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object:General Principles of Kabbalah
author class:Rabbi Moses Luzzatto

subject class:Kabbalah

"The wolf also shall dwell with the lamb, and the leopard shall lie down xuith the kid; and the calf and the young lion and the fading together I and a little child will lead them. (Isaiah, XII)
Rabbi Yehuda Z. Brandweins dream and vision.

General Principles of The Kabbalah

Translation by

Published by
The Press of The Research Centre of Kabbalah

Distri buted by
Samuel Weiser Inc.
New York
1 9 7 0

Publication of this volume has been made possible through the efforts of:
Dallas, Texas

Copyright 1970 by The Research Center of Kabbalah
Printed in U.S.A.


0.01 - Preface . v
0.02 - Introduction . xxix
0.03 - Biographical Note . xxxiii

Part I - A Detailed Outline of the Wisdom of the Kabbalah
1.01 - Chapter I . 1
Chapter II . 14
Chapter III . 22
Chapter IV . 34
Chapter V . 46
Chapter VI . 50
Chapter VII . 54
Chapter VIII . 68
Chapter IX . 74
Chapter X . 81
Chapter XI . 85
Chapter XII . 93
1.13 - Chapter XIII . 109

Part II
2.01 - The Sefirot
2.02 - Zimzum
2.03 - The Worlds
2.04 - Place
2.05 - The Line of Light and the Impression
2.06 - The Infinite Light
2.07 - Ten Internal and Ten External Sefirot
2.08 - The Branches of the Archetypal Man (Adam Kadmon)
2.09 - The World of Points
2.10 - The Primordial Kings: Their Shattering
2.11 - The Shattering and Fall of the Primordial Kings
2.12 - The Position of the Sefirot
2.13 - Kingdom The Seventh Sefira of the Primordial Kings
2.14 - The Two Hundred and Eighty-Eighty Sparks
2.15 - Selection of Sparks Made for the Purpose of the Emendation
2.16 - Fashioning of the Vessel
2.17 - The Masculine World and the Feminine Worlds
2.18 - Arik Anpin and ZO (Macroprosopus & Microprosopus)
2.19 - Union, Gestation, Birth
2.20 - The Infancy and Maturity of ZO, Father and Mother, Israel and the Ancient and Understanding
2.21 - The Three Heads, the Beard and the Mazel
2.22 - The Feminine Polarity of ZO
2.23 - A Virtuous Woman is a Crown to Her Husband
2.24 - Back to Back; Face to Face; and the Process of Sawing Through
2.25 - Mercies and Judgments of Knowledge
2.26 - The First and Second Unions
2.27 - The Two Types of Unions
2.28 - The Two Feminine Polarities: Leah and Rachel
2.29 - The Worlds of Creation, Formation and Action
2.30 - The Uniting of the Names 45 and 52
2.31 - The Elevation Attained Through Sabbath and the Other Holy Days
2.32 - Prophetic Visions



The present spiritual revival has been phenomenal.
But, unfortunately, with it have not come the answers
to the demanding questions that have been raised.
Naturally, an endless amount of print has been de
voted to some of the most obvious and simple questions
that man has been asking of himself, but to no avail.
The intent of this preface, therefore, is to demonstrate
how the Kabbalah can solve mans perplexities.

What we can attempt through study of the Kabbalah
is to conclusively prove, via cause and effect, that behind
everything lies a motivating cause, the effect of which
must inevitably follow. And in attempting this the
Kabbalah makes various assumptions which, if within the
entire universe there is no room for contradiction, we
then must assume to be correct.

The inability at times to understand the unseen cause
is neither detrimental in evaluating a given situation, nor
is this concern for not understanding the unseen cause.
For example, in a theatre where one thousand people are
observing a bottle on the table, everyone is told to leave.



After the theatre has been totally emptied, all entrances
are then sealed from the outside. Several moments later
the audience re-enters the theatre, only to observe the
bottle now resting on a chandelier. Although everyone
is certain that nobody entered to remove the bottle from
the table, no one will assume that the bottle reached its
destination by itself. The reason for this is that the
bottle is included in the phase of effect, and not in the
cause, since a bottle can not motivate or cause any
thing. Therefore, we can make the assumption that
someone caused the bottle to be moved, although the
cause has neither been determined nor seen. In other
words, our assumptions will be true causes of the effects
around us; they will withstand the makings of our
universe, and not fall prey to our symptomatic way of
understanding through relativity.

As another example the cause or reason of narcotic
addiction was formerly held to be poverty. How was this
conclusion arrived at? Merely by observing a given
situation or effect. For in the absence of a better reason,
we latch on to what appears to be a justifiable cause so
as to satisfy a substantial amount of the effects. What
we have conclusively failed to provide, however, is
whether this cause satisfies each and every situation
relating to narcotic addictionwhich it hasnt. It is
then apparent that poverty has not been the true cause
or reason, for narcotic addiction has also been rampant
among the affluent. Thus, we must look again for the
true cause.

True cause must be able to withstand tomorrows
events. For who can be so bold as to make predic-



tions when one has not tasted or experienced the events
of the future? It is truly to sneer at those who, with
their limitations of time, space and motion, advance their
theories of tomorrow, based solely on present environ
mental existence; for the future, with its inevitable
contradiction of events will disprove all these limited
theories. Still, in the absence of any other method of
forecasting future developments, our economists, scientists
and ecologists must use this limited form of reasoning
to provide an answer for the majority of present and
future events. However, we must recognize that the
word cause is being misused, since cause is the direct
motivating force behind every effect. And if we mistake
the true nature of cause, we will not have faced future
effects and events with reality.

Our scientists glow with their technological advance
ments. And rightfully so, for a great deal of labor, time
and money has gone into producing these advancements,
which we shall assume have enhanced our lives. Yet (and
in no way is the following statement to demean these
advances), all that the scientist has done is merely discover
something that already exists; that is, he has observed a
reaction, but without knowing the true cause of this
reaction. We may therefore conclude that, to some
extent, the troubled times we are experiencing today can
be directly related to the see-sawing events of cause and
effect. Yet the cause advanced yesterday will not hold
up tomorrow. This inevitably must create confusion, in
vhich we are caught up in all kinds of theories which,
however, are not the true answers. And despite these
.cientific advances, where just the understanding of



effect takes precedence, we must remain in constant
fear of what this effect will bring tomorrow.

Our previous illustration of narcotic addiction
(chosen because of its serious implication and effects on
society) is classic. Two answers advanced as to why the
widspread use of drugs are their availability and todays
troubled times. These two causes, however, only give an
insight to our convenient, symptomatic reasoning. For
drugs have been known to mankind since time immemo
rial, and have always been available to the young and old
alike. And needless to say we have had troubled times
since the recording of history. Yet so-called, qualified
thinkers of our day will advance such apparently im
mature reasoning, believing that these are the causes.
But a true cause will have to avoid direct contradiction
for it to be truly classified as the "cause. There is
a cause, but it will have to withstand some very severe
testing and constant questioning, paying heed to the
limiting factors of time, space and motion.

