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Tilopa's_Mahamudra_Upadesha__The_Gangama_Instructions_with_Commentary

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Tilopa's Mahamudra Upadesha The Gangama Instructions with Commentary

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Tilopa

Tilopa. (T. Ti lo pa) (988-1069). An Indian tantric adept counted among the eighty-four MAHĀSIDDHAs and venerated in Tibet as an important source of tantric instruction and a founder of the BKA' BRGYUD sect. Little historical information exists regarding Tilopa's life. According to his traditional biographies, Tilopa was born a brāhmana in northeast India. As a young man he took the vows of a Buddhist monk, but later was compelled by the prophecies of a dĀKINĪ messenger to study with a host of tantric masters. He lived as a wandering YOGIN, practicing TANTRA in secret while outwardly leading a life of transgressive behavior. For many years Tilopa acted as the servant for the prostitute Barima (in truth a wisdom dākinī in disguise) by night while grinding sesame seeds for oil by day. The name Tilopa, literally "Sesame Man," derives from the Sanskrit word for sesamum. Finally, Tilopa is said to have received instructions in the form of a direct transmission from the primordial buddha VAJRADHARA. Tilopa instructed numerous disciples, including the renowned Bengali master NĀROPA, who is said to have abandoned his prestigious monastic position to become Tilopa's disciple, undergoing many difficult trials before receiving his teachings. Those teachings were later received by MAR PA CHOS KYI BLO GROS, who brought Tilopa's teachings to Tibet. As with many Indian siddhas, Tilopa's main instructions are found in the form of DOHĀ, or songs of realization. Many of his songs, together with several tantric commentaries and liturgical texts, are included in the Tibetan canon. Among the teachings attributed to him are the BKA' 'BABS BZHI ("four transmissions"), the LUS MED MKHA' 'GRO SNYAN RGYUD CHOS SKOR DGU ("nine aural lineage cycles of the formless dākinīs"), and the MAHĀMUDROPADEsA.


TERMS ANYWHERE

22. Tilopa (T. Snum pa)

bka' babs bzhi. (kabap shi). In Tibetan, "four instructional lineages" (bka' means words-of a buddha or enlightened master-and babs means to descend in a stream); a series of tantric instructions that the Indian SIDDHA TILOPA received from various masters, codified, and then passed on to his disciple NAROPA. These later became foundational teachings for the BKA' BRGYUD sect of Tibetan Buddhism and were incorporated into the six doctrines of NAropa (NA RO CHOS DRUG). Tibetan sources vary widely regarding the lineage and content of these four transmissions. According to a biography of Tilopa composed by MAR PA CHOS KYI BLO GROS, they are (1) the transmission of illusory body (T. sgyu lus kyi bka' babs) received from the siddha NAGARJUNA; (2) the transmission of dreams (T. rmi lam gyi bka' babs) received from the siddha CaryApa; (3) the transmission of clear light (T. 'od gsal gyi bka' babs) received from the siddha Lavapa; and (4) the transmission of inner heat (T. gtum mo'i bka' babs) received from JNAnadAkinī. According to other sources, these four may alternatively include the transmissions of MAHAMUDRA, the intermediate state (BAR DO), mother tantra (MATṚTANTRA), father tantra (PITṚTANTRA), and individual tantras such as the tantra of CAKRASAMVARA, HEVAJRA, and GUHYASAMAJA.

