give someone is your personal development. ~ jim-rohn, @wisdomtrove
7:The development of man is a return to an original perfection. ~ swami-vivekananda, @wisdomtrove
8:To double your income, triple your investment in self-development. ~ robin-sharma, @wisdomtrove
9:Conservation means development as much as it does protection. ~ theodore-roosevelt, @wisdomtrove
10:You're not a moron. You're only a case of arrested development. ~ ernest-hemingway, @wisdomtrove
11:If you want to know what the future is, be part of its development. ~ peter-drucker, @wisdomtrove
12:God does not relish our sufferings, but He delights in our development. ~ max-lucado, @wisdomtrove
13:Maturation is the development from environmental support to self-support. ~ bruce-lee, @wisdomtrove
14:Men are only as good as their technical development allows them to be. ~ george-orwell, @wisdomtrove
15:The greatest gift you can give to somebody is your own personal development ~ jim-rohn, @wisdomtrove
16:Development comes from within. Nature does not hurry but advances slowly. ~ fred-rogers, @wisdomtrove
17:Your level of success will seldom exceed your level of personal development. ~ jim-rohn, @wisdomtrove
18:If you would understand anything, observe its beginning and its development. ~ aristotle, @wisdomtrove
19:Continuous personal and professional development is your key to the future. ~ brian-tracy, @wisdomtrove
20:An investment in your personal development is the best investment you can make. ~ jim-rohn, @wisdomtrove
21:Development of character consists solely in moving toward self-sufficiency. ~ quentin-crisp, @wisdomtrove
22:It is hard to keep that which has not been obtained through personal development. ~ jim-rohn, @wisdomtrove
23:A superior who works on his own development sets an almost irresistible example. ~ peter-drucker, @wisdomtrove
24:You cannot have exterior development without interior development to hold it in place. ~ ken-wilber, @wisdomtrove
25:Nurturing your own development isn’t selfish. It’s actually a great gift to other people. ~ rick-hanson, @wisdomtrove
26:No one should voluntarily remain in an environment which prevents his development. ~ orison-swett-marden, @wisdomtrove
27:The development of full artificial intelligence could spell the end of the human race. ~ stephen-hawking, @wisdomtrove
28:Man’s only limitation, within reason, lies in the development and use of his imagination. ~ napoleon-hill, @wisdomtrove
29:For every step in spiritual perception, three steps are to be taken in moral development. ~ rudolf-steiner, @wisdomtrove
30:It is the duty of every person to contribute in the development and progress of India. ~ swami-vivekananda, @wisdomtrove
31:Nurturing your own development isn’t selfish. It’s actually a great gift to other people. The ~ rick-hanson, @wisdomtrove
32:The perfecting of one's self is the fundamental base of all progress and all moral development. ~ confucius, @wisdomtrove
33:When it's easy to make money, you have no incentive to think about development of talent. ~ malcolm-gladwell, @wisdomtrove
34:Adolescent stage in the development of the human race from which humanity should free itself. ~ sigmund-freud, @wisdomtrove
35:All the wide world is but the husbandry of God for the development of the one fruit-man. ~ henry-ward-beecher, @wisdomtrove
36:Zen is a very quick path to enlightenment and development of the mind and all its facilities. ~ frederick-lenz, @wisdomtrove
37:The development of willpower -I will, I won't and I want- may define what it means to be human. ~ kelly-mcgonigal, @wisdomtrove
38:Watching a child makes it obvious that the development of his mind comes through his movements. ~ maria-montessori, @wisdomtrove
39:A great European federative system alone can be favourable to the development of civilisation. ~ napoleon-bonaparte, @wisdomtrove
40:For what is the use of transmitting knowledge if the individual's total development lags behind? ~ maria-montessori, @wisdomtrove
41:Invest three percent of your income in yourself (self-development) in order to guarantee your future. ~ brian-tracy, @wisdomtrove
42:A person will sometimes devote all his life to the development of one part of his body - the wishbone. ~ robert-frost, @wisdomtrove
43:Surely arrested development consists not in refusing to lose old things but in failing to add new things. ~ c-s-lewis, @wisdomtrove
44:Beauty of whatever kind, in its supreme development, invariably excites the sensitive soul to tears. ~ edgar-allan-poe, @wisdomtrove
45:My focus is incredibly narrow. I can't talk with any authority other than design and development of product. ~ jony-ive, @wisdomtrove
46:Nature knows no pause in progress and development, and attaches her curse on all inaction. ~ johann-wolfgang-von-goethe, @wisdomtrove
47:A man will sometimes devote all his life to the development of one part of his body - the wishbone. ~ robert-frost, @wisdomtrove
48:I take great pride in the artistic development of cartoons. Our characters are made to go through emotions. ~ walt-disney, @wisdomtrove
49:Real development is not leaving things behind, as on a road, but drawing life from them, as from a root. ~ g-k-chesterton, @wisdomtrove
50:The psychic development of the individual is a short repetition of the course of development of the race. ~ sigmund-freud, @wisdomtrove
51:I believe the highest aspiration of man should be individual freedom and the development of the individual. ~ ronald-reagan, @wisdomtrove
52:Knowledge has value only insofar as it contributes to the all-round development of the whole nature of man. ~ rudolf-steiner, @wisdomtrove
53:All that is valuable in human society depends upon the opportunity for development accorded the individual. ~ albert-einstein, @wisdomtrove
54:Personal development is the belief that you are worth the effort, time, and energy needed to develop yourself. ~ denis-waitley, @wisdomtrove
55:The modern idea of a Great Man is one who stands at the lonely extremity of some single line of development&
56:There is no defense or security for any of us except in the highest intelligence and development of all. ~ booker-t-washington, @wisdomtrove
57:Only through freedom and environmental experience is it practically possible for human development to occur. ~ maria-montessori, @wisdomtrove
58:The child's conquests of independence are the basic steps in what is called his &
59:In terms of brain development, musical performance is every bit as important educationally as reading or writing. ~ oliver-sacks, @wisdomtrove
60:Next to meditation itself, I really can't think of anything more important than the development of your career. ~ frederick-lenz, @wisdomtrove
61:It is not in human nature for all men to tread the same path of development, as animals do of a single species. ~ maria-montessori, @wisdomtrove
62:The development of the individual can be described as a succession of new births at consecutively higher levels. ~ maria-montessori, @wisdomtrove
63:The genitals themselves have not undergone the development of the rest of the human form in the direction of beauty. ~ sigmund-freud, @wisdomtrove
64:The first essential for the child’s development is concentration. The child who concentrates is immensely happy. ~ maria-montessori, @wisdomtrove
65:Play is as necessary to the perfect development of a child as sunshine is to the perfect development of a plant. ~ orison-swett-marden, @wisdomtrove
66:Spiritual growth requires the development of inner knowing and inner authority. It requires the heart, not the intellect. ~ gary-zukav, @wisdomtrove
67:Only the development of compassion and understanding for others can bring us the tranquility and happiness we all seek.    ~ dalai-lama, @wisdomtrove
68:Human development thus far has been fueled and guided by the feeling that things could be, and are probably going to be, better. ~ brian-eno, @wisdomtrove
69:Personal development - the never ending chance to improve not only yourself, but also to attract opportunities and affect others. ~ jim-rohn, @wisdomtrove
70:The ultimate resource in economic development is people. It is people, not capital or raw materials that develop an economy. ~ peter-drucker, @wisdomtrove
71:Two things are necessary, the development of individuality and the participation of the individual in a truly social life. ~ maria-montessori, @wisdomtrove
72:One quality of leaders and high achievers in every area seems to be a commitment to ongoing personal and professional development. ~ brian-tracy, @wisdomtrove
73:Thank God for giving you this world as a moral gymnasium to help your development, but never imagine you can help the world. ~ swami-vivekananda, @wisdomtrove
74:The word education must not be understood in the sense of teaching but of assisting the psychological development of the child. ~ maria-montessori, @wisdomtrove
75:Matter is merely mind deadened by the development of habit to the point where the breaking up of these habits is very difficult. ~ rupert-sheldrake, @wisdomtrove
76:Each stage of development, remember, has a dialectic of progress&
77:History in general is therefore the development of Spirit in Time, as Nature is the development of the Idea is Space. ~ georg-wilhelm-friedrich-hegel, @wisdomtrove
78:Problems do not go away. They must be worked through or else they remain, forever a barrier to the growth and development of the spirit. ~ m-scott-peck, @wisdomtrove
79:If you wish to achieve worthwhile things in your personal and career life, you must become a worthwhile person in your own self-development. ~ brian-tracy, @wisdomtrove
80:It marks a big step in your development when you come to realize that other people can help you do a better job than you could do alone. ~ andrew-carnegie, @wisdomtrove
81:The law is the witness and external deposit of our moral life. Its history is the history of the moral development of the race. ~ oliver-wendell-holmes-jr, @wisdomtrove
82:To ensure continuing prosperity in the global economy, nothing is more important than the development and application of knowledge and skills. ~ martin-rees, @wisdomtrove
83:Two qualities are at the root of all meditation development: right effort and right aim‚îarousing effort to aim the mind toward the object. ~ jack-kornfield, @wisdomtrove
84:The different techniques will place you in touch with different fields of auric empowerment, creating a balanced development of your practice. ~ frederick-lenz, @wisdomtrove
85:Success must include two things: the development of an individual to his utmost potentiality and a contribution of some kind to one's world. ~ eleanor-roosevelt, @wisdomtrove
86:Built on the foundation of concentration is the third aspect of the Buddha’s path of awakening: clarity of vision and the development of wisdom. ~ jack-kornfield, @wisdomtrove
87:Conservation means development as much as it does protection. A man's usefulness depends upon his living up to his ideals insofar as he can. ~ theodore-roosevelt, @wisdomtrove
88:If children are allowed free development and given occupation to correspond with their unfolding minds their natural goodness will shine forth. ~ maria-montessori, @wisdomtrove
89:A child's character develops in accordance with the obstacles he has encountered... or the freedom favoring his development that he has enjoyed. ~ maria-montessori, @wisdomtrove
90:Yoga has a threefold impact on health. It keeps healthy people healthy, it inhibits the development of diseases, and it aids recovery from ill health. ~ b-k-s-iyengar, @wisdomtrove
91:In everything, there are two kinds of development-analytical and synthetical. In the former the Hindus excel other nations. In the latter they are nil. ~ swami-vivekananda, @wisdomtrove
92:Every enterprise is learning and teaching institution. Training and development must be built into it on all levels, training and development that never stop. ~ peter-drucker, @wisdomtrove
93:Mental development must be connected with movement and be dependent on it. It is vital that educational theory and practice should be informed by that idea. ~ maria-montessori, @wisdomtrove
94:My particular focus at the moment is on the development of genetic algorithms and neural networks that work together to create computer architectural systems. ~ frederick-lenz, @wisdomtrove
95:If a child finds no stimuli for the activities which would contribute to his development, he is attracted simply to &
96:Those who cannot remember the pastare condemned to repeat it. or: Those who have never heard of good system development practice are condemned to reinvent it. ~ george-santayana, @wisdomtrove
97:The child is the spiritual builder of mankind, and obstacles to his free development are the stones in the wall by which the soul of man has become imprisoned. ~ maria-montessori, @wisdomtrove
98:In proportion to the development of his individuality, each person becomes more valuable to himself, and is therefore capable of being more valuable to others. . . . ~ john-stuart-mill, @wisdomtrove
99:In the development of mankind as a whole, just as in individuals, love alone acts as the civilizing factor in the sense that it brings a change from egoism to altruism. ~ sigmund-freud, @wisdomtrove
100:Enter into the plane of mental development. Start to increase your personal power level. Your life will become quite wonderful and very happy. You move beyond delusion. ~ frederick-lenz, @wisdomtrove
101:Many ... have tremendous God-given gifts, but they don't focus on the development of those gifts. Who are these individuals? You've never heard of them- and you never will . ~ john-wooden, @wisdomtrove
102:Every form of life is sacred. It is not possible to have an activity that is not sacred... Coming to see everything as sacred and honouring everything is spiritual development. ~ gary-zukav, @wisdomtrove
103:In the universe we have not to do with repetitions, each time that a cycle is passed, something new is added to the world's evolution and to at its human stage of development ~ rudolf-steiner, @wisdomtrove
104:Training is one of the most neglected phases of athletics. Too much time is given to the development of skill and too little to the development of the individual for participation. ~ bruce-lee, @wisdomtrove
105:There is no value-judgment more important to a man&
106:If we fail to encourage physical development and prowess, we will undermine our capcity for thought, for work, and for use of those skills vital to an expanding and complex America. ~ john-f-kennedy, @wisdomtrove
107:I understand the law through the operation of which my own character is developed from my own acts and thoughts; therefore, I will guard with care all that goes into its development. ~ napoleon-hill, @wisdomtrove
108:My own experience and development deepen everyday my conviction that our moral progress may be measured by the degree in which we sympathize with individual suffering and individual joy. ~ t-s-eliot, @wisdomtrove
109:Atkinson, William Walker. The Complete Works of (Unabridged): The Key To Mental Power Development & Efficiency, The Power of Concentration,  Thought-Force ... Raja Yoga ~ william-walker-atkinson, @wisdomtrove
110:The development of the child during the first three years after birth is unequaled in intensity and importance by any period that precedes or follows in the whole life of the child. ~ maria-montessori, @wisdomtrove
111:The prize and punishments are incentives toward unnatural or forced effort, and, therefore we certainly cannot speak of the natural development of the child in connection with them. ~ maria-montessori, @wisdomtrove
112:To regret one's own experiences is to arrest one's own development. To deny one's own experiences is to put a lie into the lips of one's life.  It is no less than a denial of the soul.   ~ oscar-wilde, @wisdomtrove
113:I teach Zen, tantric mysticism, jnana yoga, bhakti yoga, Tibetan mysticism, occultism and psychic development. I also teach poetry and literature, film and many other different things. ~ frederick-lenz, @wisdomtrove
114:Personal development is your springboard to personal excellence. Ongoing, continuous, non-stop personal development literally assures you that there is no limit to what you can accomplish. ~ brian-tracy, @wisdomtrove
115:When people from organizations like the World Bank descended on Third World countries, they always tried to remove obstacles to development, to reduce economic anxiety and uncertainty. ~ malcolm-gladwell, @wisdomtrove
116:Psychic development is not a fanatical, freaky study, predicting the future, talking to UFOs, and being able to find out curious facts that are basically irrelevant to one's time in life. ~ frederick-lenz, @wisdomtrove
117:We are concerned, not with the development of just one capacity, such as that of a mathematician, or a scientist, or a musician, but with the total development of the student as a human ~ jiddu-krishnamurti, @wisdomtrove
118:Ever since I was a child I have had this instinctive urge for expansion and growth. To me, the function and duty of a quality human being is the sincere and honest development of one's potential. ~ bruce-lee, @wisdomtrove
119:Flaky devotionalism, bowing and scraping and sucking up to the teacher is very phony. It is counterproductive to enlightenment and spiritual development. What is necessary is mutual respect. ~ frederick-lenz, @wisdomtrove
120:A merging of two people is an impossibility, and where it seems to exist, it is a hemming-in, a mutual consent that robs one party or both parties of their fullest freedom and development. ~ rainer-maria-rilke, @wisdomtrove
121:An adult who does not understand that a child needs to use his hands and does not recognize this as the first manifestation of an instinct for work can be an obstacle to the child's development ~ maria-montessori, @wisdomtrove
122:Battles, in these ages, are transacted by mechanism; with the slightest possible development of human individuality or spontaneity; men now even die, and kill one another, in an artificial manner. ~ thomas-carlyle, @wisdomtrove
123:Next to the pastoral came the agricultural life. When you add to that the manufacturing phase of development, society begins to fill out, and needs but wings to fly, and commerce is its wings. ~ henry-ward-beecher, @wisdomtrove
124:Think about the many ways that others will benefit from you being more good-humored, warm-hearted, and savvy. Nurturing your own development isn’t selfish. It’s actually a great gift to other people. ~ rick-hanson, @wisdomtrove
125:Work harder on yourself than you do on your job. If you work hard on your job, you can make a living. If you work hard on yourself, you can make a fortune... Income seldom exceeds personal development. ~ jim-rohn, @wisdomtrove
126:Psychic development is a necessary skill in leading a successful and happy life. Your intellectual processes and your senses don't give you enough information to distinguish the real from the unreal. ~ frederick-lenz, @wisdomtrove
127:And dreams in their development have breath, And tears, and tortures, and the touch of joy; They have a weight upon our waking thoughts, They take a weight from off our waking toils, They do divide our being. ~ lord-byron, @wisdomtrove
128:Over the course of fifteen years of research on plant development, I came to the conclusion that for understanding the development of plants, their morphogenesis, genes and gene products are not enough. ~ rupert-sheldrake, @wisdomtrove
129:The child is endowed with unknown powers, which can guide us to a radiant future. If what we really want is a new world, then education must take as its aim the development of these hidden possibilities. ~ maria-montessori, @wisdomtrove
130:Material objects are just tools to help you enjoy your life. You do not carry them with you when you die. So, don’t invest yourself in them. Rather, invest yourself in the development of your consciousness. ~ celestine-chua, @wisdomtrove
131:Of learned men, the clergy show the lowest development of professional ethics. Any pastor is free to cadge customers from the divines of rival sects, and to denounce the divines themselves as theological quacks. ~ h-l-mencken, @wisdomtrove
132:Examples of Quadrant 2 tasks  (important and non urgent tasks) :  Preparation, planning activities, prevention, relationships, new opportunities, creativity, true recreation, personal development, empowerment ~ stephen-r-covey, @wisdomtrove
133:People go through four stages before any revolutionary development: 1. It's nonsense, don't waste my time. 2. It's interesting, but not important. 3. I always said it was a good idea. 4. I thought of it first. ~ arthur-c-carke, @wisdomtrove
134:Science has the capacity to show mankind the full development of the mental life. Spirituality has the capacity to show mankind the possibility and inevitability of the life beyond the mind, the supramental life. ~ sri-chinmoy, @wisdomtrove
135:The basis of self-government and freedom requires the development of character and self-restraint and perseverance and the long view. And these are qualities which require many years of training and education. ~ john-f-kennedy, @wisdomtrove
136:A dollar put into a book and a book mastered might change the whole course of a boy's life. It might easily be the beginning of the development of leadership that would carry the boy far in service to his fellow men. ~ henry-ford, @wisdomtrove
137:One's god dictates the kind of law one implements and also controls the application and development of that law over time. Given enough time, all non-Christian systems of law self-destruct in a fit of tyranny. ~ george-washington, @wisdomtrove
138:If there are quarrels between the parents or if their marriage is unhappy, the ground will be prepared in their children for the severest predisposition to a disturbance of sexual development or to neurotic illness. ~ sigmund-freud, @wisdomtrove
139:In the tale proper&
140:There is something very fragile about the beginning stages of psychic development. Eventually, one becomes very strong and the cushioning isn't as necessary. It's still logical because we live in an abrasive world. ~ frederick-lenz, @wisdomtrove
141:The greatest gift you can give somebody is your own personal development. I used to say, "If you will take care of me, I will take care of you. "Now I say, I will take care of me for you, if you will take care of you for me. ~ jim-rohn, @wisdomtrove
142:I'm proud of having been one of the first to recognize that states and the federal government have a duty to protect our natural resources from the damaging effects of pollution that can accompany industrial development. ~ ronald-reagan, @wisdomtrove
143:It is the death of present art when it returns again and again to the model. Use of the model is only an intermediate stage in artistic development. Create out of a living spirituality to overcome everything naturalistic. ~ rudolf-steiner, @wisdomtrove
144:Businesses that grow by development and improvement do not die. But when a business ceases to be creative, when it believes it has reached perfection and needs to do nothing but produce no improvement, no development, it is done ~ henry-ford, @wisdomtrove
145:Setting customer expectations at a level that is aligned with consistently deliverable levels of customer service requires that your whole staff, from product development to marketing, works in harmony with your brand image. ~ richard-branson, @wisdomtrove
146:There is never any fair and thorough discussion of heretical opinions... The greatest harm done is to those who are not heretics, and whose whole mental development is cramped and their reason cowed, by the fear of heresy. ~ john-stuart-mill, @wisdomtrove
147:You don't want to become so sensitive that you can't interact with people in the world. If you get to that point, you are not practicing psychic development. You are running away from the world, and you've made yourself weak. ~ frederick-lenz, @wisdomtrove
148:If your parents are billionaires, that might actually be an obstacle to your own happiness and self-development. If you go to Oxford or Harvard, that might actually thwart your desire to graduate with a science or math degree. ~ malcolm-gladwell, @wisdomtrove
149:It could be ventured to understand obsessive compulsive neurosis as the pathological counterpart of religious development, to define neurosis as an individual religiosity; to define religion as a universal obsessive compulsive neurosis. ~ sigmund-freud, @wisdomtrove
150:There is a magnificent new militancy within the Negro community all across this nation. And I welcome this as a marvelous development. The Negro of America is saying he's determined to be free and he is militant enough to stand up. ~ martin-luther-king, @wisdomtrove
151:In this war, which was total in every sense of the word, we have seen many great changes in military science. It seems to me that not the least of these was the development of psychological warfare as a specific and effective weapon. ~ dwight-eisenhower, @wisdomtrove
152:Fertile plains, every foot of them tilled, are of the first necessity; but great natural playgrounds of mountain, forest, cliff-walled lake, and brawling brook are also necessary to the full and many-sided development of a fine race. ~ theodore-roosevelt, @wisdomtrove
153:There have been two lines of progress in this world-political and religious. In the former the Greeks are everything, the modern political institutions being only the development of the Grecian; in the latter the Hindus are everything. ~ swami-vivekananda, @wisdomtrove
154:An education capable of saving humanity is no small undertaking; it involves the spiritual development of man, the enhancement of his value as an individual, and the preparation of young people to understand the times in which they live. ~ maria-montessori, @wisdomtrove
155:Loving yourself has nothing to do with being selfish, self-centered or self-engrossed. It means that you accept yourself for what you are. Loving yourself means that you accept responsibility for your own development, growth and happiness. ~ lyania-vanzant, @wisdomtrove
156:Ahimsa is not mere negative non-injury. It is positive, cosmic love. It is the development of a mental attitude in which hatred is replaced by love. Ahimsa is true sacrifice. Ahimsa is forgiveness. Ahimsa is Sakti (power). Ahimsa is true strength. ~ sivananda, @wisdomtrove
157:Organic life, we are told, has developed gradually from the protozoon to the philosopher, and this development, we are assured, is indubitably an advance. Unfortunately, it is the philosopher, not the protozoon, who gives us this assurance. ~ bertrand-russell, @wisdomtrove
158:There is no greater crime than to stand between a man and his development; to take any law or institution and put it around him like a collar, and fasten it there, so that as he grows and enlarges, he presses against it till he suffocates and dies. ~ henry-ward-beecher, @wisdomtrove
159:The Christian is quite free to believe that there is a considerable amount of settled order and inevitable development in the universe. But the materialist is not allowed to admit into his spotless machine the slightest speck of spiritualism or miracle. ~ g-k-chesterton, @wisdomtrove
160:In proportion to the development of his individuality, each person becomes more valuable to others. There is a greater fullness of life about his own existence, and when there is more life in the units there is more in the mass which is composed of them. ~ john-stuart-mill, @wisdomtrove
161:Under the urge of nature and according to the laws of development, though not understood by the adult, the child is obliged to be serious about two fundamental things ... the first is the love of activity... The second fundamental thing is independence. ~ maria-montessori, @wisdomtrove
162:The development of physics in the twentieth century already has transformed the consciousness of those involved with it. The study (of modern physics) produces insights into the nature of reality very similar to those produced by the study of eastern philosophy. ~ gary-zukav, @wisdomtrove
163:Our goals are the same as those of the U.N.'s founders, who sought to replace a world at war with one where the rule of law would prevail, where human rights were honored, where development would blossom, where conflict would give way to freedom from violence. ~ ronald-reagan, @wisdomtrove