Still another example, is the medical researcher. He
discovered that penicillin destroys streptococcus, yet
without knowing why. The fact is that only through
the application of relativity is he certain that penicillin
works. He can only observe the effect; that is, the
blackened area where the streptococcus is being destroy
ed. This is the extent of his observation, for he; still lack;
the true cause. This does not mean that the scientist does
not have a desire to know and understand the cause.
But he must be careful in attempting to arrive at some
definitive cause, for his cause must justify every aspeci
of the workings of penicillin. In other words, he ha*



not explained why the reaction to the drug is not the
same in all cases.

From the preceding we can conclude that (1) at
times we accept a cause although it is unseen, and (2)
even where it is quite apparent that the given cause will
not hold up in every instance of its effect, still, if in the
majority of cases it is plausible, it is acceptable. This
then is where the Kabbalah offers a definite insight as to
the true cause, which inevitably leads to the truth of
cause and effect. Thus, from the causal assumption of
the Kabbalah we will have discovered a definite pattern,
thereby convincing us of an omniscient Creator.

Let us now outline some of the questions man has
been asking of himself:

1. What is our existence all about?

2. What is our purpose in this endless chain
of creation where we appear to be the least
important, as compared to the wondrous
worlds of the universe?

3. Self-reflection can only reveal to us our
imperfections. Yet, how is this possible,
seeing that we have been created by the
Holy One, Whose perfect agency must
necessarily produce perfect works?

4. One of the accepted assumptions of religious
belief is that the Creator is All Good; there
fore His intention must be to do all that is
good. Why, then, did he create beings
whose entire existence is one of endless pain
and misery?


5. How, then, is it possible that there should
spring forth from the Eternal, which has
neither beginning nor end, but consid
ered infinite, finite and temporary beings,

who are doomed to death and destruction?

6. Why is the earth round? Why does the
moon have no light of its own, but re
flecting, instead, the light of the sun?
Why is the satellite Telstar round? Why
must the eye contain four colors, with the
black segment (the pupil) of the eye
serving as the receiving instrument? Why
ten fingers and not nine or eleven? In
other words, why is any part of this
universe created as it is? Is there a set
pattern? What does this pattern signifify?
What does it mean for man?

7. The widespread interest in the occult sud
denly appears to have taken a firm hold
on a great majority of people in general,
and countless Jews in particular. Why
now ? Do the occult religions answer all
of the questions that one may ask of his
surroundings? In fact many, if not all,
of these occult religions refer to the Kab
balah as their origin or course; then why not
the study of the Kabbalah? If in essence
the Kabbalah is total Truth, it must em
body all of the studies known to man,
such as: Biology, Philosophy, Zoology, As
trology, Astronomy, Medicine and so on.
Then why not study the source?



To make all this wholly clear, we must first
engage in certain inquiries. Not where it is forbidden,
namely regarding the Creators substantiality for no
thought can encompass Him at all, therefore there
being no way in which we can think or speak about
Him; but where we are commanded to inquire, namely
regarding his deeds, as the Torah instructs: Know
thy fathers God and serve Him.

The first inquiry concerns the question of how the
creation can be conceived as being "new in the sense
that something was not contained in the Holy One
before He created it. This should be clear to anyone
capable of logical thought since there is nothing that
is not contained in Him. For can anyone give what
is not within him?

The second inquiry concerns this: being omni
potent the Creator can certainly create something from
nothing; that is, something that had no existence in
Him in any way. Then what is this existence, of which
it can be said to have no place within Him, but that
which is new.

The third inquiry concerns what the Masters of
the Kabbalah have said: that mans soul is part of God
on high. This means that there is no difference between
Him and the soul, except that He is "the whole and
the Soul is "part. The sages metaphor for this is a
stone hewn from a mountain, there being no differ
ence between the stone and the mountain, save for the
one being "part and the other "the whole. Now we
can envisage a stone being separated from the mountain
by a suitable tool, by which the "part is separated



from the whole. But how can we envisage the Holy
One, separating a part of His substantiality, which, in
turn, becomes a "part (the Soul) so distinct from it,
that it can then be conceived as being only a par t: of His

The fourth inquiry is: since the chariot of the
Other Side (Evil Forces) and the Husks are so utterly
remote from His Holiness that we cannot envisage the
distance, how is it possible that it should proceed from,
and be brought forth, by His Holiness? Furthermore,
why is it that His Holiness should even keep it in

The fifth inquiry concerns the Resurrection of the
Dead. Since the body is such a contemptible thing,
being condemned to die and be buried from the very
moment of its birth (the Zohar even says that as long
as the body is not entirely decomposed and something
of it still remains, the soul cannot ascend to i ts place
in Paradise), therefore, why is it necessary that it
should arise again at the Resurrection of the Dead?
Can the Holy One not give pleasure to the soul without
it? And even stranger is the saying of our Sages: "The
dead will come to life again with all their infirmities,
lest it be said that they are not the same, and then
the Holy One will heal their infirmities. We want
to understand why it should matter to the Holy One
that it might be said that they are different, to the
extent that He should have to create their infirmities
again and then have to heal them.

The subject of our sixth inquiry is what our Sages
have said: that man is the center of all existence, and



that all the Upper Worlds and this material World
have been created only for him. Zohar Wayikra No. 48,
The Sages also require man to believe that the World
has been created for him (Sanhdrin No. 37). On the
face of it, it is hard to understand that for this little
man, who does not account for as much as a hairs worth
in the existence of this World, the Holy On e should
have created all this. Also, why does man need all

If we are to understand all these questions and
inquiries, we must first consider the purpose of Creation.
Nothing can be understood while it is being made, but
only after it is completed. And it is clear that there
can be no maker without purpose, for only someone
whose mind is unbalanced works without any purpose.

Now I know full well that there are would-be
scholars (who have thrown off the'yoke of the Torah
and its Commandments), who say that the Creator
created the world and then abandoned it to its fate.
The reason for this, they say, is that because of the
worthlessness of all creatures, it does not befit the
Creator, in all His Exaltedness, to watch their despicable
ways. But that argument is invalid; for we cannot
decide that we are base and worthless unless we decide
that we have made ourselves (and ail that is naturally
corrupt and despicable in us). However, when we
decide that the Creator, in His Supreme Perfection, is
the artisan who created and designed our bodies, with
all the good and evil inclinations inherent in them, it
follows then that the perfect Maker can never be said



to have turned out despicable, corrupt work, lor every
action testifies to its own quality.

Is it the fault of a ruined coat if it had b::en sewn
by an inept tailor? This idea is corroborated in Tractate
Taanith (20), thus: "Once Rabbi Eliezer, son ;>f Rabbi
Shimon, happened to meet a man who was extremely
ugly and said to him, 'How ugly is this man. Where
upon the ugly man replied: "Go say to the artisan who
made me: How ugly is this vessel which you have

Thus, those would-be scholars, who say tha: because
of our baseness and worthlessness it does not befit the
Almighty to watch over us and that He has abandoned
us, merely proclaim their own ignorance. Imagine
meeting someone to whom it had occurred to create
creatures, intended from the first to be plagued and
suffer like us, while being left to their owr. devices
without any assistance whatsoever. How deeply would
you blame and despise him! Is it then conceivable that
this would apply to the Holy One, Blessed and Praised Be

Therefore, common sense demands that we under
stand matters as being the opposite of what they seem
to be. We must decide that we are, in truth, such
excellent and exalted creatures that there is no limit
to our importance and, therefore, befitting the artisan
who made us. For whatever shortcomings of the body
seems to possess they only fall back on the Creator
who made us with all that is in us by nature. It is
obvious that He has made us and not we ourselves;
that He also knew all the consequences tha: would



continue to result from all the natural and evil in
clinations which he implanted in us. But here, as we
have said, we must look to the purpose of the matter,
so as to be able to understand. Thus, this is revealed
in the proverb, "Do not show a fool a job half done.