Bka' brgyud. (Kagyü). In Tibetan, "Oral Lineage" or "Lineage of the Buddha's Word"; one of the four main sects of Tibetan Buddhism. The term bka' brgyud is used by all sects of Tibetan Buddhism in the sense of an oral transmission of teachings from one generation to the next, a transmission that is traced back to India. Serving as the name of a specific sect, the name Bka' brgyud refers to a specific lineage, the MAR PA BKA' BRGYUD, the "Oral Lineage of Mar pa," a lineage of tantric initiations, instructions, and practices brought to Tibet from India by the translator MAR PA CHOS KYI BLO GROS in the eleventh century. Numerous sects and subsects evolved from this lineage, some of which developed a great deal of autonomy and institutional power. In this sense, it is somewhat misleading to describe Bka' brgyud as a single sect; there is, for example, no single head of the sect as in the case of SA SKYA or DGE LUGS. The various sects and subsects, however, do share a common retrospection to the teachings that Mar pa retrieved from India. Thus, rather than refer to Bka' brgyud as one of four sects (chos lugs), in Tibetan the Mar pa Bka' brgyud is counted as one of the eight streams of tantric instruction, the so-called eight great chariot-like lineages of achievement (SGRUB BRGYUD SHING RTA CHEN PO BRGYAD), a group which also includes the RNYING MA, the BKA' GDAMS of ATIsA, and the instructions on "severance" (GCOD) of MA GCIG LAB SGRON. In some Tibetan histories, Mar pa's lineage is called the Dkar brgyud ("White Lineage"), named after the white cotton shawls worn by its yogins in their practice of solitary meditation. The reading Dka' brgyud ("Austerities Lineage") is also found. The lineage from which all the sects and subsects derive look back not only to Mar pa, but to his teacher, and their teachers, traced back to the tantric buddha VAJRADHARA. Vajradhara imparted his instructions to the Indian MAHASIDDHA TILOPA, who in turn transmitted them to the Bengali scholar and yogin NAROPA. It was NAropa (in fact, his disciples) whom Mar pa encountered during his time in India, receiving the famous NA RO CHOS DRUG, or the six doctrines of NAropa. Mar pa returned to Tibet, translated the texts and transmitted these and other teachings (including MAHAMUDRA, the hallmark practice of Bka' brgyud) to a number of disciples, including his most famous student, MI LA RAS PA. These five figures-the buddha Vajradhara, the Indian tantric masters Tilopa and NAropa, and their Tibetan successors Mar pa and Mi la ras pa (both of whom were laymen rather than monks)-form a lineage that is recognized and revered by all forms of Bka' brgyud. One of Mi la ras pa's chief disciples, the physician and monk SGAM PO PA BSOD NAMS RIN CHEN united the tantric instructions he received from Mi la ras pa and presented them in the monastic and exegetical setting that he knew from his studies in the Bka' gdams sect. Sgam po pa, therefore, appears to have been instrumental in transforming an itinerant movement of lay yogins into a sect with a strong monastic element. He established an important monastery in the southern Tibetan region of Dwags po; in acknowledgment of his importance, the subsequent branches of the Bka' brgyud are sometimes collectively known as the DWAGS PO BKA' BRGYUD. The Bka' brgyud later divided into what is known in Tibetan as the "four major and eight minor Bka' brgyud" (BKA' BRGYUD CHE BZHI CHUNG BRGYAD). A number of these subsects no longer survive as independent institutions, although the works of their major figures continue to be studied. Among those that survive, the KARMA BKA' BRGYUD, 'BRI GUNG BKA' BRGYUD, and 'BRUG PA BKA' BRGYUD continue to play an important role in Tibet, the Himalayan region, and in exile.

Tilopa

Tilopa. (T. Ti lo pa) (988-1069). An Indian tantric adept counted among the eighty-four MAHĀSIDDHAs and venerated in Tibet as an important source of tantric instruction and a founder of the BKA' BRGYUD sect. Little historical information exists regarding Tilopa's life. According to his traditional biographies, Tilopa was born a brāhmana in northeast India. As a young man he took the vows of a Buddhist monk, but later was compelled by the prophecies of a dĀKINĪ messenger to study with a host of tantric masters. He lived as a wandering YOGIN, practicing TANTRA in secret while outwardly leading a life of transgressive behavior. For many years Tilopa acted as the servant for the prostitute Barima (in truth a wisdom dākinī in disguise) by night while grinding sesame seeds for oil by day. The name Tilopa, literally "Sesame Man," derives from the Sanskrit word for sesamum. Finally, Tilopa is said to have received instructions in the form of a direct transmission from the primordial buddha VAJRADHARA. Tilopa instructed numerous disciples, including the renowned Bengali master NĀROPA, who is said to have abandoned his prestigious monastic position to become Tilopa's disciple, undergoing many difficult trials before receiving his teachings. Those teachings were later received by MAR PA CHOS KYI BLO GROS, who brought Tilopa's teachings to Tibet. As with many Indian siddhas, Tilopa's main instructions are found in the form of DOHĀ, or songs of realization. Many of his songs, together with several tantric commentaries and liturgical texts, are included in the Tibetan canon. Among the teachings attributed to him are the BKA' 'BABS BZHI ("four transmissions"), the LUS MED MKHA' 'GRO SNYAN RGYUD CHOS SKOR DGU ("nine aural lineage cycles of the formless dākinīs"), and the MAHĀMUDROPADEsA.

