classes ::: list, mental, josh, grammer, media, noun, knowledge,
children ::: questions (full-list)
branches ::: Questions

bookmarks: Instances - Definitions - Quotes - Chapters - Wordnet - Webgen


object:Questions
alt:?
sorting ::: by rank, interrogative type, subject, topic or unsorted, by subject, any, from whiteboard, has pages

--- BY RANK/GRADE/ORDER
  1 - is God?
  1.1 - What is God?
  1.2 - What else could there be? What would it mean if there was no God.
  2 - is there a Soul?
  3 - What should I do?
  4 - what subjects am I missing in knowledge? literally which of them. list them.

--- BY TYPES
  what (thing? object?)
    is the Soul?
    is God?
    what is most important?
    what should I do?
    what am I?
  why (intent / reason)
    why do I forget/turn away?
  who (person)
    is God?
    is Sri Aurobindo?
    is demons?
    who am I?
  where (place)
  when (time)
  how (process / the way)
    how to always remember God?
    how to not waste the day?
    how to use the day productively

--- BY UNSET
questions for the Mother (most questions that get pages are probably for Her.)

--- BY TOPIC
  on evil
  grades
    what grades or quality of actions are there?
    and what grade then do I average per day?

--- UNSORTED (NEWEST FIRST)
  - then why am I satisfied with lower movements?
  - what am I not consistent in my pursuit of the higher ranges of consciousness?
  - why satisfied if each part desires its absolute?
  is it worth the suffering of life to have found Sri Aurobindo? does it justify?
  is something missing?
  if I could exist in the future I want to create, what would I do there? what is it?
  what do I want to do today? or
  what do I want to accomplish today? (want?)
  what is your number one primary spiritual roadblock?
  do forests have a main tree?

--- BY SUBJECT
  Philosophy
  Religion
  Science

--- ALPHA


--- NOTES
  aims of a question...

  education ::: if a child was given unlimited access to wikipedia, workstations (art, computer, robotics, electrical, carpentry, botany, music) or free-study of subjects of interest(with courses available, variable curriculum.) so they may become a grade 5 mathematician in grade 1. but also who can do only one thing? and so it is boring, but in a garden of such opportunity. also high student-teacher ratio would be stellar. if you have a class with 20 students and 3 teachers, students are offered potentially more developed adult perspectives than at home. teachers should be of the highest caliber possible always. ideally Sri Aurobindo.

--- QUESTIONS ANY
  where do solutions come from?
  will the universe last forever?
  are there drawbacks to concentration?

  what is there?
  what should I do about what is?


--- QUESTIONS FROM WHITEBOARD
  why do I smoke instead of offering that up to God so as to become more God-like?
  can I work top-down?
  what are the worst things I do?
  Shame as indicator of sin? and weakness?
  the daily need to remember otherwise what am I even doing?
  never vs do less?

--- QUESTIONS THAT HAVE A PAGE (araw ":question" | get1obj | getright ":" | sort | grep "?" | sed 's/^/\t/g')
does everything have a purpose?
how to remember always?
in what ways do I lie to myself?
is God?
is Sri Aurobindo God?
is the Soul?
what am I to remember?
what does it mean to remember?
what is most important?
what should I do?
where do realizations come from?
who am I?
who are the most amazing people I have ever met?
why am I not reading Savitri always?
why does one do anything?
why does one read Savitri?
why do I forget?
why God?
why remembrance?

--- QUESTIONS FROM ASSESSMENT
--- ANYTIME QUESTIONS
how many mem can you list?

--- MORNING QUESTIONS
when did you wake up?
any dreams? analysis and essencial truth in experience?
potential plans for the day? (goals, projects, dreams, ideals)

--- DAY QUESTIONS
anything interesting?

--- NIGHT QUESTIONS
aspiration for particular lucid dream attempt? (meet a person, go to a place, find something)

--- POTENTIAL MORNING QUESTIONS
is aspiration lit?
am I to continue off from yesterday? where was I last night?
willing to create space? draw circle? draw 1 hour circle of protection from lower movements. or prayer for strength to resist
willing to make effort to remember?
willing to make vow or pledge?
willing to make an offering today?
invocation?
is masturbation allowed today?
any will building rules to implement?
experiments?
find the Mother
find the Psychic Being?
find HGA?
ask for guidance?
go through mem

--- POTENTIAL NIGHT QUESTIONS
(should be done on computer before bed and not in bed?)
Did you have any success today?
Did you make any mistakes?
Anything interesting happen?
Overall score for the day?

POTENTIAL QUESTIONS
Who are you?
What is most important?
In which ways do/have you succeed(ed) in your life? (success by ones own definition)
In which ways do you fail in your life?
Why did you come here? (earth or me)
How do you spend the average 24 hours a day?

What areas of your life did you improve today?
Did you make any mistakes today?

QUESTIONS FOR OTHERS
what is love?
what is knowledge?


--- FOOTER
see also ::: requests, answer, Solution,
see also ::: thought experiments
see also ::: contemplate, assessment, analysis,
see also ::: Socratic Method, Socratic questioning, philosophical arguments,
see also ::: riddles, puzzles, Zen Koans,
see also ::: statement,

class:list
class:mental
class:josh
class:grammer
class:media
word class:noun

wiki:https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Question
class:knowledge





see also ::: analysis, answer, assessment, contemplate, philosophical_arguments, puzzles, requests, riddles, Socratic_Method, Socratic_questioning, Solution, statement, thought_experiments, Zen_Koans

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now begins generated list of local instances, definitions, quotes, instances in chapters, wordnet info if available and instances among weblinks


OBJECT INSTANCES [10] - TOPICS - AUTHORS - BOOKS - CHAPTERS - CLASSES - SEE ALSO - SIMILAR TITLES

TOPICS
all_questions_asked_to_the_Mother
Answer
Can_a_Yogi_know_all_things
does_everything_have_a_purpose
How
How_long_do_I_go_without_remembering
How_to_live_a_good_life
how_to_read_Savitri
how_to_read_Savitri_always
How_to_remember_always
How_to_resist_the_lower_movements
How_to_think
In_what_ways_do_I_lie_to_myself
is_God
Is_something_missing
is_Sri_Aurobindo_God
Is_the_Soul
mislabelled_unknown
questions_for_Mother
questions_(full-list)
report
Socratic_questioning
the_Question
the_Question_of_consent_to_birth
what
what_am_I_to_remember
What_are_concepts
what_does_it_mean_to_remember
What_is_going_on
What_is_most_important
What_is_possible
What_is_Savitri
What_is_the_meaning_of_Life
What_is_wrong
What_should_I_do
what_to_do
when
Where
Where_am_I
Where_am_I_to_go
Where_are_you
Where_do_realizations_come_from
Where_is_Savitri
Where_is_that
Who
Who_am_I
Who_are_the_most_amazing_people_I_have_ever_met
Why
Why_am_I_not_reading_Savitri_always
Why_build_the_website
Why_does_one_do_something
Why_does_one_read_Savitri
Why_do_I_forget
Why_do_I_forget_Savitris_Divine_status_and_splendor
Why_God
Why_is_there_suffering
Why_read_The_Life_Divine
why_remembrance
SEE ALSO

analysis
answer
assessment
contemplate
philosophical_arguments
puzzles
requests
riddles
Socratic_Method
Socratic_questioning
Solution
statement
thought_experiments
Zen_Koans

AUTH

BOOKS
A_Treatise_on_Cosmic_Fire
Awaken_the_Giant_Within
Bhagavata_Purana
Big_Mind,_Big_Heart
Blazing_the_Trail_from_Infancy_to_Enlightenment
City_of_God
Education_in_the_New_Age
Enchiridion_text
Essays_In_Philosophy_And_Yoga
Essential_Integral
Evolution_II
Faust
Full_Circle
General_Principles_of_Kabbalah
God_Exists
Heart_of_Matter
Hopscotch
How_to_think_like_Leonardo_Da_Vinci
Infinite_Library
Integral_Life_Practice_(book)
Journey_to_the_Lord_of_Power_-_A_Sufi_Manual_on_Retreat
Kena_and_Other_Upanishads
Let_Me_Explain
Letters_On_Yoga
Letters_On_Yoga_I
Letters_On_Yoga_IV
Liber_157_-_The_Tao_Teh_King
Liber_ABA
Life_without_Death
mcw
Meditation__The_First_and_Last_Freedom
Modern_Man_in_Search_of_a_Soul
My_Burning_Heart
On_Interpretation
Plotinus_-_Complete_Works_Vol_01
Process_and_Reality
Questions_And_Answers_1929-1931
Questions_And_Answers_1950-1951
Questions_And_Answers_1953
Questions_And_Answers_1954
Questions_And_Answers_1955
Questions_And_Answers_1956
Questions_And_Answers_1957-1958
Savitri
The_Archetypes_and_the_Collective_Unconscious
The_Blue_Cliff_Records
the_Book_of_God
The_Book_of_Lies
The_Categories
The_Divine_Comedy
The_Divine_Milieu
The_Epic_of_Gilgamesh
The_Essential_Songs_of_Milarepa
The_Golden_Bough
The_Imitation_of_Christ
The_Lotus_Sutra
The_Most_Holy_Book
The_Odyssey
The_Practice_of_Psycho_therapy
The_Republic
The_Science_of_Knowing
The_Seals_of_Wisdom
The_Use_and_Abuse_of_History
The_Way_of_Perfection
The_Wit_and_Wisdom_of_Alfred_North_Whitehead
The_Yoga_Sutras
Toward_the_Future
Twilight_of_the_Idols

IN CHAPTERS TITLE
07.23_-_Meditation_and_Some_Questions
1.03_-_Questions_and_Answers
1.09_-_Fundamental_Questions_of_Psycho_therapy
1.32_-_The_Ninth_Circle__Traitors._The_Frozen_Lake_of_Cocytus._First_Division,_Caina__Traitors_to_their_Kindred._Camicion_de'_Pazzi._Second_Division,_Antenora__Traitors_to_their_Country._Dante_questions_Bocca_degli
15.03_-_A_Canadian_Question
1954-06-30_-_Occultism_-_Religion_and_vital_beings_-_Mothers_knowledge_of_what_happens_in_the_Ashram_-_Asking_questions_to_Mother_-_Drawing_on_Mother
1954-10-20_-_Stand_back_-_Asking_questions_to_Mother_-_Seeing_images_in_meditation_-_Berlioz_-Music_-_Mothers_organ_music_-_Destiny
1956-09-12_-_Questions,_practice_and_progress
1957-06-05_-_Questions_and_silence_-_Methods_of_meditation
1960-07-18_-_triple_time_vision,_Questions_and_Answers_is_like_circling_around_the_Garden
1960-08-10_-_questions_from_center_of_Education_-_reading_Sri_Aurobindo
1.jwvg_-_Answers_In_A_Game_Of_Questions
1.lb_-_Question_And_Answer_On_The_Mountain
1.lb_-_Talk_in_the_Mountains_[Question_&_Answer_on_the_Mountain]
1.okym_-_50_-_The_Ball_no_Question_makes_of_Ayes_and_Noes
1.pbs_-_The_Question
1.rb_-_Pauline,_A_Fragment_of_a_Question
1.rt_-_The_Gardener_XXVIII_-_Your_Questioning_Eyes
ENNEAD_04.03_-_Psychological_Questions.
ENNEAD_04.04_-_Questions_About_the_Soul.
ENNEAD_04.05_-_Psychological_Questions_III._-_About_the_Process_of_Vision_and_Hearing.
SB_1.1_-_Questions_by_the_Sages
The_Last_Question

IN CHAPTERS CLASSNAME
1929-04-07_-_Yoga,_for_the_sake_of_the_Divine_-_Concentration_-_Preparations_for_Yoga,_to_be_conscious_-_Yoga_and_humanity_-_We_have_all_met_in_previous_lives
1929-04-14_-_Dangers_of_Yoga_-_Two_paths,_tapasya_and_surrender_-_Impulses,_desires_and_Yoga_-_Difficulties_-_Unification_around_the_psychic_being_-_Ambition,_undoing_of_many_Yogis_-_Powers,_misuse_and_right_use_of_-_How_to_recognise_the_Divine_Will_-_Accept_things_that_come_from_Divine_-_Vital_devotion_-_Need_of_strong_body_and_nerves_-_Inner_being,_invariable
1929-04-21_-_Visions,_seeing_and_interpretation_-_Dreams_and_dreaml_and_-_Dreamless_sleep_-_Visions_and_formulation_-_Surrender,_passive_and_of_the_will_-_Meditation_and_progress_-_Entering_the_spiritual_life,_a_plunge_into_the_Divine
1929-04-28_-_Offering,_general_and_detailed_-_Integral_Yoga_-_Remembrance_of_the_Divine_-_Reading_and_Yoga_-_Necessity,_predetermination_-_Freedom_-_Miracles_-_Aim_of_creation
1929-05-05_-_Intellect,_true_and_wrong_movement_-_Attacks_from_adverse_forces_-_Faith,_integral_and_absolute_-_Death,_not_a_necessity_-_Descent_of_Divine_Consciousness_-_Inner_progress_-_Memory_of_former_lives
1929-05-12_-_Beings_of_vital_world_(vampires)_-_Money_power_and_vital_beings_-_Capacity_for_manifestation_of_will_-_Entry_into_vital_world_-_Body,_a_protection_-_Individuality_and_the_vital_world
1929-05-19_-_Mind_and_its_workings,_thought-forms_-_Adverse_conditions_and_Yoga_-_Mental_constructions_-_Illness_and_Yoga
1929-05-26_-_Individual,_illusion_of_separateness_-_Hostile_forces_and_the_mental_plane_-_Psychic_world,_psychic_being_-_Spiritual_and_psychic_-_Words,_understanding_speech_and_reading_-_Hostile_forces,_their_utility_-_Illusion_of_action,_true_action
1929-06-02_-__Divine_love_and_its_manifestation_-_Part_of_the_vital_being_in_Divine_love
1929-06-09_-_Nature_of_religion_-_Religion_and_the_spiritual_life_-_Descent_of_Divine_Truth_and_Force_-_To_be_sure_of_your_religion,_country,_family-choose_your_own_-_Religion_and_numbers
1929-06-16_-_Illness_and_Yoga_-_Subtle_body_(nervous_envelope)_-_Fear_and_illness
1929-06-23_-_Knowledge_of_the_Yogi_-_Knowledge_and_the_Supermind_-_Methods_of_changing_the_condition_of_the_body_-_Meditation,_aspiration,_sincerity
1929-06-30_-_Repulsion_felt_towards_certain_animals,_etc_-_Source_of_evil,_Formateurs_-_Material_world
1929-07-28_-_Art_and_Yoga_-_Art_and_life_-_Music,_dance_-_World_of_Harmony
1929-08-04_-_Surrender_and_sacrifice_-_Personality_and_surrender_-_Desire_and_passion_-_Spirituality_and_morality
1950-12-21_-_The_Mother_of_Dreams
1950-12-23_-_Concentration_and_energy
1950-12-25_-_Christmas_-_festival_of_Light_-_Energy_and_mental_growth_-_Meditation_and_concentration_-_The_Mother_of_Dreams_-_Playing_a_game_well,_and_energy
1950-12-28_-_Correct_judgment.
1950-12-30_-_Perfect_and_progress._Dynamic_equilibrium._True_sincerity.
1951-01-04_-_Transformation_and_reversal_of_consciousness.
1951-01-08_-_True_vision_and_understanding_of_the_world._Progress,_equilibrium._Inner_reality_-_the_psychic._Animals_and_the_psychic.
1951-01-11_-_Modesty_and_vanity_-_Generosity
1951-01-13_-_Aim_of_life_-_effort_and_joy._Science_of_living,_becoming_conscious._Forces_and_influences.
1951-01-15_-_Sincerity_-_inner_discernment_-_inner_light._Evil_and_imbalance._Consciousness_and_instruments.
1951-01-20_-_Developing_the_mind._Misfortunes,_suffering;_developed_reason._Knowledge_and_pure_ideas.
1951-01-25_-_Needs_and_desires._Collaboration_of_the_vital,_mind_an_accomplice._Progress_and_sincerity_-_recognising_faults._Organising_the_body_-_illness_-_new_harmony_-_physical_beauty.
1951-01-27_-_Sleep_-_desires_-_repression_-_the_subconscient._Dreams_-_the_super-conscient_-_solving_problems._Ladder_of_being_-_samadhi._Phases_of_sleep_-_silence,_true_rest._Vital_body_and_illness.
1951-02-03_-_What_is_Yoga?_for_what?_-_Aspiration,_seeking_the_Divine._-_Process_of_yoga,_renouncing_the_ego.
1951-02-05_-_Surrender_and_tapasya_-_Dealing_with_difficulties,_sincerity,_spiritual_discipline_-_Narrating_experiences_-_Vital_impulse_and_will_for_progress
1951-02-08_-_Unifying_the_being_-_ideas_of_good_and_bad_-_Miracles_-_determinism_-_Supreme_Will_-_Distinguishing_the_voice_of_the_Divine
1951-02-10_-_Liberty_and_license_-_surrender_makes_you_free_-_Men_in_authority_as_representatives_of_the_divine_Truth_-_Work_as_offering_-_total_surrender_needs_time_-_Effort_and_inspiration_-_will_and_patience
1951-02-12_-_Divine_force_-_Signs_indicating_readiness_-_Weakness_in_mind,_vital_-_concentration_-_Divine_perception,_human_notion_of_good,_bad_-_Conversion,_consecration_-_progress_-_Signs_of_entering_the_path_-_kinds_of_meditation_-_aspiration
1951-02-15_-_Dreams,_symbolic_-_true_repose_-_False_visions_-_Earth-memory_and_history
1951-02-17_-_False_visions_-_Offering_ones_will_-_Equilibrium_-_progress_-_maturity_-_Ardent_self-giving-_perfecting_the_instrument_-_Difficulties,_a_help_in_total_realisation_-_paradoxes_-_Sincerity_-_spontaneous_meditation
1951-02-19_-_Exteriorisation-_clairvoyance,_fainting,_etc_-_Somnambulism_-_Tartini_-_childrens_dreams_-_Nightmares_-_gurus_protection_-_Mind_and_vital_roam_during_sleep
1951-02-22_-_Surrender,_offering,_consecration_-_Experiences_and_sincerity_-_Aspiration_and_desire_-_Vedic_hymns_-_Concentration_and_time
1951-02-24_-_Psychic_being_and_entity_-_dimensions_-_in_the_atom_-_Death_-_exteriorisation_-_unconsciousness_-_Past_lives_-_progress_upon_earth_-_choice_of_birth_-_Consecration_to_divine_Work_-_psychic_memories_-_Individualisation_-_progress
1951-02-26_-_On_reading_books_-_gossip_-_Discipline_and_realisation_-_Imaginary_stories-_value_of_-_Private_lives_of_big_men_-_relaxation_-_Understanding_others_-_gnostic_consciousness
1951-03-01_-_Universe_and_the_Divine_-_Freedom_and_determinism_-_Grace_-_Time_and_Creation-_in_the_Supermind_-_Work_and_its_results_-_The_psychic_being_-_beauty_and_love_-_Flowers-_beauty_and_significance_-_Choice_of_reincarnating_psychic_being
1951-03-03_-_Hostile_forces_-_difficulties_-_Individuality_and_form_-_creation
1951-03-05_-_Disasters-_the_forces_of_Nature_-_Story_of_the_charity_Bazar_-_Liberation_and_law_-_Dealing_with_the_mind_and_vital-_methods
1951-03-08_-_Silencing_the_mind_-_changing_the_nature_-_Reincarnation-_choice_-_Psychic,_higher_beings_gods_incarnating_-_Incarnation_of_vital_beings_-_the_Lord_of_Falsehood_-_Hitler_-_Possession_and_madness
1951-03-10_-_Fairy_Tales-_serpent_guarding_treasure_-_Vital_beings-_their_incarnations_-_The_vital_being_after_death_-_Nightmares-_vital_and_mental_-_Mind_and_vital_after_death_-_The_spirit_of_the_form-_Egyptian_mummies
1951-03-12_-_Mental_forms_-_learning_difficult_subjects_-_Mental_fortress_-_thought_-_Training_the_mind_-_Helping_the_vital_being_after_death_-_ceremonies_-_Human_stupidities
1951-03-14_-_Plasticity_-_Conditions_for_knowing_the_Divine_Will_-_Illness_-_microbes_-_Fear_-_body-reflexes_-_The_best_possible_happens_-_Theories_of_Creation_-_True_knowledge_-_a_work_to_do_-_the_Ashram
1951-03-17_-_The_universe-_eternally_new,_same_-_Pralaya_Traditions_-_Light_and_thought_-_new_consciousness,_forces_-_The_expanding_universe_-_inexpressible_experiences_-_Ashram_surcharged_with_Light_-_new_force_-_vibrating_atmospheres
1951-03-19_-_Mental_worlds_and_their_beings_-_Understanding_in_silence_-_Psychic_world-_its_characteristics_-_True_experiences_and_mental_formations_-_twelve_senses
1951-03-22_-_Relativity-_time_-_Consciousness_-_psychic_Witness_-_The_twelve_senses_-_water-divining_-_Instinct_in_animals_-_story_of_Mothers_cat
1951-03-24_-_Descent_of_Divine_Love,_of_Consciousness_-_Earth-_a_symbolic_formation_-_the_Divine_Presence_-_The_psychic_being_and_other_worlds_-_Divine_Love_and_Grace_-_Becoming_consaious_of_Divine_Love_-_Finding_ones_psychic_being_-_Responsibility
1951-03-26_-_Losing_all_to_gain_all_-_psychic_being_-_Transforming_the_vital_-_physical_habits_-_the_subconscient_-_Overcoming_difficulties_-_weakness,_an_insincerity_-_to_change_the_world_-_Psychic_source,_flash_of_experience_-_preparation_for_yoga
1951-03-29_-_The_Great_Vehicle_and_The_Little_Vehicle_-_Choosing_ones_family,_country_-_The_vital_being_distorted_-_atavism_-_Sincerity_-_changing_ones_character
1951-03-31_-_Physical_ailment_and_mental_disorder_-_Curing_an_illness_spiritually_-_Receptivity_of_the_body_-_The_subtle-physical-_illness_accidents_-_Curing_sunstroke_and_other_disorders
1951-04-02_-_Causes_of_accidents_-_Little_entities,_helpful_or_mischievous-_incidents
1951-04-05_-_Illusion_and_interest_in_action_-_The_action_of_the_divine_Grace_and_the_ego_-_Concentration,_aspiration,_will,_inner_silence_-_Value_of_a_story_or_a_language_-_Truth_-_diversity_in_the_world
1951-04-07_-_Origin_of_Evil_-_Misery-_its_cause
1951-04-09_-_Modern_Art_-_Trend_of_art_in_Europe_in_the_twentieth_century_-_Effect_of_the_Wars_-_descent_of_vital_worlds_-_Formation_of_character_-_If_there_is_another_war
1951-04-12_-_Japan,_its_art,_landscapes,_life,_etc_-_Fairy-lore_of_Japan_-_Culture-_its_spiral_movement_-_Indian_and_European-_the_spiritual_life_-_Art_and_Truth
1951-04-14_-_Surrender_and_sacrifice_-_Idea_of_sacrifice_-_Bahaism_-_martyrdom_-_Sleep-_forgetfulness,_exteriorisation,_etc_-_Dreams_and_visions-_explanations_-_Exteriorisation-_incidents_about_cats
1951-04-17_-_Unity,_diversity_-_Protective_envelope_-_desires_-_consciousness,_true_defence_-_Perfection_of_physical_-_cinema_-_Choice,_constant_and_conscious_-_law_of_ones_being_-_the_One,_the_Multiplicity_-_Civilization-_preparing_an_instrument
1951-04-19_-_Demands_and_needs_-_human_nature_-_Abolishing_the_ego_-_Food-_tamas,_consecration_-_Changing_the_nature-_the_vital_and_the_mind_-_The_yoga_of_the_body__-_cellular_consciousness
1951-04-21_-_Sri_Aurobindos_letter_on_conditions_for_doing_yoga_-_Aspiration,_tapasya,_surrender_-_The_lower_vital_-_old_habits_-_obsession_-_Sri_Aurobindo_on_choice_and_the_double_life_-_The_old_fiasco_-_inner_realisation_and_outer_change
1951-04-23_-_The_goal_and_the_way_-_Learning_how_to_sleep_-_relaxation_-_Adverse_forces-_test_of_sincerity_-_Attitude_to_suffering_and_death
1951-04-26_-_Irrevocable_transformation_-_The_divine_Shakti_-_glad_submission_-_Rejection,_integral_-_Consecration_-_total_self-forgetfulness_-_work
1951-04-28_-_Personal_effort_-_tamas,_laziness_-_Static_and_dynamic_power_-_Stupidity_-_psychic_and_intelligence_-_Philosophies-_different_languages_-_Theories_of_Creation_-_Surrender_of_ones_being_and_ones_work
1951-05-03_-_Money_and_its_use_for_the_divine_work_-_problems_-_Mastery_over_desire-_individual_and_collective_change
1951-05-05_-_Needs_and_desires_-_Discernment_-_sincerity_and_true_perception_-_Mantra_and_its_effects_-_Object_in_action-_to_serve_-_relying_only_on_the_Divine
1951-05-07_-_A_Hierarchy_-_Transcendent,_universal,_individual_Divine_-_The_Supreme_Shakti_and_Creation_-_Inadequacy_of_words,_language
1951-05-11_-_Mahakali_and_Kali_-_Avatar_and_Vibhuti_-_Sachchidananda_behind_all_states_of_being_-_The_power_of_will_-_receiving_the_Divine_Will
1951-05-12_-_Mahalakshmi_and_beauty_in_life_-_Mahasaraswati_-_conscious_hand_-_Riches_and_poverty
1951-05-14_-_Chance_-_the_play_of_forces_-_Peace,_given_and_lost_-_Abolishing_the_ego
1953-03-18
1953-03-25
1953-04-01
1953-04-08
1953-04-15
1953-04-22
1953-04-29
1953-05-06
1953-05-13
1953-05-20
1953-05-27
1953-06-03
1953-06-10
1953-06-17
1953-06-24
1953-07-01
1953-07-08
1953-07-15
1953-07-22
1953-07-29
1953-08-05
1953-08-12
1953-08-19
1953-08-26
1953-09-02
1953-09-09
1953-09-16
1953-09-23
1953-09-30
1953-10-07
1953-10-14
1953-10-21
1953-10-28
1953-11-04
1953-11-11
1953-11-18
1953-11-25
1953-12-09
1953-12-16
1953-12-23
1953-12-30
1954-02-03_-_The_senses_and_super-sense_-_Children_can_be_moulded_-_Keeping_things_in_order_-_The_shadow
1954-02-10_-_Study_a_variety_of_subjects_-_Memory_-Memory_of_past_lives_-_Getting_rid_of_unpleasant_thoughts
1954-02-17_-_Experience_expressed_in_different_ways_-_Origin_of_the_psychic_being_-_Progress_in_sports_-Everything_is_not_for_the_best
1954-03-03_-_Occultism_-_A_French_scientists_experiment
1954-03-24_-_Dreams_and_the_condition_of_the_stomach_-_Tobacco_and_alcohol_-_Nervousness_-_The_centres_and_the_Kundalini_-_Control_of_the_senses
1954-04-07_-_Communication_without_words_-_Uneven_progress_-_Words_and_the_Word
1954-04-14_-_Love_-_Can_a_person_love_another_truly?_-_Parental_love
1954-04-28_-_Aspiration_and_receptivity_-_Resistance_-_Purusha_and_Prakriti,_not_masculine_and_feminine
1954-05-05_-_Faith,_trust,_confidence_-_Insincerity_and_unconsciousness
1954-05-12_-_The_Purusha_-_Surrender_-_Distinguishing_between_influences_-_Perfect_sincerity
1954-05-19_-_Affection_and_love_-_Psychic_vision_Divine_-_Love_and_receptivity_-_Get_out_of_the_ego
1954-05-26_-_Symbolic_dreams_-_Psychic_sorrow_-_Dreams,_one_is_rarely_conscious
1954-06-02_-_Learning_how_to_live_-_Work,_studies_and_sadhana_-_Waste_of_the_Energy_and_Consciousness
1954-06-16_-_Influences,_Divine_and_other_-_Adverse_forces_-_The_four_great_Asuras_-_Aspiration_arranges_circumstances_-_Wanting_only_the_Divine
1954-06-23_-_Meat-eating_-_Story_of_Mothers_vegetable_garden_-_Faithfulness_-_Conscious_sleep
1954-06-30_-_Occultism_-_Religion_and_vital_beings_-_Mothers_knowledge_of_what_happens_in_the_Ashram_-_Asking_questions_to_Mother_-_Drawing_on_Mother
1954-07-07_-_The_inner_warrior_-_Grace_and_the_Falsehood_-_Opening_from_below_-_Surrender_and_inertia_-_Exclusive_receptivity_-_Grace_and_receptivity
1954-07-14_-_The_Divine_and_the_Shakti_-_Personal_effort_-_Speaking_and_thinking_-_Doubt_-_Self-giving,_consecration_and_surrender_-_Mothers_use_of_flowers_-_Ornaments_and_protection
1954-07-21_-_Mistakes_-_Success_-_Asuras_-_Mental_arrogance_-_Difficulty_turned_into_opportunity_-_Mothers_use_of_flowers_-_Conversion_of_men_governed_by_adverse_forces
1954-07-28_-_Money_-_Ego_and_individuality_-_The_shadow
1954-08-04_-_Servant_and_worker_-_Justification_of_weakness_-_Play_of_the_Divine_-_Why_are_you_here_in_the_Ashram?
1954-08-11_-_Division_and_creation_-_The_gods_and_human_formations_-_People_carry_their_desires_around_them
1954-08-18_-_Mahalakshmi_-_Maheshwari_-_Mahasaraswati_-_Determinism_and_freedom_-_Suffering_and_knowledge_-_Aspects_of_the_Mother
1954-08-25_-_Ananda_aspect_of_the_Mother_-_Changing_conditions_in_the_Ashram_-_Ascetic_discipline_-_Mothers_body
1954-09-08_-_Hostile_forces_-_Substance_-_Concentration_-_Changing_the_centre_of_thought_-_Peace
1954-09-15_-_Parts_of_the_being_-_Thoughts_and_impulses_-_The_subconscient_-_Precise_vocabulary_-_The_Grace_and_difficulties
1954-09-22_-_The_supramental_creation_-_Rajasic_eagerness_-_Silence_from_above_-_Aspiration_and_rejection_-_Effort,_individuality_and_ego_-_Aspiration_and_desire
1954-09-29_-_The_right_spirit_-_The_Divine_comes_first_-_Finding_the_Divine_-_Mistakes_-_Rejecting_impulses_-_Making_the_consciousness_vast_-_Firm_resolution
1954-10-06_-_What_happens_is_for_the_best_-_Blaming_oneself_-Experiences_-_The_vital_desire-soul_-Creating_a_spiritual_atmosphere_-Thought_and_Truth
1954-10-20_-_Stand_back_-_Asking_questions_to_Mother_-_Seeing_images_in_meditation_-_Berlioz_-Music_-_Mothers_organ_music_-_Destiny
1954-11-03_-_Body_opening_to_the_Divine_-_Concentration_in_the_heart_-_The_army_of_the_Divine_-_The_knot_of_the_ego_-Streng_thening_ones_will
1954-11-10_-_Inner_experience,_the_basis_of_action_-_Keeping_open_to_the_Force_-_Faith_through_aspiration_-_The_Mothers_symbol_-_The_mind_and_vital_seize_experience_-_Degrees_of_sincerity_-Becoming_conscious_of_the_Divine_Force
1954-11-24_-_Aspiration_mixed_with_desire_-_Willing_and_desiring_-_Children_and_desires_-_Supermind_and_the_higher_ranges_of_mind_-_Stages_in_the_supramental_manifestation
1954-12-08_-_Cosmic_consciousness_-_Clutching_-_The_central_will_of_the_being_-_Knowledge_by_identity
1954-12-15_-_Many_witnesses_inside_oneself_-_Children_in_the_Ashram_-_Trance_and_the_waking_consciousness_-_Ascetic_methods_-_Education,_spontaneous_effort_-_Spiritual_experience
1954-12-22_-_Possession_by_hostile_forces_-_Purity_and_morality_-_Faith_in_the_final_success_-Drawing_back_from_the_path
1954-12-29_-_Difficulties_and_the_world_-_The_experience_the_psychic_being_wants_-_After_death_-Ignorance
1955-02-09_-_Desire_is_contagious_-_Primitive_form_of_love_-_the_artists_delight_-_Psychic_need,_mind_as_an_instrument_-_How_the_psychic_being_expresses_itself_-_Distinguishing_the_parts_of_ones_being_-_The_psychic_guides_-_Illness_-_Mothers_vision
1955-02-16_-_Losing_something_given_by_Mother_-_Using_things_well_-_Sadhak_collecting_soap-pieces_-_What_things_are_truly_indispensable_-_Natures_harmonious_arrangement_-_Riches_a_curse,_philanthropy_-_Misuse_of_things_creates_misery
1955-02-23_-_On_the_sense_of_taste,_educating_the_senses_-_Fasting_produces_a_state_of_receptivity,_drawing_energy_-_The_body_and_food
1955-03-02_-_Right_spirit,_aspiration_and_desire_-_Sleep_and_yogic_repose,_how_to_sleep_-_Remembering_dreams_-_Concentration_and_outer_activity_-_Mother_opens_the_door_inside_everyone_-_Sleep,_a_school_for_inner_knowledge_-_Source_of_energy
1955-03-09_-_Psychic_directly_contacted_through_the_physical_-_Transforming_egoistic_movements_-_Work_of_the_psychic_being_-_Contacting_the_psychic_and_the_Divine_-_Experiences_of_different_kinds_-_Attacks_of_adverse_forces
1955-03-23_-_Procedure_for_rejection_and_transformation_-_Learning_by_heart,_true_understanding_-_Vibrations,_movements_of_the_species_-_A_cat_and_a_Russian_peasant_woman_-_A_cat_doing_yoga
1955-03-30_-_Yoga-shakti_-_Energies_of_the_earth,_higher_and_lower_-_Illness,_curing_by_yogic_means_-_The_true_self_and_the_psychic_-_Solving_difficulties_by_different_methods
1955-04-06_-_Freuds_psychoanalysis,_the_subliminal_being_-_The_psychic_and_the_subliminal_-_True_psychology_-_Changing_the_lower_nature_-_Faith_in_different_parts_of_the_being_-_Psychic_contact_established_in_all_in_the_Ashram
1955-04-13_-_Psychoanalysts_-_The_underground_super-ego,_dreams,_sleep,_control_-_Archetypes,_Overmind_and_higher_-_Dream_of_someone_dying_-_Integral_repose,_entering_Sachchidananda_-_Organising_ones_life,_concentration,_repose
1955-04-27_-_Symbolic_dreams_and_visions_-_Curing_pain_by_various_methods_-_Different_states_of_consciousness_-_Seeing_oneself_dead_in_a_dream_-_Exteriorisation
1955-05-04_-_Drawing_on_the_universal_vital_forces_-_The_inner_physical_-_Receptivity_to_different_kinds_of_forces_-_Progress_and_receptivity
1955-05-18_-_The_Problem_of_Woman_-_Men_and_women_-_The_Supreme_Mother,_the_new_creation_-_Gods_and_goddesses_-_A_story_of_Creation,_earth_-_Psychic_being_only_on_earth,_beings_everywhere_-_Going_to_other_worlds_by_occult_means
1955-05-25_-_Religion_and_reason_-_true_role_and_field_-_an_obstacle_to_or_minister_of_the_Spirit_-_developing_and_meaning_-_Learning_how_to_live,_the_elite_-_Reason_controls_and_organises_life_-_Nature_is_infrarational
1955-06-01_-_The_aesthetic_conscience_-_Beauty_and_form_-_The_roots_of_our_life_-_The_sense_of_beauty_-_Educating_the_aesthetic_sense,_taste_-_Mental_constructions_based_on_a_revelation_-_Changing_the_world_and_humanity
1955-06-08_-_Working_for_the_Divine_-_ideal_attitude_-_Divine_manifesting_-_reversal_of_consciousness,_knowing_oneself_-_Integral_progress,_outer,_inner,_facing_difficulties_-_People_in_Ashram_-_doing_Yoga_-_Children_given_freedom,_choosing_yoga
1955-06-15_-_Dynamic_realisation,_transformation_-_The_negative_and_positive_side_of_experience_-_The_image_of_the_dry_coconut_fruit_-_Purusha,_Prakriti,_the_Divine_Mother_-_The_Truth-Creation_-_Pralaya_-_We_are_in_a_transitional_period
1955-06-22_-_Awakening_the_Yoga-shakti_-_The_thousand-petalled_lotus-_Reading,_how_far_a_help_for_yoga_-_Simple_and_complicated_combinations_in_men
1955-06-29_-_The_true_vital_and_true_physical_-_Time_and_Space_-_The_psychics_memory_of_former_lives_-_The_psychic_organises_ones_life_-_The_psychics_knowledge_and_direction
1955-07-06_-_The_psychic_and_the_central_being_or_jivatman_-_Unity_and_multiplicity_in_the_Divine_-_Having_experiences_and_the_ego_-_Mental,_vital_and_physical_exteriorisation_-_Imagination_has_a_formative_power_-_The_function_of_the_imagination
1955-07-13_-_Cosmic_spirit_and_cosmic_consciousness_-_The_wall_of_ignorance,_unity_and_separation_-_Aspiration_to_understand,_to_know,_to_be_-_The_Divine_is_in_the_essence_of_ones_being_-_Realising_desires_through_the_imaginaton
1955-07-20_-_The_Impersonal_Divine_-_Surrender_to_the_Divine_brings_perfect_freedom_-_The_Divine_gives_Himself_-_The_principle_of_the_inner_dimensions_-_The_paths_of_aspiration_and_surrender_-_Linear_and_spherical_paths_and_realisations
1955-08-03_-_Nothing_is_impossible_in_principle_-_Psychic_contact_and_psychic_influence_-_Occult_powers,_adverse_influences;_magic_-_Magic,_occultism_and_Yogic_powers_-Hypnotism_and_its_effects
1955-08-17_-_Vertical_ascent_and_horizontal_opening_-_Liberation_of_the_psychic_being_-_Images_for_discovery_of_the_psychic_being_-_Sadhana_to_contact_the_psychic_being
1955-09-21_-_Literature_and_the_taste_for_forms_-_The_characters_of_The_Great_Secret_-_How_literature_helps_us_to_progress_-_Reading_to_learn_-_The_commercial_mentality_-_How_to_choose_ones_books_-_Learning_to_enrich_ones_possibilities_...
1955-10-05_-_Science_and_Ignorance_-_Knowledge,_science_and_the_Buddha_-_Knowing_by_identification_-_Discipline_in_science_and_in_Buddhism_-_Progress_in_the_mental_field_and_beyond_it
1955-10-12_-_The_problem_of_transformation_-_Evolution,_man_and_superman_-_Awakening_need_of_a_higher_good_-_Sri_Aurobindo_and_earths_history_-_Setting_foot_on_the_new_path_-_The_true_reality_of_the_universe_-_the_new_race_-_...
1955-10-19_-_The_rhythms_of_time_-_The_lotus_of_knowledge_and_perfection_-_Potential_knowledge_-_The_teguments_of_the_soul_-_Shastra_and_the_Gurus_direct_teaching_-_He_who_chooses_the_Infinite...
1955-10-26_-_The_Divine_and_the_universal_Teacher_-_The_power_of_the_Word_-_The_Creative_Word,_the_mantra_-_Sound,_music_in_other_worlds_-_The_domains_of_pure_form,_colour_and_ideas
1955-11-02_-_The_first_movement_in_Yoga_-_Interiorisation,_finding_ones_soul_-_The_Vedic_Age_-_An_incident_about_Vivekananda_-_The_imaged_language_of_the_Vedas_-_The_Vedic_Rishis,_involutionary_beings_-_Involution_and_evolution
1955-11-09_-_Personal_effort,_egoistic_mind_-_Man_is_like_a_public_square_-_Natures_work_-_Ego_needed_for_formation_of_individual_-_Adverse_forces_needed_to_make_man_sincere_-_Determinisms_of_different_planes,_miracles
1955-11-16_-_The_significance_of_numbers_-_Numbers,_astrology,_true_knowledge_-_Divines_Love_flowers_for_Kali_puja_-_Desire,_aspiration_and_progress_-_Determining_ones_approach_to_the_Divine_-_Liberation_is_obtained_through_austerities_-_...
1955-11-23_-_One_reality,_multiple_manifestations_-_Integral_Yoga,_approach_by_all_paths_-_The_supreme_man_and_the_divine_man_-_Miracles_and_the_logic_of_events
1955-12-07_-_Emotional_impulse_of_self-giving_-_A_young_dancer_in_France_-_The_heart_has_wings,_not_the_head_-_Only_joy_can_conquer_the_Adversary
1955-12-14_-_Rejection_of_life_as_illusion_in_the_old_Yogas_-_Fighting_the_adverse_forces_-_Universal_and_individual_being_-_Three_stages_in_Integral_Yoga_-_How_to_feel_the_Divine_Presence_constantly
1955-12-28_-_Aspiration_in_different_parts_of_the_being_-_Enthusiasm_and_gratitude_-_Aspiration_is_in_all_beings_-_Unlimited_power_of_good,_evil_has_a_limit_-_Progress_in_the_parts_of_the_being_-_Significance_of_a_dream
1956-01-04_-_Integral_idea_of_the_Divine_-_All_things_attracted_by_the_Divine_-_Bad_things_not_in_place_-_Integral_yoga_-_Moving_idea-force,_ideas_-_Consequences_of_manifestation_-_Work_of_Spirit_via_Nature_-_Change_consciousness,_change_world
1956-01-11_-_Desire_and_self-deception_-_Giving_all_one_is_and_has_-_Sincerity,_more_powerful_than_will_-_Joy_of_progress_Definition_of_youth
1956-01-18_-_Two_sides_of_individual_work_-_Cheerfulness_-_chosen_vessel_of_the_Divine_-_Aspiration,_consciousness,_of_plants,_of_children_-_Being_chosen_by_the_Divine_-_True_hierarchy_-_Perfect_relation_with_the_Divine_-_India_free_in_1915
1956-01-25_-_The_divine_way_of_life_-_Divine,_Overmind,_Supermind_-_Material_body__for_discovery_of_the_Divine_-_Five_psychological_perfections
1956-02-01_-_Path_of_knowledge_-_Finding_the_Divine_in_life_-_Capacity_for_contact_with_the_Divine_-_Partial_and_total_identification_with_the_Divine_-_Manifestation_and_hierarchy
1956-02-08_-_Forces_of_Nature_expressing_a_higher_Will_-_Illusion_of_separate_personality_-_One_dynamic_force_which_moves_all_things_-_Linear_and_spherical_thinking_-_Common_ideal_of_life,_microscopic
1956-02-15_-_Nature_and_the_Master_of_Nature_-_Conscious_intelligence_-_Theory_of_the_Gita,_not_the_whole_truth_-_Surrender_to_the_Lord_-_Change_of_nature
1956-02-22_-_Strong_immobility_of_an_immortal_spirit_-_Equality_of_soul_-_Is_all_an_expression_of_the_divine_Will?_-_Loosening_the_knot_of_action_-_Using_experience_as_a_cloak_to_cover_excesses_-_Sincerity,_a_rare_virtue
1956-02-29_-_Sacrifice,_self-giving_-_Divine_Presence_in_the_heart_of_Matter_-_Divine_Oneness_-_Divine_Consciousness_-_All_is_One_-_Divine_in_the_inconscient_aspires_for_the_Divine
1956-03-07_-_Sacrifice,_Animals,_hostile_forces,_receive_in_proportion_to_consciousness_-_To_be_luminously_open_-_Integral_transformation_-_Pain_of_rejection,_delight_of_progress_-_Spirit_behind_intention_-_Spirit,_matter,_over-simplified
1956-03-14_-_Dynamic_meditation_-_Do_all_as_an_offering_to_the_Divine_-_Significance_of_23.4.56._-_If_twelve_men_of_goodwill_call_the_Divine
1956-03-21_-_Identify_with_the_Divine_-_The_Divine,_the_most_important_thing_in_life
1956-03-28_-_The_starting-point_of_spiritual_experience_-_The_boundless_finite_-_The_Timeless_and_Time_-_Mental_explanation_not_enough_-_Changing_knowledge_into_experience_-_Sat-Chit-Tapas-Ananda
1956-04-04_-_The_witness_soul_-_A_Gita_enthusiast_-_Propagandist_spirit,_Tolstoys_son
1956-04-11_-_Self-creator_-_Manifestation_of_Time_and_Space_-_Brahman-Maya_and_Ishwara-Shakti_-_Personal_and_Impersonal
1956-04-18_-_Ishwara_and_Shakti,_seeing_both_aspects_-_The_Impersonal_and_the_divine_Person_-_Soul,_the_presence_of_the_divine_Person_-_Going_to_other_worlds,_exteriorisation,_dreams_-_Telling_stories_to_oneself
1956-04-25_-_God,_human_conception_and_the_true_Divine_-_Earthly_existence,_to_realise_the_Divine_-_Ananda,_divine_pleasure_-_Relations_with_the_divine_Presence_-_Asking_the_Divine_for_what_one_needs_-_Allowing_the_Divine_to_lead_one
1956-05-02_-_Threefold_union_-_Manifestation_of_the_Supramental_-_Profiting_from_the_Divine_-_Recognition_of_the_Supramental_Force_-_Ascent,_descent,_manifestation
1956-05-09_-_Beginning_of_the_true_spiritual_life_-_Spirit_gives_value_to_all_things_-_To_be_helped_by_the_supramental_Force
1956-05-16_-_Needs_of_the_body,_not_true_in_themselves_-_Spiritual_and_supramental_law_-_Aestheticised_Paganism_-_Morality,_checks_true_spiritual_effort_-_Effect_of_supramental_descent_-_Half-lights_and_false_lights
1956-05-23_-_Yoga_and_religion_-_Story_of_two_clergymen_on_a_boat_-_The_Buddha_and_the_Supramental_-_Hieroglyphs_and_phonetic_alphabets_-_A_vision_of_ancient_Egypt_-_Memory_for_sounds
1956-05-30_-_Forms_as_symbols_of_the_Force_behind_-_Art_as_expression_of_contact_with_the_Divine_-_Supramental_psychological_perfection_-_Division_of_works_-_The_Ashram,_idle_stupidities
1956-06-06_-_Sign_or_indication_from_books_of_revelation_-_Spiritualised_mind_-_Stages_of_sadhana_-_Reversal_of_consciousness_-_Organisation_around_central_Presence_-_Boredom,_most_common_human_malady
1956-06-13_-_Effects_of_the_Supramental_action_-_Education_and_the_Supermind_-_Right_to_remain_ignorant_-_Concentration_of_mind_-_Reason,_not_supreme_capacity_-_Physical_education_and_studies_-_inner_discipline_-_True_usefulness_of_teachers
1956-06-20_-_Hearts_mystic_light,_intuition_-_Psychic_being,_contact_-_Secular_ethics_-_True_role_of_mind_-_Realise_the_Divine_by_love_-_Depression,_pleasure,_joy_-_Heart_mixture_-_To_follow_the_soul_-_Physical_process_-_remember_the_Mother
1956-06-27_-_Birth,_entry_of_soul_into_body_-_Formation_of_the_supramental_world_-_Aspiration_for_progress_-_Bad_thoughts_-_Cerebral_filter_-_Progress_and_resistance
1956-07-04_-_Aspiration_when_one_sees_a_shooting_star_-_Preparing_the_bodyn_making_it_understand_-_Getting_rid_of_pain_and_suffering_-_Psychic_light
1956-07-11_-_Beauty_restored_to_its_priesthood_-_Occult_worlds,_occult_beings_-_Difficulties_and_the_supramental_force
1956-07-18_-_Unlived_dreams_-_Radha-consciousness_-_Separation_and_identification_-_Ananda_of_identity_and_Ananda_of_union_-_Sincerity,_meditation_and_prayer_-_Enemies_of_the_Divine_-_The_universe_is_progressive
1956-07-25_-_A_complete_act_of_divine_love_-_How_to_listen_-_Sports_programme_same_for_boys_and_girls_-_How_to_profit_by_stay_at_Ashram_-_To_Women_about_Their_Body
1956-08-01_-_Value_of_worship_-_Spiritual_realisation_and_the_integral_yoga_-_Symbols,_translation_of_experience_into_form_-_Sincerity,_fundamental_virtue_-_Intensity_of_aspiration,_with_anguish_or_joy_-_The_divine_Grace
1956-08-08_-_How_to_light_the_psychic_fire,_will_for_progress_-_Helping_from_a_distance,_mental_formations_-_Prayer_and_the_divine_-_Grace_Grace_at_work_everywhere
1956-08-15_-_Protection,_purification,_fear_-_Atmosphere_at_the_Ashram_on_Darshan_days_-_Darshan_messages_-_Significance_of_15-08_-_State_of_surrender_-_Divine_Grace_always_all-powerful_-_Assumption_of_Virgin_Mary_-_SA_message_of_1947-08-15
1956-08-22_-_The_heaven_of_the_liberated_mind_-_Trance_or_samadhi_-_Occult_discipline_for_leaving_consecutive_bodies_-_To_be_greater_than_ones_experience_-_Total_self-giving_to_the_Grace_-_The_truth_of_the_being_-_Unique_relation_with_the_Supreme
1956-08-29_-_To_live_spontaneously_-_Mental_formations_Absolute_sincerity_-_Balance_is_indispensable,_the_middle_path_-_When_in_difficulty,_widen_the_consciousness_-_Easiest_way_of_forgetting_oneself
1956-09-05_-_Material_life,_seeing_in_the_right_way_-_Effect_of_the_Supermind_on_the_earth_-_Emergence_of_the_Supermind_-_Falling_back_into_the_same_mistaken_ways
1956-09-12_-_Questions,_practice_and_progress
1956-09-19_-_Power,_predominant_quality_of_vital_being_-_The_Divine,_the_psychic_being,_the_Supermind_-_How_to_come_out_of_the_physical_consciousness_-_Look_life_in_the_face_-_Ordinary_love_and_Divine_love
1956-09-26_-_Soul_of_desire_-_Openness,_harmony_with_Nature_-_Communion_with_divine_Presence_-_Individuality,_difficulties,_soul_of_desire_-_personal_contact_with_the_Mother_-_Inner_receptivity_-_Bad_thoughts_before_the_Mother
1956-10-03_-_The_Mothers_different_ways_of_speaking_-_new_manifestation_-_new_element,_possibilities_-_child_prodigies_-_Laws_of_Nature,_supramental_-_Logic_of_the_unforeseen_-_Creative_writers,_hands_of_musicians_-_Prodigious_children,_men
1956-10-10_-_The_supramental_race__in_a_few_centuries_-_Condition_for_new_realisation_-_Everyone_must_follow_his_own_path_-_Progress,_no_two_paths_alike
1956-10-17_-_Delight,_the_highest_state_-_Delight_and_detachment_-_To_be_calm_-_Quietude,_mental_and_vital_-_Calm_and_strength_-_Experience_and_expression_of_experience
1956-10-24_-_Taking_a_new_body_-_Different_cases_of_incarnation_-_Departure_of_soul_from_body
1956-10-31_-_Manifestation_of_divine_love_-_Deformation_of_Love_by_human_consciousness_-_Experience_and_expression_of_experience
1956-11-07_-_Thoughts_created_by_forces_of_universal_-_Mind_Our_own_thought_hardly_exists_-_Idea,_origin_higher_than_mind_-_The_Synthesis_of_Yoga,_effect_of_reading
1956-11-14_-_Conquering_the_desire_to_appear_good_-_Self-control_and_control_of_the_life_around_-_Power_of_mastery_-_Be_a_great_yogi_to_be_a_good_teacher_-_Organisation_of_the_Ashram_school_-_Elementary_discipline_of_regularity
1956-11-21_-_Knowings_and_Knowledge_-_Reason,_summit_of_mans_mental_activities_-_Willings_and_the_true_will_-_Personal_effort_-_First_step_to_have_knowledge_-_Relativity_of_medical_knowledge_-_Mental_gymnastics_make_the_mind_supple
1956-11-28_-_Desire,_ego,_animal_nature_-_Consciousness,_a_progressive_state_-_Ananda,_desireless_state_beyond_enjoyings_-_Personal_effort_that_is_mental_-_Reason,_when_to_disregard_it_-_Reason_and_reasons
1956-12-05_-_Even_and_objectless_ecstasy_-_Transform_the_animal_-_Individual_personality_and_world-personality_-_Characteristic_features_of_a_world-personality_-_Expressing_a_universal_state_of_consciousness_-_Food_and_sleep_-_Ordered_intuition
1956-12-12_-_paradoxes_-_Nothing_impossible_-_unfolding_universe,_the_Eternal_-_Attention,_concentration,_effort_-_growth_capacity_almost_unlimited_-_Why_things_are_not_the_same_-_will_and_willings_-_Suggestions,_formations_-_vital_world
1956-12-19_-_Preconceived_mental_ideas_-_Process_of_creation_-_Destructive_power_of_bad_thoughts_-_To_be_perfectly_sincere
1956-12-26_-_Defeated_victories_-_Change_of_consciousness_-_Experiences_that_indicate_the_road_to_take_-_Choice_and_preference_-_Diversity_of_the_manifestation
1957-01-02_-_Can_one_go_out_of_time_and_space?_-_Not_a_crucified_but_a_glorified_body_-_Individual_effort_and_the_new_force
1957-01-09_-_God_is_essentially_Delight_-_God_and_Nature_play_at_hide-and-seek_-__Why,_and_when,_are_you_grave?
1957-01-16_-_Seeking_something_without_knowing_it_-_Why_are_we_here?
1957-01-23_-_How_should_we_understand_pure_delight?_-_The_drop_of_honey_-_Action_of_the_Divine_Will_in_the_world
1957-01-30_-_Artistry_is_just_contrast_-_How_to_perceive_the_Divine_Guidance?
1957-02-06_-_Death,_need_of_progress_-_Changing_Natures_methods
1957-02-07_-_Individual_and_collective_meditation
1957-02-13_-_Suffering,_pain_and_pleasure_-_Illness_and_its_cure
1957-02-20_-_Limitations_of_the_body_and_individuality
1957-03-06_-_Freedom,_servitude_and_love
1957-03-08_-_A_Buddhist_story
1957-03-13_-_Our_best_friend
1957-03-15_-_Reminiscences_of_Tlemcen
1957-03-20_-_Never_sit_down,_true_repose
1957-03-22_-_A_story_of_initiation,_knowledge_and_practice
1957-03-27_-_If_only_humanity_consented_to_be_spiritualised
1957-04-03_-_Different_religions_and_spirituality
1957-04-10_-_Sports_and_yoga_-_Organising_ones_life
1957-04-17_-_Transformation_of_the_body
1957-04-24_-_Perfection,_lower_and_higher
1957-05-01_-_Sports_competitions,_their_value
1957-05-08_-_Vital_excitement,_reason,_instinct
1957-05-15_-_Differentiation_of_the_sexes_-_Transformation_from_above_downwards
1957-05-29_-_Progressive_transformation
1957-06-05_-_Questions_and_silence_-_Methods_of_meditation
1957-06-12_-_Fasting_and_spiritual_progress
1957-06-19_-_Causes_of_illness_Fear_and_illness_-_Minds_working,_faith_and_illness
1957-06-26_-_Birth_through_direct_transmutation_-_Man_and_woman_-_Judging_others_-_divine_Presence_in_all_-_New_birth
1957-07-03_-_Collective_yoga,_vision_of_a_huge_hotel
1957-07-09_-_Incontinence_of_speech
1957-07-10_-_A_new_world_is_born_-_Overmind_creation_dissolved
1957-07-17_-_Power_of_conscious_will_over_matter
1957-07-24_-_The_involved_supermind_-_The_new_world_and_the_old_-_Will_for_progress_indispensable
1957-07-31_-_Awakening_aspiration_in_the_body
1957-08-07_-_The_resistances,_politics_and_money_-_Aspiration_to_realise_the_supramental_life
1957-08-14_-_Meditation_on_Sri_Aurobindo
1957-08-21_-_The_Ashram_and_true_communal_life_-_Level_of_consciousness_in_the_Ashram
1957-08-28_-_Freedom_and_Divine_Will
1957-09-04_-_Sri_Aurobindo,_an_eternal_birth
1957-09-11_-_Vital_chemistry,_attraction_and_repulsion
1957-09-18_-_Occultism_and_supramental_life
1957-09-25_-_Preparation_of_the_intermediate_being
1957-10-02_-_The_Mind_of_Light_-_Statues_of_the_Buddha_-_Burden_of_the_past
1957-10-09_-_As_many_universes_as_individuals_-_Passage_to_the_higher_hemisphere
1957-10-16_-_Story_of_successive_involutions
1957-10-23_-_The_central_motive_of_terrestrial_existence_-_Evolution
1957-10-30_-_Double_movement_of_evolution_-_Disappearance_of_a_species
1957-11-13_-_Superiority_of_man_over_animal_-_Consciousness_precedes_form
1957-11-27_-_Sri_Aurobindos_method_in_The_Life_Divine_-_Individual_and_cosmic_evolution
1957-12-04_-_The_method_of_The_Life_Divine_-_Problem_of_emergence_of_a_new_species
1957-12-11_-_Appearance_of_the_first_men
1957-12-18_-_Modern_science_and_illusion_-_Value_of_experience,_its_transforming_power_-_Supramental_power,_first_aspect_to_manifest
1958-01-01_-_The_collaboration_of_material_Nature_-_Miracles_visible_to_a_deep_vision_of_things_-_Explanation_of_New_Year_Message
1958-01-08_-_Sri_Aurobindos_method_of_exposition_-_The_mind_as_a_public_place_-_Mental_control_-_Sri_Aurobindos_subtle_hand
1958-01-15_-_The_only_unshakable_point_of_support
1958-01-22_-_Intellectual_theories_-_Expressing_a_living_and_real_Truth
1958-01-29_-_The_plan_of_the_universe_-_Self-awareness
1958-02-05_-_The_great_voyage_of_the_Supreme_-_Freedom_and_determinism
1958-02-12_-_Psychic_progress_from_life_to_life_-_The_earth,_the_place_of_progress
1958-02-19_-_Experience_of_the_supramental_boat_-_The_Censors_-_Absurdity_of_artificial_means
1958-02-26_-_The_moon_and_the_stars_-_Horoscopes_and_yoga
1958-03-05_-_Vibrations_and_words_-_Power_of_thought,_the_gift_of_tongues
1958-03-12_-_The_key_of_past_transformations
1958-03-19_-_General_tension_in_humanity_-_Peace_and_progress_-_Perversion_and_vision_of_transformation
1958-03-26_-_Mental_anxiety_and_trust_in_spiritual_power
1958-04-02_-_Correcting_a_mistake
1958-04-09_-_The_eyes_of_the_soul_-_Perceiving_the_soul
1958-04-16_-_The_superman_-_New_realisation
1958-04-23_-_Progress_and_bargaining
1958-04-30_-_Mental_constructions_and_experience
1958-05-07_-_The_secret_of_Nature
1958-05-14_-_Intellectual_activity_and_subtle_knowing_-_Understanding_with_the_body
1958-05-21_-_Mental_honesty
1958-05-28_-_The_Avatar
1958-06-04_-_New_birth
1958-06-11_-_Is_there_a_spiritual_being_in_everybody?
1958-06-18_-_Philosophy,_religion,_occultism,_spirituality
1958-06-25_-_Sadhana_in_the_body
1958-07-09_-_Faith_and_personal_effort
1958-07-16_-_Is_religion_a_necessity?
1958-07-23_-_How_to_develop_intuition_-_Concentration
1958-07-30_-_The_planchette_-_automatic_writing_-_Proofs_and_knowledge
1958-08-06_-_Collective_prayer_-_the_ideal_collectivity
1958-08-13_-_Profit_by_staying_in_the_Ashram_-_What_Sri_Aurobindo_has_come_to_tell_us_-_Finding_the_Divine
1958-08-15_-_Our_relation_with_the_Gods
1958-08-27_-_Meditation_and_imagination_-_From_thought_to_idea,_from_idea_to_principle
1958-09-03_-_How_to_discipline_the_imagination_-_Mental_formations
1958-09-10_-_Magic,_occultism,_physical_science
1958-09-17_-_Power_of_formulating_experience_-_Usefulness_of_mental_development
1958-09-24_-_Living_the_truth_-_Words_and_experience
1958-10-01_-_The_ideal_of_moral_perfection
1958-10-08_-_Stages_between_man_and_superman
1958-10-22_-_Spiritual_life_-_reversal_of_consciousness_-_Helping_others
1958-10-29_-_Mental_self-sufficiency_-_Grace
1958-11-05_-_Knowing_how_to_be_silent
1958-11-12_-_The_aim_of_the_Supreme_-_Trust_in_the_Grace
1958-11-26_-_The_role_of_the_Spirit_-_New_birth
2.01_-_The_Ordinary_Life_and_the_True_Soul
2.02_-_Surrender,_Self-Offering_and_Consecration
2.03_-_Renunciation
2.06_-_Union_with_the_Divine_Consciousness_and_Will
2.08_-_Victory_over_Falsehood
2.13_-_Psychic_Presence_and_Psychic_Being_-_Real_Origin_of_Race_Superiority
2.14_-_Faith
2.15_-_Power_of_Right_Attitude
2.16_-_Power_of_Imagination
2.19_-_Knowledge_of_the_Scientist_and_the_Yogi
2.20_-_Chance
2.23_-_Supermind_and_Overmind
2.26_-_The_Supramental_Descent
3.03_-_The_Mind_
3.04_-_The_Flowers
3.05_-_The_Fool
3.06_-_The_Sage
3.07_-_The_Adept
3.08_-_The_Thousands
3.09_-_Evil
3.10_-_Punishment