Our Sages have taught us (see Etz Hayim, Chapter
of the vessels, 81 ) that the Holy One has created the
world for the purpose of giving enjoyment to those
whom He has created. This is what we must attend
to with all our thoughts, for this is the purpose of
the Creation of the World. Consider this: since the
Thought of Creation was to give enjoyment to His
creatures, it follows that He created within the Souls
an extremely great measure of the "will to receive
what he thought to give them. For the dimension of
any pleasure or enjoyment is measured by the dimension
of the "will to receive it. In other words, the greater
the "will to receive, the greater the pleasure; the
less the "will to receive, the less the pleasure taken
in receiving. Hence, the very Thought of Creation re
quires that the Creation within the soul of the "will to
receive be in exceedingly great measure, for the
great enjoyment and the great will to receive are

Having learned this, we should then achieve a
clear understanding of our second inquiry, regarding
the Creation of that which did not exist within the
substantiality of the omnipotent Holy One. It fol
lows then that Gods thought of Creation, which is
to give enjoyment to His creatures, did of necessity
create the "will to receive His good intentions. Thus,



we understand that this "will to receive could certainly
not have been contained within His substantiality, for
from whom could He have received? Therefore, He
created something new that was not within Him.
At the same time, it is clear from the Thought of
the Creation that there was no need whatsover to create
anything beyond this "will to receive; for this new
Creation was, in itself, the sufficient means through
which the Almighty would bestow His enjoyment to

All that is supplementary in the Thought of
Creation, namely all manner of benefits which He
conceived for us, proceeds in direct procession from
the substantiality of the Holy One. Thus, there is no
reason for Him to create the benefits anew, since they
already proceed, as something made from something
else, to the great "will to receive that is within the
soul. Therefore, it should be understood that the essential
matter in the new Creation, from beginning to end,
is the "will to receive.

It is this "will to receive, which, through a con
tinuous evolvement, dominates our physical universe,
and causes the multitude of different characteristics and
manifestations of development. In other words, there
is nothing in our existence that does not stem from the
"will to receive.

We may notice, for example, an individual who
eats very little, or another who eats a great deal. It
would be inaccurate to conclude that the individual
with a hearty appetite would have to be fat, or that
the one with a lesser appetite be thin. The one who



eats a great deal would be considered to have a greater
desire for food, while the one eating little is said to
have a lesser desire for food. Consequently, the physical
makeup has no bearing on the desires of the individual,
since they are separate and distinct.

The Kabbalah states that when this new phenom
enon will to receive was created, it required four
specific phases to be initiated. Let us use an illustration
to comprehend the necessity of the Four Phases.

If I were the Creator and had a desire to impart
some benevolence, the mere fact that I inserted this
goodie in ones pocket would not necessarily carry
with it the effect of ones wanting the goodie. There
would first have to be a desire on the part of the re
cipient to want this object, although from the givers
standpoint, there was an imparting. Thus, phase One,
where the desire to receive was inevitably created to
satisfy the desire of the Creator to impart, certainly
could not be considered as having a true desire to
receive. Also, phase One by receiving this benevolence
from the creator, or imparter, inevitably received the
characteristic of imparting, included within the

Phase Two came about when the "desire to re
ceive felt a desire to impart as well. When this
occurred, the benevolence removed itself from the re
cipient, thereby creating phase Three. This phase is
void of any coercive means, coercion of receiving could
not indicate an imparting aspect.

Now, when benevolence removed itself, the desire
to receive felt a true lack of this benevolence thus



causing a Real desire to receive which it lacked. This
Real desire, then, is considered as phase Four.

These four phases were considered within the very
first stage of Creation, meaning "The Endless World,
where the desire to receive, manifested as a pure Light,
received endlessly from the desire to impart.

At this point, the Kabbalah relates that nothing
was lacking, except for the defect experienced by the
desire to receive. The Zohar terms this defect whereby
the receiver receives constantly without ever benefiting
the imparter or giver, as the "Bread of shame. From
our experience we know that the constant receiver will
eventually begin to resent the hand that feeds him. Now,
knowing well that it was th e intent of the Creator to
impart, the receiver (desire to receive) refused to
receive, unless he could reciprocate; for the inevitability
of receiving could never be effaced or destroyed, but
would have to remain, since this was the reason of

Thus, through a series of endless change:) in the
desire to receive, the final manifestation of this desire
to receive was the formation of man epitomized by
greed. Here is where man would have the opportunity
of receiving and still impart delight (by his acceptance)
to the Creator.

Let us assume that one is to receive a fortune of
money, which would naturally be welcomed as a re
sult of ones desire to receive. But because of mans
ability to control and master his own Destiny he re
fuses to accept purely for the sake of receiving. He
then considers this fortunate opportunity as a way to



benefit mankind, in that he, in turn, could bestow
this wealth upon others. And for this very reason he
would accept.

This then is the thought man must have before
he can receive: knowing well that the Creator delights
in ones acceptance, even though there is the chance
of refusal which would be contrary to the Creators
intent, and by accepting on the basis of imparting, the
recipient does not feel the "bread of shame. The
following analogy clearly illustrates the preceding

A wealthy man in town is about to sit down to a
sumptuous meal. Suddenly, peering through a window,
he observes a man in rags who obviously has not had a
decent meal in days. The rich man invites the poor
man in and requests that he partake in the meal. The
poor man refuses gently, indicating that he really doesnt
need the assistance of the wealthy benefactor. Knowing
well that the poor man is in need of a meal and having
a desire to do good, he repeatedly insists that the poor
man accept his offer. The poor man, although desirous
of this meal, refuses because of an innate feeling of
"bread of shame. After numerous requests the poor
man finally agrees, thereby causing tremendous delight
to the wealthy man.

Now what has actually happened here? The
wealthy man, the benefactor suddenly feels he is on
the receiving end, and the poor man becomes the im-
parter, giving delight to the benefactor. We begin to
sense a circular feeling running between benefactor and
recipient; that is, in receiving there is imparting (the



poor man), and with imparting there is receiving (the
rich man). This is the cardinal rule of the Kabbalah
for ones receiving in any manner or form. In other
words, provided there is an element of imparting with
the receiving, the receiving is unlimited.

If however, receiving is merely for oneself, then
there is a limit the vessel (the body) may receive, just
as a cup limits its contents to the brim of the vessel.
But were we to imagine the cup receiving from the
outside while imparting simultaneously then there would
be limitless receiving.

Essentially, this is the reason of our being: to
receive the benevolence of the Creator, but without
the element of greed. Therefore, we must condition
ourselves so that the Inner Light will have sway over
the body (desire to receive). Therefore, we must re
move the limitation of the body, which is, in essence,
the factor governing our very existence.

Thre are three basic governing limitations: time,
space and motion. However, within the metaphysical
realm, these three components do not exist. How then,
can we possibly comprehend metaphysical matters?