*Caturasītisiddhapravṛtti. (T. Grub thob brgyad bcu rtsa bzhi'i lo rgyus). In Sanskrit, "The Lives of the Eighty-four Siddhas"; a tantric doxography ascribed to the early twelfth-century Indian author ABHAYADATTAsRĪ. The original Sanskrit version has been lost, but the text is preserved in Tibetan translation. The work records brief vitae for the great SIDDHAs (or mahAsiddhas) of Indian tantric Buddhism, who are commonly enumerated in a list of eighty-four. While the list varies, according to Abhayadattasrī's work, the eighty-four siddhas include Luyipa, Līlapa, VIRuPA, dombipa, savaripa, SARAHA, Kankaripa, Mīnapa, Goraksa, CaurAngi, Vīnapa, sAntipa, Tantipa, Camaripa, Khadgapa, NAGARJUNA, KAnḥapa, Karnaripa, Thaganapa, NAROPA, salipa, TILOPA, Catrapa, Bhadrapa, Dhukhandi, Ajokipa, Kalapa, Dhombipa, Kankana, Kambala, tengipa, Bhandhepa, Tandhepa, Kukkuripa, Kucipa, Dharmapa, Mahipa, Acinta, Babhahi, Nalina, Bhusuku, INDRABHuTI, Mekopa, Kotali, KaMparipa, JAlandhari, RAHULA, Dharmapa, Dhokaripa, Medhina, Pankaja, Ghandhapa, Yogipa, Caluki, Gorura, Lucika, Niguna, JayAnanda, Pacari, Campaka, Bhiksana, Telopa, Kumaripa, Caparipa, ManibhadrA, MekhalA, KanakhalA, Kalakala, Kantali, Dhahuli, Udheli, Kapalapa, Kirava, Sakara, Sarvabhaksa, NAgabodhi, DArika, Putali, Panaha, Kokali, Ananga, LaksmīnkarA, Samudra, and Vyali. See MAHASIDDHA.

dasypaedic ::: a. --> Pertaining to the Dasypaedes; ptilopaedic.

dohā. (T. nyams mgur). In Sanskrit, the name of a meter in poetry; hence, a name for a poetic form of religious expression most commonly employing this meter, which began to appear as early as the seventh century CE. These verses are of varying lengths, usually in rhymed couplets, and are composed in APABHRAMsA, an early medieval protovernacular from northeastern India. These songs offer an expression of the beauty and simplicity of tantric experience (the Tibetan translation means "song of experience"). There are collections of dohā by the SIDDHAs TILOPA, Kṛsnācārya (Kānha), and SARAHA (see MAHĀSIDDHA); Saraha's DOHĀKOsA ("Treasury of Dohā Verses") was especially influential in Tibet. In the early BKA' BRGYUD tradition, the songs (mgur) of MI LA RAS PA (see MI LA'I MGUR 'BUM) show the influence of dohā.

Indrabhuti. (T. In dra bo dhi). There are at least three figures by this name known to the Indian and Tibetan traditions. Perhaps the most important is a semimythical king of OddIYĀNA ([alt. Uddiyāna], probably the Swat region of northwest India but also identified as Orissa) at the time of the miraculous birth of PADMASAMBHAVA; according to tradition, he had no male heir, and so he installed Padmasambhava as crown prince. A second Indrabhuti is listed among the eighty-four MAHĀSIDDHA as a teacher of TILOPA; he may be the Indrabhuti, closely associated with mahāsiddha Lawapa, who is first in the lineage list (T. gsan yig) of the VAJRAYOGINĪ practices of the Tibetan SA SKYA sect and a brother of Laksmīnkarā. There is also a ninth-century Indian king and tantric master, a student of Ācārya Kukurāja, who authored the Cittaratnavisodhana, called Indrabhuti.

lus med mkha' 'gro snyan brgyud chos skor dgu. (lüme kadro nyengyu chokorgu). In Tibetan, "the nine teachings from the aural lineage of the formless dĀKINĪ"; a series of brief one-line instructions that the Indian SIDDHA TILOPA received from the formless display of reality. Tilopa passed these instructions to his disciple NĀROPA, who in turn passed them in part to his disciple MAR PA CHOS KYI BLO GROS and later, in full, to the Indian master TI PHU PA (said to be the miraculous reincarnation of his son). Mar pa transmitted four of the nine to his disciple MI LA RAS PA who then famously sent his disciple RAS CHUNG PA RDO RJE GRAGS to India in order to receive the remaining five from Ti phu pa. These instructions are understood to summarize the entire path of tantric practice and are foundational for many teachings of the BKA' BRGYUD sect of Tibetan Buddhism. The nine are:

mahāmudrā. (T. phyag rgya chen po; C. dayin/dashouyin; J. daiin/daishuin; K. taein/taesuin 大印/大手印). In Sanskrit, "great seal"; an important term in tantric Buddhism, especially in the traditions that flourished in Tibet. In Tibet, although it is extolled by all sects, mahāmudrā is particularly associated with the BKA' BRGYUD sect and the lineage coming from TILOPA and NĀROPA to MAR PA and MI LA RAS PA. There, it is regarded as the crowning experience of Buddhist practice. It is a state of enlightened awareness in which phenomenal appearance and emptiness (suNYATĀ) are unified. It is also used to refer to the fundamental reality that places its imprint or "seal" on all phenomena of SAMSĀRA and NIRVĀnA. Mahāmudrā literature exalts the ordinary state of mind as being both the natural and ultimate state, characterized by lucidity and simplicity. In mahāmudrā, the worldly mind is valued for its ultimate identity with the ordinary mind; every deluded thought contains within it the lucidity and simplicity of the ordinary mind. This identity merely needs to be recognized to bring about the dawning of wisdom, the realization that a natural purity pervades all existence, including the deluded mind. It is usually set forth in a threefold rubric of the basis (gzhi), path (lam), and fruition ('bras bu), with the first referring to the pure nature of the ordinary mind, the second referring to becoming aware of that mind through the practice of meditation, and the third referring to the full realization of the innate clarity and purity of the mind. There is some debate in Tibet whether mahāmudrā is exclusively a tantric practice or whether there is also a SuTRA version, connected with TATHĀGATAGARBHA teachings. ¶ In tantric practice, mahāmudrā is also highest of the four seals, the others being the action seal (KARMAMUDRĀ), the pledge seal (SAMAYAMUDRĀ), and the wisdom seal (JNĀNAMUDRĀ).