164:Use feedback analysis to identify your strengths. Then go to work on improving your strengths. Identify and eliminate bad habits that hinder the full development of your strengths. Figure out what you should do and do it. Finally, decide what you should not do. ~ peter-drucker, @wisdomtrove
165:Imagine a civilisation that's way in advance of us wants to communicate with us, and assist us in our development. The information we provide to them must reflect our highest aspirations and ideals, and not just be some crazy person's bizarre politics or religion. ~ paul-davies, @wisdomtrove
166:The consuming desire of most human beings is deliberately to plant their whole life in the hands of some other person. I would describe this method of searching for happiness as immature. Development of character consists solely in moving toward self-sufficiency. ~ quentin-crisp, @wisdomtrove
167:To be successful, you have to develop certain traits such as courage, dignity, charisma and integrity. You also have to recognize that you have to work harder on yourself than on your job. You attract success because of the person you are. Personal development is key. ~ jim-rohn, @wisdomtrove
168:In the great battle of life, no brilliancy of intellect, no perfection of bodily development, will count when weighed in the balance against the assemblage of virtues, active and passive, of moral qualities which we group together under the name of character. ~ theodore-roosevelt, @wisdomtrove
169:Intuition is like a radio station.. No, intuition is more like a radio receiver and it can receive different stations. This radio receiver serves different functions, it serves your spirituality which is the development of your soul. It serves your physical survival. ~ gary-zukav, @wisdomtrove
170:Global consciousness is not an objective belief that can be taught to anybody and everybody, but a subjective transformation in the interior structures that can hold belief in the first place, which itself is the product of a long line of inner consciousness development. ~ ken-wilber, @wisdomtrove
171:The one aim of [my] yoga is an inner self-development by which each one who follows it can in time discover the One Self in all and evolve a higher consciousness than the mental, a spiritual and supramental consciousness which will transform and divinize human nature. ~ sri-aurobindo, @wisdomtrove
172:If education is always to be conceived along the same antiquated lines of a mere transmission of knowledge, there is little to be hoped from it in the bettering of man's future. For what is the use of transmitting knowledge if the individual's total development lags behind? ~ maria-montessori, @wisdomtrove
173:More than happiness, love wants growth, the widening and deepening of consciousness and being. Whatever prevents becomes a cause of pain, and love does not shirk from pain. Sattva, the energy that works for righteousness and orderly development, must not be thwarted. ~ sri-nisargadatta-maharaj, @wisdomtrove
174:All knowledge pursued merely for the enrichment of personal learning and the accumulation of personal treasure leads you away from the path; but all knowledge pursued for growth to ripeness within the process of human ennoblement and cosmic development brings you a step forward. ~ rudolf-steiner, @wisdomtrove
175:Infinite power of the spirit, brought to bear upon matter evolves material development, made to act upon thought evolves intellectuality, and made to act upon itself makes of man a God. First, let us be Gods, and then help other to be GOds. Be and Make. Let this be our motto. ~ swami-vivekananda, @wisdomtrove
176:Conservation means development as much as it does protection. I recognize the right and duty of this generation to develop and use the natural resources of our land; but I do not recognize the right to waste them, or to rob, by wasteful use, the generations that come after us. ~ theodore-roosevelt, @wisdomtrove
177:The understanding of "evolutionary consciousness" is perhaps the most important thing lacking in spiritual practices today. Evolution means growth and development. This means that there are aspects of reality that have not yet arisen in our consciousness. But they will arise if we grow. ~ ken-wilber, @wisdomtrove
178:They have become strong enough to be independent of the good opinion of other people, or even of their affection. The honours, the status, the rewards, the popularity, the prestige, and the love they can bestow must have become less important than self- development and inner growth. ~ abraham-maslow, @wisdomtrove
179:I do not think one can assess a writer's motives without knowing something of his early development. His subject matter will be determined by the age he lives in ... but before he ever begins to write he will have acquired an emotional attitude from which he will never completely escape. ~ george-orwell, @wisdomtrove
180:Child development: Most damaging course of action is attempting to keep children from experience or protect them from pain, for it is this time that children learn that life is a magic thing, if "not a rose garden." The parent's role is primarily to stand by with a good supply of band-aids. ~ leo-buscaglia, @wisdomtrove
181:The ceaseless, senseless demand for original scholarship in a number of fields, where only erudition is now possible, has led either to sheer irrelevancy, the famous knowing of more and more about less and less, or to the development of a pseudo-scholarship which actually destroys its object. ~ hannah-arendt, @wisdomtrove
182:An enterprising person is one who comes across a pile of scrap metal and sees the making of a wonderful sculpture. An enterprising person is one who drives through an old decrepit part of town and sees a new housing development. An enterprising person is one who sees opportunity in all areas of life. ~ jim-rohn, @wisdomtrove
183:I'm surprised at some technological development, and the realization that any sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguishable from magic. I think the CD-ROM is the best example of that. The idea of having a whole symphony, or opera, or novel in a little piece of plastic is pretty amazing. ~ arthur-c-carke, @wisdomtrove
184:[... ] it is right to be kind and even sacrifice ourselves to people who need kindness and lie in our way - otherwise, besides failing to help them, we run into the aridity of self-development. To seek for recipients of one's goodness, to play the Potted Jesus leads to the contray the Christian danger. ~ e-m-forster, @wisdomtrove
185:Children are living beings - more living than grown-up people who have built shells of habit around themselves. Therefore it is absolutely necessary for their mental health and development that they should not have mere schools for their lessons, but a world whose guiding spirit is personal love. ~ rabindranath-tagore, @wisdomtrove
186:The development of artificial intelligence may well imply that man will relinquish his intellectual supremacy in favor of thinking machines. With oceans of time available for future innovation, there seems to be no reason why machines cannot achieve and surpass anything of which the human brain is capable. ~ paul-davies, @wisdomtrove
187:At the Integral stages of development, the entire universe starts to make sense, to hang together, to actually appear as a uni-verse—a one world—a single, unified, integrated world that unites not only different philosophies and ideas about the world, but different practices for growth and development as well. ~ ken-wilber, @wisdomtrove
188:The aim of education should not be to teach how to use human energies to improve the environment, for we are finally beginning to realize that the cornerstone of education is the development of the human personality, and that in this regard education is of immediate importance for the salvation of mankind. ~ maria-montessori, @wisdomtrove
189:The price which society pays for the law of competition, like the price it pays for cheap comforts and luxuries, is great; but the advantages of this law are also greater still than its cost- for it is to this law that we owe our wonderful material development, which brings improved conditions in its train. ~ andrew-carnegie, @wisdomtrove
190:This is the first lesson ye should learn: There is so much good in the worst of us, and so much bad in the best of us, it doesn't behoove any of us to speak evil of the rest of us. This is a universal law, and until one begins to make application of same, one may not go very far in spiritual or soul development. ~ edgar-cayce, @wisdomtrove
191:How does he achieve this independence? He does it by means of a continuous activity. How does he become free? By means of constant effort. we know that development results from activity. The environment must be rich in motives which lend interest to activity and invite the child to conduct his own experiences. ~ maria-montessori, @wisdomtrove
192:We teachers can only help the work going on, as servants wait upon a master. We then become witnesses to the development of the human soul; the emergence of the New Man who will no longer be the victim of events but, thanks to his clarity of vision, will become able to direct and to mold the future of mankind. ~ maria-montessori, @wisdomtrove
193:Loving yourself involves the discovery of the true wonder of you; not only the present you, but the many possibilities of you. It involves the continual realization that you are unique, like no other person in the world, that life is, or should be, the discovery, the development and the sharing of this uniqueness. ~ leo-buscaglia, @wisdomtrove
194:Belief, thus, in the supernatural, great as are the services which it rendered in the early stages of human development, cannot be considered to be any longer required, either for enabling us to know what is right and wrong in social morality, or for supplying us with motives to do right and to abstain from wrong. ~ john-stuart-mill, @wisdomtrove
195:Every temptation that is resisted, every evil thought that is curbed, every desire that is subdued, every bitter word that is withheld, every noble aspiration that is encouraged, every sublime thought that is cultivated, adds to the development of will-force, good character, and attainment of eternal bliss and immortality. ~ sivananda, @wisdomtrove
196:Love is higher than opinion. If people love one another the most varied opinions can be reconciled - thus one of the most important tasks for humankind today and in the future is that we should learn to live together and understand one another. If this human fellowship is not achieved, all talk of development is empty. ~ rudolf-steiner, @wisdomtrove
197:Our progress as a nation can be no swifter than our progress in education. Our requirements for world leadership, our hopes for economic growth, and the demands of citizenship itself in an era such as this all require the maximum development of every young American's capacity. The human mind is our fundamental resource. ~ john-f-kennedy, @wisdomtrove
198:Physical education for the body to be effective must be rigorous and detailed, far sighted and methodological. This will be translated into habits. These habits should be controlled and disciplined, while remaining flexible enough to adapt themselves to circumstances and to the needs of growth and development of the being. ~ sri-aurobindo, @wisdomtrove
199:To be "integrally developed" does not mean that you have to excel in all the known intelligences, or that all of your lines have to be at level 3. But it does mean that you develop a very good sense of what your own psychograph is actually like, so that with a much more Integral self-image you can plan your future development. ~ ken-wilber, @wisdomtrove
200:Is it what you call civilization that makes England flourish? Is it the universal development of the faculties of man that has rendered an island, almost unknown to the ancients, the arbiter of the world? Clearly not. It is the inhabitants that have done this. It is an affair of race... . All is race, there is no other truth. ~ benjamin-disraeli, @wisdomtrove
201:This spontaneous emergence of order at critical points of instability, which is often referred to simply as emergence, is one of the hallmarks of life. It has been recognized as the dynamic origin of development, learning, and evolution. In other words, creativity-the generation of new forms-is a key property of all living systems. ~ fritjof-capra, @wisdomtrove
202:If humanity doesn't destroy the planet first, which is always a possibility because as Spirit threw itself out there, that included free will. So, if we don't blow ourselves up first, soul will become as common of a mature development in adults as mind currently is and, eventually, Spirit will become the common experience for humanity. ~ ken-wilber, @wisdomtrove
203:[E]very plot, worth the name, must be elaborated to its dénouement before anything be attempted with the pen. It is only with the dénouement constantly in view that we can plot its indispensable air of consequence, or causation, by making the incidents, and especially the tone at all points tend to the development of the intention. ~ edgar-allan-poe, @wisdomtrove
204:For the most part, people think in ordinary life without bringing order into their thoughts. The guiding principles and epochs of human development and planetary evolution, the great viewpoints which have been opened by the initiates, bring thought into ordered forms. All of this is a part of Rosicrucian training. It is called the Study. ~ rudolf-steiner, @wisdomtrove
205:Growth and psychic development are therefore guided by: the absorbent mind, the nebulae and the sensitive periods, with their respective mechanisms.  It is these that are hereditary and characteristic of the human species.  But the promise they hold can only be fulfilled through the experience of free activity conducted in the environment. ~ maria-montessori, @wisdomtrove
206:Those whose primary concern is to destroy others are at the lowest level of development. Those who are only interested in their own satisfaction are farther along. Those who both do things for their own satisfaction and the satisfaction of others are even father along. Then there are saints who just constantly live for the welfare of others. ~ frederick-lenz, @wisdomtrove
207:A society which discards those who are weak and non-productive risks exaggerating the development of reason, organisation, aggression and the desire to dominate. It becomes a society without a heart, without kindness - a rational and sad society, lacking celebration, divided within itself and given to competition, rivalry and, finally, violence. ~ jean-vanier, @wisdomtrove
208:The elemental fact, present in our consciousness every moment of our existence, is: I am life that wills to live, in the midst of life that wills to live... . The essence of the humane spirit is: Preserve life, promote life, help life to achieve its highest destiny. The essence of Evil is: Destroy life, harm life, hamper the development of life ~ albert-schweitzer, @wisdomtrove
209:A celebrated author and divine has written to me that he has gradually learned to see that it is just as noble a conception of the Deity to believe that he created a few original forms capable of self-development into other and needful forms, as to believe that he required a fresh act of creation to supply the voids caused by the action of his laws. ~ charles-darwin, @wisdomtrove
210:The progressive growth of the finite consciousness of man towards this Self, towards the universal , the eternal, the infinite, in a word his growth into spiritual consciousness by the development of his ordinary ignorant natural being into an illumined divine nature, this is for Indian thinking the significance of life and the aim of human existance. ~ sri-aurobindo, @wisdomtrove
211:The True is the whole. But the whole is nothing other than the essence consummating itself through its development. Of the Absolute it must be said that it is essentially a result, that only in the end is it what it truly is; and that precisely in this consists its nature, viz. to be actual, subject, the spontaneous becoming of itself. ~ georg-wilhelm-friedrich-hegel, @wisdomtrove
212:In materiality we find some advance faster, some grow stronger, some become weaklings. Until there is redemption through the acceptance of the law (or love of God, as manifested through the Channel or the Way), there can be little or no development in a material or spiritual plane. But all must pass under the rod, even as He-who entered into materiality. ~ edgar-cayce, @wisdomtrove
213:The liberty of the individual is no gift of civilization. It was greatest before there was any civilization, though then, it is true, it had for the most part no value, since the individual was scarcely in a position to defend it. The development of civilization imposes restrictions on it, and justice demands that no one shall escape those restrictions. ~ sigmund-freud, @wisdomtrove
214:If it were only that people have diversities of taste, that is reason enough for not attempting to shape them all after one model. But different persons also require different conditions for their spiritual development, and can no more exist healthily in the same moral, than all the varieties of plants can in the same physical, atmosphere and climate. ~ john-stuart-mill, @wisdomtrove
215:We must be able to appreciate and enjoy the places where we tarry and yet pass on without anguish when we are called elsewhere. In our spiritual development we are often required to pull up roots many times and to close many chapters in our lives until we are no longer attached to any material thing and can love all people without any attachment to them. ~ peace-pilgrim, @wisdomtrove
216:Consciousness is an ever-unfolding, deepening, and expanding process with no end point. We are infinite and complex beings, and our human journey involves not just a spiritual awakening, but the development of all levels of our being - spiritual, mental, emotional, and physical - and the integration of all these aspects into a healthy and balanced daily life. ~ shakti-gawain, @wisdomtrove
217:Sri Ramakrishna is far greater than the disciples understand him to be. He is the embodiment of infinite spiritual ideas capable of development in infinite ways... .One glance of his gracious eyes can create a hundred thousand Vivekanandas at this instant. If he chooses now, instead, to work through me, making me his instrument, I can only bow to his will. ~ swami-vivekananda, @wisdomtrove
218:Along with faith comes the requirement for dogged persistence. At first meditation may bring you mild highs or some relief from suffering. But there may come a time - just as there does in the development of any skill - when there will be a plateau. You may be bored, discouraged, or even negative and cynical. This is when you will need not only faith, but persistence. ~ ram-das, @wisdomtrove
219:If it were felt that the free development of individuality is one of the leading essentials of well-being; that it is not only a coordinate element with all that is designated by the terms civilisation, instruction, education, culture, but is itself a necessary part and condition of all those things; there would be no danger that liberty should be undervalued. ~ john-stuart-mill, @wisdomtrove
220:All the businesses from the beginning of history have struggled with product development (assuming there is a market, doing the market testing and so on). But now they start with customer development. Get the customer who says, "Yes. I want that. I need it. I wanna use it. I'll pay for it." And then you go back and work with your engineers. It is changing the world! ~ brian-tracy, @wisdomtrove
221:The material and the spiritual are but two parts of one universe and one truth. By overstressing one part or the other, man fails to achieve the balance necessary for harmonious development... Practice the art of living in this world without losing your inner peace of mind. Follow the path of balance to reach the inner wondrous garden of Self-Realization. ~ paramahansa-yogananda, @wisdomtrove
222:Spiritual development requires the freedom to connect with different parts of reality in order to understand them more fully. The more you're able to explore, the more connections you can form, and the greater your spiritual growth will be. When you feel a strong desire to connect with something in your reality, listen to your intuitive guidance, and make the connection. ~ steve-pavlina, @wisdomtrove
223:Children, we can grow spiritually only if we see the guru as the manifestation of God. We should not accept anyone as guru before we are fully convinced personally that he is authentic and truthful. Once we choose someone as guru, we should surrender completely to him. Only then will spiritual development be possible. Devotion to the guru means total surrender to him. ~ mata-amritanandamayi, @wisdomtrove
224:I suspect that religion is a necessary evil in the childhood of our particular species. And that's one of the interesting things about contact with other intelligences: we could see what role, if any, religion plays in their development. I think that religion may be some random by-product of mammalian reproduction. If that's true, would non-mammalian aliens have a religion? ~ arthur-c-carke, @wisdomtrove
225:What would it mean if there were a theory that explained everything? And just what does "everything" actually mean, anyway? Would this new theory in physics explain, say the meaning of human poetry? Or how economics work? Or the stages of psychosexual development? Can this new physics explain the currents of ecosystems, or the dynamics of history, or why human wars are so terribly common? ~ ken-wilber, @wisdomtrove
226:There is a delight in the hardy life of the open. There are no words that can tell the hidden spirit of the wilderness, that can reveal its mystery, its melancholy and its charm. The nation behaves well if it treats the natural resources as assets which it must turn over to the next generation increased; and not impaired in value. Conservation means development as much as it does protection. ~ theodore-roosevelt, @wisdomtrove
227:When mental development is under discussion, there are many who say, &
228:What is sustained in a sustainable community is not economic growth, development, market share, or competitive advantage, but the entire web of life on which our long-term survival depends. In other words, a sustainable community is designed in such a way that its ways of life, businesses, economy, physical structures, and technologies do not interfere with nature’s inherent ability to sustain life. ~ fritjof-capra, @wisdomtrove
229:... the first thing his education demands is the provision of an environment in which he can develop the powers given him by nature. This does not mean just to amuse him and let him do what he likes.  But it does mean that we have to adjust our minds to doing a work of collaboration with nature, to being obedient to one of her laws, the law which decrees that development comes from environmental experience. ~ maria-montessori, @wisdomtrove
230:I am more of a sponge than an inventor. I absorb ideas from every source. I take half-matured schemes for mechanical development and make them practical. I am a sort of a middleman between the long-haired and impractical inventor and the hard-headed businessman who measures all things in terms of dollars and cents. My principal business is giving commercial value to the brilliant but misdirected ideas of others. ~ thomas-edison, @wisdomtrove
231:You know, all is development. The principle is perpetually going on. First, there was nothing, then there was something; then-I forget the next-I think there were shells, then fishes; then we came-let me see-did we come next? Never mind that; we came at last. And at the next change there will be something very superior to us-something with wings. Ah! That's it: we were fishes, and I believe we shall be crows. ~ benjamin-disraeli, @wisdomtrove
232:Liberalism makes this mistake in regard to private property and Marxism makes it in regard to socialized property... The Marxist illusion is partly derived from a romantic conception of human nature... It assumes that the socialization of property will eliminate human egotism... The development of a managerial class in Russia, combing economic with political power, is an historic refutation of the Marxist theory. ~ reinhold-niebuhr, @wisdomtrove
233:Red RodsBefore elaborating any system of education, we must therefore create a favorable environment that will encourage the flowering of a child's natural gifts. All that is needed is to remove the obstacles. And this should be the basis of, and point of departure for, all future education. The first thing to be done, therefore, is to discover the true nature of a child and then assist him in his normal development. ~ maria-montessori, @wisdomtrove
234:It is a curious subject of observation and inquiry, whether hatred and love be not the same thing at bottom. Each, in its utmost development, supposes a high degree of intimacy and heart-knowledge; each renders one individual dependent for the food of his affections and spiritual life upon another; each leaves the passionate lover, or the no less passionate hater, forlorn and desolate by the withdrawal of his object. ~ nathaniel-hawthorne, @wisdomtrove
235:Thinking cannot be clear until it has had expression-we must write, or speak, or act our thoughts, or they will remain in half torpid form. Our feelings must have expression, or they will be as clouds, which, till they descend in rain, will never bring up fruit or flowers. So it is with all the inward feelings; expression gives them development-thought is the blossom; language is the opening bud; action the fruit behind it. ~ henry-ward-beecher, @wisdomtrove
236:Our status as a free society and world power is not based on brute strength. When we've taken up arms, it has been for the defense of freedom for ourselves and for other peaceful nations who needed our help. But now, faced with the development of weapons with immense destructive power, we've no choice but to maintain ready defense forces that are second to none. Yes, the cost is high, but the price of neglect would be infinitely higher. ~ ronald-reagan, @wisdomtrove
237:Love yourself. Just love yourself. In fact, the love of the self cures every kind of problem you have with yourself. For instance, if someone calls you nappy-headed, it rolls right off your body, if you love nappy hair. Or if someone calls you buck-toothed or too black, that won't be a problem if you love being buck-toothed or black. If you love it, then so what. The development of self-love cures many of the ills that people suffer from. ~ alice-walker, @wisdomtrove
238:Our life crises tell us that we need to break free of beliefs that no longer serve our personal development. These points at which we must choose to change or to stagnate are our greatest challenges. Every new crossroads means we enter into a new cycle of change - whether it be adopting a new health regimen or a new spiritual practice. And change inevitably means letting go of familiar people and places and moving on to another stage of life. ~ caroline-myss, @wisdomtrove
239:The fateful question for the human species seems to me to be whether and to what extent their cultural development will succeed in mastering the disturbance of their communal life by the human instinct of aggression and self-destruction ... One thing only do I know for certain and that is that man's judgements of value follow directly from his wihes for happiness-that, accordingly, they are an attempt to support his illusions with arguments. ~ sigmund-freud, @wisdomtrove
240:Our life crises tell us that we need to break free of beliefs that no longer serve our personal development. These points at which we must choose to change or to stagnate are our greatest challenges. Every new crossroads means we enter into a new cycle of change - whether it be adopting a new health regimen or a new spiritual practice. And change inevitably means letting go of familiar people and places and moving on to another stage of life. ~ norman-vincent-peale, @wisdomtrove