The Kabbalah compares a person to a tree in a
field, with the tree and its root corresponding to man
and his origin. From this we can make important

We know that a tree is comprised of a root,
trunk, branches and fruit, all of which emanate from
the root. However, the root shows no sign of its future,
whereby it develops into a tree. Although within the
seed of the tree all future manifestations must exist,



nevertheless, we as human beings cannot discern their
varying future developments. Why? Because the body
is composed of the limiting factor of time, space and
motion. Thus, as the seed develops in time, space
and motion, we visually experience the development.
But the limitations need not govern.

Let us take time as a factor. We have all ex
perienced days that either drag or pass swiftly by. How
do we explain this? Is time 24 hours in a day?

Let us assume that a man has been placed in a
dungeon for a weeks time. When he is freed he has
absolutely no conception of either what time of the
day it is, or how many days have gone by. It is ap
parent that time is not a governing factor, but more
like a basket in which actions are accumulated. Now, if
the basket is full of useful accomplishments one feels
that the day has gone by quickly. But if the reverse
were true, that is, if the basket were empty, one would
feel the weightiness of time.

The astronauts, for example, have displayed to us
the dissipation of these limiting factors. If it now takes
one and a half hours to traverse the earth, where the
governing factor of gravity apparently has no place, then
the distance in the future will suddenly become non
existentalmost to the point of being in two places at
the same time! Therefore, it may not require any
time or motion to move from one place to another;
all will occur almost simultaneously, although, presently,
we still cannot discern different concepts contained
within one.

We may clarify the problem by examining the
finality of an act, which is present in the first con-



templation or thought of that act. This principle applies
not only to the thought of Creation, but also to mans
thoughts. A multitude of thoughts may go into the
accomplishment of any act, yet in the very first: thought
of an actits finality is already present.

For example, in planning a house, the first thought
is the picture of the complete structure. However, be
fore this is achieved, many details need to be thought
out and acted upon. The finished house follows only
after many thoughts and many actions. Thus we say
that the final act is present in the first thought.

We are taught the simple, fundamental idea that
by thought of God alone, everything was created and
brought to its completion. God, however, is not like
man, for man must utilize real tools and devices in order
for his acts and plans to be materialized. But Gods
thought, by itself, suffices to complete all acts instantly.

With the concept whereby the body or the limiting
factor need not have sway over the Light or Soul,
we can now account for E. S. P., and why it may
work between two individuals.

As has been explained, the divisive factor between
two souls is the "will to receive. It then follows that,
were this factor to be diminished or transmuted to
one of imparting, the two individuals may communicate
with each other without the aid of any physical means;
for we have demonstrated that time, space and motion
are the limiting factors, provided the body still holds
sway over the Light or Soul.

As another example, a physical wall separating two
rooms remains as a limiting factor only for those



governed by physical elements. Everything existing with
in Creation is but a photo-copy of some form of the
'will to receive. Were the particular aspect consisting
of the dividing wall removed (metaphysically speaking)
the wall would no longer remain as a limiting factor.

With new scientific advances constantly appearing
on the scene, the metaphysical concept can be under
stood. If one had stated some 50 years ago that the
noted Kabbalist, Rabbi Isaac Luria, could travel from
Safed to Jerusalem within a matter of seconds, there
would be little understanding of this seemingly wild state
ment today, however, this can be understood as being
possible if one understands the metaphysical concept.

Furthermore, with a clearer conception of what
consists of cause and effect, we may comprehend that
the author of the Kabbalah (the Zohar) Rabbi Shimon
Ben Yohai, did, in fact, know the exact reason (as
opposed to the result of trial and error) why a par
ticular herb would react in a given situation.

Now to the misery and suffering that we all ex
perience in one form or another. This does not (and
could not) emanate from the Creator, since He is All
Good. From whence does it come? Indirectly, for
actions and occurrences are Good, but due to our in
abilities of time, space and motion, they appear to be

Take, for example, the individual who is to con
clude a very successful business deal in some distant
city and must arrive there with a check at a specific
time. For some unknown reason his watch stopped,
and upon arrival at the airport, he is told that his



plane has just left. Can one imagine the unhappiness
and disappointment experienced by this individual?
But this condition is short-lived, for upon leaving the
airport in his car he tunes in some music on the radio
to cheer up his spiritswhen suddenly a bulletin comes
across the airwaves announcing the crash of the very air
plane he was scheduled to be on! No survivors! His mood
immediately changes, from feeling distraught, to one
of relief, if not overjoyed.

Now how is this possible with the same situation
to experience such greatly divergent moods? It is,
however, quite obvious that, due to his inability to
rise above the limiting factor called time, he could not
have visualized the next few moments in time.

It is therefore quite apparent that the governing
elements of a "desire to receive (the "I and the "Me)
are actually the responsible causes of both happiness
and unhappiness. Thus, it is this "will to receive
that is the root of all misery and suffering.

Why is the earth round? To clearly indicate to
man his reason for existence, and the reason of his
essential being.* Man must transmute his "will to
receive to one of imparting so as to create the circular
concept whereby giving or imparting enables one to
receive endlessly and satisfactorily.

Why is the moon black when not reflecting the
light it receives from the sun, and thereby demonstrat
ing to man his makeup? Black represents the epitome

* See page 15 for circular concept.



of greed, for it has no light of its own. This means that
it can only receive before imparting.

Man is constantly engaged in the battle of the pure
("will to impart) verses the impure ("will to re
ceive). Within all Creation, wherever we may find
the concept of evil, therein lies the manifestation of
goodness. There is no element within Creation that
does not contain these two basic elements, whether it
be an electric current with its positive (imparting) and
negative (receiving) charges or the atom.

Therefore, the scientist, without the available Kab
balah knowledge, constructed the Telstar satellite in a
circular form via trial and error. Telstar * ** because of
its receiving messages from without and as a circular * *
object (indicating the element of imparting), therefore
receives and emits endlessly. This is what we call root
information or causative-motivation.

From the preceding, the reason why one possesses
a left and right hand becomes obvious, as well as why
each hand has five fingers: to indicate the four varying
degrees of the "will to receive with its pure and im
pure source. Therefore, each individuals right hand is
somewhat longer, in the hope that his right "will to
impart will extend over his left ("will to receive).

The reason why the eye has four different colors,
with the pupil always being black, is to also show the

* In a triangular or squared type of construction
Telstar coidd not be effective.

** It is strange to find that the Hebrew ivord ff Stf-
phira is translated in English as "Sphere.



four varying degrees of the "will to receive. The pupil,
which serves as the actual vessel of receiving, is black
because it lacks the ability to impart.

And why is the drug scene prevalent now? The
Kabbalah states that in the time of the Messiah (also
known as the "age of Aquarius) there will occur
a tremendous spiritual awakening, the cause of which
is the violent revolt of the soul against the governing
limitations of the body. For the soul will have had its
fill. And the senseless crushing effect of the T (will
to receive) will be displaced by the love of ones neighbor
and consideration for ones friend. This is the root
cause for todays "Love movements; this too is the
motivating factor for the drug scene now.

The inner depths of man, call it the subconscious
if you will, have been stirred up. Man wants to get atvay
from the insatiable "desire to receive for oneself, and
from the clutches of our limiting factors. For drugs do
simulate this experience; one does become oblivious to his
physical surroundings.