Mahāmudropadesa. (T. Phyag rgya chen po'i man ngag). In Sanskrit, "Instructions on the Great Seal"; a text known primarily through its Tibetan translations. It records seminal instructions on the view and practice of MAHĀMUDRĀ, taught by TILOPA to his disciple NĀROPA on the banks of the Ganges River. Due to this setting, the works is commonly known in Tibet as the Phyag chen gang gā ma ("Ganges Mahāmudrā") or simply the Gang gā ma. Several versions are preserved in the Tibetan Buddhist canon and the writings of various Tibetan Buddhist masters.

Mar pa bka' brgyud. (Marpa Kagyü). In Tibetan term, "Oral Lineage of Mar pa"; one of the so-called eight great conveyances that are lineages of achievement (SGRUB BRGYUD SHING RTA CHEN PO BRGYAD). The term refers generally to the teachings transmitted from such Indian masters as TILOPA, NĀROPA, and MAITRĪPA to the Tibetan teacher MAR PA CHOS KYI BLO GROS and subsequently to MI LA RAS PA, RAS CHUNG PA RDO RJE GRAGS, SGAM PO PA BSOD RNAM RIN CHEN, and the various BKA' BRGYUD subsects. It is generally synonomous with the term DWAGS PO BKA' BRGYUD. See also BKA' BRGYUD CHE BZHI CHUNG BRGYAD.

Mar pa Chos kyi blo gros. (Marpa Chokyi Lodro) (1012-1097). A renowned Tibetan translator and lay Buddhist master who played an important role in the later transmission (PHYI DAR) of Buddhism from India to Tibet. He is regarded as the Tibetan founder of the BKA' BRGYUD sect of Tibetan Buddhism, which traces its lineage to India and the MAHĀSIDDHAs TILOPA and NĀROPA. In his traditional biographies, Mar pa is generally regarded as a reincarnation of the Indian mahāsiddha DOMBĪ HERUKA. Mar pa was born to wealthy landowners in the southern Tibetan region of LHO BRAG and quickly proved to be a gifted child. As an adult, Mar pa was characterized as having a volatile temper, although ultimately compassionate. His parents sent their son to study Sanskrit and Indian vernacular languages with the translator 'BROG MI SHĀKYA YE SHES in western Tibet. Because resources for studying Buddhism in Tibet were limited as the so-called dark period between the earlier dissemination (SNGA DAR) and later dissemination (phyi dar) came to an end, Mar pa decided to make the harrowing journey to India to seek instruction from Buddhist masters. He would make three journeys there over the course of his life. He first spent three years in Nepal, acclimating to the new environment and continuing his study of local languages. There he met two Nepalese teachers, Chitherpa and Paindapa, who offered many religious instructions but also encouraged Mar pa to seek out the master who would become his chief guru, the great SIDDHA NĀROPA. According to tradition, Mar pa studied under Nāropa at the forest retreat of Pullahari, receiving initiations and teachings of several important tantric lineages, especially those of the BKA' 'BABS BZHI (four transmissions) that Nāropa had received from his principal teacher TILOPA. Despite the fame of this encounter, contemporary Tibetan sources indicate that Mar pa himself never claimed to have studied directly with Nāropa, who had already passed away prior to Mar pa's trip to India. Mar pa's other great master was the Indian siddha MAITRĪPA, from whom he received instruction in MAHĀMUDRĀ and the tradition of DOHĀ, or spiritual song. Mar pa received other tantric transmissions from Indian masters such as JNānagarbha and Kukkurīpā. Upon his return to Tibet, Mar pa married several women, the most well known being BDAG ME MA, who figures prominently in the life story of MI LA RAS PA. He began his career as teacher and translator, while also occupying himself as landowner and farmer. He had intended to pass his dharma lineage to his son DARMA MDO SDE, for whom Mi la ras pa's famous tower was built, but the child was killed in an equestrian accident. Mar pa's accumulated instructions were later passed to four principal disciples: Ngog Chos sku rdo rje (Ngok Choku Dorje), Mes tshon po (Me Tsonpo), 'Tshur dbang nge (Tsur Wangnge), and the renowned YOGIN and poet Mi la ras pa. At least sixteen works translated from Sanskrit by Mar pa are preserved in the Tibetan Buddhist canon. He is also known as Mar pa LO TSĀ BA (Marpa the Translator) and Lho brag pa (Man from Lhodrak). Among the biographies of Mar pa, one of the most famous is that by GTSANG SMYON HERUKA.