241:Times have changed, and science has made great progress, and so has our work; but our principles have only been confirmed, and along with them our conviction that mankind can hope for a solution to its problems, among which the most urgent are those of peace and unity, only by turning its attention and energies to the discovery of the child and to the development of the great potentialities of the human personality in the course of its formation. ~ maria-montessori, @wisdomtrove
242:Peace is the most covetable possession on the earth. It is the greatest treasure in all the universe. Peace is the most important and indispensable factor for all growth and development. It is in the tranquility and quiet of the night that the seed slowly sprouts from under the soil. The bud opens in the depth of the most silent hours. So also, in a state of peace and love, people evolve, grow in their distinctive culture, and develop perfect civilization. ~ sivananda, @wisdomtrove
243:Adults look upon a child as something empty that is to be filled through their own efforts, as something inert and helpless for which they must do everything, as something lacking an inner guide and in constant need of inner direction. . . . An adult who acts in this way, even though he may be convinced that he is filled with zeal, love, and a spirit of sacrifice on behalf of his child, unconsciously suppresses the development of the child's own personality. ~ maria-montessori, @wisdomtrove
244:The real development I've seen of people in organizations, especially in big ones, comes from their being volunteers in a nonprofit organization - where you have responsibility, you see results, and you quickly learn what your values are. There is no better way to understand your strengths and discover where you belong than to volunteer in a nonprofit. That is probably the great opportunity for the social sector - and especially in its relationship to business. ~ peter-drucker, @wisdomtrove
245:The greatest dread of ordinary man is death, with its rude imposition interrupting fortuitous plans and fondest attachments with an unknown and unwelcome change. The yogi is a conqueror of the grief associated with death. By control of mind and life force and the development of wisdom, he makes friends with the change of consciousness called death-he becomes familiar with the state of inner calmness and aloofness from identification with the mortal body. ~ paramahansa-yogananda, @wisdomtrove
246:Fact is, the work place to a great extent is "where we live." We need star accountants. Boffo saleswomen. Over-the-top creatives in marketing and new product development. And so on. But, since we're effectively talking about "where we live," good sense and good business and "good" engagement throughout the "supply chain," from vendor's vendor to customer's customer, we would benefit mightily-including on the P & L-if we insisted (!) on: "Pleasant." "Caring." "Engaged." ~ tom-peters, @wisdomtrove
247:One hundred and fifty years ago the vacant lands of the West were opened to private use. One hundred years ago the Congress passed the Homestead Act, probably the single greatest stimulus to national development ever enacted. Under the impetus of that Act and other laws, more than 1.1 billion acres of the original public main have been transferred to private and non-federal public ownership. The 768 million acres remaining in federal ownership are a valuable national asset. ~ john-f-kennedy, @wisdomtrove
248:Student loans have been helpful to many. But they offer neither incentive nor assistance to those students who, by reason of family or other obligations, are unable or unwilling to go deeper into debt. ... It is, moreover, only prudent economic and social policy for the public to share part of the costs of the long period of higher education for those whose development is essential to our national economic and social well-being. All of us share in the benefits - all should share in the costs. ~ john-f-kennedy, @wisdomtrove
249:Every period of human development has had its own particular type of human conflict - its own variety of problem that, apparently, could be settled only by force. And each time, frustratingly enough, force never really settled the problem. Instead, it persisted through a series of conflicts, then vanished of itself - what's the expression - ah, yes, &
250:There are three stages in one’s spiritual development, said the Master. The carnal, the spiritual and the divine. What is the carnal stage? asked the eager disciples. That’s the stage when trees are seen as trees and mountains as mountains. And the spiritual? That’s when one looks more deeply into things—then trees are no longer trees and mountains no longer mountains. And the divine? Ah, that’s Enlightenment, said the Master with a chuckle, when trees become trees again and mountains, mountains. ~ anthony-de-mello, @wisdomtrove
251:I have visited sweatshops, factories, and crowded slums. If I could not see it, I could smell it. The foundation of society is laid upon a basis of . . . individualism, conquest and exploitation . . . A social order such as this, built upon such wrong and basic principles, is bound to retard the development of all. The output of a cotton mill or a coal mine is considered of greater importance than the production of healthy, happy-hearted and free human beings. We, the people, are not free. Our democracy is but a name. ~ hellen-keller, @wisdomtrove
252:When an individual passes from one period of life to another a time comes when he cannot go on in senseless activity and excitement as before, but has to understand that although he has out-grown what before used to direct him, this does not mean that he must live without any reasonable guidance, but rather that he must formulate for himself an understanding of life corresponding to his age, and having elucidated it must be guided by it. And in the same way a similar time must come in the growth and development of humanity. ~ leo-tolstoy, @wisdomtrove
253:I can only gaze with wonder and awe at the depths of and heights of our psychic nature. Its non-spatial universe conceals an untold abundance of images which have accumulated over millions of years of living development and become fixed in the organism... .Beside this picture I would like to place the spectacle of the starry heavens at night, for the only equivalent of the universe within is the universe without; and just as I reach this world through the medium of the body, so I reach that world through the medium of the psyche. ~ carl-jung, @wisdomtrove
254:Norway, Iceland, Australia, Canada, Sweden, Switzerland, Belgium, Japan, the Netherlands, Denmark, and the United Kingdom are among the least religious societies on earth. According to the United Nations' Human Development Report (2005), they are also the healthiest, as indicated by life expectancy, adult literacy, per capita income, educational attainment, gender equality, homicide rate, and infant mortality. . . . Conversely, the fifty nations now ranked lowest in terms of the United Nations' human development index are unwaveringly religious. ~ sam-harris, @wisdomtrove
255:Nothing could have been worse for the development of my mind than Dr. Butler's school, as it was strictly classical, nothing else being taught, except a little ancient geography and history. The school as a means of education to me was simply a blank. During my whole life I have been singularly incapable of mastering any language. Especial attention was paid to versemaking, and this I could never do well. I had many friends, and got together a good collection of old verses, which by patching together, sometimes aided by other boys, I could work into any subject. ~ charles-darwin, @wisdomtrove
256:Be sure the safest rule is that we should not dare to live in any scene in which we dare not die. But, once realise what the true object is in life ¬ó that it is not pleasure, not knowledge, not even fame itself, &
257:Homosexuality is assuredly no advantage, but it is nothing to be ashamed of, no vice, no degradation; it cannot be classified as an illness; we consider it to be a variation of the sexual function, produced by a certain arrest of sexual development. Many highly respectable individuals of ancient and modern times have been homosexuals, several of the greatest men among them (Plato, Michelangelo, Leonardo da Vinci, etc.). It is a great injustice to persecute homosexuality as a crime&
258:The very reason why we object to state ownership, that it puts a stop to individual initiative and to the healthy development of personal responsibility, is the reason why we object to an unsupervised, unchecked monopolistic control in private hands. We urge control and supervision by the nation as an antidote to the movement for state socialism. Those who advocate total lack of regulation, those who advocate lawlessness in the business world, themselves give the strongest impulse to what I believe would be the deadening movement toward unadulterated state socialism. ~ theodore-roosevelt, @wisdomtrove
259:One can see from space how the human race has changed the Earth. Nearly all of the available land has been cleared of forest and is now used for agriculture or urban development. The polar icecaps are shrinking and the desert areas are increasing. At night, the Earth is no longer dark, but large areas are lit up. All of this is evidence that human exploitation of the planet is reaching a critical limit. But human demands and expectations are ever-increasing. We cannot continue to pollute the atmosphere, poison the ocean and exhaust the land. There isn't any more available. ~ stephen-hawking, @wisdomtrove
260:The iPod is clearly a tipping point (and I'm not quite sure it is a wholly positive development), because it is a revolution in the way that we consume creative property, which I would call art. It has radically changed the relationship between the artist and the audience, how money changes hands, and how much money changes hands. Music was the first, and books are coming next. The Kindle or some form of electronic book is clearly inevitable, and it will massively reshape how books are sold, who pays for them, and how they're consumed. It is going to be really fascinating. ~ malcolm-gladwell, @wisdomtrove
261:To affirm life is to deepen, to make more inward, and to exalt the will-to-life. At the same time the man who has become a thinking being feels a compulsion to give every will-to-live the same reverence for life that he gives to his own. He experiences that other life as his own. He accepts as being good: to preserve life, to raise to its highest value life which is capable of development; and as being evil: to destroy life, to injure life, to repress life which is capable of development. This is the absolute, fundamental principle of the moral, and it is a necessity of thought. ~ albert-schweitzer, @wisdomtrove
262:Whether future growth is to come through additional incarnations on this earth, or in other worlds, or whether the Soul once released from the bonds of earthly flesh, goes into other planes of existence, there to grow, is not fundamental— not material. The Universe is large, and it is just possible that we may be given an opportunity of visiting all parts of it in our development, in which case it would seem that we are on a comparatively low plane of life just now— are just awakening into a consciousness of what it all means, and in the future we will be conscious of our growth and progress and development.  ~ william-walker-atkinson, @wisdomtrove
263:Take a moment to think about the context in which your next decision will occur: You did not pick your parents or the time and place of your birth. You didn't choose your gender or most of your life experiences. You had no control whatsoever over your genome or the development of your brain. And now your brain is making choices on the basis of preferences and beliefs that have been hammered into it over a lifetime - by your genes, your physical development since the moment you were conceived, and the interactions you have had with other people, events, and ideas. Where is the freedom in this? Yes, you are free to do what you want even now. But where did your desires come from? ~ sam-harris, @wisdomtrove
264:According to the science of biology, people were not ‘created’. They have evolved. And they certainly did not evolve to be ‘equal’. The idea of equality is inextricably intertwined with the idea of creation. The Americans got the idea of equality from Christianity, which argues that every person has a divinely created soul, and that all souls are equal before God. However, if we do not believe in the Christian myths about God, creation and souls, what does it mean that all people are ‘equal’? Evolution is based on difference, not on equality. Every person carries a somewhat different genetic code, and is exposed from birth to different environmental influences. This leads to the development of different qualities that carry with them different chances of survival. ‘Created equal’ should therefore be translated into ‘evolved differently’. ~ yuval-noah-harari, @wisdomtrove
265:Today Hindu revivalists, pious Muslims, Japanese nationalists and Chinese communists may declare their adherence to very different values and goals, but they have all come to believe that economic growth is the key to realising their disparate goals. Thus in 2014 the devout Hindu Narendra Modi was elected prime minister of India thanks largely to his success in boosting economic growth in his home state of Gujarat, and to the widely held view that only he could reinvigorate the sluggish national economy. Analogous views have kept the Islamist Recep Tayyip Erdoğan in power in Turkey since 2003. The name of his party – the Justice and Development Party – highlights its commitment to economic development, and the Erdoğan government has indeed managed to maintain impressive growth rates for more than a decade. Japan’s prime minister, the nationalist Shinzō Abe, came to office in 2012 pledging to jolt the Japanese economy out of two decades of stagnation. His aggressive and somewhat unusual measures to achieve this have been nicknamed Abenomics. Meanwhile in neighbouring China the Communist Party still pays lip service to traditional Marxist–Leninist ideals, but in practice is guided by Deng Xiaoping’s famous maxims that ‘development is the only hard truth’ and that ‘it doesn’t matter if a cat is black or white, so long as it catches mice’. Which means, in plain language: do whatever it takes to promote economic growth, even if Marx and Lenin wouldn’t have been happy with it. In Singapore, as befits that no-nonsense city-state, they pursue this line of thinking even further, and peg ministerial salaries to the national GDP. When the Singaporean economy grows, government ministers get a raise, as if that is what their jobs are all about. ~ yuval-noah-harari, @wisdomtrove

*** NEWFULLDB 2.4M ***

1:development of data standards, ~ Anonymous,
2:methodology Customer Development, ~ Eric Ries,
3:Development develops inequality. ~ Eduardo Galeano,
4:Responsibility leads to development of character. ~,
5:Income seldom exceeds personal development. ~ Jim Rohn,
6:inhibited development in the South and ~ Edward J Larson,
7:Reading becomes the fuel for development. ~ Narendra Modi,
8:Another name for peace is development. ~ Pope John Paul II,
9:Culture changes with economic development. ~ Ha Joon Chang,
10:Heredity proposes and development disposes. ~ Peter Medawar,
11:The development of relationship creates plot. ~ Anne Lamott,
12:We cannot force the development of mindfulness. ~ Allan Lokos,
13:Health is the core of human development ~ Gro Harlem Brundtland,
14:Arrested Development opened a lot of doors for me. ~ Will Arnett,
15:Humans should be permanently under development. ~ Graeme Simsion,
16:literacy is at the heart of sustainable development ~ Kofi Annan,
17:Corruption is a true enemy to development. ~ Tsakhiagiin Elbegdorj,
18:The truest success is but the development of self. ~ Charles Atlas,
19:Development is a lot cheaper than sending soldiers. ~ Robert M Gates,
20:Life is finding yourself. It is a spirit development. ~ Robert Henri,
21:Prosperity is often the enemy of spiritual development. ~ Max Anders,
22:Rebellion is necessary for development of character. ~ Cynthia Voigt,
23:Artistic development is a thing of the past, sadly. ~ David Coverdale,
24:Chris Brown, a software-development manager at the time. ~ Brad Stone,
25:The development of the mind comes through movement ~ Maria Montessori,
26:We lay foundations that will need further development. ~ Oscar Romero,
27:Soul development should take precedence over all things. ~ Edgar Cayce,
28:The stages of human development are to strive for: ~ Erwin Schrodinger,
29:We have to control our battery development and testing. ~ Henrik Fisker,
30:What we want is progress, development, realisation. ~ Swami Vivekananda,
31:Wisdom is the fruit of a balanced development. ~ Alfred North Whitehead,
32:Education is the great engine to personal development. ~ Nelson Mandela,
33:product development into a conversation with customers. ~ Alistair Croll,
34:Military missions are not democratic development aid. ~ Guido Westerwelle,
35:software development was insecurities all the way down. Even ~ Ken MacLeod,
36:the key to human development is building on who you already are ~ Tom Rath,
37:Character development is always a prerequisite to godly living. ~ Anonymous,
38:Material development alone does not yield genuine inner peace. ~ Dalai Lama,
39:of Abigail Foster from a distance, but this new development ~ Melinda Leigh,
40:So-called 'sustainable development' is meaningless drivel. ~ James Lovelock,
41:Workers' rights should be a central focus of development. ~ Joseph Stiglitz,
42:Businesses that grow by development and improvement do not die. ~ Henry Ford,
43:Alaska has great potential for new oil and gas development. ~ Frank Murkowski,
44:Hiding the truth will only cripple your emotional development. ~ Jessica Park,
45:I have always believed in development over votebank politics. ~ Narendra Modi,
46:Independent development can be a virus that can infect others. ~ Noam Chomsky,
47:Scientific progress consists in the development of new concepts. ~ Ernst Mayr,
48:Starving research and development is like eating the seed corn. ~ Mitt Romney,
49:The willingness to grow is the essence of all spiritual development. ~ Bill W,
50:Development cannot really be so centered only on those in power. ~ Amartya Sen,
51:Self-control is the only possible road to character development ~ Dennis Prager,
52:Self-development is a higher duty than self-sacrifice. ~ Elizabeth Cady Stanton,
53:self-development is a higher duty than self-sacrifice. ~ Elizabeth Cady Stanton,
54:The greatest gift you can give someone is your personal development. ~ Jim Rohn,
55:We must also understand where a trend is along its development path. ~ Amy Webb,
56:Why “one size fits all” development methodologies don’t work ~ David J Anderson,
57:Hearing stories has a direct impact on literacy development. ~ Stephen D Krashen,
58:In Hollywood, 'under development' means 'all I have is the title.' ~ Roger Ebert,
59:In many ways Africa subsidised America and Europe's development. ~ Jesse Jackson,
60:Leadership development is a lifetime journey, not a quick trip. ~ John C Maxwell,
61:The video game story-development process is incredibly broken. ~ Austin Grossman,
62:Travel is a fantastic self-development tool, because it extricates ~ Mark Manson,
63:Why do anything if the apex of human development is Fran Drescher? ~ Noah Cicero,
64:Different development itself runs the threat of making life shapeless. ~ Todd May,
65:In 2031, lawyers will be commonly a part of most development teams. ~ Grady Booch,
66:Serious development of the personality begins at the closet door. ~ William James,
67:The development of man is a return to an original perfection. ~ Swami Vivekananda,
68:To double your income, triple your investment in self-development. ~ Robin Sharma,
69:When one has talent, everything contributes to its development. ~ Peter Kropotkin,
70:When one has talent, everything contributes to its development. ~ Pyotr Kropotkin,
71:Conservation means development as much as it does protection. ~ Theodore Roosevelt,
72:Life is enhanced and ultimately perfected by inward development. ~ Thich Nhat Hanh,
73:You're not a moron. You're only a case of arrested development. ~ Ernest Hemingway,
74:If you want to know what the future is, be part of its development. ~ Peter Drucker,
75:Sustainable development is a proven catalyst for Xerox innovation. ~ Anne M Mulcahy,
76:Where are the vehicles to character development in secular society? ~ Dennis Prager,
77:God does not relish our sufferings, but He delights in our development. ~ Max Lucado,
78:It has been Gujarat's strength to do development with Jan Bhagidari. ~ Narendra Modi,
79:The progressive development of man is vitally dependent on invention. ~ Nikola Tesla,
80:College was just so essential for my sense of self and my development. ~ Claire Danes,
81:Culture means the perfect and equal development of man on all sides. ~ John Burroughs,
82:Idle minds are the devil's research-and-development department. ~ Robert Stacy McCain,
83:If we want spiritual development, the practice of patience is essential. ~ Dalai Lama,
84:If you want to thrive, you need to sow the seeds of self-development. ~ Brian Buffini,
85:It is development, not poverty, that causes upheaval and terrorism. ~ Robert D Kaplan,
86:level of success will seldom exceed your level of personal development. ~ Jeff Finley,
87:Maturation is the development from environmental support to self-support. ~ Bruce Lee,
88:ordered the development of a stripped-down, low-cost alternative to Duke, ~ Anonymous,
89:The only 'good' learning is that which is in advance of development. ~ Lev S Vygotsky,
90:Don't ally your personal interests with the development of the company. ~ Wang Jianlin,
91:Ideas are a dime a dozen. It's the development that puts you over the top. ~ Anonymous,
92:If we want any significant development, we must co-opt civil society. ~ Nelson Mandela,
93:Management means the development of people, not the direction of things. ~ Bob Proctor,
94:Men are only as good as their technical development allows them to be. ~ George Orwell,
95:Sustainable development: Holding our world in trust for our children ~ Michael Meacher,
96:The greatest gift you can give to somebody is your own personal development ~ Jim Rohn,
97:The growth and development of people is the highest calling of leadership. ~ E L James,
98:The need for growth, for development, for change, is fundamental to life. ~ John Dewey,
99:The perfect team in personal development is small steps and willpower. ~ Stephen Guise,
100:There was an interesting development in the CBS-Westmoreland trial: ~ David Letterman,
101:All human life at every stage of its development is worthy of protection. ~ Marco Rubio,
102:If you would understand anything, observe its beginning and its development ~ Aristotle,
103:Peace is the greatest weapon for development that any person can have. ~ Nelson Mandela,
104:Sustainable development and climate change are two sides of the same coin ~ Ban Ki moon,
105:The status quo (of development) pre-ordains failure from the very beginning. ~ Gene Kim,
106:We need to promote development that does not destroy our environment. ~ Wangari Maathai,
107:Your level of success will seldom exceed your level of personal development. ~ Jim Rohn,
108:Most of the work performed by a development engineer results in failure. ~ Koichi Tanaka,
109:The growth and development of people is the highest calling of leadership.’  ~ E L James,
110:Economic development is what's going to make mountaintop removal palatable. ~ Joe Manchin,
111:Scythe continues to be in development as a feature film with Universal, ~ Neal Shusterman,
112:An investment in your personal development is the best investment you can make. ~ Jim Rohn,
113:Fourth, split reward conversations from development conversations. Combining ~ Laszlo Bock,
114:In science fiction a fantastic event or development is considered rationally. ~ James Gunn,
115:smoke detectors were a relatively new development and still expensive for ~ Michelle Obama,
116:Some people talk about Haiti as being the graveyard of development projects. ~ Paul Farmer,
117:The end and aim of all education is the development of character. ~ Francis Wayland Parker,
118:Development of character consists solely in moving toward self-sufficiency. ~ Quentin Crisp,
119:India should walk on her own shadow - we must have our own development model. ~ Abdul Kalam,
120:Development of character consists solely in moving towards self-sufficiency. ~ Quentin Crisp,
121:Every manoeuvre must be the development of a scheme; it must aim at a goal. ~ Ferdinand Foch,
122:It is hard to keep that which has not been obtained through personal development. ~ Jim Rohn,
123:an organization cannot evolve beyond its leadership’s stage of development. ~ Frederic Laloux,
124:Chasing the external to achieve joy is a death-trap for personal-development. ~ Bryant McGill,
125:Every time I lectured to a group of parents-to-be about baby brain development, ~ John Medina,
126:I get so used to working with writers that my prime occupation is development. ~ Ridley Scott,
127:In the fouler development environments, this pipe more closely resembles a sewer. ~ Anonymous,
128:laughter and a sense of humor as a universal index of spiritual development. ~ Dalai Lama XIV,
129:Needless help is an actual hindrance to the development of natural forces. ~ Maria Montessori,
130:Of all work-schools, a good farm is probably the best for motor development. ~ G Stanley Hall,
131:When we invest in women, we invest in a powerful source of global development ~ Melinda Gates,
132:Woman's discontent increases in exact proportion to her development. ~ Elizabeth Cady Stanton,
133:a personality devoted uniquely to its own development absorbs other lives. ~ Georgette Leblanc,
134:Low inflation and government prudence may be harmful for economic development. ~ Ha Joon Chang,
135:Soil mapping is one of the pillars to the challenge of sustainable development ~ Jeffrey Sachs,
136:...there is no tool for development more effective than the empowerment of women. ~ Kofi Annan,
137:(For songwriters) Development of your facility as a musician is also important. ~ Ryan Cayabyab,
138:I would like to see additional funding for entrepreneurial development programs. ~ Steve Chabot,
139:Our culture is teleological-it presumes purposive development and a conclusion. ~ William Pfaff,
140:Our level of success is always going to parallel our level of personal development. ~ Hal Elrod,
141:Set-based development means that you communicate constraints, not solutions. ~ Mary Poppendieck,
142:The essential job of government is to facilitate, not frustrate, job development ~ Andrew Cuomo,
143:The growth and development of people is the highest calling of leadership. ~ Harvey S Firestone,
144:There is no development, no maturing in Hitler’s character and personality. ~ Sebastian Haffner,
145:Without peace there is no development, and without development there is no peace ~ Jan Eliasson,
146:Women’s rights and economic development within a country are highly correlated. ~ Gregg Hurwitz,
147:A superior who works on his own development sets an almost irresistible example. ~ Peter Drucker,
148:Open source is a development methodology; free software is a social movement. ~ Richard Stallman,
149:Word, image, and sound all must have primacy in the development of the narrative. ~ Fred Ritchin,
150:The free development of each is the condition for the free development of all. ~ Friedrich Engels,
151:There can be no sustainable development without sustainable energy development ~ Margot Wallstrom,
152:Without land, how can you have development of roads, highways, townships, etc? ~ Kushal Pal Singh,
153:One hour spent in spinning should be an hour of self-development for the spinner. ~ Mahatma Gandhi,
154:Self-development is a contradiction in terms Personal development is the way. ~ Frank Ra Exstatica,
155:The love of life, at any and every level of development, is the religious impulse. ~ William James,
156:The task of the software development team is to engineer the illusion of simplicity. ~ Grady Booch,
157:why did human development proceed at such different rates on different continents? ~ Jared Diamond,
158:A predilection for genre fiction is symptomatic of a kind of arrested development. ~ Thomas M Disch,
159:day a product development process starts, it is behind schedule and above budget. ~ Donald A Norman,