IN CHAPTERS TEXT
00.01_-_The_Approach_to_Mysticism
00.01_-_The_Mother_on_Savitri
00.03_-_Upanishadic_Symbolism
00.04_-_The_Beautiful_in_the_Upanishads
0.00_-_INTRODUCTION
0.00_-_The_Book_of_Lies_Text
0.00_-_THE_GOSPEL_PREFACE
0.01_-_Introduction
0.01_-_I_-_Sri_Aurobindos_personality,_his_outer_retirement_-_outside_contacts_after_1910_-_spiritual_personalities-_Vibhutis_and_Avatars_-__transformtion_of_human_personality
0.01_-_Letters_from_the_Mother_to_Her_Son
0.02_-_II_-_The_Home_of_the_Guru
0.02_-_Letters_to_a_Sadhak
0.02_-_The_Three_Steps_of_Nature
0.02_-_Topographical_Note
0.03_-_III_-_The_Evening_Sittings
0.03_-_Letters_to_My_little_smile
0.04_-_Letters_to_a_Sadhak
0.05_-_Letters_to_a_Child
0.06_-_Letters_to_a_Young_Sadhak
0.07_-_Letters_to_a_Sadhak
0.08_-_Letters_to_a_Young_Captain
0.09_-_Letters_to_a_Young_Teacher
01.01_-_A_Yoga_of_the_Art_of_Life
01.01_-_The_New_Humanity
01.01_-_The_Symbol_Dawn
01.02_-_Sri_Aurobindo_-_Ahana_and_Other_Poems
01.02_-_The_Creative_Soul
01.03_-_Mystic_Poetry
01.03_-_Rationalism
01.03_-_Sri_Aurobindo_and_his_School
01.03_-_The_Yoga_of_the_King_-_The_Yoga_of_the_Souls_Release
01.03_-_Yoga_and_the_Ordinary_Life
01.04_-_The_Intuition_of_the_Age
01.04_-_The_Poetry_in_the_Making
01.04_-_The_Secret_Knowledge
01.07_-_The_Bases_of_Social_Reconstruction
01.08_-_A_Theory_of_Yoga
0.10_-_Letters_to_a_Young_Captain
01.12_-_Goethe
01.12_-_Three_Degrees_of_Social_Organisation
01.13_-_T._S._Eliot:_Four_Quartets
0.11_-_Letters_to_a_Sadhak
0.13_-_Letters_to_a_Student
02.01_-_Our_Ideal
02.01_-_The_World_War
02.02_-_Rishi_Dirghatama
02.03_-_An_Aspect_of_Emergent_Evolution
02.03_-_The_Glory_and_the_Fall_of_Life
02.03_-_The_Shakespearean_Word
02.05_-_Federated_Humanity
02.05_-_Robert_Graves
02.05_-_The_Godheads_of_the_Little_Life
02.06_-_The_Kingdoms_and_Godheads_of_the_Greater_Life
02.07_-_George_Seftris
02.07_-_The_Descent_into_Night
02.08_-_The_Basic_Unity
02.08_-_The_World_of_Falsehood,_the_Mother_of_Evil_and_the_Sons_of_Darkness
02.10_-_Independence_and_its_Sanction
02.10_-_The_Kingdoms_and_Godheads_of_the_Little_Mind
02.11_-_Hymn_to_Darkness
02.13_-_In_the_Self_of_Mind
02.13_-_On_Social_Reconstruction
02.14_-_Appendix
03.01_-_The_Malady_of_the_Century
03.01_-_The_Pursuit_of_the_Unknowable
03.02_-_The_Philosopher_as_an_Artist_and_Philosophy_as_an_Art
03.02_-_Yogic_Initiation_and_Aptitude
03.03_-_Arjuna_or_the_Ideal_Disciple
03.03_-_A_Stainless_Steel_Frame
03.03_-_The_House_of_the_Spirit_and_the_New_Creation
03.04_-_The_Vision_and_the_Boon
03.04_-_Towardsa_New_Ideology
03.05_-_Some_Conceptions_and_Misconceptions
03.05_-_The_Spiritual_Genius_of_India
03.06_-_Here_or_Otherwhere
03.06_-_The_Pact_and_its_Sanction
03.07_-_Brahmacharya
03.08_-_The_Democracy_of_Tomorrow
03.08_-_The_Standpoint_of_Indian_Art
03.09_-_Sectarianism_or_Loyalty
03.11_-_Modernist_Poetry
03.11_-_The_Language_Problem_and_India
03.13_-_Dynamic_Fatalism
03.14_-_Mater_Dolorosa
03.15_-_Origin_and_Nature_of_Suffering
04.02_-_Human_Progress
04.02_-_The_Growth_of_the_Flame
04.03_-_The_Call_to_the_Quest
04.03_-_The_Eternal_East_and_West
04.04_-_Evolution_of_the_Spiritual_Consciousness
04.04_-_The_Quest
04.05_-_The_Immortal_Nation
04.06_-_Evolution_of_the_Spiritual_Consciousness
04.07_-_Matter_Aspires
04.07_-_Readings_in_Savitri
05.01_-_The_Destined_Meeting-Place
05.02_-_Gods_Labour
05.03_-_Bypaths_of_Souls_Journey
05.03_-_Satyavan_and_Savitri
05.05_-_In_Quest_of_Reality
05.06_-_Physics_or_philosophy
05.08_-_An_Age_of_Revolution
05.09_-_The_Changed_Scientific_Outlook
05.10_-_Children_and_Child_Mentality
05.11_-_The_Soul_of_a_Nation
05.13_-_Darshana_and_Philosophy
05.25_-_Sweet_Adversity
05.28_-_God_Protects
05.29_-_Vengeance_is_Mine
05.34_-_Light,_more_Light
06.01_-_The_Word_of_Fate
06.02_-_The_Way_of_Fate_and_the_Problem_of_Pain
06.10_-_Fatigue_and_Work
06.19_-_Mental_Silence
06.26_-_The_Wonder_of_It_All
06.35_-_Second_Sight
06.36_-_The_Mother_on_Herself
07.01_-_The_Joy_of_Union;_the_Ordeal_of_the_Foreknowledge
07.03_-_The_Entry_into_the_Inner_Countries
07.04_-_The_Triple_Soul-Forces
07.05_-_This_Mystery_of_Existence
07.06_-_Record_of_World-History
07.07_-_The_Discovery_of_the_Cosmic_Spirit_and_the_Cosmic_Consciousness
07.11_-_The_Problem_of_Evil
07.12_-_This_Ugliness_in_the_World
07.14_-_The_Divine_Suffering
07.19_-_Bad_Thought-Formation
07.22_-_Mysticism_and_Occultism
07.23_-_Meditation_and_Some_Questions
07.24_-_Meditation_and_Meditation
07.25_-_Prayer_and_Aspiration
07.34_-_And_this_Agile_Reason
07.37_-_The_Psychic_Being,_Some_Mysteries
07.40_-_Service_Human_and_Divine
08.04_-_Doing_for_Her_Sake
08.08_-_The_Mind_s_Bazaar
08.09_-_Spirits_in_Trees
08.16_-_Perfection_and_Progress
08.21_-_Human_Birth
08.25_-_Meat-Eating
08.26_-_Faith_and_Progress
08.31_-_Personal_Effort_and_Surrender
08.33_-_Opening_to_the_Divine
08.35_-_Love_Divine
08.36_-_Buddha_and_Shankara
09.04_-_The_Divine_Grace
09.05_-_The_Story_of_Love
09.11_-_The_Supramental_Manifestation_and_World_Change
09.12_-_The_True_Teaching
09.13_-_On_Teachers_and_Teaching
09.14_-_Education_of_Girls
09.15_-_How_to_Listen
09.16_-_Goal_of_Evolution
09.18_-_The_Mother_on_Herself
100.00_-_Synergy
1.001_-_The_Aim_of_Yoga
10.03_-_The_Debate_of_Love_and_Death
1.008_-_The_Principle_of_Self-Affirmation
1.009_-_Perception_and_Reality
1.00a_-_Foreword
1.00a_-_Introduction
1.00c_-_DIVISION_C_-_THE_ETHERIC_BODY_AND_PRANA
1.00c_-_INTRODUCTION
1.00d_-_Introduction
1.00e_-_DIVISION_E_-_MOTION_ON_THE_PHYSICAL_AND_ASTRAL_PLANES
1.00g_-_Foreword
1.00_-_INTRODUCTION
1.00_-_Introduction_to_Alchemy_of_Happiness
1.00_-_Main
1.00_-_Preface
1.00_-_PREFACE_-_DESCENSUS_AD_INFERNOS
1.00_-_Preliminary_Remarks
1.00_-_The_way_of_what_is_to_come
1.010_-_Self-Control_-_The_Alpha_and_Omega_of_Yoga
1.012_-_Sublimation_-_A_Way_to_Reshuffle_Thought
1.013_-_Defence_Mechanisms_of_the_Mind
1.01_-_An_Accomplished_Westerner
1.01_-_A_NOTE_ON_PROGRESS
1.01_-_Appearance_and_Reality
1.01_-_Archetypes_of_the_Collective_Unconscious
1.01_-_Description_of_the_Castle
1.01_-_Economy
1.01f_-_Introduction
1.01_-_Fundamental_Considerations
1.01_-_How_is_Knowledge_Of_The_Higher_Worlds_Attained?
1.01_-_Introduction
1.01_-_Maitreya_inquires_of_his_teacher_(Parashara)
1.01_-_MAPS_OF_EXPERIENCE_-_OBJECT_AND_MEANING
1.01_-_MASTER_AND_DISCIPLE
1.01_-_MAXIMS_AND_MISSILES
1.01_-_Meeting_the_Master_-_Authors_first_meeting,_December_1918
1.01_-_Necessity_for_knowledge_of_the_whole_human_being_for_a_genuine_education.
1.01_-_Newtonian_and_Bergsonian_Time
1.01_-_NIGHT
1.01_-_On_renunciation_of_the_world
1.01_-_Prayer
1.01_-_Principles_of_Practical_Psycho_therapy
1.01_-_SAMADHI_PADA
1.01_-_Tara_the_Divine
1.01_-_THAT_ARE_THOU
1.01_-_The_Castle
1.01_-_The_Ego
1.01_-_The_Highest_Meaning_of_the_Holy_Truths
1.01_-_The_Human_Aspiration
1.01_-_The_Ideal_of_the_Karmayogin
1.01_-_The_King_of_the_Wood
1.01_-_THE_STUFF_OF_THE_UNIVERSE
1.01_-_The_Unexpected
1.01_-_What_is_Magick?
1.020_-_The_World_and_Our_World
10.23_-_Prayers_and_Meditations_of_the_Mother
1.024_-_Affiliation_With_Larger_Wholes
10.24_-_Savitri
1.025_-_Sadhana_-_Intensifying_a_Lighted_Flame
1.028_-_Bringing_About_Whole-Souled_Dedication
1.02_-_BOOK_THE_SECOND
1.02_-_Education
1.02_-_Groups_and_Statistical_Mechanics
1.02_-_MAPS_OF_MEANING_-_THREE_LEVELS_OF_ANALYSIS
1.02_-_Meditating_on_Tara
1.02_-_Meeting_the_Master_-_Authors_second_meeting,_March_1921
1.02_-_Prana
1.02_-_Prayer_of_Parashara_to_Vishnu
1.02_-_Priestly_Kings
1.02_-_SADHANA_PADA
1.02_-_Self-Consecration
1.02_-_Skillful_Means
1.02_-_SOCIAL_HEREDITY_AND_PROGRESS
1.02_-_Taras_Tantra
1.02_-_The_Age_of_Individualism_and_Reason
1.02_-_The_Child_as_growing_being_and_the_childs_experience_of_encountering_the_teacher.
1.02_-_The_Concept_of_the_Collective_Unconscious
1.02_-_The_Development_of_Sri_Aurobindos_Thought
1.02_-_The_Divine_Teacher
1.02_-_The_Eternal_Law
1.02_-_The_Great_Process
1.02_-_The_Human_Soul
1.02_-_The_Magic_Circle
1.02_-_THE_NATURE_OF_THE_GROUND
1.02_-_The_Pit
1.02_-_THE_POOL_OF_TEARS
1.02_-_The_Recovery
1.02_-_The_Refusal_of_the_Call
1.02_-_The_Stages_of_Initiation
1.02_-_The_Three_European_Worlds
1.02_-_The_Ultimate_Path_is_Without_Difficulty
1.02_-_The_Vision_of_the_Past
1.02_-_THE_WITHIN_OF_THINGS
1.02_-_What_is_Psycho_therapy?
1.02_-_Where_I_Lived,_and_What_I_Lived_For
1.032_-_Our_Concept_of_God
10.36_-_Cling_to_Truth
1.037_-_Preventing_the_Fall_in_Yoga
1.03_-_A_CAUCUS-RACE_AND_A_LONG_TALE
1.03_-_APPRENTICESHIP_AND_ENCULTURATION_-_ADOPTION_OF_A_SHARED_MAP
1.03_-_A_Sapphire_Tale
1.03_-_Concerning_the_Archetypes,_with_Special_Reference_to_the_Anima_Concept
1.03_-_Fire_in_the_Earth
1.03_-_Hieroglypics__Life_and_Language_Necessarily_Symbolic
1.03_-_Invocation_of_Tara
1.03_-_Master_Ma_is_Unwell
1.03_-_Meeting_the_Master_-_Meeting_with_others
1.03_-_PERSONALITY,_SANCTITY,_DIVINE_INCARNATION
1.03_-_Preparing_for_the_Miraculous
1.03_-_Questions_and_Answers
1.03_-_Reading
1.03_-_.REASON._IN_PHILOSOPHY
1.03_-_Some_Practical_Aspects
1.03_-_Sympathetic_Magic
1.03_-_The_Coming_of_the_Subjective_Age
1.03_-_THE_EARTH_IN_ITS_EARLY_STAGES
1.03_-_The_Gate_of_Hell._The_Inefficient_or_Indifferent._Pope_Celestine_V._The_Shores_of_Acheron._Charon._The
1.03_-_The_Gods,_Superior_Beings_and_Adverse_Forces
1.03_-_THE_GRAND_OPTION
1.03_-_The_House_Of_The_Lord
1.03_-_The_Human_Disciple
1.03_-_THE_ORPHAN,_THE_WIDOW,_AND_THE_MOON
1.03_-_The_Phenomenon_of_Man
1.03_-_The_Principle_of_Water
1.03_-_The_Sephiros
1.03_-_THE_STUDY_(The_Exorcism)
1.03_-_The_Sunlit_Path
1.03_-_The_Syzygy_-_Anima_and_Animus
1.03_-_The_Two_Negations_2_-_The_Refusal_of_the_Ascetic
1.03_-_The_Void
1.03_-_Time_Series,_Information,_and_Communication
1.03_-_To_Layman_Ishii
1.03_-_VISIT_TO_VIDYASAGAR
1.03_-_Yama_and_Niyama
1.040_-_Re-Educating_the_Mind
1.045_-_Piercing_the_Structure_of_the_Object
1.04_-_ADVICE_TO_HOUSEHOLDERS
1.04_-_Descent_into_Future_Hell
1.04_-_Feedback_and_Oscillation
1.04_-_GOD_IN_THE_WORLD
1.04_-_Magic_and_Religion
1.04_-_On_blessed_and_ever-memorable_obedience
1.04_-_On_Knowledge_of_the_Future_World.
1.04_-_SOME_REFLECTIONS_ON_PROGRESS
1.04_-_Te_Shan_Carrying_His_Bundle
1.04_-_The_Aims_of_Psycho_therapy
1.04_-_THE_APPEARANCE_OF_ANOMALY_-_CHALLENGE_TO_THE_SHARED_MAP
1.04_-_The_Conditions_of_Esoteric_Training
1.04_-_The_Control_of_Psychic_Prana
1.04_-_The_Divine_Mother_-_This_Is_She
1.04_-_The_Gods_of_the_Veda
1.04_-_The_Origin_and_Development_of_Poetry.
1.04_-_The_Paths
1.04_-_THE_RABBIT_SENDS_IN_A_LITTLE_BILL
1.04_-_The_Self
1.04_-_The_Silent_Mind
1.04_-_THE_STUDY_(The_Compact)
1.04_-_Vital_Education
1.04_-_Wake-Up_Sermon
1.04_-_What_Arjuna_Saw_-_the_Dark_Side_of_the_Force
1.05_-_2010_and_1956_-_Doomsday?
1.052_-_Yoga_Practice_-_A_Series_of_Positive_Steps
1.057_-_The_Four_Manifestations_of_Ignorance
1.05_-_Buddhism_and_Women
1.05_-_Christ,_A_Symbol_of_the_Self
1.05_-_Computing_Machines_and_the_Nervous_System
1.05_-_Consciousness
1.05_-_Knowledge_by_Aquaintance_and_Knowledge_by_Description
1.05_-_Mental_Education
1.05_-_Morality_and_War
1.05_-_MORALITY_AS_THE_ENEMY_OF_NATURE
1.05_-_Problems_of_Modern_Psycho_therapy
1.05_-_Qualifications_of_the_Aspirant_and_the_Teacher
1.05_-_Solitude
1.05_-_Some_Results_of_Initiation
1.05_-_The_Activation_of_Human_Energy
1.05_-_The_Ascent_of_the_Sacrifice_-_The_Psychic_Being
1.05_-_The_Creative_Principle
1.05_-_THE_HOSTILE_BROTHERS_-_ARCHETYPES_OF_RESPONSE_TO_THE_UNKNOWN
1.05_-_THE_MASTER_AND_KESHAB
1.05_-_The_New_Consciousness
1.05_-_The_Second_Circle__The_Wanton._Minos._The_Infernal_Hurricane._Francesca_da_Rimini.
1.05_-_The_Universe__The_0_=_2_Equation
1.05_-_True_and_False_Subjectivism
1.05_-_War_And_Politics
1.05_-_Yoga_and_Hypnotism
1.06_-_Agni_and_the_Truth
1.06_-_Being_Human_and_the_Copernican_Principle
1.06_-_BOOK_THE_SIXTH
1.06_-_Dhyana
1.06_-_Dhyana_and_Samadhi
1.06_-_LIFE_AND_THE_PLANETS
1.06_-_Magicians_as_Kings
1.06_-_On_Induction
1.06_-_On_remembrance_of_death.
1.06_-_PIG_AND_PEPPER
1.06_-_Psychic_Education
1.06_-_Psycho_therapy_and_a_Philosophy_of_Life
1.06_-_The_Ascent_of_the_Sacrifice_2_The_Works_of_Love_-_The_Works_of_Life
1.06_-_The_Breaking_of_the_Limits
1.06_-_The_Desire_to_be
1.06_-_THE_FOUR_GREAT_ERRORS
1.06_-_The_Four_Powers_of_the_Mother
1.06_-_The_Objective_and_Subjective_Views_of_Life
1.06_-_The_Sign_of_the_Fishes
1.06_-_The_Transformation_of_Dream_Life
1.06_-_Wealth_and_Government
1.06_-_Yun_Men's_Every_Day_is_a_Good_Day
1.070_-_The_Seven_Stages_of_Perfection
1.07_-_A_Song_of_Longing_for_Tara,_the_Infallible
1.07_-_BOOK_THE_SEVENTH
1.07_-_Bridge_across_the_Afterlife
1.07_-_Cybernetics_and_Psychopathology
1.07_-_Hui_Ch'ao_Asks_about_Buddha
1.07_-_Incarnate_Human_Gods
1.07_-_Medicine_and_Psycho_therapy
1.07_-_Note_on_the_word_Go
1.07_-_On_Dreams
1.07_-_On_mourning_which_causes_joy.
1.07_-_On_Our_Knowledge_of_General_Principles
1.07_-_Raja-Yoga_in_Brief
1.07_-_Savitri
1.07_-_The_Farther_Reaches_of_Human_Nature
1.07_-_The_Fire_of_the_New_World
1.07_-_THE_GREAT_EVENT_FORESHADOWED_-_THE_PLANETIZATION_OF_MANKIND
1.07_-_The_Literal_Qabalah_(continued)
1.07_-_The_Magic_Wand
1.07_-_THE_MASTER_AND_VIJAY_GOSWAMI
1.07_-_The_Process_of_Evolution
1.07_-_The_Psychic_Center
1.07_-_The_Three_Schools_of_Magick_2
1.07_-_TRUTH
1.080_-_Pratyahara_-_The_Return_of_Energy
1.081_-_The_Application_of_Pratyahara
1.083_-_Choosing_an_Object_for_Concentration
1.08a_-_The_Ladder
1.08_-_Attendants
1.08_-_Civilisation_and_Barbarism
1.08_-_Departmental_Kings_of_Nature
1.08_-_Information,_Language,_and_Society
1.08_-_Introduction_to_Patanjalis_Yoga_Aphorisms
1.08_-_Psycho_therapy_Today
1.08_-_RELIGION_AND_TEMPERAMENT
1.08_-_SOME_REFLECTIONS_ON_THE_SPIRITUAL_REPERCUSSIONS_OF_THE_ATOM_BOMB
1.08_-_Sri_Aurobindos_Descent_into_Death
1.08_-_Stead_and_the_Spirits
1.08_-_The_Depths_of_the_Divine
1.08_-_The_Four_Austerities_and_the_Four_Liberations
1.08_-_The_Gods_of_the_Veda_-_The_Secret_of_the_Veda
1.08_-_The_Historical_Significance_of_the_Fish
1.08_-_THE_MASTERS_BIRTHDAY_CELEBRATION_AT_DAKSHINESWAR
1.08_-_The_Methods_of_Vedantic_Knowledge
1.08_-_THE_QUEEN'S_CROQUET_GROUND
1.08_-_The_Splitting_of_the_Human_Personality_during_Spiritual_Training
1.08_-_The_Three_Schools_of_Magick_3
1.08_-_THINGS_THE_GERMANS_LACK
1.096_-_Powers_that_Accrue_in_the_Practice
1.09_-_ADVICE_TO_THE_BRAHMOS
1.09_-_A_System_of_Vedic_Psychology
1.09_-_Civilisation_and_Culture
1.09_-_Concentration_-_Its_Spiritual_Uses
1.09_-_FAITH_IN_PEACE
1.09_-_Fundamental_Questions_of_Psycho_therapy
1.09_-_Legend_of_Lakshmi
1.09_-_Man_-_About_the_Body
1.09_-_PROMENADE
1.09_-_Saraswati_and_Her_Consorts
1.09_-_SKIRMISHES_IN_A_WAY_WITH_THE_AGE
1.09_-_Sleep_and_Death
1.09_-_Sri_Aurobindo_and_the_Big_Bang
1.09_-_Stead_and_Maskelyne
1.09_-_Talks
1.09_-_Taras_Ultimate_Nature
1.09_-_The_Absolute_Manifestation
1.09_-_The_Ambivalence_of_the_Fish_Symbol
1.09_-_The_Furies_and_Medusa._The_Angel._The_City_of_Dis._The_Sixth_Circle__Heresiarchs.
1.09_-_The_Greater_Self
1.09_-_The_Secret_Chiefs
1.09_-_The_Worship_of_Trees
1.1.01_-_Seeking_the_Divine
1.1.01_-_The_Divine_and_Its_Aspects
11.01_-_The_Eternal_Day__The_Souls_Choice_and_the_Supreme_Consummation
1.1.02_-_Sachchidananda
1.1.04_-_Philosophy
11.05_-_The_Ladder_of_Unconsciousness
1.1.05_-_The_Siddhis
11.06_-_The_Mounting_Fire
11.09_-_Towards_the_Immortal_Body
1.10_-_Concentration_-_Its_Practice
1.10_-_Conscious_Force
1.10_-_Farinata_and_Cavalcante_de'_Cavalcanti._Discourse_on_the_Knowledge_of_the_Damned.
1.10_-_Fate_and_Free-Will
1.10_-_GRACE_AND_FREE_WILL
1.10_-_Harmony
1.10_-_Life_and_Death._The_Greater_Guardian_of_the_Threshold
1.10_-_On_our_Knowledge_of_Universals
1.10_-_Relics_of_Tree_Worship_in_Modern_Europe
1.10_-_THE_FORMATION_OF_THE_NOOSPHERE
1.10_-_THE_MASTER_WITH_THE_BRAHMO_DEVOTEES_(II)
1.10_-_The_Methods_and_the_Means
1.10_-_Theodicy_-_Nature_Makes_No_Mistakes
1.10_-_The_Revolutionary_Yogi
1.10_-_The_Secret_of_the_Veda
1.10_-_THINGS_I_OWE_TO_THE_ANCIENTS
11.10_-_The_Test_of_Truth
11.14_-_Our_Finest_Hour
11.15_-_Sri_Aurobindo
1.11_-_Correspondence_and_Interviews
1.11_-_Delight_of_Existence_-_The_Problem
1.11_-_FAITH_IN_MAN
1.11_-_GOOD_AND_EVIL
1.11_-_Higher_Laws
1.11_-_On_Intuitive_Knowledge
1.11_-_Powers
1.11_-_The_Change_of_Power
1.11_-_The_Kalki_Avatar
1.1.1_-_The_Mind_and_Other_Levels_of_Being
1.11_-_The_Reason_as_Governor_of_Life
1.11_-_The_Seven_Rivers
1.11_-_WITH_THE_DEVOTEES_AT_DAKSHINEWAR
1.11_-_Woolly_Pomposities_of_the_Pious_Teacher
1.1.2_-_Commentary
1.12_-_God_Departs
1.1.2_-_Intellect_and_the_Intellectual
1.12_-_Love_The_Creator
1.12_-_SOME_REFLECTIONS_ON_THE_RIGHTS_OF_MAN
1.12_-_The_Astral_Plane
1.12_-_The_Divine_Work
1.12_-_The_Herds_of_the_Dawn
1.12_-_The_Left-Hand_Path_-_The_Black_Brothers
1.12_-_The_Office_and_Limitations_of_the_Reason
1.12_-_The_Sociology_of_Superman
1.12_-_The_Superconscient
1.12_-_Truth_and_Knowledge
1.13_-_BOOK_THE_THIRTEENTH
1.13_-_Conclusion_-_He_is_here
1.13_-_Gnostic_Symbols_of_the_Self
1.13_-_Knowledge,_Error,_and_Probably_Opinion
1.1.3_-_Mental_Difficulties_and_the_Need_of_Quietude
1.13_-_On_despondency.
1.13_-_Posterity_of_Dhruva
1.13_-_Reason_and_Religion
1.13_-_SALVATION,_DELIVERANCE,_ENLIGHTENMENT
1.13_-_System_of_the_O.T.O.
1.13_-_THE_HUMAN_REBOUND_OF_EVOLUTION_AND_ITS_CONSEQUENCES
1.13_-_THE_MASTER_AND_M.
1.13_-_The_Pentacle,_Lamen_or_Seal
1.13_-_The_Wood_of_Thorns._The_Harpies._The_Violent_against_themselves._Suicides._Pier_della_Vigna._Lano_and_Jacopo_da_Sant'_Andrea.
1.14_-_IMMORTALITY_AND_SURVIVAL
1.14_-_Postscript
1.14_-_The_Limits_of_Philosophical_Knowledge
1.14_-_The_Mental_Plane
1.1.4_-_The_Physical_Mind_and_Sadhana
1.14_-_The_Principle_of_Divine_Works
1.14_-_The_Sand_Waste_and_the_Rain_of_Fire._The_Violent_against_God._Capaneus._The_Statue_of_Time,_and_the_Four_Infernal_Rivers.
1.14_-_The_Secret
1.14_-_The_Structure_and_Dynamics_of_the_Self
1.14_-_The_Supermind_as_Creator
1.14_-_TURMOIL_OR_GENESIS?
1.15_-_Index
1.15_-_In_the_Domain_of_the_Spirit_Beings
1.15_-_LAST_VISIT_TO_KESHAB
1.15_-_On_incorruptible_purity_and_chastity_to_which_the_corruptible_attain_by_toil_and_sweat.
1.15_-_Sex_Morality
1.15_-_THE_DIRECTIONS_AND_CONDITIONS_OF_THE_FUTURE
1.15_-_The_Possibility_and_Purpose_of_Avatarhood
1.15_-_The_Supramental_Consciousness
1.15_-_The_Transformed_Being
1.15_-_The_Value_of_Philosophy
1.1.5_-_Thought_and_Knowledge
1.16_-_Advantages_and_Disadvantages_of_Evocational_Magic
1.16_-_PRAYER
1.16_-_Religion
1.16_-_THE_ESSENCE_OF_THE_DEMOCRATIC_IDEA
1.16_-_The_Process_of_Avatarhood
1.16_-_WITH_THE_DEVOTEES_AT_DAKSHINESWAR
1.17_-_Astral_Journey__Example,_How_to_do_it,_How_to_Verify_your_Experience
1.17_-_DOES_MANKIND_MOVE_BIOLOGICALLY_UPON_ITSELF?
1.17_-_God
1.17_-_Legend_of_Prahlada
1.17_-_SUFFERING
1.17_-_The_Seven-Headed_Thought,_Swar_and_the_Dashagwas
1.17_-_The_Spiritus_Familiaris_or_Serving_Spirits
1.17_-_The_Transformation
1.18_-_Evocation
1.18_-_FAITH
1.18_-_M._AT_DAKSHINESWAR
1.18_-_The_Divine_Worker
1.18_-_THE_HEART_OF_THE_PROBLEM
1.18_-_The_Perils_of_the_Soul
1.19_-_GOD_IS_NOT_MOCKED
1.19_-_Life
1.19_-_On_sleep,_prayer,_and_psalm-singing_in_chapel.
1.19_-_ON_THE_PROBABLE_EXISTENCE_AHEAD_OF_US_OF_AN_ULTRA-HUMAN
1.19_-_Tabooed_Acts
1.19_-_The_Curve_of_the_Rational_Age
1.19_-_The_Third_Bolgia__Simoniacs._Pope_Nicholas_III._Dante's_Reproof_of_corrupt_Prelates.
1.19_-_Thought,_or_the_Intellectual_element,_and_Diction_in_Tragedy.
1.200-1.224_Talks
1.201_-_Socrates
1.2.01_-_The_Call_and_the_Capacity
12.04_-_Love_and_Death
1.2.07_-_Surrender
1.2.08_-_Faith
1.2.09_-_Consecration_and_Offering
12.09_-_The_Story_of_Dr._Faustus_Retold
1.20_-_Diction,_or_Language_in_general.
1.20_-_Equality_and_Knowledge
1.20_-_ON_CHILD_AND_MARRIAGE
1.20_-_RULES_FOR_HOUSEHOLDERS_AND_MONKS
1.20_-_Tabooed_Persons
1.20_-_Talismans_-_The_Lamen_-_The_Pantacle
1.20_-_TANTUM_RELIGIO_POTUIT_SUADERE_MALORUM
1.20_-_The_End_of_the_Curve_of_Reason
12.10_-_The_Sunlit_Path
1.2.11_-_Patience_and_Perseverance
1.21_-_A_DAY_AT_DAKSHINESWAR
1.21_-_Chih_Men's_Lotus_Flower,_Lotus_Leaves
1.21_-_FROM_THE_PRE-HUMAN_TO_THE_ULTRA-HUMAN,_THE_PHASES_OF_A_LIVING_PLANET
1.2.1_-_Mental_Development_and_Sadhana
1.21_-_My_Theory_of_Astrology
1.21_-_Tabooed_Things
1.21_-_The_Spiritual_Aim_and_Life
1.22__-_Dominion_over_different_provinces_of_creation_assigned_to_different_beings
1.22_-_How_to_Learn_the_Practice_of_Astrology
1.22_-_On_the_many_forms_of_vainglory.
1.22_-_Tabooed_Words
1.22_-_The_Necessity_of_the_Spiritual_Transformation
1.2.2_-_The_Place_of_Study_in_Sadhana
1.23_-_Conditions_for_the_Coming_of_a_Spiritual_Age
1.23_-_Improvising_a_Temple
1.240_-_1.300_Talks
1.240_-_Talks_2
1.24_-_Matter
1.24_-_RITUAL,_SYMBOL,_SACRAMENT
1.24_-_The_Killing_of_the_Divine_King
1.25_-_ADVICE_TO_PUNDIT_SHASHADHAR
1.25_-_Critical_Objections_brought_against_Poetry,_and_the_principles_on_which_they_are_to_be_answered.
1.25_-_On_the_destroyer_of_the_passions,_most_sublime_humility,_which_is_rooted_in_spiritual_feeling.
1.25_-_SPIRITUAL_EXERCISES
1.26_-_FESTIVAL_AT_ADHARS_HOUSE
1.26_-_Mental_Processes_-_Two_Only_are_Possible
1.26_-_On_discernment_of_thoughts,_passions_and_virtues
1.27_-_AT_DAKSHINESWAR
1.27_-_CONTEMPLATION,_ACTION_AND_SOCIAL_UTILITY
1.27_-_On_holy_solitude_of_body_and_soul.
1.27_-_The_Sevenfold_Chord_of_Being
1.28_-_Describes_the_nature_of_the_Prayer_of_Recollection_and_sets_down_some_of_the_means_by_which_we_can_make_it_a_habit.
1.28_-_Need_to_Define_God,_Self,_etc.
1.28_-_On_holy_and_blessed_prayer,_mother_of_virtues,_and_on_the_attitude_of_mind_and_body_in_prayer.
1.28_-_The_Killing_of_the_Tree-Spirit
1.29_-_Geri_del_Bello._The_Tenth_Bolgia__Alchemists._Griffolino_d'_Arezzo_and_Capocchino._The_many_people_and_the_divers_wounds
1.29_-_What_is_Certainty?
1.2_-_Katha_Upanishads
1.300_-_1.400_Talks
13.01_-_A_Centurys_Salutation_to_Sri_Aurobindo_The_Greatness_of_the_Great
1.3.02_-_Equality__The_Chief_Support
13.04_-_A_Note_on_Supermind
1.30_-_Do_you_Believe_in_God?
1.30_-_Other_Falsifiers_or_Forgers._Gianni_Schicchi,_Myrrha,_Adam_of_Brescia,_Potiphar's_Wife,_and_Sinon_of_Troy.
1.31_-_Is_Thelema_a_New_Religion?
1.32_-_How_can_a_Yogi_ever_be_Worried?
1.32_-_The_Ninth_Circle__Traitors._The_Frozen_Lake_of_Cocytus._First_Division,_Caina__Traitors_to_their_Kindred._Camicion_de'_Pazzi._Second_Division,_Antenora__Traitors_to_their_Country._Dante_questions_Bocca_degli
1.33_-_The_Gardens_of_Adonis
1.33_-_The_Golden_Mean
1.34_-_The_Tao_1
1.35_-_The_Tao_2
1.36_-_Quo_Stet_Olympus_-_Where_the_Gods,_Angels,_etc._Live
1.39_-_Prophecy
1.400_-_1.450_Talks
1.4.01_-_The_Divine_Grace_and_Guidance
14.01_-_To_Read_Sri_Aurobindo
14.02_-_Occult_Experiences
1.4.02_-_The_Divine_Force
14.03_-_Janaka_and_Yajnavalkya
1.4.03_-_The_Guru
14.05_-_The_Golden_Rule
14.08_-_A_Parable_of_Sea-Gulls
1.40_-_Coincidence
1.41_-_Are_we_Reincarnations_of_the_Ancient_Egyptians?
1.42_-_Osiris_and_the_Sun
1.42_-_This_Self_Introversion
1.439
1.43_-_Dionysus
1.43_-_The_Holy_Guardian_Angel_is_not_the_Higher_Self_but_an_Objective_Individual
1.44_-_Serious_Style_of_A.C.,_or_the_Apparent_Frivolity_of_Some_of_my_Remarks
1.450_-_1.500_Talks
1.45_-_Unserious_Conduct_of_a_Pupil
1.46_-_Selfishness
1.46_-_The_Corn-Mother_in_Many_Lands
1.47_-_Lityerses
1.47_-_Reincarnation
1.48_-_Morals_of_AL_-_Hard_to_Accept,_and_Why_nevertheless_we_Must_Concur
1.49_-_Thelemic_Morality
15.02_-_1973-02-17
15.03_-_A_Canadian_Question
15.04_-_The_Mother_Abides
15.07_-_Souls_Freedom
1.50_-_A.C._and_the_Masters;_Why_they_Chose_him,_etc.
1.51_-_How_to_Recognise_Masters,_Angels,_etc.,_and_how_they_Work
1.52_-_Family_-_Public_Enemy_No._1
1.52_-_Killing_the_Divine_Animal
1.53_-_Mother-Love
1.53_-_The_Propitation_of_Wild_Animals_By_Hunters
1.54_-_On_Meanness
1.550_-_1.600_Talks
1.56_-_Marriage_-_Property_-_War_-_Politics
1.56_-_The_Public_Expulsion_of_Evils
1.57_-_Beings_I_have_Seen_with_my_Physical_Eye
1.57_-_Public_Scapegoats
1.58_-_Do_Angels_Ever_Cut_Themselves_Shaving?
1.59_-_Geomancy
1.60_-_Between_Heaven_and_Earth
1.60_-_Knack
1.62_-_The_Elastic_Mind
1.62_-_The_Fire-Festivals_of_Europe
1.63_-_Fear,_a_Bad_Astral_Vision
1.64_-_Magical_Power
1.64_-_The_Burning_of_Human_Beings_in_the_Fires
1.65_-_Balder_and_the_Mistletoe
1.66_-_The_External_Soul_in_Folk-Tales
1.66_-_Vampires
1.67_-_Faith
1.67_-_The_External_Soul_in_Folk-Custom
1.68_-_The_God-Letters
1.68_-_The_Golden_Bough
1.69_-_Farewell_to_Nemi
17.02_-_Hymn_to_the_Sun
1.70_-_Morality_1
17.11_-_A_Prayer
1.71_-_Morality_2
1.72_-_Education
1.73_-_Monsters,_Niggers,_Jews,_etc.
1.74_-_Obstacles_on_the_Path
1.75_-_The_AA_and_the_Planet
1.77_-_Work_Worthwhile_-_Why?
1.78_-_Sore_Spots
1.79_-_Progress
18.04_-_Modern_Poems
1.81_-_Method_of_Training
1.82_-_Epistola_Penultima_-_The_Two_Ways_to_Reality
1912_12_11p
1914_04_07p
1914_05_13p
1914_10_11p
1916_12_12p
1916_12_14p
1917_04_09p
1917_09_24p
1929-04-07_-_Yoga,_for_the_sake_of_the_Divine_-_Concentration_-_Preparations_for_Yoga,_to_be_conscious_-_Yoga_and_humanity_-_We_have_all_met_in_previous_lives
1929-04-14_-_Dangers_of_Yoga_-_Two_paths,_tapasya_and_surrender_-_Impulses,_desires_and_Yoga_-_Difficulties_-_Unification_around_the_psychic_being_-_Ambition,_undoing_of_many_Yogis_-_Powers,_misuse_and_right_use_of_-_How_to_recognise_the_Divine_Will_-_Accept_things_that_come_from_Divine_-_Vital_devotion_-_Need_of_strong_body_and_nerves_-_Inner_being,_invariable
1929-04-21_-_Visions,_seeing_and_interpretation_-_Dreams_and_dreaml_and_-_Dreamless_sleep_-_Visions_and_formulation_-_Surrender,_passive_and_of_the_will_-_Meditation_and_progress_-_Entering_the_spiritual_life,_a_plunge_into_the_Divine
1929-04-28_-_Offering,_general_and_detailed_-_Integral_Yoga_-_Remembrance_of_the_Divine_-_Reading_and_Yoga_-_Necessity,_predetermination_-_Freedom_-_Miracles_-_Aim_of_creation
1929-05-05_-_Intellect,_true_and_wrong_movement_-_Attacks_from_adverse_forces_-_Faith,_integral_and_absolute_-_Death,_not_a_necessity_-_Descent_of_Divine_Consciousness_-_Inner_progress_-_Memory_of_former_lives
1929-05-12_-_Beings_of_vital_world_(vampires)_-_Money_power_and_vital_beings_-_Capacity_for_manifestation_of_will_-_Entry_into_vital_world_-_Body,_a_protection_-_Individuality_and_the_vital_world
1929-05-19_-_Mind_and_its_workings,_thought-forms_-_Adverse_conditions_and_Yoga_-_Mental_constructions_-_Illness_and_Yoga
1929-05-26_-_Individual,_illusion_of_separateness_-_Hostile_forces_and_the_mental_plane_-_Psychic_world,_psychic_being_-_Spiritual_and_psychic_-_Words,_understanding_speech_and_reading_-_Hostile_forces,_their_utility_-_Illusion_of_action,_true_action
1929-06-02_-__Divine_love_and_its_manifestation_-_Part_of_the_vital_being_in_Divine_love
1929-06-09_-_Nature_of_religion_-_Religion_and_the_spiritual_life_-_Descent_of_Divine_Truth_and_Force_-_To_be_sure_of_your_religion,_country,_family-choose_your_own_-_Religion_and_numbers
1929-06-16_-_Illness_and_Yoga_-_Subtle_body_(nervous_envelope)_-_Fear_and_illness
1929-06-23_-_Knowledge_of_the_Yogi_-_Knowledge_and_the_Supermind_-_Methods_of_changing_the_condition_of_the_body_-_Meditation,_aspiration,_sincerity
1929-06-30_-_Repulsion_felt_towards_certain_animals,_etc_-_Source_of_evil,_Formateurs_-_Material_world
1929-07-28_-_Art_and_Yoga_-_Art_and_life_-_Music,_dance_-_World_of_Harmony
1929-08-04_-_Surrender_and_sacrifice_-_Personality_and_surrender_-_Desire_and_passion_-_Spirituality_and_morality
1950-12-21_-_The_Mother_of_Dreams
1950-12-23_-_Concentration_and_energy
1950-12-25_-_Christmas_-_festival_of_Light_-_Energy_and_mental_growth_-_Meditation_and_concentration_-_The_Mother_of_Dreams_-_Playing_a_game_well,_and_energy
1950-12-28_-_Correct_judgment.
1950-12-30_-_Perfect_and_progress._Dynamic_equilibrium._True_sincerity.
1951-01-04_-_Transformation_and_reversal_of_consciousness.
1951-01-08_-_True_vision_and_understanding_of_the_world._Progress,_equilibrium._Inner_reality_-_the_psychic._Animals_and_the_psychic.
1951-01-11_-_Modesty_and_vanity_-_Generosity
1951-01-13_-_Aim_of_life_-_effort_and_joy._Science_of_living,_becoming_conscious._Forces_and_influences.
1951-01-15_-_Sincerity_-_inner_discernment_-_inner_light._Evil_and_imbalance._Consciousness_and_instruments.
1951-01-20_-_Developing_the_mind._Misfortunes,_suffering;_developed_reason._Knowledge_and_pure_ideas.
1951-01-25_-_Needs_and_desires._Collaboration_of_the_vital,_mind_an_accomplice._Progress_and_sincerity_-_recognising_faults._Organising_the_body_-_illness_-_new_harmony_-_physical_beauty.
1951-01-27_-_Sleep_-_desires_-_repression_-_the_subconscient._Dreams_-_the_super-conscient_-_solving_problems._Ladder_of_being_-_samadhi._Phases_of_sleep_-_silence,_true_rest._Vital_body_and_illness.
1951-02-03_-_What_is_Yoga?_for_what?_-_Aspiration,_seeking_the_Divine._-_Process_of_yoga,_renouncing_the_ego.
1951-02-05_-_Surrender_and_tapasya_-_Dealing_with_difficulties,_sincerity,_spiritual_discipline_-_Narrating_experiences_-_Vital_impulse_and_will_for_progress
1951-02-08_-_Unifying_the_being_-_ideas_of_good_and_bad_-_Miracles_-_determinism_-_Supreme_Will_-_Distinguishing_the_voice_of_the_Divine
1951-02-10_-_Liberty_and_license_-_surrender_makes_you_free_-_Men_in_authority_as_representatives_of_the_divine_Truth_-_Work_as_offering_-_total_surrender_needs_time_-_Effort_and_inspiration_-_will_and_patience
1951-02-12_-_Divine_force_-_Signs_indicating_readiness_-_Weakness_in_mind,_vital_-_concentration_-_Divine_perception,_human_notion_of_good,_bad_-_Conversion,_consecration_-_progress_-_Signs_of_entering_the_path_-_kinds_of_meditation_-_aspiration
1951-02-15_-_Dreams,_symbolic_-_true_repose_-_False_visions_-_Earth-memory_and_history
1951-02-17_-_False_visions_-_Offering_ones_will_-_Equilibrium_-_progress_-_maturity_-_Ardent_self-giving-_perfecting_the_instrument_-_Difficulties,_a_help_in_total_realisation_-_paradoxes_-_Sincerity_-_spontaneous_meditation
1951-02-19_-_Exteriorisation-_clairvoyance,_fainting,_etc_-_Somnambulism_-_Tartini_-_childrens_dreams_-_Nightmares_-_gurus_protection_-_Mind_and_vital_roam_during_sleep
1951-02-22_-_Surrender,_offering,_consecration_-_Experiences_and_sincerity_-_Aspiration_and_desire_-_Vedic_hymns_-_Concentration_and_time
1951-02-24_-_Psychic_being_and_entity_-_dimensions_-_in_the_atom_-_Death_-_exteriorisation_-_unconsciousness_-_Past_lives_-_progress_upon_earth_-_choice_of_birth_-_Consecration_to_divine_Work_-_psychic_memories_-_Individualisation_-_progress
1951-02-26_-_On_reading_books_-_gossip_-_Discipline_and_realisation_-_Imaginary_stories-_value_of_-_Private_lives_of_big_men_-_relaxation_-_Understanding_others_-_gnostic_consciousness
1951-03-01_-_Universe_and_the_Divine_-_Freedom_and_determinism_-_Grace_-_Time_and_Creation-_in_the_Supermind_-_Work_and_its_results_-_The_psychic_being_-_beauty_and_love_-_Flowers-_beauty_and_significance_-_Choice_of_reincarnating_psychic_being
1951-03-03_-_Hostile_forces_-_difficulties_-_Individuality_and_form_-_creation
1951-03-05_-_Disasters-_the_forces_of_Nature_-_Story_of_the_charity_Bazar_-_Liberation_and_law_-_Dealing_with_the_mind_and_vital-_methods
1951-03-08_-_Silencing_the_mind_-_changing_the_nature_-_Reincarnation-_choice_-_Psychic,_higher_beings_gods_incarnating_-_Incarnation_of_vital_beings_-_the_Lord_of_Falsehood_-_Hitler_-_Possession_and_madness
1951-03-10_-_Fairy_Tales-_serpent_guarding_treasure_-_Vital_beings-_their_incarnations_-_The_vital_being_after_death_-_Nightmares-_vital_and_mental_-_Mind_and_vital_after_death_-_The_spirit_of_the_form-_Egyptian_mummies
1951-03-12_-_Mental_forms_-_learning_difficult_subjects_-_Mental_fortress_-_thought_-_Training_the_mind_-_Helping_the_vital_being_after_death_-_ceremonies_-_Human_stupidities
1951-03-14_-_Plasticity_-_Conditions_for_knowing_the_Divine_Will_-_Illness_-_microbes_-_Fear_-_body-reflexes_-_The_best_possible_happens_-_Theories_of_Creation_-_True_knowledge_-_a_work_to_do_-_the_Ashram
1951-03-17_-_The_universe-_eternally_new,_same_-_Pralaya_Traditions_-_Light_and_thought_-_new_consciousness,_forces_-_The_expanding_universe_-_inexpressible_experiences_-_Ashram_surcharged_with_Light_-_new_force_-_vibrating_atmospheres
1951-03-19_-_Mental_worlds_and_their_beings_-_Understanding_in_silence_-_Psychic_world-_its_characteristics_-_True_experiences_and_mental_formations_-_twelve_senses
1951-03-22_-_Relativity-_time_-_Consciousness_-_psychic_Witness_-_The_twelve_senses_-_water-divining_-_Instinct_in_animals_-_story_of_Mothers_cat
1951-03-24_-_Descent_of_Divine_Love,_of_Consciousness_-_Earth-_a_symbolic_formation_-_the_Divine_Presence_-_The_psychic_being_and_other_worlds_-_Divine_Love_and_Grace_-_Becoming_consaious_of_Divine_Love_-_Finding_ones_psychic_being_-_Responsibility
1951-03-26_-_Losing_all_to_gain_all_-_psychic_being_-_Transforming_the_vital_-_physical_habits_-_the_subconscient_-_Overcoming_difficulties_-_weakness,_an_insincerity_-_to_change_the_world_-_Psychic_source,_flash_of_experience_-_preparation_for_yoga
1951-03-29_-_The_Great_Vehicle_and_The_Little_Vehicle_-_Choosing_ones_family,_country_-_The_vital_being_distorted_-_atavism_-_Sincerity_-_changing_ones_character
1951-03-31_-_Physical_ailment_and_mental_disorder_-_Curing_an_illness_spiritually_-_Receptivity_of_the_body_-_The_subtle-physical-_illness_accidents_-_Curing_sunstroke_and_other_disorders
1951-04-02_-_Causes_of_accidents_-_Little_entities,_helpful_or_mischievous-_incidents
1951-04-05_-_Illusion_and_interest_in_action_-_The_action_of_the_divine_Grace_and_the_ego_-_Concentration,_aspiration,_will,_inner_silence_-_Value_of_a_story_or_a_language_-_Truth_-_diversity_in_the_world
1951-04-07_-_Origin_of_Evil_-_Misery-_its_cause
1951-04-09_-_Modern_Art_-_Trend_of_art_in_Europe_in_the_twentieth_century_-_Effect_of_the_Wars_-_descent_of_vital_worlds_-_Formation_of_character_-_If_there_is_another_war
1951-04-12_-_Japan,_its_art,_landscapes,_life,_etc_-_Fairy-lore_of_Japan_-_Culture-_its_spiral_movement_-_Indian_and_European-_the_spiritual_life_-_Art_and_Truth
1951-04-14_-_Surrender_and_sacrifice_-_Idea_of_sacrifice_-_Bahaism_-_martyrdom_-_Sleep-_forgetfulness,_exteriorisation,_etc_-_Dreams_and_visions-_explanations_-_Exteriorisation-_incidents_about_cats
1951-04-17_-_Unity,_diversity_-_Protective_envelope_-_desires_-_consciousness,_true_defence_-_Perfection_of_physical_-_cinema_-_Choice,_constant_and_conscious_-_law_of_ones_being_-_the_One,_the_Multiplicity_-_Civilization-_preparing_an_instrument
1951-04-19_-_Demands_and_needs_-_human_nature_-_Abolishing_the_ego_-_Food-_tamas,_consecration_-_Changing_the_nature-_the_vital_and_the_mind_-_The_yoga_of_the_body__-_cellular_consciousness
1951-04-21_-_Sri_Aurobindos_letter_on_conditions_for_doing_yoga_-_Aspiration,_tapasya,_surrender_-_The_lower_vital_-_old_habits_-_obsession_-_Sri_Aurobindo_on_choice_and_the_double_life_-_The_old_fiasco_-_inner_realisation_and_outer_change
1951-04-23_-_The_goal_and_the_way_-_Learning_how_to_sleep_-_relaxation_-_Adverse_forces-_test_of_sincerity_-_Attitude_to_suffering_and_death
1951-04-26_-_Irrevocable_transformation_-_The_divine_Shakti_-_glad_submission_-_Rejection,_integral_-_Consecration_-_total_self-forgetfulness_-_work
1951-04-28_-_Personal_effort_-_tamas,_laziness_-_Static_and_dynamic_power_-_Stupidity_-_psychic_and_intelligence_-_Philosophies-_different_languages_-_Theories_of_Creation_-_Surrender_of_ones_being_and_ones_work
1951-05-03_-_Money_and_its_use_for_the_divine_work_-_problems_-_Mastery_over_desire-_individual_and_collective_change
1951-05-05_-_Needs_and_desires_-_Discernment_-_sincerity_and_true_perception_-_Mantra_and_its_effects_-_Object_in_action-_to_serve_-_relying_only_on_the_Divine
1951-05-07_-_A_Hierarchy_-_Transcendent,_universal,_individual_Divine_-_The_Supreme_Shakti_and_Creation_-_Inadequacy_of_words,_language
1951-05-11_-_Mahakali_and_Kali_-_Avatar_and_Vibhuti_-_Sachchidananda_behind_all_states_of_being_-_The_power_of_will_-_receiving_the_Divine_Will
1951-05-12_-_Mahalakshmi_and_beauty_in_life_-_Mahasaraswati_-_conscious_hand_-_Riches_and_poverty
1951-05-14_-_Chance_-_the_play_of_forces_-_Peace,_given_and_lost_-_Abolishing_the_ego
1953-03-18
1953-03-25
1953-04-01
1953-04-08
1953-04-15
1953-04-22
1953-04-29
1953-05-06
1953-05-13
1953-05-20
1953-05-27
1953-06-03
1953-06-10
1953-06-17
1953-06-24
1953-07-01
1953-07-08
1953-07-15
1953-07-22
1953-07-29
1953-08-05
1953-08-12
1953-08-19
1953-08-26
1953-09-02
1953-09-09
1953-09-16
1953-09-23
1953-09-30
1953-10-07
1953-10-14
1953-10-21
1953-10-28
1953-11-04
1953-11-11
1953-11-18
1953-11-25
1953-12-09
1953-12-16
1953-12-23
1953-12-30
1954-02-03_-_The_senses_and_super-sense_-_Children_can_be_moulded_-_Keeping_things_in_order_-_The_shadow
1954-02-10_-_Study_a_variety_of_subjects_-_Memory_-Memory_of_past_lives_-_Getting_rid_of_unpleasant_thoughts
1954-02-17_-_Experience_expressed_in_different_ways_-_Origin_of_the_psychic_being_-_Progress_in_sports_-Everything_is_not_for_the_best
1954-03-03_-_Occultism_-_A_French_scientists_experiment
1954-03-24_-_Dreams_and_the_condition_of_the_stomach_-_Tobacco_and_alcohol_-_Nervousness_-_The_centres_and_the_Kundalini_-_Control_of_the_senses
1954-04-07_-_Communication_without_words_-_Uneven_progress_-_Words_and_the_Word
1954-04-14_-_Love_-_Can_a_person_love_another_truly?_-_Parental_love
1954-04-28_-_Aspiration_and_receptivity_-_Resistance_-_Purusha_and_Prakriti,_not_masculine_and_feminine
1954-05-05_-_Faith,_trust,_confidence_-_Insincerity_and_unconsciousness
1954-05-12_-_The_Purusha_-_Surrender_-_Distinguishing_between_influences_-_Perfect_sincerity
1954-05-19_-_Affection_and_love_-_Psychic_vision_Divine_-_Love_and_receptivity_-_Get_out_of_the_ego
1954-05-26_-_Symbolic_dreams_-_Psychic_sorrow_-_Dreams,_one_is_rarely_conscious
1954-06-02_-_Learning_how_to_live_-_Work,_studies_and_sadhana_-_Waste_of_the_Energy_and_Consciousness
1954-06-16_-_Influences,_Divine_and_other_-_Adverse_forces_-_The_four_great_Asuras_-_Aspiration_arranges_circumstances_-_Wanting_only_the_Divine
1954-06-23_-_Meat-eating_-_Story_of_Mothers_vegetable_garden_-_Faithfulness_-_Conscious_sleep
1954-06-30_-_Occultism_-_Religion_and_vital_beings_-_Mothers_knowledge_of_what_happens_in_the_Ashram_-_Asking_questions_to_Mother_-_Drawing_on_Mother
1954-07-07_-_The_inner_warrior_-_Grace_and_the_Falsehood_-_Opening_from_below_-_Surrender_and_inertia_-_Exclusive_receptivity_-_Grace_and_receptivity
1954-07-14_-_The_Divine_and_the_Shakti_-_Personal_effort_-_Speaking_and_thinking_-_Doubt_-_Self-giving,_consecration_and_surrender_-_Mothers_use_of_flowers_-_Ornaments_and_protection
1954-07-21_-_Mistakes_-_Success_-_Asuras_-_Mental_arrogance_-_Difficulty_turned_into_opportunity_-_Mothers_use_of_flowers_-_Conversion_of_men_governed_by_adverse_forces
1954-07-28_-_Money_-_Ego_and_individuality_-_The_shadow
1954-08-04_-_Servant_and_worker_-_Justification_of_weakness_-_Play_of_the_Divine_-_Why_are_you_here_in_the_Ashram?
1954-08-11_-_Division_and_creation_-_The_gods_and_human_formations_-_People_carry_their_desires_around_them
1954-08-18_-_Mahalakshmi_-_Maheshwari_-_Mahasaraswati_-_Determinism_and_freedom_-_Suffering_and_knowledge_-_Aspects_of_the_Mother
1954-08-25_-_Ananda_aspect_of_the_Mother_-_Changing_conditions_in_the_Ashram_-_Ascetic_discipline_-_Mothers_body
1954-08-25_-_what_is_this_personality?_and_when_will_she_come?
1954-09-08_-_Hostile_forces_-_Substance_-_Concentration_-_Changing_the_centre_of_thought_-_Peace
1954-09-15_-_Parts_of_the_being_-_Thoughts_and_impulses_-_The_subconscient_-_Precise_vocabulary_-_The_Grace_and_difficulties
1954-09-22_-_The_supramental_creation_-_Rajasic_eagerness_-_Silence_from_above_-_Aspiration_and_rejection_-_Effort,_individuality_and_ego_-_Aspiration_and_desire
1954-09-29_-_The_right_spirit_-_The_Divine_comes_first_-_Finding_the_Divine_-_Mistakes_-_Rejecting_impulses_-_Making_the_consciousness_vast_-_Firm_resolution
1954-10-06_-_What_happens_is_for_the_best_-_Blaming_oneself_-Experiences_-_The_vital_desire-soul_-Creating_a_spiritual_atmosphere_-Thought_and_Truth
1954-10-20_-_Stand_back_-_Asking_questions_to_Mother_-_Seeing_images_in_meditation_-_Berlioz_-Music_-_Mothers_organ_music_-_Destiny
1954-11-03_-_Body_opening_to_the_Divine_-_Concentration_in_the_heart_-_The_army_of_the_Divine_-_The_knot_of_the_ego_-Streng_thening_ones_will
1954-11-10_-_Inner_experience,_the_basis_of_action_-_Keeping_open_to_the_Force_-_Faith_through_aspiration_-_The_Mothers_symbol_-_The_mind_and_vital_seize_experience_-_Degrees_of_sincerity_-Becoming_conscious_of_the_Divine_Force
1954-11-24_-_Aspiration_mixed_with_desire_-_Willing_and_desiring_-_Children_and_desires_-_Supermind_and_the_higher_ranges_of_mind_-_Stages_in_the_supramental_manifestation
1954-12-08_-_Cosmic_consciousness_-_Clutching_-_The_central_will_of_the_being_-_Knowledge_by_identity
1954-12-15_-_Many_witnesses_inside_oneself_-_Children_in_the_Ashram_-_Trance_and_the_waking_consciousness_-_Ascetic_methods_-_Education,_spontaneous_effort_-_Spiritual_experience
1954-12-22_-_Possession_by_hostile_forces_-_Purity_and_morality_-_Faith_in_the_final_success_-Drawing_back_from_the_path
1954-12-29_-_Difficulties_and_the_world_-_The_experience_the_psychic_being_wants_-_After_death_-Ignorance
1955-02-09_-_Desire_is_contagious_-_Primitive_form_of_love_-_the_artists_delight_-_Psychic_need,_mind_as_an_instrument_-_How_the_psychic_being_expresses_itself_-_Distinguishing_the_parts_of_ones_being_-_The_psychic_guides_-_Illness_-_Mothers_vision
1955-02-16_-_Losing_something_given_by_Mother_-_Using_things_well_-_Sadhak_collecting_soap-pieces_-_What_things_are_truly_indispensable_-_Natures_harmonious_arrangement_-_Riches_a_curse,_philanthropy_-_Misuse_of_things_creates_misery
1955-02-23_-_On_the_sense_of_taste,_educating_the_senses_-_Fasting_produces_a_state_of_receptivity,_drawing_energy_-_The_body_and_food
1955-03-02_-_Right_spirit,_aspiration_and_desire_-_Sleep_and_yogic_repose,_how_to_sleep_-_Remembering_dreams_-_Concentration_and_outer_activity_-_Mother_opens_the_door_inside_everyone_-_Sleep,_a_school_for_inner_knowledge_-_Source_of_energy
1955-03-09_-_Psychic_directly_contacted_through_the_physical_-_Transforming_egoistic_movements_-_Work_of_the_psychic_being_-_Contacting_the_psychic_and_the_Divine_-_Experiences_of_different_kinds_-_Attacks_of_adverse_forces
1955-03-23_-_Procedure_for_rejection_and_transformation_-_Learning_by_heart,_true_understanding_-_Vibrations,_movements_of_the_species_-_A_cat_and_a_Russian_peasant_woman_-_A_cat_doing_yoga
1955-03-30_-_Yoga-shakti_-_Energies_of_the_earth,_higher_and_lower_-_Illness,_curing_by_yogic_means_-_The_true_self_and_the_psychic_-_Solving_difficulties_by_different_methods
1955-04-06_-_Freuds_psychoanalysis,_the_subliminal_being_-_The_psychic_and_the_subliminal_-_True_psychology_-_Changing_the_lower_nature_-_Faith_in_different_parts_of_the_being_-_Psychic_contact_established_in_all_in_the_Ashram
1955-04-13_-_Psychoanalysts_-_The_underground_super-ego,_dreams,_sleep,_control_-_Archetypes,_Overmind_and_higher_-_Dream_of_someone_dying_-_Integral_repose,_entering_Sachchidananda_-_Organising_ones_life,_concentration,_repose
1955-04-27_-_Symbolic_dreams_and_visions_-_Curing_pain_by_various_methods_-_Different_states_of_consciousness_-_Seeing_oneself_dead_in_a_dream_-_Exteriorisation
1955-05-04_-_Drawing_on_the_universal_vital_forces_-_The_inner_physical_-_Receptivity_to_different_kinds_of_forces_-_Progress_and_receptivity
1955-05-18_-_The_Problem_of_Woman_-_Men_and_women_-_The_Supreme_Mother,_the_new_creation_-_Gods_and_goddesses_-_A_story_of_Creation,_earth_-_Psychic_being_only_on_earth,_beings_everywhere_-_Going_to_other_worlds_by_occult_means
1955-05-25_-_Religion_and_reason_-_true_role_and_field_-_an_obstacle_to_or_minister_of_the_Spirit_-_developing_and_meaning_-_Learning_how_to_live,_the_elite_-_Reason_controls_and_organises_life_-_Nature_is_infrarational
1955-06-01_-_The_aesthetic_conscience_-_Beauty_and_form_-_The_roots_of_our_life_-_The_sense_of_beauty_-_Educating_the_aesthetic_sense,_taste_-_Mental_constructions_based_on_a_revelation_-_Changing_the_world_and_humanity
1955-06-08_-_Working_for_the_Divine_-_ideal_attitude_-_Divine_manifesting_-_reversal_of_consciousness,_knowing_oneself_-_Integral_progress,_outer,_inner,_facing_difficulties_-_People_in_Ashram_-_doing_Yoga_-_Children_given_freedom,_choosing_yoga
1955-06-15_-_Dynamic_realisation,_transformation_-_The_negative_and_positive_side_of_experience_-_The_image_of_the_dry_coconut_fruit_-_Purusha,_Prakriti,_the_Divine_Mother_-_The_Truth-Creation_-_Pralaya_-_We_are_in_a_transitional_period
1955-06-22_-_Awakening_the_Yoga-shakti_-_The_thousand-petalled_lotus-_Reading,_how_far_a_help_for_yoga_-_Simple_and_complicated_combinations_in_men
1955-06-29_-_The_true_vital_and_true_physical_-_Time_and_Space_-_The_psychics_memory_of_former_lives_-_The_psychic_organises_ones_life_-_The_psychics_knowledge_and_direction
1955-07-06_-_The_psychic_and_the_central_being_or_jivatman_-_Unity_and_multiplicity_in_the_Divine_-_Having_experiences_and_the_ego_-_Mental,_vital_and_physical_exteriorisation_-_Imagination_has_a_formative_power_-_The_function_of_the_imagination
1955-07-13_-_Cosmic_spirit_and_cosmic_consciousness_-_The_wall_of_ignorance,_unity_and_separation_-_Aspiration_to_understand,_to_know,_to_be_-_The_Divine_is_in_the_essence_of_ones_being_-_Realising_desires_through_the_imaginaton
1955-07-20_-_The_Impersonal_Divine_-_Surrender_to_the_Divine_brings_perfect_freedom_-_The_Divine_gives_Himself_-_The_principle_of_the_inner_dimensions_-_The_paths_of_aspiration_and_surrender_-_Linear_and_spherical_paths_and_realisations
1955-08-03_-_Nothing_is_impossible_in_principle_-_Psychic_contact_and_psychic_influence_-_Occult_powers,_adverse_influences;_magic_-_Magic,_occultism_and_Yogic_powers_-Hypnotism_and_its_effects
1955-08-17_-_Vertical_ascent_and_horizontal_opening_-_Liberation_of_the_psychic_being_-_Images_for_discovery_of_the_psychic_being_-_Sadhana_to_contact_the_psychic_being
1955-09-21_-_Literature_and_the_taste_for_forms_-_The_characters_of_The_Great_Secret_-_How_literature_helps_us_to_progress_-_Reading_to_learn_-_The_commercial_mentality_-_How_to_choose_ones_books_-_Learning_to_enrich_ones_possibilities_...
1955-10-05_-_Science_and_Ignorance_-_Knowledge,_science_and_the_Buddha_-_Knowing_by_identification_-_Discipline_in_science_and_in_Buddhism_-_Progress_in_the_mental_field_and_beyond_it
1955-10-12_-_The_problem_of_transformation_-_Evolution,_man_and_superman_-_Awakening_need_of_a_higher_good_-_Sri_Aurobindo_and_earths_history_-_Setting_foot_on_the_new_path_-_The_true_reality_of_the_universe_-_the_new_race_-_...
1955-10-19_-_The_rhythms_of_time_-_The_lotus_of_knowledge_and_perfection_-_Potential_knowledge_-_The_teguments_of_the_soul_-_Shastra_and_the_Gurus_direct_teaching_-_He_who_chooses_the_Infinite...
1955-10-26_-_The_Divine_and_the_universal_Teacher_-_The_power_of_the_Word_-_The_Creative_Word,_the_mantra_-_Sound,_music_in_other_worlds_-_The_domains_of_pure_form,_colour_and_ideas
1955-11-02_-_The_first_movement_in_Yoga_-_Interiorisation,_finding_ones_soul_-_The_Vedic_Age_-_An_incident_about_Vivekananda_-_The_imaged_language_of_the_Vedas_-_The_Vedic_Rishis,_involutionary_beings_-_Involution_and_evolution
1955-11-09_-_Personal_effort,_egoistic_mind_-_Man_is_like_a_public_square_-_Natures_work_-_Ego_needed_for_formation_of_individual_-_Adverse_forces_needed_to_make_man_sincere_-_Determinisms_of_different_planes,_miracles
1955-11-16_-_The_significance_of_numbers_-_Numbers,_astrology,_true_knowledge_-_Divines_Love_flowers_for_Kali_puja_-_Desire,_aspiration_and_progress_-_Determining_ones_approach_to_the_Divine_-_Liberation_is_obtained_through_austerities_-_...
1955-11-23_-_One_reality,_multiple_manifestations_-_Integral_Yoga,_approach_by_all_paths_-_The_supreme_man_and_the_divine_man_-_Miracles_and_the_logic_of_events
1955-12-07_-_Emotional_impulse_of_self-giving_-_A_young_dancer_in_France_-_The_heart_has_wings,_not_the_head_-_Only_joy_can_conquer_the_Adversary
1955-12-14_-_Rejection_of_life_as_illusion_in_the_old_Yogas_-_Fighting_the_adverse_forces_-_Universal_and_individual_being_-_Three_stages_in_Integral_Yoga_-_How_to_feel_the_Divine_Presence_constantly
1955-12-28_-_Aspiration_in_different_parts_of_the_being_-_Enthusiasm_and_gratitude_-_Aspiration_is_in_all_beings_-_Unlimited_power_of_good,_evil_has_a_limit_-_Progress_in_the_parts_of_the_being_-_Significance_of_a_dream
1956-01-04_-_Integral_idea_of_the_Divine_-_All_things_attracted_by_the_Divine_-_Bad_things_not_in_place_-_Integral_yoga_-_Moving_idea-force,_ideas_-_Consequences_of_manifestation_-_Work_of_Spirit_via_Nature_-_Change_consciousness,_change_world
1956-01-11_-_Desire_and_self-deception_-_Giving_all_one_is_and_has_-_Sincerity,_more_powerful_than_will_-_Joy_of_progress_Definition_of_youth
1956-01-18_-_Two_sides_of_individual_work_-_Cheerfulness_-_chosen_vessel_of_the_Divine_-_Aspiration,_consciousness,_of_plants,_of_children_-_Being_chosen_by_the_Divine_-_True_hierarchy_-_Perfect_relation_with_the_Divine_-_India_free_in_1915
1956-01-25_-_The_divine_way_of_life_-_Divine,_Overmind,_Supermind_-_Material_body__for_discovery_of_the_Divine_-_Five_psychological_perfections
1956-02-01_-_Path_of_knowledge_-_Finding_the_Divine_in_life_-_Capacity_for_contact_with_the_Divine_-_Partial_and_total_identification_with_the_Divine_-_Manifestation_and_hierarchy
1956-02-08_-_Forces_of_Nature_expressing_a_higher_Will_-_Illusion_of_separate_personality_-_One_dynamic_force_which_moves_all_things_-_Linear_and_spherical_thinking_-_Common_ideal_of_life,_microscopic
1956-02-15_-_Nature_and_the_Master_of_Nature_-_Conscious_intelligence_-_Theory_of_the_Gita,_not_the_whole_truth_-_Surrender_to_the_Lord_-_Change_of_nature
1956-02-22_-_Strong_immobility_of_an_immortal_spirit_-_Equality_of_soul_-_Is_all_an_expression_of_the_divine_Will?_-_Loosening_the_knot_of_action_-_Using_experience_as_a_cloak_to_cover_excesses_-_Sincerity,_a_rare_virtue
1956-02-29_-_Sacrifice,_self-giving_-_Divine_Presence_in_the_heart_of_Matter_-_Divine_Oneness_-_Divine_Consciousness_-_All_is_One_-_Divine_in_the_inconscient_aspires_for_the_Divine
1956-03-07_-_Sacrifice,_Animals,_hostile_forces,_receive_in_proportion_to_consciousness_-_To_be_luminously_open_-_Integral_transformation_-_Pain_of_rejection,_delight_of_progress_-_Spirit_behind_intention_-_Spirit,_matter,_over-simplified
1956-03-14_-_Dynamic_meditation_-_Do_all_as_an_offering_to_the_Divine_-_Significance_of_23.4.56._-_If_twelve_men_of_goodwill_call_the_Divine
1956-03-21_-_Identify_with_the_Divine_-_The_Divine,_the_most_important_thing_in_life
1956-03-28_-_The_starting-point_of_spiritual_experience_-_The_boundless_finite_-_The_Timeless_and_Time_-_Mental_explanation_not_enough_-_Changing_knowledge_into_experience_-_Sat-Chit-Tapas-Ananda
1956-04-04_-_The_witness_soul_-_A_Gita_enthusiast_-_Propagandist_spirit,_Tolstoys_son
1956-04-11_-_Self-creator_-_Manifestation_of_Time_and_Space_-_Brahman-Maya_and_Ishwara-Shakti_-_Personal_and_Impersonal
1956-04-18_-_Ishwara_and_Shakti,_seeing_both_aspects_-_The_Impersonal_and_the_divine_Person_-_Soul,_the_presence_of_the_divine_Person_-_Going_to_other_worlds,_exteriorisation,_dreams_-_Telling_stories_to_oneself
1956-04-25_-_God,_human_conception_and_the_true_Divine_-_Earthly_existence,_to_realise_the_Divine_-_Ananda,_divine_pleasure_-_Relations_with_the_divine_Presence_-_Asking_the_Divine_for_what_one_needs_-_Allowing_the_Divine_to_lead_one
1956-05-02
1956-05-02_-_Threefold_union_-_Manifestation_of_the_Supramental_-_Profiting_from_the_Divine_-_Recognition_of_the_Supramental_Force_-_Ascent,_descent,_manifestation
1956-05-09_-_Beginning_of_the_true_spiritual_life_-_Spirit_gives_value_to_all_things_-_To_be_helped_by_the_supramental_Force
1956-05-16_-_Needs_of_the_body,_not_true_in_themselves_-_Spiritual_and_supramental_law_-_Aestheticised_Paganism_-_Morality,_checks_true_spiritual_effort_-_Effect_of_supramental_descent_-_Half-lights_and_false_lights
1956-05-23_-_Yoga_and_religion_-_Story_of_two_clergymen_on_a_boat_-_The_Buddha_and_the_Supramental_-_Hieroglyphs_and_phonetic_alphabets_-_A_vision_of_ancient_Egypt_-_Memory_for_sounds
1956-05-30_-_Forms_as_symbols_of_the_Force_behind_-_Art_as_expression_of_contact_with_the_Divine_-_Supramental_psychological_perfection_-_Division_of_works_-_The_Ashram,_idle_stupidities
1956-06-06_-_Sign_or_indication_from_books_of_revelation_-_Spiritualised_mind_-_Stages_of_sadhana_-_Reversal_of_consciousness_-_Organisation_around_central_Presence_-_Boredom,_most_common_human_malady
1956-06-13_-_Effects_of_the_Supramental_action_-_Education_and_the_Supermind_-_Right_to_remain_ignorant_-_Concentration_of_mind_-_Reason,_not_supreme_capacity_-_Physical_education_and_studies_-_inner_discipline_-_True_usefulness_of_teachers
1956-06-20_-_Hearts_mystic_light,_intuition_-_Psychic_being,_contact_-_Secular_ethics_-_True_role_of_mind_-_Realise_the_Divine_by_love_-_Depression,_pleasure,_joy_-_Heart_mixture_-_To_follow_the_soul_-_Physical_process_-_remember_the_Mother
1956-06-27_-_Birth,_entry_of_soul_into_body_-_Formation_of_the_supramental_world_-_Aspiration_for_progress_-_Bad_thoughts_-_Cerebral_filter_-_Progress_and_resistance
1956-07-04_-_Aspiration_when_one_sees_a_shooting_star_-_Preparing_the_bodyn_making_it_understand_-_Getting_rid_of_pain_and_suffering_-_Psychic_light
1956-07-11_-_Beauty_restored_to_its_priesthood_-_Occult_worlds,_occult_beings_-_Difficulties_and_the_supramental_force
1956-07-18_-_Unlived_dreams_-_Radha-consciousness_-_Separation_and_identification_-_Ananda_of_identity_and_Ananda_of_union_-_Sincerity,_meditation_and_prayer_-_Enemies_of_the_Divine_-_The_universe_is_progressive
1956-07-25_-_A_complete_act_of_divine_love_-_How_to_listen_-_Sports_programme_same_for_boys_and_girls_-_How_to_profit_by_stay_at_Ashram_-_To_Women_about_Their_Body
1956-08-01_-_Value_of_worship_-_Spiritual_realisation_and_the_integral_yoga_-_Symbols,_translation_of_experience_into_form_-_Sincerity,_fundamental_virtue_-_Intensity_of_aspiration,_with_anguish_or_joy_-_The_divine_Grace
1956-08-08_-_How_to_light_the_psychic_fire,_will_for_progress_-_Helping_from_a_distance,_mental_formations_-_Prayer_and_the_divine_-_Grace_Grace_at_work_everywhere
1956-08-15_-_Protection,_purification,_fear_-_Atmosphere_at_the_Ashram_on_Darshan_days_-_Darshan_messages_-_Significance_of_15-08_-_State_of_surrender_-_Divine_Grace_always_all-powerful_-_Assumption_of_Virgin_Mary_-_SA_message_of_1947-08-15
1956-08-22_-_The_heaven_of_the_liberated_mind_-_Trance_or_samadhi_-_Occult_discipline_for_leaving_consecutive_bodies_-_To_be_greater_than_ones_experience_-_Total_self-giving_to_the_Grace_-_The_truth_of_the_being_-_Unique_relation_with_the_Supreme
1956-08-29_-_To_live_spontaneously_-_Mental_formations_Absolute_sincerity_-_Balance_is_indispensable,_the_middle_path_-_When_in_difficulty,_widen_the_consciousness_-_Easiest_way_of_forgetting_oneself
1956-09-05_-_Material_life,_seeing_in_the_right_way_-_Effect_of_the_Supermind_on_the_earth_-_Emergence_of_the_Supermind_-_Falling_back_into_the_same_mistaken_ways
1956-09-12_-_Questions,_practice_and_progress
1956-09-14
1956-09-19_-_Power,_predominant_quality_of_vital_being_-_The_Divine,_the_psychic_being,_the_Supermind_-_How_to_come_out_of_the_physical_consciousness_-_Look_life_in_the_face_-_Ordinary_love_and_Divine_love
1956-09-26_-_Soul_of_desire_-_Openness,_harmony_with_Nature_-_Communion_with_divine_Presence_-_Individuality,_difficulties,_soul_of_desire_-_personal_contact_with_the_Mother_-_Inner_receptivity_-_Bad_thoughts_before_the_Mother
1956-10-03_-_The_Mothers_different_ways_of_speaking_-_new_manifestation_-_new_element,_possibilities_-_child_prodigies_-_Laws_of_Nature,_supramental_-_Logic_of_the_unforeseen_-_Creative_writers,_hands_of_musicians_-_Prodigious_children,_men
1956-10-10_-_The_supramental_race__in_a_few_centuries_-_Condition_for_new_realisation_-_Everyone_must_follow_his_own_path_-_Progress,_no_two_paths_alike
1956-10-17_-_Delight,_the_highest_state_-_Delight_and_detachment_-_To_be_calm_-_Quietude,_mental_and_vital_-_Calm_and_strength_-_Experience_and_expression_of_experience
1956-10-24_-_Taking_a_new_body_-_Different_cases_of_incarnation_-_Departure_of_soul_from_body
1956-10-31_-_Manifestation_of_divine_love_-_Deformation_of_Love_by_human_consciousness_-_Experience_and_expression_of_experience
1956-11-07_-_Thoughts_created_by_forces_of_universal_-_Mind_Our_own_thought_hardly_exists_-_Idea,_origin_higher_than_mind_-_The_Synthesis_of_Yoga,_effect_of_reading
1956-11-14_-_Conquering_the_desire_to_appear_good_-_Self-control_and_control_of_the_life_around_-_Power_of_mastery_-_Be_a_great_yogi_to_be_a_good_teacher_-_Organisation_of_the_Ashram_school_-_Elementary_discipline_of_regularity
1956-11-21_-_Knowings_and_Knowledge_-_Reason,_summit_of_mans_mental_activities_-_Willings_and_the_true_will_-_Personal_effort_-_First_step_to_have_knowledge_-_Relativity_of_medical_knowledge_-_Mental_gymnastics_make_the_mind_supple
1956-11-28_-_Desire,_ego,_animal_nature_-_Consciousness,_a_progressive_state_-_Ananda,_desireless_state_beyond_enjoyings_-_Personal_effort_that_is_mental_-_Reason,_when_to_disregard_it_-_Reason_and_reasons
1956-12-05_-_Even_and_objectless_ecstasy_-_Transform_the_animal_-_Individual_personality_and_world-personality_-_Characteristic_features_of_a_world-personality_-_Expressing_a_universal_state_of_consciousness_-_Food_and_sleep_-_Ordered_intuition
1956-12-12_-_paradoxes_-_Nothing_impossible_-_unfolding_universe,_the_Eternal_-_Attention,_concentration,_effort_-_growth_capacity_almost_unlimited_-_Why_things_are_not_the_same_-_will_and_willings_-_Suggestions,_formations_-_vital_world
1956-12-19_-_Preconceived_mental_ideas_-_Process_of_creation_-_Destructive_power_of_bad_thoughts_-_To_be_perfectly_sincere
1956-12-26_-_Defeated_victories_-_Change_of_consciousness_-_Experiences_that_indicate_the_road_to_take_-_Choice_and_preference_-_Diversity_of_the_manifestation
1957-01-02_-_Can_one_go_out_of_time_and_space?_-_Not_a_crucified_but_a_glorified_body_-_Individual_effort_and_the_new_force
1957-01-09_-_God_is_essentially_Delight_-_God_and_Nature_play_at_hide-and-seek_-__Why,_and_when,_are_you_grave?
1957-01-16_-_Seeking_something_without_knowing_it_-_Why_are_we_here?
1957-01-23_-_How_should_we_understand_pure_delight?_-_The_drop_of_honey_-_Action_of_the_Divine_Will_in_the_world
1957-01-30_-_Artistry_is_just_contrast_-_How_to_perceive_the_Divine_Guidance?
1957-02-06_-_Death,_need_of_progress_-_Changing_Natures_methods
1957-02-07_-_Individual_and_collective_meditation
1957-02-13_-_Suffering,_pain_and_pleasure_-_Illness_and_its_cure
1957-02-20_-_Limitations_of_the_body_and_individuality
1957-03-06_-_Freedom,_servitude_and_love
1957-03-08_-_A_Buddhist_story
1957-03-13_-_Our_best_friend
1957-03-15_-_Reminiscences_of_Tlemcen
1957-03-20_-_Never_sit_down,_true_repose
1957-03-22_-_A_story_of_initiation,_knowledge_and_practice
1957-03-27_-_If_only_humanity_consented_to_be_spiritualised
1957-04-03_-_Different_religions_and_spirituality
1957-04-10_-_Sports_and_yoga_-_Organising_ones_life
1957-04-17_-_Transformation_of_the_body
1957-04-24_-_Perfection,_lower_and_higher
1957-05-01_-_Sports_competitions,_their_value
1957-05-08_-_Vital_excitement,_reason,_instinct
1957-05-15_-_Differentiation_of_the_sexes_-_Transformation_from_above_downwards
1957-05-29_-_Progressive_transformation
1957-06-05_-_Questions_and_silence_-_Methods_of_meditation
1957-06-12_-_Fasting_and_spiritual_progress
1957-06-19_-_Causes_of_illness_Fear_and_illness_-_Minds_working,_faith_and_illness
1957-06-26_-_Birth_through_direct_transmutation_-_Man_and_woman_-_Judging_others_-_divine_Presence_in_all_-_New_birth
1957-07-03
1957-07-03_-_Collective_yoga,_vision_of_a_huge_hotel
1957-07-09_-_Incontinence_of_speech
1957-07-10_-_A_new_world_is_born_-_Overmind_creation_dissolved
1957-07-17_-_Power_of_conscious_will_over_matter
1957-07-24_-_The_involved_supermind_-_The_new_world_and_the_old_-_Will_for_progress_indispensable
1957-07-31_-_Awakening_aspiration_in_the_body
1957-08-07_-_The_resistances,_politics_and_money_-_Aspiration_to_realise_the_supramental_life
1957-08-14_-_Meditation_on_Sri_Aurobindo
1957-08-21_-_The_Ashram_and_true_communal_life_-_Level_of_consciousness_in_the_Ashram
1957-08-28_-_Freedom_and_Divine_Will
1957-09-04_-_Sri_Aurobindo,_an_eternal_birth
1957-09-11_-_Vital_chemistry,_attraction_and_repulsion
1957-09-18_-_Occultism_and_supramental_life
1957-09-25_-_Preparation_of_the_intermediate_being
1957-09-27
1957-10-02_-_The_Mind_of_Light_-_Statues_of_the_Buddha_-_Burden_of_the_past
1957-10-08
1957-10-09_-_As_many_universes_as_individuals_-_Passage_to_the_higher_hemisphere
1957-10-16_-_Story_of_successive_involutions
1957-10-17
1957-10-23_-_The_central_motive_of_terrestrial_existence_-_Evolution
1957-10-30_-_Double_movement_of_evolution_-_Disappearance_of_a_species
1957-11-13_-_Superiority_of_man_over_animal_-_Consciousness_precedes_form
1957-11-27_-_Sri_Aurobindos_method_in_The_Life_Divine_-_Individual_and_cosmic_evolution
1957-12-04_-_The_method_of_The_Life_Divine_-_Problem_of_emergence_of_a_new_species
1957-12-11_-_Appearance_of_the_first_men
1957-12-18_-_Modern_science_and_illusion_-_Value_of_experience,_its_transforming_power_-_Supramental_power,_first_aspect_to_manifest
1958-01-01_-_The_collaboration_of_material_Nature_-_Miracles_visible_to_a_deep_vision_of_things_-_Explanation_of_New_Year_Message
1958-01-08_-_Sri_Aurobindos_method_of_exposition_-_The_mind_as_a_public_place_-_Mental_control_-_Sri_Aurobindos_subtle_hand
1958-01-15_-_The_only_unshakable_point_of_support
1958-01-22_-_Intellectual_theories_-_Expressing_a_living_and_real_Truth
1958-01-29_-_The_plan_of_the_universe_-_Self-awareness
1958-02-03b_-_The_Supramental_Ship
1958-02-05_-_The_great_voyage_of_the_Supreme_-_Freedom_and_determinism
1958-02-12_-_Psychic_progress_from_life_to_life_-_The_earth,_the_place_of_progress
1958-02-19_-_Experience_of_the_supramental_boat_-_The_Censors_-_Absurdity_of_artificial_means
1958-02-26_-_The_moon_and_the_stars_-_Horoscopes_and_yoga
1958-03-05_-_Vibrations_and_words_-_Power_of_thought,_the_gift_of_tongues
1958-03-07
1958-03-12_-_The_key_of_past_transformations
1958-03-19_-_General_tension_in_humanity_-_Peace_and_progress_-_Perversion_and_vision_of_transformation
1958-03-26_-_Mental_anxiety_and_trust_in_spiritual_power
1958-04-02_-_Correcting_a_mistake
1958-04-09_-_The_eyes_of_the_soul_-_Perceiving_the_soul
1958-04-16_-_The_superman_-_New_realisation
1958-04-23_-_Progress_and_bargaining
1958-04-30_-_Mental_constructions_and_experience
1958-05-07_-_The_secret_of_Nature
1958-05-10
1958-05-14_-_Intellectual_activity_and_subtle_knowing_-_Understanding_with_the_body
1958-05-21_-_Mental_honesty
1958-05-28_-_The_Avatar
1958-06-04_-_New_birth
1958-06-11_-_Is_there_a_spiritual_being_in_everybody?
1958-06-18_-_Philosophy,_religion,_occultism,_spirituality
1958-06-22
1958-06-25_-_Sadhana_in_the_body
1958-07-02
1958-07-06
1958-07-09_-_Faith_and_personal_effort
1958-07-16_-_Is_religion_a_necessity?
1958-07-19
1958-07-23_-_How_to_develop_intuition_-_Concentration
1958-07-30_-_The_planchette_-_automatic_writing_-_Proofs_and_knowledge
1958-08-06_-_Collective_prayer_-_the_ideal_collectivity
1958-08-08
1958-08-13_-_Profit_by_staying_in_the_Ashram_-_What_Sri_Aurobindo_has_come_to_tell_us_-_Finding_the_Divine
1958-08-15_-_Our_relation_with_the_Gods
1958-08-27_-_Meditation_and_imagination_-_From_thought_to_idea,_from_idea_to_principle
1958-09-03_-_How_to_discipline_the_imagination_-_Mental_formations
1958-09-10_-_Magic,_occultism,_physical_science
1958-09-16_-_OM_NAMO_BHAGAVATEH
1958-09-17_-_Power_of_formulating_experience_-_Usefulness_of_mental_development
1958_09_19
1958-09-24_-_Living_the_truth_-_Words_and_experience
1958-10-01_-_The_ideal_of_moral_perfection
1958-10-04
1958-10-08_-_Stages_between_man_and_superman
1958-10-10
1958-10-22_-_Spiritual_life_-_reversal_of_consciousness_-_Helping_others
1958_10_24
1958-10-29_-_Mental_self-sufficiency_-_Grace
1958-11-04_-_Myths_are_True_and_Gods_exist_-_mental_formation_and_occult_faculties_-_exteriorization_-_work_in_dreams
1958-11-05_-_Knowing_how_to_be_silent
1958-11-08
1958-11-12_-_The_aim_of_the_Supreme_-_Trust_in_the_Grace
1958-11-14
1958_11_14
1958-11-22
1958-11-26_-_The_role_of_the_Spirit_-_New_birth
1958-11-27_-_Intermediaries_and_Immediacy
1958_11_28
1958-12-04
1958_12_05
1959-01-31
1959-05-19_-_Ascending_and_Descending_paths
1959-05-28
1959-06-08
1959-10-06_-_Sri_Aurobindos_abode
1960_01_05
1960-01-28
1960-03-03
1960_04_27
1960_05_04
1960-05-21_-_true_purity_-_you_have_to_be_the_Divine_to_overcome_hostile_forces
1960-05-24_-_supramental_flood
1960-06-11
1960-06-Undated
1960-07-12_-_Mothers_Vision_-_the_Voice,_the_ashram_a_tiny_part_of_myself,_the_Mothers_Force,_sparkling_white_light_compressed_-_enormous_formation_of_negative_vibrations_-_light_in_evil
1960-07-18_-_triple_time_vision,_Questions_and_Answers_is_like_circling_around_the_Garden
1960-08-10_-_questions_from_center_of_Education_-_reading_Sri_Aurobindo
1960_08_24
1960-10-11
1960-10-22
1960-11-08
1960-11-12
1960_11_12?_-_49
1960_11_13?_-_50
1960_11_14?_-_51
1960-12-23
1961-01-07
1961-01-10
1961-01-12
1961-01-17
1961_01_18
1961-01-24
1961-01-27
1961_01_28
1961-01-29
1961-02-11
1961-02-18
1961-02-25
1961-03-04
1961-03-07
1961-03-11
1961_03_11_-_58
1961-03-14
1961-03-17
1961_03_17_-_56
1961_03_17_-_57
1961-03-27
1961-04-12
1961-04-18
1961-04-25
1961_04_26_-_59
1961-04-29
1961-05-12
1961_05_21?_-_62
1961_05_22?
1961-05-23
1961-06-02
1961-06-06
1961-06-27
1961-07-07
1961-07-15
1961-07-18
1961_07_18
1961-07-28
1961-08-02
1961-08-05
1961-08-08
1961-09-03
1961-09-16
1961-09-30
1961-10-02
1961-10-15
1961-10-30
1961-11-05
1961-11-07
1961-11-12
1961-12-20
1961-12-23
1962-01-09
1962-01-12
1962_01_12
1962-01-12_-_supramental_ship
1962-01-21
1962-01-27
1962-02-03
1962-02-06
1962-02-13
1962-02-27
1962_02_27
1962_02_28?_-_73
1962-03-11
1962-05-15
1962-05-22
1962-05-24
1962_05_24
1962-05-29
1962-05-31
1962-06-06
1962-06-20
1962-06-27
1962-06-30
1962-07-04
1962-07-07
1962-07-11
1962-07-14
1962-07-18
1962-07-21
1962-08-08
1962-08-14
1962-08-31
1962-09-22
1962-09-26
1962-09-29
1962-10-06
1962-10-16
1962-10-30
1962-11-14
1962-11-30
1962-12-04
1962-12-12
1962-12-15
1962-12-22
1963-01-14
1963-01-18
1963-02-19
1963-02-23
1963-03-06
1963-03-09
1963-03-23
1963-03-27
1963-04-06
1963-04-16
1963-04-20
1963-05-03
1963-05-11
1963-05-15
1963_05_15
1963-05-25
1963-05-29
1963-06-08
1963-06-12
1963-06-19
1963-06-22
1963-06-29
1963-07-03
1963-07-06
1963-07-10
1963-07-20
1963-07-24
1963-07-31
1963-08-07
1963-08-10
1963_08_10
1963-08-13a
1963-08-13b
1963-08-17
1963-08-24
1963-09-07
1963-09-18
1963-09-28
1963-10-05
1963-10-16
1963-10-19
1963-11-04
1963_11_04
1963-11-20
1963-12-07_-_supramental_ship
1963-12-21
1963-12-31
1964-01-15
1964-01-28
1964-02-15
1964-03-25
1964-06-04
1964-06-27
1964-07-18
1964-07-22
1964-07-28
1964-08-11
1964-08-14
1964-08-26
1964-09-16
1964_09_16
1964-09-18
1964-09-23
1964-09-26
1964-10-07
1964-10-10
1964-10-14
1964-10-24a
1964-10-30
1964-11-12
1964-11-21
1964-11-25
1964-11-28
1964-12-02
1965-01-12
1965_01_12
1965-02-24
1965-03-03
1965_03_03
1965-03-24
1965-03-27
1965-04-10
1965-04-21
1965-04-28
1965-05-19
1965-05-29
1965_05_29
1965-06-02
1965-06-05
1965-06-09
1965-06-14
1965-06-18_-_supramental_ship
1965-06-26
1965-06-30
1965-07-14
1965-07-17
1965-07-24
1965-07-31
1965-08-07
1965-08-21
1965-09-18
1965-09-22
1965-09-25
1965-10-10
1965-10-20
1965-10-30
1965-11-13
1965-11-23
1965-12-10
1965-12-15
1965-12-25
1965_12_26?
1966-01-19
1966-01-22
1966-01-31
1966-02-26
1966-03-04
1966-03-09
1966-03-30
1966-04-20
1966-04-24
1966-05-22
1966-06-08
1966-06-11
1966_07_06
1966-07-09
1966-07-27
1966-08-03
1966-08-10
1966-08-27
1966-08-31
1966-09-07
1966-09-14
1966_09_14
1966-09-21
1966-09-28
1966-09-30
1966-10-08
1966-11-03
1966-11-09
1966-11-12
1966-11-19
1966-11-26
1966-12-07
1966-12-17
1966-12-20
1966-12-21
1966-12-24
1967-01-11
1967-01-18
1967-01-21
1967-01-25
1967-01-28
1967-01-31
1967-02-15
1967-02-18
1967-02-25
1967-03-02
1967-03-04
1967-03-07
1967-03-11
1967-03-15
1967-03-22
1967-03-29
1967-04-03
1967-04-05
1967-05-03
1967-05-10
1967-05-24
1967-05-24.1_-_Defining_the_Divine
1967-05-30
1967-06-03
1967-06-07
1967-06-14
1967-06-17
1967-06-21
1967-07-08
1967-07-12
1967-07-15
1967-07-22
1967-07-26
1967-07-29
1967-08-02
1967-08-12
1967-08-19
1967-08-26
1967-09-06
1967-09-13
1967-09-16
1967-09-30
1967-10-04
1967-10-11
1967-10-25
1967-11-15
1967-11-18
1967-11-22
1967-11-29
1967-12-02
1967-12-06
1967-12-27
1968-01-03
1968-01-12
1968-02-03
1968-02-17
1968-03-09
1968-04-06
1968-04-10
1968-04-20
1968-04-23
1968-05-04
1968-05-18
1968-06-03
1968-06-05
1968-06-15
1968-06-18
1968-06-22
1968-06-29
1968-07-06
1968-07-10
1968-07-13
1968-07-17
1968-07-20
1968-07-24
1968-07-27
1968-08-07
1968-08-28
1968-08-30
1968-09-04
1968-09-07
1968-09-25
1968-09-28
1968-10-26
1968-10-30
1968-11-02
1968-11-06
1968-11-09
1968-11-27
1968-12-04
1968-12-21
1968-12-25
1969-01-04
1969-01-18
1969-01-29
1969-02-01
1969-02-08
1969-02-15
1969-02-19
1969-03-12
1969-03-19
1969-04-02
1969-04-05
1969-04-09
1969-04-16
1969-04-19
1969-04-23
1969-04-26
1969-05-03
1969-05-10
1969-05-17
1969-05-24
1969-05-31
1969-06-04
1969-06-25
1969-06-28
1969-07-12
1969-07-23
1969-07-26
1969-07-30
1969-08-02
1969-08-06
1969_08_15?_-_133
1969_08_28
1969-08-30
1969-09-17
1969_09_18
1969-09-20
1969_09_23
1969-09-24
1969-09-27
1969-10-01
1969_10_01?_-_166
1969-10-08
1969-10-12
1969-10-18
1969-11-15
1969-11-19
1969-11-22
1969-11-29
1969-12-03
1969_12_14
1969-12-17
1969-12-20
1969-12-24
1969-12-27
1969_12_29?
1969-12-31
1970-01-03
1970-01-10
1970-01-14
1970-01-17
1970_01_30
1970-01-31
1970-02-11
1970-02-18
1970-02-21
1970_03_06?
1970-03-14
1970-03-25
1970-03-28
1970-04-01
1970-04-04
1970-04-08
1970_04_10
1970-04-11
1970-04-15
1970-04-18
1970-04-22
1970-04-29
1970-05-09
1970-05-13
1970-05-16
1970-05-20
1970-05-23
1970-05-27
1970-06-17
1970-07-01
1970-07-04
1970-07-11
1970-07-18
1970-07-22
1970-07-25
1970-07-29
1970-08-01
1970-08-05
1970-08-22
1970-09-09
1970-09-12
1970-09-16
1970-09-19
1970-10-17
1970-10-28
1970-10-31
1970-11-07
1971-01-16
1971-02-10
1971-03-04
1971-03-13
1971-03-24
1971-04-17
1971-04-21
1971-06-03
1971-06-23
1971-07-10
1971-07-14
1971-08-18
1971-08-28
1971-09-15
1971-10-02
1971-10-09
1971-10-16
1971-10-23
1971-10-30
1971-11-10
1971-11-20
1971-11-27
1971-12-11
1971-12-18
1971-12-25
1972-01-12
1972-01-19
1972-02-16
1972-02-19
1972-03-10
1972-03-25
1972-03-29a
1972-04-04
1972-04-05
1972-04-15
1972-05-31
1972-06-07
1972-06-28
1972-07-08
1972-07-15
1972-07-22
1972-07-26
1972-08-02
1972-08-05
1972-08-09
1972-08-16
1972-08-30
1972-09-16
1972-11-25
1972-12-16
1972-12-20
1972-12-30
1973-01-20
1973-02-28
1973-03-10
1973-03-17
1973-03-31
1973-04-07
1973-04-14
1.A_-_ANTHROPOLOGY,_THE_SOUL
1.ac_-_The_Hermit
1.bs_-_He_Who_is_Stricken_by_Love
1f.lovecraft_-_A_Reminiscence_of_Dr._Samuel_Johnson
1f.lovecraft_-_At_the_Mountains_of_Madness
1f.lovecraft_-_Beyond_the_Wall_of_Sleep
1f.lovecraft_-_Celephais
1f.lovecraft_-_Dagon
1f.lovecraft_-_Deaf,_Dumb,_and_Blind
1f.lovecraft_-_Discarded_Draft_of
1f.lovecraft_-_Facts_concerning_the_Late
1f.lovecraft_-_From_Beyond
1f.lovecraft_-_Herbert_West-Reanimator
1f.lovecraft_-_In_the_Vault
1f.lovecraft_-_In_the_Walls_of_Eryx
1f.lovecraft_-_Medusas_Coil
1f.lovecraft_-_Old_Bugs
1f.lovecraft_-_Out_of_the_Aeons
1f.lovecraft_-_Pickmans_Model
1f.lovecraft_-_Sweet_Ermengarde
1f.lovecraft_-_The_Call_of_Cthulhu
1f.lovecraft_-_The_Case_of_Charles_Dexter_Ward
1f.lovecraft_-_The_Cats_of_Ulthar
1f.lovecraft_-_The_Challenge_from_Beyond
1f.lovecraft_-_The_Colour_out_of_Space
1f.lovecraft_-_The_Curse_of_Yig
1f.lovecraft_-_The_Descendant
1f.lovecraft_-_The_Diary_of_Alonzo_Typer
1f.lovecraft_-_The_Dream-Quest_of_Unknown_Kadath
1f.lovecraft_-_The_Dreams_in_the_Witch_House
1f.lovecraft_-_The_Dunwich_Horror
1f.lovecraft_-_The_Electric_Executioner
1f.lovecraft_-_The_Ghost-Eater
1f.lovecraft_-_The_Haunter_of_the_Dark
1f.lovecraft_-_The_Horror_at_Red_Hook
1f.lovecraft_-_The_Horror_in_the_Burying-Ground
1f.lovecraft_-_The_Horror_in_the_Museum
1f.lovecraft_-_The_Hound
1f.lovecraft_-_The_Last_Test
1f.lovecraft_-_The_Lurking_Fear
1f.lovecraft_-_The_Man_of_Stone
1f.lovecraft_-_The_Moon-Bog
1f.lovecraft_-_The_Mound
1f.lovecraft_-_The_Night_Ocean
1f.lovecraft_-_The_Picture_in_the_House
1f.lovecraft_-_The_Rats_in_the_Walls
1f.lovecraft_-_The_Shadow_out_of_Time
1f.lovecraft_-_The_Shadow_over_Innsmouth
1f.lovecraft_-_The_Shunned_House
1f.lovecraft_-_The_Statement_of_Randolph_Carter
1f.lovecraft_-_The_Thing_on_the_Doorstep
1f.lovecraft_-_The_Transition_of_Juan_Romero
1f.lovecraft_-_The_Trap
1f.lovecraft_-_The_Unnamable
1f.lovecraft_-_The_Whisperer_in_Darkness
1f.lovecraft_-_Through_the_Gates_of_the_Silver_Key
1f.lovecraft_-_Under_the_Pyramids
1f.lovecraft_-_What_the_Moon_Brings
1f.lovecraft_-_Winged_Death
1.fs_-_Shakespeare's_Ghost_-_A_Parody
1.fs_-_The_Driver
1.fs_-_The_Veiled_Statue_At_Sais
1.fua_-_God_Speaks_to_Moses
1.fua_-_The_Birds_Find_Their_King
1.fua_-_The_Dullard_Sage
1.hs_-_Someone_Should_Start_Laughing
1.hs_-_To_Linger_In_A_Garden_Fair
1.ia_-_Modification_Of_The_R_Poem
1.jk_-_Endymion_-_Book_II
1.jk_-_Otho_The_Great_-_Act_III
1.jk_-_Otho_The_Great_-_Act_V
1.jk_-_Robin_Hood
1.jk_-_Sonnet._Why_Did_I_Laugh_Tonight?
1.jlb_-_Elegy
1.jlb_-_Simplicity
1.jwvg_-_After_Sensations
1.jwvg_-_Answers_In_A_Game_Of_Questions
1.jwvg_-_The_Wanderer
1.lb_-_Question_And_Answer_On_The_Mountain
1.lb_-_Talk_in_the_Mountains_[Question_&_Answer_on_the_Mountain]
1.lovecraft_-_The_Bride_Of_The_Sea
1.okym_-_50_-_The_Ball_no_Question_makes_of_Ayes_and_Noes
1.pbs_-_Alastor_-_or,_the_Spirit_of_Solitude
1.pbs_-_Charles_The_First
1.pbs_-_Epipsychidion
1.pbs_-_Hellas_-_A_Lyrical_Drama
1.pbs_-_Hymn_To_Mercury
1.pbs_-_Julian_and_Maddalo_-_A_Conversation
1.pbs_-_Prince_Athanase
1.pbs_-_Prometheus_Unbound
1.pbs_-_Queen_Mab_-_Part_VII.
1.pbs_-_Rosalind_and_Helen_-_a_Modern_Eclogue
1.pbs_-_The_Cenci_-_A_Tragedy_In_Five_Acts
1.pbs_-_The_First_Canzone_Of_The_Convito
1.pbs_-_The_Question
1.pbs_-_The_Revolt_Of_Islam_-_Canto_I-XII
1.pbs_-_With_A_Guitar,_To_Jane
1.poe_-_Eureka_-_A_Prose_Poem
1.poe_-_The_Conversation_Of_Eiros_And_Charmion
1.poe_-_The_Power_Of_Words_Oinos.
1.rb_-_Bishop_Blougram's_Apology
1.rb_-_By_The_Fire-Side
1.rb_-_Caliban_upon_Setebos_or,_Natural_Theology_in_the_Island
1.rb_-_Cleon
1.rb_-_Master_Hugues_Of_Saxe-Gotha
1.rb_-_Paracelsus_-_Part_III_-_Paracelsus
1.rb_-_Paracelsus_-_Part_V_-_Paracelsus_Attains
1.rb_-_Pauline,_A_Fragment_of_a_Question
1.rb_-_Pippa_Passes_-_Part_IV_-_Night
1.rb_-_Sordello_-_Book_the_Fifth
1.rb_-_Sordello_-_Book_the_Fourth
1.rb_-_Sordello_-_Book_the_Second
1.rb_-_The_Flight_Of_The_Duchess
1.rb_-_The_Patriot
1.rmr_-_The_Grown-Up
1.rt_-_Gitanjali
1.rt_-_Journey_Home
1.rt_-_Lovers_Gifts_VIII_-_There_Is_Room_For_You
1.rt_-_Lovers_Gifts_XVIII_-_Your_Days
1.rt_-_Stray_Birds_11-_20
1.rt_-_The_Gardener_X_-_Let_Your_Work_Be,_Bride
1.rt_-_The_Gardener_XXVIII_-_Your_Questioning_Eyes
1.rt_-_The_Homecoming
1.rt_-_The_Sun_Of_The_First_Day
1.rwe_-_Alphonso_Of_Castile
1.rwe_-_The_Sphinx
1.srm_-_The_Necklet_of_Nine_Gems
1.tm_-_Aubade_--_The_City
1.tm_-_Follow_my_ways_and_I_will_lead_you
1.tm_-_Night-Flowering_Cactus
1.tm_-_O_Sweet_Irrational_Worship
1.tr_-_Reply_To_A_Friend
1.tr_-_Yes,_Im_Truly_A_Dunce
1.tr_-_You_Stop_To_Point_At_The_Moon_In_The_Sky
1.wb_-_Auguries_of_Innocence
1.wby_-_A_First_Confession
1.wby_-_Among_School_Children
1.wby_-_At_Algeciras_-_A_Meditaton_Upon_Death
1.wby_-_A_Woman_Young_And_Old
1.wby_-_Leda_And_The_Swan
1.wby_-_The_Chosen
1.wby_-_The_Man_And_The_Echo
1.wby_-_The_Municipal_Gallery_Revisited
1.wby_-_The_Pilgrim
1.wby_-_The_Tower
1.wby_-_The_Two_Kings
1.wby_-_The_Wanderings_Of_Oisin_-_Book_III
1.whitman_-_Ah_Poverties,_Wincings_Sulky_Retreats
1.whitman_-_As_I_Sat_Alone_By_Blue_Ontarios_Shores
1.whitman_-_Broadway
1.whitman_-_City_Of_Ships
1.whitman_-_Crossing_Brooklyn_Ferry
1.whitman_-_Faces
1.whitman_-_Myself_And_Mine
1.whitman_-_Of_The_Terrible_Doubt_Of_Apperarances
1.whitman_-_O_Me!_O_Life!
1.whitman_-_Out_of_the_Cradle_Endlessly_Rocking
1.whitman_-_Passage_To_India
1.whitman_-_Proud_Music_Of_The_Storm
1.whitman_-_Sea-Shore_Memories
1.whitman_-_So_Long
1.whitman_-_Song_of_Myself
1.whitman_-_Song_Of_Myself-_XLII
1.whitman_-_Song_Of_Myself-_XLVI
1.whitman_-_Song_Of_Myself-_XXIII
1.whitman_-_Song_Of_Myself-_XXXVIII
1.whitman_-_Song_Of_The_Open_Road
1.whitman_-_That_Shadow,_My_Likeness
1.whitman_-_Walt_Whitmans_Caution
1.whitman_-_Whoever_You_Are,_Holding_Me_Now_In_Hand
1.whitman_-_Years_Of_The_Modern
1.ww_-_1-_The_White_Doe_Of_Rylstone,_Or,_The_Fate_Of_The_Nortons
1.ww_-_6-_The_White_Doe_Of_Rylstone,_Or,_The_Fate_Of_The_Nortons
1.ww_-_Anecdote_For_Fathers
1.ww_-_A_Whirl-Blast_From_Behind_The_Hill
1.ww_-_Beggars
1.ww_-_Book_Eleventh-_France_[concluded]
1.ww_-_Book_Fifth-Books
1.ww_-_Book_Fourth_[Summer_Vacation]
1.ww_-_Book_Seventh_[Residence_in_London]
1.ww_-_Book_Sixth_[Cambridge_and_the_Alps]
1.ww_-_Book_Tenth_{Residence_in_France_continued]
1.ww_-_Book_Third_[Residence_at_Cambridge]
1.ww_-_Book_Thirteenth_[Imagination_And_Taste,_How_Impaired_And_Restored_Concluded]
1.ww_-_Ode_on_Intimations_of_Immortality
1.ww_-_O_Me!_O_life!
1.ww_-_Resolution_And_Independence
1.ww_-_The_Affliction_Of_Margaret
1.ww_-_The_Excursion-_II-_Book_First-_The_Wanderer
1.ww_-_The_Excursion-_IV-_Book_Third-_Despondency
1.ww_-_The_Excursion-_IX-_Book_Eighth-_The_Parsonage
1.ww_-_The_Excursion-_V-_Book_Fouth-_Despondency_Corrected
1.ww_-_The_Excursion-_X-_Book_Ninth-_Discourse_of_the_Wanderer,_and_an_Evening_Visit_to_the_Lake
1.ww_-_The_Idiot_Boy
1.ww_-_The_Last_Supper,_by_Leonardo_da_Vinci,_in_the_Refectory_of_the_Convent_of_Maria_della_GraziaMilan
1.ww_-_The_Recluse_-_Book_First
1.ww_-_The_Sailor's_Mother
1.ww_-_The_Waggoner_-_Canto_First
1.yni_-_Hymn_from_the_Heavens
2.01_-_Habit_1__Be_Proactive
2.01_-_Indeterminates,_Cosmic_Determinations_and_the_Indeterminable
2.01_-_Isha_Upanishad__All_that_is_world_in_the_Universe
2.01_-_Mandala_One
2.01_-_On_Books
2.01_-_THE_ADVENT_OF_LIFE
2.01_-_The_Mother
2.01_-_The_Ordinary_Life_and_the_True_Soul
2.01_-_The_Road_of_Trials
2.01_-_The_Therapeutic_value_of_Abreaction
2.01_-_The_Two_Natures
2.01_-_The_Yoga_and_Its_Objects
2.02_-_Habit_2__Begin_with_the_End_in_Mind
2.02_-_Indra,_Giver_of_Light
2.02_-_On_Letters
2.02_-_Surrender,_Self-Offering_and_Consecration
2.02_-_THE_EXPANSION_OF_LIFE
2.02_-_The_Ishavasyopanishad_with_a_commentary_in_English
2.03_-_DEMETER
2.03_-_Karmayogin__A_Commentary_on_the_Isha_Upanishad
2.03_-_On_Medicine
2.03_-_Renunciation
2.03_-_The_Christian_Phenomenon_and_Faith_in_the_Incarnation
2.03_-_THE_ENIGMA_OF_BOLOGNA
2.03_-_THE_MASTER_IN_VARIOUS_MOODS
2.03_-_The_Mother-Complex
2.03_-_The_Pyx
2.04_-_ADVICE_TO_ISHAN
2.04_-_On_Art
2.04_-_Positive_Aspects_of_the_Mother-Complex
2.04_-_The_Divine_and_the_Undivine
2.04_-_The_Secret_of_Secrets
2.05_-_Apotheosis
2.05_-_Aspects_of_Sadhana
2.05_-_Habit_3__Put_First_Things_First
2.05_-_On_Poetry
2.05_-_The_Cosmic_Illusion;_Mind,_Dream_and_Hallucination
2.05_-_The_Tale_of_the_Vampires_Kingdom
2.05_-_VISIT_TO_THE_SINTHI_BRAMO_SAMAJ
2.06_-_On_Beauty
2.06_-_ON_THE_RABBLE
2.06_-_Reality_and_the_Cosmic_Illusion
2.06_-_The_Wand
2.06_-_Two_Tales_of_Seeking_and_Losing
2.06_-_Union_with_the_Divine_Consciousness_and_Will
2.06_-_WITH_VARIOUS_DEVOTEES
2.07_-_I_Also_Try_to_Tell_My_Tale
2.07_-_On_Congress_and_Politics
2.07_-_The_Knowledge_and_the_Ignorance
2.07_-_The_Mother__Relations_with_Others
2.07_-_The_Release_from_Subjection_to_the_Body
2.07_-_The_Supreme_Word_of_the_Gita
2.08_-_ALICE_IN_WONDERLAND
2.08_-_AT_THE_STAR_THEATRE_(II)
2.08_-_Memory,_Self-Consciousness_and_the_Ignorance
2.08_-_On_Non-Violence
2.08_-_The_Sword
2.08_-_Three_Tales_of_Madness_and_Destruction
2.08_-_Victory_over_Falsehood
2.09_-_On_Sadhana
2.09_-_SEVEN_REASONS_WHY_A_SCIENTIST_BELIEVES_IN_GOD
2.09_-_The_Pantacle
2.0_-_Reincarnation_and_Karma
2.0_-_THE_ANTICHRIST
2.1.01_-_God_The_One_Reality
2.1.01_-_The_Central_Process_of_the_Sadhana
2.1.02_-_Combining_Work,_Meditation_and_Bhakti
2.1.02_-_Nature_The_World-Manifestation
21.03_-_The_Double_Ladder
2.10_-_Knowledge_by_Identity_and_Separative_Knowledge
2.10_-_THE_MASTER_AND_NARENDRA
2.10_-_The_Vision_of_the_World-Spirit_-_Time_the_Destroyer
2.11_-_On_Education
2.11_-_The_Guru
2.1.1_-_The_Nature_of_the_Vital
2.11_-_WITH_THE_DEVOTEES_IN_CALCUTTA
2.12_-_On_Miracles
2.12_-_THE_MASTERS_REMINISCENCES
2.12_-_The_Origin_of_the_Ignorance
2.12_-_The_Realisation_of_Sachchidananda
2.12_-_The_Way_and_the_Bhakta
2.1.3.1_-_Students
2.1.3.2_-_Study
2.1.3.3_-_Reading
2.1.3.4_-_Conduct
2.13_-_Exclusive_Concentration_of_Consciousness-Force_and_the_Ignorance
2.13_-_On_Psychology
2.13_-_Psychic_Presence_and_Psychic_Being_-_Real_Origin_of_Race_Superiority
2.13_-_THE_MASTER_AT_THE_HOUSES_OF_BALARM_AND_GIRISH
2.1.3_-_Wrong_Movements_of_the_Vital
2.1.4.1_-_Teachers
2.1.4.2_-_Teaching
2.14_-_AT_RAMS_HOUSE
2.14_-_Faith
2.14_-_On_Movements
2.1.4_-_The_Lower_Vital_Being
2.14_-_The_Origin_and_Remedy_of_Falsehood,_Error,_Wrong_and_Evil
2.14_-_The_Unpacking_of_God
2.1.5.1_-_Study_of_Works_of_Sri_Aurobindo_and_the_Mother
2.1.5.2_-_Languages
2.1.5.4_-_Arts
2.15_-_On_the_Gods_and_Asuras
2.15_-_Power_of_Right_Attitude
2.15_-_Reality_and_the_Integral_Knowledge
2.16_-_Power_of_Imagination
2.16_-_The_15th_of_August
2.16_-_The_Integral_Knowledge_and_the_Aim_of_Life;_Four_Theories_of_Existence
2.16_-_The_Magick_Fire
2.1.7.05_-_On_the_Inspiration_and_Writing_of_the_Poem
2.1.7.08_-_Comments_on_Specific_Lines_and_Passages_of_the_Poem
2.17_-_December_1938
2.17_-_THE_MASTER_ON_HIMSELF_AND_HIS_EXPERIENCES
2.17_-_The_Progress_to_Knowledge_-_God,_Man_and_Nature
2.17_-_The_Soul_and_Nature
2.18_-_January_1939
2.18_-_SRI_RAMAKRISHNA_AT_SYAMPUKUR
2.18_-_The_Evolutionary_Process_-_Ascent_and_Integration
2.19_-_Feb-May_1939
2.19_-_Knowledge_of_the_Scientist_and_the_Yogi
2.2.01_-_The_Problem_of_Consciousness
2.2.01_-_Work_and_Yoga
2.2.02_-_Consciousness_and_the_Inconscient
2.2.03_-_The_Divine_Force_in_Work
2.2.03_-_The_Psychic_Being
2.2.03_-_The_Science_of_Consciousness
2.2.04_-_Practical_Concerns_in_Work
2.20_-_Chance
2.20_-_Nov-Dec_1939
2.20_-_ON_REDEMPTION
2.20_-_THE_MASTERS_TRAINING_OF_HIS_DISCIPLES
2.20_-_The_Philosophy_of_Rebirth
2.2.1.01_-_The_World's_Greatest_Poets
2.21_-_1940
2.21_-_The_Order_of_the_Worlds
2.2.1_-_The_Prusna_Upanishads
2.21_-_Towards_the_Supreme_Secret
2.22_-_1941-1943
2.22_-_Rebirth_and_Other_Worlds;_Karma,_the_Soul_and_Immortality
2.2.2_-_Sorrow_and_Suffering
2.2.3_-_Depression_and_Despondency
2.23_-_Man_and_the_Evolution
2.23_-_Supermind_and_Overmind
2.23_-_The_Core_of_the_Gita.s_Meaning
2.2.4_-_Sentimentalism,_Sensitiveness,_Instability,_Laxity
2.2.4_-_Taittiriya_Upanishad
2.24_-_The_Evolution_of_the_Spiritual_Man
2.24_-_THE_MASTERS_LOVE_FOR_HIS_DEVOTEES
2.24_-_The_Message_of_the_Gita
2.25_-_List_of_Topics_in_Each_Talk
2.25_-_The_Higher_and_the_Lower_Knowledge
2.26_-_The_Ascent_towards_Supermind
2.26_-_The_Supramental_Descent
2.2.7.01_-_Some_General_Remarks
2.27_-_The_Gnostic_Being
2.28_-_Rajayoga
2.28_-_The_Divine_Life
2.3.01_-_Aspiration_and_Surrender_to_the_Mother
2.3.02_-_Opening,_Sincerity_and_the_Mother's_Grace
2.3.02_-_The_Supermind_or_Supramental
2.3.03_-_The_Mother's_Presence
2.3.04_-_The_Mother's_Force
2.3.05_-_Sadhana_through_Work_for_the_Mother
2.3.06_-_The_Mind
2.3.06_-_The_Mother's_Lights
2.3.07_-_The_Mother_in_Visions,_Dreams_and_Experiences
2.3.07_-_The_Vital_Being_and_Vital_Consciousness
2.3.08_-_The_Mother's_Help_in_Difficulties
2.3.08_-_The_Physical_Consciousness
2.3.1.09_-_Inspiration_and_Understanding
2.3.1_-_Ego_and_Its_Forms
2.4.01_-_Divine_Love,_Psychic_Love_and_Human_Love
24.05_-_Vision_of_Dante
2.4.1_-_Human_Relations_and_the_Spiritual_Life
27.02_-_The_Human_Touch_Divine
29.03_-_In_Her_Company
29.04_-_Mothers_Playground
29.07_-_A_Small_Talk
2_-_Other_Hymns_to_Agni
30.01_-_World-Literature
30.02_-_Greek_Drama
3.00.2_-_Introduction
30.03_-_Spirituality_in_Art
30.05_-_Rhythm_in_Poetry
30.06_-_The_Poet_and_The_Seer
30.09_-_Lines_of_Tantra_(Charyapada)
3.00_-_Introduction
30.11_-_Modern_Poetry
30.12_-_The_Obscene_and_the_Ugly_-_Form_and_Essence
30.14_-_Rabindranath_and_Modernism
30.15_-_The_Language_of_Rabindranath
3.01_-_Forms_of_Rebirth
3.01_-_INTRODUCTION
3.01_-_Natural_Morality
3.01_-_THE_BIRTH_OF_THOUGHT
3.01_-_The_Principles_of_Ritual
3.02_-_Aridity_in_Prayer
3.02_-_King_and_Queen
3.02_-_Mysticism
3.02_-_ON_THE_VISION_AND_THE_RIDDLE
3.02_-_SOL
3.02_-_THE_DEPLOYMENT_OF_THE_NOOSPHERE
3.02_-_The_Formulae_of_the_Elemental_Weapons
3.02_-_The_Great_Secret
3.02_-_The_Motives_of_Devotion
3.02_-_The_Practice_Use_of_Dream-Analysis
3.02_-_The_Psychology_of_Rebirth
3.03_-_On_Thought_-_II
3.03_-_SULPHUR
3.03_-_The_Ascent_to_Truth
3.03_-_The_Godward_Emotions
3.03_-_The_Mind_
3.03_-_THE_MODERN_EARTH
3.03_-_The_Naked_Truth
3.04_-_LUNA
3.04_-_On_Thought_-_III
3.04_-_The_Flowers
3.04_-_The_Formula_of_ALHIM
3.05_-_ON_VIRTUE_THAT_MAKES_SMALL
3.05_-_SAL
3.05_-_The_Conjunction
3.05_-_The_Divine_Personality
3.05_-_The_Fool
3.05_-_The_Physical_World_and_its_Connection_with_the_Soul_and_Spirit-Lands
3.06_-_Charity
3.06_-_The_Sage
3.07.5_-_Who_Am_I?
3.07_-_The_Adept
3.07_-_The_Formula_of_the_Holy_Grail
3.08_-_The_Mystery_of_Love
3.08_-_The_Thousands
3.09_-_Evil
3.09_-_Of_Silence_and_Secrecy
3.09_-_THE_RETURN_HOME
3.0_-_THE_ETERNAL_RECURRENCE
3.1.01_-_The_Problem_of_Suffering_and_Evil
3.1.02_-_Asceticism_and_the_Integral_Yoga
3.1.02_-_Spiritual_Evolution_and_the_Supramental
3.1.03_-_A_Realistic_Adwaita
3.1.04_-_Transformation_in_the_Integral_Yoga
3.1.05_-_A_Vision_of_Science
31.09_-_The_Cause_of_Indias_Decline
3.10_-_Of_the_Gestures
3.10_-_ON_THE_THREE_EVILS
3.10_-_Punishment
3.10_-_The_New_Birth
3.11_-_Of_Our_Lady_Babalon
3.11_-_ON_THE_SPIRIT_OF_GRAVITY
3.11_-_Spells
3.1.23_-_The_Rishi
3.1.24_-_In_the_Moonlight
3.1.2_-_Levels_of_the_Physical_Being
3.12_-_Of_the_Bloody_Sacrifice
3.1.3_-_Difficulties_of_the_Physical_Being
3.13_-_Of_the_Banishings
3.13_-_THE_CONVALESCENT
3.14_-_Of_the_Consecrations
3.15_-_THE_OTHER_DANCING_SONG
3.16.1_-_Of_the_Oath
3.17_-_Of_the_License_to_Depart
3.18_-_Of_Clairvoyance_and_the_Body_of_Light
3.2.01_-_The_Newness_of_the_Integral_Yoga
32.01_-_Where_is_God?
3.2.03_-_Jainism_and_Buddhism
32.04_-_The_Human_Body
32.05_-_The_Culture_of_the_Body
3.2.05_-_The_Yoga_of_the_Bhagavad_Gita
3.2.06_-_The_Adwaita_of_Shankaracharya
32.06_-_The_Novel_Alchemy
32.07_-_The_God_of_the_Scientist
3.2.08_-_Bhakti_Yoga_and_Vaishnavism
3.2.09_-_The_Teachings_of_Some_Modern_Indian_Yogis
32.11_-_Life_and_Self-Control_(A_Letter)
3.2.1_-_Food
3.21_-_Of_Black_Magic
3.2.2_-_Sleep
3.2.3_-_Dreams
3.2.4_-_Sex
33.01_-_The_Initiation_of_Swadeshi
3.3.02_-_All-Will_and_Free-Will
33.03_-_Muraripukur_-_I
33.04_-_Deoghar
33.05_-_Muraripukur_-_II
33.07_-_Alipore_Jail
33.08_-_I_Tried_Sannyas
33.09_-_Shyampukur
33.10_-_Pondicherry_I
33.11_-_Pondicherry_II
33.13_-_My_Professors
33.14_-_I_Played_Football
33.15_-_My_Athletics
33.16_-_Soviet_Gymnasts
33.17_-_Two_Great_Wars
3.3.1_-_Illness_and_Health
3.4.01_-_Evolution
3.4.02_-_The_Inconscient
3.4.03_-_Materialism
34.07_-_The_Bride_of_Brahman
3.4.1.01_-_Poetry_and_Sadhana
3.4.1.05_-_Fiction-Writing_and_Sadhana
3.4.1.06_-_Reading_and_Sadhana
3.5.01_-_Aphorisms
3.5.01_-_Science
3.5.04_-_Justice
3-5_Full_Circle
3.6.01_-_Heraclitus
36.07_-_An_Introduction_To_The_Vedas
37.01_-_Yama_-_Nachiketa_(Katha_Upanishad)
37.02_-_The_Story_of_Jabala-Satyakama
37.03_-_Satyakama_And_Upakoshala
37.04_-_The_Story_Of_Rishi_Yajnavalkya
37.05_-_Narada_-_Sanatkumara_(Chhandogya_Upanishad)
37.06_-_Indra_-_Virochana_and_Prajapati
37.07_-_Ushasti_Chakrayana_(Chhandogya_Upanishad)
3.7.1.01_-_Rebirth
3.7.1.02_-_The_Reincarnating_Soul
3.7.1.03_-_Rebirth,_Evolution,_Heredity
3.7.1.04_-_Rebirth_and_Soul_Evolution
3.7.1.05_-_The_Significance_of_Rebirth
3.7.1.06_-_The_Ascending_Unity
3.7.1.07_-_Involution_and_Evolution
3.7.1.08_-_Karma
3.7.1.09_-_Karma_and_Freedom
3.7.1.10_-_Karma,_Will_and_Consequence
3.7.1.11_-_Rebirth_and_Karma
3.7.1.12_-_Karma_and_Justice
3.7.2.02_-_The_Terrestial_Law
3.7.2.04_-_The_Higher_Lines_of_Karma
38.01_-_Asceticism_and_Renunciation
38.02_-_Hymns_and_Prayers
3.8.1.02_-_Arya_-_Its_Significance
3.8.1.03_-_Meditation
3.8.1.04_-_Different_Methods_of_Writing
3.8.1.05_-_Occult_Knowledge_and_the_Hindu_Scriptures
3.8.1.06_-_The_Universal_Consciousness
3_-_Commentaries_and_Annotated_Translations
40.01_-_November_24,_1926
4.01_-_Conclusion_-_My_intellectual_position
4.01_-_Introduction
4.01_-_Prayers_and_Meditations
4.01_-_Sweetness_in_Prayer
4.01_-_THE_COLLECTIVE_ISSUE
4.01_-_The_Presence_of_God_in_the_World
4.02_-_Autobiographical_Evidence
4.02_-_BEYOND_THE_COLLECTIVE_-_THE_HYPER-PERSONAL
4.02_-_Humanity_in_Progress
4.02_-_The_Psychology_of_the_Child_Archetype
4.03_-_Prayer_to_the_Ever-greater_Christ
4.03_-_The_Meaning_of_Human_Endeavor
4.03_-_The_Senses_And_Mental_Pictures
4.03_-_The_Special_Phenomenology_of_the_Child_Archetype
4.03_-_THE_TRANSFORMATION_OF_THE_KING
4.03_-_THE_ULTIMATE_EARTH
4.04_-_Conclusion
4.04_-_THE_REGENERATION_OF_THE_KING
4.04_-_Weaknesses
4.05_-_The_Instruments_of_the_Spirit
4.06_-_Purification-the_Lower_Mentality
4.06_-_THE_KING_AS_ANTHROPOS
4.07_-_THE_RELATION_OF_THE_KING-SYMBOL_TO_CONSCIOUSNESS
4.08_-_The_Liberation_of_the_Spirit
4.08_-_THE_RELIGIOUS_PROBLEM_OF_THE_KINGS_RENEWAL
4.09_-_The_Liberation_of_the_Nature
4.0_-_NOTES_TO_ZARATHUSTRA
4.0_-_The_Path_of_Knowledge
4.1.01_-_The_Intellect_and_Yoga
4.1.1.03_-_Three_Realisations_for_the_Soul
4.1.1.05_-_The_Central_Process_of_the_Yoga
4.1.1_-_The_Difficulties_of_Yoga
4.11_-_The_Perfection_of_Equality
4.11_-_THE_WELCOME
4.1.2_-_The_Difficulties_of_Human_Nature
4.1.3_-_Imperfections_and_Periods_of_Arrest
4.1.4_-_Resistances,_Sufferings_and_Falls
4.15_-_Soul-Force_and_the_Fourfold_Personality
4.16_-_AMONG_DAUGHTERS_OF_THE_WILDERNESS
4.16_-_The_Divine_Shakti
4.18_-_Faith_and_shakti
4.19_-_THE_DRUNKEN_SONG
4.19_-_The_Nature_of_the_supermind
4.1_-_Jnana
4.20_-_The_Intuitive_Mind
4.20_-_THE_SIGN
4.2.1.04_-_The_Psychic_and_the_Mental,_Vital_and_Physical_Nature
4.2.1_-_The_Right_Attitude_towards_Difficulties
4.2.2_-_Steps_towards_Overcoming_Difficulties
4.2.3.01_-_The_Meaning_of_Coming_to_the_Front
4.2.3.02_-_Signs_of_the_Psychic's_Coming_Forward
4.23_-_The_supramental_Instruments_--_Thought-process
4.2.4.11_-_Psychic_Intensity
4.2.4_-_Time_and_CHange_of_the_Nature
4.2.5_-_Dealing_with_Depression_and_Despondency
4.3.2.04_-_Degrees_in_the_Higher_Consciousness
4.3.2_-_Attacks_by_the_Hostile_Forces
4.3.4_-_Accidents,_Possession,_Madness
4.3_-_Bhakti
4.4.1.06_-_Ascent_and_Descent_and_Problems_of_the_Lower_Nature
4.4.4.03_-_The_Descent_of_Peace
5.01_-_ADAM_AS_THE_ARCANE_SUBSTANCE
5.01_-_EPILOGUE
5.01_-_Message
5.02_-_Perfection_of_the_Body
5.03_-_The_Divine_Body
5.04_-_Three_Dreams
5.05_-_Supermind_and_Humanity
5.05_-_THE_OLD_ADAM
5.06_-_Supermind_in_the_Evolution
5.06_-_THE_TRANSFORMATION
5.08_-_ADAM_AS_TOTALITY
5.1.01_-_Terminology
5.4.01_-_Notes_on_Root-Sounds
5.4.01_-_Occult_Knowledge
5_-_The_Phenomenology_of_the_Spirit_in_Fairytales
6.01_-_THE_ALCHEMICAL_VIEW_OF_THE_UNION_OF_OPPOSITES
6.02_-_STAGES_OF_THE_CONJUNCTION
6.04_-_THE_MEANING_OF_THE_ALCHEMICAL_PROCEDURE
6.05_-_THE_PSYCHOLOGICAL_INTERPRETATION_OF_THE_PROCEDURE
6.06_-_SELF-KNOWLEDGE
6.07_-_THE_MONOCOLUS
6.08_-_Intellectual_Visions
6.08_-_THE_CONTENT_AND_MEANING_OF_THE_FIRST_TWO_STAGES
6.09_-_THE_THIRD_STAGE_-_THE_UNUS_MUNDUS
6.0_-_Conscious,_Unconscious,_and_Individuation
6.10_-_THE_SELF_AND_THE_BOUNDS_OF_KNOWLEDGE
7.01_-_The_Soul_(the_Psychic)
7.03_-_The_Heart
7.07_-_Prudence
7.11_-_Building_and_Destroying
7.13_-_The_Conquest_of_Knowledge
7.6.01_-_Symbol_Moon
7_-_Yoga_of_Sri_Aurobindo
9.99_-_Glossary
Aeneid
Apology
Appendix_4_-_Priest_Spells
APPENDIX_I_-_Curriculum_of_A._A.
Big_Mind_(non-dual)
Big_Mind_(ten_perfections)
Blazing_P1_-_Preconventional_consciousness
Blazing_P2_-_Map_the_Stages_of_Conventional_Consciousness
Blazing_P3_-_Explore_the_Stages_of_Postconventional_Consciousness
Book_1_-_The_Council_of_the_Gods
BOOK_I._-_Augustine_censures_the_pagans,_who_attri_buted_the_calamities_of_the_world,_and_especially_the_sack_of_Rome_by_the_Goths,_to_the_Christian_religion_and_its_prohibition_of_the_worship_of_the_gods
BOOK_II._-_A_review_of_the_calamities_suffered_by_the_Romans_before_the_time_of_Christ,_showing_that_their_gods_had_plunged_them_into_corruption_and_vice
BOOK_III._-_The_external_calamities_of_Rome
BOOK_II._--_PART_I._ANTHROPOGENESIS.
BOOK_II._--_PART_III._ADDENDA._SCIENCE_AND_THE_SECRET_DOCTRINE_CONTRASTED
BOOK_II._--_PART_II._THE_ARCHAIC_SYMBOLISM_OF_THE_WORLD-RELIGIONS
BOOK_I._--_PART_I._COSMIC_EVOLUTION
BOOK_I._--_PART_III._SCIENCE_AND_THE_SECRET_DOCTRINE_CONTRASTED
BOOK_I._--_PART_II._THE_EVOLUTION_OF_SYMBOLISM_IN_ITS_APPROXIMATE_ORDER
BOOK_IV._-_That_empire_was_given_to_Rome_not_by_the_gods,_but_by_the_One_True_God
BOOK_IX._-_Of_those_who_allege_a_distinction_among_demons,_some_being_good_and_others_evil
Book_of_Imaginary_Beings_(text)
BOOK_VIII._-_Some_account_of_the_Socratic_and_Platonic_philosophy,_and_a_refutation_of_the_doctrine_of_Apuleius_that_the_demons_should_be_worshipped_as_mediators_between_gods_and_men
BOOK_VII._-_Of_the_select_gods_of_the_civil_theology,_and_that_eternal_life_is_not_obtained_by_worshipping_them
BOOK_VI._-_Of_Varros_threefold_division_of_theology,_and_of_the_inability_of_the_gods_to_contri_bute_anything_to_the_happiness_of_the_future_life
BOOK_V._-_Of_fate,_freewill,_and_God's_prescience,_and_of_the_source_of_the_virtues_of_the_ancient_Romans
BOOK_XI._-_Augustine_passes_to_the_second_part_of_the_work,_in_which_the_origin,_progress,_and_destinies_of_the_earthly_and_heavenly_cities_are_discussed.Speculations_regarding_the_creation_of_the_world
BOOK_XIII._-_That_death_is_penal,_and_had_its_origin_in_Adam's_sin
BOOK_XII._-_Of_the_creation_of_angels_and_men,_and_of_the_origin_of_evil
BOOK_XIV._-_Of_the_punishment_and_results_of_mans_first_sin,_and_of_the_propagation_of_man_without_lust
BOOK_XIX._-_A_review_of_the_philosophical_opinions_regarding_the_Supreme_Good,_and_a_comparison_of_these_opinions_with_the_Christian_belief_regarding_happiness
BOOK_X._-_Porphyrys_doctrine_of_redemption
BOOK_XVIII._-_A_parallel_history_of_the_earthly_and_heavenly_cities_from_the_time_of_Abraham_to_the_end_of_the_world
BOOK_XVII._-_The_history_of_the_city_of_God_from_the_times_of_the_prophets_to_Christ
BOOK_XVI._-_The_history_of_the_city_of_God_from_Noah_to_the_time_of_the_kings_of_Israel
BOOK_XV._-_The_progress_of_the_earthly_and_heavenly_cities_traced_by_the_sacred_history
BOOK_XXII._-_Of_the_eternal_happiness_of_the_saints,_the_resurrection_of_the_body,_and_the_miracles_of_the_early_Church
BOOK_XXI._-_Of_the_eternal_punishment_of_the_wicked_in_hell,_and_of_the_various_objections_urged_against_it
BOOK_XX._-_Of_the_last_judgment,_and_the_declarations_regarding_it_in_the_Old_and_New_Testaments
BS_1_-_Introduction_to_the_Idea_of_God
CASE_1_-_JOSHUS_DOG
CASE_3_-_GUTEIS_FINGER
CASE_5_-_KYOGENS_MAN_HANGING_IN_THE_TREE
Conversations_with_Sri_Aurobindo
COSA_-_BOOK_I
COSA_-_BOOK_III
COSA_-_BOOK_IV
COSA_-_BOOK_V
COSA_-_BOOK_VI
COSA_-_BOOK_X
COSA_-_BOOK_XI
COSA_-_BOOK_XII
Cratylus
Deutsches_Requiem
DM_2_-_How_to_Meditate
DS2
DS3
DS4
ENNEAD_01.02_-_Concerning_Virtue.
ENNEAD_01.02_-_Of_Virtues.
ENNEAD_01.04_-_Whether_Animals_May_Be_Termed_Happy.
ENNEAD_01.05_-_Does_Happiness_Increase_With_Time?
ENNEAD_01.06_-_Of_Beauty.
ENNEAD_01.08_-_Of_the_Nature_and_Origin_of_Evils.
ENNEAD_02.02_-_About_the_Movement_of_the_Heavens.
ENNEAD_02.04a_-_Of_Matter.
ENNEAD_02.05_-_Of_the_Aristotelian_Distinction_Between_Actuality_and_Potentiality.
ENNEAD_02.07_-_About_Mixture_to_the_Point_of_Total_Penetration.
ENNEAD_02.09_-_Against_the_Gnostics;_or,_That_the_Creator_and_the_World_are_Not_Evil.
ENNEAD_03.01_-_Concerning_Fate.
ENNEAD_03.02_-_Of_Providence.
ENNEAD_03.03_-_Continuation_of_That_on_Providence.
ENNEAD_03.04_-_Of_Our_Individual_Guardian.
ENNEAD_03.05_-_Of_Love,_or_Eros.
ENNEAD_03.06_-_Of_the_Impassibility_of_Incorporeal_Entities_(Soul_and_and_Matter).
ENNEAD_03.07_-_Of_Time_and_Eternity.
ENNEAD_03.08b_-_Of_Nature,_Contemplation_and_Unity.
ENNEAD_04.03_-_Psychological_Questions.
ENNEAD_04.04_-_Questions_About_the_Soul.
ENNEAD_04.05_-_Psychological_Questions_III._-_About_the_Process_of_Vision_and_Hearing.
ENNEAD_04.06a_-_Of_Sensation_and_Memory.
ENNEAD_04.08_-_Of_the_Descent_of_the_Soul_Into_the_Body.
ENNEAD_04.09_-_Whether_All_Souls_Form_a_Single_One?
ENNEAD_05.01_-_The_Three_Principal_Hypostases,_or_Forms_of_Existence.
ENNEAD_05.03_-_The_Self-Consciousnesses,_and_What_is_Above_Them.
ENNEAD_05.05_-_That_Intelligible_Entities_Are_Not_External_to_the_Intelligence_of_the_Good.
ENNEAD_05.08_-_Concerning_Intelligible_Beauty.
ENNEAD_05.09_-_Of_Intelligence,_Ideas_and_Essence.
ENNEAD_06.01_-_Of_the_Ten_Aristotelian_and_Four_Stoic_Categories.
ENNEAD_06.02_-_The_Categories_of_Plotinos.
ENNEAD_06.03_-_Plotinos_Own_Sense-Categories.
ENNEAD_06.04_-_The_One_Identical_Essence_is_Everywhere_Entirely_Present.
ENNEAD_06.05_-_The_One_and_Identical_Being_is_Everywhere_Present_In_Its_Entirety.345
ENNEAD_06.05_-_The_One_Identical_Essence_is_Everywhere_Entirely_Present.
ENNEAD_06.06_-_Of_Numbers.
ENNEAD_06.07_-_How_Ideas_Multiplied,_and_the_Good.
ENNEAD_06.08_-_Of_the_Will_of_the_One.
Euthyphro
For_a_Breath_I_Tarry
Gorgias
Guru_Granth_Sahib_first_part
Ion
Kafka_and_His_Precursors
Liber_111_-_The_Book_of_Wisdom_-_LIBER_ALEPH_VEL_CXI
Liber_46_-_The_Key_of_the_Mysteries
Liber_71_-_The_Voice_of_the_Silence_-_The_Two_Paths_-_The_Seven_Portals
LUX.06_-_DIVINATION
Meno
MMM.01_-_MIND_CONTROL
Phaedo
r1912_07_01
r1912_07_15
r1912_12_03b
r1912_12_08
r1912_12_25
r1912_12_31
r1913_01_15
r1913_02_03
r1913_06_16
r1913_06_16b
r1913_12_14
r1914_01_10
r1914_03_12
r1914_04_13
r1914_05_03
r1914_05_08
r1914_05_12
r1914_06_01
r1914_06_10
r1914_06_18
r1914_06_24
r1914_07_01
r1914_07_04
r1914_07_08
r1914_07_15
r1914_07_17
r1914_08_23
r1914_09_18
r1914_10_01
r1914_10_09
r1914_10_12
r1914_11_14
r1914_11_16
r1914_11_29
r1914_12_05
r1914_12_15
r1914_12_21
r1914_12_22
r1915_01_07b
r1915_01_14
r1915_04_22
r1915_07_13
r1917_01_10
r1918_02_17
r1918_05_14
r1918_05_19
r1918_05_24
r1919_07_06
r1919_07_22
r1919_07_26
r1920_06_07
r1927_01_19
r1927_01_27
Sayings_of_Sri_Ramakrishna_(text)
SB_1.1_-_Questions_by_the_Sages
Sophist
Story_of_the_Warrior_and_the_Captive
Symposium_translated_by_B_Jowett
Tablets_of_Baha_u_llah_text
Talks_001-025
Talks_026-050
Talks_051-075
Talks_076-099
Talks_100-125
Talks_125-150
Talks_151-175
Talks_176-200
Talks_225-239
Talks_500-550
Talks_600-652
Talks_With_Sri_Aurobindo_1
Talks_With_Sri_Aurobindo_2
The_Act_of_Creation_text
Theaetetus
The_Aleph
The_Anapanasati_Sutta__A_Practical_Guide_to_Mindfullness_of_Breathing_and_Tranquil_Wisdom_Meditation
The_Book_of_Certitude_-_P1
The_Book_of_Certitude_-_P2
The_Book_of_Sand
The_Coming_Race_Contents
The_Dream_of_a_Ridiculous_Man
The_Dwellings_of_the_Philosophers
The_Egg
the_Eternal_Wisdom
The_Garden_of_Forking_Paths_2
The_Gold_Bug
The_Gospel_According_to_John
The_Gospel_According_to_Luke
The_Gospel_According_to_Mark
The_Gospel_According_to_Matthew
The_Gospel_of_Thomas
The_Hidden_Words_text
The_Immortal
The_Last_Question
The_Logomachy_of_Zos
The_Lottery_in_Babylon
The_Pilgrims_Progress
The_Riddle_of_this_World
The_Shadow_Out_Of_Time
The_Theologians
Thus_Spoke_Zarathustra_text
Timaeus
Verses_of_Vemana