Nālandā. (T. Na len dra; C. Nalantuosi; J. Narandaji; K. Narandasa 那爛陀寺). A great monastic university, located a few miles north of RĀJAGṚHA, in what is today the Indian state of Bihar. It was the most famous of the Buddhist monastic universities of India. During the Buddha's time, Nālandā was a flourishing town that he often visited on his peregrinations. It was also frequented by MAHĀVĪRA, the leader of the JAINA mendicants. According to XUANZANG (whose account is confirmed by a seal discovered at the site), the monastery at Nālandā was founded by King sakrāditya of MAGADHA, who is sometimes identified as the fifth-century ruler Kumāragupta I (r. 415-455). It flourished between the sixth and twelfth centuries CE under Gupta and Pāla patronage. According to Tibetan histories, many of the greatest MAHĀYĀNA scholars, including ASAnGA, VASUBANDHU, DHARMAKĪRTI, DHARMAPĀLA, sĪLABHADRA, and sĀNTIDEVA, lived and taught at Nālandā. Several MADHYAMAKA scholars, including CANDRAKĪRTI, are also said to have taught there. At its height, Nālandā was a large and impressive complex of monasteries that had as many as ten thousand students and fifteen hundred teachers in residence. During the reign of Harsa, it was supported by a hundred neighboring villages, each with two hundred households providing rice, butter, and milk to sustain the community of monastic scholars and students. The library, which included a nine-story structure, is said to have contained hundreds of thousands of manuscripts. The university had an extensive curriculum, with instruction offered in the VAIBHĀsIKA school of SARVĀSTIVĀDA ABHIDHARMA, SAUTRĀNTIKA, YOGĀCARA, and MADHYAMAKA, the Vedas and Hindu philosophical schools, as well as mathematics, grammar, logic, and medicine. Nālandā attracted students from across Asia, including the Chinese pilgrims YIJING and Xuanzang, who provided detailed reports of their visits. Both monks were impressed by the strict monastic discipline that was observed at Nālandā, with Xuanzang reporting that no monk had been expelled for a violation of the VINAYA in seven hundred years. In the eleventh century, NĀROPA held a senior teaching position at Nālandā, until he left in search of his teacher TILOPA. In 1192, Nālandā was sacked by Turkic troops under the command of Bakhtiyar Khilji, who may have mistaken it for a fortress; the library was burned, with the thousands of manuscripts smoldering for months. The monastery had been largely abandoned by the time of a Tibetan pilgrim's visit in 1235 CE, although it seems to have survived in some form until around 1400. Archaeological excavations began at Nālandā in the early twentieth century and have continued since, unearthing monasteries and monastic cells, as well as significant works of art in stone, bronze, and stucco.

Nā ro chos drug. (Naro chodruk). The Tibetan name for a series of tantric practices, often translated into English as "the six yogas (or dharmas) of Nāropa," which are attributed to the eleventh-century Indian adept NĀROPA. These practices spread widely throughout Tibet, where they were transmitted among various Tibetan Buddhist traditions, including those of the SA SKYA and DGE LUGS. However, the Nā ro chos drug became a fundamental component in the meditation training of BKA' BRGYUD practitioners and continue to be practiced especially in the context of the traditional three-year retreat. Nāropa received several streams of tantric instruction from his GURU, the Indian SIDDHA TILOPA, including the BKA' BABS BZHI (four transmissions). According to tradition, he later codified these instructions and transmitted them to his Tibetan disciple MAR PA CHOS KYI BLO GROS, although Nāropa had died before Mar pa's first journey to India. However, Mar pa received these teachings from Nāropa's disciples and taught them in Tibet as the Nā ro chos drug. There are several slight variations in their presentation, but the most common enumeration of the Nā ro chos drug are (1) GTUM MO (tummo), literally "fierce woman," referring to the inner heat produced as an effect of manipulating the body's subtle energies; (2) sgyu lus (gyulu), "illusory body" (see MĀYĀDEHA), in which the meditator realizes the illusory nature of ordinary experiences; (3) rmi lam (milam), "dreams," referring to the practice of developing conscious awareness during dream states; (4) 'od gsal (osel), "clear light" (see PRABHĀSVARA), referring to the luminous aspect of mind and its recognition; (5) BAR DO, "intermediate state," referring to the practice of mental control during the disorienting period between death in one lifetime and rebirth into another; (6) 'PHO BA (powa), "transference," which is the practice of ejecting the consciousness out of the body at the moment of death to take rebirth in a pure realm. The first four are generally believed to facilitate liberation in the present life, the last two at the time of death.