160:He first advocates practicing moral conduct as a foundation for spiritual development. ~ Ayya Khema,
161:I'm very much bigger than I was, so what? It's not really fatness, it's development. ~ Anita Ekberg,
162:Soccer moms are the enemy of natural history and the full development of a child. ~ Edward O Wilson,
163:We must take steps to prevent further nuclear weapons development or modernization. ~ Daisaku Ikeda,
164:You cannot have exterior development without interior development to hold it in place. ~ Ken Wilber,
165:All media is moving, at light speed, toward development through viral channels. ~ Davis Schneiderman,
166:A treasure trove for parents and for professionals in the child-development fields. ~ Jeffrey K Zeig,
167:Development involves giving up a smaller story in order to wake up to a larger story. ~ Jean Houston,
168:Great leaders encourage leadership development. By openly developing themselves ~ Marshall Goldsmith,
169:More countries have understood that women's equality is a prerequisite for development. ~ Kofi Annan,
170:Our Matru Shakti is our pride. Women empowerment is very crucial to our development. ~ Narendra Modi,
171:The development that produces great art is a moral and not an aesthetic development. ~ Patrick Swift,
172:To worship the product and ignore its development leads to dilettantism and reaction. ~ Hans Hofmann,
173:Just as code benefits from a test-first approach, so does the entire development process. ~ Anonymous,
174:Manufacturers account for nearly 60 percent of all industrial research and development. ~ John Engler,
175:Our mission is skill development. There can be no development with a satiated system. ~ Narendra Modi,
176:The growth and development of the soul is more important than power and glory. ~ Henri Frederic Amiel,
177:The "silly" question is the first intimation of some totally new development ~ Alfred North Whitehead,
178:Compared even to the development of the phone or TV, the Web developed very quickly. ~ Tim Berners Lee,
179:Development must be such that it positively transforms the lives of the common people. ~ Narendra Modi,
180:Educating our young girls is the foundation for Nigerias growth and development. ~ Ngozi Okonjo Iweala,
181:If we are going to see real development in the world then our best investment is WOMEN! ~ Desmond Tutu,
182:In Hinduism, conscience, reason and independent thinking have no scope for development. ~ B R Ambedkar,
183:Mass demand has been created almost entirely through the development of advertising. ~ Calvin Coolidge,
184:The cinema occupies an important place in the overall development of art and literature. ~ Kim Jong Il,
185:The development of technology will leave only one problem: the infirmity of human nature. ~ Karl Kraus,
186:The world got side-tracked from development issues during the post-9/11 crisis period. ~ Jeffrey Sachs,
187:Economic growth without investment in human development is unsustainable - and unethical. ~ Amartya Sen,
188:Every day, there's a new development. ... There's no limit to the things that are happening. ~ Stan Lee,
189:Join me in the final race to smash poverty and achieve the UN Millennium Development Goals ~ Carl Lewis,
190:Nurturing your own development isn’t selfish. It’s actually a great gift to other people. ~ Rick Hanson,
191:The foundation of economic development is the acquisition of more productive knowledge. ~ Ha Joon Chang,
192:The more we give importance to skill development, the more competent will be our youth. ~ Narendra Modi,
193:This is what aesthetics, development and progress depend upon: that we go out on thin ice. ~ Asger Jorn,
194:World War II had a very important impact on the development of technology, as a whole. ~ Barry Commoner,
195:1815 to 1914 was a period of both rapid technological development and rapid globalization. ~ Peter Thiel,
196:Along with the development of concentration we must develop the power of detachment. ~ Swami Vivekananda,
197:No one should voluntarily remain in an environment which prevents his development. ~ Orison Swett Marden,
198:QA and Development should be working together to ensure the quality of the system. The ~ Robert C Martin,
199:The development of full artificial intelligence could spell the end of the human race. ~ Stephen Hawking,
200:The development of physics, like the development of any science, is a continuous one. ~ Owen Chamberlain,
201:The 'silly question' is the first intimation of some totally novel development. ~ Alfred North Whitehead,
202:The State is not in itself an end, but is only a means towards human development. ~ Wilhelm von Humboldt,
203:Visual supervision is a joke for development workers. Visual supervision is for prisoners. ~ Tom DeMarco,
204:Art in its highest form is art that serves and instructs society and human development. ~ Harry Belafonte,
205:Development is about transforming the lives of people, not just transforming economies. ~ Joseph Stiglitz,
206:MAN’S ONLY LIMITATION, within reason, LIES IN HIS DEVELOPMENT AND USE OF HIS IMAGINATION. ~ Napoleon Hill,
207:One of Alaska's strengths is our pioneer role in environmentally sensitive development. ~ Frank Murkowski,
208:Our school education ignores, in a thousand ways, the rules of healthy development. ~ Elizabeth Blackwell,
209:Plot is very important to me, but I think my stories are stronger in character development. ~ Tom Johnson,
210:spirit of capitalism is best understood as part of the development of rationalism as a whole, ~ Max Weber,
211:The development of self-confidence starts with the elimination of this demon called fear. ~ Napoleon Hill,
212:The history of the music industry is inevitably also the story of the development of ~ Edgar Bronfman Jr,
213:The mass of workers, as yet non-Socialist, is retarded in its development towards Socialism. ~ Karl Radek,
214:We need to give importance to skill development because this way we can end unemployment. ~ Narendra Modi,
215:What a strange development of patriotism that turns a thinking being into a loyal machine! ~ Emma Goldman,
216:Choice is a determinant in personal development ... by my free acts I am making myself. ~ Bernard Lonergan,
217:examines the development strategies that Netscape employed to be a better judo player. We also ~ Anonymous,
218:For every step in spiritual perception, three steps are to be taken in moral development. ~ Rudolf Steiner,
219:If we manage conflict constructively, we harness its energy for creativity and development. ~ Kenneth Kaye,
220:is the absolute and essential importance of human development in its richest diversity. ~ John Stuart Mill,
221:It is the duty of every person to contribute in the development and progress of India. ~ Swami Vivekananda,
222:It's a truism in technological development that no silver lining comes without its cloud. ~ Bruce Sterling,
223:Our pride and self-importance are European, while our development and actions are Asiatic. ~ Anton Chekhov,
224:The first step in the development of taste is to be willing to to credit your own opinion. ~ Thomas Harris,
225:The foundation of all personal development, actually, is self-acceptance and self-love. ~ Stephen Richards,
226:What is politics? Political system is equal to development politics plus political politics. ~ Abdul Kalam,
227:You cannot have development in today's world without partnering with the private sector. ~ Hillary Clinton,
228:Create an organization that prizes the development of ability—and watch the leaders emerge. ~ Carol S Dweck,
229:Development is about transforming the lives of people, not just transforming economies. ~ Joseph E Stiglitz,
230:Each stage of cosmic development proceeded more quickly than the stage which preceded it. ~ Terence McKenna,
231:Each time I come it's amazing to watch the development of this incredible country [China]. ~ George Osborne,
232:He was such a beautiful baby, and so placid. Then he grew up. It was an unfortunate development. ~ K Z Snow,
233:Regional exchange can be a source of growth and development, and of enhancing good governance. ~ Anna Lindh,
234:successful leadership takes conscious development and requires being true to your life story. ~ Bill George,
235:The enemy of development is this pain phobia - the unwillingness to do a tiny bit of suffering. ~ Bruce Lee,
236:The perfecting of one's self is the fundamental base of all progress and all moral development. ~ Confucius,
237:The priority for my government is that there will be development for everyone, equally. ~ Michelle Bachelet,
238:White was convinced that the “moron majority,” as he dubbed it, must be a recent development. ~ Carl Zimmer,
239:All Moroccans are justifiably proud of the development of democratic institutions in Morocco. ~ Donald Evans,
240:If information and knowledge are central to democracy, they are the conditions for development. ~ Kofi Annan,
241:If society will not admit of woman's free development, then society must be remodeled. ~ Elizabeth Blackwell,
242:Nevada is poised to lead our nation in renewable development and we must harness those resources. ~ Joe Heck,
243:Now that rock is turning 50, it's become classical itself. It's interesting to see that development. ~ Bj rk,
244:See experiences as an investment in happy memories and in your personal story and development. ~ Meik Wiking,
245:Training and development: The best development programmes change the way people see themselves ~ John Bright,
246:When it's easy to make money, you have no incentive to think about development of talent. ~ Malcolm Gladwell,
247:Adolescent stage in the development of the human race from which humanity should free itself. ~ Sigmund Freud,
248:All the wide world is but the husbandry of God for the development of the one fruit-man. ~ Henry Ward Beecher,
249:Anecdotal data is not incidental to theory development at all, but an essential part of it. ~ Henry Mintzberg,
250:Chasm crossing is not the end, but rather the beginning, of mainstream market development. ~ Geoffrey A Moore,
251:Development is a treacherous river, as
everyone who plunges into its currents knows. ~ Ryszard Kapu ci ski,
252:Even the development of the steam engine owed but little to the advancement of science. ~ James Bryant Conant,
253:Freedoms are not only the primary ends of development, they are also among its principal means. ~ Amartya Sen,
254:I knew I wanted to do something at the nexus of what I call global development and technology. ~ Chris Hughes,
255:Leadership is anytime you seek to influence the thinking, behavior, or development of others. ~ Ken Blanchard,
256:"The Christian symbol is a living thing that carries in itself the seeds of further development." ~ Carl Jung,
257:The most critical issue for teens is that THC disrupts the development of neural pathways. ~ Frances E Jensen,
258:Your development as a person should coincide with your development in all aspects of your life. ~ Ethan Hawke,
259:A-B-D-C-E structure of a story, an acronym for Action-Background-Development-Conflict-Ending. ~ Benjamin Percy,
260:I'm so familiar with what Malcolm X wrote at certain stages of his own life and development. ~ Manning Marable,
261:It is also false that the revolution ripens and comes to development only in the national soil. ~ Leon Trotsky,
262:Meditation is the only means to the harmonious development of the body, mind and soul. ~ Maharishi Mahesh Yogi,
263:Nicotine has been proven addictive harmful to teenagers, threatening normal brain development. ~ John B Larson,
264:Staying alive is not enough to guarantee survival. Development is the best way to ensure survival. ~ Liu Cixin,
265:The development from a religion of fear to moral religion is a great step in peoples' lives. ~ Albert Einstein,
266:The greatest risk we face in software development is that of overestimating our own knowledge. ~ Jim Highsmith,
267:Zen is a very quick path to enlightenment and development of the mind and all its facilities. ~ Frederick Lenz,
268:Character development is vital when writing a strong story. Weak characters make for weak stories. ~ Beem Weeks,
269:In Africa today, we recognise that trade and investment, and not aid, are pillars of development. ~ Paul Kagame,
270:In the past, there's always been one leader that has led the pack to development of the music. ~ Herbie Hancock,
271:Now that rock is turning 50, it's become classical in itself. It's interesting to see that development. ~ Bjork,
272:Parents can really help, but they can also really hinder the development of their youngsters. ~ Mike Krzyzewski,
273:Real happiness comes from the cultivation, the development, of the highest that is in us. ~ Orison Swett Marden,
274:When I was planning Family Viewing, the Ontario Film Development Corporation came into existence. ~ Atom Egoyan,
275:A heavy or progressive or graduated income tax is necessary for the proper development of Communism. ~ Karl Marx,
276:Having design integrated into the development lifecycle will result in a better end-user experience. ~ Anonymous,
277:If your business is to grow and prosper, as a leader, you need to focus on people development. ~ Robert Kiyosaki,
278:Samskrit is the unsurpassed zenith in the whole development of languages yet known to us. ~ Wilhelm von Humboldt,
279:That would’ve been way too hard. We wanted to do neuroscience, not operating system development. So ~ Ramez Naam,
280:The Internet’s development is intricately connected to the political economy’s development. ~ Robert W McChesney,
281:The other great development has been in photography, but that too was influenced by Conceptual art. ~ Sol LeWitt,
282:Too many professional development initiatives are done to teachers - not for, with or by them. ~ Andy Hargreaves,
283:America's development began with a large-scale ethnic cleansing, unprecedented in human history. ~ Vladimir Putin,
284:Annexation is probably the most valuable tool a city has to ensure orderly growth and development. ~ Jeff Hawkins,
285:As man's faculty attains higher level of development and sophistication, so do his wants in life ~ Haile Selassie,
286:Energy is essential for development, and sustainable energy is essential for sustainable development. ~ Tim Wirth,
287:Health system development is a key to effective detection, response, and control of any outbreak. ~ Margaret Chan,
288:Negotiation and discussion are the greatest weapons we have for promoting peace and development. ~ Nelson Mandela,
289:Our new paradigm was created as we invested in the growth and development of our own character. ~ Stephen R Covey,
290:The development of a love of medium and a responsibility for one's own pictures is an overall goal. ~ Minor White,
291:The development of willpower -I will, I won't and I want- may define what it means to be human. ~ Kelly McGonigal,
292:The greatest strategy for personal and business development on the planet is bold self-expression. ~ Michael Port,
293:The great hindrance to the development of this continent has lain in the lack of capital. ~ William Graham Sumner,
294:When anyone becomes an authority, that is the end of him as far as development is concerned. ~ Frank Lloyd Wright,
295:when we fail to make time for personal development, we are forced to make time for pain and struggle. ~ Hal Elrod,
296:Freedom is man's capacity to take a hand in his own development. It is our capacity to mold ourselves. ~ Rollo May,
297:I am very excited and delighted to be an important part of the development of corporate America. ~ Irene Rosenfeld,
298:One of the best ways to support the development of patience is to cultivate happiness with yourself. ~ Allan Lokos,
299:Perhaps the central task of the leader of leaders thus becomes the development of other leaders. ~ Warren G Bennis,
300:“Psychological or spiritual development always requires a greater capacity for anxiety and ambiguity.” ~ Carl Jung,
301:The last of these wholesome actions is meditation, the development of tranquillity and insight. ~ Joseph Goldstein,
302:The most direct and practical method of self-development is to achieve yourself by your own effort. ~ Hua Ching Ni,
303:The parallel development in American blues to the British movement has resulted in Johnny Winters. ~ Alexis Korner,
304:The rise of a British iron and steel industry was intertwined with the development of coal mining. ~ Thomas Sowell,
305:The shape of my work's development becomes a little clearer every time I am forced to articulate it. ~ Anne Truitt,
306:To accept anything on trust, to preclude critical application and development, is a grievous sin. ~ Vladimir Lenin,
307:Watching a child makes it obvious that the development of his mind comes through his movements. ~ Maria Montessori,
308:A great European federative system alone can be favourable to the development of civilisation. ~ Napoleon Bonaparte,
309:By remaining non-specialized, man opened up a thousand fresh paths for his own further development. ~ Lewis Mumford,
310:Development should be a mass movement. We need to integrate the people and make it a mass movement. ~ Narendra Modi,
311:Education and democracy have the same goal: The fullest possible development of human capabilities ~ Paul Wellstone,
312:Even in civilized communities, the embryo man passes through the hunter stage of development. ~ Henry David Thoreau,
313:For what is the use of transmitting knowledge if the individual's total development lags behind? ~ Maria Montessori,
314:I know full well how important women are in diplomacy and development. I grew up with seven sisters. ~ Ronan Farrow,
315:Invest three percent of your income in yourself (self-development) in order to guarantee your future. ~ Brian Tracy,
316:Kanban is not a software development lifecycle methodology or an approach to project management. ~ David J Anderson,
317:NDA not only stands for National Democratic Alliance but is also the National Development Alliance. ~ Narendra Modi,
318:Since problems spill across borders, security anywhere depends on sustainable development everywhere. ~ Ban Ki moon,
319:Taiwan's development in the past 20 years in high tech is almost 100 percent related to Silicon Valley. ~ Stan Shih,
320:The lowest degree of grace—is superior to the noblest development of unregenerate nature. ~ Charles Haddon Spurgeon,
321:The market is the creator of social wealth and the wellspring of self-sustaining economic development. ~ Li Keqiang,
322:The masses are in reality their own leaders, dialectically creating their own development process. ~ Rosa Luxemburg,
323:The need for development handbooks that capture knowledge about effective development practices is well ~ Anonymous,
324:We need material development, but we need to understand that by itself it doesn't bring peace of mind. ~ Dalai Lama,
325:You’re healthy,” it said. “Your development is exactly right. I can’t find any flaw in you.” And ~ Octavia E Butler,
326:A person will sometimes devote all his life to the development of one part of his body— the wishbone. ~ Robert Frost,
327:Despite the development of chess theory, there is much that remains secret and unexplored in chess. ~ Vasily Smyslov,
328:Divide and rule is the way Congress does their politics while we say let's unite and do development. ~ Narendra Modi,
329:Education is the basic tool for the development of consciousness and the reconstitution of society. ~ Mahatma Gandhi,
330:Excessive insulin is also now believed to be a central catalyst in the development of atherosclerosis. ~ Mark Sisson,
331:Hand washing is the first basic step towards achieving any millennium goals for development. It saves lives. ~ Kajol,
332:I am bullish on the global development. I am bullish on billions of people getting out of poverty. ~ Marc Andreessen,
333:True development must be in harmony with the needs of people and the rhythms of the natural world. ~ Sulak Sivaraksa,
334:Until your physical togetherness increases, your development in the inner worlds will not increase. ~ Frederick Lenz,
335:We are still in the infancy of naming what is really happening on software development projects. ~ Alistair Cockburn,
336:What is a historian, anyway? It is someone who uses facts to record the development of humanity. ~ Lion Feuchtwanger,
337:America today limits girls’ development, truncates their wholeness and leaves many of them traumatized. ~ Mary Pipher,
338:An enlightened and empowered generation is the key to our development in Nigeria and indeed in Africa ~ Fela Durotoye,
339:A person will sometimes devote all his life to the development of one part of his body - the wishbone. ~ Robert Frost,
340:Capitalism, as practiced, is a financially profitable, non-sustainable aberration in human development. ~ Paul Hawken,
341:Development does not take place in Washington, DC. Development takes place in the rest of the world. ~ Andrew Natsios,
342:It was like living with a bad action movie, all excitement and motion, and no character development. ~ Christina Dodd,
343:nineteenth century economic development was "the development of continents instead of coast lines."98 ~ Thomas Sowell,
344:Surely arrested development consists not in refusing to lose old things but in failing to add new things. ~ C S Lewis,
345:The degree of necessity determines the development of organs in man… therefore increase your necessity. ~ Idries Shah,
346:...the fullest development of the highest powers of men can be achieved only in a world of peace. ~ Robert M Hutchins,
347:The obvious mathematical breakthrough would be development of an easy way to factor large prime numbers. ~ Bill Gates,
348:The time has come to choose a new direction of global development, to opt for a new civilization. ~ Mikhail Gorbachev,
349:The whole point of marriage is to encourage your partner's development and have them encourage yours. ~ Carol S Dweck,
350:True motivation comes from achievement, personal development, job satisfaction, and recognition. ~ Frederick Herzberg,
351:Ajax is an important development for Web applications, and its importance is only going to grow. ~ Jesse James Garrett,
352:At some stage of development an officer had to stop following orders and start generating them. ~ Lois McMaster Bujold,
353:Beauty of whatever kind, in its supreme development, invariably excites the sensitive soul to tears. ~ Edgar Allan Poe,
354:Becoming a millionaire is not the end goal; your growth and development en-route is what matters. ~ Mark Victor Hansen,
355:...natural beauty has a necessary place in the spiritual development of any individual or any society. ~ Rachel Carson,
356:Of course education becomes very very important and that's for our human resource development. ~ Abdullah Ahmad Badawi,
357:"The development of loving-kindness and compassion begins with learning how to appreciate oneself." ~ Mingyur Rinpoche,
358:[...] the development of the Christian ethic slowly eroded Christian theology. Christ destroyed Jehovah. ~ Will Durant,
359:Urban development initiatives must match the aspirations of the middle class and the neo middle class. ~ Narendra Modi,
360:We have allowed corporations to decide the fate of the cities. We hardly speak of democratic development. ~ Glenn Ford,
361:We know the problems, and we know the solution: sustainable development. The issue is the political will. ~ Tony Blair,
362:Beauty of whatever kind, in its supreme development, invariably excites the sensitive soul to tears. ~ Edgar Allan Poe,
363:HIV/AIDS has become much more than a health issue. HIV/AIDS is a development issue, it's a security issue. ~ Kofi Annan,
364:I've always believed in the adage that the secret of eternal youth is arrested development. ~ Alice Roosevelt Longworth,
365:Nature knows no pause in progress and development, and attaches her curse on all inaction. ~ Johann Wolfgang von Goethe,
366:There is really no bad software development process. There is only how you are doing it today and better. ~ Gary Gruver,
367:Without economic development, any potential for political openness and freedom will be questionable. ~ Jose Maria Aznar,
368:Without full awareness of breathing, there can be no development of meditative stability and understanding. ~ Nhat Hanh,
369:Enterprise Washington is economic development in areas of high unemployment around the state of Washington. ~ Mike Lowry,
370:If we desire rules to govern our spiritual development we turn back to the Sermon on the Mount. ~ William Jennings Bryan,
371:I'm by no means convinced that capitalism and the development of technology has made anarchism easier. ~ Murray Bookchin,
372:Passenger rail development takes time, but good things come to those who are patient and stay the course. ~ Thelma Drake,
373:Software development, like professional sports, has a way of making thirty-year-old men feel decrepit. ~ Neal Stephenson,
374:The development of the faculty of attention forms the real object and almost the sole interest of studies. ~ Simone Weil,
375:Tolstoy's so-called inconsistencies were a sign of his development and his passionate regard for truth. ~ Mahatma Gandhi,
376:Aesthetic matters are fundamental for the harmonious development of both society and the individual. ~ Friedrich Schiller,
377:At the time it seemed like a natural development of my interest in what was going on around me in society. ~ Helen Garner,
378:His [Donald Trump] urban policy is stop and frisk, law and order. And we need investment and development. ~ Jesse Jackson,
379:I also have picked a secretary for Housing and Human Development. Mel Martinez from the state of Florida. ~ George W Bush,
380:I take great pride in the artistic development of cartoons. Our characters are made to go through emotions. ~ Walt Disney,
381:It Is in the Agricultural Sector That the Battle for Long- Term Economic Development Will Be Won or Lost. ~ Gunnar Myrdal,
382:It seems to me that there will be a point in out development or our evolution where you put your guns aside. ~ Bill Hicks,
383:Reading was very important; the proper exercise and development of one's mind was a paramount duty. ~ Elizabeth von Arnim,
384:The child's conquests of independence are the basic steps in what is called his 'natural development'. ~ Maria Montessori,
385:The level of our educational development is high and serves as a strong basis for our future progress. ~ Hassanal Bolkiah,
386:The modern idea of a Great Man is one who stands at the lonely extremity of some single line of development-- ~ C S Lewis,
387:The psychic development of the individual is a short repetition of the course of development of the race. ~ Sigmund Freud,
388:The return of democracy in our land has indeed thrown the problems of development into bolder relief. ~ Ibrahim Babangida,
389:I believe that the U.S. can and should be a global leader in the development of alternative energy sources. ~ Barack Obama,
390:If we learn anything from the history of economic development, it is that culture makes all the difference. ~ David Landes,
391:If you focus too much on development of the visual angle, it could be a detriment to what you're doing musically. ~ Grimes,
392:In true open source development, theres lots of visibility all the way through the development process. ~ Brian Behlendorf,
393:I regard the discovery of one’s favorite author as the most critical event in one’s intellectual development. ~ Lin Yutang,
394:Any preoccupation with ideas of what is right or wrong in conduct shows an arrested intellectual development. ~ Oscar Wilde,
395:I believe the highest aspiration of man should be individual freedom and the development of the individual. ~ Ronald Reagan,
396:The aim of life is self-development. To realize one's nature perfectly - that is what each of us is here for. ~ Oscar Wilde,
397:The development occurs through reciprocal give-and-take, the teacher taking but not being afraid also to give. ~ John Dewey,
398:The development of the society, the state and the nation is proportionate to the development of the Human ~ Sathya Sai Baba,
399:The only thing worse than the failure of this massive global development experiment, would be its success. ~ Wolfgang Sachs,
400:To investigate the history of man's development, the most important finds are, of course, hominid fossils. ~ Richard Leakey,
401:Women must be full partners in development, so they can lift themselves and their communities out of poverty. ~ Ban Ki moon,
402:A regime which combines perpetual surveillance with total indulgence is hardly conducive to healthy development. ~ P D James,