However, one thing is wrong. On the return to
his present surroundings the individual is back to where
he started from. Returning too are his fears, frustra
tions and inabilities all of which stem from the causative
factor, the body ("will to receive). This is not symp
tomatic reasoning, changing with time or weather con
ditions. It may, however, be irrational, but it is not

Must this violent revolt of the soul manifest itself
within our society? Must we experience the violence
on campus, conflict throughout the world? Or is



there some logical method to tame mans self-destructive

This is where the educational process of the Kab
balah will contri bute. It is the long sought after con
ditioning agent that will lead man from his own con
cerned way of life to recognizing his purpose in being.

Dr. Philip S. Gruberger


Thirteen years in a cave ... a father and son alone . . .
and the ZOHAR took form the Book of Splendor,
the classic work on the Torahs hidden lore and

When Rome ruled Israel, Rabbi Shimon ben Yohai
was a disciple of Rabbi Akiva, who had taught Torah
despite the persecution of the Romans, till they put him
to death. Rabbi Shimon lashed out at the Romans for
their evil and cruelty and Rome sentenced him to

Telling no one, he fled with his son Rabbi Elazar
to a cave amid the mountains of Israel. They hid there,
thirteen years till the Roman emperors death made
it safe for them to leave.

Since earliest times there were secret teachings of
Divine mysteries in the Torah, that could only interest
a few . . . that only a few enlightened souls could
understand. There were texts, mentioned in the Tal
mud, that originated centuries before. And the Talmud
tells of Sages who worked to master such esoteric lore.

The years that Rabbi Shimon ben Yohai spent
with his son in the cave, marked a turning-point in
the history of this great body of hidden knowledge.
In the safety of darkness, with no text to read, Rabbi
Shimon drew on the deep levels of memory and vision
stored in his unconscious from years of study with his
masters of the past.




So the Zohar took forma single work that be
came the classic text of kabbalah, the received, trans
mitted mystic teachings of Judaism. In every generation
afterward, a select few guarded it and studied ituntil
a widespread yearning grew in 14th century Spain
for the life-giving teachings of kabbalah. Then the
Zohar became known, to be hidden no more.

Many studied and understood the dazzling truths
of Jewish mysticism. But few could make others under
stand and see. For that, Jewry would have to wait
for Safed in the 1500s.

In a small city in Upper Galilee, set on a hill
in a lovely mountainous region of Israel, kabbalah flour
ished as never before. Jews lived a simple religious life
in Safed, supporting themselves, seeking only peace and

There Rabbi Moses Cordovero' was born in 1522.
Drawn as by a thirst to the wisdom of kabbalah, he
studied with Rabbi Shlomo Alkabetz, author of L cha
Dodi, whose sister he married.

In time, kabbalah found in him what it had long
needed: a gifted teacher with a pen. The few works
of his that were printed, give the clearest presentation
ever made of the main teachings of Jewish mysticism.
Through his words in print, the brilliant light of: kabbalah
later reached Eastern Europe, to give dynamic life to
the great movement of hassidus.

At the same time, Safed had a second master of
kabbalah: Rabbi Isaac Luria, called the Ari.

In his teens the Ari was already a Talmudic au
thority. Then he discovered the Zohar, and for 13



years he lived as a hermit, plumbing its secrets. In 1569
he settled in Safed, to study briefly with Rabbi Moses
Cordovero, until he became a master in his own right,
with a devoted circle of disciples.

The Ari could not put his own thoughts down on
paper. They were too complextoo filled with rich,
interwoven images and allusions, associations and meta
phors. But his disciples recorded every possible word
and deed, producing the volumes of what we now
regard as "his writings.

While the "writings were now recorded, never
theless, the subject matter was to wait till the early
1900s; when a gifted student was to reveal these "writ
ings intelligibly to the masses.

It started with a modern pioneerRabbi Judah
Ashlag. A rarely gifted teacher, he could unlock doors
for the very beginner, and bring new vision, new aware
ness in kabbalahs great truths.

As his lifetime on earth ended, Rabbi Ashlag left
three legacies. The first was ha-Sulam, a 21-volume
translation-commentary that renders the Zohar from its
original abstruse, difficult Aramaic into clear, flowing

His second legacy was Talmud Eser Sfiros, an
essential introduction to kabbalah for the novice. No
other work of this kind was ever written before.

The third legacy was his disciple. Rabbi Judah
Z. Brandwein.

Rabbi Brandwein directed Yeshiva Kol Yehuda
(Research Centre of Kabbalah) an academy for the



study of the Torahs mysticism, founded by Rabbi Judah
Ashlag 50 years ago.

With its return to the Walled City of Jerusalem,
the Research Centre of Kabbalah has flowered anew in
Israel, in a new period of remarkable growth. There
gifted students may learn this lore, in an unbroken
tradition that prevailed during the old days of Rabbi
Shimon ben Yohai.

In addition, the Research Centre of Kabbalah
was founded, in the United States, to maintain the
Academy in Jerusalem, andmore importantto em
bark on a major, unprecedented program of publications
in Hebrew and English.

Dr. Philip S. Gruberger, a disciple of Rabbi Brand-
wein and now the Centres president, has confronted the
deeper meaning of the world situation, and, more im
portant, has risen to the cry of our younger generation.
His driving force has enabled the Centre to reach the
"Now Generation.

Seminars and lecture series have already commenced.
The large and enthusiastic audiences at these lectures
have been most gratifying. The Research Centre of
Kabbalah has truly contri buted to mankinds ability to
live in one world without destroying each other.


For a brief span of forty years, in the beginning of
the eighteenth century (1707-1747), the genius of Moses
Hayyim Luzzatto, kabbalist and poet, lit up the field of
Hebrew learning and letters. Too soon was his life cut
off when, shortly after reaching Palestinewhich was
then considered the only true soil for kabbalistic pro
ductionshe contracted the plague and died.

He had been born into a well-to-do family, in
Padua, who were no strangers to high culture and
scholarship. His father, Jacob Vita Luzzatto, gave him
a fine education, such as befitted a rich young man. He
was taught Latin as well as the Hebrew poets, and while
still a young boy, was entered into the Talmud Torah of
Padua to begin a thorough course of religious training.

Luzzattos teacher in secular knowledge was Isaac
Hayyim Cohen Cantarini, a physician and an accom
plished scholar. Rabbi Isaiah Bassan was Luzzattos
religious teacher, and it was his influence that touched
the young student even more deeply than did that of
Cantarini. In fact, it was from Bassans father-in-law,
Rabbi Benjamin Cohen Vitali, that Luzzatto was first to
learn of the Kabbalah that which fired his imagination
during his student years, up a veritable fountain of life,
and remaining within him until the end of his life.

Many books concerning Kabbalah came from his
pen; yet, he was highly gifted in other aspects of literary




creation as well. Luzzatto has in fact been called the
"father of modern Hebrew literature.