Nāropa. (1016-1100). An Indian scholar and tantric master who holds an important place in the lineages of tantric Buddhism in Tibet. According to his traditional biography, Nāropa was a brāhmana born in Bengal, who traveled to KASHMIR as a child. He was forced to marry at the age of seventeen, but the marriage ended by mutual consent after eight years. According to some sources, Nāropa's wife (or sister according to other sources) was NIGUMA, who became a famous tantric YOGINĪ. Nāropa was ordained as a Buddhist monk, entering NĀLANDĀ monastry in 1049. His talents as a scholar eventually led him to be selected to serve as abbot and as a senior instructor known by the name Abhayakīrti. In 1057, while at the monastery, he encountered an old hag (in reality a dĀKINĪ), who told him that he had understood the words of the texts he had studied but not their inner meaning. She urged him to go in search of her brother TILOPA. As a result of this encounter, Nāropa left the monastery to find Tilopa and become his disciple. Over the course of his journey, he encountered Tilopa in various forms but was unable to recognize him. Tilopa eventually revealed himself to Nāropa, subjecting him to a famous series of twelve greater and twelve lesser trials, involving serious physical injury and mental anguish. Tilopa eventually transferred his realization to Nāropa by striking him on the head with his shoe. Nāropa later compiled Tilopa's instructions and transmitted them to his own disciples. According to tradition, these students included the Tibetan translator MAR PA CHOS KYI BLO GROS, but in fact Nāropa had died before Mar pa made his first journey to India. Regardless, various instructions of Nāropa were transmitted to Tibet, the most famous of which are the NĀ RO CHOS DRUG, or "six doctrines (or yogas) of Nāropa." These practices became important for numerous Buddhist lineages but are especially associated with the BKA' BRGYUD sect, where Nāropa holds a central place in the lineage from VAJRADHARA to Tilopa to Nāropa to Mar pa to MI LA RES PA. Several works attributed to Nāropa are preserved in the Tibetan canon.

Pasupatināth. A large temple complex in Kathmandu, Nepal, along the Bhagmati River, dedicated to the form of siva known as Pasupati, "Lord of the Beasts." Newar and Tibetan Buddhist traditions, however, understand Pasupatināth as having Buddhist connections as well. Newar Buddhists venerate the central image of the Guhyeswarī shrine (understood by Hindus to be Kālī) as the deity NAIRĀTMYĀ, consort of HEVAJRA. Some Tibetans consider several caves along the river to have been occupied by the Indian Buddhist adepts TILOPA and NĀROPA, a tradition that other Tibetan scholars have refuted.

ptilopaedes ::: n. pl. --> Same as Dasypaedes.

ptilopaedic ::: a. --> Having nearly the whole surface of the skin covered with down; dasypaedic; -- said of the young of certain birds.

Ras chung snyan brgyud. (Rechung nyengyu). In Tibetan, lit. "the aural lineage of Ras chung," referring to RAS CHUNG PA RDO RJE GRAGS, a principal disciple of the BKA' BRGYUD founder MI LA RAS PA. Although called an aural lineage (snyan brgyud), it comprises a system of liturgies, ritual manuals, and tantric commentaries, together with their oral instructions, based primarily on the CAKRASAMVARATANTRA. The lineage began with the LUS MED MKHA' 'GRO SNYAN RGYUD CHOS SKOR DGU ("nine aural lineage cycles of the formless dĀKINĪs") promulgated by the Indian adepts TILOPA and NĀROPA. Five of these were subsequently transmitted in Tibet by the Bka' brgyud founders MAR PA CHOS KYI BLO GROS and Mi la ras pa. Ras chung pa received them from Mi la ras pa and then journeyed to India, where he obtained the remaining instructions from the tantric master TI PHU PA. The system of teachings that Ras chung pa subsequently passed on became known as the "aural lineage of Ras chung pa." The fifteenth-century YOGIN GTSANG SMYON HERUKA later codified these teachings, together with those of Mi la ras pa's other prominent disciples, SGAM PO PA BSOD NAM RIN CHEN and Ngan rdzongs ras pa (Ngendzong Repa), into the SNYAN BRGYUD SKOR GSUM ("three cycles of aural lineage instructions").