403:Children need nature for the healthy development of their senses, and therefore, for learning and creativity. ~ Richard Louv,
404:Development is not about learning how to counsel but about becoming the kind of person who can counsel. ~ Dave Mearns,
405:enable the development of photonic computers using laser light to carry information instead of electric current. ~ Anonymous,
406:Generals are fascinating cases of arrested development - after all, at five all of us wanted to be generals. ~ Peter Ustinov,
407:I'm glad the President finally found an economic development program. I'm just sad that it's only in Baghdad. ~ John F Kerry,
408:In 1991, I co-founded my first start-up, Ink Development, which made software for an early tablet computer. ~ Pierre Omidyar,
409:Our release cycle is constantly evolving, but right now, it’s 5 weeks long: 4 weeks of feature development and 1 ~ Anonymous,
410:Stop giving your gift to those who want to use you for the development of their legacy, at the cost of yours. ~ Steve Harvey,
411:The concept of coaching is based on constant development and change — regardless of direction and content. ~ Svend Brinkmann,
412:When somebody who is different shows himself to be different in a good way, that's how development happens. ~ Linus Torvalds,
413:Why did human development proceed at such different rates on different continents for the last 13,000 years? ~ Jared Diamond,
414:All that is valuable in human society depends upon the opportunity for development accorded the individual. ~ Albert Einstein,
415:Artist development is something that I've been passionate about from my days at Uptown and Motown Records. ~ Laurieann Gibson,
416:If we are painstaking about this phase of our development, we will be amazed before we are halfway through. ~ Jennifer Weiner,
417:It seems to me that it is psyche in a way that has become occluded by the perverse development of language. ~ Terence McKenna,
418:observation of realities has never, to put it mildly, been one of the strengths of economic development theory. ~ Jane Jacobs,
419:Technology should be an important ingredient. It may be and should be a tool for social development. ~ Aleksander Kwasniewski,
420:The development of new instrumental and vocal idioms has been one of the remarkable phenomena of recent music. ~ George Crumb,
421:The fossil record contains no trace of these preliminary stages in the development of many-celled organisms. ~ Robert Jastrow,
422:The World Development Movement, to take just one example, is doing good work. Some political parties are, too. ~ Susan George,
423:We believe in peace and peaceful development, not only for ourselves but for people all over the world. ~ Lal Bahadur Shastri,
424:All actors have their own unique path when it comes to the development of their training and careers. ~ Cynthia Addai Robinson,
425:Amherst was pivotal in my broad intellectual development; MIT in my development as a professional economist. ~ Joseph Stiglitz,
426:a special issue of the Review of Radical Political Economics (vol. 10, no. 3, 1978) on uneven regional development ~ Anonymous,
427:Energy experts have announced the development of a new fuel made from human brain tissue. It's called assohol. ~ George Carlin,
428:I would define development by focusing on the quality of life of the lower 25 percent of the population. This ~ Muhammad Yunus,
429:My development parameter is very simple. It is about how the poorest of the poor can benefit from development. ~ Narendra Modi,
430:Physical fitness contributes to all other aspects of personal development and makes for rich and radiant living ~ Hugh B Brown,
431:Something is really screwy in the world when I’m finding reasons to thank Development and Security in the same day. ~ Gene Kim,
432:Sport is an important part of the development of kids, and hence, it should be made a part of their curriculum. ~ Gagan Narang,
433:The old way—where product development and marketing were two distinct and separate processes—has been replaced. ~ Ryan Holiday,
434:The one thing that advances a society is not technology or so-called development; its love - that one principle. ~ Tom Shadyac,
435:There is no defense or security for any of us except in the highest intelligence and development of all. ~ Booker T Washington,
436:The systems that fail are those that rely on the permanency of human nature, and not its growth and development. ~ Oscar Wilde,
437:To make a valuable contribution, you have to get uncomfortable and embrace lifelong growth and skill development. ~ Todd Henry,
438:you’ve got to take the leap of thinking like an owner regarding your career and your capability development. ~ Robert S Kaplan,
439:Development into forms is an imperative rule of effective manifestation. ~ Sri Aurobindo, The Synthesis Of Yoga, Life and Yoga,
440:For origin and development of human faculty we must look to these processes of association in lower animals. ~ Edward Thorndike,
441:In any case I hold that there must arise a science of the development of economic forms and relations. ~ William Stanley Jevons,
442:It is a prejudice to think that morality is more favourable to the development of reason than immorality. ~ Friedrich Nietzsche,
443:It was a sign of decaying culture, of course, that dams had been built against the further development of ideas. ~ Isaac Asimov,
444:One of the enemies of creativity and innovation, especially in relation to our own development, is common sense. ~ Ken Robinson,
445:One of the greatest inhibitions to the development of human potential is the aversion to effective practice. ~ Douglas B Reeves,
446:Only through freedom and environmental experience is it practically possible for human development to occur. ~ Maria Montessori,
447:Real development is not leaving things behind, as on a road, but drawing life from them, as from a root. ~ Gilbert K Chesterton,
448:Saying we can't afford to invest in early child development means we're storing up bigger costs in the future. ~ Michael Marmot,
449:The development of a child is guaranteed in his curiosity to discover the cause behind each and every incident. ~ Narendra Modi,
450:. . the humanities encourage the development of our own humanity. They are our instruments of self-exploration. ~ Michael Dirda,
451:The important part of the present development is the anti-capitalist sentiment that is permeating our people. ~ Gregor Strasser,
452:The most important single aspect of software development is to be clear about what you are trying to build. ~ Bjarne Stroustrup,
453:The Negroes had been stimulated to freedom by the development of the very wealth which their labor had created. ~ Eric Williams,
454:There are things so deep and complex that only intuition can reach it in our stage of development as human beings. ~ John Astin,
455:There is no development of character without resistance, there is no growth of spirituality without overcoming. ~ David O McKay,
456:There’s more time spent on teaching kids about recycling than on character development in the American schools. ~ Dennis Prager,
457:This language, which constantly imposes images, militates against the development and expression of concepts. ~ Herbert Marcuse,
458:As you move higher and higher in the world of success, more and more of your job becomes “people development. ~ David J Schwartz,
459:In terms of brain development, musical performance is every bit as important educationally as reading or writing. ~ Oliver Sacks,
460:My object has been, first to discover correct principles and then to suggest their practical development. ~ James Prescott Joule,
461:Next to meditation itself, I really can't think of anything more important than the development of your career. ~ Frederick Lenz,
462:On daytime they continue to revisit a lot of the same stuff while nighttime does move on and show development. ~ Ted Shackelford,
463:...our life crises tell us that we need to break free of beliefs that no longer serve our personal development. ~ Caroline Myss,
464:postwar development of three thousand dream houses for three thousand families with presumably identical dreams. ~ Kurt Vonnegut,
465:Science advances, not by the accumulation of new facts, but by the continuous development of new concepts. ~ James Bryant Conant,
466:The addiction to sports, therefore, in a peculiar degree marks an arrested development in man's moral nature. ~ Thorstein Veblen,
467:The fact of being reported multiplies the apparent extent of any deplorable development by five- to tenfold. ~ Barbara W Tuchman,
468:Australia is an outdoor country. People only go inside to use the toilet. And that's only a recent development. ~ Barry Humphries,
469:Every mathematical discipline goes through three periods of development: the naive, the formal, and the critical. ~ David Hilbert,
470:first step in Yogi development consists of the mastery of the physical body and its care and attention. ~ William Walker Atkinson,
471:Indeed the influence of music on the development of religion is a subject which would repay a sympathetic study. ~ James G Frazer,
472:more critical development in the marketplace: that the potential audience has become savvier about animal rights. ~ John Hargrove,
473:Nations, like plants and human beings, grow. And if the development is thwarted they are dwarfed and overshadowed. ~ Claude McKay,
474:Our intellectual development in the field of science has outstripped our human development in the field of character. ~ L P Jacks,
475:Our life’s improvement and our fight against evil can begin only with the spiritual development of each individual. ~ Leo Tolstoy,
476:Reducing the nuclear danger will require a universal, consistent opposition to all forms of weapons development ~ David Cortright,
477:Senile decay seemed already to have laid its hand on him while he was still in the grip of arrested development. ~ Anthony Powell,
478:The entire trend of development is towards abolition of coercive domination of one part of society over another. ~ Vladimir Lenin,
479:The problem with the World Bank has to do with development - the spreading of Western over-consumption worldwide. ~ Herman E Daly,
480:There needs to be radical development in equality law to create the environment to allow women to stay in work. ~ Ken Livingstone,
481:We have new developing ties with Japan whom always supports our democratic process and economic development. ~ Ali Abdullah Saleh,
482:A development, to be faithful, must retain both the doctrine and the principle with which it started. Doctrine ~ John Henry Newman,
483:"A story told by the conscious mind has a beginning, a development , and an end, but the same is not true of a dream." ~ Carl Jung,
484:Britain is doing brilliant things around the world and that is why I described as a 'superpower on development'. ~ Andrew Mitchell,
485:Coghill has shown that the motor patterns of the animal develop prior to the development of sensory innervation. ~ Arthur Koestler,
486:Elections should be about making the people a part of the development journey. That is when India will move ahead. ~ Narendra Modi,
487:How absurd it would be if the further development of the menagerie itself would be held back by self-inflicted wounds! ~ Anonymous,
488:It is not in human nature for all men to tread the same path of development, as animals do of a single species. ~ Maria Montessori,
489:Modi Model of Development is more a hype than reality, and the Congress has always stood for inclusive development. ~ Preneet Kaur,
490:Nature is not a drag on growth - its protection is an unavoidable prerequisite for sustaining economic development. ~ Tony Juniper,
491:Pluralism is no longer simply an asset or a prerequisite for progress and development, it is vital to our existence. ~ Aga Khan IV,
492:The development of the Internet has posed new challenges to national sovereignty, security and development interests. ~ Xi Jinping,
493:The key to overcoming the ill effects of a love of comfort is a commitment to continual growth and skill development. ~ Todd Henry,
494:When to use iterative development? You should use iterative development only on projects that you want to succeed. ~ Martin Fowler,
495:A magnificent achievement that witnesses powerfully to the rich development, harmony, and piety of the Reformed faith. ~ Joel Beeke,
496:the capacity to work feeds on itself and has its own course of development. This is what artists have going for them. ~ Anne Truitt,
497:The development of the individual can be described as a succession of new births at consecutively higher levels. ~ Maria Montessori,
498:The falsification of history has done more to impede human development than any one thing known to mankind. ~ Jean Jacques Rousseau,
499:The first essential for the child’s development is concentration. The child who concentrates is immensely happy. ~ Maria Montessori,
500:The importance of the river cannot be overstated in the history of the country, or the development of the nation. ~ Maurice Hinchey,
501:the most successful development occurs when developers talk directly to customers or are part of business teams. ~ Mary Poppendieck,
502:The only justifiable purpose of political institutions is to ensure the unhindered development of the individual. ~ Albert Einstein,
503:The rise of the Soviet school to the summit of world chess is a logical result of socialist cultural development. ~ Alexander Kotov,
504:Development kicked into gear soon after Ford Motor Co. sold most of its 33.4 percent controlling stake in Mazda in 2008, ~ Anonymous,
505:Economic development specializes functions, differentiates abilities, and makes men unequally valuable to their group. ~ Will Durant,
506:Only the development of compassion and understanding for others can bring us the tranquility and happiness we all seek. ~ Dalai Lama,
507:People spend so much time on the personal development books that they can't find time for personal development! ~ Mehmet Murat ildan,
508:The explosive development of technology was analogous to the growth of cancer cells, and the results would be identical: ~ Liu Cixin,
509:The genitals themselves have not undergone the development of the rest of the human form in the direction of beauty. ~ Sigmund Freud,
510:the real purpose of socialism is precisely to overcome and advance beyond the predatory phase of human development ~ Albert Einstein,
511:The sword fighting turned out to be quite a bit of fun, once the agony of muscle development produced actual muscles. ~ E K Johnston,
512:The true path to peace is shared development. If we do not want war to go global, justice must go global ~ Luiz Inacio Lula da Silva,
513:A national spirit is necessary for national existence. A flag is a material aid to the development of such a spirit. ~ Mahatma Gandhi,
514:I had this movie, Death Race, that was a passion project for me that I'd had in development for almost ten years. ~ Paul W S Anderson,
515:Shall we start over?' I say.

Juliet shrugs. 'No. This has been an important part of our friendship development. ~ Alice Oseman,
516:Skill development remains our priority. We are blessed with a demographic dividend that can take us to great heights. ~ Narendra Modi,
517:the PlayPump problem: there is a strong incentive in development to focus on projects that look good and sound good. As ~ Tim Harford,
518:The progressive development of man [has as its] ultimate purpose the complete mastery of mind over the material world. ~ Nikola Tesla,
519:This means that advancement, progress, and development in your life do not come from man’s doing but from God’s. Jesus ~ Myles Munroe,
520:We only exist in terms of how we think we exist. Meaning every cultural development is fabricated and can be fabricated. ~ Thom Mayne,
521:Acting is a reflex, a mechanism for development and survival. . . . It isn't 'second nature,' it is 'first nature.' ~ Declan Donnellan,
522:Always remember that when we fail to make time for personal development, we are forced to make time for pain and struggle. ~ Hal Elrod,
523:Development is the solution to all problems. All other types of caste, communal and dynasty politics will not do good. ~ Narendra Modi,
524:Every new development that arises is like the shake you give to a kaleidoscope—the thing changes entirely in aspect. ~ Agatha Christie,
525:I'm, like, the biggest fan ever of 'Arrested Development.' To be a part of it is incredible. Same goes for 'Parenthood.' ~ Mae Whitman,
526:I think in retrospect that all those 'alternative'modes of living were little more than exercises in arrested development. ~ Will Self,
527:Members of Parliament are eligible for allocation of constituency development fund (MPLADS) of 5 crore every year. ~ A P J Abdul Kalam,
528:Play is as necessary to the perfect development of a child as sunshine is to the perfect development of a plant. ~ Orison Swett Marden,
529:Production functions involving only land, labor and capital... never work and never explain economic development. ~ Kenneth E Boulding,
530:Spiritual growth requires the development of inner knowing and inner authority. It requires the heart, not the intellect. ~ Gary Zukav,
531:Technology is central to Development. It touches one and all, and is an important instrument of our national progress. ~ Narendra Modi,
532:This is the most important aviation development since Lindbergh's flight. In one fell swoop, we have shrunken the earth. ~ Juan Trippe,
533:Two distinct elements are included under the term "inheritance"— the transmission, and the development of characters; ~ Charles Darwin,
534:We need to provide an education which teaches crit­ical thinking and encourages the development of mature moral values. ~ Pope Francis,
535:Art is a discovery and development of elementary principles of nature into beautiful forms suitable for human use. ~ Frank Lloyd Wright,
536:Knowledge has outstripped character development, and the young today are given an education rather than an upbringing. ~ Ilya Ehrenburg,
537:Man (and woman) has an infinite capacity for self-development. Equally, he has an infinite capacity for self-destruction. ~ Idries Shah,
538:The gym and the park are no longer places for personal development or reflection, but just another place to “check in. ~ Jocelyn K Glei,
539:To care for anyone else enough to make their problems one's own, is ever the beginning of one's real ethical development. ~ Felix Adler,
540:We have created stability, which is a necessary condition for development. But I can't call this system authoritarian. ~ Vladimir Putin,
541:We have to see that all regions of India, particularly the east and west, are brought on par in development parameters. ~ Narendra Modi,
542:A development, to be faithful, must retain both the doctrine and the principle with which it started. Doctrine ~ Saint John Henry Newman,
543:...a distorted development of autonomy is the root cause of the pathological and, ultimately, evil element in human beings. ~ Arno Gruen,
544:Attention to detail can't be (and never is) added later. It's an entire development philosophy, methodology, and culture. ~ Marco Arment,
545:Democracy cannot be exported to some other place. This must be a product of internal domestic development in a society. ~ Vladimir Putin,
546:Every civilized human being, whatever his conscious development, is still an archaic man at the deeper levels of his psyche. ~ Carl Jung,
547:It is my inner conviction that the development of science seeks in the main to satisfy the longing for pure knowledge. ~ Albert Einstein,
548:Misbeliefs in one's inefficacy may retard development of the very subskills upon which more complex performances depend ~ Albert Bandura,
549:No amount of tools can help a bad product. You have to remain genuine in your product development innovation and quality. ~ Kara Swisher,
550:Only the development of compassion and understanding for others can bring us the tranquility and happiness we all seek. ~ Dalai Lama XIV,
551:The abolition of the class struggle does not mean the abolition of the need to struggle as a principle of development. ~ Antonio Gramsci,
552:The artist is a spectator, indifferent or impassioned, at the birth of his work, and observes the phases of its development. ~ Max Ernst,
553:We must realize that when basic needs have been met, human development is primarily about being more, not having more…. ~ Dalai Lama XIV,
554:When you're working on development issues, optimism is not always based on rational analysis, often it is a moral choice. ~ Jim Yong Kim,
555:Capitalism is based on ruthless exploitation and competition, and leads inevitably to the development of mega monopolies. ~ Kshama Sawant,
556:Intellectual capital is the main determining factor and the base for economic and social development to any country. ~ Talal Abu Ghazaleh,
557:In the history of the collective as in the history of the individual, everything depends on the development of consciousness. ~ Carl Jung,
558:State control is important for the people who have always been excluded from the claims of social and economic development. ~ Evo Morales,
559:There are few jobs in the world that are more fun than being the head of Urban Development for a great and thriving city. ~ Juan Enriquez,
560:Urban development in India... will be the biggest sunrise industry that any country has seen in any part of the world. ~ Kushal Pal Singh,
561:Consciousness is the last and latest development of the organic and hence also what is most unfinished and unstrong. ~ Friedrich Nietzsche,
562:Development has to result in jobs. What we need is not just more production, but mass production and production by masses. ~ Narendra Modi,
563:Fighting cancer is my mission right now. The research and development of finding cures for this nasty disease is my passion. ~ Judith Hill,
564:I am most proud of the development of the characters as personalities that game players could relate to and care about. ~ Roberta Williams,
565:I am really proud of the development of the people on my team as they grow in purpose; they like what they see in the mirror. ~ Les Wexner,
566:If you really love property, and buildings, lifestyles and how people live, that's a good reason for going into development. ~ Sarah Beeny,
567:It seems to me if you don't know anything about child development you shouldn't intimate in your "reporting" that you do. ~ Chris Crutcher,
568:Justice is a faculty that may be developed. This development is what constitutes the education of the human race. ~ Pierre Joseph Proudhon,
569:No one achieves greatness by becoming a generalist. You don't hone a skill by diluting your attention to its development. ~ John C Maxwell,
570:Passion for your work is a little bit of discovery, followed by a lot of development, and then a lifetime of deepening. ~ Angela Duckworth,
571:scientists are learning that people have more capacity for lifelong learning and brain development than they ever thought. ~ Carol S Dweck,
572:I dream ...of a world where we can commit our social resources to the development of human life and not to its destruction ~ Benazir Bhutto,
573:If I lead the field in any way, it is in the area of curricula development, study guides and other teaching materials. ~ John Henrik Clarke,
574:I'm working on a project called Lemons, produced by Killer Films. The director has a great perspective on character development. ~ Nia Long,
575:The American has dwindled into an Odd Fellow,-one who may be known by the development of his organ of gregariousness. ~ Henry David Thoreau,
576:When sex is necessary for the plot of a book, or a character development, then I don't shy away from it. Why should I? ~ Laurell K Hamilton,
577:A story told by the conscious mind has a beginning, a development, and an end, but the same is not true of a dream. P. 12 ~ Carl Gustav Jung,
578:Bad cooks - and the utter lack of reason in the kitchen - have delayed human development longest and impaired it most. ~ Friedrich Nietzsche,
579:Freedom of teaching and of opinion in book or press is the foundation for the sound and natural development of any people. ~ Albert Einstein,
580:Human development thus far has been fueled and guided by the feeling that things could be, and are probably going to be, better. ~ Brian Eno,
581:It would be hard to believe that the continuous movement of tectonic plates has no effect on the development of life on earth. ~ Bill Bryson,
582:Mathematics, in its widest significance, is the development of all types of formal, necessary, deductive reasoning. ~ Alfred North Whitehead,
583:Personal development - the never ending chance to improve not only yourself, but also to attract opportunities and affect others. ~ Jim Rohn,
584:Physics, owing to the simplicity of its subject matter, has reached a higher state of development than any other science. ~ Bertrand Russell,
585:Real development is not leaving things behind, as on a road,” G.K. Chesterton said, “but drawing life from them, as from a root. ~ Anonymous,
586:The progressive development of man is vitally dependent on invention. It is the most important product of his creative brain. ~ Nikola Tesla,
587:The teacher is one who abandons ceremonial and religious display and social appearances, and concentrates on real development. ~ Idries Shah,
588:The ultimate resource in economic development is people. It is people, not capital or raw materials that develop an economy. ~ Peter Drucker,
589:This idea began to emerge during the Scientific Revolution, through that era’s hallmark development, the scientific method. ~ Kathryn Schulz,
590:When the dominant images of a culture are anticipatory, they "lead" social development and provide direction for social change. ~ Fred Polak,
591:When the history of African development is written, it will be clear that a turning point involved the empowerment of women. ~ Sheryl WuDunn,
592:After 3.8 billion years of research and development, failures are fossils, and what surrounds us is the secret to survival. ~ Janine M Benyus,
593:Kaizen is Japanese for resisting the plateau of arrested development. Its literal translation is: “continuous improvement. ~ Angela Duckworth,
594:Life had tried to kill me in all sorts of ways lately, but falling off of a flying horse was a new and unwelcome development. ~ Ilona Andrews,
595:Openness has been vital to Asia's fast growth in the past and it will continue to be crucial for the area's further development. ~ Li Keqiang,
596:The Internet is the most important single development in the history of human communication since the invention of call waiting. ~ Dave Barry,
597:The raw fact is that every successful example of economic development this past century ... has taken place via globalization. ~ Paul Krugman,
598:Two things are necessary, the development of individuality and the participation of the individual in a truly social life. ~ Maria Montessori,
599:Practically the only way to dry the swamp of radical Islam is through economic development and an improved standard of living. ~ Yitzhak Rabin,
600:The sign that the kundalini is releasing is not the development of miraculous powers, but that your mind is becoming quieter. ~ Frederick Lenz,
601:We’re not giving moms credit when we pose them as the decisive factor in a child’s development, we’re sticking them with the bill. ~ Anonymous,
602:All growth depends upon activity. There is no development physically or intellectually without effort, and effort means work. ~ Calvin Coolidge,
603:All human development, no matter what form it takes, must be outside the rules; otherwise we would never have anything new. ~ Charles Kettering,
604:Development is a voluntary process. You need a positive decision to make the right steps, but it starts with introspection. ~ Thomas L Friedman,
605:Each stage of development, remember, has a dialectic of progress--in plain language, every new development is good news, bad news. ~ Ken Wilber,
606:Every subject at some phase of its development should possess, what is for the individual concerned with it, an aesthetic quality. ~ John Dewey,
607:North American society could not have reached its state of high development and modernity had it not been an open society. ~ Mario Vargas Llosa,
608:Our friends up north spend over five billion dollars on research and development and all they seem to do is copy Google and Apple. ~ Steve Jobs,
609:The real potential of electricity lies not in providing social amenities but in stimulating long-term economic development ~ Christopher Flavin,
610:Have you no idea of progress, of development?"