At the core of the Jewish consciousness there always
lies the Messianic hope the dream of Gods Kingdom
established on earth. And in Luzzatto this consciousness
was so highly developed that it dominated hi's writings
and his teachings. He wanted to kindle the Great
Lightto walk with his students in Gods own ways
and to ignite the very fires of Heaven. It was to this
end that he gathered about him a group of students, and
together they studied and read the divine wisdom of the
Kabbalah. It cannot, however, be said that he was
officially tolerated or that his work was understood for as
soon as his activities became known, the Venetian rabbi
nate interfered. Their persecution eventually drove him
from Padua to Amsterdam. For ten years Luzzatto
remained in Amsterdam, where he was highly honored
and revered for his great learning and erudition, as well
as for his piety. It was here that he wrote one of his
best-known works, MESSILAT YESHARIM (the Right
eous Path), and here it was published in 1740.

Luzzattos love for and interest in the Kabbalah
never flagged. In 1743 he and his family migrated to
the Holy Land in order that he might continue his public
teaching of the Kabbalah despite the ban placed on these
teachings by the Italian rabbis. Luzzattos teacher Bassan
had supported him throughout the conflict, but he had
been unable to convince the rabbis of Luzzattos sincerity
and of the great merit of his work.

Little is known of the few remaining years of
Luzzattos life in Palestine. The following elegy com-



posed by the rabbis of Tiberias in the year 1747, gives
evidence, however, of his great success:

"Hear, O Heavens, and give ear, O Earth, because
the chief of rabbis, the divine Kabbalist, the
Israel . . . our teacher and master, Rabbi Moses
Hayyim Luzzatto died, he and all his family, of
the plague . . . and is buried in Tiberias, near
Rabbi Akibas grave. Happy is he, in this world
and the world to come, but woe to us, because
our crown fell from off our head.

In spite of his brief and often tragic life, Rabbi
Moshe Hayyim Luzzatto contri butes an inportant insight
into the interpretation of the SEFIROT without which
the Z OHAR, or source of Kabbalah, could not be under



It is a common place of Jewish wisdom that that
which comes to the mind first is brought into action last.
Thus, analogously, Gods goal in creating the world was
the creation of man. From among the races, the children
of Israel were selected to receive His Law and comm and
ments, through the fulfillment of which they could merit
eternal life. In order that the children of Israel might
earn their reward by fulfilling the law and the comm and
ments, God created in them an evil yezer (inclination)
as an obstacle to their execution of perfect deeds. When
they triumph over this evil yezer they are rewarded. But
if, on the contrary, they do not subdue the evil yezer
they are punished. If there were no evil yezer in the
world, and the Hebrews were innately either wholly
righteous or wholly wicked, they would deserve neither
reward not punishment.

Since the creation of an evil yezer was necessary for the
spiritual development of the children of Israel it was
essential to create the body of the crudest possible corpo
real substance, so that the evil yezer would have the
power to dominate. Were man to be created of fine,
spiritual substance, then the evil spirit could not have
this sway. Consequently, the creation of an evil spirit
would be in vain.




To fashion such a creation, and to make room for
manifested worlds in which neither beings could abide,
the Supreme Emanator, the Infinite, the Origin of all
Roots and the Cause of all Causes, willed to contract
His Infinite Light, which extended through out all Being.

If not for the contraction, the owerwhelming abund
ance of Light would cause the disappearance of all the
worlds, for existence is nothing but a succession of con
densations of Light essence. Were this Ligh t to shine
alike everywhere, then all the worlds would be similar
and totally invisible.

In order to reduce the too powerful doivnpour of
His Light upon the nether beings, God established
"Coverings to sheild them. These coverings consist of
an arrangement of planes which restrain the Light and
cause its successive minimization and densification. Thus
the Light is steadily decreased and densified, in a succes
sion of condensations; and it is from the den set possible
stage of Light that the body of man is created.*

Beware of thinking even for a moment that there
is any change within the Creator Himself. Such an idea
is unthinkable, for changes pertain only to the recipients
of Light, according to their distance or proximity to the
Source, the Creator. Think, for example, of a lighted
candle that is placed before a person. If many veils were
interposed, so that the person could enjoy but very little
of the candle light, this would not mean that a change

* Translators note. As the Light is extended from the
Source into the worlds, it becomes progressively dimmer, according
to its degree of remoteness from the source.



took place in the light itself, but rather in the person,
who could not see the candle light because of the inter
vening veils.

The identical situation obtains in creation. There is
no change in the Creator, but only in the recipients.
Similarly, the ten Sefirot (Emanations) act as "veils
ten stages, vessels or degrees which the Creator issued to
serve as channels through which His bounty might be
transmitted to man: restraining that bounty to the
extent that the worlds shall not disappear because of the
too great abundance of Light, yet providing a sufficient
amount of it to ensure their continued existence. He
therefore made ten vessels in order that the bounty, in
traversing them, would become so densified that the
lower creations could bear it. These ten vessels, or
SEFIROT are as follows:




3 2














* TR. N. KETER and DAAT are interchangeable terms.



7 8









These Sefirot represent supervision of the worlds in
terms of charactristics like: Mercy, Judgment, Com
passion, Etc.; these characteristics are embodied in three
pillars, with the right column, consisting of the SEFIROT
Hokmah (Wisdom), Hesed (Mercy) and Ne:;:ah, (Tri
umph) representing Mercy and the left column, con
sisting of Binah (Intelligence), Geburah (Power) and
Hod (Glory) representing the pillar of Judgment, while
the central column, consisting of Da*at (knowledge)
Tiferet (Beauty) and Yesod (Foundation), is the pillar
of Compassion. There is not a Light emitted by the
Emanator, which is not inclusive of Mercy, Judgment
and Compassion. These Lights issue neither separately,
nor individually; instead, they emerge from the three
pillars already intermingled. It is this fusion of the
principles of Judgment, Mercy, and Compassion that
supervises the governing of the world.

These ten Sefirot are named in accordance with the
image of man. Thus, Keter is the cranium of the head;
Hokmah and Binah are the two lobes of the brain within
the head; Hesed and Geburah are the two hands (or



the two sides); Tiferet and the remaining Sefirot are
the body.

Each of these Sefirot is constructed of ten Lights, each
of which in turn is composed of an equal number of
Lights and so on ad infinitum. When, in one of these
vessels only a single light is illuminated it is called a
Sefira. When all ten Lights in a vessel is illumined then
it is defined as a Parezuf (Person). In order that it may
be called a complete and perfect Parezuf, every division
within must shine with all its Light so that the number
of Lights will total six hundred and thirteen the
number of parts in a mans body.* Only then is it
considered complete.

There are but five Parezufim (Persons) in all, for
not every Sefira of the ten had the power to radiate in
the manner just described. Only Refer, Hokmah, Binah
and Malkut could do so. They are called respectively;
ARIK ANPIN (Macroprosopus) (Keter) ; ABA and
IMA (Father and Mother) ( Hohmah and Binah) and
NUKBA (the Feminine Polarity) {Malkut). But the
six remaining Sefirot, Hesed, Geburah, Tiferet, Nezah,
Hod and Yesod, did not have the individual power to
radiate as forcefully as the others. Collectively, how
ever, these lost six Sefirot build up a Parezuf; it is called
ZEIR ANPIN (Microprosopus) Tiferet).