PRIMARY CLASS

grammer
josh
knowledge
list
media
mental
SIMILAR TITLES
all questions asked to the Mother
Questions
questions about God
Questions And Answers 1929-1931
Questions And Answers 1950-1951
Questions And Answers 1953
Questions And Answers 1954
Questions And Answers 1955
Questions And Answers 1956
Questions And Answers 1957-1958
questions for Mother
questions (full-list)
The 36 Questions that lead to Love
The Three Questions

DEFINITIONS

2. In psychology, the act or process of exercising the mind, the faculty of connecting judgments; the power and fact of using reason; the thought-processes of discussion, debate, argumentation or inference; the manifestation of the discursive property of the mind; the actual use of arguments with a view to convince or persuade; the art and method or proving or demonstrating; the orderly development of thought with a view to, or the attainment of a conclusion believed to be valid. -- The origin, nature and value of reasoning are debated questions, with their answers ranging from spiritualism (reasoning as the exercise of a faculty of the soul) to materialism (reasoning as an epiphenomenon depending on the brain), with all the modern schools of psychology ordering themselves between them. A few points of agreement might be mentioned here: reasoning follows judgment and apprehension, whichever of the last two thought-processes comes first in our psychological development; reasoning proceeds according to four main types, namely deductive, inductive, presumptive and deceptive; reasoning assumes a belief in its own validity undisturbed by doubt, and implies various logical habits and methods which may be organized into a logical doctrine; reasoning requires a reference to some ultimate principles to justify its progress 3. In logic, Reasoning is the process of inference, it is the process of passing from certain propositions already known or assumed to be true, to another truth distinct from them but following from them; it is a discourse or argument which infers one proposition from another, or from a group of others having some common elements between them. The inference is necessary in the case of deductive reasoning; and contingent, probable or wrong, in the case of inductive, presumptive or deceptive reasoning respectively. -- There are various types of reasoning, and proper methods for each type. The definition, discussion, development and evaluation of these types and methods form an important branch of logic and its subdivisions. The details of the application of reasoning to the various sciences, form the subject of methodology. All these types are reducible to one or the other of the two fundamental processes or reasoning, namely deduction and induction. It must be added that the logical study of reasoning is normative logic does not analyze it simply in its natural development, but with a view to guide it towards coherence, validity or truth. -- T.G.

adhikarana. (T. rtsod pa; C. zhengshi/zhengsong; J. joji/josho; K. chaengsa/chaengsong 諍事/諍訟). In PAli and Sanskrit, "legal question" or "case," an important term in the VINAYA. Legal questions or cases are of four kinds: (1) those arising out of a dispute, (2) those arising out of censure, (3) those arising out of an offense, and (4) those arising out of an obligation. (1) Legal questions or cases arising out of a dispute are of eighteen kinds and deal primarily with what does and does not pertain to the monastic code, what is and is not sanctioned by the rules of vinaya, and what is an especially grievous offense, such as "defeat" (PARAJIKA), vs. what is nongrievous. (2) Legal questions or cases arising out of censure are involved with whether or not a monk has fallen away from morality or good habits, fallen away from right view, or fallen away from right livelihood. (3) Legal questions or cases arising out of offenses deal with misdeeds classified under five headings: viz., pArAjika, SAMGHADIsEsA, PAYATTIKA, PRATIDEsANĪYA, or DUsKṚTA, or under seven headings: viz., the above five plus miscellaneous grave, but unconsummated offenses (STHuLATYAYA, P. thullaccaya), and mischievous talk (DURBHAsITA, P. dubbhAsita). (5) Legal questions or cases arising out of obligation concern the jurisdiction of resolutions and formal acts passed by the SAMGHA. In the final section of the monastic codes of conduct (PRATIMOKsA), seven specific methods of resolving disputes (ADHIKARAnAsAMATHA) are offered.

admiralty ::: n. --> The office or jurisdiction of an admiral.
The department or officers having authority over naval affairs generally.
The court which has jurisdiction of maritime questions and offenses.
The system of jurisprudence of admiralty courts.
The building in which the lords of the admiralty, in England, transact business.


Ajita. (T. Ma pham pa; C. Ayiduo; J. Aitta; K. Ailta 阿逸多). In Sanskrit and PAli, "Invincible"; proper name of several different figures in Buddhist literature. In the PAli tradition, Ajita is said to have been one of the sixteen mendicant disciples of the brAhmana ascetic BAvarĪ who visited the Buddha at the request of their teacher. Upon meeting the Buddha, Ajita saw that he was endowed with the thirty-two marks of a great man (MAHAPURUsALAKsAnA) and gained assurance that the Buddha's renown was well deserved. Starting with Ajita, all sixteen of the mendicants asked the Buddha questions. Ajita's question is preserved as the AjitamAnavapucchA in the ParAyanavagga of the SUTTANIPATA. At the end of the Buddha's explanations, Ajita and sixteen thousand followers are said to have become worthy ones (ARHAT) and entered the SAMGHA. Ajita returned to his old teacher BAvarī and recounted to him what happened. BAvarī himself converted and later became a nonreturner (ANAGAMIN). ¶ Another Ajita is Ajita-Kesakambala (Ajita of the Hair Blanket), a prominent leader of the LOKAYATA (Naturalist) school of Indian wandering religious (sRAMAnA) during the Buddha's time, who is mentioned occasionally in Buddhist scriptures. His doctrine is recounted in the PAli SAMANNAPHALASUTTA, where he is claimed to have denied the efficacy of moral cause and effect because of his materialist rejection of any prospect of transmigration or rebirth. ¶ An Ajita also traditionally appears as the fifteenth on the list of the sixteen ARHAT elders (sOdAsASTHAVIRA), who were charged by the Buddha with protecting his dispensation until the advent of the next buddha, MAITREYA. Ajita is said to reside on Mt. GṚDHRAKutA (Vulture Peak) with 1,500 disciples. He is known in Chinese as the "long-eyebrowed arhat" (changmei luohan) because he is said to have been born with long white eyebrows. In CHANYUE GUANXIU's standard Chinese depiction, Ajita is shown sitting on a rock, with both hands holding his right knee; his mouth is open, with his tongue and teeth exposed. East Asian images also sometimes show him leaning on a staff. In Tibetan iconography, he holds his two hands in his lap in DHYANAMUDRA. ¶ Ajita is finally a common epithet of the bodhisattva MAITREYA, used mostly when he is invoked in direct address.

Alavaka. Name of a man-eating ogre (P. yakkha; S. YAKsA) whose conversion by the Buddha is described in PAli materials. Alavaka dwelt in a tree near the town Alavi and had been granted a boon by the king of the yakkhas that allowed him to eat anyone who came into the shadow of his tree. Even the sight of the ogre rendered the bodies of men as soft as butter. His tree was surrounded by a stout wall and covered with a metal net. Above it lay the sky passage to the HimAlaya mountains traversed by those who possessed supernatural powers. Ascetics seeing the strange abode would descend out of curiosity, whereupon Alavaka would ask them knotty questions about their beliefs. When they could not answer, he would penetrate their hearts with his mind and drive them mad. Alavaka is most famous for the promise he extorted from the king of Alavi, whom he captured while the monarch was on a hunting expedition. In order to save his life, the king promised to supply the ogre regularly with a human victim. The king first delivered convicted criminals for sacrifice, but when there were no more, he ordered each family to supply one child at the appointed time. Pregnant women fearing for their unborn infants fled the city, until after twelve years, only one child, the king's own son, remained. The child was duly made ready and sent to the ogre. The Buddha knew of the impending event and went to the ogre's abode to intervene. While Alavaka was absent, the Buddha sat upon the ogre's throne and preached to his harem. Informed of the Buddha's brazenness, Alavaka returned and attacked the Buddha with his superpowers to remove him from the throne, but to no avail. The Buddha only left when politely asked to do so. Still unwilling to admit defeat, the ogre invited the Buddha to answer questions put to him. So skillfully did the Buddha answer that Alavaka shouted for joy and then and there became a stream-enterer (SROTAAPANNA; P. sotApanna). When the king's entourage delivered the young prince for sacrifice, Alavaka, ashamed of his past deeds, surrendered the boy to the Buddha, who in turn handed him back to the king's men. Because he was handed from one to another, the boy was known as Hatthaka (Little Hand, or Handful) and in adulthood became one of the chief lay patrons of the Buddha. When the populace heard of the ogre's conversion, they were overjoyed and built a shrine for him, where they offered flowers and perfumes daily. Alavaka is named in the AtAnAtiyasutta as one of several yaksas who may be entreated for protection against dangers.

AlayavijNAna. (T. kun gzhi rnam par shes pa; C. alaiyeshi/zangshi; J. arayashiki/zoshiki; K. aroeyasik/changsik 阿賴耶識/藏識). In Sanskrit, "storehouse consciousness" or "foundational consciousness"; the eighth of the eight types of consciousness (VIJNANA) posited in the YOGACARA school. All forms of Buddhist thought must be able to uphold (1) the principle of the cause and effect of actions (KARMAN), the structure of SAMSARA, and the process of liberation (VIMOKsA) from it, while also upholding (2) the fundamental doctrines of impermanence (ANITYA) and the lack of a perduring self (ANATMAN). The most famous and comprehensive solution to the range of problems created by these apparently contradictory elements is the AlayavijNAna, often translated as the "storehouse consciousness." This doctrinal concept derives in India from the YOGACARA school, especially from ASAnGA and VASUBANDHU and their commentators. Whereas other schools of Buddhist thought posit six consciousnesses (vijNAna), in the YogAcAra system there are eight, adding the afflicted mind (KLIstAMANAS) and the AlayavijNAna. It appears that once the SarvAstivAda's school's eponymous doctrine of the existence of dharmas in the past, present, and future was rejected by most other schools of Buddhism, some doctrinal solution was required to provide continuity between past and future, including past and future lifetimes. The alAyavijNAna provides that solution as a foundational form of consciousness, itself ethically neutral, where all the seeds (BIJA) of all deeds done in the past reside, and from which they fructify in the form of experience. Thus, the AlayavijNAna is said to pervade the entire body during life, to withdraw from the body at the time of death (with the extremities becoming cold as it slowly exits), and to carry the complete karmic record to the next rebirth destiny. Among the many doctrinal problems that the presence of the AlayavijNAna is meant to solve, it appears that one of its earliest references is in the context not of rebirth but in that of the NIRODHASAMAPATTI, or "trance of cessation," where all conscious activity, that is, all CITTA and CAITTA, cease. Although the meditator may appear as if dead during that trance, consciousness is able to be reactivated because the AlayavijNAna remains present throughout, with the seeds of future experience lying dormant in it, available to bear fruit when the person arises from meditation. The AlayavijNAna thus provides continuity from moment to moment within a given lifetime and from lifetime to lifetime, all providing the link between an action performed in the past and its effect experienced in the present, despite protracted periods of latency between seed and fruition. In YogAcAra, where the existence of an external world is denied, when a seed bears fruit, it bifurcates into an observing subject and an observed object, with that object falsely imagined to exist separately from the consciousness that perceives it. The response by the subject to that object produces more seeds, either positive, negative, or neutral, which are deposited in the AlayavijNAna, remaining there until they in turn bear their fruit. Although said to be neutral and a kind of silent observer of experience, the AlayavijNAna is thus also the recipient of karmic seeds as they are produced, receiving impressions (VASANA) from them. In the context of Buddhist soteriological discussions, the AlayavijNAna explains why contaminants (ASRAVA) remain even when unwholesome states of mind are not actively present, and it provides the basis for the mistaken belief in self (Atman). Indeed, it is said that the klistamanas perceives the AlayavijNAna as a perduring self. The AlayavijNAna also explains how progress on the path can continue over several lifetimes and why some follow the path of the sRAVAKA and others the path of the BODHISATTVA; it is said that one's lineage (GOTRA) is in fact a seed that resides permanently in the AlayavijNAna. In India, the doctrine of the AlayavijNAna was controversial, with some members of the YogAcAra school rejecting its existence, arguing that the functions it is meant to serve can be accommodated within the standard six-consciousness system. The MADHYAMAKA, notably figures such as BHAVAVIVEKA and CANDRAKĪRTI, attacked the YogAcAra proponents of the AlayavijNAna, describing it as a form of self, which all Buddhists must reject. ¶ In East Asia, the AlayavijNAna was conceived as one possible solution to persistent questions in Buddhism about karmic continuity and about the origin of ignorance (MOHA). For the latter, some explanation was required as to how sentient beings, whom many strands of MAHAYANA claimed were inherently enlightened, began to presume themselves to be ignorant. Debates raged within different strands of the Chinese YogAcAra traditions as to whether the AlayavijNAna is intrinsically impure because of the presence of these seeds of past experience (the position of the Northern branch of the Chinese DI LUN ZONG and the Chinese FAXIANG tradition of XUANZANG and KUIJI), or whether the AlayavijNAna included both pure and impure elements because it involved also the functioning of thusness, or TATHATA (the Southern Di lun school's position). Since the sentient being has had a veritable interminable period of time in which to collect an infinity of seeds-which would essentially make it impossible to hope to counteract them one by one-the mainstream strands of YogAcAra viewed the mind as nevertheless tending inveterately toward impurity (dausthulya). This impurity could only be overcome through a "transformation of the basis" (AsRAYAPARAVṚTTI), which would completely eradicate the karmic seeds stored in the storehouse consciousness, liberating the bodhisattva from the effects of all past actions and freeing him to project compassion liberally throughout the world. In some later interpretations, this transformation would then convert the AlayavijNAna into a ninth "immaculate consciousness" (AMALAVIJNANA). See also DASHENG QIXIN LUN.

alligation ::: n. --> The act of tying together or attaching by some bond, or the state of being attached.
A rule relating to the solution of questions concerning the compounding or mixing of different ingredients, or ingredients of different qualities or values.


Also virtual assistant or personal digital assistant. ::: A software agent that can perform tasks or services for an individual based on verbal commands. Sometimes the term "chatbot" is used to refer to virtual assistants generally or specifically accessed by online chat (or in some cases online chat programs that are exclusively for entertainment purposes). Some virtual assistants are able to interpret human speech and respond via synthesized voices. Users can ask their assistants questions, control home automation devices and media playback via voice, and manage other basic tasks such as email, to-do lists, and calendars with verbal commands.[196]

analyse: Often used in exam or essay questions, the term means to closelyexamine various parts of something or a whole text.

Ananda. (T. Kun dga' bo; C. Anan[tuo]; J. Anan[da]; K. Anan[da] 阿難[陀]). In Sanskrit and PAli, literally "Bliss," the name of the Buddha's cousin, longtime attendant, and one of his chief disciples. According to tradition, in his previous life, he was a god in the TUsITA heaven, who was born on the same day and into the same sAKYA clan as the BODHISATTVA and future buddha who was born as prince SIDDHARTHA. Ananda was born as the son of Amṛtodana, the brother of king sUDDHODANA. He was thus the Buddha's cousin and the brother of DEVADATTA. When the Buddha returned to his home town of KAPILAVASTU in the second year after his enlightenment, many of the sAkyan men, such as Ananda and Devadatta, wished to renounce the householder life and become the Buddha's disciples as monks. Not long after his ordination, Ananda became a SROTAAPANNA upon hearing a sermon by PuRnA. The Buddha did not have a personal attendant for the first twenty years after his enlightenment, with various monks occasionally offering various services to him. But after two decades of these ad hoc arrangements, the Buddha finally asked for someone to volunteer to be his personal attendant; all the monks volunteered except Ananda, who said that he did not do so because the Buddha would choose the correct person regardless of who volunteered. The Buddha selected Ananda, who accepted on the following conditions: the Buddha was never to give him any special food or robes that he had received as gifts; the Buddha was not to provide him with a special monk's cell; and the Buddha was not to include him in dining invitations he received from the laity. Ananda made these conditions in order to prevent anyone from claiming that he received special treatment because of serving as the Buddha's attendant. In addition, he asked to be allowed to accept invitations on behalf of the Buddha; he asked to be allowed to bring to the Buddha those who came from great distances to see him; he asked to be able to bring any questions he had to the Buddha; and he asked that the Buddha repeat to him any doctrine that had been taught in his absence. Ananda saw these latter conditions as the true advantages of serving the Buddha. For the next twenty-five years, Ananda served the Buddha with great devotion, bringing him water, sweeping his cell, washing his feet, rubbing his body, sewing his robes, and accompanying him wherever he went. He guarded the Buddha's cell at night, carrying a staff and a torch, in order to make sure that his sleep was not disturbed and to be ready should the Buddha need him. As the Buddha grew older and more infirm, Ananda provided devoted care, despite the fact that the two were exactly the same age. Because Ananda was constantly in the Buddha's presence, he played a key role in many famous events of the early dispensation. For example, it was Ananda who, on behalf of MAHAPRAJAPATI, requested that women be allowed to enter the SAMGHA as nuns, persisting in his request despite the Buddha's initial refusal. He is therefore remembered especially fondly by the order of BHIKsUnĪs, and it is said that he often preached to nuns. In a famous tale reproduced in various sources, the daughter of a woman named MAtangī attempted to seduce Ananda with the help of her mother's magical powers, only to come to realize her wrongdoing with the intervention of the Buddha. Toward the end of his life, the Buddha mentioned to Ananda that a buddha could live for a KALPA or until the end of the kalpa if he were asked to do so. (See CAPALACAITYA.) Ananda, distracted by MARA, failed to request the Buddha to do so, despite the Buddha mentioning this three times. Ananda was chastised for this blunder at the first council (see infra). Ananda figures prominently in the account of the Buddha's last days in the MAHAPARINIBBANASUTTA, weeping at the knowledge that the Buddha was about to die and being consoled by him. Ananda was known for his extraordinary powers of memory; he is said to have heard all 84,000 sermon topics (82,000 taught by the Buddha and 2,000 taught by other disciples) and was able to memorize 15,000 stanzas without omitting a syllable. He therefore played a key role in the recitation of the Buddha's teachings at the first council (SAMGĪTI; see COUNCIL, FIRST) held at RAJAGṚHA shortly after the Buddha's death. However, MAHAKAsYAPA, who convened the council, specified that all five hundred monks in attendance must be ARHATs, and Ananda was not. On the night before the opening of the council, Ananda achieved the enlightenment of an arhat as he was lying down to sleep, as his head fell to the pillow and his feet rose from the ground. He is therefore famous for achieving enlightenment in none of the four traditional postures (ĪRYAPATHA): walking, standing, sitting, or lying down. As an arhat, Ananda was welcomed to the council, where he recounted all the words of the Buddha (except those concerning the VINAYA, or monastic rules, which were recited by UPALI). For this reason, most SuTRAs open with the words, "Thus have I heard" (EVAM MAYA sRUTAM); the "I" is usually Ananda. (For this reason, Ananda is also known in China as Duowen Diyi, "First in Vast Hearing" or "He Who Heard the Most.") After the Buddha's death, the order of monks brought five charges against Ananda: (1) the Buddha had said that after his passing, the monks could disregard the minor precepts, but Ananda failed to ask him which those were; thus, all the precepts had to be followed; (2) Ananda had once stepped on the Buddha's robe when sewing it; (3) Ananda had allowed women to honor the Buddha's naked body after his death and their tears had fallen on his feet; (4) Ananda failed to ask the Buddha to live on for the rest of the kalpa; and (5) Ananda urged the Buddha to admit women to the order. Ananda replied that he saw no fault in any of these deeds but agreed to confess them. According to FAXIAN, when Ananda was 120 years old, he set out from MAGADHA to VAIsALĪ in order to die. Seeking his relics (sARĪRA), AJATAsATRU followed him to the Rohīni River, while a group from VaisAlī awaited him on the other bank. Not wishing to disappoint either group, Ananda levitated to the middle of the river in the meditative posture, preached the dharma, and then meditated on the TEJOKASInA, which prompted his body to burst into flames, with the relics dividing into two parts, one landing on each bank of the river. Ananda has long been one of the most beloved figures in the history of Buddhism, in part because he was not the wisest of the Buddha's disciples but showed unstinting devotion to the Buddha, always seeking to understand him correctly and to bring his teachings to as many people as possible.

And perfect sincerity comes when at the centre of the being there is the consciousness of the divine Presence, the consciousness of the divine Will, and when the entire being, like a luminous, clear, transparent whole, expresses this in all its details. This indeed is true sincerity. CWMCE Questions and Answers Vol. 6*

And perfect sincerity comes when at the centre of the being there is the consciousness of the divine Presence, the consciousness of the divine Will, and when the entire being, like a luminous, clear, transparent whole, expresses this in all its details. This indeed is true sincerity. CWMCE Questions and Answers Vol. 6

Andrew File System "operating system, storage" (AFS) The distributed {file system} of the {Andrew Project}, adopted by the {OSF} as part of their {Distributed Computing Environment}. {Frequently Asked Questions (http://transarc.com/Product/AFS/FAQ/faq.html)}. (1994-11-24)

AngulimAlīyasutra. (T. Sor mo'i phreng ba la phan pa'i mdo; C. Yangjuemoluo jing; J. okutsumarakyo; K. Anggulmara kyong 央掘摩羅經). In Sanskrit, "The Discourse on AnGULIMALA"; a TATHAGATAGARBHA sutra that tells the story of AngulimAla. AngulimAla's story (see previous entry) also serves here as a frame for several sermons concerning the EKAYANA and tathAgatagarbha doctrine. When asked by the Buddha about the meaning of "one learning," for example, AngulimAla replies that the path to awakening consists of a single vehicle (ekayAna), a single act of taking refuge, and a single truth. In reply to the BODHISATTVA MANJUsRĪ's questions about the meaning of tathAgatagarbha, the Buddha teaches that every sentient being possesses the tathAgatagarbha, which remains concealed (S. saMdhi/abhisaMdhi, C. yinfu) and covered by afflictions (KLEsA); this is one of the two major interpretations of the concept. The Buddha proclaims the tathAgatagarbha to be the only true foundation of the bodhisattva path.

animal research: the use of non-human animals in empirical research, on the basis of greater control, objectivity and similar genetic makeup. However, the use of non-human animals has raised a number of ethical and moral questions.

Anthropology, Philosophical: (in Max Scheler) The philosophical science concerned with the questions about the essence of man. -- P.A.S.

apocrypha. (C. yijing/weijing; J. gikyo/gikyo; K. ŭigyong/wigyong 疑經/僞經). Buddhist scholars have appropriated (though not without some controversy) the Judeo-Christian religious term "apocrypha" to refer to indigenous sutras composed outside the Indian cultural sphere, but on the model of translated Indian or Serindian scriptures. Such scriptures were sometimes composed in conjunction with a revelatory experience, but many were intentionally forged using their false ascription to the Buddha or other enlightened figures as a literary device to enhance both their authority and their prospects of being accepted as authentic scriptures. Many of the literary genres that characterize Judeo-Christian apocrypha are found also in Buddhist apocrypha, including the historical, didactic, devotional, and apocalyptic. Both were also often composed in milieus of social upheaval or messianic revivalism. As Buddhism moved outside of its Indian homeland, its scriptures had to be translated into various foreign languages, creating openings for indigenous scriptures to be composed in imitation of these translated texts. Ferreting out such inauthentic indigenous scripture from authentic imported scripture occupied Buddhist bibliographical cataloguers (see JINGLU), who were charged with confirming the authenticity of the Buddhist textual transmission. For the Chinese, the main criterion governing scriptural authenticity was clear evidence that the text had been brought from the "Outer Regions" (C. waiyu), meaning India or Central Asia; this concern with authenticating a text partially accounts for why Chinese translations of Buddhist scriptures typically included a colophon immediately following the title, giving the name of the translator (who was also sometimes the importer of the scripture), along with the place where, and often the imperial reign era during which the translation was made. Scriptures for which there was no such proof were in danger of being labeled as texts of "suspect" or "suspicious" authenticity (yijing) or condemned as blatantly "spurious" or "counterfeit" scriptures (weijing). The presence of indigenous cultural elements, such as yin-yang cosmology, local spirits, or rituals and liturgies associated with folk religion could also be enough to condemn a scripture as "spurious." In Tibet, "treasure texts" (GTER MA) were scriptures or esoteric teachings attributed to enlightened beings or lineage holders that purported to have been buried or hidden away until they could be rediscovered by qualified individuals. Because of their association with a revelatory experience, such "treasure texts" carried authority similar to that of translated scripture. Different classifications of apocryphal scriptures have been proposed, based on genre and style, social history, and doctrinal filiations. In one of the ironies of the Buddhist textual transmission, however, many of the scriptures most influential in East Asian Buddhism have been discovered to be indigenous "apocrypha," not translated scriptures. Such indigenous scriptures were able to appeal to a native audience in ways that translated Indian materials could not, and the sustained popularity of many such "suspect" texts eventually led cataloguers to include them in the canon, despite continuing qualms about their authenticity. Such "canonical apocrypha" include such seminal scriptures as the FANWANG JING ("BrahmA's Net Sutra"), RENWANG JING ("Humane Kings Sutra"), and the YUANJUE JING ("Perfect Enlightenment Sutra"), as well as treatises like the DASHENG QIXIN LUN ("Awakening of Faith"). Similar questions of authenticity can be raised regarding scriptures of Indian provenance, since it is virtually impossible to trace with certainty which of the teachings ascribed to the Buddha in mainstream canonical collections (TRIPItAKA) such as the PAli canon can be historically attributed to him. Similarly, the MAHAYANA sutras, which are also attributed to the Buddha even though they were composed centuries after his death, are considered apocryphal by many of the MAINSTREAM BUDDHIST SCHOOLS, including the modern THERAVADA tradition; however, modern scholars do not use the term "Buddhist apocrypha" to describe MahAyAna texts.

apposer ::: n. --> An examiner; one whose business is to put questions. Formerly, in the English Court of Exchequer, an officer who audited the sheriffs&

appose ::: v. t. --> To place opposite or before; to put or apply (one thing to another).
To place in juxtaposition or proximity.
To put questions to; to examine; to try. [Obs.] See Pose.


"Art is a living harmony and beauty that must be expressed in all the movements of existence. This manifestation of beauty and harmony is part of the Divine realisation upon earth, perhaps even its greatest part.” Questions and Answers, MCW Vol. 3.

“Art is a living harmony and beauty that must be expressed in all the movements of existence. This manifestation of beauty and harmony is part of the Divine realisation upon earth, perhaps even its greatest part.” Questions and Answers, MCW Vol. 3.

Aufklärung: In general, this German word and its English equivalent Enlightenment denote the self-emancipation of man from mere authority, prejudice, convention and tradition, with an insistence on freer thinking about problems uncritically referred to these other agencies. According to Kant's famous definition "Enlightenment is the liberation of man from his self-caused state of minority, which is the incapacity of using one's understanding without the direction of another. This state of minority is caused when its source lies not in the lack of understanding, but in the lack of determination and courage to use it without the assistance of another" (Was ist Aufklärung? 1784). In its historical perspective, the Aufklärung refers to the cultural atmosphere and contrlbutions of the 18th century, especially in Germany, France and England [which affected also American thought with B. Franklin, T. Paine and the leaders of the Revolution]. It crystallized tendencies emphasized by the Renaissance, and quickened by modern scepticism and empiricism, and by the great scientific discoveries of the 17th century. This movement, which was represented by men of varying tendencies, gave an impetus to general learning, a more popular philosophy, empirical science, scriptural criticism, social and political thought. More especially, the word Aufklärung is applied to the German contributions to 18th century culture. In philosophy, its principal representatives are G. E. Lessing (1729-81) who believed in free speech and in a methodical criticism of religion, without being a free-thinker; H. S. Reimarus (1694-1768) who expounded a naturalistic philosophy and denied the supernatural origin of Christianity; Moses Mendelssohn (1729-86) who endeavoured to mitigate prejudices and developed a popular common-sense philosophy; Chr. Wolff (1679-1754), J. A. Eberhard (1739-1809) who followed the Leibnizian rationalism and criticized unsuccessfully Kant and Fichte; and J. G. Herder (1744-1803) who was best as an interpreter of others, but whose intuitional suggestions have borne fruit in the organic correlation of the sciences, and in questions of language in relation to human nature and to national character. The works of Kant and Goethe mark the culmination of the German Enlightenment. Cf. J. G. Hibben, Philosophy of the Enlightenment, 1910. --T.G. Augustinianism: The thought of St. Augustine of Hippo, and of his followers. Born in 354 at Tagaste in N. Africa, A. studied rhetoric in Carthage, taught that subject there and in Rome and Milan. Attracted successively to Manicheanism, Scepticism, and Neo-Platontsm, A. eventually found intellectual and moral peace with his conversion to Christianity in his thirty-fourth year. Returning to Africa, he established numerous monasteries, became a priest in 391, Bishop of Hippo in 395. Augustine wrote much: On Free Choice, Confessions, Literal Commentary on Genesis, On the Trinity, and City of God, are his most noted works. He died in 430.   St. Augustine's characteristic method, an inward empiricism which has little in common with later variants, starts from things without, proceeds within to the self, and moves upwards to God. These three poles of the Augustinian dialectic are polarized by his doctrine of moderate illuminism. An ontological illumination is required to explain the metaphysical structure of things. The truth of judgment demands a noetic illumination. A moral illumination is necessary in the order of willing; and so, too, an lllumination of art in the aesthetic order. Other illuminations which transcend the natural order do not come within the scope of philosophy; they provide the wisdoms of theology and mysticism. Every being is illuminated ontologically by number, form, unity and its derivatives, and order. A thing is what it is, in so far as it is more or less flooded by the light of these ontological constituents.   Sensation is necessary in order to know material substances. There is certainly an action of the external object on the body and a corresponding passion of the body, but, as the soul is superior to the body and can suffer nothing from its inferior, sensation must be an action, not a passion, of the soul. Sensation takes place only when the observing soul, dynamically on guard throughout the body, is vitally attentive to the changes suffered by the body. However, an adequate basis for the knowledge of intellectual truth is not found in sensation alone. In order to know, for example, that a body is multiple, the idea of unity must be present already, otherwise its multiplicity could not be recognized. If numbers are not drawn in by the bodily senses which perceive only the contingent and passing, is the mind the source of the unchanging and necessary truth of numbers? The mind of man is also contingent and mutable, and cannot give what it does not possess. As ideas are not innate, nor remembered from a previous existence of the soul, they can be accounted for only by an immutable source higher than the soul. In so far as man is endowed with an intellect, he is a being naturally illuminated by God, Who may be compared to an intelligible sun. The human intellect does not create the laws of thought; it finds them and submits to them. The immediate intuition of these normative rules does not carry any content, thus any trace of ontologism is avoided.   Things have forms because they have numbers, and they have being in so far as they possess form. The sufficient explanation of all formable, and hence changeable, things is an immutable and eternal form which is unrestricted in time and space. The forms or ideas of all things actually existing in the world are in the things themselves (as rationes seminales) and in the Divine Mind (as rationes aeternae). Nothing could exist without unity, for to be is no other than to be one. There is a unity proper to each level of being, a unity of the material individual and species, of the soul, and of that union of souls in the love of the same good, which union constitutes the city. Order, also, is ontologically imbibed by all beings. To tend to being is to tend to order; order secures being, disorder leads to non-being. Order is the distribution which allots things equal and unequal each to its own place and integrates an ensemble of parts in accordance with an end. Hence, peace is defined as the tranquillity of order. Just as things have their being from their forms, the order of parts, and their numerical relations, so too their beauty is not something superadded, but the shining out of all their intelligible co-ingredients.   S. Aurelii Augustini, Opera Omnia, Migne, PL 32-47; (a critical edition of some works will be found in the Corpus Scriptorum Ecclesiasticorum Latinorum, Vienna). Gilson, E., Introd. a l'etude de s. Augustin, (Paris, 1931) contains very good bibliography up to 1927, pp. 309-331. Pope, H., St. Augustine of Hippo, (London, 1937). Chapman, E., St. Augustine's Philos. of Beauty, (N. Y., 1939). Figgis, J. N., The Political Aspects of St. Augustine's "City of God", (London, 1921). --E.C. Authenticity: In a general sense, genuineness, truth according to its title. It involves sometimes a direct and personal characteristic (Whitehead speaks of "authentic feelings").   This word also refers to problems of fundamental criticism involving title, tradition, authorship and evidence. These problems are vital in theology, and basic in scholarship with regard to the interpretation of texts and doctrines. --T.G. Authoritarianism: That theory of knowledge which maintains that the truth of any proposition is determined by the fact of its having been asserted by a certain esteemed individual or group of individuals. Cf. H. Newman, Grammar of Assent; C. S. Peirce, "Fixation of Belief," in Chance, Love and Logic, ed. M. R. Cohen. --A.C.B. Autistic thinking: Absorption in fanciful or wishful thinking without proper control by objective or factual material; day dreaming; undisciplined imagination. --A.C.B. Automaton Theory: Theory that a living organism may be considered a mere machine. See Automatism. Automatism: (Gr. automatos, self-moving) (a) In metaphysics: Theory that animal and human organisms are automata, that is to say, are machines governed by the laws of physics and mechanics. Automatism, as propounded by Descartes, considered the lower animals to be pure automata (Letter to Henry More, 1649) and man a machine controlled by a rational soul (Treatise on Man). Pure automatism for man as well as animals is advocated by La Mettrie (Man, a Machine, 1748). During the Nineteenth century, automatism, combined with epiphenomenalism, was advanced by Hodgson, Huxley and Clifford. (Cf. W. James, The Principles of Psychology, Vol. I, ch. V.) Behaviorism, of the extreme sort, is the most recent version of automatism (See Behaviorism).   (b) In psychology: Psychological automatism is the performance of apparently purposeful actions, like automatic writing without the superintendence of the conscious mind. L. C. Rosenfield, From Beast Machine to Man Machine, N. Y., 1941. --L.W. Automatism, Conscious: The automatism of Hodgson, Huxley, and Clifford which considers man a machine to which mind or consciousness is superadded; the mind of man is, however, causally ineffectual. See Automatism; Epiphenomenalism. --L.W. Autonomy: (Gr. autonomia, independence) Freedom consisting in self-determination and independence of all external constraint. See Freedom. Kant defines autonomy of the will as subjection of the will to its own law, the categorical imperative, in contrast to heteronomy, its subjection to a law or end outside the rational will. (Fundamental Principles of the Metaphysics of Morals, § 2.) --L.W. Autonomy of ethics: A doctrine, usually propounded by intuitionists, that ethics is not a part of, and cannot be derived from, either metaphysics or any of the natural or social sciences. See Intuitionism, Metaphysical ethics, Naturalistic ethics. --W.K.F. Autonomy of the will: (in Kant's ethics) The freedom of the rational will to legislate to itself, which constitutes the basis for the autonomy of the moral law. --P.A.S. Autonymy: In the terminology introduced by Carnap, a word (phrase, symbol, expression) is autonymous if it is used as a name for itself --for the geometric shape, sound, etc. which it exemplifies, or for the word as a historical and grammatical unit. Autonymy is thus the same as the Scholastic suppositio matertalis (q. v.), although the viewpoint is different. --A.C. Autotelic: (from Gr. autos, self, and telos, end) Said of any absorbing activity engaged in for its own sake (cf. German Selbstzweck), such as higher mathematics, chess, etc. In aesthetics, applied to creative art and play which lack any conscious reference to the accomplishment of something useful. In the view of some, it may constitute something beneficent in itself of which the person following his art impulse (q.v.) or playing is unaware, thus approaching a heterotelic (q.v.) conception. --K.F.L. Avenarius, Richard: (1843-1896) German philosopher who expressed his thought in an elaborate and novel terminology in the hope of constructing a symbolic language for philosophy, like that of mathematics --the consequence of his Spinoza studies. As the most influential apostle of pure experience, the posltivistic motive reaches in him an extreme position. Insisting on the biologic and economic function of thought, he thought the true method of science is to cure speculative excesses by a return to pure experience devoid of all assumptions. Philosophy is the scientific effort to exclude from knowledge all ideas not included in the given. Its task is to expel all extraneous elements in the given. His uncritical use of the category of the given and the nominalistic view that logical relations are created rather than discovered by thought, leads him to banish not only animism but also all of the categories, substance, causality, etc., as inventions of the mind. Explaining the evolution and devolution of the problematization and deproblematization of numerous ideas, and aiming to give the natural history of problems, Avenarius sought to show physiologically, psychologically and historically under what conditions they emerge, are challenged and are solved. He hypothesized a System C, a bodily and central nervous system upon which consciousness depends. R-values are the stimuli received from the world of objects. E-values are the statements of experience. The brain changes that continually oscillate about an ideal point of balance are termed Vitalerhaltungsmaximum. The E-values are differentiated into elements, to which the sense-perceptions or the content of experience belong, and characters, to which belongs everything which psychology describes as feelings and attitudes. Avenarius describes in symbolic form a series of states from balance to balance, termed vital series, all describing a series of changes in System C. Inequalities in the vital balance give rise to vital differences. According to his theory there are two vital series. It assumes a series of brain changes because parallel series of conscious states can be observed. The independent vital series are physical, and the dependent vital series are psychological. The two together are practically covariants. In the case of a process as a dependent vital series three stages can be noted: first, the appearance of the problem, expressed as strain, restlessness, desire, fear, doubt, pain, repentance, delusion; the second, the continued effort and struggle to solve the problem; and finally, the appearance of the solution, characterized by abating anxiety, a feeling of triumph and enjoyment.   Corresponding to these three stages of the dependent series are three stages of the independent series: the appearance of the vital difference and a departure from balance in the System C, the continuance with an approximate vital difference, and lastly, the reduction of the vital difference to zero, the return to stability. By making room for dependent and independent experiences, he showed that physics regards experience as independent of the experiencing indlvidual, and psychology views experience as dependent upon the individual. He greatly influenced Mach and James (q.v.). See Avenarius, Empirio-criticism, Experience, pure. Main works: Kritik der reinen Erfahrung; Der menschliche Weltbegriff. --H.H. Averroes: (Mohammed ibn Roshd) Known to the Scholastics as The Commentator, and mentioned as the author of il gran commento by Dante (Inf. IV. 68) he was born 1126 at Cordova (Spain), studied theology, law, medicine, mathematics, and philosophy, became after having been judge in Sevilla and Cordova, physician to the khalifah Jaqub Jusuf, and charged with writing a commentary on the works of Aristotle. Al-mansur, Jusuf's successor, deprived him of his place because of accusations of unorthodoxy. He died 1198 in Morocco. Averroes is not so much an original philosopher as the author of a minute commentary on the whole works of Aristotle. His procedure was imitated later by Aquinas. In his interpretation of Aristotelian metaphysics Averroes teaches the coeternity of a universe created ex nihilo. This doctrine formed together with the notion of a numerical unity of the active intellect became one of the controversial points in the discussions between the followers of Albert-Thomas and the Latin Averroists. Averroes assumed that man possesses only a disposition for receiving the intellect coming from without; he identifies this disposition with the possible intellect which thus is not truly intellectual by nature. The notion of one intellect common to all men does away with the doctrine of personal immortality. Another doctrine which probably was emphasized more by the Latin Averroists (and by the adversaries among Averroes' contemporaries) is the famous statement about "two-fold truth", viz. that a proposition may be theologically true and philosophically false and vice versa. Averroes taught that religion expresses the (higher) philosophical truth by means of religious imagery; the "two-truth notion" came apparently into the Latin text through a misinterpretation on the part of the translators. The works of Averroes were one of the main sources of medieval Aristotelianlsm, before and even after the original texts had been translated. The interpretation the Latin Averroists found in their texts of the "Commentator" spread in spite of opposition and condemnation. See Averroism, Latin. Averroes, Opera, Venetiis, 1553. M. Horten, Die Metaphysik des Averroes, 1912. P. Mandonnet, Siger de Brabant et l'Averroisme Latin, 2d ed., Louvain, 1911. --R.A. Averroism, Latin: The commentaries on Aristotle written by Averroes (Ibn Roshd) in the 12th century became known to the Western scholars in translations by Michael Scottus, Hermannus Alemannus, and others at the beginning of the 13th century. Many works of Aristotle were also known first by such translations from Arabian texts, though there existed translations from the Greek originals at the same time (Grabmann). The Averroistic interpretation of Aristotle was held to be the true one by many; but already Albert the Great pointed out several notions which he felt to be incompatible with the principles of Christian philosophy, although he relied for the rest on the "Commentator" and apparently hardly used any other text. Aquinas, basing his studies mostly on a translation from the Greek texts, procured for him by William of Moerbecke, criticized the Averroistic interpretation in many points. But the teachings of the Commentator became the foundation for a whole school of philosophers, represented first by the Faculty of Arts at Paris. The most prominent of these scholars was Siger of Brabant. The philosophy of these men was condemned on March 7th, 1277 by Stephen Tempier, Bishop of Paris, after a first condemnation of Aristotelianism in 1210 had gradually come to be neglected. The 219 theses condemned in 1277, however, contain also some of Aquinas which later were generally recognized an orthodox. The Averroistic propositions which aroused the criticism of the ecclesiastic authorities and which had been opposed with great energy by Albert and Thomas refer mostly to the following points: The co-eternity of the created word; the numerical identity of the intellect in all men, the so-called two-fold-truth theory stating that a proposition may be philosophically true although theologically false. Regarding the first point Thomas argued that there is no philosophical proof, either for the co-eternity or against it; creation is an article of faith. The unity of intellect was rejected as incompatible with the true notion of person and with personal immortality. It is doubtful whether Averroes himself held the two-truths theory; it was, however, taught by the Latin Averroists who, notwithstanding the opposition of the Church and the Thomistic philosophers, gained a great influence and soon dominated many universities, especially in Italy. Thomas and his followers were convinced that they interpreted Aristotle correctly and that the Averroists were wrong; one has, however, to admit that certain passages in Aristotle allow for the Averroistic interpretation, especially in regard to the theory of intellect.   Lit.: P. Mandonnet, Siger de Brabant et l'Averroisme Latin au XIIIe Siecle, 2d. ed. Louvain, 1911; M. Grabmann, Forschungen über die lateinischen Aristotelesübersetzungen des XIII. Jahrhunderts, Münster 1916 (Beitr. z. Gesch. Phil. d. MA. Vol. 17, H. 5-6). --R.A. Avesta: See Zendavesta. Avicehron: (or Avencebrol, Salomon ibn Gabirol) The first Jewish philosopher in Spain, born in Malaga 1020, died about 1070, poet, philosopher, and moralist. His main work, Fons vitae, became influential and was much quoted by the Scholastics. It has been preserved only in the Latin translation by Gundissalinus. His doctrine of a spiritual substance individualizing also the pure spirits or separate forms was opposed by Aquinas already in his first treatise De ente, but found favor with the medieval Augustinians also later in the 13th century. He also teaches the necessity of a mediator between God and the created world; such a mediator he finds in the Divine Will proceeding from God and creating, conserving, and moving the world. His cosmogony shows a definitely Neo-Platonic shade and assumes a series of emanations. Cl. Baeumker, Avencebrolis Fons vitae. Beitr. z. Gesch. d. Philos. d. MA. 1892-1895, Vol. I. Joh. Wittman, Die Stellung des hl. Thomas von Aquino zu Avencebrol, ibid. 1900. Vol. III. --R.A. Avicenna: (Abu Ali al Hosain ibn Abdallah ibn Sina) Born 980 in the country of Bocchara, began to write in young years, left more than 100 works, taught in Ispahan, was physician to several Persian princes, and died at Hamadan in 1037. His fame as physician survived his influence as philosopher in the Occident. His medical works were printed still in the 17th century. His philosophy is contained in 18 vols. of a comprehensive encyclopedia, following the tradition of Al Kindi and Al Farabi. Logic, Physics, Mathematics and Metaphysics form the parts of this work. His philosophy is Aristotelian with noticeable Neo-Platonic influences. His doctrine of the universal existing ante res in God, in rebus as the universal nature of the particulars, and post res in the human mind by way of abstraction became a fundamental thesis of medieval Aristotelianism. He sharply distinguished between the logical and the ontological universal, denying to the latter the true nature of form in the composite. The principle of individuation is matter, eternally existent. Latin translations attributed to Avicenna the notion that existence is an accident to essence (see e.g. Guilelmus Parisiensis, De Universo). The process adopted by Avicenna was one of paraphrasis of the Aristotelian texts with many original thoughts interspersed. His works were translated into Latin by Dominicus Gundissalinus (Gondisalvi) with the assistance of Avendeath ibn Daud. This translation started, when it became more generally known, the "revival of Aristotle" at the end of the 12th and the beginning of the 13th century. Albert the Great and Aquinas professed, notwithstanding their critical attitude, a great admiration for Avicenna whom the Arabs used to call the "third Aristotle". But in the Orient, Avicenna's influence declined soon, overcome by the opposition of the orthodox theologians. Avicenna, Opera, Venetiis, 1495; l508; 1546. M. Horten, Das Buch der Genesung der Seele, eine philosophische Enzyklopaedie Avicenna's; XIII. Teil: Die Metaphysik. Halle a. S. 1907-1909. R. de Vaux, Notes et textes sur l'Avicennisme Latin, Bibl. Thomiste XX, Paris, 1934. --R.A. Avidya: (Skr.) Nescience; ignorance; the state of mind unaware of true reality; an equivalent of maya (q.v.); also a condition of pure awareness prior to the universal process of evolution through gradual differentiation into the elements and factors of knowledge. --K.F.L. Avyakta: (Skr.) "Unmanifest", descriptive of or standing for brahman (q.v.) in one of its or "his" aspects, symbolizing the superabundance of the creative principle, or designating the condition of the universe not yet become phenomenal (aja, unborn). --K.F.L. Awareness: Consciousness considered in its aspect of act; an act of attentive awareness such as the sensing of a color patch or the feeling of pain is distinguished from the content attended to, the sensed color patch, the felt pain. The psychologlcal theory of intentional act was advanced by F. Brentano (Psychologie vom empirischen Standpunkte) and received its epistemological development by Meinong, Husserl, Moore, Laird and Broad. See Intentionalism. --L.W. Axiological: (Ger. axiologisch) In Husserl: Of or pertaining to value or theory of value (the latter term understood as including disvalue and value-indifference). --D.C. Axiological ethics: Any ethics which makes the theory of obligation entirely dependent on the theory of value, by making the determination of the rightness of an action wholly dependent on a consideration of the value or goodness of something, e.g. the action itself, its motive, or its consequences, actual or probable. Opposed to deontological ethics. See also teleological ethics. --W.K.F. Axiologic Realism: In metaphysics, theory that value as well as logic, qualities as well as relations, have their being and exist external to the mind and independently of it. Applicable to the philosophy of many though not all realists in the history of philosophy, from Plato to G. E. Moore, A. N. Whitehead, and N, Hartmann. --J.K.F. Axiology: (Gr. axios, of like value, worthy, and logos, account, reason, theory). Modern term for theory of value (the desired, preferred, good), investigation of its nature, criteria, and metaphysical status. Had its rise in Plato's theory of Forms or Ideas (Idea of the Good); was developed in Aristotle's Organon, Ethics, Poetics, and Metaphysics (Book Lambda). Stoics and Epicureans investigated the summum bonum. Christian philosophy (St. Thomas) built on Aristotle's identification of highest value with final cause in God as "a living being, eternal, most good."   In modern thought, apart from scholasticism and the system of Spinoza (Ethica, 1677), in which values are metaphysically grounded, the various values were investigated in separate sciences, until Kant's Critiques, in which the relations of knowledge to moral, aesthetic, and religious values were examined. In Hegel's idealism, morality, art, religion, and philosophy were made the capstone of his dialectic. R. H. Lotze "sought in that which should be the ground of that which is" (Metaphysik, 1879). Nineteenth century evolutionary theory, anthropology, sociology, psychology, and economics subjected value experience to empirical analysis, and stress was again laid on the diversity and relativity of value phenomena rather than on their unity and metaphysical nature. F. Nietzsche's Also Sprach Zarathustra (1883-1885) and Zur Genealogie der Moral (1887) aroused new interest in the nature of value. F. Brentano, Vom Ursprung sittlicher Erkenntnis (1889), identified value with love.   In the twentieth century the term axiology was apparently first applied by Paul Lapie (Logique de la volonte, 1902) and E. von Hartmann (Grundriss der Axiologie, 1908). Stimulated by Ehrenfels (System der Werttheorie, 1897), Meinong (Psychologisch-ethische Untersuchungen zur Werttheorie, 1894-1899), and Simmel (Philosophie des Geldes, 1900). W. M. Urban wrote the first systematic treatment of axiology in English (Valuation, 1909), phenomenological in method under J. M. Baldwin's influence. Meanwhile H. Münsterberg wrote a neo-Fichtean system of values (The Eternal Values, 1909).   Among important recent contributions are: B. Bosanquet, The Principle of Individuality and Value (1912), a free reinterpretation of Hegelianism; W. R. Sorley, Moral Values and the Idea of God (1918, 1921), defending a metaphysical theism; S. Alexander, Space, Time, and Deity (1920), realistic and naturalistic; N. Hartmann, Ethik (1926), detailed analysis of types and laws of value; R. B. Perry's magnum opus, General Theory of Value (1926), "its meaning and basic principles construed in terms of interest"; and J. Laird, The Idea of Value (1929), noteworthy for historical exposition. A naturalistic theory has been developed by J. Dewey (Theory of Valuation, 1939), for which "not only is science itself a value . . . but it is the supreme means of the valid determination of all valuations." A. J. Ayer, Language, Truth and Logic (1936) expounds the view of logical positivism that value is "nonsense." J. Hessen, Wertphilosophie (1937), provides an account of recent German axiology from a neo-scholastic standpoint.   The problems of axiology fall into four main groups, namely, those concerning (1) the nature of value, (2) the types of value, (3) the criterion of value, and (4) the metaphysical status of value.   (1) The nature of value experience. Is valuation fulfillment of desire (voluntarism: Spinoza, Ehrenfels), pleasure (hedonism: Epicurus, Bentham, Meinong), interest (Perry), preference (Martineau), pure rational will (formalism: Stoics, Kant, Royce), apprehension of tertiary qualities (Santayana), synoptic experience of the unity of personality (personalism: T. H. Green, Bowne), any experience that contributes to enhanced life (evolutionism: Nietzsche), or "the relation of things as means to the end or consequence actually reached" (pragmatism, instrumentalism: Dewey).   (2) The types of value. Most axiologists distinguish between intrinsic (consummatory) values (ends), prized for their own sake, and instrumental (contributory) values (means), which are causes (whether as economic goods or as natural events) of intrinsic values. Most intrinsic values are also instrumental to further value experience; some instrumental values are neutral or even disvaluable intrinsically. Commonly recognized as intrinsic values are the (morally) good, the true, the beautiful, and the holy. Values of play, of work, of association, and of bodily well-being are also acknowledged. Some (with Montague) question whether the true is properly to be regarded as a value, since some truth is disvaluable, some neutral; but love of truth, regardless of consequences, seems to establish the value of truth. There is disagreement about whether the holy (religious value) is a unique type (Schleiermacher, Otto), or an attitude toward other values (Kant, Höffding), or a combination of the two (Hocking). There is also disagreement about whether the variety of values is irreducible (pluralism) or whether all values are rationally related in a hierarchy or system (Plato, Hegel, Sorley), in which values interpenetrate or coalesce into a total experience.   (3) The criterion of value. The standard for testing values is influenced by both psychological and logical theory. Hedonists find the standard in the quantity of pleasure derived by the individual (Aristippus) or society (Bentham). Intuitionists appeal to an ultimate insight into preference (Martineau, Brentano). Some idealists recognize an objective system of rational norms or ideals as criterion (Plato, Windelband), while others lay more stress on rational wholeness and coherence (Hegel, Bosanquet, Paton) or inclusiveness (T. H. Green). Naturalists find biological survival or adjustment (Dewey) to be the standard. Despite differences, there is much in common in the results of the application of these criteria.   (4) The metaphysical status of value. What is the relation of values to the facts investigated by natural science (Koehler), of Sein to Sollen (Lotze, Rickert), of human experience of value to reality independent of man (Hegel, Pringle-Pattlson, Spaulding)? There are three main answers:   subjectivism (value is entirely dependent on and relative to human experience of it: so most hedonists, naturalists, positivists);   logical objectivism (values are logical essences or subsistences, independent of their being known, yet with no existential status or action in reality);   metaphysical objectivism (values   --or norms or ideals   --are integral, objective, and active constituents of the metaphysically real: so theists, absolutists, and certain realists and naturalists like S. Alexander and Wieman). --E.S.B. Axiom: See Mathematics. Axiomatic method: That method of constructing a deductive system consisting of deducing by specified rules all statements of the system save a given few from those given few, which are regarded as axioms or postulates of the system. See Mathematics. --C.A.B. Ayam atma brahma: (Skr.) "This self is brahman", famous quotation from Brhadaranyaka Upanishad 2.5.19, one of many alluding to the central theme of the Upanishads, i.e., the identity of the human and divine or cosmic. --K.F.L.