sahaja. (T. lhan skyes; C. jushengqi; J. kushoki; K. kusaenggi 生起). A polysemous Sanskrit term, variously translated as "coemergence," "connate," "simultaneously arisen," and "the innate." This term is used frequently in the tantric Buddhist verses composed by the SIDDHAs of medieval north India such as SARAHA, Kānha, and TILOPA; these include collections of DOHĀ recorded in APABHRAMsA and Bengali compilations of caryāgīti (see CARYĀGĪTIKOsA). In these contexts, sahaja refers most generally to the ultimate and innermost true nature, as well as to its realization through the spontaneous and uninhibited lifestyle and practice associated with tantric adepts. The term may be used as a noun for the ultimate state itself, or as an adjective describing a state or condition as natural and uncontrived. In the context of the YOGINĪ tantras such as the HEVAJRATANTRA, the term sahaja is used to refer to the highest of four states of ecstasy-innate ecstasy (sahajānanda)-which can be gained through the visualized or actual practice of sexual yoga, and through which one comes to realize the mind's luminosity and natural purity. Early twentieth-century authors-beginning with the Bengali scholars and translators who first published studies on the collections of tantric verses-described what they called the sahajayāna ("path of sahaja") and the sahajiyās who followed it, although neither term is found in traditional Indian Buddhist literature. The Tibetan form, lhan skyes (short for lhan cig tu skyes pa) appears widely in the subsequent literature of MAHĀMUDRĀ.

Sgam po pa Bsod nams rin chen. (Gampopa Sonam Rinchen) (1079-1153). A principal disciple of the Tibetan YOGIN MI LA RAS PA and leading figure in the early formation of the BKA' BRGYUD sect of Tibetan Buddhism. At an early age, Sgam po pa trained as a physician but renounced his career and received monastic ordination at the age of twenty-five following the death of his wife and child. He is often known as Dwags po lha rje (Dakpo Lhaje), "the physician from Dakpo," because of his vocation. Sgam po pa initially trained in the BKA' GDAMS tradition under the master Snyug rum pa Brtson 'grus rgyal mtshan (Nyukrumpa Tsondru Gyaltsen, b. eleventh century) as well as Po to ba Rin chen gsal. At the age of thirty-one, he heard three beggars discussing Mi la ras pa and experienced a strong feeling of faith. He asked permission of his Bka' gdams teachers to study with him, which they granted under the condition that he not renounce his monk's precepts. When he met Mi la ras pa in 1109, Sgam po pa offered him gold and tea, which he refused. Mi la ras pa offered him a skullcup full of wine, which Sgam po pa initially declined but then drank, even though it was a violation of his monk's vows. He received a number of teachings from Mi la ras pa, first concerning VAJARVĀRĀHĪ, and later the transmission of MAHĀMUDRĀ instructions and the "six yogas of Nāropa" (NĀ RO CHOS DRUG), stemming from the Indian MAHĀSIDDHAs TILOPA and NĀROPA. Later, Sgam po pa developed his own system of exposition, fusing elements of his Bka' gdams pa training with the perspectives and practices of mahāmudrā. This has been called the "confluence of the two streams of Bka' gdams pa and mahāmudrā" (bka' phyag chu bo gnyis 'dres). Unlike Mi la ras pa, he kept the practices of mahāmudrā and sexual yoga separate, teaching the latter only to select disciples. Sgam po pa remained a monk, founding his monastic seat at DWAGS LHA SGAM PO in southern Tibet and composing numerous works on Buddhist doctrine and practice. His work entitled THAR PA RIN PO CHE'I RGYAN ("Jewel Ornament of Liberation"), remains a seminal Bka' rgyud textbook. He also promulgated the controversial system of mahāmudrā instructions known as the DKAR PO CHIG THUB, or "self-sufficient white [remedy]." The lineage of Bka' brgyud masters and teachings following Sgam po pa came to be known collectively as the DWAGS PO BKA' BRGYUD. The division of the lineage into numerous subsects called the BKA' BRGYUD CHE BZHI CHUNG BRGYAD or "four major and eight minor Bka' brgyud subsects" stem from the disciples of Sgam po pa and his nephew Dwags po Sgom tshul (Dakpo Gomtsul, 1116-1169). Sgam po pa's principal disciples included the first KARMA PA DUS GSUM MKHYEN PA and PHAG MO GRU PA RDO RJE RGYAL PO.