"I have seen them both in an egg," said Caspian. "We call it 'Going Bad' in Narnia ~ C S Lewis,
611:Moreover, if the territorial state is to continue as the last word in the development of society, then war is inevitable. ~ Christian Lous Lange,
612:steps necessary to promote the development and maintenance of expertise almost always entails a sacrifice of speed and productivity. ~ Anonymous,
613:Sustainable South Bronx advocates for environmental justice through sustainable environmental and economic development projects. ~ Majora Carter,
614:Thank God for giving you this world as a moral gymnasium to help your development, but never imagine you can help the world. ~ Swami Vivekananda,
615:The goal of providing basic literacy and education to all the world's people is still the most basic development challenge. ~ Talal Abu Ghazaleh,
616:... "the historical necessity of development" -- you can spout that nonsense about anything and you'll always be right. ~ Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn,
617:The object of basic education is the physical, intellectual and moral development of children through the medium of handicraft. ~ Mahatma Gandhi,
618:The path of America's development is never a straight line. Sometimes we move in ways that are forwards; sometime that seem back. ~ Barack Obama,
619:The union of the mind and intuition which brings about illumination, and the development which the Sufis seek, is based upon love. ~ Idries Shah,
620:What we must work for is not the development of the will, but the education of the imagination and the steadying of attention. ~ Neville Goddard,
621:After 3.8 billion years of research and development, failures are fossils, and what surrounds us is the secret to our survival. ~ Janine M Benyus,
622:America's civilian institutions of diplomacy and development have been chronically undermanned and underfunded for far too long. ~ Robert M Gates,
623:Comedy is essentially made by young men, or older men with some form of arrested development, for young men or immature older men. ~ Harold Ramis,
624:For the spread and endurance of an idea the originator is dependent on the self-development of the receivers and transmitters. ~ B H Liddell Hart,
625:Global climate change has a profound impact on the survival and development of mankind. It is a major challenge facing all countries. ~ Hu Jintao,
626:If kids stay up late, it's very bad for their brain development...they said that on TV....You want to become a stupid girl, Yuuki? ~ Matsuri Hino,
627:I have come with one medicinal herb that I am offering as a remedy to India's problems. And that medicinal herb is 'development'. ~ Narendra Modi,
628:our levels of success will rarely exceed our level of personal development, because success is something we attract by who we become. ~ Hal Elrod,
629:The greatest gift a couple can give their baby is a loving relationship, because that relationship nourishes Baby’s development. ~ John M Gottman,
630:The same historical development that turned the citizen into a client transformed the worker from a producer into a consumer. ~ Christopher Lasch,
631:to engage in any path of well-being or self-development, some small part of us must already believe that we’re worth developing. ~ Ethan Nichtern,
632:Winning companies win because they have good leaders who nurture the development of other leaders at all levels of the organization. ~ Noel Tichy,
633:Africa's agricultural sector has enormous scope for development, which would benefit both the continent's economy and its people. ~ Richard Attias,
634:Compared with the thousands of years in which human life has been on this planet, Christianity is a recent development. ~ Kenneth Scott Latourette,
635:Foci development was almost entirely dependent on how much protein was consumed, regardless of how much aflatoxin was consumed! ~ T Colin Campbell,
636:I believe that solution to all problems is in development. Development is also the solution to the tension that people talk about. ~ Narendra Modi,
637:Intellectual freedom is the only guarantee of a scientific - democratic approach to politics, economic development, and culture. ~ Andrei Sakharov,
638:Skill development, speed and scale are the 3 important aspects that are relevant to the present-day growth and development module. ~ Narendra Modi,
639:Successful software development is hard. It will always be hard. However, doing it smoothly and gracefully has a very real simplicity. ~ Anonymous,
640:The counsellor who never reads a novel or never opens a book of poetry is neglecting an important resource for empathic development. ~ Dave Mearns,
641:There was a general belief that a long and unpleasant holiday was of crucial importance to one’s development as a human being. ~ William Sutcliffe,
642:The whole body of the arts and sciences composes one vast machinery for the irritation and development of the human intellect. ~ Thomas de Quincey,
643:The word education must not be understood in the sense of teaching but of assisting the psychological development of the child. ~ Maria Montessori,
644:When primitive law has once been embodied in a Code, there is an end to what may be called its spontaneous development. ~ Henry James Sumner Maine,
645:Young people should be at the forefront of global change and innovation. Empowered, they can be key agents for development and peace. ~ Kofi Annan,
646:China is at a different stage of development, human rights are violated here much more often. And still, we see improvements even here. ~ Ai Weiwei,
647:If you’re looking for an abdominal exercise well-suited to power development without bulk, look no further than the Janda sit-up. ~ Timothy Ferriss,
648:I have a vision of a Modern India. I have embarked on a huge mission to convert that vision into reality. My mantra is Development. ~ Narendra Modi,
649:Matter is merely mind deadened by the development of habit to the point where the breaking up of these habits is very difficult. ~ Rupert Sheldrake,
650:nutrients from animal-based foods increased tumor development while nutrients from plant-based foods decreased tumor development ~ T Colin Campbell,
651:Success is the development of the power with which to get whatever one wants in life without interfering with the rights of others. ~ Napoleon Hill,
652:There is no greatness apart from self control. Development that does not include self government will only guarantee our mediocrity. ~ Graham Cooke,
653:The true direction of the development of thinking is not from the individual to the social, but from the social to the individual. ~ Lev S Vygotsky,
654:The truth is that my chess development was nothing out of the ordinary, and it proceeded probably at a pace no faster than others. ~ Anatoly Karpov,
655:After graduation, I took a job with Manufacturers Hanover Trust in software development. I don't think I was there more than a month. ~ John Katzman,
656:As far as mental development is concerned, we should never be complacent. We can develop our minds infinitely - there is no limitation. ~ Dalai Lama,
657:David McLellan’s The Young Hegelians and Karl Marx (Macmillan, London, 1969) gives useful background to Marx’s intellectual development. ~ Anonymous,
658:Free voluntary reading results in better reading comprehension, writing style, vocabulary, spelling, and grammatical development ~ Stephen D Krashen,
659:I am not caused by my history-my parents, my childhood and development. These are mirrors in which I may catch glimpses of my image. ~ James Hillman,
660:I owe what is best in my own development to the impression made by Kant's works, the sacred writings of the Hindus, and Plato. ~ Arthur Schopenhauer,
661:nutrients from animal-based foods increased tumor development while nutrients from plant-based foods decreased tumor development. ~ T Colin Campbell,
662:Our mind has its own ideal time, which is no other but the consciousness of the progressive development of our beings. ~ August Wilhelm von Schlegel,
663:Success is the development of the power with which to get whatever one wants in life without interfering with the rights of others. ~ Napoleon Hill,
664:That social organism is embryonic. That firmly to believe is to impede development. That only temporarily to accept is to facilitate. ~ Charles Fort,
665:The most important factor for the development of the individual is the structure and the values of the society into which he was born. ~ Erich Fromm,
666:This is one of the greatest challenges of our time: to convert ourselves to a type of development that knows how to respect creation. ~ Pope Francis,
667:When the capital development of a country becomes a by-product of the activities of a casino, the job is likely to be ill-done ~ John Maynard Keynes,
668:You cannot achieve environmental security and human development without addressing the basic issues of health and nutrition. ~ Gro Harlem Brundtland,
669:Environmental disaster is the gravest threat to China's continued development. That's according to me, but it is not some wacko view. ~ James Fallows,
670:History in general is therefore the development of Spirit in Time, as Nature is the development of the Idea is Space. ~ Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel,
671:Most surely all guys aren't same, and any democratic concept which strives to make men equal is handiest an attempt to block development ~ Henry Ford,
672:Play is the highest expression of human development in childhood for it alone is the free expression of what is in a child's soul. ~ Friedrich Frobel,
673:Problems do not go away. They must be worked through or else they remain, forever a barrier to the growth and development of the spirit. ~ Scott Peck,
674:The idea of exploring character relations and their development over a decade has to be appealing for any actor who cherishes his craft. ~ Vin Diesel,
675:The idea that the UN system could provide real leadership on the great development challenges will strain credulity in some quarters. ~ Jeffrey Sachs,
676:The value of any experience is measured, of course, not by the amount of money, but the amount of development we get out of it. ~ Henry David Thoreau,
677:Trying to apply formal methods to all software projects is just as bad as trying to apply code-and-fix development to all projects. ~ Steve McConnell,
678:All of us were tuned in during our early development but we lose our connection to intuition over time as other things come into play. ~ Peter Buffett,
679:Costume design is so important and really helpful, and I really love that aspect of character development, just figuring it out. ~ Katherine Waterston,
680:Everyone cites [Charles Schulz], but it’s with good reason. He taught me timing, tone, character development, practically everything. ~ Stephan Pastis,
681:I think its ridiculous. I mean the voter ID situation has turned out to be a very unfair development. We may have people vote 10 times. ~ Donald Trump,
682:Obviously, computers have made differences. They have fostered the development of spaceships- as well as a great increase in junk mail. ~ Tracy Kidder,
683:Oh, that wasn’t a failure. That was a key moment of my development that I needed to take, and I can trust my instinct. I really can. ~ Timothy Ferriss,
684:Peace, ... is crucial, because my government aims to hasten Mindanao's development by transforming it into the country's food basket. ~ Joseph Estrada,
685:Personally, my taste is towards development of a character, as well as the resolution of a story plot. I like to find both, if I can. ~ Alexis Denisof,
686:Sir Francis Galton, a cousin of Charles Darwin, first coined the term “eugenics” in his 1883 book Human Faculty and Its Development. ~ Elizabeth Letts,
687:The average development time for a Hollywood movie is nine years. Nine years for a studio film. And a lot of what you do is abstract. ~ Stephen Gaghan,
688:The WTO has one of the most impressive records in global economic governance, by promoting trade liberalisation and economic development. ~ Anna Lindh,
689:We know that solitude is almost a necessity for creativity and the development of a genuinely and richly autonomous sense of identity. ~ Sara Maitland,
690:You can be an extreme materialist, thinking that economic development ultimately determines everything; then you are truly ideological. ~ Slavoj Zizek,
691:Acquiring Sunseeker deepens Wandas international influence and represents an important step forward for the development of the business. ~ Wang Jianlin,
692:Action in the world is given us first as a means for our self-development and self-fulfilment. ~ Sri Aurobindo, The Synthesis Of Yoga, The Divine Work,
693:Even if you can avoid adding unnecessary new features, dead pieces of code will still spring up naturally during your software development. ~ Anonymous,
694:Haitians do not need development programs imposed on them by expatriates. Instead, they need help in developing as self-assured persons. ~ Tony Campolo,
695:In any given society the authority of man over man runs in inverse proportion to the intellectual development of that society. ~ Pierre Joseph Proudhon,
696:I've been through quite a few hurricanes. I worked in North Carolina, where there's a housing development whose name was Landfall. ~ James Van Der Beek,
697:No development strategy can be based only upon what comes out of the ground, nor can it be sustained while young people are out of work. ~ Barack Obama,
698:nutrients from animal-based foods increased tumor development while nutrients from plant-based foods decreased tumor development. In ~ T Colin Campbell,
699:Problems do not go away. They must be worked through or else they remain, forever a barrier to the growth and development of the spirit. ~ M Scott Peck,
700:The big new development in my life is, when I turned 80, I decided I no longer have to do four pages a day. For me, it's like retiring. ~ Frederik Pohl,
701:The development of the faculty of attention forms the real object and almost the sole interest of studies. ~ Simone Weil, Waiting for God (1951), p. 51,
702:The establishment of Christianity . . . arrested the normal development of the physical sciences for over fifteen hundred years. ~ Andrew Dickson White,
703:There is no greatness apart from self control. Development that does not include personal government will only guarantee our mediocrity. ~ Graham Cooke,
704:To be influential in tomorrow's world, to defend our values and our development model, France needs Europe and Europe needs France. ~ Francois Hollande,
705:To effectively contain a civilization’s development and disarm it across such a long span of time, there is only one way: kill its science. ~ Liu Cixin,
706:What's in front of you is a whole world of experiences beyond your imagination. Put yourself, and your growth and development, first. ~ Phylicia Rashad,
707:A lot of people respond to almost any achievement, positive development, or outright victory with "yes but". Naysaying becomes a habit. ~ Rebecca Solnit,
708:I was meant to be her daughter, and I consider it a damn good thing that she, of all people, was the principal agent in my development. ~ Kelly Corrigan,
709:Science has done more for the development of western civilization in one hundred years than Christianity did in eighteen hundred years. ~ John Burroughs,
710:The acquisition of the most elementary truth does not devolve upon the individual alone: it is pre-effected in the development of the race. ~ Ernst Mach,
711:The development of hoplite warfare took place in this context of novel agrarianism, which promoted a particular type of moral excellence. ~ Donald Kagan,
712:The meaning of earthly existence lies not, as we have grown used to thinking, in prospering but in the development of the soul. ~ Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn,
713:The pace and urgency of war have always accelerated the development of technology and encouraged novel uses of devices that already exist. ~ Mark Bowden,
714:The rural areas have been deprived by the cities in the past. Development resources and energy should be directed where the people live. ~ Chinua Achebe,
715:The sole function of Government is to bring about a condition of affairs favorable to the beneficial development of private enterprise. ~ Herbert Hoover,
716:Tim Kaine is your friend's dad who catches you smoking weed at a sleepover and doesn't rat you out but talks to you about brain development. ~ Tim Kaine,
717:What is most needed right now is evolving human consciousness. Without that, science, technology, development, everything will go waste. ~ Jaggi Vasudev,
718:All goal setting must be immediately followed by both the development of a plan, and massive and consistent action toward its fulfillment. ~ Tony Robbins,
719:Anyone that's involved in development has discovered that all the good work that's been done in development has been undone by the AIDS emergency. ~ Bono,
720:For instance, religions tend to accumulate wealth when successful and that eventually tends to distort the economic development of a society. ~ Anonymous,
721:Good governance is treating development as a mass movement in order to see that fruits of development reach the poor and the downtrodden. ~ Narendra Modi,
722:Gujarat is all about Trade with Tradition, Commerce with Culture, Enterprise with Entertainment and Development with Disaster management. ~ Narendra Modi,
723:Ideas alone can be works of art; they are in a chain of development that may eventually find some form. All ideas need not be made physical. ~ Sol LeWitt,
724:If only simplicity were not the most difficult of all things. It consists of watching objectively the development of any fragment of fantasy. ~ Carl Jung,
725:I think now Somalia is turning a corner and we can, with the new political development, build on momentum - really build a peaceful future. ~ Jan Egeland,
726:I would say the more the better when it is comes to development and marketing. It's actually fun. For some it can be a frustrating thing. ~ John Petrucci,
727:Leadership development is about helping people grow, and if I can get people as individuals growing, then I've got a company that grows. ~ James McNerney,
728:My intellectual development was retarded, as a result of which I began to wonder about space and time only when I had already grown up. ~ Albert Einstein,
729:Nothing is lost in history: sooner or later every creative idea finds opportunity and development, and adds its color to the flame of life. ~ Will Durant,
730:The crisis of black politics can only be resolved through the development of multiclass, multiracial, progressive political structures. ~ Manning Marable,
731:The massive reduction in risk that is inherent in the development of the modern corporation has been far from fully appreciated. ~ John Kenneth Galbraith,
732:This triple-decker reflects our evolutionary development from the earliest model (single-celled bacteria) to the latest (George Clooney). Each ~ Ruby Wax,
733:Establishing your differences with the mentor is an important part of your self-development, whether he is of the good or bad parent type. ~ Robert Greene,
734:If you wish to achieve worthwhile things in your personal and career life, you must become a worthwhile person in your own self-development. ~ Brian Tracy,
735:India's role is not to interfere in what Nepal does but to support Nepal in their development. Nepal should scale new heights of progress. ~ Narendra Modi,
736:It marks a big step in your development when you come to realize that other people can help you do a better job than you could do alone. ~ Andrew Carnegie,
737:One of the happiest consequences of the absence of government...is the development of individual strength that inevitably follows. ~ Alexis de Tocqueville,
738:Our education apparatus can't be one that produces robots. That can happen in laboratory. There has to be overall personality development. ~ Narendra Modi,
739:The law is the witness and external deposit of our moral life. Its history is the history of the moral development of the race. ~ Oliver Wendell Holmes Jr,
740:Democracy is the absolute value that makes for human dignity, as well as the only road to sustained economic development and social justice. ~ Kim Dae jung,
741:Does all that exist of itself, or is it only an emanation of myself, a logical development of my ego which alone has existed for ever? ~ Fyodor Dostoyevsky,
742:Human history begins with man's act of disobedience which is at the same time the beginning of his freedom and the development of his reason. ~ Erich Fromm,
743:I am very proud to align myself with Miken - a brand known as an innovator and leader in the development of high performance sports equipment. ~ Brett Hull,
744:incremental development can be disconcerting for teams and management who aren’t used to it because it front-loads the stress in a project. ~ Steve Freeman,
745:It does not help for spiritual knowledge to be ignorant of the things of this world. ~ Sri Aurobindo, Letters on Yoga - IV, Mental Development and Sadhana,
746:It's harder than you might think to squander millions of dollars, but a flawed software development process is a tool well suited to the job. ~ Alan Cooper,
747:On the European Front the most important development of the past year has been the crushing offensive of the Great Armies of Russia. ~ Franklin D Roosevelt,
748:Problems do not go away. They must be worked through or else they remain, forever a barrier to the growth and development of the spirit. The ~ M Scott Peck,
749:Recreational development is a job not of building roads into lovely country, but of building receptivity into the still unlovely human mind. ~ Aldo Leopold,
750:Testing was never going to be fashionable, but you could hardly run a respectable software development shop with no testing effort at all. ~ Stephen Baxter,
751:The participants expressed anxiety about the problems the Defense Ministry had been meeting in realizing its plans for future development. ~ Vladimir Putin,
752:There is no discipline in the world so severe as the discipline of experience subjected to the tests of intelligent development and direction. ~ John Dewey,
753:Two qualities are at the root of all meditation development: right effort and right aim—arousing effort to aim the mind toward the object. ~ Jack Kornfield,
754:Your level of success will rarely exceed your level of personal development, because success is something you attract by the person you become. ~ Hal Elrod,
755:Your level of success will seldom exceed your level of personal development, because success is something you attract by the person you become. ~ Hal Elrod,
756:Your product roadmap should slot right in between your company vision and your more detailed development, release, and operational plans. ~ C Todd Lombardo,
757:But my intellectual development was retarded, as a result of which I began to wonder about space and time only when I had already grown up. ~ Richard Rhodes,
758:Emulation and imitation can legitimately influence one's development, but ultimately the artist must find his own path - and be true to himself. ~ Ken Danby,
759:The development of the meaning attaching to the personal self, the conscious being, is the subject matter of the history of psychology. ~ James Mark Baldwin,
760:The movement has kept itself from full development by denying, ignoring, and rejecting parts of itself, including its spiritual legacy. ~ Helen LaKelly Hunt,
761:The self as Jung talked about is not an object, it is not a noun, it does not show up on an MRI... It is a process of growth and development. ~ James Hollis,
762:The world is put back by the death of every one who has to sacrifice the development of his or her peculiar gifts to conventionality. ~ Florence Nightingale,
763:This complete and automatic development of an isolated idea of the personality, in the fashion of a parasite, is not met with in the normal man. ~ Anonymous,
764:To achieve progress and development it is necessary to bring about co-ordination between liberty and security through Devotion. ~ Pandurang Shastri Athavale,
765:To effectively contain a civilization’s development and disarm it across such a long span of time, there is only one way: kill its science.” The ~ Liu Cixin,
766:To ensure continuing prosperity in the global economy, nothing is more important than the development and application of knowledge and skills. ~ Martin Rees,
767:Your level of success, will rarely exceed your level of personal development, because success is something you attract by the person you become, ~ Hal Elrod,
768:Babies and young children are like the research and development division of the human species, and we grown-ups are production and marketing. ~ Alison Gopnik,
769:BJP is not going to the people only to form a government. We have come to the people to give stability and a development oriented government. ~ Narendra Modi,
770:Choose your battles. If rapid development is truly top priority, don't shackle your developers by insisting on too many priorities at once. ~ Steve McConnell,
771:Community leadership is the courage, creativity and capacity to inspire participation, development and sustainability for strong communities. ~ Gustav Nossal,
772:Perhaps adjustment and stabilization, while good because it cuts your pain, is also bad because development towards a higher ideal ceases? ~ Abraham H Maslow,
773:The point is, the Four Stages are not for ego-development or attainment; they are a skilful means for recognizing the way we cling to things. ~ Ajahn Sumedho,
774:When I was starting out, the first women studio heads and writers were just getting into their perches - development execs learning their chops. ~ Lynda Obst,
775:With the development of the Christian Lacroix house in Paris and my work notably for the theater, it wasn't serious doing things by half. ~ Christian Lacroix,
776:Any species capable of producing, at this earliest, juvenile stage of its development... the music of Johann Sebastian Bach, cannot be all bad. ~ Lewis Thomas,
777:...God doesn't wait for you to reach maturity before he starts liking you. He loves and enjoys you at every stage of your spiritual development. ~ Rick Warren,
778:I don't think that nature envisaged an insurmountable mechanism that would hinder any country from taking the path of democratic development. ~ Garry Kasparov,
779:If the development of consciousness is disturbed in its normal unfolding, children frequently retire. . . . into an "inner fortress" p. 169 ~ Carl Gustav Jung,
780:In other words, economic development should be judged and measured by the per capita real income of the bottom 50 per cent of the population. ~ Muhammad Yunus,
781:Only as a child's awareness and reverence for the wholeness of life are developed can his humanity to his own kind reach its full development. ~ Rachel Carson,
782:That is why we may say that the historical development of capitalism has involved the thrust towards the commodification of everything. ~ Immanuel Wallerstein,
783:A broad and far-sighted policy rests on capacity for development; on the inner forces that, once awakened, will sooner or later reveal their power. ~ Anonymous,