Avesa. (T. 'bebs pa; C. aweishe; J. abisha; K. amisa 阿尾捨). In Sanskrit, "possession"; the possession of shamans and mediums by a spirit or divinity so they could serve as oracles. Specific rites are outlined in esoteric Buddhist materials to incite possession in young children of usually seven or eight years of age; once the children began to shake from their inhabitation by the possessing deity, they would be asked a series of questions regarding portents for the future. In China, the tantric master VAJRABODHI was said to have used two seven-year-old girls as oracles in the palace, who were claimed to have been possessed by two deceased princesses. In Tibet, some of the bodies (rten, sku rten) through which an oracle (lha) speaks attained considerable importance in the religious and even political affairs of the state; among them the GNAS CHUNG (Nechung) oracle, said to be the pre-Buddhist spirit PE HAR, who was tamed by PADMASAMBHAVA and tasked with protecting the Buddha's teaching, has the status of state oracle.

avyAkṛta. (P. avyAkata; T. lung du ma bstan pa/lung ma bstan; C. wuji; J. muki; K. mugi 無). In Sanskrit, "indeterminate" or "unascertainable"; used to refer to the fourteen "indeterminate" or "unanswered" questions (avyAkṛtavastu) to which the Buddha refuses to respond. The American translator of PAli texts HENRY CLARKE WARREN rendered the term as "questions which tend not to edification." These questions involve various metaphysical assertions that were used in traditional India to evaluate a thinker's philosophical lineage. There are a number of versions of these "unanswerables," but one common list includes fourteen such questions, three sets of which are framed as "four alternatives" (CATUsKOtI): (1) Is the world eternal?, (2) Is the world not eternal?, (3) Is the world both eternal and not eternal?, (4) Is the world neither eternal nor not eternal?; (5) Is the world endless?, (6) Is the world not endless?, (7) Is the world both endless and not endless?, (8) Is the world neither endless nor not endless?; (9) Does the tathAgata exist after death?, (10) Does the tathAgata not exist after death?, (11) Does the tathAgata both exist and not exist after death?, (12) Does the tathAgata neither exist nor not exist after death?; (13) Are the soul (jīva) and the body identical?, and (14) Are the soul and the body not identical? It was in response to such questions that the Buddha famously asked whether a man shot by a poisoned arrow would spend time wondering about the height of the archer and the kind of wood used for the arrow, or whether he should seek to remove the arrow before it killed him. Likening these fourteen questions to such pointless speculation, he called them "a jungle, a wilderness, a puppet-show, a writhing, and a fetter, and is coupled with misery, ruin, despair, and agony, and does not tend to aversion, absence of passion, cessation, quiescence, knowledge, supreme wisdom, and nirvAna." The Buddha thus asserted that all these questions had to be set aside as unanswerable for being either unexplainable conceptually or "wrongly framed" (P. thapanīya). Questions that were "wrongly framed" inevitably derive from mistaken assumptions and are thus the products of wrong reflection (AYONIsOMANASKARA); therefore, any answer given to them would necessarily be either misleading or irrelevant. The Buddha's famous silence on these questions has been variously interpreted, with some seeing his refusal to answer these questions as deriving from the inherent limitations involved in using concepts to talk about such rarified existential questions. Because it is impossible to expect that concepts can do justice, for example, to an enlightened person's state of being after death, the Buddha simply remains silent when asked this and other "unanswerable" questions. The implication, therefore, is that it is not necessarily the case that the Buddha does not "know" the answer to these questions, but merely that he realizes the conceptual limitations inherent in trying to answer them definitively and thus refuses to respond. Yet other commentators explained that the Buddha declined to answer the question of whether the world (that is, SAMSARA) will ever end because the answer ("no") would prove too discouraging to his audience.

Bakkula. [alt. Nakula; Vakula; etc.] (P. Bakkula; T. Ba ku la; C. Bojuluo; J. Hakukura; K. Pakkura 薄拘羅). Sanskrit and PAi name of an ARHAT disciple of the Buddha, who became an arhat only eight days after ordaining at the age of eighty. The Buddha declared him to be foremost among those who enjoyed good health, and also one of the four monks most proficient in superknowledges (ABHIJNA), supernatural powers that are the by-products of meditation. ¶ Bakkula is also traditionally listed as fifth (or, in Tibetan, ninth) of the sixteen arhat elders (sOdAsASTHAVIRA), who are charged by the Buddha with protecting his dispensation until the advent of the next buddha, MAITREYA. He is said to reside in JAMBUDVĪPA with eight hundred disciples. According to the East Asian tradition, Bakkula was a fierce warrior. After he ordained, the Buddha calmed him by making him sit in meditation, whence he became known as the "Quietly Sitting Arhat" (Jingzuo Luohan). Bakkula may be the arhat known by the epithet of Kundovahan (Holder of the Mongoose; C. Juntoupohan) referred to in the sAriputraparipṛcchA ("Sutra of sAriputra's Questions"). In Tibetan iconography he holds a mongoose (nakula) spitting out jewels; East Asian images have him seated in a chair holding a mongoose, sometimes accompanied by a beggar child. In CHANYUE GUANXIU's standard Chinese depiction, Bakkula is shown sitting cross-legged on a rock, with both hands holding a backscratcher over his left shoulder. In Tibetan Buddhism, Bakkula (or Bakula) is the first figure in an important incarnation (SPRUL SKU) lineage of the DGE LUGS sect. The nineteenth Bakula Rinpoche (1917-2003) served in the Indian parliament and as the Indian ambassador to Mongolia. Bakkula is alternatively known in Sanskrit as Bakula, Vakkula, Vakula, Vatkula (cf. P. BAkula; Vakkula).

(b) American New Realists: More radical in that mind tended to lose its special status in the order of things. In psychology this school moved toward behaviorism. In philosophy they were extreme pan-objectivists. Distinguished representatives: F. J. E. Woodbridge, G. S. Fullerton, E. B. McGilvary and six platformists (so-called because of their collaboration in a volume The New Realism, published 1912): E. B. Holt, W. T. Marvin, W. P. Montague, R. B. Perry, W. B. Pitkin, E. G. Spaulding. The American New Realists agreed on a general platform but differed greatly among themselves as to theories of reality and particular questions. -- V.F.

banghe. (J. bokatsu; K. ponghal 棒喝). In Chinese, literally "the stick and the shout." Also known as fojuanbanghe ("fly whisk, fist, stick, and shout"). A method of pedagogical engagement associated with the "question-and-answer" (WENDA) technique and employed primarily by teachers of the CHAN, SoN, and ZEN traditions. In response to questions about the nature of the mind or the teachings of BODHIDHARMA, Chan masters of the Tang dynasty began to respond by hitting, kicking, and shouting at their students. This illocutionary method of instruction is said to have been pioneered by such eminent masters of the Chinese Chan school as HUANGPO XIYUN, DESHAN XUANJIAN, and LINJI YIXUAN. According to his recorded sayings (YULU), Linji Yixuan would often strike or shout at his students before they could even begin to respond. The BIYAN LU ("Blue Cliff Record") specifically refers to "Deshan's stick and Linji's shout" (Deshan bang Linji he) in describing this pedagogical style.

bca' yig. (chayik). In Tibetan, "constitution" or "charter"; the monastic codes promulgated at individual monasteries, which govern life at those centers. These individual codes supplement the much larger MuLASARVASTIVADA VINAYA, the primary source for the monastic code, and its summary in GUnAPRABHA's VINAYASuTRA, a medieval Indian summary of the monastic code. Each monastery has its own bca' yig, which sometimes is an oral code of best practices, sometimes a written document drawn up by a respected party. The bca' yig condenses customs, oral lore, and traditional documentation into a single constitution for the community, addressing specific questions to do with the governance of the monastery, the duties, responsibilities, and dress of monastic officers, the order of priority among members, and the procedures for arriving at binding decisions. It also codifies the observance of ritual activities. See also QINGGUI.

before him for the answering of questions. His

Bendowa. (辨道話). In Japanese, "A Talk on Pursuing the Way"; a short essay written in vernacular Japanese by the SoTo ZEN monk DoGEN KIGEN in 1231. Dogen's earliest extant work, the Bendowa contains a brief description of the orthodox transmission to the East of the "true dharma" (shobo; S. SADDHARMA) of the Buddha and also a succinct explanation of Zen in a series of eighteen questions and answers. The Bendowa was later incorporated into Dogen's magnum opus, the SHoBoGENZo. The teachings on Zen meditation found in the Bendowa are similar to those of Dogen's FUKAN ZAZENGI.

Benkenmitsu nikyoron. (辯顯密二教論). In Japanese, literally "Distinguishing the Two Teachings of the Exoteric and Esoteric"; a relatively short treatise composed by the Japanese SHINGON monk KuKAI in the early ninth century. The text is commonly known more simply as the Nikyoron. As the title suggests, the central theme of the Benkenmitsu nikyoron is the elaboration of the difference between the exoteric and esoteric teachings of Buddhism and the demonstration of the latter's superiority. The text begins with a brief introduction, followed by a series of questions and answers, and a short conclusion. The Benkenmitsu nikyoron describes the relation between the exoteric teachings preached by the NIRMAnAKAYA of the Buddha and the esoteric teachings preached by his DHARMAKAYA as that between provisional words spoken according to the different capacities of sentient beings and ultimate truth. By meticulously citing scriptural references, such as the LAnKAVATARASuTRA, the Benkenmitsu nikyoron shows that the dharmakAya, like the nirmAnakAya and SAMBHOGAKAYA, can indeed preach and that it does so in a special language best articulated in such esoteric scriptures as the MAHAVAIROCANABHISAMBODHISuTRA. Whereas the nirmAnakAya speaks the DHARMA with reference to the six perfections (PARAMITA), the dharmakAya employs the language of the three mysteries: the body, speech, and mind of MAHAVAIROCANA expressed in MUDRA, MANTRA, and MAndALA. Like many of kukai's other writings, the arguments presented in his Benkenmitsu nikyoron helped him legitimize the introduction and installment of the new teachings, now known as MIKKYo or esoteric Buddhism, which he had brought back from China. There are several commentaries on the text, including those composed by Seisen (1025-1115), Raiyu (1226-1304), Yukai (1345-1416), and Kaijo (1750-1805).

BhaddA-KundalakesA. (S. *BhadrA-KundalakesA; C. Batuo Juntuoluojuyiguo; J. Batsuda Gundarakuikoku; K. Palt'a Kundaraguiguk 拔陀軍陀羅拘夷國). A female ARHAT whom the Buddha declared foremost among his nun disciples in swift intuition (khippAbhiNNA). According to PAli sources, BhaddA was the daughter of the treasurer of RAjagaha (S. RAJAGṚHA). She witnessed once from her window a handsome thief named Sattuka being led off to execution and instantly fell in love with him. Pleading that she could not live without the young man, she persuaded her father to bribe the guard to release the thief into his custody. Sattuka was bathed and brought to the treasurer's home, where BhaddA bedecked in her finest jewelry waited upon him. Sattuka feigned love for her, all the while plotting to murder her for her jewelry. One day he informed her that he had once promised the deity of Robbers' Cliff that, if he were ever to escape punishment, he would make an offering to the god, and that now the time was at hand to fulfill his promise. BhaddA trusted him and, after preparing an offering for the deity, she accompanied Sattuka to the cliff adorned in her finest jewelry. Once they reached the edge of the cliff, he informed her of his real intentions, and without hesitation, she begged him to let her embrace him one last time. He agreed and, while feigning an embrace, BhaddA pushed him over the cliff to his death. The local deity commended her for her cleverness and presence of mind. BhaddA refused to return to her father's house after what had happened and joined the JAINA nuns' order. As part of her ascetic regime, she pulled out her hair with a palmyra comb, but it grew back in curls, hence her epithet KundalakesA, "Curly Hair." BhaddA was exceptionally intelligent and soon grew dissatisfied with Jain teachings. She wandered as a solitary mendicant, challenging all she encountered to debate and quickly proved her proficiency. Once she debated SAriputta (S. sARIPUTRA), one of the Buddha's two chief disciples, who answered all her questions. He then asked her, "One: What is that?," which left her speechless. She asked SAriputta to be her teacher, but he instead brought her before the Buddha, who preached her a sermon about it being better to know one verse bringing tranquillity than a thousand profitless verses. Hearing the Buddha's words, she immediately became an ARHAT and the Buddha personally ordained her as a nun in his order.

BhavasaMkrAnti. (T. Srid pa 'pho ba). In Sanskrit, "Transference of Existence," a brief work ascribed to NAGARJUNA; also known as MadhyamakabhavasaMkrAnti. The title seems to suggest that it deals with the practice of transferring one's consciousness from one body to another, but this topic is actually not covered in the text. It discusses instead standard MADHYAMAKA topics such as the function of VIKALPA as the source of the world, the ultimate nonexistence of all phenomena, the six perfections (PARAMITA), UPAYA and PRAJNA, and the two truths (SATYADVAYA). NAgArjuna's major commentators (BHAVAVIVEKA, CANDRAKĪRTI et al.) do not cite the work, which raises questions about its authorship.

BIG-LAN ::: [BIG-LAN Frequently Asked Questions Memo, BIG-LAN DIGEST V4:I8, February 14, 1992.]

BIG-LAN ["BIG-LAN Frequently Asked Questions Memo", BIG-LAN DIGEST V4:I8, February 14, 1992.]

B. In ontology, power is often synonymous with potency (q.v.) Aristotle, who is mainly responsible for the development of this notion (Metaph. IV (5) 12.), distinguishes three aspects of it as a source of change, as a capacity of performing, and as a state in virtue of which things are unchangeable by themselves. Hobbes accepts only the first of these meanings, namely that power is the source of motion. Various questions are involved in the analysis of the notion of power, as, for example, whether power is an accident or a perfection of substance, and whether it is distinct from it.

Bka' gdams glegs bam pha chos bu chos. (Kadam Lekbam Pacho Bucho). In Tibetan, "The Book of Bka' gdams, Dharma of the Father and Sons" originating with the Indian master ATIsA DĪPAMKARAsRĪJNANA a seminal work of the BKA' GDAMS sect of Tibetan Buddhism, being the primary text of the oral-instruction (man ngag) lineage organized into its present version by Mkhan chen Nyi ma rgyal mtshan (Kenchen Nyima Gyaltsen) in 1302. "Dharma of the Father" refers to Atisa's responses to questions posed by his foremost Tibetan student 'BROM STON RGYAL BA'I 'BYUNG GNAS (the two "fathers" of Bka' gdams); "Dharma of the Sons" refers to Atisa's responses to questions posed by RNGOG LEGS PA'I SHES RAB and Khu ston Brtson 'grus g.yung drung (Kuton Tsondrü Yungdrung), the spiritual sons of Atisa and 'Brom ston pa.

BodhicaryAvatAra. (T. Byang chub sems dpa'i spyod pa la 'jug pa; C. Putixing jing; J. Bodaigyokyo; K. Porihaeng kyong 菩提行經). In Sanskrit, lit. "Introduction to the Practice of Enlightenment," a.k.a. BodhisattvacaryAvatAra, "Introduction to the Bodhisattva Practice"; a poem about the BODHISATTVA path, in ten chapters, written by the Indian poet sANTIDEVA (fl. c. 685-763). The verse is regarded as one of the masterpieces of late Indian MAHAYANA Buddhism, eliciting substantial commentary in both India and Tibet. The most influential of the Indian commentaries is the BodhicaryAvatArapaNjikA by PRAJNAKARAMATI. The text is especially important in Tibetan Buddhism, where it has long been memorized by monks and where stanzas from the text are often cited in both written and oral religious discourse. The poem is an extended reverie on the implications of the "aspiration for enlightenment" (BODHICITTA) that renders a person a bodhisattva, and on the deeds of the bodhisattva, the six perfections (PARAMITA). In the first chapter, sAntideva distinguishes between two forms of bodhicitta, the intentional (PRAnIDHICITTOTPADA) and the practical (PRASTHANACITTOTPADA), comparing them to the decision to undertake a journey and then actually setting out on that journey. In the fifth chapter he provides a famous argument for patience (KsANTI), stating that in order to walk uninjured across a surface of sharp stones, one can either cover the entire world with leather or one can cover the sole of one's foot with leather; in the same way, in order to survive the anger of enemies, one can either kill them all or practice patience. In the eighth chapter, he sets forth the technique for the equalizing and exhange of self and other, regarded in Tibet as one of the two chief means of cultivating bodhicitta. The lengthiest chapter is the ninth, devoted to wisdom (PRAJNA). Here sAntideva refutes a range of both non-Buddhist and Buddhist positions. On the basis of this chapter, sAntideva is counted as a PRASAnGIKA in the Tibetan doxographical system. According to legend, when sAntideva recited this chapter to the monks of NALANDA monastery, he began to rise into the air, leaving some questions as to precisely how the chapter ends. The final chapter is a prayer, often recited independently.

Bodhidharma. (C. Putidamo; J. Bodaidaruma; K. Poridalma 菩提達磨) (c. late-fourth to early-fifth centuries). Indian monk who is the putative "founder" of the school of CHAN (K. SoN, J. ZEN, V. THIỀN). The story of a little-known Indian (or perhaps Central Asian) emigré monk grew over the centuries into an elaborate legend of Bodhidharma, the first patriarch of the Chan school. The earliest accounts of a person known as Bodhidharma appear in the Luoyang qielan ji and XU GAOSENG ZHUAN, but the more familiar and developed image of this figure can be found in such later sources as the BAOLIN ZHUAN, LENGQIE SHIZI JI, LIDAI FABAO JI, ZUTANG JI, JINGDE CHUANDENG LU, and other "transmission of the lamplight" (CHUANDENG LU) histories. According to these sources, Bodhidharma was born as the third prince of a South Indian kingdom. Little is known about his youth, but he is believed to have arrived in China sometime during the late fourth or early fifth century, taking the southern maritime route according to some sources, the northern overland route according to others. In an episode appearing in the Lidai fabao ji and BIYAN LU, after arriving in southern China, Bodhidharma is said to have engaged in an enigmatic exchange with the devout Buddhist emperor Wu (464-549, r. 502-549) of the Liang dynasty (502-557) on the subject of the Buddha's teachings and merit-making. To the emperor's questions about what dharma Bodhidharma was transmitting and how much merit (PUnYA) he, Wudi, had made by his munificent donations to construct monasteries and ordain monks, Bodhidharma replied that the Buddha's teachings were empty (hence there was nothing to transmit) and that the emperor's generous donations had brought him no merit at all. The emperor seems not to have been impressed with these answers, and Bodhidharma, perhaps disgruntled by the emperor's failure to understand the profundity of his teachings, left for northern China, taking the Yangtze river crossing (riding a reed across the river, in a scene frequently depicted in East Asian painting). Bodhidharma's journey north eventually brought him to a cave at the monastery of SHAOLINSI on SONGSHAN, where he sat in meditation for nine years while facing a wall (MIANBI), in so-called "wall contemplation" (BIGUAN). During his stay on Songshan, the Chinese monk HUIKE is said to have become Bodhidharma's disciple, allegedly after cutting off his left arm to show his dedication. This legend of Bodhidharma's arrival in China is eventually condensed into the famous Chan case (GONG'AN), "Why did Bodhidharma come from the West?" (see XILAI YI). Bodhidharma's place within the lineage of Indian patriarchs vary according to text and tradition (some list him as the twenty-eighth patriarch), but he is considered the first patriarch of Chan in China. Bodhidharma's name therefore soon became synonymous with Chan and subsequently with Son, Zen, and Thièn. Bodhidharma, however, has often been confused with other figures such as BODHIRUCI, the translator of the LAnKAVATARASuTRA, and the Kashmiri monk DHARMATRATA, to whom the DHYANA manual DAMODUOLUO CHAN JING is attributed. The Lidai fabao ji, for instance, simply fused the names of Bodhidharma and DharmatrAta and spoke of a BodhidharmatrAta whose legend traveled with the Lidai fabao ji to Tibet. Bodhidharma was even identified as the apostle Saint Thomas by Jesuit missionaries to China, such as Matteo Ricci. Several texts, a number of which were uncovered in the DUNHUANG manuscript cache in Central Asia, have been attributed to Bodhidharma, but their authorship remains uncertain. The ERRU SIXING LUN seems to be the only of these texts that can be traced with some certainty back to Bodhidharma or his immediate disciples. The legend of Bodhidharma in the Lengqie shizi ji also associates him with the transmission of the LankAvatArasutra in China. In Japan, Bodhidharma is often depicted in the form of a round-shaped, slightly grotesque-looking doll, known as the "Daruma doll." Like much of the rest of the legends surrounding Bodhidharma, there is finally no credible evidence connecting Bodhidharma to the Chinese martial arts traditions (see SHAOLINSI).

Questions of King Milinda. See MILINDAPANHA.

Questions of King Milinda

B. The Probability-Relation. Considering the general grounds of probability, it is pertinent to analyze the proper characteristics of this concept and the valid conditions of its use in inferential processes. Probability presents itself as a special relation between the premisses and the conclusion of an argument, namely when the premisses are true but not completely sufficient to condition the truth of the conclusion. A probable inference must however be logical, even though its result is not certain, for its premisses must be a true sign of its conclusion. The probability-relation may take three aspects: it is inductive, probable or presumptive. In strict induction, there is an essential connection between the facts expressed in the premisses and in the conclusion, which almost forces a factual result from the circumstances of the predication. This type of probability-relation is prominent in induction proper and in statistics. In strict probability, there is a logical connection between the premisses and the conclusion which does not entail a definite factual value for the latter. This type of probability-relation is prominent in mathematical probability and circumstantial evidence. In strict presumption, there is a similarity of characteristics between the fact expressed in the conclusion and the real event if it does or did exist. This type of probability-relation is prominent in analogy and testimony. A presumptive conclusion should be accepted provisionally, and it should have definite consequences capable of being tested. The results of an inductive inference and of a probable inference may often be brought closer together when covering the same field, as the relations involved are fundamental enough for the purpose. This may be done by a qualitative analysis of their implications, or by a quantitative comparison of their elements, as it is done for example in the methods of correlation. But a presumptive inference cannot be reduced to either of the other two forms without losing its identity, because the connection between its elements is of an indefinite character. It may be said that inductive and probable inferences have an intrinsic reasonableness, while presumptive inferences have an extrinsic reasonableness. The former involve determinism within certain limits, while the latter display indeterminacy more prominently. That is why very poor, misleading or wrong conclusions are obtained when mathematical methods are applied to moral acts, judiciary decisions or indirect testimony The activity of the human will has an intricate complexity and variability not easily subjected to calculation. Hence the degree of probability of a presumptive inference can be estimated only by the character and circumstances of its suggested explanation. In moral cases, the discussion and application of the probability-relation leads to the consideration of the doctrines of Probabilism and Probabiliorism which are qualitative. The probability-relation as such has the following general implications which are compatible with its three different aspects, and which may serve as general inferential principle: Any generalization must be probable upon propositions entailing its exemplification in particular cases; Any generalization or system of generalizations forming a theory, must be probable upon propositions following from it by implication; The probability of a given proposition on the basis of other propositions constituting its evidence, is the degree of logical conclusiveness of this evidence with respect to the given proposition; The empirical probability (p = S/E) of a statement S increases as verifications accrue to the evidence E, provided the evidence is taken as a whole; and Numerical probabilities may be assigned to facts or statements only when the evidence includes statistical data or other numerical information which can be treated by the methods of mathematical probability. C. Mathematical Probability. The mathematical theory of probability, which is also called the theory of chances or the theory of relative possibilities, is concerned with the application of mathematical methods to the determination of the likelihood of any event, when there are not sufficient data to determine with certainty its occurrence or failure. As Laplace remarked, it is nothing more than common sense reduced to calculation. But its range goes far beyond that of common sense for it has not only conditioned the growth of various branches of mathematics, such as the theory of errors, the calculus of variations and mathematical statistics, but it has also made possible the establishment of a number of theories in the natural and social sciences, by its actual applications to concrete problems. A distinction is usually made between direct and inverse probability. The determination of a direct or a priori probability involves an inference from given situations or sets of possibilities numerically characterized, to future events related with them. By definition, the direct probability of the occurrence of any particular form of an event, is the ratio of the number of ways in which that form might occur, to the whole number of ways in which the event may occur, all these forms being equiprobable or equally likely. The basic principles referring to a priori probabilities are derived from the analysis of the various logical alternatives involved in any hypothetical questions such as the following: (a) To determine whether a cause, whose exact nature is or is not known, will prove operative or not in certain circumstances; (b) To determine how often an event happens or fails. The comparison of the number of occurrences with that of the failures of an event, considered in simple or complex circumstances, affords a baisis for several cases of probable inference. Thus, theorems may be established to deal with the probability of success and the probability of failure of an event, with the probability of the joint occurrence of several events, with the probability of the alternative occurrence of several events, with the different conditions of frequency of occurrence of an event; with mathematical expectation, and with similar questions. The determination of an a posteriori or inverse probability involves an inference from given situations or events, to past conditions or causes which rnay have contributed to their occurrence. By definition, an inverse probability is the numerical value assigned to each one of a number of possible causes of an actual event that has already occurred; or more generally, it is the numerical value assigned to hypotheses which attempt to explain actual events or circumstances. If an event has occurred as a result of any one of n several causes, the probability that C was the actual cause is Pp/E (Pnpn), when P is the probability that the event could be produced by C if present, and p the probability that C was present before the occurrence of that event. Inverse probability is based on general and special assumptions which cannot always be properly stated, and as there are many different sets of such assumptions, there cannot be a coercive reason for making a definite choice. In particular, the condition of the equiprobability of causes is seldom if ever fulfilled. The distinction between the two kinds of probability, which has led to some confusion in interpreting their grounds and their relations, can be technically ignored now as a result of the adoption of a statistical basis for measuring probabilities. In particular, it is the statistical treatment of correlation which led to the study of probabilities of concurrent phenomena irrespective of their direction in time. This distinction may be retained, howe\er, for the purpose of a general exposition of the subject. Thus, a number of probability theorems are obtained by using various cases of direct and inverse probability involving permutations and combinations, the binomial theorem, the theory of series, and the methods of integration. In turn, these theurems can be applied to concrete cases of the various sciences.

casuistry ::: a. --> The science or doctrine of dealing with cases of conscience, of resolving questions of right or wrong in conduct, or determining the lawfulness or unlawfulness of what a man may do by rules and principles drawn from the Scriptures, from the laws of society or the church, or from equity and natural reason; the application of general moral rules to particular cases.
Sophistical, equivocal, or false reasoning or teaching in regard to duties, obligations, and morals.


catechetical ::: a. --> Relating to or consisting in, asking questions and receiving answers, according to the ancient manner of teaching.

Catechetic: Noun ordinarily employed in the plural, denoting the method and practice of imparting religious instruction orally by means of questions and answers, especially to children. -- J.J.R.

catechetics ::: n. --> The science or practice of instructing by questions and answers.

catechise ::: v. t. --> To instruct by asking questions, receiving answers, and offering explanations and corrections, -- esp. in regard to points of religious faith.
To question or interrogate; to examine or try by questions; -- sometimes with a view to reproof, by eliciting from a person answers which condemn his own conduct.


catechismal ::: a. --> Of or pertaining to a catechism, having the form of questions and answers; catechetical.

catechism ::: n. --> A form of instruction by means of questions and answers.
A book containing a summary of principles, especially of religious doctrine, reduced to the form of questions and answers.


catuskoti. (T. mu bzhi; C. siju fenbie; J. shiku funbetsu; K. sagu punbyol 四句分別). In Sanskrit, "four antinomies" or "four alternatives"; a dialectical form of argumentation used in Buddhist philosophy to categorize sets of specific propositions, i.e., (1) A, (2) B, (3) both A and B, (4) neither A nor B; or (1) A, (2) not A, (3) both A and not A, 4) neither A nor not A. For instance, something may be said to (1) exist, (2) not exist, (3) both exist and not exist, and (4) neither exist nor not exist. Or, 1) everything is one, (2) everything is many, (3) everything is both one and many, 4) everything is neither one nor many. In the sutra literature, the catuskoti is employed to categorize the speculative philosophical propositions of non-Buddhists (TĪRTHIKA) in a list of fourteen "indeterminate" or "unanswered" (AVYAKṚTA) questions to which the Buddha refused to respond. These questions involve various metaphysical assertions that were used in traditional India to evaluate a thinker's philosophical pedigree. In the case of ontology, for example: (1) Is the world eternal? (2) Is the world not eternal? (3) Is the world both eternal and not eternal? (4) Is the world neither eternal nor not eternal? Or, in the case of soteriology, for a TATHAGATA, or an enlightened person: (1) Does the tathAgata exist after death? (2) Does the tathAgata not exist after death? (3) Does the tathAgata both exist and not exist after death? (4) Does the tathAgata neither exist nor not exist after death? Because of the conceptual flaws inherent in any prospective answer to these sets of questions, the Buddha refused to answer them and his silence is sometimes interpreted to mean that his teachings transcend conceptual thought (PRAPANCA). This transcendent quality of Buddhist philosophy is displayed in the MADHYAMAKA school, which seeks to ascertain the conceptual flaws inherent in any definitive philosophical proposition and show instead that all propositions-even those made by Buddhists-are "empty" (sunya). NAGARJUNA, the founder of the Madhyamaka school, analyzes many philosophical positions in terms of a catuskoti to demonstrate their emptiness. In analyzing causality, for example, NAgArjuna in the opening lines of his MuLAMADHYAMAKAKARIKA analyzes the possible philosophical positions on the connection between cause (HETU) and effect (PHALA) as a catuskoti: (1) cause and effect are identical, as the SAMkhya school claims; (2) cause and effect are different, as the Buddhists propose; (3) cause and effect are both identical and different, and thus the effect is both continuous with as well as emergent from the cause, as the JAINA school claims; (4) cause and effect are neither identical nor different, and thus things occur by chance, as the materialists and skeptics advocate. NAgArjuna instead reveals the absurd consequences inherent in all of these positions to show that the only defensible position is that cause and effect are "empty"; thus, all compounded things are ultimately unproduced (ANUTPADA) and empty of intrinsic existence (NIḤSVABHAVA). Classifications of teachings using the catuskoti are widely found in Buddhist literature of all traditions.

Choice: (a) In ethics the term choice refers to an agent's act of volition in deciding between two or more alternatives. Sometimes it is said that we may choose only between alternative courses of action, sometimes that we may also choose between alternative ends of action. In either case it is said that choice is deliberate and knowing, as compared with preference, which may be spontaneous; and that it is one's choices which both determine and express one's moral character. Two further questions arise (a) Are our choices free in the sense of not being determined by previous events' and (b) Are our choices simply the determinations of our strongest desires? -- W.K.F.

chuishi. (J. suiji; K. susi 垂示). In Chinese, lit "giving instructions," viz., a "pointer"; also known as shizhong (instructing the assembly), chuiyu (giving words), and suoyu (searching for words). In order to measure the depth of a student's understanding, CHAN masters often challenged him with a question, word, or phrase. This process of interrogation was referred to as chuishi. In various case (GONG'AN) collections, such as the BIYAN LU, the term chuishi also began to refer to the introductory words, or "pointers," placed before the actual case (bence). These introductory words often included questions and anecdotes. Similarly, the CONGRONG LU used the term shizhong to refer to these introductory words.

clinical interview: a flexible research method that uses open-ended questions to obtain a lot of information from a participant.

closed questions: questions that have set answers for participants to choose from.

clumps ::: n. --> A game in which questions are asked for the purpose of enabling the questioners to discover a word or thing previously selected by two persons who answer the questions; -- so called because the players take sides in two "clumps" or groups, the "clump" which guesses the word winning the game.

Communitarianism ::: A group of related but distinct philosophies that began in the late 20th century, opposing aspects of liberalism and capitalism while advocating phenomena such as civil society. Not necessarily hostile to liberalism in the contemporary American sense of the word, communitarianism rather has a different emphasis, shifting the focus of interest toward communities and societies and away from the individual. The question of priority (individual or community) often has the largest impact in the most pressing ethical questions: health care, abortion, multiculturalism, hate speech, and so on.

computational linguistics ::: An interdisciplinary field concerned with the statistical or rule-based modeling of natural language from a computational perspective, as well as the study of appropriate computational approaches to linguistic questions.

computational problem ::: In theoretical computer science, a computational problem is a mathematical object representing a collection of questions that computers might be able to solve.

computer ethics ::: (philosophy) Ethics is the field of study that is concerned with questions of value, that is, judgments about what human behaviour is good or any other area. Computers raise problems of privacy, ownership, theft, and power, to name but a few.Computer ethics can be grounded in one of four basic world-views: Idealism, Realism, Pragmatism, or Existentialism. Idealists believe that reality is considered RELATIVIST worldviews because they are based or something relational (that is, society or the individual, respectively).Thus ethical judgments will vary, depending on the judge's world-view. Some examples:First consider theft. Suppose a university's computer is used for sending an e-mail message to a friend or for conducting a full-blown private business because they tied up too much memory and slowed down the machine, but the e-mail message wasn't wrong because it had no significant effect on operations.Next consider privacy. An instructor uses her account to acquire the cumulative grade point average of a student who is in a class which she instructs. She the student was consistent with the student's overall academic performance record, the relativist might agree that such use was acceptable.Finally, consider power. At a particular university, if a professor wants a computer account, all she or he need do is request one but a student must obtain problems than faculty? Is this a hold-over from the days of in loco parentis?). .Usenet newsgroups: bit.listserv.ethics-l, alt.soc.ethics. (1995-10-25)

computer ethics "philosophy" Ethics is the field of study that is concerned with questions of value, that is, judgments about what human behaviour is "good" or "bad". Ethical judgments are no different in the area of computing from those in any other area. Computers raise problems of privacy, ownership, theft, and power, to name but a few. Computer ethics can be grounded in one of four basic world-views: Idealism, Realism, Pragmatism, or Existentialism. Idealists believe that reality is basically ideas and that ethics therefore involves conforming to ideals. Realists believe that reality is basically nature and that ethics therefore involves acting according to what is natural. Pragmatists believe that reality is not fixed but is in process and that ethics therefore is practical (that is, concerned with what will produce socially-desired results). Existentialists believe reality is self-defined and that ethics therefore is individual (that is, concerned only with one's own conscience). Idealism and Realism can be considered ABSOLUTIST worldviews because they are based on something fixed (that is, ideas or nature, respectively). Pragmatism and Existentialism can be considered RELATIVIST worldviews because they are based or something relational (that is, society or the individual, respectively). Thus ethical judgments will vary, depending on the judge's world-view. Some examples: First consider theft. Suppose a university's computer is used for sending an e-mail message to a friend or for conducting a full-blown private business (billing, payroll, inventory, etc.). The absolutist would say that both activities are unethical (while recognising a difference in the amount of wrong being done). A relativist might say that the latter activities were wrong because they tied up too much memory and slowed down the machine, but the e-mail message wasn't wrong because it had no significant effect on operations. Next consider privacy. An instructor uses her account to acquire the cumulative grade point average of a student who is in a class which she instructs. She obtained the password for this restricted information from someone in the Records Office who erroneously thought that she was the student's advisor. The absolutist would probably say that the instructor acted wrongly, since the only person who is entitled to this information is the student and his or her advisor. The relativist would probably ask why the instructor wanted the information. If she replied that she wanted it to be sure that her grading of the student was consistent with the student's overall academic performance record, the relativist might agree that such use was acceptable. Finally, consider power. At a particular university, if a professor wants a computer account, all she or he need do is request one but a student must obtain faculty sponsorship in order to receive an account. An absolutist (because of a proclivity for hierarchical thinking) might not have a problem with this divergence in procedure. A relativist, on the other hand, might question what makes the two situations essentially different (e.g. are faculty assumed to have more need for computers than students? Are students more likely to cause problems than faculty? Is this a hold-over from the days of "in loco parentis"?). {"Philosophical Bases of Computer Ethics", Professor Robert N. Barger (http://nd.edu/~rbarger/metaethics.html)}. {Usenet} newsgroups: {news:bit.listserv.ethics-l}, {news:alt.soc.ethics}. (1995-10-25)

Concerning Carnap's contention that philosophical questions should be replaced by, or reformulated as, syntactical questions, see scientific empiricism I C, and Carnap's book cited below. -- A.C.

concurrent ::: a. --> Acting in conjunction; agreeing in the same act or opinion; contributing to the same event or effect; cooperating.
Conjoined; associate; concomitant; existing or happening at the same time.
Joint and equal in authority; taking cognizance of similar questions; operating on the same objects; as, the concurrent jurisdiction of courts.
Meeting in one point.


Conditions of Transformafirm ::: If you desire this transforma- tion, put yourself in the hands of the Mother and her Powers without cavil or resistance and let her do unhindered her work within you. Three things you roust have, consciousness, plasti- city, unreserved surrender. For you must be conscious in your mind and soul and heart and life and the very cells of your body, aware of the Mother and her Powers and their working ; for although she can and does work in yt)u even in your obscurity and your unconscious parts and moments, it is not the same thing as when you are in an awakened and living communion with her. All your nature must be plasUc to her touch, — • not questioning as the self-sufficient ignorant mind questions and doubts and disputes and is the enemy of its enlightenment and change ; not insisting on its own movements as the vital In man insists and persistently opposes its rcfractoiy desires and ill-wilt to every divine influence ; not obstructing and entrenched m

:::   ‘Consecration" generally has a more mystical sense but this is not absolute. A total consecration signifies a total giving of one"s self; hence it is the equivalent of the word ``surrender"", not of the word (soumission} which always gives the impression that one accepts'' passively. You feel a flame in the wordconsecration"", a flame even greater than in the word offering''. To consecrate oneself isto give oneself to an action""; hence, in the yogic sense, it is to give oneself to some divine work with the idea of accomplishing the divine work.” Questions and Answers, MCW Vol. 4*.

‘Consecration’ generally has a more mystical sense but this is not absolute. A total consecration signifies a total giving of one’s self; hence it is the equivalent of the word surrender’’, not of the word (soumission} which always gives the impression that oneaccepts’’ passively. You feel a flame in the word consecration’’, a flame even greater than in the wordoffering’’. To consecrate oneself is ``to give oneself to an action’’; hence, in the yogic sense, it is to give oneself to some divine work with the idea of accomplishing the divine work.” Questions and Answers, MCW Vol. 4.

Cosmos ::: Whenever a theosophist speaks of the cosmos or the universe, he by no means refers only to the physicalsphere or world or cross section of the boundless All in which we humans live, but more particularly tothe invisible worlds and planes and spheres inhabited by their countless hosts of vitalized or animatebeings. In order to avoid redundancy of words and often confusing repetitions in the midst of anexplanation dealing with other matters, since H. P. Blavatsky's time it has been customary among carefultheosophical writers to draw a distinction of fact between cosmos and kosmos. The solar universe orsolar system is frequently referred to as cosmos or solar cosmos; and the galactic universe or our ownhome-universe it has been customary to refer to as the kosmos. This distinction, however, does notalways hold, because sometimes in dealing with abstract questions where the application of the thoughtcan be indifferently made either to the galactic or to the solar universe, the two forms of spelling may beused interchangeably. (See also Kosmos, Kosmic Life)

Council, 2nd. The second council was held at VAIsALĪ, some one hundred years after the Buddha's death. It is said that the monk YAsAS was traveling in VaisAlī when he observed the monks from the city, identified as VṚJIPUTRAKAs, receiving alms in the form of gold and silver directly from the laity, in violation of the disciplinary prohibition against monks' handling gold and silver. He also found that the monks had identified ten points in the VINAYA that they considered were sufficiently minor to be ignored, despite the decision at the first council (see COUNCIL, FIRST) not to disregard any of the minor precepts. The ten violations in question were: (1) carrying salt in an animal horn; (2) eating when the shadow of the sundial is two fingerbreadths past noon; (3) after eating, traveling to another village on the same day to eat another meal; (4) holding several assemblies within the same boundary (SĪMA) during the same fortnight observance; (5) making a monastic decision with an incomplete assembly and subsequently receiving the approval of the absent monks; (6) citing precedent as a justification for violating monastic procedures; (7) drinking milk whey after mealtime; (8) drinking unfermented wine; (9) using mats with fringe; and (10) accepting gold and silver. Yasas informed the monks that these were indeed violations of the disciplinary code, at which point the monks are said to have offered him a share of the gold and silver they had collected; when he refused, they expelled him from the order. Yasas sought support of several respected monks in the west, including sAnAKAVASIN and REVATA, and together with other monks, they travelled together to VaisAlī. Once there, Revata went to SarvagAmin, the senior-most monk in the order, who was said to have been a disciple of ANANDA. However, when Revata questioned him about the ten points, the elder monk refused to discuss them in private. At Revata's suggestion, a jury of eight monks was appointed, with four representatives from each party. Revata was selected as one of four from the party declaring the ten practices to be violations, and it was Revata who publicly put the questions to SarvagAmin. In each case, he said that the practice in question was a violation of the vinaya. Seven hundred monks then gathered to recite the vinaya. Those who did not accept the decision of the council held their own convocation, which they called the MAHASAMGHIKA, or "Great Assembly." This event is sometimes referred to as "the great schism." The second council is generally accepted as a historical event. ¶ Some accounts make MAHADEVA a participant at the second council, which is said to have resulted in the schism of the SAMGHA into the conservative STHAVIRANIKAYA and the more liberal MahAsAMghika. However, the chief points of controversy that led to the convening of the council seem not to have been MahAdeva's five theses, but rather these ten relatively minor rules of monastic discipline. If MahAdeva was a historical figure, it is more likely that he was involved in a later schism that occurred within the MahAsAMghika, as a result of which the followers of MahAdeva formed the CAITYA sect. See also SAMGĪTI.

cross-purpose ::: n. --> A counter or opposing purpose; hence, that which is inconsistent or contradictory.
A conversational game, in which questions and answers are made so as to involve ludicrous combinations of ideas.


Culavedallasutta. (C. Fale biqiuni jing; J. Horaku bikunikyo; K. Pomnak piguni kyong 法樂比丘尼經). In PAli, "Shorter Discourse on Points of Doctrine"; the forty-fourth sutta in the MAJJHIMANIKAYA (a separate SARVASTIVADA recension appears as the 210th sutra in the Chinese translation of the MADHYAMAGAMA; the entire discourse is also subsumed in the Tibetan translation of samathadeva's commentary to the ABHIDHARMAKOsABHAsYA), expounded by the nun DhammadinnA (S. DHARMADINNA) to her former husband, the householder VisAkha, at the Veluvana (S. VEnUVANAVIHARA) bamboo grove in RAjagaha (S. RAJAGṚHA). VisAkha approached DhammadinnA and questioned her concerning a number of points of doctrine preached by the Buddha. These questions included: what is the nature of this existing body (P. sakkAya; S. satkAya); what is its origin (SAMUDAYA), its cessation (NIRODHA), and the path (P. magga; S. MARGA) leading to its cessation; how does wrong view concerning this body (P. sakkAyaditthi; S. SATKAYADṚstI) arise and how is it removed; what is the noble eightfold path; what is concentration (SAMADHI); what are bodily, verbal, and mental formations; what is the attainment of cessation (nirodha); what is sensation (VEDANA); what are the underlying tendencies with regard to pleasant, painful, and neutral sensations and how should these be overcome; and what are the counterparts of pleasant, painful, and neutral sensations. DhammadinnA answered all of the questions put to her to the satisfaction of the householder VisAkha-proving why the Buddha considered her foremost among his nun disciples in the gift of preaching.

Dasheng dayi zhang. (J. Daijo daigisho; K. Taesŭng taeŭi chang 大乗大義章). In Chinese "Compendium of the Great Purport of the Mahāyāna," in three rolls; also known as the Jiumoluoshi fashi dayi, or "The Great Purport of the Great Master KUMĀRAJĪVA." The Dasheng dayi zhang is a compendium of letters that Kumārajīva wrote in reply to LUSHAN HUIYUAN's inquiries about MAHĀYĀNA doctrine. There are a total of eighteen categories of questions that are concerned largely with the nature of the dharma body (DHARMAKĀYA), emptiness (suNYATĀ), and the mind (CITTA). The Dasheng dayi zhang is a valuable source for studying the development of Mahāyāna thought in China.

Dazhidu lun. (J. Daichidoron; K. Taejido non 大智度論). In Chinese, "Treatise on the Great Perfection of Wisdom"; an important Chinese text that is regarded as the translation of a Sanskrit work whose title has been reconstructed as *MāhāprājNāpāramitāsāstra or *MahāprajNāpāramitopedesa. The work is attributed to the MADHYAMAKA exegete NĀGĀRJUNA, but no Sanskrit manuscripts or Tibetan translations are known and no references to the text in Indian or Tibetan sources have been identified. The work was translated into Chinese by the KUCHA monk KUMĀRAJĪVA (344-413) between 402 and 406; it was not translated into Chinese again. Some scholars speculate that the work was composed by an unknown Central Asian monk of the SARVĀSTIVĀDA school who had "converted" to MADHYAMAKA, perhaps even Kumārajīva himself. The complete text was claimed to have been one hundred thousand slokas or one thousand rolls (zhuan) in length, but the extant text is a mere one hundred rolls. It is divided into two major sections: the first is Kumārajīva's full translation of the first fifty-two chapters of the text; the second is his selective translations from the next eighty-nine chapters of the text. The work is a commentary on the PANCAVIMsATISĀHASRIKĀPRAJNĀPĀRAMITĀSuTRA, and is veritable compendium of Buddhist doctrine, replete with quotations from a wide range of Indian texts. Throughout the translation, there appear frequent and often substantial interlinear glosses and interpolations, apparently provided by Kumārajīva himself and targeting his Chinese readership; it is the presence of such interpolations that has raised questions about the text's Indian provenance. In the first thirty-four rolls, the Dazhidu lun provides a detailed explanation of the basic concepts, phrases, places, and figures that appear in the PaNcaviMsatisāhasrikāprajNāpāramitā (e.g., BHAGAVAT, EVAM MAYĀ sRUTAM, RĀJAGṚHA, buddha, BODHISATTVA, sRĀVAKA, sĀRIPUTRA, suNYATĀ, NIRVĀnA, the six PĀRAMITĀ, and ten BALA). The scope of the commentary is extremely broad, covering everything from doctrine, legends, and rituals to history and geography. The overall concern of the Dazhidu lun seems to have been the elucidation of the concept of buddhahood, the bodhisattva career, the MAHĀYĀNA path (as opposed to that of the HĪNAYĀNA), PRAJNĀ, and meditation. The Dazhidu lun thus served as an authoritative source for the study of Mahāyāna in China and was favored by many influential writers such as SENGZHAO, TIANTAI ZHIYI, FAZANG, TANLUAN, and SHANDAO. Since the time of the Chinese scriptural catalogue KAIYUAN SHIJIAO LU (730), the Dazhidu lun, has headed the roster of sĀSTRA materials collected in the Chinese Buddhist canon (DAZANGJING; see also KORYo TAEJANGGYoNG); this placement is made because it is a principal commentary to the PRAJNĀPĀRAMITĀ sutras that open the SuTRA section of the canon. Between 1944 and 1980, the Belgian scholar ÉTIENNE LAMOTTE published an annotated French translation of the entire first section and chapter 20 of the second section as Le Traité de la Grande Vertu de Sagesse, in five volumes.

Delphic oracle: The famous oracle in ancient Greece, where the seeress Pythia, in a state of trance, answered questions about the future.

Dharmadinnā. (P. Dhammadinnā; T. Chos kyis sbyin; C. Tanmotina biqiuni/Fale biqiuni; J. Donmadaina bikuni/Horaku bikuni; K. Tammajena piguni/Pomnak piguni 曇摩提那比丘尼/法樂比丘尼). An eminent ARHAT nun, declared by the Buddha to be foremost among his nun disciples in the gift of preaching. According to Pāli sources, she was married to a rich merchant of Rājagaha (S. RĀJAGṚHA) named VISĀKHA. Visākha was a lay disciple of the Buddha, but his behavior toward his wife changed after he became a nonreturner (ANĀGĀMIN). When he explained why, Dhammadinnā requested permission to renounce the world and become a Buddhist nun. So highly did Visākha regard his wife's piety that he informed Bimbisāra, the king of MAGADHA, who arranged for her to be carried to the nuns' convent on a golden palanquin. Dhammadinnā dwelled in solitude and soon became an arhat of the highest degree, equipped with the four analytical knowledges (patisambhidā; S. PRATISAMVID), which included knowledge of the entire Buddhist canon. When she returned to Rājagaha to venerate the Buddha, her former husband Visākha approached her with questions on doctrine, which she easily answered. Visākha reported this to the Buddha, who praised Dhammadinnā's proficiency in preaching. Dhammadinnā's preeminence in preaching was a result of a vow she made during the time of the past buddha Padumuttara, when she witnessed a nun who was praised for her eloquence and vowed to achieve the same.

disputable ::: v. i. --> Capable of being disputed; liable to be called in question, controverted, or contested; or doubtful certainty or propriety; controvertible; as, disputable opinions, propositions, points, or questions.
Disputatious; contentious.


dokusan. (C. ducan; K. tokch'am 獨參). In Japanese, lit. a "private consultation" between a ZEN student and master, which is conducted in the privacy of the master's room. This consultation is an important element of training in the Japanese RINZAISHu, and allows the master to check the progress of the student in his meditation, and the student to ask questions regarding his practice. Dokusan is also the formal occasion where the student is expected to express his understanding of a specific Zen koan (GONG'AN) so that the master can gauge his development (see J. JAKUGO; C. ZHUOYU).

ELIZA "artificial intelligence" A famous program by {Joseph Weizenbaum}, which simulated a Rogerian psychoanalyst by rephrasing many of the patient's statements as questions and posing them to the patient. It worked by simple {pattern recognition} and substitution of key words into canned phrases. It was so convincing, however, that there are many anecdotes about people becoming very emotionally caught up in dealing with ELIZA. All this was due to people's tendency to attach to words meanings which the computer never put there. See also {ELIZA effect}. (1997-09-13)

Engels, Frederick: Co-founder of the doctrines of Marxism (see Dialectical materialism) Engels was the life-long friend and collaborator of Karl Marx (q.v.). He was born at Barmen, Germanv, in 1820, the son of a manufacturer. Like Marx, he became interested in communism early in life, developing and applying its doctrines until his death, August 5, 1895. Beside his collaboration with Marx on Die Heilige Familie, Die Deutsche Ideologie, Manifesto of the Communist Party, Anti-Dühring and articles for the "New York Tribune" (a selection from which constitutes "Germany: revolution and counter-revolution"), and his editing of Volumes II and III of Capital, published after Marx's death, Engels wrote extensively on various subjects, from "Condition of the Working Class in England (1844)" to military problems, in which field he had received technical training. On the philosophical side of Marxism, Engels speculated on fundamental questions of scientific methodology and dialectical logic in such books as Dialectics of Nature and Anti-Dühring. Works like Ludwig Feuerbach and the Outcome of Classical German Philosophy and Origin of the Family, Private Property and the State are likewise regarded as basic texts. The most extensive collection of Engels' works will be found in Marx-Engels "Gesamtausgabe", to which there is still much unpublished material to be added. -- J.M.S.

epistemology ::: A term first used by the Scottish philosopher James Frederick Ferrier to describe the branch of philosophy concerned with the nature and scope of knowledge;[8][9] it is also referred to as "theory of knowledge". Put concisely, it is the study of knowledge and justified belief. It questions what knowledge is and how it can be acquired, and the extent to which knowledge pertinent to any given subject or entity can be acquired. Much of the debate in this field has focused on the philosophical analysis of the nature of knowledge and how it relates to connected notions such as truth, belief, and justification. The term was probably first introduced in Ferrier's Institutes of Metaphysic: The Theory of Knowing and Being (1854), p. 46.[10]

Euthanasia [from Greek eu well +thanatos death] Easy death, a painless death; used for the practice of mercifully killing people who would otherwise suffer a painful death. To decide if a person should or should not be kept alive by artificial means or a life ended by artificial means requires almost superhuman discernment. An individual is not his body nor even his mind, but fundamentally a spiritual being. Physical suffering from bodily ills, however unpleasant, provides an opportunity to meet and dispose of certain karmic causes, and thereby learn and grow. Aside from the difficulty of preventing abuses in legalized euthanasia, the ethical and spiritual questions surrounding artificial prolongation and shortening of life remain extremely complex. The Stoics held that life is a gift of the gods and therefore no person has the right to reject that gift — for oneself or another — until the gods themselves call it back.

Experimentalism: Since Dewey holds that "experimentation enters into the determination of every warranted proposition" (Logic, p. 461), he tends to view the process of inquiry as experimentation. Causal propositions, for example, become prospective, heuristic, teleological; not retrospective, revelatory or ontological. Laws are predictions of future occurrences provided certain operations are carried out. Experimentalism, however, is sometimes interpreted in the wider Baconian sense as an admonition to submit ideas to tests, whatever these may be. If this is done, pseudo-problems (such as common epistemological questions) either evaporate or are quickly resolved.

Fahua wubai wen lun. (J. Hokke gohyakumonron; K. Pophwa obaek mun non 法華五百問論). In Chinese, "Treatise on Five Hundred Questions Regarding the 'Lotus Sutra,'" in three rolls; text composed by JINGXI ZHANRAN (711-782) to refute the Chinese YOGĀCĀRA school's (see FAXIANG ZONG) interpretation of the SADDHARMAPUndARĪKASuTRA. It is so named because it contains roughly five hundred entries offering rejoinders (mainly from a TIANTAI position) against hypothetical Faxiang argumentations. Questions such as whether one's spiritual potential is determined and fixed (see GOTRA), whether consciousness is fundamentally defiled or innately immaculate, and the relation between the different Buddhist "vehicles" (YĀNA) have been addressed in this polemical work.

fill-out form "programming" A type of {user interface} used, for example, on the {web}, to organise a set of questions or options for the user so that it resembles a traditional paper form that is filled out. Typical query types are: fill-in-the-blank (text), menu of options, select zero or more, or select exactly one ("{radio buttons}"). Most {web browsers} support fill-out forms. {Overview (http://ncsa.uiuc.edu/SDG/Software/Mosaic/Docs/fill-out-forms/overview.html)}. (1998-03-24)

fill-out form ::: (programming) A type of user interface used, for example, on the World-Wide Web, to organise a set of questions or options for the user so that are: fill-in-the-blank (text), menu of options, select zero or more, or select exactly one (radio buttons).Most World-Wide Web browsers support fill-out forms. . (1998-03-24)

film at 11 "jargon" (MIT, in parody of US TV newscasters) 1. Used in conversation to announce ordinary events, with a sarcastic implication that these events are earth-shattering. "{ITS} crashes; film at 11." "Bug found in scheduler; film at 11." 2. Also widely used outside MIT to indicate that additional information will be available at some future time, *without* the implication of anything particularly ordinary about the referenced event. For example, "The mail file server died this morning; we found garbage all over the root directory. Film at 11." would indicate that a major failure had occurred but that the people working on it have no additional information about it as yet; use of the phrase in this way suggests gently that the problem is liable to be fixed more quickly if the people doing the fixing can spend time doing the fixing rather than responding to questions, the answers to which will appear on the normal "11:00 news", if people will just be patient. [{Jargon File}] (1998-03-24)

film at 11 ::: (jargon) (MIT, in parody of US TV newscasters) 1. Used in conversation to announce ordinary events, with a sarcastic implication that these events are earth-shattering. ITS crashes; film at 11. Bug found in scheduler; film at 11.2. Also widely used outside MIT to indicate that additional information will be available at some future time, *without* the implication of anything responding to questions, the answers to which will appear on the normal 11:00 news, if people will just be patient.[Jargon File] (1998-03-24)

fourteen indeterminates/unanswerable questions. (S. avyākṛta; T. lung du ma bstan pa'i chos; C. wuji 無)

frequently asked question "convention" (FAQ, or rarely FAQL, FAQ list) A document provided for many {Usenet} {newsgroups} (and, more recently, {web} services) which attempts to answer questions which new readers often ask. These are maintained by volunteers and posted regularly to the newsgroup. You should always consult the FAQ list for a group before posting to it in case your question or point is common knowledge. The collection of all FAQ lists is one of the most precious and remarkable resources on the {Internet}. It contains a huge wealth of up-to-date expert knowledge on many subjects of common interest. Accuracy of the information is greatly assisted by its frequent exposure to criticism by an interested, and occasionally well-informed, audience (the readers of the relevant newsgroup). The main {FTP archive} for FAQs is on a computer called {RTFM} at {MIT}, where they can be accessed either {by group (ftp://rtfm.mit.edu/pub/usenet-by-group/comp.answers/)} or {by hierarchy (ftp://rtfm.mit.edu/pub/usenet-by-hierarchy/)}. There is another archive at {Imperial College (ftp://src.doc.ic.ac.uk/usenet/news-info/)}, London, UK and a {web} archive in {Ohio (http://cis.ohio-state.edu/hypertext/faq/usenet/top.html)}, USA. The FAQs are also posted to {Usenet} newsgroups: {news:comp.answers}, {news:news.answers} and {news:alt.answers}. (1997-12-08)

FYI4 ::: [Malkin, G., and A. Marine, FYI on Questions and Answers: Answers to Commonly asked New Internet User Questions, FYI 4, RFC 1325, Xylogics, SRI, May 1992.]

FYI4 [Malkin, G., and A. Marine, "FYI on Questions and Answers: Answers to Commonly asked "New Internet User" Questions", FYI 4, RFC 1325, Xylogics, SRI, May 1992.]

grammar analysis ::: A program written in ABC for answering such questions as what are the start symbols of all rules, what symbols can follow this symbol, which rules are left recursive, and so on. Includes a grammar of ISO Pascal.Version 1 by Steven Pemberton . Ports to Unix, MS-DOS, Atari, Macintosh. FTP: ftp.eu.net, ftp.nluug.net programming/languages/abc/examples/grammar/. (1993-07-05)

grammar analysis "language" A program written in {ABC} for answering such questions as "what are the start symbols of all rules", "what symbols can follow this symbol", "which rules are left recursive", and so on. Includes a grammar of {ISO Pascal}. Version 1 by Steven Pemberton "Steven.Pemberton@cwi.nl". Ports to {Unix}, {MS-DOS}, {Atari}, {Macintosh}. FTP: ftp.eu.net, ftp.nluug.net programming/languages/abc/examples/grammar/. (1993-07-05)

haibutsu kishaku. (排佛釋). In Japanese, "abolishing Buddhism and destroying [the teachings of] sĀKYAMUNI"; a slogan coined to describe the extensive persecution of Buddhism that occurred during the Meiji period (1868-1912). The rise of Western-derived notions of nationalism, kokugaku (national learning), and SHINTo as a new national ideology raised serious questions about the role of Buddhism in modern Japan. Buddhism was characterized as a foreign influence and the institution suffered the disestablishment of thousands of temples, the desecration of its ritual objects, and the defrocking of monks and nuns. When an edict was issued separating Shinto from Buddhism in 1868 (see SHINBUTSU BUNRI), Buddhist monasteries and temples where local deities (KAMI) were worshipped as manifestations of a buddha or BODHISATTVA (see HONJI SUIJAKU) sustained the most damage. The forced separation of Shinto and Buddhism eventually led to the harsh criticism of Buddhism as a corrupt and superstitious institution. Buddhists sought to counter the effects of these attacks through a rapid transformation of the SAMGHA in order to make their religion more relevant to the needs of modern, secular society.

Hizo hoyaku. (秘藏寶鑰). In Japanese, "Jeweled Key to the Secret Treasury," a text composed by the Japanese SHINGONSHu monk KuKAI. The Hizo hoyaku is a summary (one-fifth the length) of Kukai's dense magnum opus HIMITSU MANDARA JuJuSHINRON. The title refers metaphorically to the "jeweled key" of the special teachings that will unlock the "secret treasury" that is the buddha-nature (C. FOXING) of all sentient beings. In contrast to the Himitsu mandara jujushinron, the Hizo hoyaku provides far fewer supporting references and introduces a fictional debate between a Confucian official and a Buddhist priest and a set of questions and answers from the Sok Mahayon non.

Huanglong Huinan. (J. oryo/oryu Enan; K. Hwangnyong Hyenam 龍慧南) (1002-1069). Song-dynasty Chan monk who is regarded as the founder of the HUANGLONG PAI collateral lineage of the LINJI ZONG. He ordained as a monk at the age of eleven, eventually becoming a disciple of Shishuang Chuyuan (986-1039), a sixth-generation successor in the Linji school. He spent much of his life teaching at Mt. Huanglong in Xiushui county of Jiangxi province, whence he acquired his toponym. Huanglong was famous for employing three crucial questions to challenge his students and encourage their cultivation; these are known as "Huanglong's Three Checkpoints" (Huanglong sanguan): What conditioned your birth (viz., why were you born)? Why are my hands like the Buddha's? Why are my feet like a donkey's? His Huanglong lineage lasted for about one hundred fifty years, before being reabsorbed into the rival YANGQI PAI.

if ::: conj. --> In case that; granting, allowing, or supposing that; -- introducing a condition or supposition.
Whether; -- in dependent questions.


"If you go deep enough, into a sufficiently complete silence from all outer things, you will find within you that flame about which I often speak, and in this flame you will see your destiny.} You will see the aspiration of centuries which has been concentrated gradually, to lead you through countless births to the great day of realisation — that preparation which has been made through thousands of years, and is reaching its culmination.” Questions and Answers MCW Vol. 6*.

“If you go deep enough, into a sufficiently complete silence from all outer things, you will find within you that flame about which I often speak, and in this flame you will see your destiny.} You will see the aspiration of centuries which has been concentrated gradually, to lead you through countless births to the great day of realisation—that preparation which has been made through thousands of years, and is reaching its culmination.” Questions and Answers MCW Vol. 6.

imwotko. (C. shi shenme; J. kore ikan; K. /si simma 是甚麼). In vernacular Korean (and specifically the dialect of Kyongsang province), "What is this?"; the foundational contemplative question (K. hwadu; C. HUATOU) used within the Korean SoN (C. CHAN) tradition. This hwadu was taught by both KYoNGHo SoNGU (1849-1912) and YONGSoNG CHINJONG (1864-1940) as part of their attempts to revive Korean kanhwa Son (C. KANHUA CHAN) practice at the turn of the twentieth century. Imwotko is a dialectical contraction of the standard vernacular Korean phrase "Igosi muosin ko" ("What is this?"), which is the translation of the classical Chinese question "What is this?" (C. SHI SHENME; K. si simma) that was frequently raised by teachers in the Chinese Chan tradition. For example, the sixth patriarch HUINENG (638-713) is said to have asked, "There is this one thing that supports the heavens above and opens the earth below. It is as bright as the sun and moon and as dark as a lacquer barrel. It is constantly inside all my activities. What is that thing?" And MAZU DAOYI (709-788) asked, "It is not mind, not buddha, not a thing. So, what is it?" Imwotko differs from the enigmatic expressions of the enlightenment experience that appear in many of the Son exchanges between master and disciple; it is instead presumed to ask the fundamental question about what existence itself means, such as what is my original face (K. pollae myonmok; C. BENLAI MIANMU). By asking this most basic of existential questions, imwotko is thought to generate the sensation of doubt (K. ŭijong; C. YIJING) more readily than might the standard Son GONG'AN and is often thus the first hwadu given to beginning meditators, and especially laypersons, in Korean Son training. But because the doubt generated by imwotko may not be as intense and sustained as that generated by the standard kongan, monks and nuns will typically shift from imwotko to one of those cases as their meditation progresses.

indeterminate questions. See AVYĀKṚTA.

indeterminate questions

initgame ::: (games) /in-it'gaym/ [IRC] An IRC version of the venerable trivia game 20 questions, in which one user changes his nick to the initials of a famous Male, American, Alive, Real (as opposed to fictional). Initgame can be surprisingly addictive. See also hing.[Jargon File]

initgame "games" /in-it'gaym/ [IRC] An {IRC} version of the venerable trivia game "20 questions", in which one user changes his {nick} to the initials of a famous person or other named entity, and the others on the channel ask yes or no questions, with the one to guess the person getting to be "it" next. As a courtesy, the one picking the initials starts by providing a 4-letter hint of the form sex, nationality, life-status, reality-status. For example, MAAR means "Male, American, Alive, Real" (as opposed to "fictional"). Initgame can be surprisingly addictive. See also {hing}. [{Jargon File}]

inquirer ::: one who seeks or questions.

inquiry ::: n. --> The act of inquiring; a seeking for information by asking questions; interrogation; a question or questioning.
Search for truth, information, or knoledge; examination into facts or principles; research; invextigation; as, physical inquiries.


inquisitive ::: a. --> Disposed to ask questions, especially in matters which do not concern the inquirer.
Given to examination, investigation, or research; searching; curious. ::: n. --> A person who is inquisitive; one curious in research.


inquisitor ::: n. --> An inquisitive person; one fond of asking questions.
One whose official duty it is to examine and inquire, as coroners, sheriffs, etc.
A member of the Court of Inquisition.


" . . . insincerity is always an open door for the adversary. That means there is some secret sympathy with what is perverse. And that is what is serious.” Questions and Answers 1957-58, MCW Vol. 9.

“… insincerity is always an open door for the adversary. That means there is some secret sympathy with what is perverse. And that is what is serious.” Questions and Answers 1957-58, MCW Vol. 9*

intentionalism ::: A philosophy that questions the underpinnings of original intent and explores whether or not humans are the source of their own actions or are controlled by a higher power.

interrogate ::: v. t. --> To question formally; to question; to examine by asking questions; as, to interrogate a witness. ::: v. i. --> To ask questions. ::: n.

interrogation ::: n. --> The act of interrogating or questioning; examination by questions; inquiry.
A question put; an inquiry.
A point, mark, or sign, thus [?], indicating that the sentence with which it is connected is a question. It is used to express doubt, or to mark a query. Called also interrogation point.


interrogative ::: a. --> Denoting a question; expressed in the form of a question; as, an interrogative sentence; an interrogative pronoun. ::: n. --> A word used in asking questions; as, who? which? why?

interrogator ::: n. --> One who asks questions; a questioner.

Interview ::: A subjective personality and mental health assessment typically consisting of questions and answers.

interview: usually a verbal research method consisting of either open or closedended questions.

Jerusalem to “slay without pity”? Challenging, even intimidating, questions and ones that, I

jifeng. (J. kiho; K. kibong 機鋒). In Chinese, the "sharpness of one's responsiveness." In CHAN Buddhism, especially after the middle of the Tang dynasty (c. eighth to ninth centuries), a practitioner's level of spiritual comprehension or profundity of his or her enlightenment was often determined by jifeng. The tester or challenger would raise an illogical, perplexing puzzle, an anecdotal account of Chan patriarch's conversations (see GONG'AN), or a mundane occurrence; the monk being tested was expected to offer a spontaneous, impromptu reply to the challenge. In Chan monasteries, abbots or other senior monks randomly cited events described in a gong'an and challenged the tested students or colleagues on their abilities to respond to or explain the apparently enigmatic phrases contained therein. On other occasions, they would have monks debate in groups about the meanings of these accounts; these occasions were called "dharma combat" or "dharma confrontations" (fazhan) and usually took place as a series of mutually and alternately directed questions and answers.

jinglu. (J. kyoroku; K. kyongnok 經). In Chinese, "scriptural catalogues"; a genre of Buddhist literature unique to East Asian Buddhism. Because the Chinese state presumed the authority to authorize which texts (including Buddhist scriptures) were allowed to circulate, the Chinese Buddhist institution from early in its history began to compile catalogues of scriptures that were deemed authentic, and thus suitable for inclusion in the Buddhist canon (DAZANGJING), and texts that were deemed suspect and thus potentially to be excluded from the canon (see APOCRYPHA). Scriptural catalogues began to be compiled within a century of the beginnings of the translation of Buddhist texts into Chinese, or sometime around the middle of the third century, and some eighty catalogues were compiled over the next one thousand five hundred years, with the majority dating from the Tang dynasty (618-907) or before. As Buddhist canons came to be compiled in Korea and Japan as well, those countries also began to create their own catalogues. For the Chinese cataloguers, the main standard of scriptural authority was whether there was clear evidence that a scripture had been imported from outside China and then translated into Chinese; any evidence that indigenous material had intruded into texts, whether that evidence involved vocabulary, thought, or practice, could lead to those texts being judged as apocrypha. Important catalogues include DAO'AN's ZONGLI ZHONGJING MULU, the earliest catalogue, composed c. 374; Sengyou's CHU SANZANG JIJI from 515, which established the principal categories into which all subsequent cataloguers would classify texts; Fei Changfang's LIDAI SANBAO JI from 597, which fabricated many translator attributions to texts that had previously been listed as anonymous, so as to quash potential questions about the reliability of the Buddhist textual transmission; DAOXUAN's DA TANG NEIDIAN LU from 664; and Zhisheng's KAIYUAN SHIJIAO LU from 730, the catalogue par excellence, whose scriptural listings would provide the definitive content and organization of the East Asian Buddhist canon from that point onward.

Jingtu qunyi lun. (J. Jodo gungiron; K. Chongt'o kunŭi non 浄土群疑論). In Chinese, "Treatise on Myriad Doubts concerning the PURE LAND," composed by the monk Huaigan (fl. c. seventh century CE). In this treatise, written largely in dialogic format, Huaigan attempts to address systematically various questions concerning the notion of rebirth in AMITĀBHA Buddha's pure land. The seven-roll treatise is divided into twelve sections in a total of 116 chapters, which cover a wide range of subjects concerning pure land doctrine. These include, as but a few representative examples, the location of the pure land within the three realms of existence (TRILOKA[DHĀTU]), the destiny (GATI) to which beings reborn there belong, where pure land rebirth belongs on MĀRGA schemata, and Huaigan's attempts to reconcile inconsistencies in different scriptures' accounts of the pure land. The Jingtu qunyi lun has therefore functioned almost as an encyclopedia for adherents of pure land teachings. The questions raised anticipate the criticisms of Huaigan's contemporaries, who specialized in the exegesis of the MAHĀYĀNASAMGRAHA and the new YOGĀCĀRA translations of XUANZANG; Huaigan's answers also reflect his own training in Yogācāra doctrine and his extensive command of Buddhist scriptural and commentarial literature.

jNaptidvitīyā karmavācanā. (P. Nattidutiyakammavācā; T. gsol ba dang gnyis kyi las brjod pa; C. boyi jiemo; J. byakuichikonma; K. paegil kalma 白一羯磨). In Sanskrit, "statement of a matter or 'proceeding' (KARMAVĀCANĀ) involving a 'motion' (JNAPTI) accompanied by a single 'repetition' (dvitīya) of the formal question," that is, a motion made before the congregation of monks that may be approved by silent assent, rather than being followed by a request for a voicing of approval. According to the VINAYA, jNaptidvitīyā karmavācanā is the procedure that is to be followed during certain specific formal occasions within the SAMGHA, such as the ordination ceremony, the adjudication of rules, the administration of punishments to transgressors of the precepts, and the settlement of disputes among the clergy. A motion or proposal is made formally one time to the attendees, and repeated once to solicit any additional responses. If the proposal is read in this manner with no audible objections from the group (silence indicating approval), it is passed and considered binding on the participants. For matters of greater importance or formality, there are also procedures involving three formal questions, which require an audible response before they are considered to be decided. See also SAMGHAKARMAN; KARMAN.