The ten Sefirot are united with the Creator Him
self, just as the flame is annexed to the live coal. Although
manifold hues are visible in the flame, close examination

*613 also equals the required number of good deeds in a mans




reveals that there is but one flame attached to the coal.
So it is with the Sefirot, they are irrevocably bound to
the Creator and cannot be severed from Him. He is
enclothed in them, as in garments. But, unlike a mans
clothing, these "garments are not removable. Rather,
they resemble the outer skin of a caterpillar, which is
an integral part of its body. The Emanator perpetually
animates the Sefirot. Otherwise they could not exist.
Bear in mind that the Emanator issued all these diversified
degrees of Light for the purpose of maintaining the
world. At times the world must be governed by Mercy,
at other times it requires Judgment, or Compassion.

Although the bounty that flows from the; Emanator
into the Sefirot is of uniform quality, it changes within
the individual degree in accordance with its nature. For
example, two persons, one of a ro buts noture and one of a
more delicate nature, partake of a similar meal. Although
they both consume the same food and are both sustained
thereby, their levels of energy will differ. The same
principle applies to the different pillars of the heavenly
government. Gods bounty streng thens the Sefirot so
that they are enabled to function according to their
diversified natures; therefore, the differences lie within
the Sefirot themselves and not in the bounty.

Some of the Sefirot are perfect in themselves. These
serve the purpose of maintaining the world. There are
the others which are imperfect and can only be perfected
through the actions and service of man. These imper
fections have been pre-arranged for the benefit of man:
should he help perfect the weaker Sefirot, he will be re-



warded; should he incur further defects in them, he will
be punished.

Defect inplies that the Sitra Ahara, or evil spirit,
lays hold of a particular Sefira and interferes with its
ascent to the Origin, where it could receive its share of
bounty in order to transmit it to those below it. For
that reason the evil spirit is characterized as bearing the
weight of a stone, for when it seizes the Sefirot, it adds
weight to them so that they cannot rise. The Emanator
willed the existence of the evil spirit in the world as an
instrument for the punishment of the wicked.

The extended Lights are symbolized by the letters
of the Hebrew alphabet. Combinations of letters con
note the brightness of upper Lights upon which the
degrees are built. Because all the outlines of the letters
are the result of ink strokes directed either to the right,
to the left, or to the center, they symbolize Lights that
are directed either to the right, to the left or, to the
center. And just as the letters are black against the white
paper, so are the degrees "black fire against "White

When we say that the Creator contracted His Light
in order to make room for the worlds, this does not mean
that He entirely withdrew His Light and failed to shine
into the worldsit is even impossible to entertain such
an idea. For if such were the case, then the worlds could
not exist even for one second. What it does mean is that
from that place where He desired to extend Sefirot, He
concealed His Light, veiling it so that it should not
illumine with the same degree of power as previously.
This was done so that the extension of the lower realms


could become manifest, for otherwise they would be
submerged in the Light and would remain dormant. Of
what avail is a candle in the powerful light of midday
sun? And this is precisely what is meant by "black fire
against white fire. Wherever there is an extension of
the Light for a nether being, that Light is named "black
fire; and wherever the Light of the Emanator is re
vealed, it is called "white fire. The Light of the nether
being is a garment to the upper Light, for it "enclothes
the latter.

Bear in mind that the whiteness of the paper can be
seen even in the very midst of the characters or letters.
Similarly with the Sefiroi; when the extension, of a lower
degree is completed, the upper Light immediately shines
into it, and although it is not apparent, it is assuredly
there. The Light is invisible because of the barrier which
exists in the lower degree. For example, a c andle light
that is screened by shades will not shine through at a
point where the shades are placed. Yet we who are
seeing only the shades, cannot claim that t here is no
candle shedding its light behind them. Remove the
obstructing shades, and we see the candlelight. It is the
same with the Infinite Light, which appears in all the
degrees. It is invisible because the nether being covers
it. The Creator desired that the Light be veiled in order
to grant existence to the lower beings, which could not
otherwise survive in its full presence.

This is what the sages refer to when they say that
by means of the twenty-two letters the world was
created; that all the Sefirot came into existence through
the combinations of the letters. All levels of being were



created by means of the four-lettered Holy Name;
YUDHE A HE, or Tetragrammaton. As there
are four letters in the Holy Name "Havaya where the
upper point of the Yud is concealed, so in the Sefirot
there exist four worlds which are revealed, while a fifth
one is concealed, and is not included in the number of
the degrees. These are the four worlds of Azilut,
(Emanation), Beriah (Creation), Yezirab (Formtion)
and Asiah (Action). The En Sof (Infinite World) is
that which is concealed.

The Parezufim (Persons ) are likewise four in
number: Aba and Ima, Z eir Anpin and Nukba. There
is also a fifth, the Parezuf of Arik Anpin, which is con

Each entity, each world, is divided into five Pare
zufim, and each Parezuf comprises ten Sefirot. In order
to link the worlds together, the Emanator caused the
Sefira Malkut of the upper world to be clothed within
the entire next lower world. One Sefira is capable of
pervading an entire world, for each Sefira from a pre
ceding world is equal to the whole of the succeeding
world. Thus, Malkut of each world enclothes the world
which succeeds it. The order is as follows: Malkut of
Adam Kadmon or Primordial Man, which is Malkut. of
En Sof, is enclothed in Azilut; Malkut of Azilut is en-
clothed in Beriah; Malkut of Beriah is enclothed in Yezi
rab; and Malkut of Yezirah is enclothed in Asiah. The
manner in which they penetrate each succeeding world,
will be explained later. All the worlds are bound to
gether by a powerful tie, the lower with the upper and
the upper, in turn, with that which is above it, until we



reach back to the bond with the Creator, whereby they
are joined to Him in indissoluable unity.

Do not err, in reading the expressions "person
(parezuf ), "vessel, or similar words denoting material
forms, by concluding that such shapes or images actually
exist in the upper realms. It is forbidden to even express
such ideas, as it is stated in the Bible: "For ye saw no
manner of similitude . . . (Deuteronomy IV, 15). The
Emanator, blessed be He, sends forth His Light in order
to grant existence to the lower worlds. But of the
precise manner in which this process takes place, no one
may know. Only the Emanator bears this knowledge
within Himself. The Sefirof are nothing but the very
Light of the Emanator Himself. It is the identical Light
sent forth without limit or barrier, or space restriction.
However, the presence of diversity, when the Light is
arranged in degrees, signifies that the extenced Lights
contain a greater proportion either of Mercy or of
Judgment. The Creator stipulated these proportions to
fit the needs of the world which He desires to sustain.

Each Scfira has a specific function in the adminis
tration of the world, and therefore must be illumined in
accordance with its type of supervision. The same
principle applies to the extension of the Parezufim. They
are Lights which, when extended below, differ in their
composition because the Creator is aware that a stipu
lated number and quality of degree is necessary for the
governing of the world. The extension of the degrees
therefore took place in the following manner: When
there arose in the Creators most pure and simple will the
desire to manifest creation (which was to receive His



Light in measured and limited proportion) He Emanated
His Light in a successive pattern of descending degrees
until the present creation came into being. He did this,
providing the finite and measured bounty necessary for
the existence of the worlds, by "making room for them,
so to speak; by both concealing His infinite, immeasur
able Light and concurrently extending it and sending it
forth. By this process of extension, which signifies de
limitation, the Sefirot came into being. This procedure
continued until the density of Light reached the stage
where it could be received by the worlds. This entire
process of the extension of Light in descending degrees
was aimed at the revelation of the created worlds. If
not for the extension of the degrees, nothing material
could have existed.