784:Another huge new development was going up to improve life for all of us by turning trees and animals into cement and old people from New Jersey. ~ Jeff Lindsay,
785:At the most basic level, the key to ending extreme poverty is to enable the poorest of the poor to get their foot on the ladder of development. ~ Jeffrey Sachs,
786:"From my own limited experience I have found that the greatest degree of inner tranquility comes from the development of love and compassion." ~ Dalai Lama XIV,
787:I began to understand that the goal of psychic development is the self. There is no linear evolution; there is only a circumambulation of the self. ~ Carl Jung,
788:if you can clean the code, you can keep the development team from bogging down into the typical Big Ball of Mud. You can keep the team moving fast. ~ Anonymous,
789:I’m a bad case of arrested development, stuck in early adolescence, more screwed-up-twisted-up-tangled-up than a couple earthworms makin’ babies. ~ Dean Koontz,
790:In its broadest ecological context, economic development is the development of more intensive ways of exploiting the natural environment. ~ Richard G Wilkinson,
791:Intellectual death is endemic in areas where people are not prepared to gain new information for development. Learning is the intervention! ~ Israelmore Ayivor,
792:Learn. Unlearn. (Repeat.) Rather than viewing change as an aberration, we understand it as a natural part of the organization’s development. ~ Nilofer Merchant,
793:Our outer world will always be a reflection of our inner world. Our level of success is always going to parallel our level of personal development. ~ Hal Elrod,
794:She said that sometimes she uses a formula when writing a short story, which goes ABDCE, for Action, Background, Development, Climax, and Ending. ~ Anne Lamott,
795:The different techniques will place you in touch with different fields of auric empowerment, creating a balanced development of your practice. ~ Frederick Lenz,
796:The history of the world shows that peoples and societies do not have to pass through a fixed series of stages in the course of development. ~ Aung San Suu Kyi,
797:There are so many men and women who hold no distinctive positions but whose contribution towards the development of society has been enormous. ~ Nelson Mandela,
798:This is only one short section of the Phenomenology, the whole of which traces the development of Mind as it overcomes contradiction or opposition. ~ Anonymous,
799:although individuals and small events did affect the course of historical development, the influence of even major figures was strictly limited. In ~ Iain Pears,
800:In 1997, the government spent $37 billion on military research and development, nearly two-thirds of what the entire world spent on the same. In ~ Morris Berman,
801:India is developing because of 125 crore strong Team India. We have to end the curse of casteism, communalism with the sweetness of development. ~ Narendra Modi,
802:Language changes and moves in a different direction evolving all the time. Where a lot of people see deterioration, I see expressive development ~ David Crystal,
803:Success must include two things: the development of an individual to his utmost potentiality and a contribution of some kind to one's world. ~ Eleanor Roosevelt,
804:The designer's role in the development, application and protection of the trademark may be described as pre-creative, creative and post-creative. ~ Lester Beall,
805:There can be no national development without national liberty. ~ Sri Aurobindo, Bande Mataram - I, Shall India be Free? - National Development and Foreign Rule,
806:You cannot predict the outcome of human development. All you can do is like a farmer create the conditions under which it will begin to flourish. ~ Ken Robinson,
807:Built on the foundation of concentration is the third aspect of the Buddha’s path of awakening: clarity of vision and the development of wisdom. ~ Jack Kornfield,
808:Climate change policies cannot be the frosting on the cake of development; they must be baked into the recipe of growth and social development. ~ Robert Zoellick,
809:foundation of all moral development. Children construct their moral understanding on the bedrock of the absolute moral truth that harm is wrong. ~ Jonathan Haidt,
810:If only someone asked my opinion, I'd say the male species is disastrous to the development of womankind and they ought to be removed promptly ~ Christine Lemmon,
811:In my clinical experience, the greatest block to a person's development is his having to take on a way of life which is not rooted in his own powers. ~ Rollo May,
812:Making and keeping these three universal resolutions will accelerate our self-development and, potentially, increase our influence with others. ~ Stephen R Covey,
813:the first two years of a movie’s development should be a time of solidifying the story beats by relentlessly testing them—much like you temper steel. ~ Anonymous,
814:There is no development strategy more beneficial to society as a whole - women and men alike - than the one which involves women as central players. ~ Kofi Annan,
815:Today, the worst conflicts, the most deep-rooted violence, and those likely to emerge in the coming years are due to disparities in development. ~ Segolene Royal,
816:When I watch students make particular decisions about language, structure, and form, it sharpens my own thinking and my own development as a writer. ~ Leni Zumas,
817:Eternal boyhood is the dream of a depressing percentage of American males, and the locker room is the temple where they worship arrested development. ~ Dave Barry,
818:If children are allowed free development and given occupation to correspond with their unfolding minds their natural goodness will shine forth. ~ Maria Montessori,
819:Nationalism is the sworn enemy of civilization, whether past, present or future, its malodorous presence thwarting the development of intelligence, ~ Stefan Zweig,
820:On a purely technical side, I'm really very happy with how Linux gets used in a very wide set of different areas. It's important for development. ~ Linus Torvalds,
821:The category of first sentence makes sense only if it is looking forward to the development of thematic concerns it perhaps only dimly foreshadows. ~ Stanley Fish,
822:The most fundamental problem in software development is complexity. There is only one basic way of dealing with complexity: divide and conquer ~ Bjarne Stroustrup,
823:With software, you really can replicate and do a lot of very real and active development in parallel, and actually try it out and see what works. ~ Linus Torvalds,
824:A child's character develops in accordance with the obstacles he has encountered... or the freedom favoring his development that he has enjoyed. ~ Maria Montessori,
825:By far the most significant event in finance during the past decade has been the extraordinary development and expansion of financial derivatives. ~ Alan Greenspan,
826:Education is no longer thought of as a preparation for adult life, but as a continuing process of growth and development from birth until death. ~ Stephen Mitchell,
827:... for we perceive that this miraculous development is not the result of our own efforts: an eternal Perfection is moulding us into its own image. ~ Sri Aurobindo,
828:if we were forced to choose just one, there would be no way to deny that Judaism is the most important intellectual development in human history. ~ David Gelernter,
829:I have a very steadfast tendency to parent myself, to monitor my development into the person I want to be. I've tried to keep the corruption minimal. ~ Fiona Apple,
830:Investments in immunization yield a rate of return on a par with educating our children - and higher than nearly any other development intervention. ~ Seth Berkley,
831:It is important to explain fully to the local areas with sincerity. We will also think, of course, about the development promotion of the communities. ~ Shinzo Abe,
832:Mere good governance is not enough; it has to be pro-people and pro-active. Good governance is putting people at the center of development process. ~ Narendra Modi,
833:Mexico and the USA are friends, partners and allies and should continue to work together for competivity and development across North America. ~ Enrique Pena Nieto,
834:Real cultural diversity results from the interchange of ideas, products, and influences, not from the insular development of a single national style. ~ Tyler Cowen,
835:Strengthening local airports in Iowa is important for economic development and improving the quality of life our rural areas and urban communities ~ Chuck Grassley,
836:They are, reluctantly or enthusiastically, accepting the idea that humans are as much an accident of nature as a product of orderly development.” But ~ Bill Bryson,
837:White House and State Department foreign-policy experts are overwhelmingly directed towards military and diplomatic issues, not development issues. ~ Jeffrey Sachs,
838:With certain kinds of people,we allow for the potential development of all the beauties of human virtue within a faith that is different from our own ~ Victor Hugo,
839:You have all played a significant part in my development of loving. As a result, my life has been rich and full, so I leave feeling very grateful. ~ Virginia Satir,
840:Furthermore, a large portion of the assets of leading Russian figures is mixed, meaning that it is not quite clear how to counter this development. ~ Garry Kasparov,
841:Is everything forbidden us except to fold our arms? Poverty is not written in the stars; under development is not one of God's mysterious designs. ~ Eduardo Galeano,
842:Most certainly, some planets are not inhabited, but others are, and among these there must exist life under all conditions and phases of development. ~ Nikola Tesla,
843:[O]ur greatest contributions to the cause of freedom and development overseas is not what we do over there, but what we do right here at home. ~ Frances Moore Lappe,
844:[The historical] development in the international system may almost be defined as the process by which we pass from stable war to stable peace. ~ Kenneth E Boulding,
845:The sampling period is not incidental to the development of great performers—something to be excised in the interest of a head start—it is integral. ~ David Epstein,
846:The Xbox 360 is the first console that I've ever worked with that actually has development tools that are better for games than what we've had on PC. ~ John Carmack,
847:Those engaged in directing the actions of others are always in danger of overlooking the importance of the sequential development of those they direct. ~ John Dewey,
848:Today China is a first world economy, in terms of development. The U.S. may still be in first in GDP but it is a broken economy in reality. ~ Alejandro Castro Espin,
849:True education does not consist merely in the acquiring of a few facts of science, history, literature, or art, but in the development of character. ~ David O McKay,
850:We begin with the hypothesis that any subject can be taught effectively in some intellectually honest form to any child at any stage of development. ~ Jerome Bruner,
851:B-quadrant businesses get tax credits for hiring employees, for increasing their research and development, and for investing in green technology. ~ Robert T Kiyosaki,
852:Each time you dip into the well of existence it changes you. Rapid mental development is that process. It is a process of escalating your evolution. ~ Frederick Lenz,
853:having a development process that integrates stable code across the enterprise is one of the most effective ways of aligning the work across the teams, ~ Gary Gruver,
854:Instead of promoting healthy development, they unconsciously undermine it, often with the belief that they are acting in their child’s best interest. ~ Susan Forward,
855:Intellectual death is endemic in areas where people are unprepared to obtain new information for development. Learning is a way of staying alive. ~ Israelmore Ayivor,
856:On the other hand, the sun of Naples might be conducive to learning something about the biochemistry of the embryonic development of marine animals. ~ James D Watson,
857:Our approach [to global security] has changed by the way we've elevated development. The biggest lesson is to recognize global responsibility. ~ Anne Marie Slaughter,
858:Success is a continuing thing. It is growth and development. It is achieving one thing and using that as a stepping stone to achieve something else. ~ John C Maxwell,
859:The army uses an analytical framework of mission, enemy, troops, terrain, and time available (METT-T) to guide it in rapid development of its operations. ~ Anonymous,
860:There are few endeavors in which it is more important to keep options open than in software development. In Chapter 3, “Decide as Late as Possible ~ Mary Poppendieck,
861:The Satanic message for this age will be reformation and self-development, while the message of God is regeneration by the power of the spirit. ~ Lewis Sperry Chafer,
862:The Saudi government's denial of basic rights to women is not only wrong, it hurts Saudi Arabia's economic development, modernization and prosperity. ~ Barbara Boxer,
863:The third aspect of change is a systematic development of respectful and inspiring working conditions for teachers and principals in Finnish schools. ~ Pasi Sahlberg,
864:The very essence of architecture consists of a variety and development reminiscent of natural organic life. This is the only true style in architecture ~ Alvar Aalto,
865:They knew each other very well--so well that they could sit now in that soothing silence which is the very highest development of companionship. ~ Arthur Conan Doyle,
866:Animal experimentation has been essential to the development of all cardiac surgery, transplantation surgery, joint replacements and all vaccinations. ~ Joseph Murray,
867:As you learn to be true to yourself, you will find that you attract people, work, and other circumstances that reflect your evolution and development. ~ Shakti Gawain,
868:China attaches great importance to the utilization of renewable resources, making it one of the important moves to promote economic and social development ~ Hu Jintao,
869:Freedom is the opportunity for right development, for development in accordance with the progressive ideal of life that we have in conscience. ~ Charles Horton Cooley,
870:Growing up in a violent home is a terrifying and traumatic experience that can affect every aspect of a child's life, growth, and development. ~ Lucille Roybal Allard,
871:I believe a good memoir should have all of the narrative elements of a novel: character development, dialogue, descriptive language, and metaphor. ~ Danielle Trussoni,
872:I have a feeling that any simple problem can be made arbitrarily difficult by imposing a suitably heavy administrative process around the development. ~ Joe Armstrong,
873:Only the person who does not evade conflict and directs his efforts in keeping with the course of society's development can be an effective leader. ~ Georgi Plekhanov,
874:Regression is defined here as a psychological retreat to a prior stage of development in order to reduce fear and foster an illusion of security. ~ Robert W Firestone,
875:The development of Africa will not happen without the effective participation of women. Our forefathers' image of women must be buried once for all. ~ Ousmane Sembene,
876:The development of general ability for independent thinking and judgment should always be placed foremost, not the acquisition of special knowledge. ~ Albert Einstein,
877:Wayfaring becomes “an ongoing process of growth and development, or self-renewal.” Transport, on the other hand, is “essentially destination-oriented. ~ Nicholas Carr,
878:Yoga has a threefold impact on health. It keeps healthy people healthy, it inhibits the development of diseases, and it aids recovery from ill health. ~ B K S Iyengar,
879:I could not undertake to form a nucleus of an institution for the development of infant minds, where none already existed. It would be too cruel. ~ Henry David Thoreau,
880:"If you are able, through your development of wisdom and skillful means, to unite the teachings with your life, then true results will be achieved." ~ Gyatrul Rinpoche,
881:I got good notice from that show, and on the last day of filming Townies, Twentieth Century Fox called wanting to meet with me about a development deal. ~ Jenna Elfman,
882:My fascination for studies proved highly beneficial, it assisted the development of my aesthetic understanding of chess, and improved my endgame play. ~ Vasily Smyslov,
883:Neurosis may be called a negating of possibilities; it is the shrinking up of one's world. The development of the self is this radically curtailed. ~ Rollo May,
884:Spiritual development means the ability to stand still, or stand aside, and let Infinite Intelligence lift your burdens and fight your battles. ~ Florence Scovel Shinn,
885:The development of capacities is not only permissible but right, when it can be made part of the Yoga ~ Sri Aurobindo, Letters on Yoga - II, Consecration and Offering,
886:The development of quantum mechanics early in the twentieth century obliged physicists to change radically the concepts they used to describe the world. ~ Alain Aspect,
887:The drama is complete poetry. The ode and the epic contain it only in germ; it contains both of them in a state of high development, and epitomizes both. ~ Victor Hugo,
888:The film language is still in development and the traditional dialogue is the biggest problem because nobody knows how to interpret it in 3D world. ~ Timur Bekmambetov,
889:There are a lot of scripts that you can like, but rarely are there directors attached when you're in development with something and that's stressful. ~ Amanda Seyfried,
890:The team quickly made a surprising discovery: only 50% of the source code in their development and test environments matched what was running in production. ~ Gene Kim,
891:Today's coastal development along with hurricane amnesia places modern man on a collision course with catastrophe if the lessons of history are ignored. ~ Max Mayfield,
892:We have but to look around us and see how the physical bodies of different men show the different degrees of development under mental control ~ William Walker Atkinson,
893:What children can do with the assistance of others might be in some sense even more indicative of their mental development than what they can do alone ~ Lev S Vygotsky,
894:Wisdom is the right application of knowledge; and true education...is the application of knowledge to the development of a noble and Godlike character. ~ David O McKay,
895:Without competition, the spectacular development of technology that we have seen in the last one hundred years in this country would not have happened. ~ Lee R Raymond,
896:At every step of our Christian development and in every sphere of our Christian discipleship, pride is the greatest enemy and humility our greatest friend. ~ John Stott,
897:Everyone takes refuge in something, so once again we work with transforming ordinary tendencies into skillful means for spiritual development. ~ Yongey Mingyur Rinpoche,
898:I feel however, that we architects have a special duty and mission... (to contribute) to the socio-cultural development of architecture and urban planning ~ Kenzo Tange,
899:If we look at statistical data, we see that Protestant countries in terms of economic development are more successful than those observing Catholicism. ~ Garry Kasparov,
900:If your product requires advertising or salespeople to sell it, it’s not good enough: technology is primarily about product development, not distribution. ~ Peter Thiel,
901:I got involved in script development from the beginning. It was nice to see how a film gets made right from the beginning. It was quite hands-on for me. ~ Dougray Scott,
902:It's possible, without taking sides or playing the statesman game, to reduce destruction simply by reducing the development of technology of destruction. ~ Jaron Lanier,
903:Now, that can be a traditional form or it can be something you're inventing. It can be the development of a metaphor, the working through of a metaphor. ~ Edward Hirsch,
904:Problems do not go away. They must be worked through or else they remain, forever a barrier to the growth and development of the spirit.” – M. Scott Peck ~ M Scott Peck,
905:Squeezed for money, the affected households often need to lower the quality of their food, which then impacts the overall development of their children. ~ Sheikh Hasina,
906:The importance of a story doesn't merely lie in the development of its plot and the characters involved in it, but in its exploration of the consciousness ... ~ Gulzar,
907:the reading of fiction facilitated the development of social skills because it provides the reader with the experience of thinking about other people. ~ Kelly Gallagher,
908:US spend more on research and development than the other countries, so we shouldn't be making the internet a more hostile, a more aggressive territory. ~ Edward Snowden,
909:Why is it that the destruction of something created by humans is called vandalism, yet the destruction of something created by God is called development? ~ Edward Abbey,
910:A relapse doesn't mean you'll never walk down the path you prefer. But I think relapses are almost an inevitable part of any course of self-development. ~ Philippa Perry,
911:Brazil is one of the biggest Latin American countries, the biggest, no doubt, and, more importantly, it is a country with immense development potential. ~ Vladimir Putin,
912:C is peculiar in a lot of ways, but it, like many other successful things, has a certain unity of approach that stems from development in a small group. ~ Dennis Ritchie,
913:Education is a human right with immense power to transform. On its foundation rest the cornerstones of freedom, democracy and sustainable human development. ~ Kofi Annan,
914:I like to call the difference between research and development. Some people use that interchangeably. They'll say R&D. They're two totally different things. ~ Burt Rutan,
915:In 2006 the United Nations Human Development Report estimated that 2.6 billion people, or 40 percent of the world’s population, had no indoor plumbing. ~ Jeremy J Siegel,
916:No sustainable development, environmental harmony or lasting security will happen if we are unable to eradicate hunger and extreme inequality ~ Luiz Inacio Lula da Silva,
917:Our premise is that inclusion leads to growth. So for those who are locked out, they lose development, and those who are in power lose market and growth. ~ Jesse Jackson,
918:People are becoming more and more aware of how the dominance of development and business is altering their lives and, in particular, their own heritage. ~ Robert Redford,
919:Religious cults and personal development seminars mainly try to get money from people . To do that , they perform a rather crude form of brainwashing . ~ Haruki Murakami,
920:Remember, aid cannot achieve the end of poverty. Only homegrown development base on the dynamism of individuals and firms in free markets can do that. ~ William Easterly,
921:Solidarity between women can be a powerful force of change, and can influence future development in ways favourable not only to women but also to men. ~ Nawal El Saadawi,
922:Some have estimated that the pharmaceutical industry overall spends about twice as much on marketing and promotion as it does on research and development. ~ Ben Goldacre,
923:Sustainable Development is more than meeting the needs of today and the future generations; to my understanding this definition better fits sex industry. ~ M F Moonzajer,
924:The civilized world must remain united and vigilant against the rogue state's development of a nuclear arsenal. We will never accept a nuclear North Korea. ~ Nikki Haley,
925:The common tendency of product development is to skip straight to the fourth question and build a solution before confirming that customers have the problem. ~ Eric Ries,
926:Apparently the nation’s future lay not in innovation and development but in global finance and telesales, in the entertainment industry and coffee shops. ~ David Nicholls,
927:As is typically the case in large-batch development, both groups had been willing to sacrifice the team’s ability to learn in order to work more “efficiently. ~ Eric Ries,
928:I have always thought that what is needed is the development of people who are interested not in being leaders as much as in developing leadership in others. ~ Ella Baker,
929:It is with children that we have the best chance of studying the development of logical knowledge, mathematical knowledge, physical knowledge, and so forth. ~ Jean Piaget,
930:The MDGs have been useful in moving human rights and development discourse together and in highlighting the need for greater accountability at all levels. ~ Mary Robinson,
931:They found that the average civic duty measured in different states at several points during US history significantly predict later socioeconomic development. ~ Anonymous,
932:We have entered a new era. Global society is interconnected as never before. [...] I suggest that we have arrived in the Age of Sustainable Development. ~ Jeffrey D Sachs,
933:Democracy is not a mere consequence, a certain stage in the development of society. It is the condition on which the survival of productive forces depends. ~ Wei Jingsheng,
934:foreign investors plowed $124 billion into China in 2013, according to the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development, but only $28 billion into India. ~ Anonymous,
935:Hence the same instant which killed the animals froze the country where they lived. This event was sudden, instantaneous, without any gradual development. ~ Georges Cuvier,
936:I believe shooting chronologically gives you a very fresh perspective and you're always aware of where you are in the development of the characters. ~ Nicolas Winding Refn,
937:If a child finds no stimuli for the activities which would contribute to his development, he is attracted simply to 'things' and desires to posses them. ~ Maria Montessori,
938:In everything, there are two kinds of development-analytical and synthetical. In the former the Hindus excel other nations. In the latter they are nil. ~ Swami Vivekananda,
939:It may seem like writing tests slows down development; in fact, testing does not cost, it pays, both during development and over the system’s lifecycle. ~ Mary Poppendieck,
940:Lunar mining is absolutely critical for the development of fusion sources. I'm a very strong proponent of the development of nuclear power, of fusion power. ~ Kesha Rogers,
941:The idea of “the free development of personality” seems admirable as long as one does not meet an individual whose personality has developed freely. ~ Nicol s G mez D vila,
942:The inevitableness, the idealism, and the blessing of war, as an indispensable and stimulating law of development, must be repeatedly emphasized. ~ Friedrich von Bernhardi,
943:There is no novel of world history, which is more wonderful than our party’s development to its present greatness.