Jo khang. In Tibetan, "House of the Lord"; the earliest Tibetan temple and monastery, located in the capital of LHA SA. The central image is a statue of sĀKYAMUNI Buddha as a youth, said to have been sculpted in India during the Buddha's lifetime. This statue, the most sacred in Tibet, is known simply as the JO BO ("Lord") SHĀKYAMUNI or Jo bo Rin po che ("Precious Lord"). The temple takes its name from this image housed within it. Indeed, the name Lha sa ("Place of the Gods") may have referred originally to the Jo khang, only later becoming by extension to be the name of the city that surrounds it. The Jo khang stands at the heart of the old city, and is the central point for three circumambulation routes. The most famous of these is the BAR BSKOR, or middle circuit, which passes around the outer walls and surrounding structures of the Jo khang. The Jo khang and bar bskor together have long been Lha sa's primary religious space, with pilgrims circling it in a clockwise direction each day. The central market of Lha sa is also located along the bar bskor. Despite its well-known name, Tibetans tend to refer to the Jo khang simply as the Gtsug lag khang (Tsuklakang), the Tibetan term for VIHĀRA, meaning "monastery"; the original structure was likely laid out by Newari artisans following the plan of an Indian Buddhist vihāra. Western sources have rather misleadingly dubbed the Jo khang the "Cathedral of Lhasa." According to traditional Tibetan sources (most importantly, the MAnI BKA' 'BUM) the original structure was established by the Tibetan king SRONG BTSAN SGAM PO and his two queens (one Chinese and one Nepalese), around 640 CE. The statue of sākyamuni, said to have been crafted during the Buddha's lifetime, eventually made its way to China. It is said to have been brought to Tibet from China by the king's Chinese bride, Princess WENCHENG. The many difficulties she encountered en route from China convinced her that the landscape of Tibet was in fact a supine demoness (SRIN MO), who was inimical to the introduction of Buddhism. On her advice, the king (who had recently converted to Buddhism), the Chinese princess, and the king's other wife, the Nepalese princess BHṚKUTĪ, built the Jo khang directly over the heart of the demoness; according to Tibetan legends, the king himself built much of the first-floor structure. Other temples were subsequently built across Tibet, corresponding to other parts of the demoness's vast body, in order essentially to nail her to the earth and prevent her further obstruction of the dharma (see MTHA' 'DUL GTSUG LAG KHANG). When the Jo khang was completed, a different statue than the more famous Jo bo Shākyamuni or Jo bo rin bo che, was the central image; it was a statue of the buddha called JO BO MI BSKYOD RDO RJE brought to Tibet by Bhṛkutī. The statue brought by Wencheng (known as Jo bo rin bo che) was housed in the nearby RA MO CHE temple, founded by Wencheng. After the king's death, the two statues were switched, moving the Jo bo Shākyamuni statue to the Jo khang and the Jo bo mi bskyod rdo rje statue to Ra mo che, where they would remain over the subsequent centuries. Modern scholarship has raised questions about many details of this tale, including the degree of Srong btsan sgam po's devotion to Buddhism and the existence of his Nepalese queen. However, the story of the Jo khang's founding, depicted on murals inside the temple itself, is widely known, and the Jo khang remains central to the sacred geography of the Tibetan Buddhist world. The Jo khang has been the site of many important moments of Tibetan history, including the establishment of the SMON LAM CHEN MO festival in 1409, when TSONG KHA PA offered a crown to the Jo bo statue, giving it the aspect of a SAMBHOGAKĀYA. Over the course of its long history, the Jo khang has been enlarged and renovated many times (although elements of the original structure, such as juniper beams, are still visible) to become a complex of chapels, courtyards, residential quarters (including those for the DALAI LAMA and PAn CHEN LAMA), monastic dormitories, government offices, and storerooms. The temple suffered during the Chinese Cultural Revolution (1966-1976), when parts of the complex and much of its original statuary and murals were damaged or destroyed, including the central image. During this period, the complex was occupied by Red Guards and People's Liberation Army troops, and the temple was used as a pigsty. The temple has since been restored, beginning in 1972 and again during the early 1990s. In 2000, it was listed by UNESCO as a World Heritage Site.

Jueguan lun. (J. Zetsukanron; K. Cholgwan non 絶觀論). In Chinese, "Extinguishing Cognition Treatise," (translated into English as A Dialogue on the Contemplation-Extinguished), attributed to the legendary Indian founder of the CHAN school, BODHIDHARMA. The treatise largely consists of an imaginary dialogue between a certain learned man named Master Entrance-into-Principle (Ruli xiansheng) and his student Conditionality (Yuanmen), which unfolds as a series of questions and answers. In this dialogue, Entrance-into-Principle continuously negates the premises that underlie the questions his student Conditionality raises about the mind and its pacification, the nature of enlightenment, as well as other matters related to practice, meditation, and attainment. For example, in the opening dialogue, Conditionality asks, "What is the mind? How do we pacify it?" Master Entrance-into-Principle replies, "Neither positing 'mind' nor trying to 'pacify' it-this is pacifying it." By rejecting the dualistic perspectives inherent in Conditionality's questions, the Master finally opens his student to an experience of the pure wisdom that transcends all dualities. This style of negative argumentation, derived from MADHYAMAKA antecedents, is believed to be characteristic of the NIUTOU ZONG of the Chan school; the treatise is therefore often assumed to have been written by an adherent of that school, perhaps even by its seventh-century founder NIUTOU FARONG himself, or else during the zenith of the Niutou school in the third quarter of the eighth century. The treatise also makes use of Daoist terminology and thus serves as a valuable source for studying Chinese reinterpretations of sophisticated Buddhist doctrines. A controversial argument claiming that insentient beings also possess the buddha-nature (FOXING) also appears in the Jueguan lun. The treatise seems to have gone through several editions, some of which were preserved in the DUNHUANG caves in Chinese Xinjiang.

Kakuda Kātyāyana. (P. Pakudha Kaccāyana; T. Ka tya'i bu nog can; C. Jialuojiutuo jiazhanyan; J. Karakuda Kasen'en; K. Karagut'a Kajonyon 迦羅鳩馱迦旃延). One of the so-called six heretical teachers mentioned in the Buddhist scriptures as rivals or opponents of the Buddha; he is associated with MASKARIN GOsĀLĪPUTRA (d. c. 488 BCE) and the ĀJĪVAKA group. Kakuda's doctrine is described as that of nonaction (P. akiriyavāda), viz., a type of antinomianism: because there are seven eternal and unchangeable elements-earth, water, fire, air, pleasure, pain, and the soul-there is therefore no KARMAN and no such thing as knowledge and ignorance, good and bad, etc. He also argued that there is no such thing as murder, because when a sword splits a head in half, the sword has simply passed between the spaces in the seven elements. As a teacher, Kakuda was apparently annoyed by questions. He considered it a sin to touch cold water, refusing to bathe when hot water was not available and constructing a mound of earth in expiation whenever it was necessary for him to ford a stream. In some sources, he is described as having a large and devoted following; in others, as not commanding the respect of his disciples.

kanbian. (J. kanben; K. kambyon 勘辨). In Chinese, "critical examinations"; a technical term used within the CHAN school to refer to the encounters between Chan monks and masters in which each questions and challenges the understanding of the other. These examinations are often in the form of an extended exchange or dialogue, which will often involve successive series of verbal and gesticulative joustings between the parties. Paradigmatic examples of kanbian are found in the second section of the LINJI LU ("The Record of Linji"), the discourse record (YULU) attributed to LINJI YIXUAN (d. 867).

Kanhwa kyorŭi non. (看話決疑論). In Korean, "Resolving Doubts about Observing the Keyword"; attributed to the Korean SoN master POJO CHINUL. Shortly after Chinul's death in 1210, his disciple CHIN'GAK HYESIM is said to have discovered the Kanhwa kyorŭi non among Chinul's effects and arranged for the text to be published in 1215. The treatise displays the rapid crystallization of Chinul's thought around kanhwa Son (see KANHUA CHAN), but its occasionally polemical tone suggests Hyesim's editorial hand. In the Kanhwa kyorŭi non, Chinul carefully expounds on the practice of observing the hwadu (HUATOU), the "meditative topic" or "keyword" deriving from a Chan public case (kongan; C. GONG'AN). He underscores the efficacy of the hwadu technique in counteracting the defects of conceptual understanding. In a series of questions and answers, Chinul also attempts to clarify the relation between the hwadu technique, the consummate interfusion of the DHARMADHĀTU, and the so-called sudden teachings (DUNJIAO) of Buddhism, as defined in the HUAYAN tenet-classification system (see JIAOXIANG PANSHI; HUAYAN WUJIAO). Chinul demonstrates that the goal of kanhwa Son is not simply to abandon words and thought, as in the "sudden teachings," but to realize the unimpeded interpenetration of all phenomena (SHISHI WU'AI), the consummate description of enlightened experience according to the Huayan school. Unlike the prolix, scholastic explanations of Huayan, however, kanhwa Son relies much less on conceptual descriptions in its soteriology and thus provides a more direct "shortcut" (kyongjol) to enlightenment than is offered in Huayan. Kanhwa Son therefore offers the only truly perfect and sudden (wondon; C. yuandun) approach to enlightenment.

karmavācanā. (P. kammavācā; T. las su bsko ba; C. baijiemo; J. byakukonma; K. paekkalma 白羯磨). In Sanskrit, a "proceeding" or "stating of the matter"; carried out as part of the performance of an ecclesiastical act or sanghakamma (S. SAMGHAKARMAN; see also KARMAN) that involves the recitation of a prescribed ritual text. In the Pāli tradition, not all ecclesiastical acts require the performance of a kammavācanā; those that do not are called P. Nattikamma. Ecclesiastical acts that do require a formal "statement of the matter" may be one of two types. The first is the P. Nattidutiyakammavācā (S. JNAPTIDVITĪYĀ KARMAVĀCANĀ), an ecclesiastical act that requires the performance of a kammavācanā once. This is the dictated procedure that is to be followed during certain formal occasions within the SAMGHA, such as the ordination ceremony, the adjudication of rules, the administration of punishments to transgressors of the precepts, and the settlement of disputes among the clergy. A motion or proposal is made formally one time to the attendees and repeated once to solicit additional comment. If the proposal is read in this manner with no audible objections from the group (silence thus indicates approval), it is passed and considered binding on the participants. The second is the P. Natticatutthakammavācā (S. jNapticaturtha karmavācanā), an ecclesiastical act that requires the performance of a kammavācanā three times. This type involves matters of greater importance or formality and requires three formal questions and an audible response before they are considered decided. There are no sanghakamma in the Pāli tradition that require the recitation of a kammavācā two times.

kirigami. (切紙). In Japanese, "secret initiation documents" (lit. "strips of paper"), ; secret instructions or formulas written on individual pieces of paper, which were used in the medieval Japanese traditions, including the SoTOSHu, to transmit esoteric knowledge and monastic routines. Kirigami were a central pedagogical feature in many fields involving apprenticeships in medieval Japan and were used to transmit knowledge about acting, poetic composition, martial arts, and religious practice. Soto Zen kirigami were also elaborations of the broader Chinese monastic codes (shingi; see QINGGUI) and focused on the secret rituals that a Zen abbot would perform in private, including consecration, funerals, and transmission of precepts or a dharma lineage. Many kirigami also provide short, targeted instruction on individual Zen cases (koan; C. GONG'AN), such as the correct sequence of questions and answers, or the appropriate "capping phrase" (JAKUGO), that would prove mastery of a specific koan. Because kirigami were also kept hidden away in Soto monasteries and were known only to the abbots, access to them was a potent symbol of the abbots' enhanced religious authority.

Known Lazy Bastard "abuse" (KLB) A term, used among technical support staff, for a user who repeatedly asks for help with problems whose solutions are clearly explained in the documentation, and persists in doing so after having been told to {RTFM}. KLBs are singled out for special treatment (i.e. ridicule), especially if they have been heard to say "It's so boring to read the manual! Why don't you just tell me?". The deepest pit in Hell is reserved for KLBs whose questions reveal total ignorance of the basic concepts (e.g., "How do I make a font in {Excel}?", "Where do I turn on my {RAM}?"), and who refuse to accept that their questions are neither simple nor well-formed. (1998-09-07)

Known Lazy Bastard ::: (abuse) (KLB) A term, used among technical support staff, for a user who repeatedly asks for help with problems whose solutions are clearly explained in the documentation, and persists in doing so after having been told to RTFM.KLBs are singled out for special treatment (i.e. ridicule), especially if they have been heard to say It's so boring to read the manual! Why don't you just Where do I turn on my RAM?), and who refuse to accept that their questions are neither simple nor well-formed. (1998-09-07)

Knuth /knooth/ 1. {Donald Knuth}. 2. ["The Art of Computer Programming", Donald E. Knuth] Mythically, the reference that answers all questions about data structures or algorithms. A safe answer when you do not know: "I think you can find that in Knuth." Contrast {literature}. See also {bible}. [{Jargon File}]

Knuth ::: /knooth/ 1. Donald Knuth.2. [The Art of Computer Programming, Donald E. Knuth] Mythically, the reference that answers all questions about data structures or algorithms. A safe answer when you do not know: I think you can find that in Knuth.Contrast literature. See also bible.[Jargon File]

Koran: (Qoran) The name for the sacred book of the Mohammedans. Its contents consist largely of warnings, remonstrances, assertions, arguments in favor of certain doctrines, narratives for enforcing morals. It stresses the ideal of the day of judgment, and abounds in realistic description of both the pains of hell and the delights of paradise. As a collection of commandments, it resembles juristic rescripts (answers to special questions), mentioning the contradictory rulings on the same subjects. It also resembles a diary of the prophet, consisting of personal addresses by the deity to Mohammed. -- H.H.

Kumāra-Kāsyapa. (P. Kumāra-Kassapa; T. 'Od srung gzhon nu; C. Jiumoluo Jiashe; J. Kumara Kasho; K. Kumara Kasop 鳩摩羅迦葉). An ARHAT declared by the Buddha as foremost among his monk disciples in eloquence (PRATIBHĀNA) or versatile discourse (P. chittakathika). According to Pāli sources, his mother was a banker's daughter who had married after her father refused to give his consent for her to join the Buddhist order. But her new husband was sympathetic to her religious quest and granted her permission. Unbeknown to her, however, she was already pregnant when she was ordained and ended up giving birth to her son in the monastery. When her condition became known, Devadatta rebuked her as a PĀRĀJIKA, but the Buddha handed the case to UPĀLI for adjudication, who declared that there was no transgression. (In such cases, the VINAYA authorizes the nuns to care for the child until he is weaned, after which he should be given to a BHIKsU and ordained as a novice, or sRĀMAnERA, or else handed over to relatives to be raised. According to the MuLASARVĀSTIVĀDA VINAYA, however, his parents Udāyin and Guptā were an ordained monk and nun, who conceived him-supposedly not through sexual intercourse but through the nun impregnating herself with the monk's semen-and then raised him in the monastery.) After his birth, the boy was raised by the king of sRĀVASTĪ and was ordained as a novice when he reached the minimum age of seven. He received the epithet kumāra (youth) because of his youth when he was ordained and his royal upbringing and because he was a favorite of the Buddha, who used to give him sweets. Kumāra-Kāsyapa attained arhatship by pondering fifteen questions put to him by a BRAHMĀ god, who was himself a nonreturner (ANĀGĀMIN) and had been the boy's companion in a previous life. Kumāra-Kāsyapa, in turn, assisted his mother in attaining insight. His mother was very attached to him and had wept for twelve years because she never saw him. When one day she happened upon him, she was so overwhelmed with emotion that she stumbled and milk flowed from her breasts. Realizing that her love for him was an impediment to her liberation, he harshly rebuked her to lessen her affections; that evening, she attained arhatship. Kumāra-Kāsyapa received higher ordination (UPASAMPADĀ) as a monk prior to reaching the minimum age of twenty, as the VINAYA normally stipulates, when Buddha ruled that the ten months spent in the mother's womb could be included in determining the ordinand's age. During the time of a previous buddha, Kumāra-Kāsyapa was a brāhmana who overheard a disciple of the Buddha being praised for his eloquence; it was then that he vowed to attain the same distinction under a future buddha.

Lankāvatārasutra. (T. Lang kar gshegs pa'i mdo; C. Ru Lengqie jing; J. Nyu Ryogakyo; K. Ip Nŭngga kyong 入楞伽經). In Sanskrit, "Scripture on the Descent into Lanka"; a seminal MAHĀYĀNA sutra that probably dates from around the fourth century CE. In addition to the Sanskrit recension, which was discovered in Nepal, there are also three extant translations in Chinese, by GUnABHADRA (translated in 443), BODHIRUCI (made in 513), and sIKsĀNANDA (made in 700), and two in Tibetan. The text is composed as a series of exchanges between the Buddha and the BODHISATTVA Mahāmati, who asks his questions on behalf of Rāvana, the YAKsA king of Lanka. Thanks to the wide-ranging nature of Mahāmati's questions, the text covers many of the major themes that were the focus of contemporary Indian Mahāyāna Buddhism, and especially the emerging YOGĀCĀRA school, including the theory of the storehouse consciousness (ĀLAYAVIJNĀNA), the womb or embryo of the buddhas (TATHĀGATAGARBHA), and mind-only (CITTAMĀTRA); despite these apparent parallels, however, the sutra is never quoted in the writings of the most famous figures of Indian Yogācāra, ASAnGA (c. 320-390) and VASUBANDHU (c. fourth century CE). The sutra also offers one of the earliest sustained condemnations in Buddhist literature of meat eating, a practice that was not proscribed within the mainstream Buddhist tradition (see JAINA; DHUTAnGA). The Lankāvatāra purports to offer a comprehensive synthesis of the Mahāyāna, and indeed, its many commentators have sought to discover in it a methodical exposition of scholastic doctrine. In fact, however, as in most Mahāyāna sutras, there is little sustained argumentation through the scripture, and the scripture is a mélange composed with little esprit de synthèse. ¶ The emerging CHAN school of East Asia retrospectively identified the Lankāvatāra as a source of scriptural authority; indeed, some strands of the tradition even claimed that the sutra was so influential in the school's development that its first translator, Gunabhadra, superseded BODHIDHARMA in the roster of the Chan patriarchal lineage, as in the LENGQIE SHIZI JI ("Records of the Masters and Disciples of the Lankāvatāra"). Rather than viewing the Chan school as a systematic reading of the Lankāvatāra, as the tradition claims, it is perhaps more appropriate to say that the tradition was inspired by similar religious concerns. The Newari Buddhist tradition of Nepal also includes the Lankāvatāra among its nine principal books of the Mahāyāna (NAVAGRANTHA; see NAVADHARMA).

leading questions: are questions subtly communicate to the respondent to answer in a particularly way, which results in a biased answer or recall of an event. Commonly used to illustrate how memory recall can be altered after eyewitness testimony.

legalism ::: In the Western sense, an approach to the analysis of legal questions characterized by abstract "logical" reasoning focused on the applicable legal text, such as a constitution, legislation, or case law, rather than on the social, economic, or political context. Legalism has occurred both in civil and common law traditions. Legalism may endorse the notion that the pre-existing body of authoritative legal materials already contains a uniquely pre-determined "right answer" to any legal problem that may arise. In legalism, the task of the judge is to ascertain the answer to a legal question mechanically.[4]

Lengqie shizi ji. (J. Ryoga shishiki; K. Nŭngga saja ki 楞伽師資). In Chinese, "Records of the Masters and Disciples of the Lankāvatāra"; a genealogical anthology associated with the Northern school (BEI ZONG) of the early CHAN tradition, compiled by JINGJUE (683-c. 760). The Lengqie shizi ji contains the biographies and sayings of eight generations of masters (twenty-four in total), who received the "transmission of the lamp" (chuandeng) as patriarchs (ZUSHI) in the Chan school. The transmission narrative presented in this text differs markedly from that found in the LIUZU TAN JING ("Platform Sutra"), which becomes normative in the mature Chan tradition. The recipients of the special transmission of the Chan teachings in the Lenqi shizi ji belong instead to the Northern school. Jingjue places GUnABHADRA before BODHIDHARMA in the Chan patriarchal lineage (probably because of his role in translating the LAnKĀVATĀRASuTRA, an important scriptural influence in the early Chan school); in addition, SHENXIU is listed as the successor to the fifth Chinese patriarch, HONGREN, in place of HUINENG. The Lenqie shizi ji also contains a set of rhetorical questions and doctrinal admonitions known as zhishi wenyi (lit. "pointing at things and inquiring into their meaning") in the biographies of Gunabhadra, Bodhidharma, Hongren, and Shenxiu. Jingjue quotes from numerous sources, including his teacher Xuanze's (d.u.) Lengqie renfa zhi ("Records of the Men and Teachings of the Lankāvatāra," apparently extant only in these embedded quotations in the Lenqie shizi ji), the DASHENG QIXIN LUN, the XIUXIN YAO LUN, Bodhidharma's ERRU SIXING LUN, and the Rudao anxin yao fangpian famen attributed to DAOXIN (which also seems to exist only as quoted, apparently in its entirety, in the Lenqie shizi ji). As one of the earliest Chan texts to delineate the transmission-of-the-lamplight theory as espoused by the adherents of the Northern school of Chan, the Lenqie shizi ji is an invaluable tool for understanding the development of the lineage of Chan patriarchs and the early history of the Chan school. See also CHUANDENG LU; LIDAI FABAO JI.

Lidai sanbao ji. (J. Rekidai sanboki; K. Yoktae sambo ki 歴代三寶紀). In Chinese, "Record of the Three Jewels throughout Successive Dynasties," a private scriptural catalogue (JINGLU) composed by Fei Changfang (d.u.) in 597. The Lidai sanbao ji professes to be a history of the dissemination of the three jewels (RATNATRAYA) in China and provides lists of translated scriptures, indigenous works, or APOCRYPHA, and discussion of the circumstances of their compilation. The catalogue is in fifteen rolls, covering 2,268 texts in a total of 6,417 rolls. The first three rolls of the catalogue provide a chronology of the major events in the history of Buddhism from the Zhou through the Han dynasties. Rolls four through twelve detail the different translations of Buddhist scriptures made in China during different dynastic periods and present them in chronological order. Rolls thirteen and fourteen present a roster of the complete MAHĀYĀNA and HĪNAYĀNA TRIPItAKAs. Finally, the fifteenth roll provides an afterword, a table of contents of the Lidai sanbao ji, and a list of other scriptural catalogues that Fei consulted in the course of compiling his own catalogue. Fei's organizational principle is unique among the Chinese cataloguers and serves to legitimize specific scriptural translations by associating them with the Chinese dynastic succession. Fei's record is particularly important for its attention to scriptures translated in northern China and its attempt to authenticate the translation and authorship of certain apocryphal texts. Fei was especially concerned in his catalogue to reduce the number of scriptures that previously had been listed as anonymous, in order to quash potential questions about the reliability of the Buddhist textual transmission (a concern that Daoists at the Chinese court were then exploiting in their competition for imperial patronage). Fei thus blatantly fabricated scores of attributions for translations that previously had been listed as anonymous. These attributions were later adopted by the state-authorized Da Zhou lu, compiled in 695, which ensured that these scriptures would subsequently enter the mainstream of the Buddhist textual transmission. Fei's translator fabrications resulted in substantial numbers of Chinese Buddhist scriptures that were apocryphal and yet accepted as canonical; this list includes many of the most influential scriptures and commentaries in East Asian Buddhism, including the YUANJUE JING, RENWANG JING, and DASHENG QIXIN LUN.

Linji Yixuan. (J. Rinzai Gigen; K. Imje Ŭihyon 臨濟義玄) (d. 867). Chinese CHAN master of the Tang dynasty and putative founder of the eponymous LINJI ZONG. Linji was a native of Nanhua in present-day Shandong province. He is said to have begun his career as a monk by training in Buddhist doctrine and VINAYA, but he abandoned this scholastic path and headed south to study under the Chan master HUANGBO XIYUN (d. 850). Linji is also known to have visited Gao'an Dayu (d.u.) with whom he discussed the teachings of Huangbo. Having received certification of his attainment (see YINKE) from Huangbo, Linji returned north to Zhenzhou (in present-day Hebei province) and resided in a small hermitage near the Hutuo River that he named Linji'an, whence derives his toponym. There, with the help of the monk Puhua (d. 861), Linji was able to attract a large following. Linji is most famous for his witty replies and iconoclastic style of teaching. Like the Chan master DESHANM XUANJIAN's "blows" (bang), Linji was particularly famous for his "shouts" (he) in response to students' questions (see BANGHE). He was posthumously given the title Chan Master Huizhao (Illumination of Wisdom). The thriving descendents of Linji came to be known collectively as the Linji zong. Linji's teachings are recorded in his discourse record (YULU), the LINJI LU.

Location: E Library—Works Of The Mother—English—Cwmce—Questions And Answers Volume 03—Supermind And Overmind …

Madhav: “Flood of thoughts, they are asking answers to their questions.” The Book of the Divine Mother

Mahānāman. (P. Mahānāma; T. Ming chen; C. Mohenan; J. Makanan; K. Mahanam 摩訶男). The Sanskrit proper name of two significant disciples of the buddha. ¶ Mahānāman was one of the five ascetics (S. PANCAVARGIKA; P. paNcavaggiyā; alt. S. bhadravargīya) who was a companion of Prince SIDDHĀRTHA during his practice of austerities and hence one of the first disciples converted by the Buddha at the Deer Park (MṚGADĀVA) in ṚsIPATANA following his enlightenment. Together with his companions, Mahānāman heard the Buddha's first sermon, the "Setting in Motion the Wheel of Dharma" (S. DHARMACAKRAPRAVARTANASuTRA; P. DHAMMACAKKAPPAVATTANASUTTA), and he attained the state of a stream-enterer (SROTAĀPANNA) three days later. He and the others became ARHATs while listening to the buddha preach the ANATTALAKKHAnASUTTA. Mahānāman later traveled to the town of Macchikāsanda, and, while he was out on alms rounds, the householder CITTA saw him. Citta was greatly impressed by Mahānāman's dignified deportment, and invited him to his house for an meal offering. Having served Mahānāman the morning meal and listened to his sermon, Citta was inspired to offer his pleasure garden Ambātakavana to Mahānāman as a gift to the SAMGHA, and built a monastery there. ¶ Another Mahānāman was also an eminent lay disciple, whom the Buddha declared to be foremost among laymen who offer choice alms food. According to the Pāli account, Mahānāman was Anuruddha's (S. ANIRUDDHA) elder brother and the Buddha's cousin. It was with Mahānāman's permission that Anuruddha joined the order with other Sākiyan (S. sĀKYA) kinsmen of the Buddha. Mahānāman was very generous in his support of the order. During a period of scarcity when the Buddha was dwelling at VeraNja, he supplied the monks with medicines for three periods of four months each. Mahānāman was keenly interested in the Buddha's doctrine and there are several accounts in the scriptures of his conversations with the Buddha. Once while the Buddha lay ill in the Nigrodhārāma, ĀNANDA took Mahānāman aside to answer his questions on whether concentration (SAMĀDHI) preceded or followed upon knowledge. Mahānāman attained the state of a once-returner (sakadāgāmi; S. SAKṚDĀGĀMIN), but his deception toward Pasenadi (S. PRASENAJIT), the king of Kosala (S. KOsALA), precipitated the eventual destruction of the Sākiya (S. sĀKYA) clan. Pasenadi had asked Mahānāman for the hand of a true Sākiyan daughter in marriage, but the latter, out of pride, instead sent Vāsabhakkhattiyā, a daughter born to him by a slave girl. To conceal the treachery, Mahānāman feigned to eat from the same dish as his daughter, thus convincing Pasenadi of her pure lineage. The ruse was not discovered until years later when Vidudabha, the son of Pasenadi and Vāsabhakkhattiyā, was insulted by his Sākiyan kinsmen who refused to treat him with dignity because of his mother's status as the offspring of a slave. Vidudabha vowed revenge and later marched against Kapilavatthu (S. KAPILAVASTU) and slaughtered all who claimed Sākiyan descent. ¶ Another Mahānāma was the c. fifth century author of the Pāli MAHĀVAMSA.

Mahāvedallasutta. (C. Dajuchiluo jing; J. Daikuchirakyo; K. Taeguch'ira kyong 大拘絺羅經). In Pāli, "Greater Discourse on Points of Doctrine"; the forty-third sutta in the MAJJHIMANIKĀYA (a separate SARVĀSTIVĀDA recension appears in the Chinese translation of the MADHYAMĀGAMA); expounded by Sāriputra (S. sĀRIPUTRA) to the monk Mahākotthita (S. KAUstHILA) at Sāvatthi (S. sRĀVASTĪ) in the JETAVANA grove. Mahākotthita approached sāriputra and questioned him concerning a number of points of doctrine preached by the Buddha. These included, what is wisdom (PRAJNĀ); what is consciousness (VIJNĀNA) and its relation to wisdom; what is sensation (VEDANĀ); what is perception (SAMJNĀ) and what is the relation between sensation, perception, and consciousness; what is knowable by the mind alone; what is existence and how many kinds of existence are there; what is the first meditative absorption (DHYĀNA); what are the five sense faculties (INDRIYA); and what are the various kinds of deliverance attained through meditation (VIMUKTI). sāriputra answered all of questions put to him to Mahākotthiya's satisfaction.

Manufacturer Resource Planning "application" (MRP II) A system based on {MRP} which allows manufacturers to optimise materials, procurement, manufacturing processes, etc., and provide financial and planning reports. In the late 1970s and early 1980s, manufacturers integrated MRP and other manufacturing and business functions. This renaissance is commonly known as Manufacturing Resource Planning (MRP II). According to the American Production and Inventory Control Society, Inc. (APICS), MRP II is a method for the effective planning of all resources of a manufacturing company. Ideally, it addresses operational planning in units, financial planning in dollars, and has a simulation capability to answer "what if" questions. It includes business planning, sales and operations planning, production scheduling, material requirements planning (MRP), capacity requirements planning, and the execution support systems for capacity and material. Output from these systems is integrated with financial reports such as the business plan, purchase commitment report, shipping budget, and inventory projections in dollars. Manufacturing resource planning is a direct outgrowth and extension of closed-loop MRP. See also {Enterprise Resource Planning}, {SAP} R/2, R/3, and {Baan}. (1999-02-16)

many questions;

Many questions: The name given to the fallacy -- or, rather, misleading device of disputation -- which consists in requiring a single answer to a question which either involves several questions that ought to be answered separately or contains an implicit assertion to which any unqualified answer would give assent. -- A. C.

many-sided ::: a. --> Having many sides; -- said of figures. Hence, presenting many questions or subjects for consideration; as, a many-sided topic.
Interested in, and having an aptitude for, many unlike pursuits or objects of attention; versatile.


Masters, p. 231. The fact that the adversary challenges God or questions Him docs not, ipso facto, make the adversary

  “Meditate all the time — nothing is so easy and so helpful. Far better is this for most students than to have a set period: quiet, unremitting thought on the questions you have, continuing even when the hands are busy with the tasks of the day, and the mind itself quite absorbed by other duties. In the back of the consciousness there can still be this steady undercurrent of thought. It is likewise a protecting shield in all one’s affairs, for it surrounds the body with an aura drawn forth from the deeper recesses of the auric egg . . .” (FSO 39).

metaphysics ::: A traditional branch of philosophy concerned with explaining the fundamental nature of being and the world that encompasses it,[18] although the term is not easily defined.[19] Traditionally, metaphysics attempts to answer two basic questions in the broadest possible terms:[20] Ultimately, what is there? and what is it like? A person who studies metaphysics is called a metaphysician.[21] The metaphysician attempts to clarify the fundamental notions by which people understand the world, e.g., existence, objects and their properties, space and time, cause and effect, and possibility. A central branch of metaphysics is ontology, the investigation into the basic categories of being and how they relate to each other. Another central branch of metaphysics is cosmology, the study of the origin, fundamental structure, nature, and dynamics of the universe. Some include epistemology as another central focus of metaphysics, but other philosophers question this.

microLenat /mi:"-kroh-len"-*t/ The unit of {bogosity}, written uL; the consensus is that this is the largest unit practical for everyday use. The microLenat, originally invented by David Jefferson, was promulgated as an attack against noted computer scientist {Doug Lenat} by a {tenured graduate student} at {CMU}. Doug had failed the student on an important exam for giving only "AI is bogus" as his answer to the questions. The slur is generally considered unmerited, but it has become a running gag nevertheless. Some of Doug's friends argue that *of course* a microLenat is bogus, since it is only one millionth of a Lenat. Others have suggested that the unit should be redesignated after the grad student, as the microReid. [{Jargon File}]

MilindapaNha. (C. Naxian biqiu jing; J. Nasenbikukyo; K. Nason pigu kyong 那先比丘經). In Pāli, the "Questions of Milinda"; a famous dialogical text that records the conversations of the ARHAT NĀGASENA and the Bactrian-Greek King Milinda (Menander) on various knotty points of Buddhist doctrine and ethics. The text was presumably composed in northern India in Sanskrit or Prakrit and later translated into Pāli, with the original composition or compilation probably occurring around the beginning of the Common Era. (There is an early Chinese translation made around the late fourth century, probably from a Central Asian recension in GĀNDHĀRĪ titled the *Nāgasenabhiksusutra, which is named after the BHIKsU Nāgasena rather than King Milinda.) It is uncertain whether such a dialogue ever in fact took place. There was indeed a famous king of BACTRIA named Menander (alt. Menandros; Milinda in Indian sources) who ruled over a large region that encompassed parts of modern India, Pakistan, and Afghanistan during the middle of the second century BCE. There is no evidence of Nāgasena's existence, however. Whatever the historical reality, the "Questions of Milinda" is one of the best-known texts of Pāli Buddhism. The text is structured as a series of questions by the king and answers by the monk on a wide range of topics, with each of the interlocutors displaying an impressive knowledge of Buddhist doctrine and literature. Nāgasena always provides a satisfying answer to each of the king's queries. His presentation of the dharma is so successful in fact that at the end of the dialogue King Milinda places his son upon the throne, enters the religious life, and becomes an arahant (S. arhat). The text was translated into Sinhalese in the eighteenth century by the elder Sumangala. The MilindapaNha is included in the Burmese recension of the Pāli TIPItAKA in the KHUDDAKANIKĀYA. Since its translation into English, it has become one of the more commonly anthologized of Pāli texts.

mind ::: Sri Aurobindo: "The ‘Mind" in the ordinary use of the word covers indiscriminately the whole consciousness, for man is a mental being and mentalises everything; but in the language of this yoga the words ‘mind" and ‘mental" are used to connote specially the part of the nature which has to do with cognition and intelligence, with ideas, with mental or thought perceptions, the reactions of thought to things, with the truly mental movements and formations, mental vision and will, etc., that are part of his intelligence.” *Letters on Yoga

"Mind in its essence is a consciousness which measures, limits, cuts out forms of things from the indivisible whole and contains them as if each were a separate integer.” The Life Divine

"Mind is an instrument of analysis and synthesis, but not of essential knowledge. Its function is to cut out something vaguely from the unknown Thing in itself and call this measurement or delimitation of it the whole, and again to analyse the whole into its parts which it regards as separate mental objects.” The Life Divine

"The mind proper is divided into three parts — thinking Mind, dynamic Mind, externalising Mind — the former concerned with ideas and knowledge in their own right, the second with the putting out of mental forces for realisation of the idea, the third with the expression of them in life (not only by speech, but by any form it can give).” Letters on Yoga

"The difference between the ordinary mind and the intuitive is that the former, seeking in the darkness or at most by its own unsteady torchlight, first, sees things only as they are presented in that light and, secondly, where it does not know, constructs by imagination, by uncertain inference, by others of its aids and makeshifts things which it readily takes for truth, shadow projections, cloud edifices, unreal prolongations, deceptive anticipations, possibilities and probabilities which do duty for certitudes. The intuitive mind constructs nothing in this artificial fashion, but makes itself a receiver of the light and allows the truth to manifest in it and organise its own constructions.” The Synthesis of Yoga

"He [man] has in him not a single mentality, but a double and a triple, the mind material and nervous, the pure intellectual mind which liberates itself from the illusions of the body and the senses, and a divine mind above intellect which in its turn liberates itself from the imperfect modes of the logically discriminative and imaginative reason.” The Synthesis of Yoga

"Our mind is an observer of actuals, an inventor or discoverer of possibilities, but not a seer of the occult imperatives that necessitate the movements and forms of a creation. . . .” *The Life Divine

"The human mind is an instrument not of truth but of ignorance and error.” Letters on Yoga

"For Mind as we know it is a power of the Ignorance seeking for Truth, groping with difficulty to find it, reaching only mental constructions and representations of it in word and idea, in mind formations, sense formations, — as if bright or shadowy photographs or films of a distant Reality were all that it could achieve.” The Life Divine

The Mother: "The true role of the mind is the formation and organization of action. The mind has a formative and organizing power, and it is that which puts the different elements of inspiration in order for action, for organizing action. And if it would only confine itself to that role, receiving inspirations — whether from above or from the mystic centre of the soul — and simply formulating the plan of action — in broad outline or in minute detail, for the smallest things of life or the great terrestrial organizations — it would amply fulfil its function. It is not an instrument of knowledge. But is can use knowledge for action, to organize action. It is an instrument of organization and formation, very powerful and very capable when it is well developed.” Questions and Answers 1956, MCW Vol. 8.*


Mme. David-Neel writes: “the Lamas who belong to the Yellow Cap Sects acknowledge the superiority of their brethren in the various Red Cap Sects in all questions more or less connected with magic and occult science” (My Journey to Lhasa 181). This is a misinterpretation; there has always been a traditional antagonism between the reformed and unreformed sects, each sect having more or less contempt for the beliefs and practices of the other; yet each sect nevertheless holding the other in some respect and paying such deference as is in either case properly due. The Red Cap sects are very largely given over to tantric and other magical practices often partaking of sorcery. The tantric element predominating in this sect is wholly foreign to the pure teachings of Gautama Buddha. It is the higher, more educated, and the initiates of the Yellow Cap body who condemn these practices, although acknowledging their existence and efficacy in use: yet, it is the reformed body which is the true exponent of genuine occult sayings and spiritual magic, in no wise verging upon sorcery, necromancy, or similar modes of thought. Mme. David-Neel’s acquaintance was very largely among the frontier tribes and sects, where she would naturally have a better acquaintance with the practices of the Red Cap body than with those of the extremely reserved and reticent Yellow Caps. See also GELUKPAS

moderator ::: n. --> One who, or that which, moderates, restrains, or pacifies.
The officer who presides over an assembly to preserve order, propose questions, regulate the proceedings, and declare the votes.
In the University of Oxford, an examiner for moderations; at Cambridge, the superintendant of examinations for degrees; at Dublin, either the first (senior) or second (junior) in


monsan. (門参). In Japanese, lit. "lineage instructions," probably an abbreviation of monto hissan (the secret instructions of this lineage); secret koan (GONG'AN) manuals used in medieval Japanese SoToSHu monasteries of the ZEN tradition, which provide detailed descriptions of the koan curriculum taught in the various Soto lineages. As a record of the secret instructions transmitted in a particular lineage, the possession of these manuals often served as proof of the inheritance of that particular dharma lineage. The manuals contain names of koans and a series of standardized questions and answers (WENDA) for each koan. The monsan provide the required responses to the master's questions, which are in the form of Chinese verses and phrases known as AGYO and JAKUGO. The earliest extant monsan texts date from the sixteenth century, but they seem to represent long-established traditions within Zen lineages.

moral absolutism ::: The position that there are absolute standards against which moral questions can be judged, and that certain actions are right or wrong, regardless of the context of the action; the belief in a single set of 'rights' and 'wrongs', with no variation. These are known by all people and to not respect them is a choice.

MPEG-21 "compression, standard, algorithm, file format" A {file format} designed to merge very different things in one object, so you can store interactive material in this format (audio, video, questions, answers, overlays, non-linear order, calculation from user inputs, etc.) [Technical details?] (2001-12-02)

MPEG-21 ::: (compression, standard, algorithm, file format) A file format designed to merge very different things in one object, so you can store interactive material in this format (audio, video, questions, answers, overlays, non-linear order, calculation from user inputs, etc.)[Technical details?](2001-12-02)

Muchu mondo. (夢中問答). In Japanese, "Questions and Answers in Dreams," a primer on ZEN (C. CHAN) training attributed to the RINZAISHu master MUSo SOSEKI (1275-1351). The Muchu mondo is a record of the answers given by Muso to the questions regarding Zen asked by Ashikaga Tadayoshi (1306-1352), the brother of the shogun Ashikaga Takauji (1305-1358). In total, Tadayoshi and Muso exchanged ninety-three sets of questions and answers that covered a wide range of subjects, including everything from praying for merit to the study of koans (C. GONG'AN) and the practice of seated meditation (J. zazen; C. ZUOCHAN). Due to its simple and clear discussion of topics relevant to a lay audience, the Muchu mondo has been widely read within the tradition and republished often.

Myth: (Gr. mythes, legend) The truth, symbolically, or affectively, presented. Originally, the legends of the Gods concerning cosmogonical or cosmological questions. Later, a fiction presented as historically true but lacking factual basis; a popular and traditional falsehood. A presentation of cosmology, employing the affective method of symbolic representation in order to escape from the limitations of literal meaning. -- J.K.F.

Nāgārjuna. (T. Klu sgrub; C. Longshu; J. Ryuju; K. Yongsu 龍樹). Indian Buddhist philosopher traditionally regarded as the founder of the MADHYAMAKA [alt. Mādhyamika] school of MAHĀYĀNA Buddhist philosophy. Very little can be said concerning his life; scholars generally place him in South India during the second century CE. Traditional accounts state that he lived four hundred years after the Buddha's PARINIRVĀnA. Some traditional biographies also state that he lived for six hundred years, apparently attempting to identify him with a later Nāgārjuna known for his tantric writings. Two of the works attributed to Nāgārjuna, the RATNĀVALĪ and the SUHṚLLEKHA, are verses of advice to a king, suggesting that he may have achieved some fame during his lifetime. His birth is "prophesied" in a number of works, including the LAnKĀVATĀRASuTRA. Other sources indicate that he also served as abbot of a monastery. He appears to have been the teacher of ĀRYADEVA, and his works served as the subject of numerous commentaries in India, East Asia, and Tibet. Although Nāgārjuna is best known in the West for his writings on emptiness (suNYATĀ), especially as set forth in his most famous work, the "Verses on the Middle Way" (MuLAMADHYAMAKAKĀRIKĀ, also known as the MADHYAMAKAsĀSTRA), Nāgārjuna was the author of a number of works (even when questions of attribution are taken into account) on a range of topics, and it is through a broad assessment of these works that an understanding of his thought is best gained. He wrote as a Buddhist monk and as a proponent of the Mahāyāna; in several of his works he defends the Mahāyāna sutras as being BUDDHAVACANA. He compiled an anthology of passages from sixty-eight sutras entitled the "Compendium of Sutras" (SuTRASAMUCCAYA), the majority of which are Mahāyāna sutras; this work provides a useful index for scholars in determining which sutras were extant during his lifetime. Among the Mahāyāna sutras, Nāgārjuna is particularly associated with the "perfection of wisdom" (PRAJNĀPĀRAMITĀ) corpus. According to legend, Nāgārjuna retrieved from the Dragon King's palace at the bottom of the sea the "Perfection of Wisdom in One Hundred Thousand Lines" (sATASĀHASRIKĀPRAJNĀPĀRAMITĀSuTRA), which the Buddha had entrusted to the undersea king of the NĀGAs for safekeeping. He also composed hymns of praise to the Buddha, such as the CATUḤSTAVA, and expositions of Buddhist ethical practice, such as the Ratnāvalī. (Later exegetes classify his works into a YUKTIKĀYA, or "logical corpus," and a STAVAKĀYA, or "devotional corpus.") Nāgārjuna's works are addressed to a variety of audiences. His philosophical texts are sometimes directed against logicians of non-Buddhist schools, but most often offer a critique of the doctrines and assumptions of Buddhist ABHIDHARMA schools, especially the SARVĀSTIVĀDA. Other works are more general expositions of Buddhist practice, directed sometimes to monastic audiences, sometimes to lay audiences. An overriding theme in his works is the bodhisattva's path to buddhahood, and the merit (PUnYA) and wisdom (PRAJNĀ) that the bodhisattva must accumulate over the course of that path in order to achieve enlightenment. By wisdom here, he means the perfection of wisdom (prajNāpāramitā), declared in the sutras to be the knowledge of emptiness (suNYATĀ). Nāgārjuna is credited with rendering the poetic and sometimes paradoxical declarations concerning emptiness that appear in these and other Mahāyāna sutras into a coherent philosophical system. In his first sermon, the DHARMACAKRAPRAVARTANASuTRA, the Buddha had prescribed a "middle way" between the extremes of self-indulgence and self-mortification. Nāgārjuna, citing an early sutra, spoke of a middle way between the extremes of existence and nonexistence, sometimes also referred to as the middle way between the extremes of permanence (sĀsVATĀNTA) and annihilation (UCCHEDĀNTA). For Nāgārjuna, the ignorance (AVIDYĀ) that is the source of all suffering is the belief in SVABHĀVA, a term that literally means "own being" and has been variously rendered as "intrinsic existence" and "self-nature." This belief is the mistaken view that things exist autonomously, independently, and permanently; to hold this belief is to fall into the extreme of permanence. It is equally mistaken, however, to hold that nothing exists; this is the extreme of annihilation. Emptiness, which for Nāgārjuna is the true nature of reality, is not the absence of existence, but the absence of self-existence, viz., the absence of svabhāva. Nāgārjuna devotes his Mulamadhyamakakārikā to a thoroughgoing analysis of a wide range of topics (in twenty-seven chapters and 448 verses), including the Buddha, the FOUR NOBLE TRUTHS, and NIRVĀnA, to demonstrate that each lacks the autonomy and independence that are mistakenly ascribed to it. His approach generally is to consider the various ways in which a given entity could exist, and then demonstrate that none of these is tenable because of the absurdities that would be entailed thereby, a form of reasoning often described in Western writings as reductio ad absurdum. In the case of something that is regarded to be the effect of a cause, he shows that the effect cannot be produced from itself (because an effect is the product of a cause), from something other than itself (because there must be a link between cause and effect), from something that is both the same as and different from itself (because the former two options are not possible), or from something that is neither the same as nor different from itself (because no such thing exists). This, in his view, is what is meant in the perfection of wisdom sutras when they state that all phenomena are "unproduced" (ANUTPĀDA). The purpose of such an analysis is to destroy misconceptions (VIKALPA) and encourage the abandonment of all views (DṚstI). Nāgārjuna defined emptiness in terms of the doctrine of PRATĪTYASAMUTPĀDA, or "dependent origination," understood in its more generic sense as the fact that things are not self-arisen, but are produced in dependence on causes and conditions. This definition allows Nāgārjuna to avoid the claim of nihilism, which he addresses directly in his writings and which his followers would confront over the centuries. Nāgārjuna employs the doctrine of the two truths (SATYADVAYA) of ultimate truth (PARAMĀRTHASATYA) and conventional truth (SAMVṚTISATYA), explaining that everything that exists is ultimately empty of any intrinsic nature but does exist conventionally. The conventional is the necessary means for understanding the ultimate, and the ultimate makes the conventional possible. As Nāgārjuna wrote, "For whom emptiness is possible, everything is possible."

Naturalistic ethics: Any view according to which ethics is an empirical science, natural or social, ethical notions being reduced to those of of the natural sciences and ethical questions being answered wholly on basis of the findings of those sciences. -- W.K.F.

Neti, neti: (Skr.) "Not this, not that", famous passage in the Brhadaranyaka Upanishad 2.3.6 et al. loc., giving answer to questions as to the nature of brahman (q. v.), thus hinting its indefinability. -- K.F.L.

nianhua weixiao. (J. nenge misho; K. yomhwa miso 拈花微笑) In Chinese, lit. "holding up a flower and smiling subtly"; a famous CHAN transmission story in which sĀKYAMUNI Buddha instructs the congregation nonverbally by simply holding up a flower. Only MAHĀKĀsYAPA understands the Buddha's intent and he smiles back in recognition, making him the first recipient of the Buddha's "mind-to-mind transmission" (YIXIN CHUANXIN). Mahākāsyapa is thus considered the first patriarch (ZUSHI) of the Chan school. This story, also called the "World-Honored One holding up a flower" (Shizun nianhua), first appears in the 1036 imperially ratified Chan genealogical record, Tiansheng Guangdeng lu. There, the story also portrays the Buddha giving his disciple his robe as a token of transmission, but this event does not appear in the later versions of the story, such as in the 1093 Zongmen tongyao ji and the 1183 Liandeng huiyao. The same story is recorded also in the apocryphal Chinese sutra Da fantianwang wenfo jueyi jing ("Mahābrahmā Questions the Buddha and Resolves His Doubts"), compiled sometime between the mid-twelfth and the late fourteenth centuries, probably in order to defend the historicity of the story, the authenticity of which was questioned even in Chan circles. The story became famous among not only Buddhist clerics but also literati. The tale eventually became a meditative topic within the Chan school and is recorded as the sixth case (GONG'AN) in the 1228 WUMEN GUAN ("Gateless Checkpoint"); there, it concludes by giving the Buddha's verbal confirmation that the transmission is complete: "I have this repository of the true dharma eye (ZHENGFAYANZANG), the sublime mind of NIRVĀnA, the authentic quality (C. shixiang; S. TATTVA) that is free from all qualities, the subtle and sublime dharma gate that does not rely on words or letters (BULI WENZI) but is a special transmission outside of the scriptures (JIAOWAI BIECHUAN). This I entrust to Mahākāsyapa." In Western literature, this story has been dubbed the "Flower Sermon," but this designation is never used in Chan literature.

Nichirenshu. (日蓮宗). In Japanese, "schools [associated with] Nichiren." There was and is no single "Nichiren School," but the term is used to designate all of the different schools that trace their origins back to the life and teachings of NICHIREN (1222-1282). At the time of his death, Nichiren left no formal institution in place or instructions for the formation of any such institution. Thus, a number of groups emerged, led by various of his disciples. These groups, which can collectively be referred to as Nichirenshu, disagreed on a number of important points of doctrine and theories of propagation. However, they all shared the fundamental convictions that the SADDHARMAPUndARĪKASuTRA ("Lotus Sutra") was the highest of the Buddha's teachings; that during the degenerate age (J. mappo; C. MOFA) liberation could be achieved by chanting the title (DAIMOKU) of that scripture; that Nichiren was the true teacher of this practice and Japan its appropriate site; and that all other forms of Buddhist practice were ineffective in this degenerate age and thus should be repudiated. However, Nichiren's disciples and his followers disagreed on such questions as whether they should have any connections with other Buddhist groups; how aggressively they should proselytize Nichiren's teachings; and whether the two sections of the Saddharmapundarīkasutra-the "SHAKUMON" (Chapters 1-14), or trace teaching, and the "HONMON" (Chapters 15-28), or essential teaching-are of equal importance or whether the "Honmon" is superior. During the Meiji period, specific schools of Nichiren's teachings were recognized, with six different schools institutionalized in 1874. One of these, which called itself the Nichirenshu, declared the two parts of the sutra to be of equal importance; the other five declared the superiority of the "Honmon." One of these five eventually became the NICHIREN SHoSHu.

Nirgrantha-JNātīputra. (P. Nigantha-Nātaputta; T. Gcer bu pa gnyen gyi bu; C. Nijiantuo Ruotizi; J. Nikenda'nyakudaishi; K. Nigonda Yajeja 尼揵陀若提子) (599-527 BCE). The name commonly used in Buddhist texts to refer to the leader of the JAINA group of non-Buddhists (TĪRTHIKA), also known by his title MAHĀVĪRA (Great Victor). In Pāli sources, Nātaputta (as he is usually called) is portrayed as the Buddha's senior contemporary. He teaches a practice called the fourfold restraint, enjoining his followers to be restrained regarding water, to be restrained regarding evil, to wash away evil, and to live in the realization that evil was held at bay; a person who could perfect the fourfold restraint was called free from bonds (P. nigantha; S. NIRGRANTHA). Like the Buddha and the leaders of many other renunciant (P. sāmana, S. sRAMAnA) sects, Nātaputta claimed omniscience. According to Buddhist accounts, he taught that the consequences of past deeds could be eradicated only through severe penance. He also taught that the accrual of future consequences could be prevented only through the suspension of action. The cessation of action would lead to the cessation of suffering and feeling, and with this the individual would be freed from the cycle of rebirth. In Pāli materials, Nātaputta is portrayed in a most unfavorable light and his teachings are severely ridiculed, suggesting that in the early years of the Buddhist community the Jainas were formidable opponents and competitors of the Buddhists. Nātaputta is described as often declaring the postmortem fate of his deceased disciples, although he did not in fact know it. He is said to have been irritable and resentful, and unable to answer difficult questions. His disciple CITTA abandoned him for this reason and became a follower of the Buddha. In fact, Nātaputta is described as losing many followers to the Buddha, the most famous of whom was the householder UPĀLI. Nātaputta was convinced that Upāli could resist the Buddha's charisma and defeat him in argument. When he discovered that Upāli, too, had lost the debate and accepted the Buddha as his teacher, he vomited blood in rage and died soon thereafter. Buddhist sources claim that, on his deathbed, Nātaputta realized the futility of his own teachings and hoped that his followers would accept the Buddha as their teacher. In order to sow the discord that would result in their conversion, Nātaputta taught contradictory doctrines at the end of his life, teaching one disciple that his view was a form of annihilationism and another that his view was a form of eternalism. As a result, the Nigantha sect fell into discord and fragmented soon after his death. (This account, predictably, does not appear in Jaina sources.) News of Nātaputta's death prompted Sāriputta (S. sĀRIPUTRA) to recite a synopsis of the Buddha's teachings to the assembled SAMGHA in a discourse titled SAnGĪTISUTTA. Nātaputta is often listed in Buddhist texts as one of six non-Buddhist (tīrthika) teachers. See NIRGRANTHA; JAINA.

Nishitani Keiji. (西谷啓治) (1900-1990). Japanese philosopher and member of what came to be known as the KYOTO SCHOOL, a contemporary school of Japanese philosophy that sought to synthesize ZEN Buddhist thought with modern Western, and especially Germanic, philosophy. Nishitani was schooled in Ishikawa prefecture and Tokyo and graduated from Kyoto University in 1924 with a degree in philosophy. A student of NISHIDA KITARo (1870-1945), the founder of the Kyoto School, Nishitani became a professor in the Department of Religion at Kyoto University in 1935 and from 1937 to 1939 studied with Martin Heidegger in Freiburg, Germany. He later chaired the Department of Modern Philosophy at Kyoto Prefectural University from 1955 to 1963. In such works as his 1949 Nihirizumu (translated in 1990 as The Self-Overcoming of Nihilism) and Shukyo to wa nani ka ("What Is Religion?," 1961, translated in 1982 as Religion and Nothingness), Nishitani sought to synthesize German existentialism, Christian mysticism, and what he considered to be Zen experience. Where German philosophy, which is governed by logic and cognitive thinking, addressed ontological questions regarding the self, he argued that such means as Christian mysticism and Zen meditation could complement German philosophy in constructing a path to a complete realization of the self. Nishitani took issue with Nietzsche's nihilism by borrowing from the Buddhist concept of emptiness (suNYATĀ) to argue that recognition of the self as empty brings one to an understanding of things as they are (viz., the Buddhist concept of suchness, or TATHATĀ), and hence a true understanding and affirmation of oneself. Nishitani's philosophical justification of Japan's wartime activities, notably his contributions to the well-known journal Chuokoron ("Central Review") in the early 1940s, has become a controversial aspect of his work.

Now value-theory is concerned both with the property of value and with the process of valuing. About the former it asks various questions. What is its nature? Is it a quality or a relation? Is it objective or subjective? Is it a single property, or is it several properties, value being an ambiguous term? Is its presence in a thing dependent on or reducible to the fact that the thing is valued by someone? About the latter it also has various questions. Is it a mere feeling or desire? Or does it involve judgment and cognition? And if so, is this a cognition of a value already there independently of the act of valuing or of knowing?

Nuñez Regüeiro, Manuel: Born in Uruguay, March 21, 1883. Professor of Philosophy at the National University of the Litoral in Argentine. Author of about twenty-five books, among which the following are the most important from a philosophical point of view: Fundamentos de la Anterosofia, 1925; Anterosofia Racional, 1926; De Nuevo Hablo Jesus, 1928; Filosofia Integral, 1932; Del Conocimiento y Progreso de Si Mismo, 1934; Tratado de Metalogica, o Fundamentos de Una Nueva Metodologia, 1936; Suma Contra Una Nueva Edad Media, 1938; Metafisica y Ciencia, 1941; La Honda Inquietud, 1915; Conocimiento y Creencia, 1916. Three fundamental questions and a tenacious effort to answer them run throughout the entire thought of Nuñez Regüeiro, namely the three questions of Kant: What can I know? What must I do? What can I expect? Science as auch does not write finis to anything. We experience in science the same realm of contradictions and inconsistencies which we experience elsewhere. Fundamentally, this chaos is of the nature of dysteleology. At the root of the conflict lies a crisis of values. The problem of doing is above all a problem of valuing. From a point of view of values, life ennobles itself, man lifts himself above the trammels of matter, and the world becomes meaning-full. Is there a possibility for the realization of this ideal? Has this plan ever been tried out? History offers us a living example: The Fact of Jesus. He is the only possible expectation. In him and through him we come to fruition and fulfilment. Nuñez Regüeiro's philosophy is fundamentally religious. -- J.A.F.

Obsession The act of besieging, or the state of being bothered or besieged by a foreign personality, especially by an evil spirit, before demonic possession. This condition is found among the sufferers from insanity, epilepsy, hysteria, drug addiction, dipsomania, severe asthmas, and mediumship; these sufferers are found to be suitable, negative instruments or vehicles through which disimbodied entities of strong desire can contact sensuous life. Sometimes, even where organic degeneration is found to be present, questions arise whether this is the cause or the effect of continued nervous and mental wrongs. These latter are striking evidence of the vexing or besieging influence which appears in varying degrees, of restlessness with inner tension, of clouded consciousness, inhibition of will, unusual irritability, vague fears, suicidal impulses, epileptic befogged states, and sudden impulsions, criminal and otherwise. In these disorders those afflicted, although karmically sensitive to psychic conditions and influences, often retain enough normal resistance against surrendering to abnormal control to account for the many-sided inner conflict of the siege. This subjective conflict is sometimes disclosed, as in a patient who, subject to attacks of impulsive violence, anticipates them and asks to be restrained. Thus, psychiatrists note that in the insane, the will power to resist wrongdoing is usually lost before moral judgment is gone. Sometimes the inner man knows that he is not sane and longs for help, but cannot make himself understood.

ojo yoshu. (C. Wangsheng yao ji 往生要集). In Japanese, "Collection of Essentials on Going to Rebirth" [in the pure land]; one of the most influential Japanese treatises on the practice of nenbutsu (C. NIANFO) and the soteriological goal of rebirth in the PURE LAND, composed by the Japanese TENDAISHu monk GENSHIN at the Shuryogon'in at YOKAWA on HIEIZAN in 985. The ojo yoshu offers a systematic overview of pure land thought and practice, using extensive passages culled from various scriptures and treatises, especially the writings of the Chinese pure land monks DAOCHUO and SHANDAO. Genshin's collection is divided into ten sections: departing from the defiled realm, seeking (rebirth) in the pure land; evidence for (the existence of) SUKHĀVATĪ; the proper practice of nenbutsu methods for assisting mindfulness; special nenbutsu (betsuji nenbutsu); the benefits of nenbutsu; evidence for the results forthcoming from nenbutsu; the fruits of rebirth in the pure land; and a series of miscellaneous questions and answers. Genshin contends that the practice of nenbutsu is relatively easy for everyone and is appropriate for people during the degenerate age of the final dharma (J. mappo; see MOFA), especially as a deathbed practice. Genshin also recommended the chanting of the name of the buddha AMITĀBHA to those of lower spiritual capacity (a total of nine spiritual capacities are posited by Genshin; cf. JIUPIN), and he regarded this practice as inferior to the contemplative practices described in the GUAN WULIANGSHOU JING. Genshin's work was also famous for its description of SAMSĀRA, especially its vivid depiction of the hells (cf. NĀRAKA); his description inspired lurid paintings of the hells on Japanese screens. The ojo yoshu became popular among the Heian aristocracy; the text's view of the degenerate age (J. mappo; cf. C. MOFA) may have provided an explanation for the social upheaval at the end of the Heian period. The text also exerted substantial influence over the subsequent development of the pure land movements in the Tendai tradition on Mt. Hiei. The ojo yoshu also played an important role in laying the groundwork for an independent pure land tradition in Japan a century later. Several important commentaries on the ojo yoshu were prepared by the Japanese JoDOSHu monk HoNEN. In addition, the ojo yoshu was one of the few texts written in Japan that made its way to China, where it influenced the development of pure land Buddhism on the mainland.

ontologism ::: The ideological system that maintains that God and divine ideas are the first object of humans' intelligence and that the intuition of God is the first act of their intellectual knowledge. Note that Martin Heidegger used the term Onto-theology to refer to answering questions of being with direct reference to belief in God.

open-ended questions: questions that do not contain fixed, pre-determined responses, that allow a respondent to answer relatively freely.

ouijaboard ::: Ouija Board This is a small board, simple in design, on which the letters of the alphabet are inscribed along with the numbers 0 to 9; some may also bear the words 'YES', 'NO', 'GOOD BYE' and 'MAYBE'. The Ouija board is used to try to establish contact with the souls of the departed. Participants sit around a table, the focal point being the board in the centre of the table. They place their hands on a 'pointer' or 'inverted glass', then, should contact be made, the pointer or glass will move around the board spelling out answers to questions put to the spirit. See also Planchette.

party ::: v. --> A part or portion.
A number of persons united in opinion or action, as distinguished from, or opposed to, the rest of a community or association; esp., one of the parts into which a people is divided on questions of public policy.
A part of a larger body of company; a detachment; especially (Mil.), a small body of troops dispatched on special service.
A number of persons invited to a social entertainment; a


Pātikasutta. (C. Anouyi jing; J. Anuikyo; K. Anui kyong 阿夷經). In Pāli, "Discourse on the [Ascetic] Pātika[putta]," the twenty-fourth sutta of the DĪGHANIKĀYA (a separate DHARMAGUPTAKA recension appears as the fifteenth sutra in the Chinese translation of the DĪRGHĀGAMA); a discourse by the Buddha on the display of supernatural powers addressed to the mendicant Bhaggavagotta. The Buddha relates how his former disciple, Sunakkhatta, lost faith in the Buddha because the latter refused to display magical powers or speculate on such questions as the origin of the universe as other teachers of the time were wont to do. The Buddha explains that such displays of magic are trivial, and speculation on such matters does not lead to liberation. He does, however, relate the story of his defeat of the JAINA naked ascetic Pātikaputta, who challenges the Buddha to a miracle-working contest, but when the Buddha answers the challenge, he is unable to rise from his seat.


   lie detector - Piece of electronic equipment also called a polygraph used to determine whether a person is telling the truth by looking for dramatic changes in blood pressure, body temperature, breathing rate, heart rate and skin moisture in response to questions.



personality inventory: a self-report questionnaire that is designed to measure personality characteristics, through questions on personal thoughts, feelings and behaviours. The Eysenck Personality Inventory (EPI) measures personality along the dimensions of neuroticism - stability and extroversion - introversio n.

Philosophers have in the past been concerned with two questions covered by our definition, though attempts to organize the subject as an autonomous department of philosophy are of recent date. Enquiries into the origin of language (e.g. in Plato's Kratylos) once a favorite subject for speculation, are now out of fashion, both with philosophers and linguists. Enquiries as to the nature of language (as in Descartes, Leibniz, and many others) are, however, still central to all philosophical interest in language. Such questions as "What are the most general characters of symbolism?", "How is 'Language' to be defined?", "What is the essence of language?", "How is communication possible?", "What would be the nature of a perfect language?", are indicative of the varying modulations which this theme receives in the works of contemporaries.   Current studies in the philosophy of language can be classified under five hends:   Questions of method, relation to other disciplines, etc. Much discussion turns here upon the proposal to establish a science and art of symbolism, variously styled semiotic, semantics or logical syntax,   The analysis of meaning. Problems arising here involve attention to those under the next heading.   The formulation of general descriptive schemata. Topics of importance here include the identification and analysis of different ways in which language is used, and the definition of men crucial notions as "symbol'', "grammar", "form", "convention", "metaphor", etc.   The study of fully formalized language systems or "calculi". An increasingly important and highly technical division which seeks to extend and adapt to all languages the methods first developed in "metamathematics" for the study of mathematical symbolism.   Applications to problems in general philosophy. Notably the attempt made to show that necessary propositions are really verbal; or again, the study of the nature of the religious symbol. Advance here awaits more generally acceptable doctrine in the other divisions.   References:

Philosophy of Religion: An inquiry into the general subject of religion from the philosophical point of view, i.e., an inquiry employing the accepted tools of critical analysis and evaluation without a predisposition to defend or reject the claims of any particular religion. Among the specific questions considered are the nature, function and value of religion; the validity of the claims of religious knowledge; the relation of religion and ethics; the character of ideal religion; the nature of evil; the problem of theodicy; revealed versus natural religion; the problem of the human spirit (soul) and its destiny; the relation of the human to the divine as to the freedom and responsibility of the individual and the character (if any) of a divine purpose; evaluation of the claims of prophecy, mystic intuitions, special revelations, inspired utterances; the value of prayers of petition; the human hope of immortality; evaluation of institutional forms of expressions, rituals, creeds, ceremonies, rites, missionary propaganda; the meaning of human existence, the character of value, its status in the world of reality, the existence and character of deity; the nature of belief and faith, etc.

Phra Malai. (P. Māleyya). A legendary arahant (S. ARHAT) and one of the most beloved figures in Thai Buddhist literature. According to legend, Phra Malai lived on the island of Sri Lanka and was known for his great compassion and supramundane abilities, including the power to fly to various realms of the Buddhist universe. On one of his visits to the hells, he alleviated the suffering of hell beings and then returned to the human realm to advise their relatives to make merit on their behalf. One day as he was on his alms round, he encountered a poor man who presented him with eight lotus blossoms. Phra Malai accepted the offering and then took the flowers to tāvatimsa (S. TRĀYASTRIMsA) heaven to present them at the Culāmani cetiya (S. caitya), where the hair relic of the Buddha is enshrined. Phra Malai then met the king of the gods, INDRA, and asked him various questions: why he had built the caitya, when the future buddha Metteya (S. MAITREYA) would come to pay respects to it, and how the other deities coming to worship had made sufficient merit to be reborn at such a high level. The conversation proceeded as one divinity after another arrived, with Indra's explanation of the importance of making merit by practicing DĀNA (generosity), observing the precepts and having faith. Eventually Metteya himself arrived and, after paying reverence to the chedi, asked Phra Malai about the people in the human realm. Phra Malai responded that there is great diversity in their living conditions, health, happiness, and spiritual faculties, but that they all hoped to meet Metteya in the future and hear him preach. Metteya in response told Phra Malai to tell those who wished to meet him to listen to the recitation of the entire VESSANTARA-JĀTAKA over the course of one day and one night, and to bring to the monastery offerings totaling a thousand flowers, candles, incense sticks, balls of rice, and other gifts. In the northern and northeastern parts of Thailand, this legend is recited in the local dialects (Lānnā Thai and Lao, respectively) as a preface to the performance or recitation of the Vessantara-Jātaka at an annual festival. In central and south Thailand, a variant of the legend emphasizing the suffering of the hell denizens was customarily recited at funeral wakes, a practice that is becoming less common in the twenty-first century.

Phra Phuttha Sihing. A highly revered image of the Buddha (PHRA PHUTTHA JAO) in Thailand, second in importance only to the Emerald Buddha (PHRA KAEW MORAKOT). According to legend, the Phra Phuttha Sihing image was created in Sri Lanka, and was being transported across the ocean when the ship carrying it sank; the image next appeared in the southern Thai city of Nakhon Si Thammarat. Stylistically, the image, seated in the earth-touching posture (BHuMISPARsAMUDRĀ), with its broad chest, fleshy face, and open robe with a short flap on the left side, belongs to the Lānnā, or northern Thai school, which flourished around the fifteenth century. In addition to uncertainties concerning the image's origin, there are questions of authenticity; at least three sculptures in Thailand are identified as the Phra Phuttha Sihing: they are found in the Buddhaisawan Chapel in the Bangkok National Museum compound, in an eponymous chapel in Nakhon Si Thammarat, and at Wat Phra Singh in Chiangmai.

plastic ::: “That which can easily change its form is ‘plastic’. Figuratively, it is suppleness, a capacity of adaptation to circumstances and necessities.” Questions and Answers, MCW Vol. 4.

Pleasure and pain: In philosophy these terms appear mostly in ethical discussions, where they have each two meanings not always clearly distinguished. "Pleasure" is used sometimes to refer to a certain hedonic quality of experiences, viz. pleasantness, and sometimes as a name for experiences which have that quality (here "pleasures" are "pleasant experiences" and "pleasure" is the entire class of such experiences). Mutatis mutandis, the same is true of "pain". Philosophers have given various accounts of the nature of pleasure and pain. E.g., Aristotle says that pleasure is a perfection supervening on ccrtain activities, pain the opposite. Spinoza defines pleasure as the feeling with which one passes from a lesser state of perfection to a greater, pain is the feeling with which one makes the reverse transition. Again, philosophers have raised various questions about pleasure and pain. Can they be identified with good and evil? Are our actions always determined by our own pleasure and pain actual or prospective? Can pleasures and pains be distinguished quantitatively, qualitatively? See Bentham, Epicureanism. -- W.K.F.

ply ::: v. t. --> To bend.
To lay on closely, or in folds; to work upon steadily, or with repeated acts; to press upon; to urge importunately; as, to ply one with questions, with solicitations, or with drink.
To employ diligently; to use steadily.
To practice or perform with diligence; to work at. ::: v. i.


polygraph ::: n. --> An instrument for multiplying copies of a writing; a manifold writer; a copying machine.
In bibliography, a collection of different works, either by one or several authors.
An instrument for detecting deceptive statements by a subject, by measuring several physiological states of the subject, such as pulse, heartbeat, and sweating. The instrument records these parameters on a strip of paper while the subject is asked questions


Potthapādasutta. (C. Buzhapolou jing; J. Futabarokyo; K. P'ot'abaru kyong 布婆樓經). In Pāli, "Discourse to Potthapāda," the ninth sutta of the DĪGHANIKĀYA (a separate DHARMAGUPTAKA recension appears as the twenty-eighth SuTRA in the Chinese translation of the DĪRGHĀGAMA); preached by the Buddha to the mendicant (P. paribbājaka, S. PARIVRĀJAKA) Potthapāda in a hall erected in Mallika's park in Sāvatthi (S. sRĀVASTĪ). The Buddha is invited to the hall by Potthapāda to express his opinion on the attainment of the cessation of thought (abhisaNNānirodha). Various theories advocated by other teachers are put to the Buddha, all of which he rejects as unfounded. The Buddha then explains the means by which this attainment can be achieved, beginning with taking refuge in the Buddha, the DHARMA, and the SAMGHA, observing the precepts, renouncing the world to become a Buddhist monk, controlling the senses with mindfulness (P. sati, S. SMṚTI), cultivating the four meditative absorptions (P. JHĀNA, S. DHYĀNA), developing the four formless meditations (P. arupāvacarajhāna, S. ĀRuPYĀVACARADHYĀNA), and finally attaining the cessation of thought. Potthapāda then asks about the existence of the soul (ĀTMAN), and whether or not the universe is eternal. The Buddha responds that he holds no opinions on these questions as they neither relate to the holy life (P. brahmacariya; S. BRAHMACARYA) nor lead to NIRVĀnA. Rather, he teaches only the FOUR NOBLE TRUTHS of suffering (P. dukkha; S. DUḤKHA), its cause (SAMUDAYA), its cessation (NIRODHA), and the path leading thereto (P. magga, S. MĀRGA). Some days later, Potthapāda approaches the Buddha with his friend CITTA, the elephant trainer's son, and inquires again about the soul. Pleased with the Buddha's response, he becomes a lay disciple. Citta enters the Buddhist order and in due time becomes an arahant (S. ARHAT).

*Prāsangika. (T. Thal 'gyur ba). In Sanskrit, "Consequentialist," one of the two main branches of the MADHYAMAKA school, so called because of its use of consequences (PRASAnGA) rather than autonomous syllogisms (SVATANTRAPRAYOGA) in debates about the nature of reality. Its leading proponents include BUDDHAPĀLITA and CANDRAKĪRTI. The other branch of Madhyamaka is *SVĀTANTRIKA, represented by such figures as BHĀVAVIVEKA, JNĀNAGARBHA, sĀNTARAKsITA, and KAMALAsĪLA. The designation "Prāsangika" as a subschool of Madhyamaka does not occur in Indian literature; it was coined retrospectively in Tibet to describe the later developments of the Indian Madhyamaka school. In the doxographical literature of the DGE LUGS sect in Tibet, where *Prāsangika is ranked as the preeminent school of Indian Buddhist philosophy, Prāsangika differs from Svātantrika primarily on questions of the nature of emptiness (suNYATĀ) and the correct role of reasoning in understanding it, although other points of difference are also enumerated, including the question of whether the arhat must understand the selflessness of phenomena (DHARMANAIRĀTMYA) in order to achieve liberation.

prātimoksa. (P. pātimokkha; T. so sor thar pa; C. boluotimucha; J. haradaimokusha; K. parajemokch'a 波羅提木叉). In Sanskrit, "code" or "rules," referring to a disciplinary code of conduct (of which there are several versions) for fully ordained monks (BHIKsU) and nuns (BHIKsUnĪ), or a text that sets forth that code, which probably constitutes the oldest part of the various Buddhist VINAYAs. The pre-Buddhist denotation of prātimoksa is uncertain, and may perhaps mean a promise that is to be redeemed; the Buddhist etymologies seem to indicate a "binding obligation" and, by extension, a monastic regulation. Indian Buddhist schools tended to define themselves in terms of the particular monastic code to which they adhered, and differences in the interpretation of the rules of conduct resulted in the convening of councils (SAMGĪTI) to adjudicate such differences and, ultimately, in the schisms that produced the various mainstream Buddhist schools. Several different recensions of the prātimoksa are extant, but there are three main lineages followed within the Buddhist tradition today: the THERAVĀDA pātimokkha followed in Sri Lankan and Southeast Asian Buddhism; the DHARMAGUPTAKA prātimoksa followed in Chinese and Korean Buddhism; and the MuLASARVĀSTIVĀDA prātimoksa followed in Tibetan Buddhism. Despite divergences in the numbers of rules listed in these codes (the Theravāda, for example, has 227 rules for bhiksus, the Dharmaguptaka 250, and the Mulasarvāstivāda 253, and all have considerably more rules for bhiksunī), there is substantial agreement among the prātimoksa of the various mainstream Buddhist schools. They are all similarly structured, with separate codes for monks and nuns, enumerating a set of categories of transgressions: (1) PĀRĀJIKA transgressions of ethical expectations that were so serious as to bring "defeat" and in some vinaya traditions to require expulsion from the order, e.g., engaging in sexual intercourse and murder; (2) SAMGHĀVAsEsA, transgressions entailing temporary suspension from the order, such as masturbation, acting as a go-between for sexual liaisons, or attempting to cause schism in the order (SAMGHABHEDA); (3) ANIYATA, undetermined cases exclusive to monks who are found with women, which require investigation by the saMgha; (4) NAIḤSARGIKAPĀYATTIKA, transgressions requiring confession and forfeiture of a prohibited object, such as hoarding excessive numbers of robes (CĪVARA), begging bowls (PĀTRA), and medicine, or keeping gold and silver; (5) PĀYATTIKA, transgressions that can be expiated through confession alone, such as lying; (6) PRATIDEsANĪYA, minor transgressions to be acknowledged, related to receiving and eating food, which were to be confessed; (7) sAIKsA, minor training rules governing monastic etiquette and deportment, such as not wearing robes sloppily or eating noisily, violations of which were called DUsKṚTA, lit. "bad actions." Both the bhiksu and bhiksunī prātimoksa also include (8) ADHIKARAnAsAMATHA, seven methods of resolving ecclesiastical disputes. Regardless of the school, the prātimoksa was recited separately during the fortnightly UPOsADHA ceremony by chapters of monks and nuns who gather inside a purified SĪMĀ boundary. All monks and nuns were expected to have confessed (see PĀPADEsANĀ) to any transgressions of the rules during the last fortnight prior to the recitation of the code, thus expiating them of that transgression. At the conclusion of the recitation of each category of transgression, the reciter questions the congregation as to whether the congregation is pure; silence indicates assent.

Preface ::: This supplement to the Lexicon of an Infinite Mind, A Dictionary of Words and Terms in Savitri, is a selection of answers to our numerous questions posed to disciples and devotees of Sri Aurobindo and the Mother. It is a rare treasure for generations to come for it provides a profound insight into the understanding of various terms and phrases in Savitri by those who knew Sri Aurobindo and had His darshan many times and a few others with a deep knowledge of specific terms in Savitri.

prepared ::: a. --> Made fit or suitable; adapted; ready; as, prepared food; prepared questions.

qizhongyu. (J. shichishugo; K. ch'ilchongo 七種語). In Chinese, the Buddha's "seven modes of speech." They are (1) yinyu, explanations of how a present cause will induce a specific future effect; (2) guoyu, explanations of how a present effect was a result of a specific past cause; (3) yinguo yu, explanations of the comprehensive principles and mechanisms of the operation of cause and effect; (4) yuyu, explanations through the use of parables, analogies, and illustrations; (5) buying [shuo] yu, a mode of speech that has been variously interpreted as either "enigmatic speech" ("buying" in this case is understood as "not connected with [logic or common sense or traditional tenets])" or "spontaneous speech" ("buying" in this case is understood as "[to speak] without responding [to specific questions]" and therefore is a "self-induced, spontaneous speech"); (6) shi liubu yu, explanations aimed at conforming and catering to worldly concerns, customs, or world views; in other words, these are mundane, provisional explanations not necessarily aimed at transmitting the highest truths; (7) ruyi yu, a mode of speech interpreted as either explanations made according to the likings and predilections of the audience ("ruyi" in this case means "conforming to the wishes" [of the audience]) or explanations that come from the Buddha's ultimate intent-i.e., these are the ultimate, "definitive" explanations ("ruyi" in this case means "conforming to [the Buddha's original] wish").

querist ::: n. --> One who inquires, or asks questions.

query language ::: Query languages or data query languages (DQLs) are computer languages used to make queries in databases and information systems. Broadly, query languages can be classified according to whether they are database query languages or information retrieval query languages. The difference is that a database query language attempts to give factual answers to factual questions, while an information retrieval query language attempts to find documents containing information that is relevant to an area of inquiry.

questionary ::: a. --> Inquiring; asking questions; testing. ::: n. --> One who makes it his business to seek after relics and carry them about for sale.

questioner ::: n. --> One who asks questions; an inquirer.

questioning ::: n. 1. The act of asking or inquiring. 2. A matter of some uncertainty or difficulty. questionings. adj. 3. That questions or doubts. 4. Indicating or implying a question.

question ::: n. 1. An interrogative sentence, phrase, or gesture. v. 2. To pose a question. 3. To challenge the accuracy, probity, or propriety of. 4. To express uncertainty about the validity, truth, etc., of (something); doubt. questions, questioned, questioning.

Questionnaires - A set of questions to be answered as a means of collecting data for market research.

questionnaire (survey): a research method that is contains different formats of questionnaires, for example the Likert scale, open- and closed- questions.

random ::: 1. Unpredictable (closest to mathematical definition); weird. The system's been behaving pretty randomly.2. Assorted; undistinguished. Who was at the conference? Just a bunch of random business types.3. (pejorative) Frivolous; unproductive; undirected. He's just a random loser.4. Incoherent or inelegant; poorly chosen; not well organised. The program has a random set of misfeatures. That's a random name for that function. Well, all the names were chosen pretty randomly.5. In no particular order, though deterministic. The I/O channels are in a pool, and when a file is opened one is chosen randomly.6. Arbitrary. It generates a random name for the scratch file.7. Gratuitously wrong, i.e. poorly done and for no good apparent reason. For example, a program that handles file name defaulting in a particularly useless so that no one else can invoke it without first saving four extra registers. What randomness!8. A random hacker; used particularly of high-school students who soak up computer time and generally get in the way.9. Anyone who is not a hacker (or, sometimes, anyone not known to the hacker speaking). I went to the talk, but the audience was full of randoms asking bogus questions.10. (occasional MIT usage) One who lives at Random Hall. See also J. Random, some random X.[Jargon File] (1995-12-05)

random 1. Unpredictable (closest to mathematical definition); weird. "The system's been behaving pretty randomly." 2. Assorted; undistinguished. "Who was at the conference?" "Just a bunch of random business types." 3. (pejorative) Frivolous; unproductive; undirected. "He's just a random loser." 4. Incoherent or inelegant; poorly chosen; not well organised. "The program has a random set of misfeatures." "That's a random name for that function." "Well, all the names were chosen pretty randomly." 5. In no particular order, though {deterministic}. "The I/O channels are in a pool, and when a file is opened one is chosen randomly." 6. Arbitrary. "It generates a random name for the scratch file." 7. Gratuitously wrong, i.e. poorly done and for no good apparent reason. For example, a program that handles file name defaulting in a particularly useless way, or an assembler routine that could easily have been coded using only three registers, but redundantly uses seven for values with non-overlapping lifetimes, so that no one else can invoke it without first saving four extra registers. What {randomness}! 8. A random hacker; used particularly of high-school students who soak up computer time and generally get in the way. 9. Anyone who is not a hacker (or, sometimes, anyone not known to the hacker speaking). "I went to the talk, but the audience was full of randoms asking bogus questions". 10. (occasional MIT usage) One who lives at Random Hall. See also {J. Random}, {some random X}. [{Jargon File}] (1995-12-05)

Rāstrapālaparipṛcchā. (T. Yul 'khor skyong gis zhus pa; C. Huguo pusahui [jing]; J. Gokoku bosatsue[kyo]; K. Hoguk posal hoe [kyong] 護國菩薩會[經]). In Sanskrit, "The Questions of RĀstRAPĀLA," one of the earliest MAHĀYĀNA sutras; the terminus ad quem for its composition is the third century CE, when DHARMARAKsA (c. 233-310) translated the sutra into Chinese (c. 270 CE), probably following a manuscript from the GANDHĀRA region in the KHAROstHĪ script. (The extant Sanskrit recension is much later.) There are also two later Chinese translations, one made c. 585-600 by JNĀNAGUPTA and other c. 980 by DĀNAPĀLA. The Rastrapāla represents a strand of early MAHĀYĀNA (found also in such sutras as the KĀsYAPAPARIVARTA and the UGRAPARIPṚCCHĀ) that viewed the large urban monasteries as being ill-suited to serious spiritual cultivation because of their need for constant fund-raising from the laity and their excessive entanglements in local politics. The Rāstrapāla strand of early Mahāyāna instead dedicated itself to forest dwelling (see ARANNAVĀSI) away from the cities, like the "rhinoceros" (KHAdGAVIsĀnA), and advocated a return to the rigorous asceticism (S. DHuTAGUnA; see P. DHUTAnGA) that was thought to characterize the early SAMGHA. To the Rāstrapāla author(s), the Buddha's own infinitely long career as a bodhisattva was an exercise in self-sacrifice and physical endurance, which they in turn sought to emulate through their own asceticism. The physical perfection the Buddha achieved through this long training, as evidenced in his acquisition of the thirty-two major marks of the superman (MAHĀPURUsALAKsAnA), receives special attention in the sutra. This approach is in marked contrast to other early Mahāyāna sutras, such as the AstASĀHASRIKĀPRAJNĀPĀRAMITĀ, which were suspicious of the motives of forest dwellers and supportive of cenobitic monasticism in the towns and cities, where monks and nuns would be in a better position to serve the laity by preaching the dharma to them.