Vajradhara. [alt. Vajradhāra] (T. Rdo rje 'chang; C. Jingangchi; J. Kongoji; K. Kŭmgangji 金剛持). "Vajra Holder"; an important buddha of the tantric systems, where he appears in some texts as an ĀDIBUDDHA (primordial buddha). He is closely related to VAJRAPĀnI; indeed, Vajrapāni and Vajradhara may have originally been two names for the same deity (the Chinese translations of the two deities' names are the same). Vajradhara is the principal deity in many father-class tantras and is the chief buddha for the MAHĀMUDRĀ traditions. Vajradhara is said to have revealed the MAHĀMUDRĀ teachings to TILOPA; they were then transmitted in succession to NĀROPA, then to MAR PA, and then to MI LA RAS PA. Vajradhara is sometimes referred to as the sixth buddha, representing the quintessence of the five buddhas (PANCATATHĀGATA) and the five buddha families. In Tibetan Buddhism, he is one of two buddhas considered as both a primordial buddha (ādibuddha) and as a DHARMAKĀYA; the other is the buddha SAMANTABHADRA, the primordial buddha of RNYING MA. Vajradhara is the primordial buddha of the three new, or GSAR MA, sects, SA SKYA, BKA' BRGYUD, and DGE LUGS. Vajradhara is typically depicted as dark blue, with one head and two arms, dressed as a SAMBHOGAKĀYA, seated in VAJRAPARYAnKA, holding a VAJRA in each hand (or a vajra in his right and a bell in his left), which are crossed at his chest in the VAJRAHuMKĀRA pose. He is sometimes depicted surrounded by the eighty-four MAHĀSIDDHAs. When he is depicted with a consort, she is usually VAJRAVĀRĀHĪ. See also FEILAIFENG.



QUOTES [4 / 4 - 23 / 23]


KEYS (10k)

   4 Tilopa

NEW FULL DB (2.4M)

   20 Tilopa

1:Cut the mind at its root and rest in naked awareness. ~ Tilopa,
2:It is not the outer objects that entangle us. It is the inner clinging that entangles us. ~ Tilopa,
3:with awareness the
appearance of conflict
disappears into unity
~ Tilopa, @BashoSociety
4:Lo! This is self-awareness! It surpasses all avenues of speech and thought.
I, Tilopa, have nothing to reveal. You should know it yourself through inward examination. ~ Tilopa,

*** WISDOM TROVE ***

*** NEWFULLDB 2.4M ***

1:"Let go of what may come." ~ Tilopa,
2:"Relax, right now, and rest." ~ Tilopa,
3:"Let go of what is happening now." ~ Tilopa,
4:The appearances of the world are not the problem, ~ Tilopa,
5:Cut the mind at its root and rest in naked awareness ~ Tilopa,
6:"Have a mind that is open to everything, and attached to nothing." ~ Tilopa,
7:Realizing that nothing can last, that all is as dreamlike illusion. ~ Tilopa,
8:One torch can dissipate the accumulated darkness of a thousand aeons. ~ Tilopa,
9:Don’t recall. Don’t imagine. Don’t think. Don’t examine. Don’t control. Rest. ~ Tilopa,
10:It is not the outer objects that entangle us. It is the inner clinging that entangles us. ~ Tilopa,
11:It is not the outer objects that entangle us. It is the inner clinging that entangles us. ~ Tilopa,
12:No thought, no reflection, no analysis, no cultivation, no intention; let it settle itself. ~ Tilopa,
13:It's not the appearance that binds you, it's the attachment to the appearance that binds you. ~ Tilopa,
14:"No thought, no reflection, no analysis, no cultivation, no intention; let it settle itself." ~ Tilopa,
15:It is not the outer objects that entangle us. It is the inner clinging that entangles us." - Tilopa ~ Lama Surya Das,
16:"If you sit, sit in the middle of the sky. If you sleep, sleep on the point of a spear. If you look, look upon the center of the sun." ~ Tilopa,
17:Lo! This is self-awareness! It surpasses all avenues of speech and thought.
I, Tilopa, have nothing to reveal. You should know it yourself through inward examination. ~ Tilopa,
18:Let go of what has passed. Let go of what may come. Let go of what is happening now. Don't try to figure anything out. Don't try to make anything happen. Relax, right now, and rest. ~ Tilopa,
19:"Let go of what has passed. Let go of what may come. Let go of what is happening now. Don't try to figure anything out. Don't try to make anything happen. Relax, right now, and rest." ~ Tilopa,
20:Obsessive use of meditative disciplines or perennial study of scripture and philosophy will never bring forth this wonderful realization, this truth which is natural to awareness, because the mind that desperately desires to reach another realm or level of experience inadvertently ignores the basic light that constitutes all experience. ~ Tilopa,
21:When you are not the doer how can the attachment happen? You do a small thing and you become attached. You say, "I have done this." You would like everybody to know that you have done this and you have done that. This ego is the barrier for the supreme understanding. Drop the doer and let things happen. That's what Tilopa means by being loose and natural. ~ Rajneesh,
22:Stop all physical activity and sit naturally at ease. Remain silent and let sound be like an echo. Do not think about anything look at experience beyond thought; open minded like space. Let go of control and stop and rest at ease in that state. Awareness without projection is the greatest meditation. Train and develop like this and you will come to the deepest awakening. ~ Tilopa,
23:They were the good old days. Don't give up hope in the bad new days, which will become the good old days. We appreciate Kennedy because he was killed; Martin Luther King was a great man. If you'd meet Naropa or Tilopa on the spot you'd be pissed off. History is very deceptive, reality is more important. There is a piece of philosophy for you. ~ Ch gyam Trungpa,

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