Speech of March 20, 1934 in Munich ~ Adolf Hitler,
944:We will not enjoy security without development, we will not enjoy development without security, and we will not enjoy either without respect for human rights. ~ Kofi Annan,
945:I believe the highest aspiration of man should be individual freedom and the development of the individual. That there is a sacredness to individual rights! ~ Bill O Reilly,
946:I can see only one safe rule for the historian: that he should recognize in the development of human destinies the play of the contingent and the unforeseen. ~ H A L Fisher,
947:I have found you can obtain much information from the spirit. But the quality of that information depends upon the evolution or development of that spirit. ~ Dolores Cannon,
948:Lamarche, F. (1976), ‘Property development and the economic foundations of the urban question’, in C. Pickvance (ed.), Urban Sociology: Critical Essays, London. ~ Anonymous,
949:The home is the most important factor in civilization, and that civilization is to be measured at different stages largely by the development in the home. ~ Herbert Spencer,
950:The Millennium Development Goals can be met by 2015, but only if all involved break with business as usual and dramatically accelerate and scale up action now. ~ Kofi Annan,
951:The moral and religious teachings of no bible reach a higher altitude than the intelligence and mental development of the age and country which produced it. ~ Kersey Graves,
952:We've had 60 years of intellectual development in Iran. How can we have the same system? Even theories of secularism are constantly being revised and changed. ~ Akbar Ganji,
953:What distinguishes leaders in medicine goes far beyond that knowledge, into interpersonal skills like empathy, conflict resolution, and people development. ~ Daniel Goleman,
954:You have to stand guard over the development and maintenance of democracy, Islamic social justice and the equality of manhood in your own native soil. ~ Muhammad Ali Jinnah,
955:Atal Bihari Vajpayee ji gave the mantra- Insaniyat, Jamhooriyat, Kashmiriyat. He based Jammu and Kashmir's development on this, and we need to take it ahead. ~ Narendra Modi,
956:At the heart of iterative development is the notion that you should deliver software as soon as you have something useful to the user, even if it's not complete. ~ Anonymous,
957:Chile is a country that sells cheap and buys expensive, because we have to pay for manufactured goods from countries at much higher levels of development. ~ Salvador Allende,
958:Every day Saddam remains in power with chemical weapons, biological weapons, and the development of nuclear weapons is a day of danger for the United States. ~ Joe Lieberman,
959:Her chief dread in life, at this period of her development, was that she would appear narrow minded; what she feared next afterwards was that she should be so. ~ Henry James,
960:In the early stages of development, growth is constrained by number of potential new ideas, but later on it is constrained only by the ability to process them.19 ~ Anonymous,
961:I want us to continue to scale and grow over the coming years in education, professional development and employment to bring about change in people's lives. ~ David Batstone,
962:Mahindra & Mahindra and Great Wall, car champions from India and China, have a combined research-and-development (R&D) budget that is 3% of Volkswagen’s. ~ Anonymous,
963:Nothing is unthinkable, nothing impossible to the balanced person, provided it comes out of the needs of life and is dedicated to life's further development. ~ Lewis Mumford,
964:Seen that way, the wholesale transformation of production technologies that is mandated by pollution prevention creates a new surge of economic development. ~ Barry Commoner,
965:The Leadership Training Institute of America is a cultural think tank providing training and opportunity in leadership development and cultural dynamics. ~ Michael C Burgess,
966:The murder of Lumumba, in which the U.S. was involved, in the Congo destroyed Africa's major hope for development. Congo is now total horror story, for years. ~ Noam Chomsky,
967:The way love can disregard fears, however, is an age-old wonder. No fear is able to spoil love's development or keep it from dreaming of its appointed hour. ~ Naguib Mahfouz,
968:What is the true test of character unless it be its progressive development in the bustle and turmoil, in the action and reaction of daily life. ~ Johann Wolfgang von Goethe,
969:Every enterprise is learning and teaching institution. Training and development must be built into it on all levels, training and development that never stop. ~ Peter Drucker,
970:Historical materialism is that “the nature of a set of productive relations is explained by the level of development of the productive forces embraced by it”[12]. ~ Anonymous,
971:If it is presumed that the Kenyans will democratise in order to eat the peanuts of development assistance from the European Union... it would be a big mistake. ~ Meles Zenawi,
972:I have always had this view about the modern education system: we pay attention to brain development, but the development of warmheartedness we take for granted. ~ Dalai Lama,
973:My brother was a fantastic cheerleader for my development as a musician. He was almost 10 years older than me and would really push me to develop as a songwriter. ~ Tori Amos,
974:Slavery had very little to do with the economic success of the West. Just look at the facts and figures and how much slavery actually contributed to development. ~ Ibn Warraq,
975:The best government rests on the people, and not on the few, on persons and not on property, on the free development of public opinion and not on authority. ~ George Bancroft,
976:The consciousness is there throughout in our occult parts of being, the development is in the manifesting Nature. ~ Sri Aurobindo, The Life Divine, The Philosophy of Rebirth,
977:The development of a rational view of the nature of catalysis was thus absolutely dependent on the creation of the concept of the rate of chemical reaction. ~ Wilhelm Ostwald,
978:The development of weapons of mass destruction and the missiles to carry them would be a very destabilizing effect, should Iran be able to accomplish that. ~ Richard Armitage,
979:The fight against hunger and poverty is also predicated on the creation of a world order that accords priority to social and economic development. ~ Luiz Inacio Lula da Silva,
980:The next stage of development, perhaps in the distant future, will be a social order under which there will be no need for the coercive power of the state. ~ Yevgeny Zamyatin,
981:Thought and science follow their own law of development; they are slowly elaborated in the growth and forward pressure of humanity, in what Shakespeare calls ~ Matthew Arnold,
982:Thus, it is not the customer, but rather our hypothesis about the customer, that pulls work from product development and other functions. Any other work is waste. ~ Eric Ries,
983:Anarchists prepare for social revolution and use every means - speech, writing, or deed, whichever is more to the point; to accelerate revolutionary development. ~ Johann Most,
984:A real gold standard is thoroughly consistent with [classical] liberal principles and I, for one, am entirely in favor of measures promoting its development. ~ Milton Friedman,
985:Considerable sacrifices were demanded of the inhabitants of the machine in order that purely abstract formal development... might be carried as far as possible. ~ Le Corbusier,
986:Constant development is the law of life, and a man who always tries to maintain his dogmas in order to appear consistent drives himself into a false position. ~ Mahatma Gandhi,
987:If we have access to nuclear energy, that adds to our maneuverability in ensuring energy security as India marches on, on the path to accelerated development. ~ Manmohan Singh,
988:Mental development must be connected with movement and be dependent on it. It is vital that educational theory and practice should be informed by that idea. ~ Maria Montessori,
989:My particular focus at the moment is on the development of genetic algorithms and neural networks that work together to create computer architectural systems. ~ Frederick Lenz,
990:Our biggest challenge in this new century is to take an idea that seems abstract - sustainable development - and turn it into a reality for all the world's people ~ Kofi Annan,
991:Suzanne [Collins] was very involved in the development of the script. She wrote the first draft. She was very involved with Billy Ray, when he wrote his draft. ~ Nina Jacobson,
992:The development of our human resources is an area in which we need to do well as it is decisive in determining the success of our diversification programme. ~ Hassanal Bolkiah,
993:The disposition to continue to learn throughout life is perhaps one of the most important contributions that schools can make to an individual's development. ~ Elliot W Eisner,
994:We must always emphasize research and development of science and mathematics, and I can think of no better way to achieve this than through our future in space. ~ Nick Lampson,
995:When human beings are scared and feel everything is exposed to the government, we will censor ourselves from free thinking. That's dangerous for human development. ~ Ai Weiwei,
996:Whole batteries of genes are turned on and off during fly development, and this
pattern of gene activity serves to demarcate the different regions of the fly. ~ Neil Shubin,
997:All our efforts to defeat poverty and pursue sustainable development will be in vain if environmental degradation and natural resource depletion continue unabated. ~ Kofi Annan,
998:Economic research demonstrates that tax dollars spent in early childhood development provide extraordinary return on investment-16% for high quality programs ~ Robert Greenwald,
999:He, like so many of them, came from that breed of international development experts unsparing in its love for all humanity but having no interest in people. ~ Zia Haider Rahman,
1000:It is necessary - and toward this point our development will move, little by little - that nothing alien happen to us, but only what has long been our own. ~ Rainer Maria Rilke,
1001:Not to mention, by doing personal development in the morning, I wouldn’t have all of the excuses that accumulate during the day (I’m tired, I don’t have time, etc.) ~ Hal Elrod,
1002:Only after several years of training did I come to realize that the deepest purpose of the martial arts is to serve as a vehicle for personal spiritual development. ~ Joe Hyams,
1003:Sport is and should remain a great school of life that supports young people in their personal development. It teaches respect for others and also for oneself. ~ Richard Attias,
1004:The bicameral mind with its controlling gods was evolved as a final stage of the evolution of language. And in this development lies the origin of civilization. ~ Julian Jaynes,
1005:The growth is all coming from an engine of growth that is working—running efficiently to bring in new customers—not from improvements driven by product development. ~ Eric Ries,
1006:This 'ruthless' determination of morphogenetic fields to assert their individuality reflects, in our terminology, the self-assertive principle in development. ~ Arthur Koestler,
1007:Travel is crucial to one’s development,” said Miss Peregrine, her tone strangely defensive. “Until they have traveled, even the most educated person is ignorant. ~ Ransom Riggs,
1008:What this means is reflecting on your relationships in the past in your own family life and asking yourself how those experiences influenced your development. ~ Daniel J Siegel,
1009:ever since the development of the spine, the individual had become paramount, the group disregarded. Ghiselle was only following the downhill path of her species. ~ Tom Perrotta,
1010:Every enterprise is a learning and teaching institution. Training and development must be built into it on all levels—training and development that never stop. ~ Peter F Drucker,
1011:[Heisenberg's seminal 1925 paper initiating quantum mechanics marked] one of the great jumps—perhaps the greatest—in the development of twentieth century physics. ~ Abraham Pais,
1012:Humanity had always trafficked in oppression. Before the corporate marketing department got ahold of it, it was called conquest. Now it was regional development. ~ Daniel Suarez,
1013:I am interested in recent scholarly work examining the emergence of women's studies and ethnic studies departments and the development of the neoliberal university. ~ Dean Spade,
1014:I demand from a book harmony as unity and moderation; that determines the choice of words, the type and number of metaphors, the development and conclusion ~ Friedrich Nietzsche,
1015:Piaget’s work shows that our concepts of logic, space, time, number, quantity, etc., are not given readymade as Kant thought, but undergo a process of development. ~ Jean Piaget,
1016:The Great Mother impels—pushes (with certainty of mortality) and pulls (with possibility of redemption)—development of consciousness and of self-consciousness. ~ Jordan Peterson,
1017:The late development of mass industrial organization in the United States has both stimulated and retarded the political development of the American working class. ~ C L R James,
1018:Those who cannot remember the pastare condemned to repeat it. or: Those who have never heard of good system development practice are condemned to reinvent it. ~ George Santayana,
1019:To Voordouw, development journalism means "Community journalism to achieve larger objectives - social justice, improving health, education, bringing people together. ~ Anonymous,
1020:You need a vanguard organization in order to overcome the dangerous potential brought about by the uneven development of class militancy and class consciousness. ~ Ernest Mandel,
1021:As a general rule, the longer a man's fame is likely to last, the later it will be in coming; for all excellent products require time for their development. ~ Arthur Schopenhauer,
1022:Common to all Anarchists is the desire to free society of all political and social coercive institutions which stand in the way of development of a free humanity. ~ Rudolf Rocker,
1023:Different rates of development on different continents, from 11,000 B.C. to A.D. 1500, were what led to the technological and political inequalities of A.D. 1500. ~ Jared Diamond,
1024:High tech companies that focus on research, development and production will learn that they can be the perfect complement to our world-renowned agriculture heritage. ~ Alan Autry,
1025:in the long run the practice of solidarity proves much more advantageous to the species than the development of individuals endowed with predatory inclinations. ~ Pyotr Kropotkin,
1026:Literacy unlocks the door to learning throughout life, is essential to development and health, and opens the way for democratic participation and active citizenship. ~ Kofi Annan,
1027:Meanwhile, the Ice Storm was still in development, And that was something I really wanted to do, and frankly I don't think I was ready to do a big production like this. ~ Ang Lee,
1028:Something roughly akin to love is needed for proper biological development, and its absence is among the most aching, distorting stressors that we can suffer. ~ Robert M Sapolsky,
1029:Sustainable development is development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. ~ Gro Harlem Brundtland,
1030:That's where everything starts, as an actor: you've gotta have great writing and great character development, and then you have really great materials to work from. ~ Matt Lauria,
1031:The art of listening needs its highest development in listening to oneself; our most important task is to develop an ear that can really hear what we're saying. ~ Sydney J Harris,
1032:The child is the spiritual builder of mankind, and obstacles to his free development are the stones in the wall by which the soul of man has become imprisoned. ~ Maria Montessori,
1033:The current administration has made the decision to cut dollars going for community development block grants, for various incentives to bring cities back. ~ Stephanie Tubbs Jones,
1034:The historical development of the work of anthropologists seems to single out clearly a domain of knowledge that heretofore has not been treated by any other science ~ Franz Boas,
1035:Unfortunately, human progress is generally determined not by our spiritual, our emotional, and our intellectual development but by that of our technologies. ~ Mokokoma Mokhonoana,
1036:Haiti should remind us all that there is an immediate need to invest in and promote long-term development projects that are sustainable, scalable, and proven to work. ~ Bill Gates,
1037:Human development is a form of chronological unfairness, since late-comers are able to profit by the labors of their predecessors without paying the same price. ~ Alexander Herzen,
1038:If Socialism can only be realized when the intellectual development of all the people permits it, then we shall not see Socialism for at least five hundred years. ~ Vladimir Lenin,
1039:I have many projects in various states of development. Some are on paper and some are in my head. But as I go on, I feel the need to be guided in my choices. ~ Abdellatif Kechiche,
1040:In the spectacle — the visual reflection of the ruling economic order — goals are nothing, development is everything. The spectacle aims at nothing other than itself. ~ Guy Debord,
1041:National boundaries these days are not that important because of transformative technological development. Now we are talking about the fourth industrial revolution. ~ Ban Ki moon,
1042:Spirituality, however, corresponds to the development of human qualities such as love, compassion, patience, tolerance, forgiveness, or a sense of responsibility. ~ Dalai Lama XIV,
1043:[Spiritual] Practices are not for know-it-alls. Practices are for those who feel the need for change, growth, development, learning. Practices are for disciples. ~ Brian D McLaren,
1044:The Great Mother impels—pushes (with certainty of mortality) and pulls (with possibility of redemption)—development of consciousness and of self-consciousness. ~ Jordan B Peterson,
1045:Too often when people think of their journey into leadership, they envision a career path. What they should be thinking about is their own leadership development! ~ John C Maxwell,
1046:Using TrackMan is very important in the development of your golf game because it gives you such good data on what your golf swing is doing and where it needs to go. ~ Jason Dufner,
1047:We need a revolution in development thinking and practice. Foreign aid, debt relief, family planning, democracy, education, and free markets have not succeeded. ~ William Easterly,
1048:We will continue to deepen our engagement using every element of American power - diplomacy, military, economic development, the power of our values and our ideals. ~ Barack Obama,
1049:A new kind of mind thus beings to come into being which is based on the development of a common meaning that is constantly transforming in the process of the dialogue. ~ David Bohm,
1050:Books... are like lobster shells, we surround ourselves with 'em, then we grow out of 'em and leave 'em behind, as evidence of our earlier stages of development. ~ Dorothy L Sayers,
1051:I am of the firm belief that the nation should progress on the issue of development. And it is necessary that the country moves forward on the issue of development. ~ Narendra Modi,
1052:In 2011 a milestone was reached: Apple and Google spent more on lawsuits and payments involving patents than they did on research and development of new products. ~ Walter Isaacson,
1053:mental power is at least as important for progress and development—for mastering our physical and intellectual environment to get things done—as physical power. ~ Erik Brynjolfsson,
1054:[Misquotation; not by Einstein.] If only I had known, I should have become a watchmaker. [Apparently remorseful for his role in the development of the atom bomb.] ~ Albert Einstein,
1055:Psychic development makes you strong. It develops a common sense attitude in which you don't expose yourself to forces, people and situations that would drain you. ~ Frederick Lenz,
1056:Technological innovations had shifted the basis of England’s economy from agriculture to industry between 1750 and 1850. The development of steam power and a boom ~ Charles Dickens,
1057:That the AIDS pandemic is threatening sustainable development in Africa only reinforces the reality that health is at the center of sustainable development. ~ Gro Harlem Brundtland,
1058:The people of Missouri said they expect their elected leaders to support public schools because they know that education is the best economic development tool there is. ~ Jay Nixon,
1059:The world of the commodity is thus shown for what it is, because its development is identical to people’s estrangement from each other and from everything they produce. ~ Anonymous,
1060:What is fetus farming? Simply put, it is the creation and development of a human fetus for the purposes of later killing it for research or for harvesting its organs. ~ Nathan Deal,
1061:You have no control over your growth or development. But you have a control on the direction of your growth and development! Go, grow towards impact directions! ~ Israelmore Ayivor,
1062:You have to stand guard over the development and maintenance of Islamic democracy, Islamic social justice and the equality of manhood in your own native soil. ~ Muhammad Ali Jinnah,
1063:Children have a right to grow up in a family with a father and a mother capable of creating a suitable environment for the child's development and emotional maturity. ~ Pope Francis,
1064:However horrible the incidents of war may be, the soldier who is called upon to offer and to give his life for his country is the noblest development of mankind. ~ Douglas MacArthur,
1065:It was a Republican, President Dwight D. Eisenhower, who first protected the Arctic Refuge to balance the oil development at Prudhoe Bay with responsible conservation. ~ Robert Dold,
1066:I Use The Square To Begin My Solutions Because The Square Is A Non-choice, Really. In The Course Of Development, I Search For The Forces That Would Disprove The Square. ~ Louis Kahn,
1067:One of the key things that we did at Bank of North Dakota that I worked to try to do with our state economic development is make sure we are customer-service oriented. ~ John Hoeven,
1068:Programming in the real world is an interpersonal endeavour, and so is inevitably bound up in relationship issues, politics, and friction from our development processes. ~ Anonymous,
1069:Style is instinctive and few achieve it in a notable degree. Its development is not hastened by instruction. It comes or it doesn't. It will take care of itself. ~ Walter J Phillips,
1070:The fossil-fuel-based development model has not benefitted all people and those who have benefitted least are now suffering great harm in the face of climate change. ~ Mary Robinson,
1071:The 'harmonious world' theory .. will help dispel doubts in the international community about China's continued development and refute the absurd 'China threat theory'. ~ Ye Xiaowen,
1072:We are far from the so called 'end of history,' since the conditions for a sustainable and peaceful development have not yet been adequately articulated and realized. ~ Pope Francis,
1073:We need to make material progress, but we need inner development too ... remember that the real development we seek is not in the buildings but in our hearts and minds. ~ Dalai Lama,
1074:Working families need to know that we will work to protect their health needs, promote the development of safe, effective medicines, and guarantee patient rights. ~ Christopher Dodd,
1075:Your level of success, will rarely exceed your level of personal development, because success is something you attract by the person you become,” I stopped in my tracks. ~ Hal Elrod,
1076:A safe and nutritionally adequate diet is a basic individual right and an essential condition for sustainable development, especially in developing countries. ~ Gro Harlem Brundtland,
1077:But the term code-script is, of course, too narrow. The chromosome structures are at the same time instrumental in bringing about the development they foreshadow. ~ Erwin Schr dinger,
1078:Considering the current sad state of our computer programs, software development is clearly still a black art, and cannot yet be called an engineering discipline. ~ William J Clinton,
1079:Dialogue launches language, the mind, but once it is launched we develop a new power, “inner speech,” and it is this that is indispensable for our further development, ~ Oliver Sacks,
1080:I am disabled, so I can't travel, and I have not been to any development meetings, but Gary and the others affiliated with the film keep me updated on everything. ~ Laura Hillenbrand,
1081:In an adequate social order, the untalented should be able to acquire a sense of usefulness and of growth without interfering with the development of talent around them ~ Eric Hoffer,
1082:it [is] possible to suppose that, if Russia is allowed to have peace, an amazing industrial development may take place, making Russia a rival of the United States. ~ Bertrand Russell,
1083:It is really the mistake of our age. We think it is enough to discover new things, but we don’t realize that knowing more demands a corresponding development of morality. ~ Carl Jung,
1084:It is very important to have a correct socio-economic development forecast and plan, in which inflation being a vital investment factor should be the key indicator ~ Tatyana Golikova,
1085:Science…means unresting endeavor and continually progressing development toward an aim which the poetic intuition may apprehend, but the intellect can never fully grasp. ~ Max Planck,
1086:The development of the free individual is, we have said, the first condition for the development of the perfect society. ~ Sri Aurobindo, The Human Cycle, Civilisation and Barbarism,
1087:The truth is my development I hope is the same way as everything, which is, I succeed some, I fail some, and I keep slugging away at it. I really enjoy it. It's fun. ~ George Clooney,
1088:We on our part will stick to our independent foreign policy of peace, acting forever as a strong defender of world peace and a persistent proponent of common development. ~ Hu Jintao,
1089:What you need if you want jobs are small and medium sized enterprises, local initiatives, labour intensive work, community development, service providers and the like. ~ Susan George,
1090:Women's rights must not be treated as trivial adjuncts to great questions of war and peace, poverty and development. What's at stake are not lifestyles but lives. ~ Michelle Goldberg,
1091:As an entrepreneur at heart, I am excited to see so many new opportunities, and I am honoured to accept this opportunity to help shape the next stage of HTC's development. ~ Cher Wang,
1092:Before the development of tourism, travel was conceived to be like study, and its fruits were considered to be the adornment of the mind and the formation of judgement. ~ Paul Fussell,
1093:During my nearly five years as director-general of WHO, high-level policymakers have increasingly recognized that health is central to sustainable development. ~ Gro Harlem Brundtland,
1094:I'm convinced more than ever that capitalism, with its technological development, has not been an advance toward freedom but has been an enormous setback of freedom. ~ Murray Bookchin,
1095:In a basic sense, the greater the development of each individual the more able, more effective, and less needy of limiting or restricting others she or he will be. ~ Jean Baker Miller,
1096:In fact, the habit of setting and achieving ever-larger goals is absolutely indispensable to the development of ever-higher levels of self-confidence and personal power. ~ Brian Tracy,
1097:It is really the mistake of our age. We think it is enough to discover new things, but we don't realize that knowing more demands a cor­responding development of morality. ~ Carl Jung,
1098:Just because you are born in shit, does not mean you must stay there.” The quote is from a female pilot from WWII, instrumental in the development of the WASP, name unknown. ~ Unknown,
1099:Leave to your opinions their own quiet undisturbed development, which, like all progress, must come from deep within and cannot be pressed or hurried by anything. ~ Rainer Maria Rilke,
1100:The ego is not harmonious with happiness and spiritual development. In the process of spiritual transformation we refine it. In the fire of love we melt the ego down. ~ Frederick Lenz,
1101:The most striking development of the great depression of 1929 is a profound skepticism of the future of contemporary society among large sections of the American people. ~ C L R James,
1102:There is no other city as vulgar and obscene as Osaka. We should celebrate the image and welcome the development of casinos and red-light districts to attract people. ~ Toru Hashimoto,
1103:The role of these New Orleans Creoles in the development of jazz remains one of the least understood and most commonly mis-represented issues in the history of this music. ~ Ted Gioia,
1104:We determine scope at the beginning of system development, put a box around it, and figure out how long that scope will take to develop. This is the wrong approach. ~ Mary Poppendieck,
1105:Youth are active partners in Gujarat's development! Gujarat's approach towards skill development has been flexible, broad based, inclusive and with a long-term vision. ~ Narendra Modi,
1106:At the beginning of all growth, everything imitates. All of us, when we were children, also only imitated. But children grow up and begin their own development. ~ Pramoedya Ananta Toer,
1107:But it is not regressive to surrender to our feminine selves. It's the most progressive line if development because it honors, instead of represses, our emotions. ~ Marianne Williamson,
1108:China and the United States have major influence in international affairs and shoulder important responsibilities in upholding world peace and promoting common development. ~ Hu Jintao,
1109:If world leaders decide to [meet the Millennium Development Goals], I think it can be done by 2015...The question is, is there a political will to make this investment? ~ Thoraya Obaid,
1110:In proportion to the development of his individuality, each person becomes more valuable to himself, and is therefore capable of being more valuable to others. . . . ~ John Stuart Mill,
1111:In the development of mankind as a whole, just as in individuals, love alone acts as the civilizing factor in the sense that it brings a change from egoism to altruism. ~ Sigmund Freud,
1112:Investing in women's lives is an investment in sustainable development, in human rights, in future generations - and consequently in our own long-term national interests. ~ Liya Kebede,
1113:I responded to this development with the kind of sophisticated language for which I am famous. "Crap crap crap crap crap crap crap stupid stupid stupid stupid stupid crap. ~ John Green,
1114:It's multifaceted, the message to our music. It's not just that. It's about individuality, development of self, finding things in life that you can be passionate about. ~ David Draiman,
1115:Only through the development of mutual respect, and in a spirit of truth, can friendship come about. By these means it is possible to move human minds, but never by force. ~ Dalai Lama,
1116:People have separated from each other with walls of concrete that blocked the roads to connection and love. and Nature has been defeated in the name of development. ~ Yasunari Kawabata,
1117:The development of science is basically a social phenomenon, dependent on hard work and mutual support of many scientists and on the societies in which they live. ~ Charles Hard Townes,
1118:The development of social media, citizen journalism, and new technology has made it more difficult for the established media to simply ignore gun deaths in certain areas. ~ Gary Younge,
1119:The fact that we advance technologically does not preclude spiritual development. We need to home-grow our own model of development based on our inherent strengths. ~ A P J Abdul Kalam,
1120:The history of government has been defined by two arcs: the development of our capacity to tolerate theft, and our awareness that we deserve to live without being robbed. ~ Adam Kokesh,
1121:The obsession with performance left no room for the development of the intuitive or spiritual impact of space and form other than the aesthetic of the machine itself. ~ Arthur Erickson,
1122:There is no value-judgment more important to a man--no factor more decisive in his psychological development and motivation--than the estimate he passes on himself. ~ Nathaniel Branden,
1123:zygotes by definition are rather limited in number and most scientists working in very early development use cells from a bit later, the famous embryonic stem (ES) cells. ~ Nessa Carey,
1124:Enter into the plane of mental development. Start to increase your personal power level. Your life will become quite wonderful and very happy. You move beyond delusion. ~ Frederick Lenz,
1125:Faith in the possibility of science, generated antecedently to the development of modern scientific theory, is an unconscious derivative from medieval theology. ~ Alfred North Whitehead,
1126:I am not opposed to the white race as charged by my enemies. I have no time to hate any one. All my time is devoted to the up-building and development of the Negro Race. ~ Marcus Garvey,
1127:In terms of spiritual development, it's not a big deal whether you have sex or not, the question is more of who you have sex with and what their energy is doing to you. ~ Frederick Lenz,
1128:IN THE COURSE of Western development, the essentially positive process of emancipating the ego and consciousness from the tyranny of the unconscious has become negative. ~ Erich Neumann,
1129:It is evident that no derivative laws can teach the young student to see and apprehend colour in nature. His perception needs development as urgently as his muscles. ~ Walter J Phillips,
1130:Masood Ahmed brings to the position of director of external relations extensive experience gained in a range of senior positions in international finance and development. ~ Rodrigo Rato,
1131:seemed to me that if there were lack of funds to carry on work, then to that degree, in that special development, or at that time, it could not be the work of God. ~ James Hudson Taylor,
1132:So this is the development that will make a difference: a method for groups of people and machines to work together to make decisions in a way that takes advantage of scale. ~ Anonymous,
1133:Take a look at NAFTA, one of the worst deals ever made by any country having to do with economic development. It's economic un development as far as America is concerned. ~ Donald Trump,
1134:That war has brought with it a truly incredible development of means of destruction and a terrifying prospect of rapid and almost limitless development in that direction. ~ Cordell Hull,
1135:The assault on Malta will cost us many casualties...but...I consider it absolutely essential for the future development of the war. If we take Malta, Libya will be safe. ~ Ugo Cavallero,
1136:The great monopoly in this country is the money monopoly. So long as it exists, our old variety of freedom and individual energy of development are out of the question. ~ Woodrow Wilson,
1137:The struggle between the specifically human and the universally natural constitutes the history of man’s conscious development. ~ Erich Neumann, The Origins and History of Consciousness,
1138:What is common to our societies is the development into a managed mass society, with big bureaucracy, managing people. The Russians do it by force. We do it by persuasion. ~ Erich Fromm,
1139:You must realize one thing. In every little village in the world there are great potential champions who only need motivation, development and good exercise evaluation. ~ Arthur Lydiard,
1140:Despite recent sad developments, cricket will survive and remain our most noble game and I shall always remain proud of the part I played in its history and development. ~ Donald Bradman,
1141:Differences produce conflicts, which may be beneficial to the development of a country if they occur among true patriots, whose only ambition is the happiness of the citizen. ~ Mariama B,
1142:I am engaged in answering that Italian buffoon, Mazotti, whose views upon the larval development of the tropical termites have excited my derision and contempt . . . ~ Arthur Conan Doyle,
1143:I don't say that the supposed Civil Rights development is a myth, but it's a matter of dealing with reality. It's purely peripheral and, in many cases, it's just a facade. ~ Norman Granz,
1144:In the development of both capitalism and communism, as we visualize them in the next fifty or a hundred years, the processes that encourage human alienation will continue. ~ Erich Fromm,
1145:Let your judgements have their own quiet, undistu