Ratnameghasutra. (T. Dkon mchog sprin gyi mdo; C. Baoyun jing; J. Houngyo; K. Poun kyong 寶雲經). The "Cloud of Jewels," an important Mahāyāna sutra, perhaps dating from the third or fourth century CE. It opens with the Buddha residing on the peak of Mt. Gayāsīrsa when the BODHISATTVA SARVANĪVARAnAVIsKAMBHĪ approaches the Buddha and asks him more than one hundred questions ranging from the practice of giving (DĀNA) and the six perfections (PĀRAMITĀ) to the means of swiftly attaining ANUTTARASAMYAKSAMBODHI. The Buddha's answers to these questions are widely quoted in later sĀSTRAS. In China, during the Ming dynasty, there were charges that interpolations were made in the sutra during the reign of the Empress WU ZETIAN in order to legitimize her usurpation of the throne. These interpolations included the story of Prince Moonlight (Yueguang tongzi), who received a prediction from the Buddha that he would later become a great queen in China.

Rdo rje grags ldan. (Dorje Drakden). A Tibetan DHARMAPĀLA associated with PE HAR RGYAL PO as his "minister" (T. blon po) who also takes possession of Pe har's medium, the GNAS CHUNG chos rje (Nechung Choje), the "state oracle" of Tibet. One version of the origin of the oracle is that Rdo rje grags ldan, wishing to rise above his present status, began to appear to the monks of Tshal gung thang. Rather than inviting the god to take up residence at the monastery, they trapped him in a box, which they threw into the river. This box made its way to Gnas chung, where he escaped. The monks there thought it appropriate to invite the chief deity of the emanation, and thus Pe har was brought to the monastery to serve as the oracle. Elsewhere, it is explained that because Pe har will soon attain enlightened status as a supramundane protector ('jig rten las 'das pa'i srung ma), he is increasingly reluctant to answer questions pertaining to mundane matters. For this reason, he occasionally sends Rdo rje grags ldan to speak for him through the Gnas chung cho rje.

REASON. ::: The reason has its place especially with regard to certain physical things and general worldly questions — though even there it is a very fallible judge — or in the forma- tion of metaphysical conclusions and generalisations ; but its claim to be the decisive aulhori^ in matters of yoga or in spiritual things is untenable. The activities of the outward intellect there lead only to the formation of personal opinions, not to the discovery of Truth. It has always been understood in India that the reason and its logic or its judgment cannot give you the realisation of spiiitua] truths but can only assist in an intellectual presentation of ideas; realisation comes by intuition and inner experience. Reason and intellectuality cannot make you see the Divine, it is the soul that sees. Mind and the other instruments can only share in the vision when it is imparted to them by the soul and welcome and rejoice in it. But also the mind may prevent it or at least stand long in the way of the realisation of the vision. For its prepossessions. prKonceived

Rebirth ::: In former times the doctrine used to pass in Europe under the grotesque name of transmigration which brought with it to theWestern mind the humorous image of the soul of Pythagoras migrating, a haphazard bird of passage, from the human form divine into the body of a guinea-pig or an ass. The philosophical appreciation of the theory expressed itself in the admirable but rather unmanageable Greek word, metempsychosis, which means the insouling of a new body by the same psychic individual. The Greek tongue is always happy in its marriage of thought and word and a better expression could not be found; but forced into English speech the word becomes merely long and pedantic without any memory of its subtle Greek sense and has to be abandoned. Reincarnation is the now popular term, but the idea in the word leans to the gross or external view of the fact and begs many questions. I
   refer "rebirth", for it renders the sense of the wide, colourless, but sufficient Sanskrit term, punarjanma, "again-birth", and commits us to nothing but the fundamental idea which is the essence and life of the doctrine.
   Ref: CWSA Vol. 13, Page: 259


Reincarnation ::: Reincarnation is the now popular term, but the idea in the word leans to the gross or external view of the fact and begs many questions. I
   refer "rebirth", for it renders the sense of the wide, colourless, but sufficient Sanskrit term, punarjanma, "again-birth", and commits us to nothing but the fundamental idea which is the essence and life of the doctrine.
   Ref: CWSA Vol. 13, Page: 259


religious issues ::: Questions which seemingly cannot be raised without touching off holy wars, such as What is the best operating system (or editor, language, architecture, shell, mail reader, news reader)?, What about that Heinlein guy, eh?, What should we add to the new Jargon File? See holy wars; see also theology, bigot.This term is a prime example of ha ha only serious. People actually develop the most amazing and religiously intense attachments to their tools, even when the into the crossfire is mumble Get a life! and leave - unless, of course, one's *own* unassailably rational and obviously correct choices are being slammed. (1996-08-16)

religious issues Questions which seemingly cannot be raised without touching off {holy wars}, such as "What is the best operating system (or editor, language, architecture, shell, mail reader, news reader)?", "What about that Heinlein guy, eh?", "What should we add to the new Jargon File?" See {holy wars}; see also {theology}, {bigot}. This term is a prime example of {ha ha only serious}. People actually develop the most amazing and religiously intense attachments to their tools, even when the tools are intangible. The most constructive thing one can do when one stumbles into the crossfire is mumble {Get a life!} and leave - unless, of course, one's *own* unassailably rational and obviously correct choices are being slammed. (1996-08-16)

resolve ::: v. i. --> To separate the component parts of; to reduce to the constituent elements; -- said of compound substances; hence, sometimes, to melt, or dissolve.
To reduce to simple or intelligible notions; -- said of complex ideas or obscure questions; to make clear or certain; to free from doubt; to disentangle; to unravel; to explain; hence, to clear up, or dispel, as doubt; as, to resolve a riddle.
To cause to perceive or understand; to acquaint; to


Responsa ::: Also called teshubot, from sheelot uteshubot (questions and answers); answers to questions on halaka and observances, given by Jewish scholars on topics addressed to them. They originated during the geonic period, and are still used as a means of modern updating and revising of halaka.

Revata. (T. Nam gru; C. Lipoduo; J. Ribata; K. Ibada 離婆多). Sanskrit and Pāli proper name of an important ARHAT who was foremost among the Buddha's monk disciples in mastery of meditative absorption (DHYĀNA; P. JHĀNA). He is typically known as "doubting Revata" (KĀnKsĀ-REVATA; P. Kankhā-Revata), to distinguish him from several other Revatas who appear in the literature, because prior to his enlightenment he is said to have been troubled by doubt concerning what was permissible and what was not. According to the Pāli account, Revata was born into a wealthy family in the city of Sāvitthi (S. sRĀVASTĪ). One day he heard the Buddha preach in Kapilavatthu (S. KAPILAVASTU) and resolved to renounce the world and enter the order. He attained arhatship by relying on dhyāna, and his exceptional skill in these meditative states won him distinction. Revata had resolved to attain this distinction in a previous life as a brāhmana when, during the time of the buddha Padmottara, he heard the Buddha describe one of his disciples as preeminent in his attainment of dhyāna. In another famous story, the mother of Uttara had been reborn as a hungry ghost (S. PRETA, P. peta) and after fifty-five years of wandering, encountered Revata and begged him for relief. He relieved her suffering by making various offerings to the SAMGHA in her name. ¶ There was a later monk named Revata who played a major role at the second Buddhist council (SAMGĪTI; see COUNCIL, SECOND) held at VAIsĀLĪ. Some one hundred years after the death of the Buddha, the monk YAsAS was traveling in Vaisālī when he observed the monks there receiving alms in the form of gold and silver directly from the laity, in violation of the prohibition against monks' touching gold and silver. He also found that the monks had identified ten points in the VINAYA that were classified as violations but that they had determined were sufficiently minor to be ignored. Yasas challenged the monks on these practices, but when he refused to accept their bribes to keep quiet, they expelled him from the order. Yasas sought support of several respected monks in the west, including sĀnAKAVĀSĪN and Revata, and together they traveled to Vaisālī. Once there, Revata went to Sarvagāmin, the eldest monk of his era, who is said to have been a disciple of ĀNANDA, to question him about these ten points. At Revata's suggestion, a jury of eight monks was appointed to adjudicate, with four representatives selected from each party. Revata was selected as one of four from the party declaring the ten practices to be violations, and it was Revata who publically put the questions to Sarvagāmin. In each case, the senior monk said that the practice in question was a violation of the vinaya. Seven hundred monks then gathered to recite the vinaya. Those who did not accept the decision of the council held their own convocation, which they called the MAHĀSĀMGHIKA, or "Great Assembly." This event is sometimes said to have led to the first "great schism" within the mainstream Buddhist tradition, between the STHAVIRANIKĀYA, or Fraternity of the Elders, and the MahāsāMghika.

RTFAQ ({Usenet}, primarily written, by analogy with {RTFM}) Read the FAQ! An exhortation that the person addressed ought to read the newsgroup's {FAQ list} before posting questions. [{Jargon File}] (1994-12-08)

RTFAQ ::: (Usenet, primarily written, by analogy with RTFM) Read the FAQ!An exhortation that the person addressed ought to read the newsgroup's FAQ list before posting questions.[Jargon File] (1994-12-08)

sakra. (P. Sakka; T. Brgya byin; C. Di-Shi; J. Taishaku; K. Che-Sok 帝釋). Sanskrit name of a divinity who is often identified with the Vedic god INDRA (with whom he shares many epithets), although it is perhaps more accurate to describe him as a Buddhist (and less bellicose) version of Indra. Typically described in Buddhist texts by his full name and title as "sakra, the king of the gods" (sAKRO DEVĀNĀM INDRAḤ), he is the divinity (DEVA) who appears most regularly in Buddhist texts. sakra is chief of the gods of the heaven of the thirty-three (TRĀYASTRIMsA), located on the summit of Mount SUMERU. As such, he is a god of great power and long life, but is also subject to death and rebirth; the Buddha details in various discourses the specific virtues that result in rebirth as sakra. In both the Pāli canon and the MAHĀYĀNA sutras, sakra is depicted as the most devoted of the divine followers of the Buddha, descending from his heaven to listen to the Buddha's teachings and to ask him questions (and according to some accounts, eventually achieving the state of stream-enterer), and rendering all manner of assistance to the Buddha and his followers. In the case of the Buddha, this assistance was extended prior to his achievement of buddhahood, both in his previous lives (as in the story of Vessantara in the VESSANTARA JĀTAKA) and in his last lifetime as Prince SIDDHĀRTHA; when the prince cuts off his royal locks and throws them into the sky, proclaiming that he will achieve buddhahood if his locks remain there, it is sakra who catches them and installs them in a shrine in the heaven of the thirty-three. When the Buddha later visited the heaven of the thirty-three to teach the ABHIDHARMA to his mother MĀYĀ (who had been reborn there), sakra provided the magnificent ladder for his celebrated descent to JAMBUDVĪPA that took place at SĀMKĀsYA. When the Buddha was sick with dysentery near the end of his life, sakra carried his chamber pot. sakra often descends to earth disguised as a brāhmana in order to test the virtue of the Buddha's disciples, both monastic and lay, offering all manner of miraculous boons to those who pass the test. In the Pāli canon, a section of the SAMYUTTANIKĀYA consists of twenty-five short suttas devoted to him.

saMgīti. (P. sangīti; T. bka' bsdu; C. jieji; J. ketsuju; K. kyolchip 結集). In Sanskrit, "chant," "recitation," and, by extension, "council." The term is used to refer to both the recitation of scripture and a communal gathering of monks held for the purpose of such recitation; for this reason, the term is often translated as "council," or "synod," such as the first council, second council, etc., following the death of the Buddha. These councils were held to resolve questions of orthodoxy and typically involved the recitation and redaction of the Buddhist canon (TRIPItAKA). At such Buddhist councils, the Buddhist canon was communally rehearsed, agreed upon, and codified; in the Pāli account, the same procedure was followed for redacting the exegetical commentaries, called AttHAKATHĀ. In this same Pāli narrative, a saMgīti was convened at the conclusion of a successful purification of the dispensation (P. sāsanavisodhana) in which false monks and heretics are expelled, schism healed, and the SAMGHA reunified. A saMgīti is conducted by representatives of that newly purified saMgha, who in a public forum unanimously affirm the authority of a common canon. For a detailed description of the major councils, see COUNCIL (s.v.). ¶ The term saMgīti may also be used to refer to the "recitation" of a specific scripture itself. A famous such text is the MANJUsRĪNĀMASAMGĪTI or "Recitation of the Names of MaNjusrī."

saMvṛti. (P. sammuti; T. kun rdzob; C. shisu/su; J. sezoku/zoku; K. sesok/sok 世俗/俗). In Sanskrit, "conventional" or "relative"; a term used to designate the phenomena, concepts, and understanding associated with unenlightened, ordinary beings (PṚTHAGJANA). SaMvṛti is akin to the Sanskrit term LAUKIKA (mundane), in that both are used to indicate worldly things or unenlightened views, and is typically contrasted with PARAMĀRTHA, meaning "ultimate" or "absolute." In Sanskrit the term carries the connotation of "covering, concealing," implying that the independent reality apparently possessed by ordinary phenomena may seem vivid and convincing, but is in fact ultimately illusory and unreal. Much analysis and debate has occurred within the various philosophical schools regarding the questions of if, how, and in what way saMvṛti or conventional phenomena exist. For example, in his PRASANNAPADĀ, the seventh-century scholar CANDRAKĪRTI lists the following three characteristics of saMvṛti. First, they conceal reality (avacchādana). Second, they are mutually dependent (anyonyasamāsraya), meaning that saMvṛti phenomena are dependent on causes and conditions. Finally, they are concerned with worldly activities or speech (lokavyavahāra). Buddhas and BODHISATTVAs use their understanding of conventional reality to help them convey the DHARMA to ordinary beings and lead them away from suffering. See also SAMVṚTISATYA.

SaMyuttanikāya. (S. SaMyuktāgama; T. Yang dag par ldan pa'i lung; C. Za ahan jing; J. Zoagongyo; K. Chap aham kyong 雜阿含經). In Pāli, "Collection of Related Discourses" (or in its nineteenth-century translation Book of Kindred Sayings); the third of the five divisions of the Pāli SUTTAPItAKA and corresponds roughly to the SAMYUKTĀGAMA of the SARVĀSTIVĀDA and KĀsYAPĪYA schools, which is now extant only in its Chinese translations. The Pāli recension is comprised of some 2,872 individual suttas. Because of questions as to what constitutes a sutta in this case (some are only one sentence in length), enumerations of the number of suttas in the various saMyutta/saMyukta collections vary widely, from just under three thousand to over seven thousand (the longer of the two Chinese recensions contains 1,362 sutras). The SaMyuttanikāya is divided into five chapters, or vaggas, which are subdivided into fifty-six saMyuttas, arranged largely by subject matter. The collection derives its title from this classificatory system. The five vaggas are devoted to: (1) verses (sagātha), suttas that in the majority of cases contain verses; (2) causation (NIDĀNA), suttas that deal primarily with epistemology and psychology; (3) the aggregates (P. khandha, S. SKANDHA) on the five aggregates; (4) the six sense-fields (P. salāyatana, S. sAdĀYATANA), dealing with the six sources of consciousness; and (5) the great division (mahāvagga), which contains suttas on the noble eightfold path (ĀRYĀstĀnGAMĀRGA), the states of concentration (DHYĀNA), the establishments of mindfulness (SMṚTYUPASTHĀNA), and other important doctrines.

SaNjaya Vairātīputra. [alt. SaMjayin Vairātīputra] (P. SaNjaya/SaNcaya Belatthiputta; T. Smra 'dod kyi bu mo'i bu yang dag rgyal ba can; C. Shansheye Piluozhizi; J. Sanjaya Birateishi; K. Sansaya Pirajija 刪闍耶毘羅胝子). One of the so-called "six heterodox teachers" often mentioned in Buddhist sutras, whose views and/or practices were criticized by the Buddha, along with PuRAnA-KĀsYAPA, MASKARIN GOsĀLĪPUTRA, AJITA KEsAKAMBALA, KAKUDA KĀTYĀYANA, and NIRGRANTHA-JNĀTĪPUTRA. SaNjaya was a skeptic who doubted the possibility of knowledge and the validity of logic. On questions such as the presence of a world beyond the visible world, the nature of the postmortem condition, and whether actions done in this life had effects in the next, he found the four traditional answers-affirmation, negation, partial affirmation and partial negation, and neither affirmation or negative-to each be unacceptable, and therefore gave evasive answers when asked such speculative questions. The Buddha's two foremost disciples, sĀRIPUTRA and MAHĀMAUDGALYĀYANA, were originally disciples of SaNjaya before encountering the teachings of the Buddha. They are said to have each taken 250 of SaNjaya's followers with them when they abandoned him for the Buddha. Upon hearing the news of their departure, SaNjaya vomited blood and fainted.

Scepticism: (1) a proposition about the limitations of knowledge: that no knowledge at all or that no absolute, unquestionable, trustworthy, certain, complete, or perfect knowledge (or rationally justifiable belief) is attainable by man; or that such is not attainable by any knower, or that none of these kinds of knowledge, if attained, would be recognizable as such; or that no such knowledge is attainable about certain subjects, e g , questions about cxistence, ultimate reality, certain religious beliefs, or the existence or nature of certain entities (e.g., God, one's self, other selves, values, an external world, or causal connections); or that one or more or all of these types of knowledge is not attainable by certain methods or media, e g, reason, infeience, revelation, any non-empirical method, direct observation, or immediate experience (hence identification of scepticism variously with inti-rationalism, anti-supernaturalism, or doctrines of relativity of the senses or relativity of all knowledge);

semantic query ::: Allows for queries and analytics of associative and contextual nature. Semantic queries enable the retrieval of both explicitly and implicitly derived information based on syntactic, semantic and structural information contained in data. They are designed to deliver precise results (possibly the distinctive selection of one single piece of information) or to answer more fuzzy and wide-open questions through pattern matching and digital reasoning.

skeptic ::: n. --> One who is yet undecided as to what is true; one who is looking or inquiring for what is true; an inquirer after facts or reasons.
A doubter as to whether any fact or truth can be certainly known; a universal doubter; a Pyrrhonist; hence, in modern usage, occasionally, a person who questions whether any truth or fact can be established on philosophical grounds; sometimes, a critical inquirer, in opposition to a dogmatist.


Socratic method: (from Socrates, who is said by Plato and Xenophon to have used this method) is a way of teaching in which the master professes to impart no information, (for, in the case of Socrates, he claimed to have none), but draws forth more and more definite answers by means of pointed questions. The method is best illustrated in Socrates' questioning of an unlearned slave boy in the Meno of Plato. The slave is led, step by step, to a demonstration of a special case of the Pythagorean theoiem. Socrates' original use of the method is predicated on the belief that children are born with knowledge already in their souls but that they cannot recall this knowledge without some help, (theory of anamnesis). It is also associated with Socratic Irony, i.e., the profession of ignorance on the part of a questioner, who may be in fact quite wise. -- V.J.B.

sodasasthavira. (T. gnas brtan bcu drug; C. shiliu zunzhe; J. jurokusonja; K. simnyuk chonja 十六尊者). In Sanskrit, "the sixteen elders" (most commonly known in the East Asian tradition as the "sixteen ARHATs"); a group of sixteen venerated arhat (C. LUOHAN) disciples of the Buddha whom the Buddha orders to forgo NIRVĀnA and to continue to dwell in this world in order to preserve the Buddhist teachings until the coming of the future buddha, MAITREYA. Each of these arhats is assigned an (often mythical) residence and a retinue of disciples. With Maitreya's advent, they will gather the relics of the current buddha sĀKYAMUNI and erect one last STuPA to hold them, after which they will finally pass into PARINIRVĀnA. The sāriputraparipṛcchā ("Sutra on sāriputra's Questions"), which was translated at least by the Eastern Jin dynasty (317-420 CE) but may date closer to the beginning of the millennium, mentions four great monks (mahā-BHIKsU) to whom the Buddha entrusted the propagation of the teachings after his death: MAHĀKĀsYAPA, PIndOLA, Kundovahan (C. Juntoupohan, "Holder of the Mongoose," apparently identical to BAKKULA), and RĀHULA. The MILE XIASHENG JING ("Sutra on the Advent of Maitreya"), translated in 303 CE by DHARMARAKsA, states instead that the Buddha instructed these same four monks to wait until after the buddhadharma of the current dispensation was completely extinct before entering PARINIRVĀnA. The sāriputraparipṛcchā's account is also found in the FAHUA WENJU by TIANTAI ZHIYI (538-597) of the Sui dynasty. The Mahāyānāvatāra (C. Ru dasheng lun; "Entry into the Mahāyāna"), a treatise written by Sāramati (C. Jianyi) and translated into Chinese c. 400 CE by Daotai of the Northern Liang dynasty (397-439) first mentions "sixteen" great disciples (mahā-sRĀVAKA) who disperse throughout the world to preserve the Buddha's teachings after his death, but does not name them. Indeed, it is not until the Tang dynasty that the full list of sixteen disciples who preserve the buddhadharma is first introduced into the Chinese tradition. This complete list first appears in the Nandimitrāvadāna (Da aluohan Nantimiduo luo suoshuo fazhu ji, abbr. Fazhu ji, "Record of the Duration of the Dharma Spoken by the Great Arhat NANDIMITRA"), which was translated by XUANZANG in 654 CE. (Nandimitra [C. Qingyou zunzhe] was born in the second century CE in Sri Lanka.) This text tells the story of the Buddha's special charge to this group of elders and offers each of their names, residences, and numbers of disciples. JINGQI ZHANRAN's (711-782) Fahua wenju ji, a commentary to TIANTAI ZHIYI's (538-597) FAHUA WENJU, also cites an account from the apocryphal Ratnameghasutra (Bao yun jing) that the Buddha charged sixteen "worthy ones" (S. arhat; C. luohan) with preserving the BUDDHADHARMA until the advent of Maitreya, after which they could then enter parinirvāna. Zhanran's citation of this sutra gives the names of each of the sixteen arhats, along with their residence and the number of their followers; but while Pindola's and Rāhula's names are included in the sixteen, Mahākāsyapa is not mentioned. According to the Xuanhe huapu ("The Xuanhe Chronology of Painting"), the earliest Chinese iconography showing a group of sixteen disciples probably dates to the Liang dynasty (502-557), when ZHANG SENGYAO (d.u.; fl c. 502-549) first painted a rendering of the sodasasthavira. After the Nandimitrāvadāna was translated into Chinese in the middle of the seventh century, the group of sixteen elders became so universally revered within China that many verses, paintings, and sculptures were dedicated to them. As a group, they appear frequently in East Asian monastic art, each arhat specifically identified by his unique (and often wildly exaggerated) physical characteristics. The most renowned such painting was made at the end of the ninth century by the monk CHANYUE GUANXIU (832-912); his work became the standard presentation of the sixteen. His vivid portrayal of the arhats offers an extreme, stylized rendition of how the Chinese envisioned "Indians" (fan) or "Westerners" (hu). He gives each of his subjects a distinctive bearing and deportment and unique phrenological features and physical characteristics; these features are subsequently repeated routinely in the Chinese artistic tradition. The standard roster of arhats now recognized in the East Asian tradition, in their typical order, are (1) PIndOLA BHĀRADVĀJA; (2) KANAKAVATSA; (3) KANAKA BHĀRADVĀJA; (4) SUBINDA [alt. Suvinda]; (5) BAKKULA [alt. Bākula, Nakula]; (6) BHADRA; (7) KĀLIKA [alt. Karīka]; (8) VAJRAPUTRA; (9) JĪVAKA; (10) PANTHAKA; (11) RĀHULA; (12) NĀGASENA; (13) AnGAJA; (14) VANAVĀSIN; (15) AJITA; (16) CudAPANTHAKA. Sometime before the Song dynasty, the Chinese occasionally added two extra arhats to the roster, possibly in response to Daoist configurations of teachers, giving a total of eighteen. The most common of these additional members were Nandimitra (the putative subject of the text in which the protectors are first mentioned by name) and Pindola Bhāradvāja (another transcription of the arhat who already appears on the list), although Mahākāsyapa also frequently appears. The Tibetan tradition adds still other figures. In a standard form of the Tibetan ritual, the sixteen elders are listed as Angaja, Ajita, Vanavāsin, Kālika, Vajraputra, Bhadra, Kanakavatsa, Kanaka Bhāradvāja, Bakkula, Rāhula, Cudapanthaka, Pindola Bhāradvāja, Panthaka, Nāgasena, GOPAKA (Sbed byed), and Abheda (Mi phyed pa). They are visualized together with sākyamuni Buddha whose teaching they have been entrusted to protect, their benefactor the layman (UPĀSAKA) Dharmatāla [alt. Dharmatāra, Dharmatrāta], and the four great kings (CATURMAHĀRĀJA) VAIsRAVAnA [alt. Kubera], DHṚTARĀstRA, VIRudHAKA, and VIRuPĀKsA. Each of the elders is described as having a particular scroll, begging bowl, staff, and so on, and in a particular posture with a set number of arhats. They come miraculously from their different sacred abodes, assemble, are praised, and worshipped with the recitation of the bodhisattva SAMANTABHADRA's ten vows in the BHADRACARĪPRAnIDHĀNA. Then, with solemn requests to protect the dispensation by watching over the lives of the gurus, they are requested to return to their respective homelands. In other rituals, one finds BUDAI heshang (Cloth-Bag Monk, viz., AnGAJA), the Buddha's mother, Queen MĀYĀ, and his successor, Maitreya; or the two ancient Indian Buddhist sages "Subduer of Dragons" (C. Xianglong) and "Subduer of Lions" (C. Fuhu). See also LUOHAN; and individual entries on each of the sixteen arhats/sthaviras.

software copyright "legal" {Copyright} on a piece of {software}. Software raises interesting questions in relation to copyright, such as what constitutes a "performance" of a piece of software and which aspects of software are restricted. (2008-05-22)

Solomon, King of Israel and Judah (Hebrew) Shĕlomoh [from shālōm prosperous cf Arab zuleima, Greek Salomon Latin solomo, genitive solomonis, French Salomon] Peace, prosperity; according to orthodox Biblical chronology, he lived 993-953 BC, the youngest son of David whom he succeeded through the influence of his mother Bathsheba and the prophet Nathan. Throughout the East, especially in Arabia and thence in Europe, there are many legends of his wisdom and magical powers, and notably with regard to his seal, the six-pointed star or double interlaced equilateral triangles (Solomon’s seal); his meeting with the Queen of Sheba and his answering of the questions and riddles propounded by her and others; and his judgments. Solomon is said to have gotten “his secret learning from India through Hiram, the king of Ophir, and perhaps Sheba” (IU 1:135, 136n).

Sotoshu. (曺洞宗). One of the three major branches of the Japanese Zen tradition, along with the RINZAISHu and oBAKUSHu. The Soto tradition traces its lineage back to DoGEN KIGEN (1200-1253), who is credited with transmitting to Japan the CAODONG ZONG line of the Chinese CHAN teacher TIANTONG RUJING (1162-1227). After returning from China in 1227, Dogen settled in Kyoto and sought to create a new Zen community. Because of resistance from the TENDAI and Rinzai traditions that were already firmly entrenched in the capital (see ENNI BEN'EN), Dogen and his followers eventually left for the rural area of Echizen (in the northern part of present-day Fukui prefecture), and founded EIHEIJI, which came to serve as the center of this new Zen institution. In Echizen, Dogen devoted his time and energy to securing the doctrinal and institutional bases for his community. Dogen's venture was aided by several adherents of the DARUMASHu, who joined the community. Among them were Koun Ejo (1198-1280), the editor of the seventy-five-roll version of Dogen's magnum opus, the SHoBoGENZo, and Tettsu Gikai (1219-1309), whose lineage subsequently came to dominate the Soto school; these monks later served as the second and the third abbots of Eiheiji. Modern scholars believe that a dispute between Gikai and a fellow disciple of Koun Ejo named Gien (d. 1313) concerning the abbotship of Eiheiji prompted Gikai to move to Daijoji in Ishikawa. Gikai was succeeded by his disciple KEIZAN JoKIN (1268-1325), who is honored as "the second patriarch" of Soto by the school's modern followers. Keizan revitalized the Soto community by synthesizing Zen practice with the worship of local gods (KAMI), thus appealing to the local populace. Keizan also established SoJIJI, which along with Eiheiji came to serve as the headquarters (honzan) of the Soto tradition. Gazan Shoseki (1275-1365), a successor of Keizan, produced several disciples, including Taigen Soshin (d. c. 1371) and Tsugen Jakurei (1322-1391), who are credited with the Soto school's rapid expansion throughout Japan during the medieval period. Soto monks of this period, especially those belonging to Keizan-Gazan lines, proselytized in the rural areas of Japan, which had been largely neglected by the established Buddhist traditions at court, and attracted a following among commoners and local elites by engaging in such social activities as building bridges and irrigation systems, as well as by performing rituals that met their religious needs, such as funeral services and mass ordinations (jukai e). Each lineage of the Soto tradition also developed its own secret koan manuals (monsan), only available to selected monks, which gave a received set of questions and answers regarding each koan (C. GONG'AN). During the Tokugawa period, the Soto school developed into one of the largest Buddhist sects in Japan, with a stable financial base, thanks to the mandatory parish system (DANKA SEIDO) that the government launched, in which every household was required to register as a member of a local Buddhist temple and was responsible for the financial support for the temple. By the middle of the eighteenth century, there were more than 17,500 Soto temples across Japan. Although the religious life of the majority of the Soto monks and lay followers during this period was focused on practical religious benefits, such as faith healing and funeral services, a restoration movement eventually developed that sought to return to the putative "original teachings and practices" of the founder Dogen. MANZAN DoHAKU (1636-1714) opposed the custom of IN'IN EKISHI, or "changing teachers according to temple," which was widespread in the Soto tradition during the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries and was required in order to inherit the dharma lineage of a temple (GARANBo). Instead, Manzan called for a direct, face-to-face transmission (menju shiho) from one master to his disciple (isshi insho), which he claimed Dogen had established for the Soto tradition. After several failed attempts, he finally succeeded in persuading the bakufu government to ban the in'in ekishi and garanbo practice in 1703. TENKEI DENSON (1648-1735) and MENZAN ZUIHo (1683-1769) also composed influential commentaries to Dogen's magnum opus, the Shobogenzo, which led to a renaissance in Dogen studies. After the Meiji reforms of 1868, the two head monasteries of Eiheiji and Sojiji, which had remained rivals through the Tokugawa period, worked together to reform the school, issuing several standardizations of the rules for temple operation, ritual procedures, etc. In 1890, Azegami Baisen (d.1901) from Sojiji and Takiya Takushu (d. 1897) from Eiheiji edited the layman ouchi Seiran's (1845-1918) introductory work on the Shobogenzo and distributed it under the title of the Soto kyokai shushogi ("Meaning of Practice and Realization in the Soto Sect"). This text played a major role in the popularization of the school's meditative practice of "just sitting" (SHIKAN TAZA), which fosters a psychological state in which "body and mind are sloughed off" (SHINJIN DATSURAKU); sitting practice itself is therefore regarded as the manifestation of the perfect enlightenment of buddhahood. The Soto school continues to thrive today, with the great majority of its more than fourteen thousand contemporary temples affiliated with Sojiji.

Specific research – Refers to a method used when gathering primary information for a market survey where targeted customers / consumers are asked very specific and in-depth questions geared toward resolving problems found through prior exploratory research.

speculate ::: v. i. --> To consider by turning a subject in the mind, and viewing it in its different aspects and relations; to meditate; to contemplate; to theorize; as, to speculate on questions in religion; to speculate on political events.
To view subjects from certain premises given or assumed, and infer conclusions respecting them a priori.
To purchase with the expectation of a contingent advance in value, and a consequent sale at a profit; -- often, in a


srenika heresy. (C. Xianni waidao, J. Senni gedo, K. Sonni oedo 先尼外道). A heresy that originated with srenika VATSAGOTRA, an ascetic wanderer (PARIVRĀJAKA) and contemporary of GAUTAMA Buddha, who claimed that the impermanent physical body was simply a temporary vessel for a permanent self (ĀTMAN); also known as the Senika heresy. In the Aggi-Vacchagottasutta ("Discourse to Vatsagotra on the [Simile of] Fire"), the seventy-second sutta in the Pāli MAJJHIMANIKĀYA, Vacchagotta (the Pāli equivalent of Vatsagotra) has a celebrated exchange with the Buddha concerning ten "indeterminate questions" (AVYĀKṚTA)-i.e., whether the world is eternal or not eternal, infinite or finite, what is the state of the TATHĀGATA after death, etc. The Buddha refuses to respond to any of the questions, since an answer would entangle him in an indefensible philosophical position. Instead, to convey some semblance of the state of the tathāgata after death, the Buddha uses the simile of extinguishing of fire: just as, after a fire has been extinguished, it would be inappropriate to say that it has gone anywhere, so after the tathāgata has extinguished each of the five aggregates (SKANDHA), they cannot be said to have gone anywhere. At the conclusion of the discourse, Vatsagotra accepts the Buddha as his teacher. (The Ānandasutta of the SAMYUTTANIKĀYA explains that the Buddha kept silent in response to Vatsagotra's questions about the nature of the self in order to prevent him from falling into the extremes of either sĀsVATAVĀDA, "eternalism," or UCCHEDAVĀDA, "annihilationism.") The DAZHIDU LUN (*MahāprajNāpāramitāsāstra) identifies the Vacchagotta of the Pāli suttas with srenika Vatsagotra, the namesake of what in MAHĀYĀNA sources is termed the srenika heresy. The locus classicus for this heresy appears in the MAHĀPARINIRVĀnASuTRA. There, when srenika raises the question about whether there is a self or not, the Buddha keeps silent, so srenika himself offers a fire simile, but with a radically different interpretation from what is found in the Aggi-Vacchagottasutta. He instead compares the physical body and the self to a house and its owner: even though the house may burn down in a fire, the owner is safe outside the house; thus, the body and its constituents (skandha) may be impermanent and subject to dissolution, but not the eternal self. The srenika heresy is a frequent topic in the CHAN literature of East Asia. NANYANG HUIZHONG (675?-775), a successor of the sixth patriarch (LIUZU) HUINENG (638-713), is said to have criticized the "mind itself is buddha" (zixin shi fo) teaching of MAZU DAOYI (709-788) and other HONGZHOU ZONG teachers as being akin to the srenika heresy. The Japanese SoToSHu ZEN master DoGEN KIGEN (1200-1253), in his BENDoWA and SHoBoGENZo, criticizes as equivalent to the srenika heresy the view that the mind-nature is eternal (shinsho joju) even though the body perishes. There is much scholarly debate about whether Dogen's criticism was directed at the "original enlightenment" (HONGAKU; cf. BENJUE) thought of the medieval TENDAISHu, or against the teachings of his rival Zen school, the DARUMASHu, whose similar declarations that the mind is already enlightened and that practice was not necessary opened it to charges of antinomianism.

St. Thomas was a teacher and a writer for some twenty years (1254-1273). Among his works are: Scriptum in IV Libros Sententiarum (1254-1256), Summa Contra Gentiles (c. 1260), Summa Theologica (1265-1272); commentaries on Boethius. (De Trinitate, c. 1257-1258), on Dionysius the Pseudo-Areopagite (De Divinis Nominibus, c. 1261), on the anonymous and important Liber de Causis (1268), and especially on Aristotle's works (1261-1272), Physics, Metaphysics, Nicomachean Ethics, Politics, On the Soul, Posterior Analytics, On Interpretation, On the Heavens, On Generation and Corruption; Quaestiones Disputatae, which includes questions on such large subjects as De Veritate (1256-1259); De Potentia (1259-1263); De Malo (1263-1268); De Spiritualibus Creaturis, De Anima (1269-1270); small treatises or Opuscula, among which especially noteworthy are the De Ente et Essentia (1256); De Aeternitate Mundi (1270), De Unitate Intellecus (1270), De Substantiis Separatis (1272). While it is extremely difficult to grasp in its entirety the personality behind this complex theological and philosophical activity, some points are quite clear and beyond dispute. During the first five years of his activity as a thinker and a teacher, St. Thomas seems to have formulated his most fundamental ideas in their definite form, to have clarified his historical conceptions of Greek and Arabian philosophers, and to have made more precise and even corrected his doctrinal positions, (cf., e.g., the change on the question of creation between In II Sent., d.l, q.l, a.3, and the later De Potentia, q. III, a.4). This is natural enough, though we cannot pretend to explain why he should have come to think as he did. The more he grew, and that very rapidly, towards maturity, the more his thought became inextricably involved in the defense of Aristotle (beginning with c. 1260), his texts and his ideas, against the Averroists, who were then beginning to become prominent in the faculty of arts at the University of Paris; against the traditional Augustinianism of a man like St. Bonaventure; as well as against that more subtle Augustinianism which could breathe some of the spirit of Augustine, speak the language of Aristotle, but expound, with increasing faithfulness and therefore more imminent disaster, Christian ideas through the Neoplatonic techniques of Avicenna. This last group includes such different thinkers as St. Albert the Great, Henry of Ghent, the many disciples of St. Bonaventure, including, some think, Duns Scotus himself, and Meister Eckhart of Hochheim.

Subhadra. (T. Rab bzang; P. Subhadda; C. Xubatuoluo; J. Shubatsudara; K. Subaltara 須跋陀羅). The last person converted by the Buddha before he passed into PARINIRVĀnA. According to some accounts, he was a 120-year-old brāhmana, according to others, a young ascetic. Hearing that the Buddha would be passing away that night at KUsINAGARĪ, Subhadra went to see the Buddha and asked ĀNANDA for permission to speak with him. Ānanda refused the request three times, saying that the Buddha was weary. The Buddha overheard their conversation and told Subhadra to come forward, saying, "Do not keep out Subhadra. Subhadra may be allowed to see the Tathāgata. Whatever Subhadra will ask of me, he will ask from a desire for knowledge, and not to annoy me, and whatever I may say in answer to his questions, that he will quickly understand." Subhadra began to ask the Buddha about the doctrines of various other teachers, but the Buddha cut him short, explaining that only one who knows the noble eightfold path (ĀRYĀstĀnGAMĀRGA) is a true sRAMAnA. Subhadra then asked to be ordained. The Buddha replied that adherents of other sects first had to undergo a probationary period of four months before ordination. When Subhadra announced his willingness to do so, the Buddha waived the requirement and instructed Ānanda to shave the hair and beard of Subhadra. He was then escorted back to the Buddha who ordained him, making him the last person that Buddha personally ordained. The Buddha then gave him a subject of meditation. Walking up and down in the grove, he quickly became an ARHAT and came and sat by the Buddha. According to some accounts, Subhadra felt that he was unworthy to witness the passage of the Buddha into parinirvāna and thus asked the Buddha for permission to die first. The Buddha gave his permission. ¶ Subhadra is also the name of a former barber who entered the order late in life. He always carried a certain animus against the Buddha, because, while Subhadra was still a layman, the Buddha refused to accept a meal that he had prepared for him. After the Buddha's death, Subhadra told monks who were weeping at his passing that they should instead rejoice: since the Buddha would no longer be telling them what they could and could not do, monks would now be free to do as they pleased. MAHĀKĀsYAPA overheard this remark and was said to have been so alarmed by it that he convened what came to be known as the first Buddhist council (SAMGĪTI; see COUNCIL, FIRST) to codify the monastic rules and the Buddha's discourses.

*suraMgamasutra. (T. Dpa' bar 'gro ba'i mdo; C. Shoulengyan jing; J. Shuryogongyo; K. Sunŭngom kyong 首楞嚴經). A Chinese indigenous scripture (see APOCRYPHA), usually known in the West by its reconstructed Sanskrit title suraMgamasutra, meaning "Heroic March Sutra." Its full title is Dafoding rulai miyin xiuzheng liaoyi zhu pusa wanxing Shoulengyan jing; in ten rolls. (This indigenous scripture should be distinguished from an early-fifth century Chinese translation of the suRAMGAMASAMĀDHISuTRA, attributed by KUMĀRAJĪVA, in two rolls, for which Sanskrit fragments are extant.) According to the account in the Chinese cataloguer Zhisheng's Xu gujin yijing tuji, the suraMgamasutra was brought to China by a sRAMAnA named Pāramiti. Because the suraMgamasutra had been proclaimed a national treasure, the Indian king had forbidden anyone to take the sutra out of the country. In order to transmit this scripture to China, Pāramiti wrote the sutra out in minute letters on extremely fine silk, then he cut open his arm and hid the small scroll inside his flesh. With the sutra safely hidden away, Pāramiti set out for China and eventually arrived in Guangdong province. There, he happened to meet the exiled Prime Minister Fangrong, who invited him to reside at the monastery of Zhizhisi, where he translated the sutra in 705 CE. Apart from Pāramiti's putative connection to the suraMgamasutra, however, nothing more is known about him and he has no biography in the GAOSENG ZHUAN ("Biographies of Eminent Monks"). Zhisheng also has an entry on the suraMgamasutra in his KAIYUAN SHIJIAO LU, but there are contradictions in these two extant catalogue accounts of the sutra's transmission and translation. The Kaiyuan Shijiao lu merely records that the sramana Huidi encountered an unnamed Western monk at Guangdong, who had with him a copy of the Sanskrit recension of this sutra, and Huidi invited him to translate the scripture together. Since the names of this Western monk and his patron Fangrong are not mentioned, the authenticity of the scripture has been called into question. Although Zhisheng assumed the suraMgamasutra was a genuine Indian scripture, the fact that no Sanskrit manuscript of the text is known to exist, as well as the inconsistencies in the stories about its transmission to China, have led scholiasts for centuries to questions the scripture's authenticity. There is also internal evidence of the scripture's Chinese provenance, such as the presence of such indigenous Chinese philosophical concepts as yin-yang cosmology and the five elements (wuxing) theory, the stylistic beauty of the literary Chinese in which the text is written, etc. For these and other reasons, the suraMgamasutra is now generally recognized to be a Chinese apocryphal composition. The sutra opens with one of the most celebrated stories in East Asian Buddhist literature: the Buddha's attendant ĀNANDA's near seduction by the harlot Mātangī. With Ānanda close to being in flagrante delicto, the Buddha sends the bodhisattva MANJUsRĪ to save him from a PĀRĀJIKA offense, by employing the suraMgama DHĀRAnĪ to thwart Mātangī's seductive magic. The Buddha uses the experience to teach to Ānanda and the congregation the suRAMGAMASAMĀDHI, which counters the false views about the aggregates (SKANDHA) and consciousness (VIJNĀNA) and reveals the TATHĀGATAGARBHA that is inherent in all sentient beings. This tathāgatagarbha, or buddha-nature, is made manifest through the suraMgamasamādhi, which constitutes the "heroic march" forward toward enlightenment. The suraMgamasutra was especially influential in the CHAN school during the Song and Ming dynasties, which used the text as the scriptural justification for the school's distinctive teaching that Chan "points directly to the human mind" (ZHIZHI RENXIN), so that one may "see the nature and achieve buddhahood" (JIANXING CHENGFO). Several noted figures within the Chan school achieved their own awakenings through the influence of the suraMgamasutra, including the Ming-dynasty master HANSHAN DEQING (1546-1623), and the sutra was particularly important in the writings of such Ming-dynasty Chan masters as YUNQI ZHUHONG (1535-1615). The leading Chan monk of modern Chinese Buddhism, XUYUN (1840-1959), advocated the practice of the suraMgamasutra throughout his life, and it was the only scripture that he ever annotated. As a mark of the sutra's influence in East Asian Buddhism, the suraMgamasutra is one of the few apocryphal scriptures that receives its own mention in another indigenous sutra: the apocryphal Foshuo fa miejin jing ("The Sutra on the Extinction of the Dharma") states that the first sutra to disappear from the world during the dharma-ending age (MOFA) will in fact be the suraMgamasutra. The Tibetan translation of this Chinese apocryphon was produced during the Qianlong era (1735-1796) of the Qing dynasty; the scripture was apparently so important in contemporary Chinese Buddhism that it was deemed essential for it to be represented in the Tibetan canon as well.

Survey ::: A research technique in which subjects respond to a series of questions.

Svipdag (Icelandic, Scandinavian) [from svip, svep appearance + dag day] Appearing as day; in Norse mythology, the hero Svipdag seeks the hall of Menglad (Freya) hoping to win her hand. After receiving from his dead mother (his own past) all needful virtues and qualities, he succeeds in reaching the abode of his beloved, only to be stopped at the magic gate by Odin in the guise of Verywise. Here he must satisfactorily answer a number of testing questions before he is finally admitted to the hall of Menglad, who has been eagerly awaiting his arrival. She represents his own divine hamingja (higher self).

Table-turning The spiritualistic or astral phenomenon of motion produced in a table when the sitters at a seance hold their hands over or on it, and varying from risings into the air and movings around the room, to giving tilts in answer to code-questions. Ordinary Occidental intelligence seems incapable of imagining anything between a purely mechanical action and a full-blown human intelligence. The phenomena are usually supposed to be either due to tricks or some kind of unconscious muscular action on the part of the sitters, or to be spirits of the departed. But there are a variety of degrees between physical mechanism and self-conscious volition, just as there are multitudes of living beings in widely differing states of materiality filling the gap between physical organisms and the spirits of the departed. The astral light is filled with an enormous variety of beings, mostly of a low type, not using physical bodies, not human in their nature, but having a sort of consciousness of their own; and the conditions provided by the vitality of the medium and sitters may vitalize, stimulate, and to a certain extent direct, these beings and thus at times cause them to become active in the production of physical phenomena. Again, the human organism in all its ranges itself is composed of a vast number of elements, physical, astral, etc., which in normal life are held together in a unit and in subordination to the general life of the person. Some of these elements may become temporarily extruded, especially in natural mediums or those who have cultivated mediumship; and thus the phenomena may be caused unintelligently or ignorantly by the sitters themselves — and just here is the instrumental cause of nearly all the physical phenomena produced by mediums, or mediums and sitters together.

taken from his Eight Questions (“de diversis questionibus octoginta tribus”). I wrote down the

teleologism ::: The supposition that there is design, purpose, directive principle, or finality in the works and processes of nature, and the philosophical study of that purpose. Teleology stands in contrast to philosophical naturalism, and both ask questions separate from the questions of science. While science investigates natural laws and phenomena, philosophical naturalism and teleology investigate the existence or non-existence of an organizing principle behind those natural laws and phenomena. Philosophical naturalism asserts that there are no such principles, while teleology asserts that there are.

"The Adversary will disappear only when he is no longer necessary in the world. And we know very well that he is necessary, as the touch-stone for gold: to know if it is pure. But if one is really sincere, the Adversary can"t even approach him any longer; and he doesn"t try it, because that would be courting his own destruction.” Questions and Answers 1955, MCW Vol. 7.

“The Adversary will disappear only when he is no longer necessary in the world. And we know very well that he is necessary, as the touch-stone for gold: to know if it is pure. But if one is really sincere, the Adversary can’t even approach him any longer; and he doesn’t try it, because that would be courting his own destruction.” Questions and Answers 1955, MCW Vol. 7**

The Conservative Movement’s deliberative body, administered by the Rabbinical Assembly, that provides guidance on questions of halacha.

The differences begin when the questions of the mode of creation and mediators between God and the world are dealt with. In these matters there are to be noted three variations. Saadia rejected entirely the theory of the emanation of separate intelligences, and teaches God's creation from nothing of all beings in the sublunar and upper worlds. He posits that God created first a substratum or the first air which was composed of the hyle and form and out of this element all beings were created, not only the four elements, the components of bodies in the lower world, but also the angels, stars, and the spheres. Bahya's conception is similar to that of Saadia. The Aristotelians, Ibn Daud, Maimonides, and Gersonides accepted the theory of the separate intelligences which was current in Arabic philosophy. This theory teaches that out of the First Cause there emanated an intelligence, and out of this intelligence another one up to nine, corresponding to the number of spheres. Each of these intelligences acts as the object of the mind of a sphere and is the cause of its movement. The tenth intelligence is the universal intellect, an emanation of all intelligences which has in its care the sublunar world. This theory is a combination of Aristotelian and neo-PIatonic teachings; Ibn Daud posits, however, in addition to the intelligences also the existence of angels, created spiritual beings, while Maimonides seems to identify the angels with the intelligences, and also says that natural forces are also called angels in the Bible. As for creation, Ibn Daud asserts that God created the hyle or primal matter and endowed it with general form from which the specific forms later developed. Maimonides seems to believe that God first created a substance consisting of primal matter and primal form, and that He determined by His will that parts of it should form the matter of the spheres which is imperishable, while other parts should form the matter of the four elements. These views, however, are subject to various interpretations by historians. Gabirol and Gersonides posit the eternal existence of the hyle and limit creation to endowing it with form and organization -- a view close to the Platonic.

The ethics of Platonism is intellectualistic. While he questions (Protagoras, 323 ff.) the sophistic teaching that "virtue is knowledge", and stresses the view that the wise man must do what is right, as well as know the right, still the cumulative impetus of his many dialogues on the various virtues and the good life, tends toward the conclusion that the learned, rationally developed soul is the good soul. From this point of view, wisdom is the greatest virtue, (Repub. IV). Fortitude and temperance are necessary virtues of the lower parts of the soul and justice in the individual, as in the state, is the harmonious co-operation of all parts, under the control of reason. Of pleasures, the best are those of the intellect (Philebus); man's greatest happiness is to be found in the contemplation of the highest Ideas (Repub., 583 ff.).

The fixity of this theoretical structure is not to be interpreted as incompatible with the continuous movement of discovery. The function of philosophy as such, in any age, is that of attempting to effect the theoretical ordering of the available fund of knowledge. There is implicit in Spinoza's conception of this function the recognition of the two-fold character of the task of philosophy. The task, on the one hand is reflection upon the available fund of insight and ideas, upon all the fruits of reflection and inquiry, with the purpose of coherent ordering and expression of the fund. In this sense, 'philosophy' is that which can be displayed in the geometrical fashion. It is equally the task of philosophy, however, to prepare for this display and ordering. Paradoxically, philosophy must prepare for itself. Philosophy, in this function, is reflection upon the conditions of all inquiry, the discovery of the grounds of method, of the proper and indispensable assumptions of inquiry as such, and of the basic ideas within whose domain inquiry will move. If inquiry is to be undertaken at all, then mind must discover within itself, and disclose to itself, whatever authoritative guidance can be assured for the enterprise. The competence of the mind to know, the determination of the range of that competence, the rational criteria of truth, the necessities levelled to mind by the very reflections of mind -- these and related questions define the task of philosophy as propaedeutic both to philosophy itself and to science. In this recognition of the two-fold character of philosophy, and of its relation to science, Spinoza is re-stating the spirit of Descartes.

The general superiority of theology in this system over the admittedly distinct discipline of philosophy, makes it impossible for unaided reason to solve certain problems which Thomism claims are quite within the province of the latter, e.g., the omnipotence of God, the immortality of the soul. Indeed the Scotist position on this latter question has been thought by some critics to come quite close to the double standard of truth of Averroes, (q.v.) namely, that which is true in theology may be false in philosophy. The univocal assertion of being in God and creatures; the doctrine of universal prime matter (q.v.) in all created substances, even angels, though characteristically there are three kinds of prime matter); the plurality of forms in substances (e.g., two in man) giving successive generic and specific determinations of the substance; all indicate the opposition of Scotistic metaphysics to that of Thomism despite the large body of ideas the two systems have in common. The denial of real distinction between the soul and its faculties; the superiority of will over intellect, the attainment of perfect happiness through a will act of love; the denial of the absolute unchangeableness of the natural law in view of its dependence on the will of God, acts being good because God commanded them; indicate the further rejection of St. Thomas who holds the opposite on each of these questions. However the opposition is not merely for itself but that of a voluntarist against an intellectualist. This has caused many students to point out the affinity of Duns Scotus with Immanuel Kant. (q.v.) But unlike the great German philosopher who relies entirely upon the supremacy of moral consciousness, Duns Scotus makes a constant appeal to revelation and its order of truth as above all philosophy. In his own age, which followed immediately upon the great constructive synthesis of Saints Albert, Bonaventure, and Thomas, this lesser light was less a philosopher because he and his School were incapable of powerful synthesis and so gave themselves to analysis and controversy. The principal Scotists were Francis of Mayron (d. 1327) and Antonio Andrea (d. 1320); and later John of Basoles, John Dumbleton, Walter Burleigh, Alexander of Alexandria, Lychetus of Brescia and Nicholas de Orbellis. The complete works with a life of Duns Scotus were published in 1639 by Luke Wadding (Lyons) and reprinted by Vives in 1891. (Paris) -- C.A.H.

The human soul is considered by Plato to be an immaterial agent, superior in nature to the body and somewhat hindered by the body in the performance of the higher, psychic functions of human life. The tripartite division of the soul becomes an essential teaching of Platonic psychology from the Republic onward. The rational part is highest and is pictured as the ruler of the psychological organism in the well-regulated man. Next in importance is the "spirited" element of the soul, which is the source of action and the seat of the virtue of courage. The lowest part is the concupiscent or acquisitive element, which may be brought under control by the virtue of temperancc The latter two are often combined and called irrational in contrast to the highest part. Sensation is an active function of the soul, by which the soul "feels" the objects of sense through the instrumentality of the body. Particularly in the young, sensation is a necessary prelude to the knowledge of Ideas, but the mature and developed soul must learn to rise above sense perception and must strive for a more direct intuition of intelligible essences. That the soul exists before the body (related to the Pythagorean and, possibly, Orphic doctrine of transmigration) and knows the world of Ideas immediately in this anterior condition, is the foundation of the Platonic theory of reminiscence (Meno, Phaedo, Republic, Phaedrus). Thus the soul is born with true knowledge in it, but the soul, due to the encrustation of bodily cares and interests, cannot easily recall the truths innately, and we might say now, subconsciously present in it. Sometimes sense perceptions aid the soul in the process of reminiscence, and again, as in the famous demonstration of the Pythagorean theorem by the slave boy of the Meno, the questions and suggestions of a teacher provide the necessary stimuli for recollection. The personal immortality of the soul is very clearly taught by Plato in the tale of Er (Repub. X) and, with various attempts at logical demonstration, in the Phaedo. Empirical and physiological psychology is not stressed in Platonism, but there is an approach to it in the descriptions of sense organs and their media in the Timaeus 42 ff.

  The Mother: "Surrender is the decision taken to hand over the responsibility of your life to the Divine. Without this decision nothing is at all possible; if you do not surrender, the Yoga is entirely out of the question. Everything else comes naturally after it, for the whole process starts with surrender.” Questions and Answers, MCW Vol. 3.

The Mother: “Surrender is the decision taken to hand over the responsibility of your life to the Divine. Without this decision nothing is at all possible; if you do not surrender, the Yoga is entirely out of the question. Everything else comes naturally after it, for the whole process starts with surrender.” Questions and Answers, MCW Vol. 3.

The Mother: "That which can easily change its form is ‘plastic". Figuratively, it is suppleness, a capacity of adaptation to circumstances and necessities.” Questions and Answers, MCW Vol. 4.

The Mother "The sun is the symbol of the Divine in the physical nature” Questions and Answers, MCW Vol. 3

The Mother”The sun is the symbol of the Divine in the physical nature” Questions and Answers, MCW Vol. 3

The Mother: “The true role of the mind is the formation and organization of action. The mind has a formative and organizing power, and it is that which puts the different elements of inspiration in order for action, for organizing action. And if it would only confine itself to that role, receiving inspirations—whether from above or from the mystic centre of the soul—and simply formulating the plan of action—in broad outline or in minute detail, for the smallest things of life or the great terrestrial organizations—it would amply fulfil its function. It is not an instrument of knowledge. But is can use knowledge for action, to organize action. It is an instrument of organization and formation, very powerful and very capable when it is well developed.” Questions and Answers 1956, MCW Vol. 8.

Theurgic mirror: A bottle of clear water, in which pictures appear before the eyes of a child gazing into the water, in reply to questions asked by him.

tichang. (J. teisho; K. chech'ang 提唱). In Chinese, "lecture," a type of discourse associated especially with the CHAN ZONG and widely known in the West by its Japanese pronunciation teisho; also called tigang (J. teiko, K. chegang) or tiyao (J. teiyo, K. cheyo). Such lectures, which were often delivered in highly colloquial language, sought to point to the main purport of a Chan tradition, text, or "case" (GONG'AN) by drawing on the peculiar Chan argot and extensively citing Chan literature and Buddhist scriptures. Chan masters might also deliver a sequential series of lectures on each of the Chan cases in a larger gong'an collection, such as the BIYAN LU or the WUMEN GUAN. Such lectures were sometimes delivered in conjunction with the formal "ascending the hall" (SHANGTANG) procedure; the term may also refer to the master's expository comments regarding questions that visitors might raise in the course of listening to a formal lecture. The tichang lecture is the Chan counterpart of expositions of Buddhist teachings given by lecturers in doctrinal schools, but making more use of Chan rather than commentarial and scriptural materials. The term was widely used in the Chan tradition especially from the Song dynasty onward. Although the term appears only rarely in such Chan codes as the BAIZHANG QINGGUI ("Baizhang's Pure Rules") and the CHANYUAN QINGGUI ("Pure Rules of the Chan Garden"), these sources do describe the general procedures to be followed in delivering such a lecture. The forty-two roll Liezu tigang lu ("Record of the Lectures of Successive Patriarchs," using the alternate term tigang), compiled by the Qing-dynasty Chan master Daiweng Xingyue (1619-1684), collects about four hundred Chinese masters' lectures delivered at various special occasions, such as the reigning emperor's birthday or funeral, and in conjunction with daily services.

trikāya. (T. sku gsum; C. sanshen; J. sanshin; K. samsin 三身). In Sanskrit, lit. "three bodies"; one of the central doctrines of MAHĀYĀNA buddhology. The three bodies refer specifically to three distinct bodies or aspects of a buddha: DHARMAKĀYA, the "dharma body" or "truth body"; SAMBHOGAKĀYA, the "enjoyment body" or "reward body"; and NIRMĀnAKĀYA, "emanation body" or "transformation body." The issue of what actually constituted the Buddha's body arose among the MAINSTREAM BUDDHIST SCHOOLS over such questions as the body he used on miraculous journeys, such as the one that he took to TRĀYASTRIMsA heaven to teach his mother MĀYĀ; the conclusion was that he had used a "mind-made body" (MANOMAYAKĀYA), also called a nirmānakāya, to make the trip. The notion of different buddha bodies was also deployed to respond to the question of the nature of the Buddha jewel (buddharatna), one of the three jewels (RATNATRAYA) or three refuges (TRIsARAnA) of Buddhism. Since the physical body of the Buddha was subject to decay and death, was it a suitable object of refuge? In response to this question, it was concluded that the Buddha jewel was in fact a body or group (kāya) of qualities (dharma), such as the eighteen unique qualities of a buddha (ĀVEnIKA[BUDDHA]DHARMA). This "body of qualities," the original meaning of dharmakāya, was sometimes contrasted with the physical body of the Buddha, called the RuPAKĀYA ("material body") or the vipākakāya, the "fruition body," which was the result of past action (KARMAN). With the development of Mahāyāna thought, the notion of dharmakāya evolved into a kind of transcendent principle in which all buddhas partook, and it is in this sense that the term is translated as "truth body." In the later Mahāyāna scholastic tradition, the dharmakāya was said to have two aspects. The first is the SVABHĀVIKAKĀYA, or "nature body," which is the ultimate nature of a buddha's mind that is free from all adventitious defilements (āgantukamala). The second is the jNānakāya, or "wisdom body," a buddha's omniscient consciousness. The dharmakāya was the source of the two other bodies, both varieties of the rupakāya: the saMbhogakāya and the nirmānakāya. The former, traditionally glossed as "the body for the enjoyment of others," is a resplendent form of the Buddha adorned with the thirty-two major and eighty minor marks (MAHĀPURUsALAKsAnA), which appears only in buddha fields (BUDDHAKsETRA) to teach the Mahāyāna to advanced bodhisattvas. Some sāstras, such as the BUDDHABHuMIsĀSTRA (Fodijing lun) and CHENG WEISHI LUN, distinguish between a "body intended for others' enjoyment" (PARASAMBHOGAKĀYA) and a "body intended for personal enjoyment" (SVASAMBHOGAKĀYA). In the trikāya system, the nirmānakāya is no longer a special body conjured up for magical travel, but the body of the Buddha that manifests itself variously in the world of sentient beings in order to teach the dharma to them. It also has different varieties: the form that manifests in the mundane world as the Buddha adorned with the major and minor marks is called the UTTAMANIRMĀnAKĀYA, or "supreme emanation body"; the nonhuman or inanimate forms a buddha assumes in order to help others overcome their afflictions are called the JANMANIRMĀnAKĀYA, or "created emanation body."

Turing test - a test for intelligence in a computer, requiring that a human being should be unable to distinguish the machine from another human being by using the replies to questions put to both.

Turing test ::: A test of a machine's ability to exhibit intelligent behaviour equivalent to, or indistinguishable from, that of a human, developed by Alan Turing in 1950. Turing proposed that a human evaluator would judge natural language conversations between a human and a machine designed to generate human-like responses. The evaluator would be aware that one of the two partners in conversation is a machine, and all participants would be separated from one another. The conversation would be limited to a text-only channel such as a computer keyboard and screen so the result would not depend on the machine's ability to render words as speech.[314] If the evaluator cannot reliably tell the machine from the human, the machine is said to have passed the test. The test results do not depend on the machine's ability to give correct answers to questions, only how closely its answers resemble those a human would give.

TWENEX "operating system" /twe'neks/ The TOPS-20 {operating system} by {DEC} - the second proprietary OS for the {PDP-10} - preferred by most PDP-10 hackers over TOPS-10 (that is, by those who were not {ITS} or {WAITS} partisans). TOPS-20 began in 1969 as {Bolt, Beranek & Newman}'s {TENEX} operating system using special paging hardware. By the early 1970s, almost all of the systems on the {ARPANET} ran TENEX. DEC purchased the rights to TENEX from BBN and began work to make it their own. The first in-house code name for the operating system was VIROS (VIRtual memory Operating System); when customers started asking questions, the name was changed to SNARK so DEC could truthfully deny that there was any project called VIROS. When the name SNARK became known, the name was briefly reversed to become KRANS; this was quickly abandoned when someone objected that "krans" meant "funeral wreath" in Swedish (though some Swedish speakers have since said it means simply "wreath"; this part of the story may be apocryphal). Ultimately DEC picked TOPS-20 as the name of the operating system, and it was as TOPS-20 that it was marketed. The hacker community, mindful of its origins, quickly dubbed it TWENEX (a contraction of "twenty TENEX"), even though by this point very little of the original TENEX code remained (analogously to the differences between AT&T V6 Unix and BSD). DEC people cringed when they heard "TWENEX", but the term caught on nevertheless (the written abbreviation "20x" was also used). TWENEX was successful and very popular; in fact, there was a period in the early 1980s when it commanded as fervent a culture of partisans as Unix or ITS - but DEC's decision to scrap all the internal rivals to the VAX architecture and its relatively stodgy VMS OS killed the DEC-20 and put a sad end to TWENEX's brief day in the sun. DEC attempted to convince TOPS-20 users to convert to {VMS}, but instead, by the late 1980s, most of the TOPS-20 hackers had migrated to Unix. [{Jargon File}] (1995-04-01)

Ultramontanes Beyond the mountains, particularly the Alps. Originally used, from the point of view of Rome, to signify countries north of the Alps, but later used, from the point of view of France, to signify Rome and the Roman doctrine of Catholicism, as opposed to the Gallican or Jansenist views. The matter at issue was whether supreme authority on questions of the religious administration should rest with the Pope of Rome or should be shared with an ecumenical council or with the civil government of France. The French monarchy claimed the right to institute prelates and to exercise various other ecclesiastical functions in accordance with local and national policy; and was able for a time to extort concessions in these matters from the Papal See. But the Vatican Council of 1869-70 virtually made the principles of ultramontanism dogmas of the Church, and set the authority of the Pope above that of national churches or ecumenical councils.

unquestionable ::: a. --> Not questionable; as, an unquestionable title.
Not inviting questions or conversation.


unquestioned ::: a. --> Not called in question; not doubted.
Not interrogated; having no questions asked; not examined or examined into.
Indisputable; not to be opposed or impugned.


unstructured interview: an interview whereby the interviewer does not have pre-determined questions, but instead asks questions spontaneously as topics arise.

Upanishad(Sanskrit) ::: A compound, composed of upa "according to," "together with," ni "down," and the verbal rootsad, "to sit," which becomes shad by Sanskrit grammar when preceded by the particle ni: the entirecompound thus signifying "following upon or according to the teachings which were received when wewere sitting down." The figure here is that of pupils sitting in the Oriental style at the feet of the teacher,who taught them the secret wisdom or rahasya, in private and in forms and manners of expression thatlater were written and promulgated according to those teachings and after that style.The Upanishads are examples of literary works in which the rahasya -- a Sanskrit word meaning"esoteric doctrine" or "mystery" -- is imbodied. The Upanishads belong to the Vedic cycle and areregarded by orthodox Brahmans as a portion of the sruti or "revelation." It was from these wonderfulquasi-esoteric and very mystical works that was later developed the highly philosophical and profoundsystem called the Vedanta. The Upanishads are usually reckoned today as one hundred and fifty innumber, though probably only a score are now complete without evident marks of literary change oradulteration in the way of excision or interpolation.The topics treated of in the Upanishads are highly transcendental, recondite, and abstruse, and in orderproperly to understand the Upanishadic teaching one should have constantly in mind the master-keys thattheosophy puts into the hand of the student. The origin of the universe, the nature of the divinities, therelations between soul and ego, the connections of spiritual and material beings, the liberation of theevolving entity from the chains of maya, and kosmological questions, are all dealt with, mostly in asuccinct and cryptic form. The Upanishads, finally, may be called the exoteric theosophical works ofHindustan, but contain a vast amount of genuine esoteric information.

upasaMpadā. (P. upasampadā; T. bsnyen par rdzogs pa; C. shoujie; J. jukai; K. sugye 受戒). In Sanskrit, "ordination" or "higher ordination," the ecclesiastical ceremony whereby a male novice (sRĀMAnERA) becomes a fully ordained monk (BHIKsU) and a female postulant (sIKsAMĀnĀ) becomes a fully ordained nun (BHIKsUnĪ). Although there are some variations in the procedure according to the different VINAYAs, the ordination ceremony is largely the same; that described in the Pāli vinaya is outlined here. In the case of a male novice, the ordinand, who must be at least twenty years of age, must first shave his hair, moustache, and beard and be provided with a monk's robe and bowl. He must have chosen a preceptor (P. upajjhāya; S. UPĀDHYĀYA) who will confer ordination upon him. The upajjhāya must be an elder (P. thera; S. STHAVIRA) of at least ten years standing, who is qualified morally and intellectually to act as preceptor. The candidate will then be brought before an assembly comprising at least ten monks, if the ceremony is held within the Buddhist heartland of India; if not, a minimum of five monks is necessary to conduct a valid ordination. The ordination ritual must be conducted within the confines of a SĪMĀ, or consecrated ordination boundary, and proceeds as follows. Seated in a squatting position, the candidate requests the assembly three times to confer ordination upon him. The assembly then asks him a set of stock questions concerning his age, his sex, his health, his legal liabilities, his preceptor, whether he has received permission from his parents, etc. If the candidate passes the inquiry, a formal petition is then put before the assembly three times that the candidate be admitted to the SAMGHA. Silence from the assembly indicates approval, and the candidate is thereby ordained. Immediately upon receiving the higher ordination, the new monk is apprised of the four requisites (NIsRAYA) of the monk, and of the four PĀRĀJIKAs or "defeats," these being grave misdeeds that would result in expulsion from the SAMGHA. The following types of persons may not be ordained: branded thieves, fugitives from the law, convicted thieves; those punished by flogging or branding, patricides, matricides, murderers of arahants (S. ARHAT); those who have shed the blood of a buddha, eunuchs, false monks, seducers of nuns, hermaphrodites; those without an upajjhāya, persons who are maimed, disabled, or deformed in various ways; and those afflicted with various communicable diseases. In the case of a female postulant seeking higher ordination as a nun, the candidate is required to undergo a double ordination. First she is brought before the order of nuns (P. bhikkhunīsangha, S. BHIKsUnĪSAMGHA), where she is queried and, if found suitable, given the first upasaMpadā. She is then brought before the order of monks, where she is given a second upasaMpadā.

Urim and Thummim: Objects attached to the breastplate of the High Priest of the ancient Hebrews and used by him as accessories for divination, to learn the will of God on questions of great national importance.

user 1. "person" Someone doing "real work" with the computer, using it as a means rather than an end. Someone who pays to use a computer. A programmer who will believe anything you tell him. One who asks silly questions without thinking for two seconds or looking in the documentation. Someone who uses a program, however skillfully, without getting into the internals of the program. One who reports {bugs} instead of just fixing them. See also {luser}, {real user}. Users are looked down on by {hackers} to some extent because they don't understand the full ramifications of the system in all its glory. The term is relative: a skilled hacker may be a user with respect to some program he himself does not hack. A LISP hacker might be one who maintains LISP or one who uses LISP (but with the skill of a hacker). A LISP user is one who uses LISP, whether skillfully or not. Thus there is some overlap between the two terms; the subtle distinctions must be resolved by context. 2. "jargon" Any person, organisation, process, device, program, {protocol}, or system which uses a service provided by others. The term "{client}" (as in "{client-server}" systems) is rather more specific, usually implying two processes communicating via some protocol. [{Jargon File}] (1996-04-28)

Use the Source Luke ::: (humour, programming) (UTSL) (A pun on Obi-Wan Kenobi's Use the Force, Luke! in Star Wars) A more polite version of RTFS. This is a common way of futile pass through the manuals, or broadcasting questions on Usenet that haven't attracted wizards to answer them.Once upon a time in Elder Days, everyone running Unix had source. After 1978, AT&T's policy tightened up, so this objurgation was in theory appropriately were so ubiquitous that one could utter it at almost anyone on the network without concern.Nowadays, free Unix clones are becoming common enough that almost anyone can read source legally. The most widely distributed is probably Linux. FreeBSD, implementations with source such as BSD/OS from BSDI are accelerating this trend. (1996-01-02)

Use the Source Luke "humour, programming" (UTSL) (A pun on Obi-Wan Kenobi's "Use the Force, Luke!" in "Star Wars") A more polite version of {RTFS}. This is a common way of suggesting that someone would be better off reading the source code that supports whatever feature is causing confusion, rather than making yet another futile pass through the manuals, or broadcasting questions on {Usenet} that haven't attracted {wizards} to answer them. Once upon a time in {Elder Days}, everyone running {Unix} had source. After 1978, {AT&T}'s policy tightened up, so this objurgation was in theory appropriately directed only at associates of some outfit with a Unix {source licence}. In practice, bootlegs of Unix source code (made precisely for reference purposes) were so ubiquitous that one could utter it at almost anyone on {the network} without concern. Nowadays, free Unix clones are becoming common enough that almost anyone can read source legally. The most widely distributed is probably {Linux}. {FreeBSD}, {NetBSD}, {386BSD}, {jolix} also have their followers. Cheap commercial Unix implementations with source such as {BSD/OS} from {BSDI} are accelerating this trend. (1996-01-02)

Vammikasutta. (C. Yiyu jing; J. Giyukyo; K. Ŭiyu kyong 蟻喩經). In Pāli, the "Anthill" or "Termite Mound Discourse," the twenty-third sutta (SuTRA) contained in the MAJJHIMANIKĀYA (two separate SARVĀSTIVĀDA recensions appear in the Chinese translation of the SAMYUKTĀGAMA, as well as an unidentified recension in the Chinese translation of the EKOTTARĀGAMA); preached by the Buddha at Sāvatthi (S. sRĀVASTĪ) in connection with a riddle presented to him by the monk Kumāra-Kassapa (S. KUMĀRA-KĀsYAPA). Kumāra-Kassapa had been approached by a divinity (DEVA), who gave him a riddle comprising fifteen questions that he asked to be delivered to the Buddha for solution. The Buddha solved the riddle, identifying its cryptic elements as symbols and metaphors for points of Buddhist doctrine. The first riddle concerned an anthill that gave off fumes during the night and flames during the day. The anthill represents the body with its apertures. The flames it gives off during the day are bodily actions, while its fumes at night are the thoughts and worries about the day's activities that disturb one in the evening.

Vatsagotra. [alt. Vatsa, VaMsa] (P. Vacchagotta; C. Pocha; J. Basa; K. Pach'a 婆差). In Sanskrit, lit. "Calf Ancestry," an ARHAT and disciple of the Buddha. According to Pāli accounts, where he is known as Vacchagotta, he was a wandering mendicant of great learning who was converted and attained arhatship in a series of encounters with the Buddha. Numerous discourses in the Pāli SUTTAPItAKA concern metaphysical questions that Vacchagotta poses to the Buddha; an entire section of the SAMYUTTANIKĀYA is devoted to these exchanges. In other suttas, he raises similar questions in conversations with such important disciples of the Buddha as Mahāmoggallāna (MAHĀMAUDGALYĀYANA) and ĀNANDA. Vacchagotta's gradual conversion is recorded in a series of discourses contained in the MAJJHIMANIKĀYA. In the Tevijja-Vacchagottasutta, he rejoices at the words of the Buddha. In the Aggi-Vacchagottasutta, Vacchagotta has a renowned exchange concerning ten "indeterminate questions" (AVYĀKṚTA)-is the world eternal or not eternal, infinite or finite, what is the state of the TATHĀGATA after death, etc. The Buddha refuses to respond to any of the questions, and instead offers the simile of extinguishing fire to describe the state of the tathāgata after death: just as after a fire has been extinguished, it would be inappropriate to say that it has gone anywhere, so too after the tathāgata has extinguished each of the five aggregates (P. khandha; S. SKANDHA), he cannot be said to have gone anywhere. At the conclusion of the discourse, Vacchagotta accepts the Buddha as his teacher. In the Mahāvacchagottasutta, he is ordained by the Buddha and attains in sequence all the knowledges possible for one who is not yet an arhat. The Buddha instructs him in the practice of tranquility (P. samatha; S. sAMATHA) and insight (VIPASSANĀ; S. VIPAsYANĀ) whereby he can cultivate the six superknowledges (P. abhiNNā; S. ABHIJNĀ); Vacchagotta then attains arhatship. ¶ The DAZHIDU LUN (*MahāprajNāpāramitā-sāstra) identifies the Vacchagotta of the Pāli suttas with srenika Vatsagotra, the namesake of what in MAHĀYĀNA sources is called the sREnIKA HERESY. The locus classicus for this heresy appears in the MAHĀPARINIRVĀnASuTRA. There, when srenika raises the question about whether there is a self or not, the Buddha keeps silent, so srenika himself offers the fire simile, but with a very different interpretation than the Buddha's. He compares the physical body and the eternal self to a house and its owner: even though the house may burn down in a fire, the owner is safe outside the house; thus, the body and its constituents (SKANDHA) may be impermanent and subject to dissolution, but not the self. In other Sanskrit sources, Vatsagotra also seems to refer to the figure most typically known as Vatsa (T. Be'u) or VaMsa, a student of the ascetic Kāsyapa.

Vibhanga. [alt. Vibhangappakarana]. In Pāli, "Analysis"; the second of the seven books that together constitute the ABHIDHAMMAPItAKA of the Pāli canon. Since most of this book concerns subject matter introduced in the abhidhammapitaka's first book, the DHAMMASAnGAnĪ, the Vibhanga is often spoken of as a supplement to, or a commentary on, the Dhammasanganī. The Vibhanga, however, applies different methods of analysis and includes a number of additional definitions and terms. The text is comprised of eighteen chapters (vibhanga), each of which presents a self-contained discourse on the following topics, in this order: the aggregates (P. khandha; S. SKANDHA), sense bases (ĀYATANA), elements (DHĀTU), truths (P. sacca; S. SATYA), faculties (INDRIYA), conditioned origination (P. paticcasamuppāda; S. PRATĪTYASAMUTPĀDA), foundations of mindfulness (P. SATIPAttHĀNA; S. SMṚTYUPASTHĀNA), right effort (P. sammappadhāna; S. SAMYAKPRAHĀnA), bases of psychic or supernatural powers (P. iddhipāda; S. ṚDDHIPĀDA), factors of enlightenment (P. bojjhanga; S. BODHYAnGA), the eightfold path (P. magga; S. MĀRGA), mental absorption (P. JHĀNA; S. DHYĀNA), the boundless states (P. appammaNNā; S. APRAMĀnA), training rules (P. sikkhāpada; S. sIKsĀPADA), analytical knowledges (P. patisambhidā; S. PRATISAMVID), various types of knowledge (P. Nāna; JNĀNA), minor topics (P. khuddhakavatthu), including an inventory of afflictions, and "the heart of the teaching" (P. dhammahadaya). Most, but not all, of these chapters are divided into three parts. First, they analyze the subject using the same method as the SUTTAs, often by simply quoting material directly from the suttas. Next, they analyze the subject using a typical ABHIDHARMA methodology-offering synonyms and numerical lists of categories, classes, and types of the phenomena. Finally, most treatments culminate in a catechistic series of inquiries (paNhāpucchaka). In this series of questions, the subject is analyzed by way of a set of "matrices" or "categories" (P. mātikā; S. MĀTṚKĀ) established in the Dhammasanganī. Many commentaries have been written on the Pāli Vibhanga, the most popular of which is BUDDHAGHOSA's SAMMOHAVINODANĪ, which was written in the fifth century.

vinayapitaka. (T. 'dul ba'i sde snod; C. lüzang; J. ritsuzo; K. yulchang 律藏). In Sanskrit and Pāli, "basket of discipline" or the "collection of discipline"; one of the three "baskets" (TRIPItAKA), or divisions of Buddhist scripture, together with the SuTRAPItAKA and the ABHIDHARMAPItAKA. Although typically presumed to include just the rules and regulations of monastic conduct, the vinayapitaka is actually one of the richest sources for understanding Buddhist practice and institutions in India. It is said that the Buddha instituted a new rule only after the commission of some form of misconduct that he sought to prevent in the future, so the vinayas are careful to recount in great detail the circumstances leading up to the Buddha's promulgation of the rule. The vinayapitaka is therefore composed largely of narratives, some of considerable length; one of the earliest biographies of the Buddha appears in the vinaya of the MuLASARVĀSTIVĀDA school (see MuLASARVĀSTIVĀDA VINAYA). According to tradition, the redaction of the vinayapitaka occurred at the first Buddhist council (SAMGĪTI; see COUNCIL, FIRST), shortly after the Buddha's death, when a group of ARHATs assembled to recite the Buddha's teachings. There, the monk UPĀLI, considered an expert in the monastic code, was called upon to recite the vinaya. However, assuming that such a recitation occurred, disputes soon arose over what was allowable conduct according to the rules and regulations included in the vinayapitaka. At the time of his death, the Buddha told ĀNANDA that, after his death, the minor rules could be disregarded. At the first council, he was asked what those minor rules were, and Ānanda admitted that he had failed to ask. All rules were therefore retained, and his failure to ask was one of his errors requiring a confession of wrongdoing. The eventual division into the traditional eighteen MAINSTREAM BUDDHIST SCHOOLS often centered on questions of vinaya practice and conduct. There is, therefore, no single vinayapitaka, but a number of vinayapitakas, with the precise content determined by the specific Indian school. To give one example, the Pāli vinayapitaka, which was perhaps redacted around the first century CE, is composed of the following three major divisions: (1) SUTTAVIBHAnGA (S. sutravibhanga; cf. VINAYAVIBHAnGA), which includes the pātimokkha (S. PRĀTIMOKsA) code with explanations and commentary, including the mahāvibhanga with the rules for monks and the bhikkhunīvibhanga with the rules for nuns; (2) KHANDHAKA (S. skandhaka; cf. VINAYAVASTU), which is subdivided between the MAHĀVAGGA, which includes chapters on such topics as the procedure for the ordination of monks, the fortnightly observances (P. uposatha; S. UPOsADHA), the rains retreat, the use of clothing, food, medicine, and so forth, and the CulAVAGGA, which includes a variety of judicial rules, procedures for the ordination of nuns, and accounts of the first and second Buddhist councils; and (3) PARIVĀRA, an appendix that provides a summary and classification of the rules of monastic conduct. ¶ Numerous vinaya texts were translated into Chinese, including complete (or near-complete) vinayapitakas associated with five of the mainstream schools of Indian Buddhism. In the order of their translation dates, these five are (1) "Ten-Recitations Vinaya" (C. Shisong lü; C. *Dasabhānavāravinaya; *Dasādhyāyavinaya) of the SARVĀSTIVĀDA school, perhaps composed sometime between the first and third centuries CE and translated into Chinese between 404 and 409 CE; (2) DHARMAGUPTAKA vinaya, the renowned "Four-Part Vinaya" (SIFEN LÜ), translated between 410 and 412 CE, which becomes the definitive recension of the vinaya in the East Asian traditions and the focus of scholarship in the different East Asian vinaya schools (see NANSHAN LÜ ZONG, DONGTA LÜ ZONG, RISSHu); (3) MAHĀSĀMGHIKA vinaya (Mohesengji lü), composed between 100 and 200 CE and translated between 416 and 418; (4) MAHĪMsĀSAKA vinaya, or the "Five-Part Vinaya" (Wufen lü), perhaps composed in the first century BCE and translated between 422 and 423; and (5) the MuLASARVĀSTIVĀDA vinaya, perhaps composed in the fourth or fifth century CE and translated into Chinese between 703 and 713. (The complete Tibetan translation of this vinaya becomes definitive for Tibetan Buddhism). ¶ It is important to note that the texts contained in the vinayapitaka of any school have served as just one source of the monastic code. In China, no complete recension of any Indian vinaya was translated until the beginning of the fifth century. (Indeed, none of the surviving recensions of the vinayas of any Buddhist school can be dated prior to the fifth century CE.) When the Indian vinayas were translated into Chinese, for example, their regulations were viewed as being so closely tied to the customs and climate of India that they were sometimes found either incomprehensible or irrelevant to the Chinese. This led to the composition of indigenous Chinese monastic codes, called guishi ("regulations") or QINGGUI ("rules of purity"), which promulgated rules of conduct for monks and nuns that accorded more closely with the realities of life in East Asian monasteries. In Tibet, the VINAYASuTRA by GUnAPRABHA, a medieval Indian summary of the much larger Mulasarvāstivāda vinaya, was the primary source for the monastic code, but each monastery also had its own regulations (BCA' YIG) that governed life there. See also PRĀTIMOKsASuTRA.

Visākha. (P. Visākha; T. Sa ga; C. Pishequ; J. Bishakya; K. Pisago 舍佉). A wealthy merchant of RĀJAGṚHA and husband of the female ARHAT DHAMMADINNĀ; he should be distinguished from VIsĀKHĀ (s.v.), the foremost donor among laywomen. According to the Pāli account, Visākha accompanied King BIMBISĀRA on a visit to the Buddha during the latter's first sojourn at Rājagaha (RĀJAGṚHA) after his enlightenment. Upon hearing the Buddha preach, Visākha became a stream-enterer (SROTAĀPANNA) and, subsequently, a once-returner (SAKṚDĀGĀMIN) and a nonreturner (ANĀGĀMIN). Once he became a nonreturner, his behavior toward his wife Dhammadinnā changed, and once she learned the reason, Dhammadinnā requested permission to renounce the world and enter the order as a nun. Impressed by his wife's piety, he informed Bimbisāra, who arranged for her to be carried to the nunnery on a golden palanquin. After Dhammadinnā attained arhatship, Visākha asked her questions pertaining to dharma, all of which she expertly answered. He reported this to the Buddha, who praised her for her skill in teaching. Visākha and Dhammadinnā were husband and wife during the time of Phussa (S. Pusya) Buddha (the twenty-first of the thousand buddhas) when, as a treasurer, he had arranged an offering of alms for Phussa Buddha and his disciples. Visākha was a renowned teacher in his own right and is mentioned as one of seven lay disciples who each had five hundred followers.

Voluntarism: (Lat. voluntas, will) In ontology, the theory that the will is the ultimate constituent of reality. Doctrine that the human will, or some force analogous to it, is the primary stuff of the universe; that blind, purposive impulse is the real in nature. (a) In psychology, theory that the will is the most elemental psychic factor, that striving, impulse, desire, and even action, with their concomitant emotions, are alone dependable. (b) In ethics, the doctrine that the human will is central to all moral questions, and superior to all other moral criteria, such as the conscience, or reasoning power. The subjective theory that the choice made by the will determines the good. Stands for indeterminism and freedom. (c) In theology, the will as the source of all religion, that blessedness is a state of activity. Augustine (353-430) held that God is absolute will, a will independent of the Logos, and that the good will of man is free. For Avicebron (1020-1070), will is indefinable and stands above mature and soul, matter and form, as the pnmary category. Despite the metaphysical opposition of Duns Scotus (1265-1308) the realist, and William of Occam (1280-1347) the nominalist, both considered the will superior to the intellect. Hume (1711-1776) maintained that the will is the determining factor in human conduct, and Kant (1724-1804) believed the will to be the source of all moral judgment, and the good to be based on the human will. Schopenhauer (1788-1860) posited the objectified will as the world-substance, force, or value. James (1842-1910) followed up Wundt's notion of the will as the purpose of the good with the notion that it is the essence of faith, also manifest in the will to believe. See Will, Conation. Opposed to Rationalism, Materialism, Intellectualism. -- J.K.F.

Voluspa (Icelandic) [from volva, vala sibyl + spa see clairvoyantly] The foremost lay of the poetic or Elder Edda, sung by the “wise sibyl” in response to Odin’s quest for knowledge. The vala represents the indelible record of the past, which here is consulted by the god Odin. Odin Allfather is the central character in Norse myths, and represents evolving consciousness, whether human, solar, planetary, or cosmic. Odin questions the vala and she responds with an account of creation and foretells the future destiny of conscious beings. From this record of the past history of the world, Odin learns about our planet’s destiny and of nine former worlds that preceded the present one. The entire process of cosmic evolution is here comprised in a thumbnail sketch, which is all but incomprehensible unless amplified by the other lays of the Elder Edda.

Wanshan tonggui ji. (J. Manzen dokishu; K. Manson tonggwi chip 萬善同歸集). In Chinese, "The Common End of Myriad Good Practices," in three rolls; a primer of Buddhist thought and practice composed by the Song-dynasty CHAN master YONGMING YANSHOU (904-975). Written largely in catechistic style, the Wanshan tonggui ji relies heavily upon scriptural quotations to answer questions raised concerning everything from meditation and making offerings of flowers to reciting the name of the buddha AMITĀBHA (see NIANFO). The overall message of the text is that all practices done properly return to the "true mark" of reality (shixiang), and this message is often interpreted as supporting the notion of "the unity of Chan and the teachings" (Chan jiao yizhi) and that of "sudden awakening (followed by) gradual cultivation" (DUNWU JIANXIU).

Watson ::: A question-answering computer system capable of answering questions posed in natural language,[320] developed in IBM's DeepQA project by a research team led by principal investigator David Ferrucci.[321] Watson was named after IBM's first CEO, industrialist Thomas J. Watson.[322][323]

wenda. (J. mondo; K. mundap 問答). In Chinese, lit. "question and answer"; pedagogical technique used in the CHAN (J. ZEN; K. SoN) school that involves an "exchange" or "dialogue" between a Chan master and a disciple regarding the Buddhist teachings. The exchange often consists of questions from the disciple and the master's response, but sometimes the master would also question the disciple to check his or her level of understanding and attainment. The master's answers are typically not a theoretical or discursive response to the question, but instead will employ logical contradiction, contextual inappropriateness, and illocutionary uses of language in order to challenge the understanding of the student. The master's answer might not even be a verbal response at all but might instead employ "the stick and the shout" (BANGHE) as a way of goading the student out of his conventional ways of comprehension. The ultimate goal is to prompt not mere intellectual understanding but an experience of awakening (C. WU; J. SATORI). The recorded sayings (YULU) of eminent Chan masters often include a section on their wenda. These wenda constitute a major part of the GONG'AN literature of the Chan tradition, and the practice of wenda is itself performed using phrases drawn from the gong'an texts. During the Song dynasty in China, Chan monks were appointed to monastic positions, such as "interrogating monk" (wenseng) or "Chan receptionist" (chanke), whose responsibility was to ask questions of the master on behalf of the congregation, transforming wenda into a formal, ritualized occasion.

what ::: pron., a., & adv. --> As an interrogative pronoun, used in asking questions regarding either persons or things; as, what is this? what did you say? what poem is this? what child is lost?
As an exclamatory word: -- (a) Used absolutely or independently; -- often with a question following.
Used adjectively, meaning how remarkable, or how great; as, what folly! what eloquence! what courage!
Sometimes prefixed to adjectives in an


What's a spline? ::: [XEROX PARC] This phrase expands to: You have just used a term that I've heard for a year and a half, and I feel I should know, but don't. My curiosity has finally overcome my guilt. The PARC lexicon adds Moral: don't hesitate to ask questions, even if they seem obvious.[Jargon File]

What's a spline? [XEROX PARC] This phrase expands to: "You have just used a term that I've heard for a year and a half, and I feel I should know, but don't. My curiosity has finally overcome my guilt." The PARC lexicon adds "Moral: don't hesitate to ask questions, even if they seem obvious." [{Jargon File}]

When It's Done ::: (jargon) A manufacturer's non-answer to questions about product availability. This answer allows the manufacturer to pretend to communicate with schedule the product really is. It also sounds slightly better than We don't know. (1999-08-22)

When It's Done "jargon" A manufacturer's non-answer to questions about product availability. This answer allows the manufacturer to pretend to communicate with their customers without setting themselves any deadlines or revealing how behind schedule the product really is. It also sounds slightly better than "We don't know". (1999-08-22)

which ::: a. --> Of what sort or kind; what; what a; who.
A interrogative pronoun, used both substantively and adjectively, and in direct and indirect questions, to ask for, or refer to, an individual person or thing among several of a class; as, which man is it? which woman was it? which is the house? he asked which route he should take; which is best, to live or to die? See the Note under What, pron., 1.


Windows sockets "networking, standard" (Winsock) A specification for {Microsoft Windows} network software, describing how applications can access network services, especially {TCP/IP}. Winsock is intended to provide a single {API} to which application developers should program and to which multiple network software vendors should conform. For any particular version of {Microsoft Windows}, it defines a binary interface ({ABI}) such that an application written to the Windows Sockets API can work with a conformant {protocol} implementation from any network software vendor. Winsock was conceived at Fall Interop '91 during a {Birds of a Feather} session. Windows Sockets is supported by {Microsoft Windows}, {Windows for Workgroups}, {Win32s}, {Windows 95} and {Windows NT}. It will support protocols other than {TCP/IP}. Under {Windows NT}, {Microsoft} will provide Windows Sockets support over {TCP/IP} and {IPX}/{SPX}. {DEC} will be implementing {DECNet}. {Windows NT} will include mechanisms for multiple {protocol} support in Windows Sockets, both 32-bit and 16 bit. Mark Towfiq said, "The next rev. of Winsock will not be until toward the end of 1993. We need 1.1 of the {API} to become firmly settled and implemented first." {Windows Sockets API (ftp://sunsite.unc.edu/pub/micro/pc-stuff/ms-windows/winsock)}. or {(ftp://microdyne.com/pub/winsock)} or send a message "help" to either "ftpmail@SunSite.UNC.Edu" or "ftpmail@DECWRL.DEC.Com". {Windows Sockets specification (ftp://rhino.microsoft.com)}. Currently NetManage (NEWT), Distinct, FTP and Frontier are shipping Winsock {TCP/IP} stacks, as is {Microsoft} (Windows NT and {TCP/IP} for WFW), Beame & Whiteside Software (v1.1 compliant), and Sun PC-NFS. Windows 95 has "dial-up networking" which supports Winsock and TCP/IP. winsock.dll is available from some {TCP/IP} stack vendors. {Novell} has one in beta for their {Lan Workplace} for {DOS}. Peter Tattam "peter@psychnet.psychol.utas.edu.au" is alpha-testing a shareware Windows Sockets compliant {TCP/IP} stack {(ftp://ftp.utas.edu.au/pc/trumpet/winsock/winsock.zip)}. and {(ftp://ftp.utas.edu.au/pc/trumpet/winsock/winpkt.com)}. {The Consummate Winsock App List (http://wwwvms.utexas.edu/~Neuroses/cwsapps.html)}. [Adapted from: Aboba, Bernard D., comp.protocols.tcp-ip.ibmpc Frequently Asked Questions, 1993 {Usenet}: {news:news.answers}, {(ftp://netcom1.netcom.com/pub/mailcom/IBMTCP/)}]. [Current status?] (1996-06-20)

Windows sockets ::: (networking, standard) (Winsock) A specification for Microsoft Windows network software, describing how applications can access network services, Sockets API can work with a conformant protocol implementation from any network software vendor.Winsock was conceived at Fall Interop '91 during a Birds of a Feather session.Windows Sockets is supported by Microsoft Windows, Windows for Workgroups, Win32s, Windows 95 and Windows NT. It will support protocols other than TCP/IP. IPX/SPX. DEC will be implementing DECNet. Windows NT will include mechanisms for multiple protocol support in Windows Sockets, both 32-bit and 16 bit.Mark Towfiq said, The next rev. of Winsock will not be until toward the end of 1993. We need 1.1 of the API to become firmly settled and implemented first. or . .Currently NetManage (NEWT), Distinct, FTP and Frontier are shipping Winsock TCP/IP stacks, as is Microsoft (Windows NT and TCP/IP for WFW), Beame & Whiteside Software (v1.1 compliant), and Sun PC-NFS. Windows 95 has dial-up networking which supports Winsock and TCP/IP.winsock.dll is available from some TCP/IP stack vendors. Novell has one in beta for their Lan Workplace for DOS.Peter Tattam . .[Adapted from: Aboba, Bernard D., comp.protocols.tcp-ip.ibmpc Frequently Asked Questions, 1993 Usenet: news.answers, ].[Current status?] (1996-06-20)

Wittgenstein's doctrines were a major influence in the evolution of Logical Positivism (q.v.) though his later work is out of sympathy with that movement. Later lectures (in the form of unpublished mimeographed notes) embody a more relativistic approach to language, and are largely devoted to the inculcation of a therapeutic method directed against the perennial temptation to ask senseless questions in philosophy.

YABA ::: /ya'b*/ [Cambridge] Yet Another Bloody Acronym. Whenever some program is being named, someone invariably suggests that it be given a name that is acronymic. the proposed name would then be YABA-compatible. Also used in response to questions like What is WYSIWYG? See also YA-, TLA.[Jargon File]

YABA /ya'b*/ [Cambridge] Yet Another Bloody Acronym. Whenever some program is being named, someone invariably suggests that it be given a name that is acronymic. The response from those with a trace of originality is to remark ironically that the proposed name would then be "YABA-compatible". Also used in response to questions like "What is {WYSIWYG}?" See also {YA-}, {TLA}. [{Jargon File}]

Yasas. (P. Yasa; T. Grags pa; C. Yeshe; J. Yasha; K. Yasa 耶舍). An early ARHAT disciple of the Buddha. The son of a wealthy merchant of Vārānasī, Yasas was brought up in luxury. He had three mansions, one for the winter, one for the rainy season, and one for the summer, and was attended by a troupe of female musicians. Once, he happened to awake in the middle of the night and witnessed his attendants sleeping in an indecorous manner. Greatly disturbed, he put on a pair of golden sandals and wandered in the direction of the Deer Park (MṚGADĀVA) where the Buddha was dwelling, exclaiming, "Alas, what distress, what danger." The Buddha saw him approach and, knowing what he was experiencing, called out to him, "Yasas, come. Here there is neither distress nor danger." Yasas approached the Buddha, took off his golden sandals, and sat down beside him. The Buddha preached a graduated discourse (ANUPUBBIKATHĀ) to him, at the conclusion of which Yasas became a stream-enterer (SROTAĀPANNA). He thus became the Buddha's sixth disciple and the first who had not known him prior to his achievement of enlightenment (as had his first five disciples, the bhadravargīya or PANCAVARGIKA). Yasas was also the first person to become an enlightened lay disciple (UPĀSAKA), although he ordained a few minutes later. Later, Yasas's father, who had come searching for his son, arrived at the Buddha's residence. The Buddha used his magical powers to make Yasas invisible and, inviting his father to sit, preached a discourse to him. Yasas's father also became a stream-enterer, while Yasas, who overheard the sermon from his invisible state, became an arhat. When the Buddha made Yasas visible to his father, he informed him that, since his son was now an arhat, it would be impossible for him to return home to a householder's life and he would have to become a monk. Yasas thus became the sixth member of the Buddha's monastic order. Yasas accompanied the Buddha to his father's house the next day to receive the morning meal. After the meal, the Buddha preached a sermon. Yasas's mother, SUJĀTĀ, and other members of the household became stream-enterers, his mother thus becoming the first female disciple (UPĀSIKĀ) of the Buddha and the first woman to become a stream-enterer. At that time, fifty-four of Yasas's friends also were converted and entered the order of monks, swelling its ranks to sixty members. It was at this time that the Buddha directed his disciples to go forth separately and preach the dharma they had realized for the welfare and benefit of the world. ¶ There was a later monk, also named Yasas, whose protest led to the second Buddhist council (COUNCIL, SECOND), held at VAIsĀLĪ. Some one hundred years after the Buddha's death, Yasas was traveling in Vaisālī when he observed the monks there receiving gold and silver as alms directly from the laity, in violation of the VINAYA prohibition against monks touching gold and silver. He also found that the monks had identified ten points in the vinaya that were identified as violations but that they felt were sufficiently minor to be ignored. The ten violations in question were: (1) carrying salt in an animal horn; (2) eating when the shadow of the sundial was two fingerbreadths past noon; (3) after eating, traveling to another village to eat another meal on the same day; (4) holding several assemblies within the same boundary (SĪMĀ) during the same fortnight; (5) making a monastic decision with an incomplete assembly and subsequently receiving the approval of the absent monks; (6) citing precedent as a justification to violate monastic procedures; (7) drinking milk whey after mealtime; (8) drinking unfermented wine; (9) using mats with a fringe; and (10) accepting gold and silver. Yasas told the monks that these were indeed violations, at which point the monks are said to have offered him a share of the gold and silver they had collected. When he refused the bribe, they expelled him from the order. Yasas sought the support of several respected monks in the west, including Sambhuta, sĀnAKAVĀSIN, and REVATA. Together with other monks, they went to Vaisālī, where they convened a council (SAMGĪTI) at which Revata submitted questions about each of the disputed points to Sarvagāmin, the eldest monk of the day, who is said to have been a disciple of ĀNANDA. In each case, he said that the practice in question was a violation of the vinaya. Seven hundred monks then gathered to recite the vinaya. Those who did not accept the decision of the council held their own convocation, which they called the MAHĀSĀMGHIKA or "Great Assembly," the rival group coming to be called the STHAVIRANIKĀYA, or "School of the Elders." This event is sometimes referred to as "the great schism," since it marks the first permanent schism in the order (SAMGHABHEDA).

Yijiao jing. (J. Yuikyogyo; K. Yugyo kyong 遺教經). In Chinese, "Scripture on the Bequeathed Teachings"; also known as Foshuo banniepan jiaojie jing ("Scripture on the Admonishments Taught by the Buddha [before] his PARINIRVĀnA") and Fo yijiao jing ("Scripture on the Teachings Bequeathed by the Buddha"). Sanskrit and Tibetan versions of this text are not known to have existed. The Chinese translation of this text is attributed to KUMĀRAJĪVA, but the text is now widely assumed to be an indigenous Chinese Buddhist scripture (see APOCRYPHA). The sutra is set against the backdrop of the Buddha's parinirvāna, when he imparts his final instructions to the gathered disciples. The Buddha instructs his disciples to uphold the precepts and regard them as their teacher after his entry into parinirvāna. He then instructs them to control sensuality (KĀMA) and cultivate serenity and DHYĀNA. Finally, the Buddha asks the assembly if they have any questions regarding the FOUR NOBLE TRUTHS. When no one replies, the Buddha succinctly expounds upon impermanence and the need to seek liberation (VIMOKsA). This sutra bears striking resemblances in style and content to the MAHĀPARINIBBĀNASUTTA and AsVAGHOsA's BUDDHACARITA. Along with the SISHI'ER ZHANG JING and GUISHAN JINGCE, the Yijiao jing has been cherished by the CHAN tradition for its simple and clear exposition. Sometime during the late Tang and early Song dynasties, the three texts were edited together as the Fozu sanjing ("The Three Scriptures of the Buddhas and Patriarchs") and recommended to Chan neophytes.

Yogācārabhumisāstra. [alt. Yogācārabhumi] (T. Rnal 'byor spyod pa'i sa'i bstan bcos; C. Yuqieshidi lun; J. Yugashijiron; K. Yugasaji non 瑜伽師地論). In Sanskrit, "Treatise on the Stages of Yogic Practice"; an encyclopedic work that is the major treatise (sĀSTRA) of the YOGĀCĀRA school of Indian Buddhism. It was widely influential in East Asia and Tibet, being translated into Chinese by XUANZANG between 646 and 648 and into Tibetan circa 800. Authorship is traditionally ascribed to ASAnGA (or, in China, to MAITREYA), but the size and scope of the text suggest that it is the compilation of the work of a number of scholars (possibly including Asanga) during the fourth century CE. The work is divided into five major sections. The first and longest, comprising approximately half the text, is called the "Multiple Stages" (Bahubhumika or Bhumivastu) and sets forth the stages of the path to buddhahood in seventeen sections. The two most famous of these sections (both of which are preserved in Sanskrit and which circulated as independent works) are the sRĀVAKABHuMI and the BODHISATTVABHuMI, the latter providing one of the most detailed discussions of the bodhisattva path (MĀRGA) in Indian literature. In this section, many of the central doctrines of the Yogācāra school are discussed, including the eight consciousnesses, the ĀLAYAVIJNĀNA, and the three natures (TRISVABHĀVA). The structures and practices of the paths of the sRĀVAKA, PRATYEKABUDDHA, and BODHISATTVA are presented here in the form that would eventually become normative among MAHĀYĀNA scholasts in general (not just adherents of Yogācāra). The second section, "Compendium of Resolving [Questions]" (ViniscayasaMgrahanī), considers controversial points that arise in the previous section. The third section, "Compendium of Interpretation" (VyākhyānasaMgrahanī), examines these points in light of relevant passages from the sutras; it is interesting to note that the majority of the texts cited in this section are Sanskrit ĀGAMAs rather than Mahāyāna sutras. The fourth, called "Compendium of Synonyms" (ParyāyasaMgraha) considers the terms mentioned in the sutras. The fifth and final section, "Compendium of Topics" (VastusaMgraha), considers central points of Buddhist doctrine, including PRATĪTYASAMUTPĀDA and BODHI. This section also contains a discussion of VINAYA and (in the Chinese version) ABHIDHARMA.

Yogācāra. (T. Rnal 'byor spyod pa; C. Yuqiexing pai; J. Yugagyoha; K. Yugahaeng p'a 瑜伽行派). In Sanskrit, "Practice of YOGA"; one of the two major MAHĀYĀNA philosophical schools (along with MADHYAMAKA) in India, known especially for its doctrines of "mind-only" (CITTAMĀTRA) or "representation-only" (VIJNAPTIMĀTRATĀ), the TRISVABHĀVA, and the ĀLAYAVIJNĀNA. In addition, much of the exposition of the structure of the Mahāyāna path (MĀRGA) and of the Mahāyāna ABHIDHARMA derives from this school. The texts of the school were widely influential in Tibet and East Asia. Although several of the terms associated with the school occur in such important Mahāyāna sutras as the DAsABHuMIKASuTRA, the LAnKĀVATĀRASuTRA, and especially the SAMDHINIRMOCANASuTRA, the exposition of the key doctrines was largely the work of two Indian scholastics of the fourth to fifth centuries CE, the half brothers ASAnGA and VASUBANDHU and their commentators, especially STHIRAMATI and DHARMAPĀLA. Asanga's major works include the central parts of the YOGĀCĀRABHuMI, the MAHĀYĀNASAMGRAHA, and the ABHIDHARMASAMUCCAYA. Vasubandhu's most famous Yogācāra works are the VIMsATIKĀ and the TRIMsIKĀ (his most famous work of all, the ABHIDHARMAKOsABHĀsYA, is said to have been composed prior to his conversion to the Mahāyāna). Among the "five books of MAITREYA" (see BYAMS CHOS SDE LNGA), three are particularly significant in Yogācāra: the MADHYĀNTAVIBHĀGA, the DHARMADHARMATĀVIBHĀGA, and the MAHĀYĀNASuTRĀLAMKĀRA. Important contributions to Yogācāra thought were also made by the logicians DIGNĀGA and DHARMAKĪRTI. Although Yogācāra and Madhyamaka engaged in polemics, in the latter phases of Buddhism in India, a synthesis of Yogācāra and Madhyamaka took place in the works of such authors as sĀNTARAKsITA and KAMALAsĪLA; Tibetan doxographers dubbed this synthesis YOGĀCĀRA-SVĀTANTRIKA-MADHYAMAKA. ¶ Yogācāra authors offered detailed presentations and analyses of virtually all of the important topics in Buddhist thought and practice, built upon an edifice deriving from meditative experience. The school is perhaps most famous for the doctrines of "mind-only" (cittamātra) and "representation-only" (vijNaptimātra), according to which the conception of the objects of experience as existing external to and independent of the consciousness perceiving them was regarded as the fundamental ignorance and the cause of suffering. Instead of the standard six consciousnesses (VIJNĀNA) posited by other Buddhist schools (the five sensory consciousnesses and the mental consciousness), some Yogācāra texts described eight forms of consciousness: these six, plus the seventh "afflicted mind" (KLIstAMANAS), which mistakenly generates the false notion of a perduing self (ĀTMAN), and the eighth foundational, or "storehouse," consciousness (ālayavijNāna). This foundational consciousness is the repository of seeds (BĪJA) or imprints (VĀSANĀ) produced by past actions (KARMAN) that fructify as experience, producing simultaneously consciousness and the objects of consciousness. The afflicted mind mistakenly regards the foundational consciousness as a permanent and independent self. The doctrine of the three natures (trisvabhāva), although variously interpreted, is also often explained in light of the doctrine of representation-only. The imaginary nature (PARIKALPITA) refers to misconceptions, such as the belief in self and in the existence of objects that exist apart from consciousness. The dependent nature (PARATANTRA) encompasses impermanent phenomena, which are products of causes and conditions. The consummate nature (PARINIsPANNA) is reality, classically defined as the absence of the imaginary nature in the dependent nature. By removing these latent predispositions from the ālayavijNāna and overcoming the mistaken bifurcation of experience between a perceiving subject and perceived objects (GRĀHYAGRĀHAKAVIKALPA), a transformation of consciousness (ĀsRAYAPARĀVṚTTI) occurs which turns the deluded mind of the sentient being into the enlightenment cognition of the buddhas (BUDDHAJNĀNA), with the ālayavijNāna being transformed into the mirrorlike wisdom (ĀDARsAJNĀNA). In the realm of soteriology, much of what would become the standard Mahāyāna elaboration of the five paths (PANCAMĀRGA) and the bodies (KĀYA, e.g., TRIKĀYA) of a buddha is found in works by Yogācāra authors, although there are important differences between Yogācāra and Madhyamaka on a number of key soteriological questions, including whether there is one vehicle (EKAYĀNA) or three final vehicles (TRIYĀNA), that is, whether all beings are destined for buddhahood, or whether some, such as the ARHATs of the mainstream Buddhist schools, are stuck in a soteriological dead end. ¶ Not all the scholastics regarded as Yogācāra exegetes adhered to all of the most famous doctrines of the school. The most common division of the school is into those who do and do not assert the existence of eight consciousnesses (and hence the ālayavijNāna). The former, who include Asanga and Vasubandhu, are called "followers of scripture" (āgamānusārin), and the latter, who include the famous logicians DIGNĀGA and DHARMAKĪRTI, are called "followers of reasoning" (nyāyānusārin). Yogācāra strands of Buddhism were extremely influential in the development of indigenous East Asian schools of Buddhism, including the mature schools of HUAYAN and even CHAN. For specifically East Asian analogues of Yogācāra, see FAXIANG ZONG, XIANG ZONG, DI LUN ZONG, and SHE LUN ZONG.

Yunmen zong. ( J. Unmonshu; K. Unmun chong 雲門宗). In Chinese, "Cloud Gate school"; one of the so-called five houses and seven schools (WU JIA QI ZONG) of the mature Chinese CHAN tradition. It is named after the mountain, located in Shaozhou (present-day Guangdong province), where its founder YUNMEN WENYAN (864-949) taught. Yunmen Wenyan was famous for his "one-word barriers" or "one-word checkpoints" (YIZI GUAN), in which he responded to his students' questions by using only a single word. The school became one of the dominant Chan traditions in the Five Dynasties (Wudai) and early Song dynasty, producing such prominent masters as DONGSHAN SHOUCHU (910-990), Dongshan Xiaocong (d. 1030), XUEDOU ZHONGXIAN (980-1052), and Tianyi Yihuai (992-1064). Yunmen masters played a major role in the development of classical Chan literature. Xuedou Zhongxian's earlier collection of one hundred old cases (guce, viz., GONG'AN), known as the Xuedou songgu, served as the basis for the famous BIYAN LU ("Blue Cliff Record"), which added the extensive commentaries and annotations of the Linji master YUANWU KEQIN (1063-1135) to Zhongxian's original compilation. Several Yunmen masters were closely associated with the Song-dynasty intelligentsia. Dajue Huailian (1009-1090), for example, was as personal friend of the Song literocrat (shidafu) and poet Su Shi (1036-1101). Fori Qichong (1007-1072) asserted the fundamental harmony of Confucianism and Buddhism, explaining Confucian philosophical concepts using Buddhist terminology. CHANGLU ZONGZE (fl. c. late eleventh to early twelfth century) institutionalized the practice of reciting the name of the Buddha (NIANFO) into the routine of Chan monastic life and wrote an influential text on Chan monastic regulations or "rules of purity" (QINGGUI), the CHANYUAN QINGGUI ("Pure Rules for the Chan Grove"). The Yunmen school survived for about two centuries before it was eventually absorbed into the LINJI ZONG.

Yu-Sok chirŭi non. (儒釋質疑論). In Korean, "Treatise on Queries and Doubts concerning Yu (C. Ru, viz., Confucius) and Sok (C. Shi, sĀKYAMUNI)"; a Buddhist "defense of the faith" against Neo-Confucian criticisms, written during the early Choson period. Although the authorship of this text remains a mystery, the style and content of the treatise resemble the HYoNJoNG NON by KIHWA (1376-1433), and it is clear that its Buddhist author was well versed in both Confucian and Daoist thought. The Yu-Sok chirŭi non is written in catechetic style and consists of nineteen questions and answers, which largely address misleading views that Confucian scholars hold regarding Buddhism. Following a syncretic approach that seeks to reconcile the teaching of Confucianism, Buddhism, and Daoism, this work generally argues that these three teachings each have their own distinctive roles to play in people's lives and need not be in conflict. Buddhism, Confucianism, and Daoism are explained as corresponding, respectively, to (1) nature (K. song, C. XING), mind (K. sim, C. XIN), and pneuma (K. ki, C. qi); (2) truth (K. chin, C. zhen), its traces (K. chok, C. ji), and the connection between them; and so on. The treatise claims that these three teachings are ultimately in accord with one another because of their identical basis in the mind. The text also treats such traditional aspects of Chinese thought as yin-yang cosmology and the five phases (K. ohaeng, C. wuxing) (viz., the five traditional Chinese elements), as well as astrological and cosmological issues.

Zhengdao ge. (J. Shodoka; K. Chŭngdo ka 證道歌). In Chinese, "Song of the Attainment of the Way"; attributed to YONGJIA XUANJUE (675-713); also known as the Chanmen biyao jue ("Secret Essentials of the Chan Tradition"). Along with the XINXIN MING, the Zhengdao ge is cherished by the CHAN tradition as one of the classic verse expressions on the process of meditation and the experience of enlightenment. Its contents purport to convey Yongjia's awakening after only a single day and night of tutelage under the sixth patriarch (LIUZU) HUINENG, whence Yongjia's cognomen Ishujue ("Single-Night Enlightened," or "Overnight Guest"). The poem consists of fewer than two thousand Sinographs and follows a traditional regulated-verse style. The verse describes enlightenment as the realization that the true nature of all things is in fact the buddha-nature (FOXING), which is emptiness itself, transcending all the dichotomies of existence or nonexistence or truth and falsity. This enlightenment is said to occur suddenly, "in a snap of the fingers" (danzhi), the verse says, and it is this sudden enlightenment (DUNWU) that has been transmitted through the twenty-eight Indian and six Chinese patriarchs (ZUSHI) of the Chan tradition. Aspects of the style and vocabulary used in the poem, which seem to antedate the eighth century, have led to questions about the authenticity of its attribution to Yongjia. Several copies of this text were found at DUNHUANG, and numerous commentaries of this text are extant, dating from the Song dynasty. The Song-dynasty teacher DAHUI ZONGGAO claimed that the verse was held in such high esteem that it had even been back-translated into Sanskrit.

Zongjing lu. (J. Sugyoroku; K. Chonggyong nok 宗鏡録). In Chinese, "Records of the Mirror of the Source"; composed c. 961 by the Song-dynasty CHAN master YONGMING YANSHOU (904-975), in one hundred rolls; also called "Records of the Mirror of the Mind" (Xinjing lu). The "source" (zong), Yanshou says in the preface to the Zongjing lu, refers to the "one mind" (YIXIN), which functions like a mirror that is able to reflect all dharmas. This comprehensive collection offers an exhaustive elaboration of the Chan teaching of "one mind" by systematizing the doctrinal and meditative positions of the various Chan traditions of past and present. The Zongjing lu consists of three main sections: exemplifications of the source (biaozong zhang), questions and answers (wenda chang), and citations (yinzheng chang). The first section, which comprises much of the first roll, offers a general overview of the treatise, focusing on Chan's "source" in the one mind. The massive second section, corresponding to the second half of the first roll through the ninety-third roll, offers various explanations on the one mind through a question raised at the beginning of each section, followed by Yanshou's detailed response. His explanations are typically accompanied by extensive citations from various sutras and commentaries, such as the YUANJUE JING and the DAZHIDU LUN. Throughout this exhaustive survey and explanation of doctrinal matters, Yanshou underscores the importance of the one mind or one dharma as the underlying source of all external phenomena. The third and final section, which comprises the last seven rolls of the collection, validates the previous explanations through quotations of hundreds of scriptures and sayings of eminent Chan masters; its aim is to help those of inferior spiritual capacity give rise to faith. Many of these quotations are from materials that are no longer extant, thus providing an important overview of Chan during Yanshou's time. Yanshou's goal throughout this work is to present his distinctive vision of Chan as a pansectarian tradition that subsumes not only the different Chan lineages, but also such doctrinal traditions as TIANTAI, HUAYAN, and FAXIANG. Much of the source material that Yanshou compiled in the Zongjing lu may derive from GUIFENG ZONGMI's similarly massive Chanyuan ji ("Chan Collection"), only the prolegomenon to which survives (see CHANYUAN ZHUQUANJI DUXU). The collection was influential not only in China, but also in Koryo-period Korean SoN and the five mountain (GOZAN) schools of Ashikaga-period Japanese ZEN.



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KEYS (10k)

  126 The Mother
   3 Richard P Feynman
   3 Sri Ramana Maharshi
   3 Sri Aurobindo
   3 Saint Augustine of Hippo
   2 Carl Sagan
   2 Bertrand Russell
   1 Yogani
   1 William S Burroughs
   1 Voltaire
   1 Thomas Pynchon
   1 The Mother
   1 The Jewel-wreath of Questions and Answers
   1 Taigen Dan Leighton
   1 Sri Bhagavan
   1 Solomon Ibn Gabirol
   1 Robert Anton Wilson
   1 Robert Adams
   1 Ramakrishna
   1 Rainer Maria Rilke
   1 Omar Khayyam
   1 Miyamoto Musashi
   1 Jordan B. Peterson
   1 James Austin
   1 James Allen
   1 Isaac Asimov
   1 Howard Gardner
   1 Henry David Thoreau
   1 George Eliot
   1 Fyodor Dostoevsky
   1 Friedrich Nietzsche
   1 Fo-sho-tsan-kiug
   1 Elon Musk
   1 Dr. Seuss [Theodor Seuss Geisel]
   1 Dr Robert A Hatch
   1 C S Lewis
   1 Confucius
   1 Buddha
   1 Brandon Sanderson
   1 Bill Hicks
   1 Anonymous
   1 Albert Einstein
   1 Saint Thomas Aquinas
   1 Confucius
   1 Aleister Crowley
   1 Adyashanti
   1 ?

NEW FULL DB (2.4M)

   14 Tony Robbins
   12 Anonymous
   10 Paulo Coelho
   9 John Green
   8 Timothy Ferriss
   8 Elie Wiesel
   8 David Levithan
   8 Colleen Hoover
   7 Albert Einstein
   6 Voltaire
   6 Stephen Hawking
   6 Rick Riordan
   6 Rainer Maria Rilke
   6 Neil deGrasse Tyson
   6 John C Maxwell
   6 Israelmore Ayivor
   6 Fyodor Dostoyevsky
   6 Franz Kafka
   6 Carl Sagan
   5 Stephen King

1:Judge a man by his Questions, Rather then his Answer. ~ Voltaire,
2:A wise man's questions contain half the answer. ~ Solomon Ibn Gabirol,
3:We have all the answers. It is the questions we do not know. ~ Fyodor Dostoevsky,
4:He who knows all the answers has not been asked all the questions. ~ Confucius,
5:Your mind will answer most questions if you learn to relax and wait for the answer.
   ~ William S Burroughs,
6:Each question is three thousand questions, and a good question provides more questions. ~ Taigen Dan Leighton,
7:Sometimes the questions are complicated and the answers are simple." ~ Dr. Seuss [Theodor Seuss Geisel], @aax9
8:The sword has to be more than a simple weapon; it has to be an answer to life's questions. ~ Miyamoto Musashi,
9:Don't listen to the person who has the answers; listen to the person who has the questions
   ~ Albert Einstein,
10:I would rather have questions that can't be answered than answers that can't be questioned. ~ Richard P Feynman,
11:To know how to wait is to put time on one's side.
   ~ The Mother, Questions And Answers 1953,
12:Animals are such agreeable friends - they ask no questions; they pass no criticisms." ~ George Eliot, @CharlesAFrancis,
13:Who is the enemy? Lack of energy. ~ The Jewel-wreath of Questions and Answers, the Eternal Wisdom
14:If they can get you asking the wrong questions, they don't have to worry about answers. ~ Thomas Pynchon, Gravity's Rainbow, @JoshuaOakley,
15:Part of the maturity of the sciences is an appreciation of which questions are best left to other disciplinary approaches. ~ Howard Gardner,
16:The purpose of a storyteller is not to tell you how to think, but to give you questions to think upon. ~ Brandon Sanderson, The Way of Kings,
17:As long as there is a mind, so long will there be such questions and doubts. ~ Sri Ramana Maharshi, @RamanaMaharshi,
18:If you seek the source of the mind, then alone all questions will be solved. ~ Sri Ramana Maharshi, @RamanaMaharshi,
19:The imagination is like a knife which may be used for good or evil purposes.
   ~ The Mother, Questions And Answers 1929-1931,
20:But for one who has faith in the Divine Grace, the return to the Light becomes easy.
   ~ The Mother, Questions And Answers 1953, [T7],
21:One must do things with all the ardour of one's soul, with all the strength of one's will.
   ~ The Mother, Questions And Answers 1950-1951,
22:In all pursuits, intellectual or active, your one motto should be, Remember and Offer.
   ~ The Mother, Questions And Answers 1929-1931, [T5],
23:If one wants to do a divine work upon earth, one must come with tons of patience and endurance.
   ~ The Mother, Questions And Answers 1954, [T5],
24:A thinker sees his own actions as experiments and questions — as attempts to find out something. Success and failure are for him answers above all. ~ Friedrich Nietzsche, The Gay Science,
25:Wealth is a force and it should be a means of circulation, a power in movement, as flowing water is a power in movement.
   ~ The Mother, Questions And Answers 1955,
26:When life is heavy and hard to take, go off by yourself. Enter the silence. Bow in prayer. Don't ask questions. Wait for hope to appear.
   ~ Anonymous, The Bible, (Lamentations 3:28-29 MSG),
27:The answer is the same to all your questions. Whatever form your enquiry may take, you must finally come to the Self. ~ Sri Ramana Maharshi, @RamanaMaharshi,
28:You can recreate a new world this very moment if you know how to create it, that is, if you are capable of changing your nature.
   ~ The Mother, Questions And Answers 1954,
29:In fact, if one reads attentively what Sri Aurobindo has written, all that he has written, one would have the answer to every question.
   ~ The Mother, Questions And Answers 1957-1958, [T0],
30:Once you have turned to the Divine, saying 'I want to be yours', and the Divine has said, 'Yes' the whole world cannot keep you from it.
   ~ The Mother, Questions And Answers 1929-1931, [T1],
31:Yoga means union with the Divine, and the union is effected through offering - it is founded on the offering of yourself to the Divine. ~ The Mother, Questions And Answers 1929-1931, (28 April),
32:Philosophy is to be studied, not for the sake of any definite answers to its questions since no definite answers can, as a rule, be known to be true, but rather for the sake of the questions themselves. ~ Bertrand Russell,
33:Essentially there is but one single true reason for living: it is to know oneself. We are here to learn - to learn what we are, why we are here, and what we have to do. ~ The Mother, Questions And Answers 1954,
34:In the discourse I am seeing questions about what acceptance we Catholics owe to actions of the Church ~ Saint Thomas Aquinas, (specifically pope/bishops in their official capacity)., @Aquinas_Quotes,
35:There is nothing which cannot be a yogic discipline if one does it properly. And if it is not done properly, even tapasya will be of no use and will lead you nowhere.
   ~ The Mother, Questions And Answers 1950-1951,
36:In the language of duality Alone are questions and answers. In non-duality they are not." ~ Sri Bhagavan, (b. 1949) a spiritual teacher from India, and founder of Oneness University, a spiritual school located in South India, Wikipedia., @aax9,
37:If you wake up in the morning and say, "Who am I? What is this universe I'm living in all about? Who wakes up? Who sleeps?" If you inquire the answer to all these questions you become free in no time. But most of you do not do this, do you? ~ Robert Adams,
38:Enter not into questions of the vicissitudes of this world, ask not of things to come. Regard as booty won the present moment; trouble not thyself with the past, question not of the future. ~ Omar Khayyam, the Eternal Wisdom
39:Surrender is the decision to hand over the responsibility of your life to the Divine. This is done either through the mind or the emotion or the life-impulse or through all of them together.
   ~ The Mother, Questions And Answers 1929-1931,
40:Be patent toward all that is unsolved in your heart and try to love the questions themselves." ~ Rainer Maria Rilke, (1875 - 1926), Bohemian-Austrian poet and novelist, widely recognized as one of the most lyrically intense German-language poets, Wikipedia., @aax9,
41:When you want to realise something, you make quite spontaneously the necessary effort; this concentrates your energies on the thing to be realised and that gives a meaning to your life. 13 Jan 1951 ~ The Mother, Questions And Answers 1950-1951,
42:For true success ask yourself these four questions: Why? Why not? Why not me? Why not now?" ~ James Allen, (1864 - 1912) British philosopher, wrote inspirational books and poetry, pioneer of the self-help movement. His best known work, "As a Man Thinketh," Wikipedia., @aax9,
43:There is a genius within every one of us - we don't know it. We must find the way to make it come out - but it is there sleeping, it asks for nothing better than to manifest; we must open the door to it.
   ~ The Mother, Questions And Answers 1957-1958,
44:Once you were a child. Once you knew what inquiry was for. There was a time when you asked questions because you wanted answers, and were glad when you had found them. Become a child again, even now... You have gone wrong. Thirst was made for water; inquiry for truth. ~ C S Lewis,
45:And from this point of view no formulation is better than any other; the best of all is the one that helps each one to remember, that is, the way in which the intervention of the Grace has crystallised in the thought.
   ~ The Mother, Questions And Answers 1957-1958,
46:Questions bring us closer to that experience, though they are often paradoxical: when we first ask them, the immediate answer is a conditioned response. To dig deeply into these questions, to look deep inside oneself, is its own spiritual practice. What is the most important thing? ~ Adyashanti,
47:The moment you feel unhappy, you may write beneath it: I am not sincere! These two sentences go together: I FEEL UNHAPPY. I AM NOT SINCERE. Now, what is it that is wrong? Then one begins to take a look, it is easy to find out...
   ~ The Mother, Questions And Answers 1954, [T2],
48:One puts veils, obstacles between oneself and the Divine. That is how one punishes oneself. The Divine does not withdraw; one makes oneself incapable of receiving him. The Divine does not distribute in this way rewards and punishments..
   ~ The Mother, Questions And Answers 1953,
49:The man whose soul aspires to the Eternal cannot give thought to such silly questions as that of daivic food, that is to say, a simple vegetarian diet, and for him who does not desire to attain to the Eternal, beef is as good as daivic food. ~ Ramakrishna, the Eternal Wisdom
50:It is useful that many persons should write many books, differing in style but not in faith, concerning even the same questions, that the matter itself may reach the greatest number — some in one way, some in another. ~ Saint Augustine of Hippo, De Trinitate, @Church_Father,
51:Lying words are unworthy of a disciple, for his aspiration should be sincere and straightforward and knavish and flattering words are kin to witchcraft. The man who occupies himself with spiritual questions, ought not to proffer any such utterances. ~ Fo-sho-tsan-kiug, the Eternal Wisdom
52:We are commanded to live righteously, and the reward is set before us of our meriting to live happily in eternity. But who is able to live righteously and do good works unless he has been justified by faith? ~ Saint Augustine of Hippo, Various Questions to Simplician 1:2:21, @Church_Father,
53:Let him who finds fault with my discourse, see whether he can understand other men who have handled similar subjects and questions, when he does not understand me: and if he can, let him put down my book, or even, if he pleases, throw it away. ~ Saint Augustine of Hippo, De Trinitate, @Church_Father,
54:We make our world significant by the courage of our questions and by the depth of our answers.
   The truth may be puzzling. It may take some work to grapple with. It may be counterintuitive. It may contradict deeply held prejudices. It may not be consonant with what we desperately want to be true. But our preferences do not determine what's true. ~ Carl Sagan, @JoshuaOakley,
55:Perhaps some of you have had relations with that Mahakali. She does not avenge herself, she never does harm to those who love her, she does not strike with epidemics the countries which do not show her sufficient respect and consideration. But she likes violence, she likes war and her justice is crushing. ~ The Mother, Questions And Answers 1950-1951,
56:When you sit in meditation you must be as candid and simple as a child, not interfering by your external mind, expecting nothing, insisting on nothing. Once this condition is there, all the rest depends upon the aspiration deep within you. And if you call upon Divinity, then too you will have the answer.
   ~ The Mother, Questions And Answers 1929-1931,
57:
   Then what will the "Mother of Sorrows" do? What else can she do?


She will be the "Mother of Delight".

   Savitri represents the Mother's Consciousness, doesn't she?


Yes.

   What does Satyavan represent?


Well, he is the Avatar. He is the incarnation of the Supreme.
   ~ The Mother, Questions And Answers 1954,
58:The book exists for us perchance which will explain our miracles and and reveal new ones. The at present unutterable things we may find somewhere uttered. These same questions that disturb and puzzle and confound us have in their turn occurred to all the wise men; not one has been omitted; and each has answered them, according to his ability, by his words and his life. ~ Henry David Thoreau,
59:From the point of view of action (physical action), it is the will: you must work and build up an unshakable will. From the intellectual point of view, you must work and build up a power of concentration which nothing can shake. And if you have both, concentration and will, you will be a genius and nothing will resist you.
   ~ The Mother, Questions And Answers 1953, [T4],
60:There are gods of the Overmind who are the great creators of the earth - until now. There are the gods of the Vedas who are mentioned in everything that has come down from the Rishis. And there are the gods of the Supermind, those who are going to manifest on earth, although of course they exist from all eternity on their own plane. ~ The Mother, Questions And Answers 1957-1958,
61:I almost? had some slight existential crisis, cause I was trying to figure out what does it all mean? what is the purpose of things? I came to the conclusion that if we can advance the knowledge of the world, if we can do things that expand the scope and scale of consciousness then were better able to ask the right questions and become more enlightened and thats really the only way forward
   ~ Elon Musk,
62:A thousand questions can be asked about anything whatsoever, but to answer would require a volume, and even then the mind would understand nothing. It is only by a growth in the consciousness itself that you can get some direct perception of these things. But for that the mind must be quiet and a direct feeling and intuition take its place.
   ~ Sri Aurobindo, Letters On Yoga - IV,
63:Christianity has a built-in defense system: anything that questions a belief, no matter how logical the argument is, is the work of Satan by the very fact that it makes you question a belief. It's a very interesting defense mechanism and the only way to get by it -- and believe me, I was raised Southern Baptist -- is to take massive amounts of mushrooms, sit in a field, and just go, "Show me.". ~ Bill Hicks,
64:All of us cherish our beliefs. They are, to a degree, self-defining. When someone comes along who challenges our belief system as insufficiently well-based - or who, like Socrates, merely asks embarrassing questions that we haven't thought of, or demonstrates that we've swept key underlying assumptions under the rug - it becomes much more than a search for knowledge. It feels like a personal assault. ~ Carl Sagan,
65:But imagine this same vital power of expression, with the inspiration coming from far above-the highest inspiration possible, when all the heavens open before us-then that becomes wonderful. There are certain passages of César Franck, certain passages of Beethoven, certain passages of Bach, there are pieces by others also which have this inspiration and power.
   ~ The Mother, Questions And Answers 1953,
66:Psychic life in the universe is a work of the divine Grace. Psychic growth is a work of the divine Grace and the ultimate power of the psychic being over the physical-being will also be a result of the divine Grace. And the mind, if it wants to be at all useful, has only to remain very quiet, as quiet as it can, because if it meddles in it, it is sure to spoil everything.
   ~ The Mother, Questions And Answers 1955,
67:Witness means an observer, someone who looks on and does not act himself. So, when the mind is very quiet, one can withdraw a little from circumstances and look at things as though he were a witness, and not participating in the action himself. This gives you a great quietude, and also a very precise sense of the value of things, because it cuts the attachment to action.
   ~ The Mother, Questions And Answers 1954, 13 October 1954,
68:One must have a very clear memory for ideas to really understand what he says.

I am emphasising this because, unless you proceed systematically, you won't derive much benefit from this reading; it will appear to you like a maze where it is very difficult to find one's way.... All the ideas are joined at the centre, and at the circumference they go in altogether different directions. ~ The Mother, Questions And Answers 1957-1958,
69:...to do the integral yoga one must first resolve to surrender entirely to the Divine, there is no other way, this is the way. But after that one must have the five psychological virtues, five psychological perfections and we say that the perfections are 1.Sincerity or Transparency 2.Faith or Trust (Trust in the Divine) 3.Devotion or Gratitude 4.Courage or Inspiration 5.Endurance or Perseverance
   ~ The Mother, Questions And Answers 1956,
70:There are these four ways of answering questions. Which four? There are questions that should be answered categorically [straightforwardly yes, no, this, that]. There are questions that should be answered with an analytical (qualified) answer [defining or redefining the terms]. There are questions that should be answered with a counter-question. There are questions that should be put aside. These are the four ways of answering questions. ~ Buddha, Sutta Pitaka,
71:in order to really possess knowledge, whatever it may be, you must put it into practice, that is, master your nature so as to be able to express this knowledge in action. ... You are still very young, but you must learn right away that to reach the goal you must know how to pay the price, and that to understand the supreme truths you must put them into practice in your daily life. That's all.
   ~ The Mother, Questions And Answers 1957-1958,
72:He points out that one of the really tough things is figuring out what questions to ask, Musk said. Once you figure out the question, then the answer is relatively easy. I came to the conclusion that really we should aspire to increase the scope and scale of human consciousness in order to better understand what questions to ask. The teenage Musk then arrived at his ultralogical mission statement. The only thing that makes sense to do is strive for greater collective enlightenment
   ~ ?,
73:True humility is humility before the Divine, that is, a precise, exact, living sense that one is nothing, one can do nothing, understand nothing without the Divine, that even if one is exceptionally intelligent and capable, this is nothing in comparison with the divine Consciousness, and this sense one must always keep, because then one always has the true attitude of receptivity - a humble receptivity that does not put personal pretensions in opposition to the Divine. ~ The Mother, Questions And Answers 1953,
74:But if it is the important thing, the only thing that matters, and if everything else comes afterwards, and you want nothing but this, then - this is the first condition. You must first establish this, later we may speak of what follows. First this, that all the rest does not count, that only this counts, that one is ready to give everything to have this, that it is the only thing of importance in life. Then one puts oneself in the condition of being able to take a step forward.
   ~ The Mother, Questions And Answers 1954, 342,
75:No government has the right to decide on the truth of scientific principles, nor to prescribe in any way the character of the questions investigated. Neither may a government determine the aesthetic value of artistic creations, nor limit the forms of literacy or artistic expression. Nor should it pronounce on the validity of economic, historic, religious, or philosophical doctrines. Instead it has a duty to its citizens to maintain the freedom, to let those citizens contribute to the further adventure and the development of the human race. ~ Richard P Feynman,
76:To learn how to will is a very important thing. And to will truly, you must first unify your being. ... And when you have a will, you will be able to say, say to the Divine: I want what You want. But not before that . Because in order to want what the Divine wants, you must have a will, otherwise you can will nothing at all. You would like to. You would like it very much. You would very much like to want what the Divine wants to do. You dont possess a will to give to Him and to put at His service.
   ~ The Mother, Questions And Answers 1954,
77:There are four conditions for knowing the divine Will:
   The first essential condition: an absolute sincerity.
   Second: to overcome desires and preferences.
   Third: to silence the mind and listen.
   Fourth, to obey immediately when you receive the order. If you persist, you will perceive the Divine Will more and more clearly. But even before you know what it is, you can make an offering of your own will and you will see that all circumstances will be so arranged as to make you do the right thing
   ~ The Mother, Questions And Answers 1950-1951,
78:These questionings and depressions are very foolish movements of the mind. If you were not open to the Grace, you would not have had these descents or experiences and there would have been no such progress as you have made. You have not to put such questions but to take it as a settled fact, and with full faith in the Mother and her working in you go on with your sadhana. Whatever difficulties there may be, will be solved in time by the natural progress of the sadhana. ~ Sri Aurobindo, Letters On Yoga - IV, Dealing with Depression and Despondency,
79:When one sees them thinking all the time about themselves, referring everything to themselves, governed simply by their own little person, placing themselves in the centre of the universe and trying to organise the whole universe including God around themselves, as though that were the most important thing in the universe. If one could only see oneself objectively, you know, as one sees oneself in a mirror, observe oneself living, it is so grotesque! (Laughing) That's enough for you to... One suddenly feels that he is becoming - oh, so absolutely ridiculous! ~ The Mother, Questions And Answers 1954, [T2],
80:It is the same thing for the ego, the self. In order to pass on to a higher plane, one must first exist; and to exist one must become a conscious, separate individual, and to become a conscious separate individual, the ego is indispensable, otherwise one remains mingled with all that lies around us. But once the individuality is formed, if one wants to rise to a higher level and live a spiritual life, if one wants even to become simply a higher type of man, the limitations of the ego are the worst obstacles, and the ego must be surpassed in order to enter the true consciousness. ~ The Mother, Questions And Answers 1956, 367,
81:There are two factors that have to be considered in the matter [the causes of illness]. There is what comes from outside and there is what comes from your inner condition. Your inner condition becomes a cause of illness when there is a resistance or revolt in it or when there is some part in you that does not respond to the protection; or even there may be something there that almost willingly and wilfully calls in the adverse forces. It is enough if there is a slight movement of this kind in you; the hostile forces are at once upon you and their attack takes often the form of illness. ~ The Mother, Questions And Answers 1929-1931,
82:When a man is the Divine's enemy...
   But after all, suppose there is one man in a million who has realised this consciousness in himself. It is possible he may have had an effect on those around him - and yet I took care to tell you that for this state to be perfectly realised, generally it is necessary to live in solitude, otherwise there are too many contradictory things, there are too many brutally material necessities which contradict it, for you to be able to attain that state absolutely perfectly. But if you do attain it absolutely perfectly, everything around you will necessarily become divine. ~ The Mother, Questions And Answers 1956,
83:the soul's seemingly magical influence :::
If you have within you a psychic being sufficiently awake to watch over you, to prepare your path, it can draw towards you things which help you, draw people, books, circumstances, all sorts of little coincidences which come to you as though brought by some benevolent will and give you an indication, a help, a support to take decisions and turn you in the right direction. But once you have taken this decision, once you have decided to find the truth of your being, once you start sincerely on the road, everything seems to conspire to help you to advance,
   ~ The Mother, Questions And Answers 1950-1951,
84:
   Sweet Mother, how can we find the Divine who is hidden in us?

... This we have explained many, many times. But the first thing is to want it, and know precisely that this comes first, before all other things, that this is the important thing. That is the first condition; all the rest may come later, this is the essential condition. You see, if once in a while, from time to time, when you have nothing to do and all goes well and you are unoccupied, suddenly you tell yourself, Ah, I would like so much to find the Divine! - well, this
   - it may take a hundred thousand years, in this way. ~ The Mother, Questions And Answers 1954, [T2],
85:Attacks from adverse forces are inevitable: you have to take them as tests on your way and go courageously through the ordeal. The struggle may be hard, but when you come out of it, you have gained something, you have advanced a step. There is even a necessity for the existence of the hostile forces. They make your determination stronger, your aspiration clearer.
   "It is true, however, that they exist because you gave them reason to exist. So long as there is something in you which answers to them, their intervention is perfectly legitimate. If nothing in you responded, if they had no hold upon any part of your nature, they would retire and leave you.
   ~ The Mother, Questions And Answers 1929-1931, (5 May 1929),
86:There are who do not study or who, though they study, make no progress; let them not be discouraged. There are who put no questions or, when they do, cannot seize well the sense of the reply; let them not be discouraged. There are who can distinguish nothing or only confusedly; let them not be discouraged. There are who do not practice or have no solidity in their practice; let them not be discouraged. What another would do in one step, they will do in a hundred; what another would do in ten, they will do in a thousand. Assuredly, any man who follows this rule, however poorly enlightened he may be, will acquire intelligence and, however weak he may be, will acquire strength. ~ Confucius, the Eternal Wisdom
87:the souls influence through other parts of our being :::
...These are parts of the being under its influence and manifesting something of it. So, very often people enter into contact with these parts and this gives them illuminations, great joy, revelations, and they feel they have found their soul. But it is only the part of the being under its influence, one part or another, for ... I have already said many times that when one enters consciously into contact with one's soul and the union is established, it is over, it can no longer be undone, it is something permanent, constant, which resists everything, and which, at any moment whatever, if referred to can be found... ~ The Mother, Questions And Answers 1955,
88:When we are concentrated in mental movements or intellectual pursuits, why do we sometimes forget or lose touch with the Divine?

You lose it because your consciousness is still divided. The Divine has not settled in your mind; you are not wholly consecrated to the Divine Life. Otherwise you could concentrate to any extent upon such things and still you would have the sense of being helped and supported by the Divine. In all pursuits, intellectual or active, your one motto should be, Remember and Offer. Let whatever you do be done as an offering to the Divine. And this too will be an excellent discipline for you; it will prevent you from doing many foolish and useless things.
   ~ The Mother, Questions And Answers 1929-1931, [T0],
89:What is surrender?

It means that one gives oneself entirely to the Divine.

Yes, and then what happens? If you give yourself entirely to the Divine, it is He who does the Yoga, it is no longer you; hence this is not very difficult; while if you do tapasya, it is you yourself who do the yoga and you carry its whole responsibility—it is there the danger lies. But there are people who prefer to have the whole responsibility, with its dangers, because they have a very independent spirit. They are not perhaps in a great hurry—if they need several lives to succeed, it does not matter to them. But there are others who want to go quicker and be more sure of reaching the goal; well, these give over the whole responsibility to the Divine. ~ The Mother, Questions And Answers 1950-1951,
90:5. When in Doubt ::: Read the Syllabus - Read Ahead - Ask Questions: Read the correlated readings (designed to mesh with that lecture) before you come to class. The whole point of correlated readings is to prepare you for the lecture. If the readings are completed at the appropriate time you will have a 'Big Picture' framed by a general narrative and suspended by an ongoing line of argument. These readings should help you establish a set of expectations as well as some unsettling questions. The lectures should help you connect ideas you have read about and, with any luck, they should help you call key issues into question. Your job is to arrive at an understanding you call your own and can defend to a critical audience. Beginning to end, you are the center of your education. You know where to begin. ~ Dr Robert A Hatch, How to Study,
91:It is the Divine in the inconscient who aspires for the Divine in the consciousness. That is to say, without the Divine there would be no aspiration; without the consciousness hidden in the inconscient, there would be no possibility of changing the inconscience to consciousness. But because at the very heart of the inconscient there is the divine Consciousness, you aspire, and necessarily - this is what he says - automatically, mechanically, the sacrifice is made. And this is why when one says, "It is not you who aspire, it is the Divine, it is not you who make progress, it is the Divine, it is not you who are conscious, it is the Divine" - these are not mere words, it is a fact. And it is simply your ignorance and your unconsciousness which prevent you from realising it. (Meditation) ~ The Mother, Questions And Answers 1956,
92:It is to bring back all the scattered threads of consciousness to a single point, a single idea. Those who can attain a perfect attention succeed in everything they undertake; they will always make rapid progress. And this kind of concentration can be developed exactly like the muscles; one may follow different systems, different methods of training. Today we know that the most pitiful weakling, for example, can with discipline become as strong as anyone else. One should not have a will that flickers out like a candle. The will, the concentration must be cultivated; it is a question of method, of regular exercise. If you will, you can. But the thought Whats the use? must not come in to weaken the will. The idea that one is born with a certain character and can do nothing about it is a stupidity.
   ~ The Mother, Questions And Answers 1950-1951,
93:Calm, even if it seems at first only a negative thing, is so difficult to attain, that to have it at all must be regarded as a great step in advance.
   "In reality, calm is not a negative thing, it is the very nature of the Sat-Purusha and the positive foundation of the divine consciousness. Whatever else is aspired for and gained, this must be kept. Even Knowledge, Power, Ananda, if they come and do not find this foundation, are unable to remain and have to withdraw until the divine purity and peace of the Sat-Purusha are permanently there.
   "Aspire for the rest of the divine consciousness, but with a calm and deep aspiration. It can be ardent as well as calm, but not impatient, restless or full of rajasic eagerness.
   "Only in the quiet mind and being can the supramental Truth build its true creation." ~ The Mother, Questions And Answers 1954,
94:When the resolution has been taken, when you have decided that the whole of your life shall be given to the Divine, you have still at every moment to remember it and carry it out in all the details of your existence. You must feel at every step that you belong to the Divine; you must have the constant experience that, in whatever you think or do, it is always the Divine Consciousness that is acting through you. You have no longer anything that you can call your own; you feel everything as coming from the Divine, and you have to offer it back to its source. When you can realise that, then even the smallest thing to which you do not usually pay much attention or care, ceases to be trivial and insignificant; it becomes full of meaning and it opens up a vast horizon beyond."
Questions and Answers 1929 (28 April)
~ The Mother, Questions And Answers 1953,
95:
   Mother, how can one strengthen one's will?

Oh, as one strengthens muscles, by a methodical exercise. You take one little thing, something you want to do or dont want to do. Begin with a small thing, not something very essential to the being, but a small detail. And then, if, for instance, it is something you are in the habit of doing,you insist on it with the same regularity, you see, either not to do it or to do it - you insist on it and compel yourself to do it as you compel yourself to life a weight - its the same thing. You make the same kind of effort, but it is more of an inner effort. And after having taken little things like this - things relatively easy, you know - after taking these and succeeding with them, you can unite with a greater force and try a more complicated experiment. And gradually, if you do this regularly, you will end up by acquiring an independent and very strong will.
   ~ The Mother, Questions And Answers 1954, 391,
96:There is but one remedy: that signpost must always be there, a mirror well placed in one's feelings, impulses, all one's sensations. One sees them in this mirror. There are some which are not very beautiful or pleasant to look at; there are others which are beautiful, pleasant, and must be kept. This one does a hundred times a day if necessary. And it is very interesting. One draws a kind of big circle around the psychic mirror and arranges all the elements around it. If there is something that is not all right, it casts a sort of grey shadow upon the mirror: this element must be shifted, organised. It must be spoken to, made to understand, one must come out of that darkness. If you do that, you never get bored. When people are not kind, when one has a cold in the head, when one doesn't know one's lessons, and so on, one begins to look into this mirror. It is very interesting, one sees the canker. "I thought I was sincere!" - not at all. ~ The Mother, Questions And Answers 1953, 10,
97:
   To learn to be quiet and silent... When you have a problem to solve, instead of turning over in your head all the possibilities, all the consequences, all the possible things one should or should not do, if you remain quiet with an aspiration for goodwill, if possible a need for goodwill, the solution comes very quickly. And as you are silent you are able to hear it.

   When you are caught in a difficulty, try this method: instead of becoming agitated, turning over all the ideas and actively seeking solutions, of worrying, fretting, running here and there inside your head - I don't mean externally, for externally you probably have enough common sense not to do that! but inside, in your head - remain quiet. And according to your nature, with ardour or peace, with intensity or widening or with all these together, implore the Light and wait for it to come.

   In this way the path would be considerably shortened. 5 November 1958
   ~ The Mother, Questions And Answers 1957-1958, 422,
98:the importance and power of surrender :::
   Surrender is the decision taken to hand over the responsibility of your life to the Divine. Without this decision nothing is at all possible; if you do not surrender, the Yoga is entirely out of the question. Everything else comes naturally after it, for the whole process starts with surrender. You can surrender either through knowledge or through devotion. You may have a strong intuition that the Divine alone is the truth and a luminous conviction that without the Divine you cannot manage. Or you may have a spontaneous feeling that this line is the only way of being happy, a strong psychic desire to belong exclusively to the Divine: I do not belong to my self, you say, and give up the responsibility of your being to the Truth. Then comes self-offering: Here I am, a creature of various qualities, good and bad, dark and enlightened. I offer myself as I am to you, take me up with all my ups and downs, conflicting impulses and tendencies - do whatever you like with me.
   ~ The Mother, Questions And Answers 1929-1931,
99:It is here upon earth, in the body itself, that you must acquire a complete knowledge and learn to use a full and complete power. Only when you have done that will you be free to move about with entire security in all the worlds. Only when you are incapable of having the slightest fear, when you remain unmoved, for example, in the midst of the worst nightmare, can you say, "Now I am ready to go into the vital world." But this means the acquisition of a power and a knowledge that can come only when you are a perfect master of the impulses and desires of the vital nature. You must be absolutely free from everything that can bring in the beings of the darkness or allow them to rule over you; if you are not free, beware!

No attachments, no desires, no impulses, no preferences; perfect equanimity, unchanging peace and absolute faith in the Divine protection: with that you are safe, without it you are in peril. And as long as you are not safe, it is better to do like little chickens that take shelter under the mother's wings. ~ The Mother, Questions And Answers 1929-1931,
100:
   But why does the Divine want to manifest Himself on earth in this chaos?


Because this is why He has created the earth, not for any other motive; the earth is He Himself in a deformation and He wants to establish it back again in its truth. Earth is not something separated from Him and alien to Him. It is a deformation of Himself which must once again become what it was in its essence, that is, the Divine.

   Then why is He a stranger to us?

But He is not a stranger, my child. You fancy that He is a stranger, but He is not, not in the least. He is the essence of your being - not at all alien. You may not know Him, but He is not a stranger; He is the very essence of your being. Without the Divine you would not exist. Without the Divine you could not exist even for the millionth part of a second. Only, because you live in a kind of false illusion and deformation, you are not conscious. You are not conscious of yourself, you are conscious of something which you think to be yourself, but which isn't you.
   ~ The Mother, Questions And Answers 1955,
101:Three things you must have, - consciousness, - plasticity and - unreserved surrender.
   For you must be conscious in your mind and soul and heart and life and the very cells of your body, aware of the Mother and her Powers and their working; for although she can and does work in you even in your obscurity and your unconscious parts and moments, it is not the same thing as when you are in an awakened and living communion with her.
   All your nature must be plastic to her touch, - not questioning as the self-sufficient ignorant mind questions and doubts and disputes and is the enemy of its enlightenment and change; not insisting on its own movements as the vital in the man insists and persistently opposes its refractory desires and ill-will to every divine influence; not obstructing and entrenched in incapacity, inertia and tamas as man's physical consciousness obstructs and clinging to the pleasure in smallness and darkness cries out against each touch that disturbs it soulless routine or it dull sloth or its torpid slumber.
   ~ Sri Aurobindo, The Mother With Letters On The Mother, [58],
102:In the depths of your consciousness is the psychic being, the temple of the Divine within you. This is the centre round which should come about the unification of all these divergent parts, all these contradictory movements of your being. Once you have got the consciousness of the psychic being and its aspiration, these doubts and difficulties can be destroyed. It takes more or less time, but you will surely succeed in the end. Once you have turned to the Divine, saying, "I want to be yours", and the Divine has said, "Yes", the whole world cannot keep you from it. When the central being has made its surrender, the chief difficulty has disappeared. The outer being is like a crust. In ordinary people the crust is so hard and thick that they are not conscious of the Divine within them. If once, even for a moment only, the inner being has said, "I am here and I am yours", then it is as though a bridge has been built and little by little the crust becomes thinner and thinner until the two parts are wholly joined and the inner and the outer become one. ~ The Mother, Questions And Answers 1929-1931,
103:Find That Something :::
   We can, simply by a sincere aspiration, open a sealed door in us and find... that Something which will change the whole significance of life, reply to all our questions, solve all our problems and lead us to the perfection we aspire for without knowing it, to that Reality which alone can satisfy us and give us lasting joy, equilibrium, strength, life.
   All have heard it - Oh! there are even some here who are so used to it that for them it seems to be the same thing as drinking a glass of water or opening a window to let in the sunlight....
   We have tried a little, but now we are going to try seriously!
   The starting-point: to want it, truly want it, to need it. The next step: to think, above all, of that. A day comes, very quickly, when one is unable to think of anything else.
   That is the one thing which counts. And then... One formulates one's aspiration, lets the true prayer spring up from one's heart, the prayer which expresses the sincerity of the need. And then... well, one will see what happens.
   Something will happen. Surely something will happen. For each one it will take a different form.
   ~ The Mother, Questions And Answers 1957-1958,
104:Two Paths Of Yoga :::
   There are two paths of Yoga, one of tapasya (discipline), and the other of surrender. The path of tapasya is arduous. Here you rely solely upon yourself, you proceed by your own strength. You ascend and achieve according to the measure of your force. There is always the danger of falling down. And once you fall, you lie broken in the abyss and there is hardly a remedy. The other path, the path of surrender. is a safe and sure. It is here, however, that the Western people find their difficulty. They have been taught to fear and avoid all that threatens their personal independence. They have imbibed with their mothers milk the sense of individuality. And surrender means giving up all that. In other words, you may follow, as Ramakrishna says, either the path of the baby monkey or that of the baby cat. The baby monkey holds to its mother in order to be carried about and it must hold firm, otherwise if it loses its grip, it falls. On the other hand, the baby cat does not hold to its mother, but is held by the mother and has no fear nor responsibility; it to nor has nothing do but to let the mother hold it and cry ma ma.
   ~ The Mother, Questions And Answers 1929-1931,
105:Anyway, in instances of this kind, I think it is people's faith, above all, which saves them. When they have performed their little ceremony properly, they feel confident, "Oh! now it will be over, for she is satisfied." And because they feel confident, it helps them to react and the illness disappears. I have seen this very often in the street. There might be a small hostile entity there, but these are very insignificant things.
   In other cases, in some temples, there are vital beings who are more or less powerful and have made their home there. But what Sri Aurobindo means here is that there is nothing, not even the most anti-divine force, which in its origin is not the Supreme Divine. So, necessarily, everything goes back to Him, consciously or unconsciously. In the consciousness of the one who makes the offering it does not go to the Divine: it goes to the greater or smaller demon to whom he turns. But through everything, through the wood of the idol or even the ill-will of the vital adversary, ultimately, all returns to the Divine, since all comes from Him. Only, the one who has made the offering or the sacrifice receives but in proportion to his own consciousness... ~ The Mother, Questions And Answers 1956,
106:
   Mother, you told us one day that all that happens to us has been decided in advance. What does that mean?


This is but a way of speaking. This happens because to express a thing I can't be saying all the words at the same time, can I? I am obliged to say them one after another. Otherwise, if all the words were spoken at the same time, it would make a big noise and nobody would understand anything! Well, when you try to explain the universe, you do as you would when you speak. You say one thing after another, but to tell the truth, you must say everything at one go. Now, how can that be done?... Indeed, since you repeat it to me, it is very likely that I must have said that somewhere.... I must have said the contrary also! But if you put it in this way, that everything that happens has been decided in advance, then with the consciousness of time that you have now, it is as if you said: yesterday it was decided what would happen today; and this year it is decided what will happen next year. It is in this way that the thing is translated in your consciousness - naturally, because it is thus that we see, think, understand and above all speak and express ourselves. But it is not like that. ~ The Mother, Questions And Answers 1953,
107:Aspiration in everyone, no matter who it is, has the same power But the effect of this aspiration is different. For aspiration is aspiration: if you have aspiration, in itself it has a power. Only, this aspiration calls down an answer, and this answer, the effect, which is the result of the aspiration, depends upon each one, for it depends upon his receptivity. I know many people of this kind: they say, "Oh! but I aspire all the time and still I receive nothing." It is impossible that they should receive nothing, in the sense that the answer is sure to come. But it is they who do not receive. The answer comes but they are not receptive, so they receive nothing.. . . When you have an aspiration, a very active aspiration, your aspiration is going to do its work. It is going to call down the answer to what you aspire foR But if, later, you begin to think of something else or are not attentive or receptive, you do not even notice that your aspiration has received an answer. This happens very frequently. So people tell you: "I aspire and I don't receive anything, I get no answer!" Yes, you do have an answer but you are not aware of it, because you continue to be active in this way, like a mill turning all the time. ~ The Mother, Questions And Answers 1954,
108:I have a friend who's an artist and has sometimes taken a view which I don't agree with very well. He'll hold up a flower and say "look how beautiful it is," and I'll agree. Then he says "I as an artist can see how beautiful this is but you as a scientist take this all apart and it becomes a dull thing," and I think that he's kind of nutty. First of all, the beauty that he sees is available to other people and to me too, I believe. Although I may not be quite as refined aesthetically as he is ... I can appreciate the beauty of a flower. At the same time, I see much more about the flower than he sees. I could imagine the cells in there, the complicated actions inside, which also have a beauty. I mean it's not just beauty at this dimension, at one centimeter; there's also beauty at smaller dimensions, the inner structure, also the processes. The fact that the colors in the flower evolved in order to attract insects to pollinate it is interesting; it means that insects can see the color. It adds a question: does this aesthetic sense also exist in the lower forms? Why is it aesthetic? All kinds of interesting questions which the science knowledge only adds to the excitement, the mystery and the awe of a flower. It only adds. I don't understand how it subtracts. ~ Richard P Feynman,
109:When one goes out of the body, one must try to rush towards you I think everybody does that, dont they?

Not one in a hundred!

If you did that, very interesting things would happen to you. I knew someone in France who used to come to me every evening in order that I might show him some unknown region and take him for a ramble in the vital or mental world, and actually I used to take him there. At times there were others also, at times this person was alone. I showed him how to go out of the body, how to get back into it, how to keep the consciousness, etc., I showed him many places telling him There you must take this precaution, here you must do such and such a thing. And this continued for a long time.

I do not mean that no one among you comes to me in the night, but there are very few who do it consciously. Generally (you will tell me if I am wrong, but that is my impression), when you go to sleep and have decided to remember me before going to sleep, it is rather a call than a will to rush to me, as you say. You are there on your bed, you want to rest, to have a good sleep, remain in a good consciousness; then you call me rather than have the idea of going out of the body and coming to see me. ~ The Mother, Questions And Answers 1950-1951, 1951-02-19,
110:The human being is at home and safe in the material body; the body is his protection. There are some who are full of contempt for their bodies and think that things will be much better and easier after death without them. But in fact the body is your fortress and your shelter. While you are lodged in it the forces of the hostile world find it difficult to have a direct hold upon you.... Directly you enter any realm of this [vital] world, its beings gather round you to get out of you all you have, to draw what they can and make it a food and a prey. If you have no strong light and force radiating from within you, you move there without your body as if you had no coat to protect you against a chill and bleak atmosphere, no house to shield you, even no skin covering you, your nerves exposed and bare. There are men who say, 'How unhappy I am in this body', and think of death as an escape! But after death you have the same vital surroundings and are in danger from the same forces that are the cause of your misery in this life....
   "It is here upon earth, in the body itself, that you must acquire a complete knowledge and learn to use a full and complete power. Only when you have done that will you be free to move about with entire security in all the worlds." ~ The Mother, Questions And Answers 1929-1931, (12 May 1929),
111:Sometimes when an adverse force attacks us and we come out successful, why are we attacked once again by the same force?
   Because something was left inside. We have said that the force can attack only when there is something which responds in the nature - however slight it may be. There is a kind of affinity, something corresponding, there is a disorder or an imperfection which attracts the adverse force by responding to it. So, if the attack comes, you must keep perfectly quiet and send it back, but it does not necessarily follow that you have got rid of that small part in you which allows the attack to come.
   You have something in you which attracts this force; take, for example (it is one of the most frequent things), the force of depression, that kind of attack of a wave of depression that falls upon you: you lose confidence, you lose hope, you have the feeling you will never be able to do anything, you are cast down.
   It means there is in your vital being something which is naturally egoistic, surely a little vain, which needs encouragement to remain in a good state. So it is like a little signal for those forces which intimates to them: "You can come, the door is open." But there is another part in the being that was watching when these forces arrived; instead of allowing them to enter, the part which... ~ The Mother, Questions And Answers 1953,
112:What is one to do to prepare oneself for the Yoga?
   To be conscious, first of all. We are conscious of only an insignificant portion of our being; for the most part we are unconscious.
   It is this unconsciousness that keeps us down to our unregenerate nature and prevents change and transformation in it. It is through unconsciousness that the undivine forces enter into us and make us their slaves. You are to be conscious of yourself, you must awake to your nature and movements, you must know why and how you do things or feel or think them; you must understand your motives and impulses, the forces, hidden and apparent, that move you; in fact, you must, as it were, take to pieces the entire machinery of your being. Once you are conscious, it means that you can distinguish and sift things, you can see which are the forces that pull you down and which help you on. And when you know the right from the wrong, the true from the false, the divine from the undivine, you are to act strictly up to your knowledge; that is to say, resolutely reject one and accept the other. The duality will present itself at every step and at every step you will have to make your choice. You will have to be patient and persistent and vigilant - "sleepless", as the adepts say; you must always refuse to give any chance whatever to the undivine against the divine. ~ The Mother, Questions And Answers 1929-1931,
113:
   Mother, in your symbol the twelve petals signify the twelve inner planes, don't they?

It signifies anything one wants, you see. Twelve: that's the number of Aditi, of Mahashakti. So it applies to everything; all her action has twelve aspects. There are also her twelve virtues, her twelve powers, her twelve aspects, and then her twelve planes of manifestation and many other things that are twelve; and the symbol, the number twelve is in itself a symbol. It is the symbol of manifestation, double perfection, in essence and in manifestation, in the creation.

   What are the twelve aspects, Sweet Mother?

Ah, my child, I have described this somewhere, but I don't remember now. For it is always a choice, you see; according to what one wants to say, one can choose these twelve aspects or twelve others, or give them different names. The same aspect can be named in different ways. This does not have the fixity of a mental theory. (Silence)
   According to the angle from which one sees the creation, one day I may describe twelve aspects to you; and then another day, because I have shifted my centre of observation, I may describe twelve others, and they will be equally true.
   (To Vishwanath) Is it the wind that's producing this storm? It is very good for a dramatic stage-effect.... The traitor is approaching in the night... yes? We are waiting for some terrible deed....
   ~ The Mother, Questions And Answers 1954, 395,
114:
   If one is too serious in yoga, doesn't one become obsessed by the difficulty of the task?

There is a limit to be kept!... But if one chooses one's obsession well, it may be very useful because it is no longer quite an obsession. For example, one has decided to find the Divine within oneself, and constantly, in every circumstance, whatever happens or whatever one may do, one concentrates in order to enter into contact with the inner Divine. Naturally, first one must have that little thing Sri Aurobindo speaks about, that "lesser truth" which consists in knowing that there is a Divine within one (this is a very good example of the "lesser truth") and once one is sure of it and has the aspiration to find it, if that aspiration becomes constant and the effort to realise it becomes constant, in the eyes of others it looks like an obsession, but this kind of obsession is not bad. It becomes bad only if one loses one's balance. But it must be made quite clear that those who lose their balance with that obsession are only those who were quite ready to lose their balance; any circumstance whatever would have produced the same result and made them lose their balance - it is a defect in the mental structure, it is not the fault of the obsession. And naturally, he who changes a desire into an obsession would be sure to go straight towards imbalance. That is why I say it is important to know the object of the obsession. ~ The Mother, Questions And Answers 1950-1951,
115:Are remembrance and memory the same thing?

Not necessarily. Memory is a mental phenomenon, purely mental. Remembrance can be a phenomenon of consciousness. One can remember in all the domains of one's being: one can remember vitally, one can remember physically, one can remember psychically, one can remember mentally also. But memory is a purely mental phenomenon. Memory can, first of all, be deformed and it can also be effaced, one can forget. The phenomenon of consciousness is very precise; if you can take the consciousness back to the state in which it was, things come back exactly as they were. It is as though you relived the same mo- ment. You can relive it once, twice, ten times, a hundred times, but you relive a phenomenon of consciousness. It is very different from the memory of a fact which you inscribe somewhere in your brain. And if the cerebral associations are disturbed in the least (for there are many things in your brain and it is a very delicate instrument), if there is the slightest disturbance, your memory goes out of order. And then holes are formed and you forget. On the other hand, if you know how to bring back a particular state of consciousness in you, it comes back exactly the same as it was. Now, a remembrance can also be purely mental and it may be a continuation of cerebral activities, but that is mental remembrance. And you have remembrances in feeling, remembrances in sensation.... ~ The Mother, Questions And Answers 1953, 290-291,
116:
   Mother, aren't these entities afraid of you?

Ah, my child, terribly afraid! (Laughter) All those which are ill-willed try to hide, and usually do you know what they do? They gather together behind the head of the one who comes (laughter) in order not to be seen. But this is useless, because, just think, I have the capacity to see through. (Laughter) Otherwise - they always do this, instinctively. When they can manage to get in, they try to get in. But then... I intervene with greater force, because that is nasty. These are people who have the instinct to hide, you see. So I pursue them, there inside. With others very little is needed, very little; but there are some - there are such people, you know, they themselves have told me - when they are about to come to me, it is as though there were something which pulled them back, which told them: "No, no, no, it's not worthwhile, why go there? There are so many people for Mother to see, why add one more?" And they draw back, like that, so that they don't come. So I always tell them what it is: 'It would be better not to listen to that, for it's not something with a very good conscience.' Some people cannot bear it. There have been instances like this, of people who were obliged to run away, because they themselves were too attached to their own formations and did not want to get rid of them. Naturally there is only one way, to run away!
   There we are! We shall stop now for today.
   ~ The Mother, Questions And Answers 1954,
117:People think of education as something that they can finish. And what's more, when they finish, it's a rite of passage. You're finished with school. You're no more a child, and therefore anything that reminds you of school - reading books, having ideas, asking questions - that's kid's stuff. Now you're an adult, you don't do that sort of thing any more.

You have everybody looking forward to no longer learning, and you make them ashamed afterward of going back to learning. If you have a system of education using computers, then anyone, any age, can learn by himself, can continue to be interested. If you enjoy learning, there's no reason why you should stop at a given age. People don't stop things they enjoy doing just because they reach a certain age.

What's exciting is the actual process of broadening yourself, of knowing there's now a little extra facet of the universe you know about and can think about and can understand. It seems to me that when it's time to die, there would be a certain pleasure in thinking that you had utilized your life well, learned as much as you could, gathered in as much as possible of the universe, and enjoyed it. There's only this one universe and only this one lifetime to try to grasp it. And while it is inconceivable that anyone can grasp more than a tiny portion of it, at least you can do that much. What a tragedy just to pass through and get nothing out of it. ~ Isaac Asimov, Carl Freedman - Conversations with Isaac Asimov-University Press of Mississippi (2005).pdf,
118:Concentrating the Attention:
   Whatever you may want to do in life, one thing is absolutely indispensable and at the basis of everything, the capacity of concentrating the attention. If you are able to gather together the rays of attention and consciousness on one point and can maintain the concentration with a presistent will, nothing can resist it - whatever it may be, from the most material physical development to the highest spiritual one. But this discipline must be followed in a constant and, it may be said, imperturbable way; not that you should always be concentrated on the same thing - thats not what I mean, I mean learning to concentrate. And materially, for studies, sports, all physical or mental development, it is absolutely indispensble. And the value of an individual is proportionate to the value of his attention. And from the spiritual point of view it is still more important. There is no spiritual obstacle which can resist a penetrating power of concentration. For instance, the discovery of the psychic being, union with the inner Divine, opening to the higher spheres, all can be obtained by an intense and obstinate power of concentration - but one must learn how to do it. There is nothing in the human or even in the superhuman field, to which the power of concentration is not the key. You can be the best athlete, you can be the best student, you can be an artistic, literary or scientific genius, you can be the greatest saint with that faculty. And everyone has in himself a tiny little beginning of it - it is given to everybody, but people do not cultivate it.
   ~ The Mother, Questions And Answers 1957-1958,
119:Philosophy, like all other studies, aims primarily at knowledge. The knowledge it aims at is the kind of knowledge which gives unity and system to the body of the sciences, and the kind which results from a critical examination of the grounds of our convictions, prejudices, and beliefs. But it cannot be maintained that philosophy has had any very great measure of success in its attempts to provide definite answers to its questions. If you ask a mathematician, a mineralogist, a historian, or any other man of learning, what definite body of truths has been ascertained by his science, his answer will last as long as you are willing to listen. But if you put the same question to a philosopher, he will, if he is candid, have to confess that his study has not achieved positive results such as have been achieved by other sciences. It is true that this is partly accounted for by the fact that, as soon as definite knowledge concerning any subject becomes possible, this subject ceases to be called philosophy, and becomes a separate science. The whole study of the heavens, which now belongs to astronomy, was once included in philosophy; Newton's great work was called 'the mathematical principles of natural philosophy'. Similarly, the study of the human mind, which was a part of philosophy, has now been separated from philosophy and has become the science of psychology. Thus, to a great extent, the uncertainty of philosophy is more apparent than real: those questions which are already capable of definite answers are placed in the sciences, while those only to which, at present, no definite answer can be given, remain to form the residue which is called philosophy.
   ~ Bertrand Russell,
120:
   How can one "learn of pure delight"?

First of all, to begin with, one must through an attentive observation grow aware that desires and the satisfaction of desires give only a vague, uncertain pleasure, mixed, fugitive and altogether unsatisfactory. That is usually the starting-point.

   Then, if one is a reasonable being, one must learn to discern what is desire and refrain from doing anything that may satisfy one's desires. One must reject them without trying to satisfy them. And so the first result is exactly one of the first observations stated by the Buddha in his teaching: there is an infinitely greater delight in conquering and eliminating a desire than in satisfying it. Every sincere and steadfast seeker will realise after some time, sooner or later, at times very soon, that this is an absolute truth, and that the delight felt in overcoming a desire is incomparably higher than the small pleasure, so fleeting and mixed, which may be found in the satisfaction of his desires. That is the second step.

   Naturally, with this continuous discipline, in a very short time the desires will keep their distance and will no longer bother you. So you will be free to enter a little more deeply into your being and open yourself in an aspiration to... the Giver of Delight, the divine Element, the divine Grace. And if this is done with a sincere self-giving - something that gives itself, offers itself and expects nothing in exchange for its offering - one will feel that kind of sweet warmth, comfortable, intimate, radiant, which fills the heart and is the herald of Delight.    After this, the path is easy.
   ~ The Mother, Questions And Answers 1957-1958,
121:Often in the beginning of the action this can be done; but as one gets engrossed in the work, one forgets. How is one to remember?
   The condition to be aimed at, the real achievement of Yoga, the final perfection and attainment, for which all else is only a preparation, is a consciousness in which it is impossible to do anything without the Divine; for then, if you are without the Divine, the very source of your action disappears; knowledge, power, all are gone. But so long as you feel that the powers you use are your own, you will not miss the Divine support.
   In the beginning of the Yoga you are apt to forget the Divine very often. But by constant aspiration you increase your remembrance and you diminish the forgetfulness. But this should not be done as a severe discipline or a duty; it must be a movement of love and joy. Then very soon a stage will come when, if you do not feel the presence of the Divine at every moment and whatever you are doing, you feel at once lonely and sad and miserable.
   Whenever you find that you can do something without feeling the presence of the Divine and yet be perfectly comfortable, you must understand that you are not consecrated in that part of your being. That is the way of the ordinary humanity which does not feel any need of the Divine. But for a seeker of the Divine Life it is very different. And when you have entirely realised unity with the Divine, then, if the Divine were only for a second to withdraw from you, you would simply drop dead; for the Divine is now the Life of your life, your whole existence, your single and complete support. If the Divine is not there, nothing is left. ~ The Mother, Questions And Answers 1929-1931,
122:Thoughts are forms and have an individual life, independent of their author: sent out from him into the world, they move in it towards the realisation of their own purpose of existence. When you think of anyone, your thought takes a form and goes out to find him; and, if your thinking is associated with some will that is behind it, the thought-form that has gone out from you makes an attempt to realise itself. Let us say, for instance, that you have a keen desire for a certain person to come and that, along with this vital impulse of desire, a strong imagination accompanies the mental form you have made; you imagine, "If he came, it would be like this or it would be like that." After a time you drop the idea altogether, and you do not know that even after you have forgotten it, your thought continues to exist. For it does still exist and is in action, independent of you, and it would need a great power to bring it back from its work. It is working in the atmosphere of the person touched by it and creates in him the desire to come. And if there is a sufficient power of will in your thought-form, if it is a well-built formation, it will arrive at its own realisation. But between the formation and the realisation there is a certain lapse of time, and if in this interval your mind has been occupied with quite other things, then when there happens this fulfilment of your forgotten thought, you may not even remember that you once harboured it; you do not know that you were the instigator of its action and the cause of what has come about. And it happens very often too that when the result does come, you have ceased to desire or care for it.
   ~ The Mother, Questions And Answers 1929-1931,
123:
   Why do some children take interest in things only when there is some excitement?

They are tamasic. It is due to the large proportion of tamas in their nature. The more tamasic one is, the more does one need something violent and exciting circumstances. When the physical is tamasic, unless one eats spices and highly flavoured food, one does not feel nourished. And yet these are poisons. They act exactly like poison on the nerves. They do not nourish. But it is because people are tamasic, because their body's consciousness is not sufficiently developed. Well, mentally it is the same thing, vitally the same thing. If they are tamasic, they always need new excitements, dramas, murders, suicides, etc. to feel anything at all, otherwise.... And there is nothing, nothing that makes one more wicked and cruel than tamas. For it is this need of excitement which shakes you up a little, makes you come out of yourself. And one must also learn, there, to distinguish between those who are exclusively tamasic and those who are mixed, and those who are struggling within themselves with their different parts. One can, one must know in what proportion their nature is constituted, so as to be able to insist at need on one thing or another. Some people constantly need a whipping from life in order to move, otherwise they would spend their time sleeping. Others, on the contrary, need soothing things, silence, a retreat in the country-side - all things that do a lot of good but which must disappear as soon as one needs to make an effort for progress or to realise something or struggle against a defect, conquer an obstacle.... It is complicated, don't you think so? ~ The Mother, Questions And Answers 1953,
124:But if somewhere in your being - either in your body or even in your vital or mind, either in several parts or even in a single one - there is an incapacity to receive the descending Force, this acts like a grain of sand in a machine. You know, a fine machine working quite well with everything going all right, and you put into it just a little sand (nothing much, only a grain of sand), suddenly everything is damaged and the machine stops. Well, just a little lack of receptivity somewhere, something that is unable to receive the Force, that is completely shut up (when one looks at it, it becomes as it were a little dark spot somewhere, a tiny thing hard as a stone: the Force cannot enter into it, it refuses to receive it - either it cannot or it will not) and immediately that produces a great imbalance; and this thing that was moving upward, that was blooming so wonderfully, finds itself sick, and sometimes just when you were in the normal equilibrium; you were in good health, everything was going on well, you had nothing to complain about. One day when you grasped a new idea, received a new impulse, when you had a great aspiration and received a great force and had a marvellous experience, a beautiful experience opening to you inner doors, giving you a knowledge you did not have before; then you were sure that everything was going to be all right.... The next day, you are taken ill. So you say: "Still that? It is impossible! That should not happen." But it was quite simply what I have just said: a grain of sand. There was something that could not receive; immediately it brings about a disequilibrium. Even though very small it is enough, and you fall ill.

~ The Mother, Questions And Answers 1953, 175,
125:Sweet Mother, how can we cut the knot of the ego?
   How to cut it? Take a sword and strike it (laughter), when one becomes conscious of it. For usually one is not; we think it quite normal, what happens to us; and in fact it is very normal but we think it quite good also. So to begin with one must have a great clear-sightedness to become aware that one is enclosed in all these knots which hold one in bondage. And then, when one is aware that there's something altogether tightly closed in there - so tightly that one has tried in vain to move it - then one imagines one's will to be a very sharp sword-blade, and with all one's force one strikes a blow on this knot (imaginary, of course, one doesn't take up a sword in fact), and this produces a result. Of course you can do this work from the psychological point of view, discovering all the elements constituting this knot, the whole set of resistances, habits, preferences, of all that holds you narrowly closed in. So when you grow aware of this, you can concentrate and call the divine Force and the Grace and strike a good blow on this formation, these things so closely held, like that, that nothing can separate them. And at that moment you must resolve that you will no longer listen to these things, that you will listen only to the divine Consciousness and will do no other work except the divine work without worrying about personal results, free from all attachment, free from all preference, free from all wish for success, power, satisfaction, vanity, all this.... All this must disappear and you must see only the divine Will incarnated in your will and making you act. Then, in this way, you are cured.
   ~ The Mother, Questions And Answers 1954,
126:Sweet Mother, how can we cut the knot of the ego?

   How to cut it? Take a sword and strike it (laughter), when one becomes conscious of it. For usually one is not; we think it quite normal, what happens to us; and in fact it is very normal but we think it quite good also. So to begin with one must have a great clear-sightedness to become aware that one is enclosed in all these knots which hold one in bondage. And then, when one is aware that there's something altogether tightly closed in there - so tightly that one has tried in vain to move it - then one imagines one's will to be a very sharp sword-blade, and with all one's force one strikes a blow on this knot (imaginary, of course, one doesn't take up a sword in fact), and this produces a result. Of course you can do this work from the psychological point of view, discovering all the elements constituting this knot, the whole set of resistances, habits, preferences, of all that holds you narrowly closed in. So when you grow aware of this, you can concentrate and call the divine Force and the Grace and strike a good blow on this formation, these things so closely held, like that, that nothing can separate them. And at that moment you must resolve that you will no longer listen to these things, that you will listen only to the divine Consciousness and will do no other work except the divine work without worrying about personal results, free from all attachment, free from all preference, free from all wish for success, power, satisfaction, vanity, all this.... All this must disappear and you must see only the divine Will incarnated in your will and making you act. Then, in this way, you are cured.
   ~ The Mother, Questions And Answers 1954,
127:Sweet Mother, Sri Aurobindo is speaking about occult endeavour here and says that those who don't have the capacity must wait till it is given to them. Can't they get it through practice?
   No. That is, if it is latent in someone, it can be developed by practice. But if one doesn't have occult power, he may try for fifty years, he won't get anywhere. Everybody cannot have occult power. It is as though you were asking whether everybody could be a musician, everybody could be a painter, everybody could... Some can, some can't. It is a question of temperament.
   What is the difference between occultism and mysticism?
   They are not at all the same thing.
   Mysticism is a more or less emotive relation with what one senses to be a divine power - that kind of highly emotional, affective, very intense relation with something invisible which is or is taken for the Divine. That is mysticism.
   Occultism is exactly what he has said: it is the knowledge of invisible forces and the power to handle them. It is a science. It is altogether a science. I always compare occultism with chemistry, for it is the same kind of knowledge as the knowledge of chemistry for material things. It is a knowledge of invisible forces, their different vibrations, their interrelations, the combinations which can be made by bringing them together and the power one can exercise over them. It is absolutely scientific; and it ought to be learnt like a science; that is, one cannot practise occultism as something emotional or something vague and imprecise. You must work at it as you would do at chemistry, and learn all the rules or find them if there is nobody to teach you. But it is at some risk to yourself that you can find them. There are combinations here as explosive as certain chemical combinations. ~ The Mother, Questions And Answers 1954,
128:What is "the heavenly archetype of the lotus"?
  
It means the primal idea of the lotus.
   Each thing that is expressed physically was conceived somewhere before being realised materially.
   There is an entire world which is the world of the fashioners, where all conceptions are made. And this world is very high, much higher than all the worlds of the mind; and from there these formations, these creations, these types which have been conceived by the fashioners come down and are expressed in physical realisations. And there is always a great distance between the perfection of the idea and what is materialised. Very often the materialised things are like caricatures in comparison with the primal idea. This is what he calls the archetype. This takes place in worlds... not always the same ones, it depends on the things; but for many things in the physical, the primal ideas, these archetypes, were in what Sri Aurobindo calls the Overmind.
   But there is a still higher domain than this where the origins are still purer, and if one reaches this, attains this, one finds the absolutely pure types of what is manifested upon earth. And then it is very interesting to compare, to see to what an extent earthly creation is a frightful distortion. And moreover, it is only when one can reach these regions and see the reality of things in their essence that one can work with knowledge to transform them here; otherwise on what can we take our stand to conceive a better world, more perfect, more beautiful than the existing one? It can't be on our imagination which is itself something very poor and very material. But if one can enter that consciousness, rise right up to these higher worlds of creation, then with this in one's consciousness one can work at making material things take their real form. ~ The Mother, Questions And Answers 1955, 121,
129:I have already told you this several times. When you are in a particular set of circumstances and certain events take place, these events often oppose your desire or what seems best to you, and often you happen to regret this and say to yourself, "Ah! how good it would have been if it were otherwise, if it had been like this or like that", for little things and big things.... Then years pass by, events are unfolded; you progress, become more conscious, understand better, and when you look back, you notice―first with astonishment, then later with a smile―that those very circumstances which seemed to you quite disastrous or unfavourable, were exactly the best thing that could have happened to you to make you progress as you should have. And if you are the least bit wise you tell yourself, "Truly, the divine Grace is infinite."

So, when this sort of thing has happened to you a number of times, you begin to understand that in spite of the blindness of man and deceptive appearances, the Grace is at work everywhere, so that at every moment it is the best possible thing that happens in the state the world is in at that moment. It is because our vision is limited or even because we are blinded by our own preferences that we cannot discern that things are like this.

But when one begins to see it, one enters upon a state of wonder which nothing can describe. For behind the appearances one perceives this Grace―infinite, wonderful, all-powerful―which knows all, organises all, arranges all, and leads us, whether we like it or not, whether we know it or not, towards the supreme goal, that is, union with the Divine, the awareness of the Godhead and union with Him.

Then one lives in the Action and Presence of the Grace a life full of joy, of wonder, with the feeling of a marvellous strength, and at the same time with a trust so calm, so complete, that nothing can shake it any longer. ~ The Mother, Questions And Answers 1956, 8 August 1956,
130:
   Should not one be born with a great aspiration?

No, aspiration is a thing to be developed, educated, like all activities of the being. One may be born with a very slight aspiration and develop it so much that it becomes very great. One may be born with a very small will and develop it and make it strong. It is a ridiculous idea to believe that things come to you like that, through a sort of grace, that if you are not given aspiration, you don't have it - this is not true. It is precisely upon this that Sri Aurobindo has insisted in his letter and in the passage I am going to read to you in a minute. He says you must choose, and the choice is constantly put before you and constantly you must choose, and if you do not choose, well, you will not be able to advance. You must choose; there is no "force like that" which chooses for you, or chance or luck or fate - this is not true. Your will is free, it is deliberately left free and you have to choose. It is you who decide whether to seek the Light or not, whether to be the servitor of the Truth or not - it is you. Or whether to have an aspiration or not, it is you who choose. And even when you are told, "Make your surrender total and the work will be done for you", it is quite all right, but to make your surrender total, every day and at every moment you must choose to make your surrender total, otherwise you will not do it, it will not get done by itself. It is you who must want to do it. When it is done, all goes well, when you have the Knowledge also, all goes well, and when you are identified with the Divine, all goes even better, but till then you must will, choose and decide. Don't go to sleep lazily, saying, "Oh! The work will be done for me, I have nothing to do but let myself glide along with the stream." Besides, it is not true, the work is not done by itself, because if the least little thing thwarts your little will, it says, "No, not that!..." Then?
   ~ The Mother, Questions And Answers 1950-1951,
131:Why are some people intelligent and others not? Why can some people do certain things while others can't?"

It is as though you asked why everybody was not the same! Then it would mean that there would only be one single thing, one single thing indefinitely repeated which would constitute the whole universe.... I don't know, but it seems to me that it wouldn't be worth the trouble having a universe for that, it would be enough to have just one thing!

But the moment one admits the principle of multiplicity and that no two things are alike in the universe, how can you ask why they are not the same! It is just because they are not, because no two things are alike.

Behind that there is something else which one is not conscious of, but which is very simple and very childish. It is this: "Since there is an infinite diversity, since some people are of one kind and others of a lesser kind, well" - here of course one doesn't say this to oneself but it is there, hidden in the depths of the being, in the depths of the ego - "why am I not of the best kind?" There we are. In fact it amounts to complaining that perhaps one is not of the best kind! If you look attentively at questions like this: "Why do some have much and others little?" "Why are some wise and not others? Why are some intelligent and not others?" etc., behind that there is "Why don't I have all that can be had and why am I not all that one can be?..." Naturally, one doesn't say this to oneself, because one would feel ridiculous, but it is there.

There then. Now has anyone anything to add to what we have just said?... Have you all understood quite well? Everything I have said? Nobody wants to say...

(A teacher) Our daily routine seems a little "impossible" to us.

Well, wait a century or two and it will become possible! (Laughter)

You are told that today's impossibility is the possibility of tomorrow - but these are very great tomorrows! ~ The Mother, Questions And Answers, Volume-8, page no. 387-388,
132:The capacity for visions, when it is sincere and spontaneous, can put you in touch with events which you are not capable of knowing in your outer consciousness.... There is a very interesting fact, it is that somewhere in the terrestrial mind, somewhere in the terrestrial vital, somewhere in the subtle physical, one can find an exact, perfect, automatic recording of everything that happens. It is the most formidable memory one could imagine, which misses nothing, forgets nothing, records all. And if you are able to enter into it, you can go backward, you can go forward, and in all directions, and you will have the "memory" of all things - not only of things of the past, but of things to come. For everything is recorded there.

   In the mental world, for instance, there is a domain of the physical mind which is related to physical things and keeps the memory of physical happenings upon earth. It is as though you were entering into innumerable vaults, one following another indefinitely, and these vaults are filled with small pigeon-holes, one above another, one above another, with tiny doors. Then if you want to know something and if you are conscious, you look, and you see something like a small point - a shining point; you find that this is what you wish to know and you have only to concentrate there and it opens; and when it opens, there is a sort of an unrolling of something like extremely subtle manuscripts, but if your concentration is sufficiently strong you begin to read as though from a book. And you have the whole story in all its details. There are thousands of these little holes, you know; when you go for a walk there, it is as though you were walking in infinity. And in this way you can find the exact facts about whatever you want to know. But I must tell you that what you find is never what has been reported in history - histories are always planned out; I have never come across a single "historical" fact which is like history.
   ~ The Mother, Questions And Answers 1950-1951, 109 [T7],
133:Many men think and write through inspiration. From where does it come?

Many! That is indeed a wonderful thing. I did not think there have been so many.... So?

Poets, when they write poems...

Ah! Inspirations come from very many different places. There are inspirations that may be very material, there are inspirations that may be vital, there are inspirations that come from all kinds of mental planes, and there are very, very rare inspirations that come from the higher mind or from a still higher region. All inspirations do not come from the same place. Hence, to be inspired does not necessarily mean that one is a higher be- ing.... One may be inspired also to do and say many stupid things!

What does "inspired" mean?

It means receiving something which is beyond you, which was not within you; to open yourself to an influence which is outside your individual conscious being.

Indeed, one can have also an inspiration to commit a murder! In countries where they decapitate murderers, cut off their heads, this causes a very brutal death which throws out the vital being, not allowing it the time to decompose for coming out of the body; the vital being is violently thrown out of the body, with all its impulses; and generally it goes and lodges itself in one of those present there, men half horrified, half with a kind of unhealthy curiosity. That makes the opening and it enters within. Statistics have proved that most young murderers admit that the impulse came to them when they were present at the death of another murderer. It was an "inspiration", but of a detestable kind.

Fundamentally it is a moment of openness to something which was not within your personal consciousness, which comes from outside and rushes into you and makes you do something. This is the widest formula that can be given.

Now, generally, when people say: "Oh! he is an inspired poet", it means he has received something from high above and expressed it in a remarkable manneR But one should rather say that his inspiration is of a high quality. ~ The Mother, Questions And Answers 1953,
134:How often there is a kind of emptiness in the course of life, an unoccupied moment, a few minutes, sometimes more. And what do you do? Immediately you try to distract yourself, and you invent some foolishness or other to pass your time. That is a common fact. All men, from the youngest to the oldest, spend most of their time in trying not to be bored. Their pet aversion is boredom and the way to escape from boredom is to act foolishly.
   Well, there is a better way than that - to remember.
   When you have a little time, whether it is one hour or a few minutes, tell yourself, "At last, I have some time to concentrate, to collect myself, to relive the purpose of my life, to offer myself to the True and the Eternal." If you took care to do this each time you are not harassed by outer circumstances, you would find out that you were advancing very quickly on the path. Instead of wasting your time in chattering, in doing useless things, reading things that lower the consciousness - to choose only the best cases, I am not speaking of other imbecilities which are much more serious - instead of trying to make yourself giddy, to make time, that is already so short, still shorter only to realise at the end of your life that you have lost three-quarters of your chance - then you want to put in double time, but that does not work - it is better to be moderate, balanced, patient, quiet, but never to lose an opportunity that is given to you, that is to say, to utilise for the true purpose the unoccupied moment before you.
   When you have nothing to do, you become restless, you run about, you meet friends, you take a walk, to speak only of the best; I am not referring to things that are obviously not to be done. Instead of that, sit down quietly before the sky, before the sea or under trees, whatever is possible (here you have all of them) and try to realise one of these things - to understand why you live, to learn how you must live, to ponder over what you want to do and what should be done, what is the best way of escaping from the ignorance and falsehood and pain in which you live. 16 May 1958
   ~ The Mother, Questions And Answers 1929-1931,
135:
   Sweet Mother, here it is written: "There is a Yoga-Shakti lying coiled or asleep..." How can it be awakened?
I think it awakens quite naturally the moment one takes the resolution to do the yoga. If the resolution is sincere and one has an aspiration, it wakes up by itself.

   In fact, it is perhaps its awakening which gives the aspiration to do yoga.

   It is possible that it is a result of the Grace... or after some conversation or reading, something that has suddenly given you the idea and aspiration to know what yoga is and to practise it. Sometimes just a simple conversation with someone is enough or a passage one reads from a book; well, it awakens this Yoga-Shakti and it is this which makes you do your yoga.

   One is not aware of it at first - except that something has changed in our life, a new decision is taken, a turning.

   What is it, this Yoga-Shakti, Sweet Mother?

   It is the energy of progress. It is the energy which makes you do the yoga, precisely, makes you progress - consciously. It is a conscious energy.

   In fact, the Yoga-Shakti is the power to do yoga.

   Sweet Mother, isn't it more difficult to draw the divine forces from below?

   I think it is absolutely useless.

   Some people think that there are more reserves of energy - I have heard this very often: a great reserve of energy - in the earth, and that if they draw this energy into themselves they will be able to do things; but it is always mixed.

   The divine Presence is everywhere, that's well understood. And in fact, there is neither above nor below. What is called above and below, I think that is rather the expression of a degree of consciousness or a degree of materiality; there is the more unconscious and the less unconscious, there is what is subconscious and what is superconscious, and so we say above and below for the facility of speech.

   But in fact, the idea is to draw from the energies of the earth which, when you are standing up, are under your feet, that is, below in relation to you. But these energies are always mixed, and mostly they are terribly dark.
   ~ The Mother, Questions And Answers 1955,
136:Many Blows are Needed:

Mother, even when one tries to think that one is powerless, there is something which believes one is powerful. So?

Ah, yes, ah yes! Ah, it is very difficult to be sincere.... That is why blows multiply and sometimes become terrible, because that's the only thing which breaks your stupidity. This is the justification of calamities. Only when you are in an acutely painful situation and indeed before something that affects you deeply, then that makes the stupidity melt away a little. But as you say, even when there is something that melts, there is still a little something which remains inside. And that is why it lasts so long... How many blows are needed in life for one to know to the very depths that one is nothing, that one can do nothing, that one does not exist, that one is nothing, that there is no entity without the divine Consciousness and the Grace. From the moment one knows it, it is over; all difficulties have gone. When one knows it integrally and there is nothing which resists... but till that moment... And it takes very long.

   Why doesn't the blow come all at once?

   Because that would kill you. For if the blow is strong enough to cure you, it would simply crush you, it would reduce you to pulp. It is only by proceeding little by little, little by little, very gradually, that you can continue to exist. Naturally this depends on the inner strength, the inner sincerity, and on the capacity for progress, for profiting by experience and, as I said a while ago, on not forgetting. If one is lucky enough not to forget, then one goes much faster. One can go very fast. And if at the same time one has that inner moral strength which, when the red-hot iron is at hand, does not extinguish it by trying to pour water over it, but instead goes to the very core of the abscess, then in this case things go very fast also. But not many people are strong enough for this. On the contrary, they very quickly do this (gesture), like this, like this, in order to hide, to hide from themselves. How many pretty little explanations one gives oneself, how many excuses one piles up for all the foolishnesses one has committed.
   ~ The Mother, Questions And Answers 1954,
137:At the basis of this collaboration there is necessarily the will to change, no longer to be what one is, for things to be no longer what they are. There are several ways of reaching it, and all the methods are good when they succeed! One may be deeply disgusted with what exists and wish ardently to come out of all this and attain something else; one may - and this is a more positive way - one may feel within oneself the touch, the approach of something positively beautiful and true, and willingly drop all the rest so that nothing may burden the journey to this new beauty and truth.

   What is indispensable in every case is the ardent will for progress, the willing and joyful renunciation of all that hampers the advance: to throw far away from oneself all that prevents one from going forward, and to set out into the unknown with the ardent faith that this is the truth of tomorrow, inevitable, which must necessarily come, which nothing, nobody, no bad will, even that of Nature, can prevent from becoming a reality - perhaps of a not too distant future - a reality which is being worked out now and which those who know how to change, how not to be weighed down by old habits, will surely have the good fortune not only to see but to realise. People sleep, they forget, they take life easy - they forget, forget all the time.... But if we could remember... that we are at an exceptional hour, a unique time, that we have this immense good fortune, this invaluable privilege of being present at the birth of a new world, we could easily get rid of everything that impedes and hinders our progress.

   So, the most important thing, it seems, is to remember this fact; even when one doesn't have the tangible experience, to have the certainty of it and faith in it; to remember always, to recall it constantly, to go to sleep with this idea, to wake up with this perception; to do all that one does with this great truth as the background, as a constant support, this great truth that we are witnessing the birth of a new world.

   We can participate in it, we can become this new world. And truly, when one has such a marvellous opportunity, one should be ready to give up everything for its sake. ~ The Mother, Questions And Answers 1957-1958, [T1],
138:Are there no false visions?
There are what in appearance are false visions. There are, for instance, hundreds or thousands of people who say that they have seen the Christ. Of that number those who have actually seen Him are perhaps less than a dozen, and even with them there is much to say about what they have seen. What the others saw may be an emanation; or it may be a thought or even an image remembered by the mind. There are, too, those who are strong believers in the Christ and have had a vision of some Force or Being or some remembered image that is very luminous and makes upon them a strong impression. They have seen something which they feel belongs to another world, to a supernatural order, and it has created in them an emotion of fear, awe or joy; and as they believe in the Christ, they can think of nothing else and say it is He. But the same vision or experience if it comes to one who believes in the Hindu, the Mohammedan or some other religion, will take a different name and form. The thing seen or experienced may be fundamentally the same, but it is formulated differently according to the different make-up of the apprehending mind. It is only those that can go beyond beliefs and faiths and myths and traditions who are able to say what it really is; but these are few, very few. You must be free from every mental construction, you must divest yourself of all that is merely local or temporal, before you can know what you have seen.

   Spiritual experience means the contact with the Divine in oneself (or without, which comes to the same thing in that domain). And it is an experience identical everywhere in all countries, among all peoples and even in all ages. If you meet the Divine, you meet it always and everywhere in the same way. Difference comes in because between the experience and its formulation there is almost an abyss. Directly you have spiritual experience, which takes place always in the inner consciousness, it is translated into your external consciousness and defined there in one way or another according to your education, your faith, your mental predisposition. There is only one truth, one reality; but the forms through which it may be expressed are many. 21 April 1929 ~ The Mother, Questions And Answers 1929-1931,
139:"Will it take long for the Supermind which is involved in material Nature to emerge into the outer consciousness and bring visible results?"
   That depends on the state of consciousness from which one answers, for... For the human consciousness, obviously, I think it will take quite a long time. For another consciousness it will be relatively very fast, and for yet another consciousness, it is already accomplished. It is an accomplished fact. But in order to become aware of this, one must be able to enter into another state of consciousness than the ordinary physical consciousness.
   Sri Aurobindo has spoken - I believe I have read it to you, I think it's in The Synthesis of Yoga - of the true mind, the true vital and the true physical or subtle physical, and he has said that they co-exist with the ordinary mind, vital and physical, and that in certain conditions one may enter into contact with them, and then one becomes aware of the difference between what really is and the appearances of things.
   Well, for a developed consciousness, the Supermind is already realised somewhere in a domain of the subtle physical, it already exists there visible, concrete, and expresses itself in forms and activities. And when one is in tune with this domain, when one lives there, one has a very strong feeling that this world would only have to be condensed, so to say, for it to become visible to all. What would then be interesting would be to develop this inner perception which would put you into contact with the supramental truth which is already manifested, and is veiled for you only for want of appropriate organs to enter into relation with it.
   It is possible that those who are conscious of their dreams may have dreams of a new kind which put them into contact with that world, for it is accessible to the subtle physical of all those who have the corresponding organs in themselves. And there is necessarily a subtle influence of this physical on outer matter, if one is ready to receive impressions from it and admit them into one's consciousness. That's all.
   Now, if nobody has any questions to ask, well, we shall remain silent.
   Something to say, over there? (Mother looks at a disciple.) Oh! he is burning to speak! ~ The Mother, Questions And Answers 1956,
140:Self-Abuse by Drugs
Not a drop of alcohol is to be brought into this temple.
Master Bassui (1327-1387)1
(His dying instructions: first rule)
In swinging between liberal tolerance one moment and outraged repression the next,
modern societies seem chronically incapable of reaching consistent attitudes about
drugs.
Stephen Batchelor2
Drugs won't show you the truth. Drugs will only show you what it's like to be on drugs.
Brad Warner3

Implicit in the authentic Buddhist Path is sila. It is the time-honored practice
of exercising sensible restraints [Z:73-74]. Sila's ethical guidelines provide the
bedrock foundation for one's personal behavior in daily life. At the core of every
religion are some self-disciplined renunciations corresponding to sila. Yet, a profound irony has been reshaping the human condition in most cultures during the
last half century. It dates from the years when psychoactive drugs became readily
available. During this era, many naturally curious persons could try psychedelic
short-cuts and experience the way their consciousness might seem to ''expand.'' A
fortunate few of these experimenters would become motivated to follow the nondrug meditative route when they pursued various spiritual paths.
One fact is often overlooked. Meditation itself has many mind-expanding, psychedelic properties [Z:418-426]. These meditative experiences can also stimulate a
drug-free spiritual quest.
Meanwhile, we live in a drug culture. It is increasingly a drugged culture, for which overprescribing physicians must shoulder part of the blame. Do
drugs have any place along the spiritual path? This issue will always be hotly
debated.4
In Zen, the central issue is not whether each spiritual aspirant has the ''right''
to exercise their own curiosity, or the ''right'' to experiment on their own brains in
the name of freedom of religion. It is a free country. Drugs are out there. The real
questions are:
 Can you exercise the requisite self-discipline to follow the Zen Buddhist Path?
 Do you already have enough common sense to ask that seemingly naive question,

''What would Buddha do?'' (WWBD).
~ James Austin, Zen-Brain_Reflections,_Reviewing_Recent_Developments_in_Meditation_and_States_of_Consciousness,
141:Fundamentally, whatever be the path one follows - whe- ther the path of surrender, consecration, knowledge-if one wants it to be perfect, it is always equally difficult, and there is but one way, one only, I know of only one: that is perfect sincerity, but perfect sincerity!

Do you know what perfect sincerity is?...

Never to try to deceive oneself, never let any part of the being try to find out a way of convincing the others, never to explain favourably what one does in order to have an excuse for what one wants to do, never to close one's eyes when something is unpleasant, never to let anything pass, telling oneself, "That is not important, next time it will be better."

Oh! It is very difficult. Just try for one hour and you will see how very difficult it is. Only one hour, to be totally, absolutely sincere. To let nothing pass. That is, all one does, all one feels, all one thinks, all one wants, is exclusively the Divine.

"I want nothing but the Divine, I think of nothing but the Divine, I do nothing but what will lead me to the Divine, I love nothing but the Divine."

Try - try, just to see, try for half an hour, you will see how difficult it is! And during that time take great care that there isn't a part of the vital or a part of the mind or a part of the physical being nicely hidden there, at the back, so that you don't see it (Mother hides her hands behind her back) and don't notice that it is not collaborating - sitting quietly there so that you don't unearth it... it says nothing, but it does not change, it hides itself. How many such parts! How many parts hide themselves! You put them in your pocket because you don't want to see them or else they get behind your back and sit there well-hidden, right in the middle of your back, so as not to be seen. When you go there with your torch - your torch of sincerity - you ferret out all the corners, everywhere, all the small corners which do not consent, the things which say "No" or those which do not move: "I am not going to budge. I am glued to this place of mine and nothing will make me move."... You have a torch there with you, and you flash it upon the thing, upon everything. You will see there are many of them there, behind your back, well stuck.

Try, just for an hour, try!
No more questions?
Nobody has anything to say? Then, au revoir, my children! ~ The Mother, Question and Answers, Volume-6, page no.132-133),
142:
   Are not offering and surrender to the Divine the same thing?


They are two aspects of the same thing, but not altogether the same. One is more active than the other. They do not belong to quite the same plane of existence.

For example, you have decided to offer your life to the Divine, you take that decision. But all of a sudden, something altogether unpleasant, unexpected happens to you and your first movement is to react and protest. Yet you have made the offering, you have said once for all: "My life belongs to the Divine", and then suddenly an extremely unpleasant incident happens (that can happen) and there is something in you that reacts, that does not want it. But here, if you want to be truly logical with your offering, you must bring forward this unpleasant incident, make an offering of it to the Divine, telling him very sincerely: "Let Your will be done; if You have decided it that way, it will be that way." And this must be a willing and spontaneous adhesion. So it is very difficult.

Even for the smallest thing, something that is not in keeping with what you expected, what you have worked for, instead of an opposite reaction coming in - spontaneously, irresistibly, you draw back: "No, not that" - if you have made a complete surrender, a total surrender, well, it does not happen like that: you are as quiet, as peaceful, as calm in one case as in the other. And perhaps you had the notion that it would be better if it happened in a certain way, but if it happens differently, you find that this also is all right. You might have, for example, worked very hard to do a certain thing, so that something might happen, you might have given much time, much of your energy, much of your will, and all that not for your own sake, but, say, for the divine work (that is the offering); now suppose that after having taken all this trouble, done all this work, made all these efforts, it all goes just the other way round, it does not succeed. If you are truly surrendered, you say: "It is good, it is all good, it is all right; I did what I could, as well as I could, now it is not my decision, it is the decision of the Divine, I accept entirely what He decides." On the other hand, if you do not have this deep and spontaneous surrender, you tell yourself: "How is it? I took so much trouble to do a thing which is not for a selfish purpose, which is for the Divine Work, and this is the result, it is not successful!" Ninety-nine times out of a hundred, it is like that.

True surrender is a very difficult thing.

~ The Mother, Questions And Answers 1953, 52,
143:Why do we forget things?

   Ah! I suppose there are several reasons. First, because one makes use of the memory to remember. Memory is a mental instrument and depends on the formation of the brain. Your brain is constantly growing, unless it begins to degenerate, but still its growth can continue for a very, very long time, much longer than that of the body. And in this growth, necessarily some things will take the place of others. And as the mental instrument develops, things which have served their term or the transitory moment in the development may be wiped out to give place to the result. So the result of all that you knew is there, living in itself, but the road traversed to reach it may be completely blurred. That is, a good functioning of the memory means remembering only the results so as to be able to have the elements for moving forward and a new construction. That is more important than just retaining things rigidly in the mind.
   Now, there is another aspect also. Apart from the mental memory, which is something defective, there are states of consciousness. Each state of consciousness in which one happens to be registers the phenomena of a particular moment, whatever they may be. If your consciousness remains limpid, wide and strong, you can at any moment whatsoever, by concentrating, call into the active consciousness what you did, thought, saw, observed at any time before; all this you can remember by bringing up in yourself the same state of consciousness. And that, that is never forgotten. You could live a thousand years and you would still remember it. Consequently, if you don't want to forget, it must be your consciousness which remembers and not your mental memory. Your mental memory will be wiped out inevitably, get blurred, and new things will take the place of the old ones. But things of which you are conscious you do not forget. You have only to bring up the same state of consciousness again. And thus one can remember circumstances one has lived thousands of years ago, if one knows how to bring up the same state of consciousness. It is in this way that one can remember one's past lives. This never gets blotted out, while you don't have any more the memory of what you have done physically when you were very young. You would be told many things you no longer remember. That gets wiped off immediately. For the brain is constantly changing and certain weaker cells are replaced by others which are much stronger, and by other combinations, other cerebral organisations. And so, what was there before is effaced or deformed.
   ~ The Mother, Questions And Answers 1954,
144:
   When one is bored, Mother, does that mean one does not progress?


At that time, yes, certainly without a doubt; not only does one not progress, but one misses an opportunity for progressing. There was a concurrence of circumstances which seemed to you dull, boring, stupid and you were in their midst; well, if you get bored, it means that you yourself are as boring as the circumstances! And that is a clear proof that you are simply not in a state of progress. There is nothing more contrary to the very reason of existence than this passing wave of boredom. If you make a little effort within yourself at that time, if you tell yourself: "Wait a bit, what is it that I should learn? What does all that bring to me so that I may learn something? What progress should I make in overcoming myself? What is the weakness that I must overcome? What is the inertia that I must conquer?" If you say that to yourself, you will see the next minute you are no longer bored. You will immediately get interested and you will make progress! This is a commonplace of consciousness.

   And then, you know, most people when they get bored, instead of trying to rise a step higher, descend a step lower, they become still worse than what they were, and they do all the stupid things that others do, go in for all the vulgarities, all the meannesses, everything, in order to amuse themselves. They get intoxicated, take poison, ruin their health, ruin their brain, they utter crudities. They do all that because they are bored. Well, if instead of going down, one had risen up, one would have profited by the circumstances. Instead of profiting, one falls a little lower yet than where one was. When people get a big blow in their life, some misfortune (what men call "misfortune", there are people who do have misfortunes), the first thing they try to do is to forget it - as though one did not forget quickly enough! And to forget, they do anything whatsoever. When there is something painful, they want to distract themselves - what they call distraction, that is, doing stupid things, that is to say, going down in their consciousness, going down a little instead of rising up.... Has something extremely painful happened to you, something very grievous? Do not become stupefied, do not seek forgetfulness, do not go down into the inconscience; you must go to the end and find the light that is behind, the truth, the force and the joy; and for that you must be strong and refuse to slide down. But that we shall see a little later, my children, when you will be a little older. ~ The Mother, Questions And Answers 1953, 50,
145:How can one become conscious of Divine Love and an instrument of its expression?
   First, to become conscious of anything whatever, you must will it. And when I say "will it", I don't mean saying one day, "Oh! I would like it very much", then two days later completely forgetting it.
   To will it is a constant, sustained, concentrated aspiration, an almost exclusive occupation of the consciousness. This is the first step. There are many others: a very attentive observation, a very persistent analysis, a very keen discernment of what is pure in the movement and what is not. If you have an imaginative faculty, you may try to imagine and see if your imagination tallies with reality. There are people who believe that it is enough to wake up one day in a particular mood and say, "Ah! How I wish to be conscious of divine Love, how I wish to manifest divine Love...." Note, I don't know how many millions of times one feels within a little stirring up of human instinct and imagines that if one had at one's disposal divine Love, great things could be accomplished, and one says, "I am going to try and find divine Love and we shall see the result." This is the worst possible way. Because, before having even touched the very beginning of realisation you have spoilt the result. You must take up your search with a purity of aspiration and surrender which in themselves are already difficult to acquire. You must have worked much on yourself only to be ready to aspire to this Love. If you look at yourself very sincerely, very straight, you will see that as soon as you begin to think of Love it is always your little inner tumult which starts whirling. All that aspires in you wants certain vibrations. It is almost impossible, without being far advanced on the yogic path, to separate the vital essence, the vital vibration from your conception of Love. What I say is founded on an assiduous experience of human beings. Well, for you, in the state in which you are, as you are, if you had a contact with pure divine Love, it would seem to you colder than ice, or so far-off, so high that you would not be able to breathe; it would be like the mountain-top where you would feel frozen and find it difficult to breathe, so very far would it be from what you normally feel. Divine Love, if not clothed with a psychic or vital vibration, is difficult for a human being to perceive. One can have an impression of grace, of a grace which is something so far, so high, so pure, so impersonal that... yes, one can have the feeling of grace, but it is with difficulty that one feels Love.
   ~ The Mother, Questions And Answers 1950-1951,
146:
   "Without conscious occult powers, is it possible to help or protect from a distance somebody in difficulty or danger? If so, what is the practical procedure?"

Then a sub-question:

   "What can thought do?"

We are not going to speak of occult processes at all; although, to tell the truth, everything that happens in the invisible world is occult, by definition. But still, practically, there are two processes which do not exclude but complete each other, but which may be used separately according to one's preference.

   It is obvious that thought forms a part of one of the methods, quite an important part. I have already told you several times that if one thinks clearly and powerfully, one makes a mental formation, and that every mental formation is an entity independent of its fashioner, having its own life and tending to realise itself in the mental world - I don't mean that you see your formation with your physical eyes, but it exists in the mental world, it has its own particular independent existence. If you have made a formation with a definite aim, its whole life will tend to the realisation of this aim. Therefore, if you want to help someone at a distance, you have only to formulate very clearly, very precisely and strongly the kind of help you want to give and the result you wish to obtain. That will have its effect. I cannot say that it will be all-powerful, for the mental world is full of innumerable formations of this kind and naturally they clash and contradict one another; hence the strongest and the most persistent will have the best of it.

   Now, what is it that gives strength and persistence to mental formations? - It is emotion and will. If you know how to add to your mental formation an emotion, affection, tenderness, love, and an intensity of will, a dynamism, it will have a much greater chance of success. That is the first method. It is within the scope of all those who know how to think, and even more of those who know how to love. But as I said, the power is limited and there is great competition in that world.

   Therefore, even if one has no knowledge at all but has trust in the divine Grace, if one has the faith that there is something in the world like the divine Grace, and that this something can answer a prayer, an aspiration, an invocation, then, after making one's mental formation, if one offers it to the Grace and puts one's trust in it, asks it to intervene and has the faith that it will intervene, then indeed one has a chance of success.

   Try, and you will surely see the result.

   ~ The Mother, Questions And Answers 1956, 253,
147:This is true in a general way; when those born scattered over the world at great distances from one another are driven by circumstances or by an impulsion to come and gather here, it is almost always because they have met in one life or another (not all in the same life) and because their psychic being has felt that they belonged to the same family; so they have taken an inner vow to continue to act together and collaborate. That is why even though they are born far from one another, there is something which compels them to come together; it is the psychic being, the psychic consciousness that is behind. And only to the extent the psychic consciousness is strong enough to order and organise the circumstances or the life, that is, strong enough not to allow itself to be opposed by outside forces, outside life movements, can people meet.

It is profoundly true in reality; there are large "families of beings" who work for the same cause, who have gathered in more or less large numbers and who come in groups as it were. It is as though at certain times there were awakenings in the psychic world, as though lots of little sleeping children were being called to wake up: "It is time, quick, quick, go down!" And they hurry down. And sometimes they do not drop at the same place, they are dispersed, yet there is something within which troubles them, pushes them; for one reason or another they are drawn close and that brings them together. But it is something deep in the being, something that is not at all on the surface; otherwise, even if people met they would not perhaps become aware of the bond. People meet and recognise each other only to the extent they become conscious of their psychic being, obey their psychic being, are guided by it; otherwise there is all that comes in to oppose it, all that veils, all that stupefies, all those obstacles to prevent you from finding yourself in your depths and being able to collaborate truly in the work. You are tossed about by the forces of Nature.

There is only one solution, to find your psychic being and once it is found to cling to it desperately, to let it guide you step by step whatever be the obstacle. That is the only solution. All this I did not write but I explained it to that lady. She had put to me the question: "How did I happen to come here?" I told her that it was certainly not for reasons of the external consciousness, it was something in her inner being that had pushed her. Only the awakening was not strong enough to overcome all the rest and she returned to the ordinary life for very ordinary reasons of living. ~ The Mother, Questions And Answers 1953,
148:... one of the major personality traits was neuroticism, the tendency to feel negative emotion. He [Jung] never formalized that idea in his thinking. Its a great oversight in some sense because the capacity to experience negative emotion, when thats exaggerated that seems to be the core feature of everything we that we regard as psychopathology. Psychiatric and psychological illness. Not the only thing but its the primary factor. So.

Q: What is the best way to avoid falling back into nihilistic behaviours and thinking?
JBP:Well, a large part of that I would say is habit. The development and maintainance of good practices. Habits. If you find yourself desolute, neurotic, if your thought tends in the nihilistic direction and you tend to fall apart, organizing your life across multiple dimensions is a good antidote its not exactly thinking.
Do you have an intimate relationship? If not then well probably you could use one.
Do you have contact with close family members, siblings, children, parents, or even people who are more distantly related. If not, you probably need that.
Do you see your friends a couple of times a week? And do something social with them?
Do you have a way of productively using your time outside of employment?
Are you employed?
Do you have a good job? Or at least a job that is practically sufficient and enables you to work with people who you like working with? Even if the job itself is mundane or repetitive or difficult sometimes the relationships you establish in an employment situation like that can make the job worthwhile.
Have you regulated your response to temptations? Pornography, alcohol abuse, drug abuse, is that under control?

I would say differentiate the problem. Theres multiple dimensions of attainment, ambition, pleasure, responsibility all of that that make up a life, and to the degree that is it possible you want to optimize your functioning on as many of those dimensions as possible.
You might also organize your schedule to the degree that you have that capacity for discipline.
Do you get enough sleep?
Do you go to bed at a regular time?
Do you get up at a regular time?
Do you eat regularly and appropriately and enought and not too much?
Are your days and your weeks and your months characterized by some tolerable, repeatable structure? That helps you meet your responsibilities but also shields you from uncertainly and chaos and provides you with multiple sources of reward?
Those are all the questions decompose the problem into, the best way of avoiding falling into nihilistic behaviours and thinking. ~ Jordan B. Peterson, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Q-geMoCsNAw,
149:The last sentence: "...in the Truth-Creation the law is that of a constant unfolding without any Pralaya." What is this constant unfolding?

The Truth-Creation... it is the last line? (Mother consults the book) I think we have already spoken about this several times. It has been said that in the process of creation, there is the movement of creation followed by a movement of preservation and ending in a movement of disintegration or destruction; and even it has been repeated very often: "All that begins must end", etc., etc.

In fact in the history of our universe there have been six consecutive periods which began by a creation, were prolonged by a force of preservation and ended by a disintegration, a destruction, a return to the Origin, which is called Pralaya; and that is why this tradition is there. But it has been said that the seventh creation would be a progressive creation, that is, after the starting-point of the creation, instead of its being simply followed by a preservation, it would be followed by a progressive manifestation which would express the Divine more and more completely, so that no disintegration and return to the Origin would be necessary. And it has been announced that the period we are in is precisely the seventh, that is, it would not end by a Pralaya, a return to the Origin, a destruction, a disappearance, but that it would be replaced by a constant progress, because it would be a more and more perfect unfolding of the divine Origin in its creation.

And this is what Sri Aurobindo says. He speaks of a constant unfolding, that is, the Divine manifests more and more completely; more and more perfectly, in a progressive creation. It is the nature of this progression which makes the return to the Origin, the destruction no longer necessary. All that does not progress disappears, and that is why physical bodies die, it's because they are not progressive; they are progressive up to a certain moment, then there they stop and most often they remain stable for a certain time, and then they begin to decline, and then disappear. It's because the physical body, physical matter as it is at present is not plastic enough to be able to progress constantly. But it is not impossible to make it sufficiently plastic for the perfecting of the physical body to be such that it no longer needs disintegration, that is, death.

Only, this cannot be realised except by the descent of the Supermind which is a force higher than all those which have so far manifested and which will give the body a plasticity that will allow it to progress constantly, that is, to follow the divine movement in its unfolding. ~ The Mother, Questions And Answers 1955, 207-209,
150:Has creation a definite aim? Is there something like a final end to which it is moving?

The Mother: No, the universe is a movement that is eternally unrolling itself. There is nothing which you can fix upon as the end and one aim. But for the sake of action we have to section the movement, which is itself unending, and to say that this or that is the goal, for in action we need something upon which we can fix our aim. In a picture you need a definite scheme of composition and colour; you have to set a limit, to put the whole thing within a fixed framework; but the limit is illusory, the frame is a mere convention. There is a constant continuation of the picture that stretches beyond any particular frame, and each continuation can be drawn in the same conditions in an unending series of frames. Our aim is this or that, we say, but we know that it is only the beginning of another aim beyond it, and that in its turn leads to yet another; the series develop always and never stop.

What is the proper function of the intellect? Is it a help or a hindrance to Sadhana?

Whether the intellect is a help or a hindrance depends upon the person and upon the way in which it is used. There is a true movement of the intellect and there is a wrong movement; one helps, the other hinders. The intellect that believes too much in its own importance and wants satisfaction for its own sake, is an obstacle to the higher realisation.

But this is true not in any special sense or for the intellect alone, but generally and of other faculties as well. For example, people do not regard an all-engrossing satisfaction of the vital desires or the animal appetites as a virtue; the moral sense is accepted as a mentor to tell one the bounds that one may not transgress. It is only in his intellectual activities that man thinks he can do without any such mentor or censor!

Any part of the being that keeps to its proper place and plays its appointed role is helpful; but directly it steps beyond its sphere, it becomes twisted and perverted and therefore false. A power has the right movement when it is set into activity for the divine's purpose; it has the wrong movement when it is set into activity for its own satisfaction.

The intellect, in its true nature, is an instrument of expression and action. It is something like an intermediary between the true knowledge, whose seat is in the higher regions above the mind, and realisation here below. The intellect or, generally speaking, the mind gives the form; the vital puts in the dynamism and life-power; the material comes in last and embodies. ~ The Mother, Questions And Answers 1929-1931, 28th April 1931 and 5th May 1929,
151:One can learn how to identify oneself. One must learn. It is indispensable if one wants to get out of one's ego. For so long as one is shut up in one's ego, one can't make any progress.

How can it be done?


There are many ways. I'll tell you one.

When I was in Paris, I used to go to many places where there were gatherings of all kinds, people making all sorts of researches, spiritual (so-called spiritual), occult researches, etc. And once I was invited to meet a young lady (I believe she was Swedish) who had found a method of knowledge, exactly a method for learning. And so she explained it to us. We were three or four (her French was not very good but she was quite sure about what she was saying!); she said: "It's like this, you take an object or make a sign on a blackboard or take a drawing - that is not important - take whatever is most convenient for you. Suppose, for instance, that I draw for you... (she had a blackboard) I draw a design." She drew a kind of half-geometric design. "Now, you sit in front of the design and concentrate all your attention upon it - upon that design which is there. You concentrate, concentrate without letting anything else enter your consciousness - except that. Your eyes are fixed on the drawing and don't move at all. You are as it were hypnotised by the drawing. You look (and so she sat there, looking), you look, look, look.... I don't know, it takes more or less time, but still for one who is used to it, it goes pretty fast. You look, look, look, you become that drawing you are looking at. Nothing else exists in the world any longer except the drawing, and then, suddenly, you pass to the other side; and when you pass to the other side you enter a new consciousness, and you know."

We had a good laugh, for it was amusing. But it is quite true, it is an excellent method to practise. Naturally, instead of taking a drawing or any object, you may take, for instance, an idea, a few words. You have a problem preoccupying you, you don't know the solution of the problem; well, you objectify your problem in your mind, put it in the most precise, exact, succinct terms possible, and then concentrate, make an effort; you concentrate only on the words, and if possible on the idea they represent, that is, upon your problem - you concentrate, concentrate, concentrate until nothing else exists but that. And it is true that, all of a sudden, you have the feeling of something opening, and one is on the other side. The other side of what?... It means that you have opened a door of your consciousness, and instantaneously you have the solution of your problem. It is an excellent method of learning "how" to identify oneself.

~ The Mother, Questions And Answers 1953, 217 [T1],
152:
   Sweet Mother, can the psychic express itself without the mind, the vital and the physical?

It expresses itself constantly without them. Only, in order that the ordinary human being may perceive it, it has to express itself through them, because the ordinary human being is not in direct contact with the psychic. If it was in direct contact with the psychic it would be psychic in its manifestation - and all would be truly well. But as it is not in contact with the psychic it doesn't even know what it is, it wonders all bewildered what kind of a being it can be; so to reach this ordinary human consciousness it must use ordinary means, that is, go through the mind, the vital and the physical.

One of them may be skipped but surely not the last, otherwise one is no longer conscious of anything at all. The ordinary human being is conscious only in his physical being, and only in relatively rare moments is he conscious of his mind, just a little more frequently of his vital, but all this is mixed up in his consciousness, so much so that he would be quite unable to say "This movement comes from the mind, this from the vital, this from the physical." This already asks for a considerable development in order to be able to distinguish within oneself the source of the different movements one has. And it is so mixed that even when one tries, at the beginning it is very difficult to classify and separate one thing from another.

It is as when one works with colours, takes three or four or five different colours and puts them in the same water and beats them up together, it makes a grey, indistinct and incomprehensi- ble mixture, you see, and one can't say which is red, which blue, which green, which yellow; it is something dirty, lots of colours mixed. So first of all one must do this little work of separating the red, blue, yellow, green - putting them like this, each in its corner. It is not at all easy.

I have met people who used to think themselves extremely intelligent, by the way, who thought they knew a lot, and when I spoke to them about the different parts of the being they looked at me like this (gesture) and asked me, "But what are you speaking about?" They did not understand at all. I am speaking of people who have the reputation of being intelligent. They don't understand at all. For them it is just the consciousness; it is the consciousness-"It is my consciousness" and then there is the neighbour's consciousness; and again there are things which do not have any consciousness. And then I asked them whether animals had a consciousness; so they began to scratch their heads and said, "Perhaps it is we who put our consciousness in the animal when we look at it," like that...
   ~ The Mother, Questions And Answers 1955,
153:
   Sweet Mother, is there a spiritual being in everybody?

That depends on what we call "being". If for "being" we substitute "presence", yes, there is a spiritual presence in everyone. If we call "being" an organised entity, fully conscious of itself, independent, and having the power of asserting itself and ruling the rest of the nature - no! The possibility of this independent and all-powerful being is in everybody, but the realisation is the result of long efforts which sometimes extend over many lives.

In everyone, even at the very beginning, this spiritual presence, this inner light is there.... In fact, it is everywhere. I have seen it many a time in certain animals. It is like a shining point which is the basis of a certain control and protection, something which, even in half-consciousness, makes possible a certain harmony with the rest of creation so that irreparable catastrophes may not be constant and general. Without this presence the disorder created by the violences and passions of the vital would be so great that at any moment they could bring about a general catastrophe, a sort of total destruction which would prevent the progress of Nature. That presence, that spiritual light - which could almost be called a spiritual consciousness - is within each being and all things, and because of it, in spite of all discordance, all passion, all violence, there is a minimum of general harmony which allows Nature's work to be accomplished.

And this presence becomes quite obvious in the human being, even the most rudimentary. Even in the most monstrous human being, in one who gives the impression of being an incarnation of a devil or a monster, there is something within exercising a sort of irresistible control - even in the worst, some things are impossible. And without this presence, if the being were controlled exclusively by the adverse forces, the forces of the vital, this impossibility would not exist.

Each time a wave of these monstrous adverse forces sweeps over the earth, one feels that nothing can ever stop the disorder and horror from spreading, and always, at a certain time, unexpectedly and inexplicably a control intervenes, and the wave is arrested, the catastrophe is not total. And this is because of the Presence, the supreme Presence, in matter.

But only in a few exceptional beings and after a long, very long work of preparation extending over many, many lives does this Presence change into a conscious, independent, fully organised being, all-powerful master of his dwelling-place, conscious enough, powerful enough, to be able to control not only this dwelling but what surrounds it and in a field of radiation and action that is more and more extensive... and effective.
   ~ The Mother, Questions And Answers 1957-1958, 339-340,
154:What do we understand by the term "chance"? Chance can only be the opposite of order and harmony. There is only one true harmony and that is the supramental - the reign of Truth, the expression of the Divine Law. In the Supermind, therefore, chance has no place. But in the lower Nature the supreme Truth is obscured: hence there is an absence of that divine unity of purpose and action which alone can constitute order. Lacking this unity, the domain of lower Nature is governed by what we may call chance - that is to say, it is a field in which various conflicting forces intermix, having no single definite aim. Whatever arises out of such a rushing together of forces is a result of confusion, dissonance and falsehood - a product of chance. Chance is not merely a conception to cover our ignorance of the causes at work; it is a description of the uncertain mele ́e of the lower Nature which lacks the calm one-pointedness of the divine Truth. The world has forgotten its divine origin and become an arena of egoistic energies; but it is still possible for it to open to the Truth, call it down by its aspiration and bring about a change in the whirl of chance. What men regard as a mechanical sequence of events, owing to their own mental associations, experiences and generalisations, is really manipulated by subtle agencies each of which tries to get its own will done. The world has got so subjected to these undivine agencies that the victory of the Truth cannot be won except by fighting for it. It has no right to it: it has to gain it by disowning the falsehood and the perversion, an important part of which is the facile notion that, since all things owe their final origin to the Divine, all their immediate activities also proceed directly from it. The fact is that here in the lower Nature the Divine is veiled by a cosmic Ignorance and what takes place does not proceed directly from the divine knowledge. That everything is equally the will of God is a very convenient suggestion of the hostile influences which would have the creation stick as tightly as possible to the disorder and ugliness to which it has been reduced. So what is to be done, you ask? Well, call down the Light, open yourselves to the power of Transformation. Innumerable times the divine peace has been given to you and as often you have lost it - because something in you refuses to surrender its petty egoistic routine. If you are not always vigilant, your nature will return to its old unregenerate habits even after it has been filled with the descending Truth. It is the struggle between the old and the new that forms the crux of the Yoga; but if you are bent on being faithful to the supreme Law and Order revealed to you, the parts of your being belonging to the domain of chance will, however slowly, be converted and divinised. ~ The Mother, Questions And Answers 1929-1931,
155:How can one awaken his Yoga-shakti?

It depends on this: when one thinks that it is the most important thing in his life. That's all.

Some people sit in meditation, concentrate on the base of the vertebral column and want it very much to awake, but that's not enough. It is when truly it becomes the most important thing in one's life, when all the rest seems to have lost all taste, all interest, all importance, when one feels within that one is born for this, that one is here upon earth for this, and that it is the only thing that truly counts, then that's enough.

One can concentrate on the different centres; but sometimes one concentrates for so long, with so much effort, and has no result. And then one day something shakes you, you feel that you are going to lose your footing, you have to cling on to something; then you cling within yourself to the idea of union with the Divine, the idea of the divine Presence, the idea of the transformation of the consciousness, and you aspire, you want, you try to organise your feelings, movements, impulses around this. And it comes.

Some people have recommended all kinds of methods; probably these were methods which had succeeded in their case; but to tell the truth, one must find one's own method, it is only after having done the thing that one knows how it should be done, not before.

If one knows it beforehand, one makes a mental construction and risks greatly living in his mental construction, which is an illusion; because when the mind builds certain conditions and then they are realised, there are many chances of there being mostly pure mental construction which is not the experience itself but its image. So for all these truly spiritual experiences I think it is wiser to have them before knowing them. If one knows them, one imitates them, one doesn't have them, one imagines oneself having them; whereas if one knows nothing - how things are and how they ought to happen, what should happen and how it will come about - if one knows nothing about all this, then by keeping very still and making a kind of inner sorting out within one's being, one can suddenly have the experience, and then later knows what one has had. It is over, and one knows how it has to be done when one has done it - afterwards. Like that it is sure.

One may obviously make use of his imagination, imagine the Kundalini and try to pull it upwards. But one can also tell himself tales like this. I have had so many instances of people who described their experiences to me exactly as they are described in books, knowing all the words and putting down all the details, and then I asked them just a little question like that, casually: that if they had had the experience they should have known or felt a certain thing, and as this was not in the books, they could not answer.~ The Mother, Questions And Answers 1955, 211-212,
156:Sweet Mother, there's a flower you have named "The Creative Word".

Yes.

What does that mean?

It is the word which creates.

There are all kinds of old traditions, old Hindu traditions, old Chaldean traditions in which the Divine, in the form of the Creator, that is, in His aspect as Creator, pronounces a word which has the power to create. So it is this... And it is the origin of the mantra. The mantra is the spoken word which has a creative power. An invocation is made and there is an answer to the invocation; or one makes a prayer and the prayer is granted. This is the Word, the Word which, in its sound... it is not only the idea, it is in the sound that there's a power of creation. It is the origin, you see, of the mantra.

In Indian mythology the creator God is Brahma, and I think that it was precisely his power which has been symbolised by this flower, "The Creative Word". And when one is in contact with it, the words spoken have a power of evocation or creation or formation or transformation; the words... sound always has a power; it has much more power than men think. It may be a good power and it may be a bad power. It creates vibrations which have an undeniable effect. It is not so much the idea as the sound; the idea too has its own power, but in its own domain - whereas the sound has a power in the material world.

I think I have explained this to you once; I told you, for example, that words spoken casually, usually without any re- flection and without attaching any importance to them, can be used to do something very good. I think I spoke to you about "Bonjour", "Good Day", didn't I? When people meet and say "Bonjour", they do so mechanically and without thinking. But if you put a will into it, an aspiration to indeed wish someone a good day, well, there is a way of saying "Good Day" which is very effective, much more effective than if simply meeting someone you thought: "Ah! I hope he has a good day", without saying anything. If with this hope in your thought you say to him in a certain way, "Good Day", you make it more concrete and more effective.

It's the same thing, by the way, with curses, or when one gets angry and says bad things to people. This can do them as much harm - more harm sometimes - than if you were to give them a slap. With very sensitive people it can put their stomach out of order or give them palpitation, because you put into it an evil force which has a power of destruction.

It is not at all ineffective to speak. Naturally it depends a great deal on each one's inner power. People who have no strength and no consciousness can't do very much - unless they employ material means. But to the extent that you are strong, especially when you have a powerful vital, you must have a great control on what you say, otherwise you can do much harm. Without wanting to, without knowing it; through ignorance.

Anything? No? Nothing?

Another question?... Everything's over? ~ The Mother, Questions And Answers 1955, 347-349,
157:28 August 1957
Mother, Sri Aurobindo says here: "Whether the whole of humanity would be touched [by the Supramental influence] or only a part of it ready for the change would depend on what was intended or possible in the continued order of the universe."
The Supramental Manifestation, SABCL, Vol. 16, p. 56

What is meant by "what was intended or possible"? The two things are different. So far you have said that if humanity changes, if it wants to participate in the new birth...

It is the same thing. But when you look at an object on a certain plane, you see it horizontally, and when you look at the same object from another plane, you see it vertically. (Mother shows the cover and the back of her book.) So, if one looks from above, one says "intended"; if one looks from below, one says "possible".... But it is absolutely the same thing, only the point of view is different.

But in that case, it is not our incapacity or lack of will to change that makes any difference.

We have already said this many a time. If you remain in a consciousness which functions mentally, even if it is the highest mind, you have the notion of an absolute determinism of cause and effect and feel that things are what they are because they are what they are and cannot be otherwise.

It is only when you come out of the mental consciousness completely and enter a higher perception of things - which you may call spiritual or divine - that you suddenly find yourself in a state of perfect freedom where everything is possible.

(Silence)

Those who have contacted that state or lived in it, even if only for a moment, try to describe it as a feeling of an absolute Will in action, which immediately gives to the human mentality the feeling of being arbitrary. And because of that distortion there arises the idea - which I might call traditional - of a supreme and arbitrary God, which is something most unacceptable to every enlightened mind. I suppose that this experience badly expressed is at the origin of this notion. And in fact it is incorrect to express it as an absolute Will: it is very, very, very different. It is something else altogether. For, what man understands by "Will" is a decision that is taken and carried out. We are obliged to use the word "will", but in its truth the Will acting in the universe is neither a choice nor a decision that is taken. What seems to me the closest expression is "vision". Things are because they are seen. But of course "seen", not seen as we see with these eyes.

(Mother touches her eyes...) All the same, it is the nearest thing.
It is a vision - a vision unfolding itself.
The universe becomes objective as it is progressively seen.

And that is why Sri Aurobindo has said "intended or possible". It is neither one nor the other. All that can be said is a distortion.

(Silence)

Objectivisation - universal objectivisation - is something like a projection in space and time, like a living image of what is from all eternity. And as the image is gradually projected on the screen of time and space, it becomes objective:

The Supreme contemplating His own Image.
~ The Mother, Questions And Answers 1957-1958,
158:If the Divine that is all love is the source of the creation, whence have come all the evils abounding upon earth?"

   "All is from the Divine; but the One Consciousness, the Supreme has not created the world directly out of itself; a Power has gone out of it and has descended through many gradations of its workings and passed through many agents. There are many creators or rather 'formateurs', form-makers, who have presided over the creation of the world. They are intermediary agents and I prefer to call them 'Formateurs' and not 'Creators'; for what they have done is to give the form and turn and nature to matter. There have been many, and some have formed things harmonious and benignant and some have shaped things mischievous and evil. And some too have been distorters rather than builders, for they have interfered and spoiled what was begun well by others." - Questions and Answers 1929 - 1931 (30 June 1929)

   You say, "Many creators or rather 'formateurs', formmakers, have presided over the creation of the world." Who are these 'formateurs'?

   That depends. They have been given many names. All has been done by gradations and through individual beings of all kinds. Each state of being is inhabited by entities, individualities and personalities and each one has created a world around him or has contributed to the formation of certain beings upon earth. The last creators are those of the vital world, but there are beings of the Overmind (Sri Aurobindo calls this plane the Overmind), who have created, given forms, sent out emanations, and these emanations again had their emanations and so on. What I meant is that it is not the Divine Will that acted directly on Matter to give to the world the required form, it is by passing through layers, so to say, planes of the world, as for example, the mental plane - there are so many beings on the mental plane who are form-makers, who have taken part in the formation of some beings who have incarnated upon earth. On the vital plane also the same thing happens.

   For example, there is a tradition which says that the whole world of insects is the outcome of the form-makers of the vital world, and that this is why they take such absolutely diabolical shapes when they are magnified under the microscope. You saw the other day, when you were shown the microbes in water? Naturally the pictures were made to amuse, to strike the imagination, but they are based on real forms, so magnified, however, that they look like monsters. Almost the whole world of insects is a world of microscopic monsters which, had they been larger in size, would have been quite terrifying. So it is said these are entities of the vital world, beings of the vital who created that for fun and amused themselves forming all these impossible beasts which make human life altogether unpleasant.

   Did these intermediaries also come out of the Divine Power?
   Through intermediaries, yes, not directly. These beings are not in direct contact with the Divine (there are exceptions, I mean as a general rule), they are beings who are in relation with other beings, who are again in relation with others, and these with still others, and so on, in a hierarchy, up to the Supreme.(to be continued....) ~ The Mother, Question and Answers,
159:Sweet Mother, here it is written: "It is part of the foundation of Yoga to become conscious of the great complexity of our nature, see the different forces that move it and get over it a control of directing knowledge." Are these forces different for each person?

Yes. The composition is completely different, otherwise everybody would be the same. There are not two beings with an identical combination; between the different parts of the being and the composition of these parts the proportion is different in each individual. There are people, primitive men, people like the yet undeveloped races or the degenerated ones whose combinations are fairly simple; they are still complicated, but comparatively simple. And there are people absolutely at the top of the human ladder, the e ́lite of humanity; their combinations become so complicated that a very special discernment is needed to find the relations between all these things.

There are beings who carry in themselves thousands of different personalities, and then each one has its own rhythm and alternation, and there is a kind of combination; sometimes there are inner conflicts, and there is a play of activities which are rhythmic and with alternations of certain parts which come to the front and then go back and again come to the front. But when one takes all that, it makes such complicated combinations that some people truly find it difficult to understand what is going on in themselves; and yet these are the ones most capable of a complete, coordinated, conscious, organised action; but their organisation is infinitely more complicated than that of primitive or undeveloped men who have two or three impulses and four or five ideas, and who can arrange all this very easily in themselves and seem to be very co-ordinated and logical because there is not very much to organise. But there are people truly like a multitude, and so that gives them a plasticity, a fluidity of action and an extraordinary complexity of perception, and these people are capable of understanding a considerable number of things, as though they had at their disposal a veritable army which they move according to circumstance and need; and all this is inside them. So when these people, with the help of yoga, the discipline of yoga, succeed in centralising all these beings around the central light of the divine Presence, they become powerful entities, precisely because of their complexity. So long as this is not organised they often give the impression of an incoherence, they are almost incomprehensible, one can't manage to understand why they are like that, they are so complex. But when they have organised all these beings, that is, put each one in its place around the divine centre, then truly they are terrific, for they have the capacity of understanding almost everything and doing almost everything because of the multitude of entities they contain, of which they are constituted. And the nearer one is to the top of the ladder, the more it is like that, and consequently the more difficult it is to organise one's being; because when you have about a dozen elements, you can quickly compass and organise them, but when you have thousands of them, it is difficult. ~ The Mother, Questions And Answers 1955, 215-216,
160:Evil
Hasten towards the good, leave behind all evil thoughts, for to do good without enthusiasm is to have a mind which delights in evil.

If one does an evil action, he should not persist in it, he should not delight in it. For full of suffering is the accumulation of evil.

If one does a good action, he should persist in it and take delight in it. Full of happiness is the accumulation of good.

As long as his evil action has not yet ripened, an evildoer may experience contentment. But when it ripens, the wrong-doer knows unhappiness.

As long as his good action has not yet ripened, one who does good may experience unhappiness. But when it ripens, the good man knows happiness.

Do not treat evil lightly, saying, "That will not touch me." A jar is filled drop by drop; even so the fool fills himself little by little with wickedness.

Do not treat good lightly, saying, "That will not touch me." A jar is filled drop by drop; even so the sage fills himself little by little with goodness.

The merchant who is carrying many precious goods and who has but few companions, avoids dangerous roads; and a man who loves his life is wary of poison. Even so should one act regarding evil.

A hand that has no wound can carry poison with impunity; act likewise, for evil cannot touch the righteous man.

If you offend one who is pure, innocent and defenceless, the insult will fall back on you, as if you threw dust against the wind.

Some are reborn here on earth, evil-doers go to the worlds of Niraya,1 the just go to the heavenly worlds, but those who have freed themselves from all desire attain Nirvana.

Neither in the skies, nor in the depths of the ocean, nor in the rocky caves, nowhere upon earth does there exist a place where a man can find refuge from his evil actions.

Neither in the skies, nor in the depths of the ocean, nor in the rocky caves, nowhere upon earth does there exist a place where a man can hide from death.

People have the habit of dealing lightly with thoughts that come. And the atmosphere is full of thoughts of all kinds which do not in fact belong to anybody in particular, which move perpetually from one person to another, very freely, much too freely, because there are very few people who can keep their thoughts under control.

When you take up the Buddhist discipline to learn how to control your thoughts, you make very interesting discoveries. You try to observe your thoughts. Instead of letting them pass freely, sometimes even letting them enter your head and establish themselves in a quite inopportune way, you look at them, observe them and you realise with stupefaction that in the space of a few seconds there passes through the head a series of absolutely improbable thoughts that are altogether harmful.
...?
Conversion of the aim of life from the ego to the Divine: instead of seeking one's own satisfaction, to have the service of the Divine as the aim of life.
*
What you must know is exactly the thing you want to do in life. The time needed to learn it does not matter at all. For those who wish to live according to Truth, there is always something to learn and some progress to make. 2 October 1969 ~ The Mother, Questions And Answers 1929-1931,
161:What do you mean by these words: 'When you are in difficulty, widen yourself'?

I am speaking, of course, of difficulties on the path of yoga, incomprehension, limitations, things like obstacles, which prevent you from advancing. And when I say "widen yourself", I mean widen your consciousness.

Difficulties always arise from the ego, that is, from your more or less egoistic personal reaction to circumstances, events and people around you, to the conditions of your life. They also come from that feeling of being closed up in a sort of shell, which prevents your consciousness from uniting with higher and vaster realities.

One may very well think that one wants to be vast, wants to be universal, that all is the expression of the Divine, that one must have no egoism - one may think all sorts of things - but that is not necessarily a cure, for very often one knows what one ought to do, and yet one doesn't do it, for one reason or another.

But if, when you have to face anguish, suffering, revolt, pain or a feeling of helplessness - whatever it may be, all the things that come to you on the path and which precisely are your difficulties-if physically, that is to say, in your body- consciousness, you can have the feeling of widening yourself, one could say of unfolding yourself - you feel as it were all folded up, one fold on another like a piece of cloth which is folded and refolded and folded again - so if you have this feeling that what is holding and strangling you and making you suffer or paralysing your movement, is like a too closely, too tightly folded piece of cloth or like a parcel that is too well-tied, too well-packed, and that slowly, gradually, you undo all the folds and stretch yourself out exactly as one unfolds a piece of cloth or a sheet of paper and spreads it out flat, and you lie flat and make yourself very wide, as wide as possible, spreading yourself out as far as you can, opening yourself and stretching out in an attitude of complete passivity with what I could call "the face to the light": not curling back upon your difficulty, doubling up on it, shutting it in, so to say, into yourself, but, on the contrary, unfurling yourself as much as you can, as perfectly as you can, putting the difficulty before the Light - the Light which comes from above - if you do that in all the domains, and even if mentally you don't succeed in doing it - for it is sometimes difficult - if you can imagine yourself doing this physically, almost materially, well, when you have finished unfolding yourself and stretching yourself out, you will find that more than three-quarters of the difficulty is gone. And then just a little work of receptivity to the Light and the last quarter will disappear.

This is much easier than struggling against a difficulty with one's thought, for if you begin to discuss with yourself, you will find that there are arguments for and against which are so convincing that it is quite impossible to get out of it without a higher light. Here, you do not struggle against the difficulty, you do not try to convince yourself; ah! you simply stretch out in the Light as though you lay stretched on the sands in the sun. And you let the Light do its work. That's all. ~ The Mother, Questions And Answers, Volume-8, page no.286-288),
162:Can it be said in justification of one's past that whatever has happened in one's life had to happen?

The Mother: Obviously, what has happened had to happen; it would not have been, if it had not been intended. Even the mistakes that we have committed and the adversities that fell upon us had to be, because there was some necessity in them, some utility for our lives. But in truth these things cannot be explained mentally and should not be. For all that happened was necessary, not for any mental reason, but to lead us to something beyond what the mind imagines. But is there any need to explain after all? The whole universe explains everything at every moment and a particular thing happens because the whole universe is what it is. But this does not mean that we are bound over to a blind acquiescence in Nature's inexorable law. You can accept the past as a settled fact and perceive the necessity in it, and still you can use the experience it gave you to build up the power consciously to guide and shape your present and your future.

Is the time also of an occurrence arranged in the Divine Plan of things?

The Mother: All depends upon the plane from which one sees and speaks. There is a plane of divine consciousness in which all is known absolutely, and the whole plan of things foreseen and predetermined. That way of seeing lives in the highest reaches of the Supramental; it is the Supreme's own vision. But when we do not possess that consciousness, it is useless to speak in terms that hold good only in that region and are not our present effective way of seeing things. For at a lower level of consciousness nothing is realised or fixed beforehand; all is in the process of making. Here there are no settled facts, there is only the play of possibilities; out of the clash of possibilities is realised the thing that has to happen. On this plane we can choose and select; we can refuse one possibility and accept another; we can follow one path, turn away from another. And that we can do, even though what is actually happening may have been foreseen and predetermined in a higher plane.

The Supreme Consciousness knows everything beforehand, because everything is realised there in her eternity. But for the sake of her play and in order to carry out actually on the physical plane what is foreordained in her own supreme self, she moves here upon earth as if she did not know the whole story; she works as if it was a new and untried thread that she was weaving. It is this apparent forgetfulness of her own foreknowledge in the higher consciousness that gives to the individual in the active life of the world his sense of freedom and independence and initiative. These things in him are her pragmatic tools or devices, and it is through this machinery that the movements and issues planned and foreseen elsewhere are realised here.

It may help you to understand if you take the example of an actor. An actor knows the whole part he has to play; he has in his mind the exact sequence of what is to happen on the stage. But when he is on the stage, he has to appear as if he did not know anything; he has to feel and act as if he were experiencing all these things for the first time, as if it was an entirely new world with all its chance events and surprises that was unrolling before his eyes. 28th April ~ The Mother, Questions And Answers 1929-1931,
163:Sometimes one cannot distinguish adverse forces from other forces.

That happens when one is quite unconscious. There are only two cases when this is possible: you are either very unconscious of the movements of your being - you have not studied, you have not observed, you do not know what is happening within you - or you are absolutely insincere, that is, you play the ostrich in order not to see the reality of things: you hide your head, you hide your observation, your knowledge and you say, "It is not there." But indeed the latter I hope is not in question here. Hence it is simply because one has not the habit of observing oneself that one is so unconscious of what is happening within.

Have you ever practised distinguishing what comes from your mind, what comes from your vital, what comes from your physical?... For it is mixed up; it is mixed up in the outward appearance. If you do not take care to distinguish, it makes a kind of soup, all that together. So it is indistinct and difficult to discoveR But if you observe yourself, after some time you see certain things, you feel them to be there, like that, as though they were in your skin; for some other things you feel you would have to go within yourself to find out from where they come; for other things, you have to go still further inside, or otherwise you have to rise up a little: it comes from unconsciousness. And there are others; then you must go very deep, very deep to find out from where they come. This is just a beginning.

Simply observe. You are in a certain condition, a certain undefinable condition. Then look: "What! how is it I am like that?" You try to see first if you have fever or some other illness; but it is all right, everything is all right, there's neither headache nor fever, the stomach is not protesting, the heart is functioning as it should, indeed, all's well, you are normal. "Why then am I feeling so uneasy?"... So you go a little further within. It depends on cases. Sometimes you find out immediately: yes, there was a little incident which wasn't pleasant, someone said a word that was not happy or one had failed in his task or perhaps did not know one's lesson very well, the teacher had made a remark. At the time, one did not pay attention properly, but later on, it begins to work, leaves a painful impression. That is the second stage. Afterwards, if nothing happened: "All's well, everything is normal, everything usual, I have nothing to note down, nothing has happened: why then do I feel like that?" Now it begins to be interesting, because one must enter much more deeply within oneself. And then it can be all sorts of things: it may be precisely the expression of an attack that is preparing; it may be a little inner anxiety seeking the progress that has to be made; it may be a premonition that there is somewhere in contact with oneself something not altogether harmonious which one has to change: something one must see, discover, change, on which light is to be put, something that is still there, deep down, and which should no longer be there. Then if you look at yourself very carefully, you find out: "There! I am still like that; in that little corner, there is still something of that kind, not clear: a little selfishness, a little ill-will, something refusing to change." So you see it, you take it by the tip of its nose or by the ear and hold it up in full light: "So, you were hiding! you are hiding? But I don't want you any longer." And then it has to go away.

This is a great progress.
   ~ The Mother, Questions And Answers 1953, 102-104, [T4],
164:
   Sweet Mother, how can one feel the divine Presence constantly?


Why not?

   But how can one do it?

But I am asking why one should not feel it. Instead of asking the question how to feel it, I ask the question: "What do you do that you don't feel it?" There is no reason not to feel the divine Presence. Once you have felt it, even once, you should be capable of feeling it always, for it is there. It is a fact. It is only our ignorance which makes us unaware of it. But if we become conscious, why should we not always be conscious? Why forget something one has learnt? When one has had the experience, why forget it? It is simply a bad habit, that's all.
   You see, there is something which is a fact, that's to say, it is. But we are unaware of it and do not know it. But after we become conscious and know it, why should we still forget it? Does it make sense? It's quite simply because we are not convinced that once one has met the Divine one can't forget Him any more. We are, on the contrary, full of stupid ideas which say, "Oh! Yes, it's very well once like that, but the rest of the time it will be as usual." So there is no reason why it may not begin again.
   But if we know that... we did not know something, we were ignorant, then the moment we have the knowledge... I am sincerely asking how one can manage to forget. One might not know something, that is a fact; there are countless things one doesn't know. But the moment one knows them, the minute one has the experi