In fact the entire extension of being is more than
the varying combinations of Lights which issue down
ward and become, by successive degrees, so dense and
obscure as to permit the manifestation and continued
existence of creation. Had there been no creation, there
would have been no veil, no obstruction whatsoever to
the mighty power of the Light, since in the absence of all
created being, there would be no danger of anyone not
being able to receive it. This is what is meant by the
statement made at the outset that "what comes to the
mind first is brought into action last. Thus, the Cre
ators initial Thought was to create man, but man had to
come at the end of all His deeds. Before creating man,
God was obliged to prepare the Lights in such a way that
when a man appeared on the scene, he would find the
bounty and sustenance necessary for his existence. Were



man to come into being at the very outset only to find
the Light stretched out infinitely without measure or
limit, his creation would be pointless, for he would
instantly disappear. Mans body is built of dense material
substance (clay) and it can only bear Light which is
modified to conform to its nature.

We must bear in mind that anything that seems
materialistic or corporeal regarding the extension of crea
tion must not be taken in a literal sense. This material
istic language ought not to be employed at all in a
discussion of spiritual qualities; nevertheless we must
assign them corporeal names in order to exemplify them,
and thus facilitate understanding of this knowledge by
man. These terms must be understood in their true
sense, and everything is to be understood as a spiritual
extension from the Infinite, Who spreads His Light in
order to give existence to the nether beings and to govern
them. The measure of Light which He sends forth to
maintain and supervise is in accordance with what He
wills to exist below.

The Sefirot are but the Will of the Creator Who
willed their presence below. Thus they are actual and
not merely potential forces. The names we attach to
them are only figurative. They are symbolic names and
are employed with reference to the recipients upon whom
the bestowal is made. For example, by the term 'vessel
we mean radiating Light, which, when extended down
below, becomes a vessel. It is the same with a Light
termed "Person (Parezuf ), which, as we already know,
is a rediation of Light spread into 613 Lights.



Hence, all the Sefirot are nothing but the Light of
the Infinite Himself. There is no difference between
Him and the Sefirot only He is the Cause and they are
the effect, or the result. The expression He clothes
them means that His will perpetually animates the
Sefirot in order to maintain them as channels, through
which He controls and governs the world.



The Creators chief aim is to bestow Goodness upon
the created beings, and it was to this end that he wrought
the varying stages of Light in accordance with the limited
capacity of the nether beings. What follows is the
ordered sequence of the individual stages, and the manner
in which they issued forth.

The first Parezuf which was manifested in the worlds
was Adam Kadmon, (the Primordial Man); all the sub
sequent stages and the Parezufhn resulted from him. He
is united with the Emanator Himself and is very much
concealed. We cannot say anything whatsoever about
the Primordial Man, but can treat only of the: branches
that ramify from him to the outside.

From this Primordial Man come many worlds
worlds without number. Of them all, we shall discuss
the four worlds called "Seeing, "Hearing, "Smell and
"Speech, otherwise known as "Wisdom, Intelligence,
"Beauty and "Kingdom. They issue from the eyes,
from the ears, from the nose and from the mcnith of
Adam Kadmon. Let us deal first with the world of
Hearing, since it was the first of the four to he revealed.

As we stated in the introductory chapter, all created
beings and Parezufim are divided into four categories,
corresponding to the four letters in the Holy re Havaya,
and all of them originate in this Name. The Primordial



Man also has in Himself one four-lettered Havaya from
the four letters of which four fully spelled-out Havayas
issue, amounting respectively to 72, 63, 45 and 52.*
These Names represent the Taamim, Nekudot, Tagim
and Otiot** Each one of these comprises all the other

Tr. Notes 1. The Name which issues from the first letter

"Yud, spelled:
(10) Yud
( 5) He

( 6 ) Waw
( 3) He

( 6) Waw
(10) Yud
(10) Yud
(10) Yud

(4) Dalet
( 6) Waw

Having a numerical value of 72;

2. The Name originating in the first "He spelled the
same as the first with the exception of the Waw which
is spelled (6) Waw (1) Alef (6) Waw, and amounting

3. The Name originating
out with Alefs, thus:





( 5)




( 6)




( 3)





to 45;

4. The Name

which spring





( 5)




( 6)




( 5)




amounting to 52.

in the letter





( 4)




( 6)


from the last

"He ,






( 4)


Taamim are the signs indicating pitches to be used in reading
the Torah; Nekudot are the vowels sounds; Tagin are the orna
mental strokes above certain letters; and the Otiot are the letters
of the alphabet themselves.



four.*** Of the first stage, that is, of Taamim of the
first Name, 72, we cannot speak, because It is in the
Cranium of the Primordial Man and that is a deeply
concealed place.

We shall now begin from the ears, which are the
starting point of the extension of Taamim of the Name
63. As asserted above, every Name comprises all the
four: Taamim, Nekudot, Tagin and Otiot. Now, just
as there are three kinds of Taamim those placed above
the letters, e.g. "Zareka, (~) " Pazer (A 1 ) etc.; those
placed beneath the letters, e.g. Darega, (s) lievir , (.,)
etc.; and those placed in the middle of the letters, e.g.
Pesik, (:) and Makaf, () there are likewise three kinds
of Lights, one greater than the other, emanating from
these Taamim, which are situated in the three places:
ears, nose and mouth. See how the numerical value of
the Name 63 is intimated in each place of emanation.
Thus, the word Ozen (Ear) together with He, the
second letter of the Havaya, which is its Origin, amounts
to 63. The He (value of which is five numerically)
points to the fact that from it five Parezufim are sent

The word Hotem ("Nose) also points to the Name
63, as its numerical value is 63.

The word Peh (Mouth), which has a. numerical
value of 85, embraces this Name plus the 22 letters which
are comprised in the five articulations of speech, since
these have their source in the mouth. The live possible

*** The Ta'amim for example comprise in themselves the Nekudot ,
Tagin, and Letters, and it is the same with the others.



articulations of the mouth are: A-H-H, G-I-K-K, Z-S-
SH-R-Z, D-T-L-N-T, B-W-M-F.

From the ears, then, came forth the upper Taamim.
They extended from them as ten interior Sefirot and ten
encircling Sefirot. From the right ear came the encircling,
and from the left, the interior Sefirot. These two quali
ties are refered to as ten complete Sefirot. The Sefirot
that were issued bound themselves together in absolute
unity, so much so, that only a He was apparent giving
a hint of five Parezufim.

The graphical description of the He is a Dalet
together with a Watt/, to designate that the emanation is
really ten. But they are united so closely that nothing
but a He is discernible. The reason why the interior
light issued at a distance from the encircling Light is
that had these Lights been intermingled, it would have
been necessary to produce a vessel in order to limit the
immensity of the Light, as in the case of the Mouth
below, wherethere is a vessel. Since, because of the
tenuous light, it was impossible for a vessel to be revealed
here, the Lights had to go forth at a considerable distance
from each other. This division serves the same purpose
as would a vessel, for it reduces the light. These Lights
encircle, and hover over the Face extending down to the
center of the Beard. The encircling Lights issue from
the right Ear and the inner Lights issue from the left,
because the encircling Lights are more tenuous than the
inner ones. Thus, the encircling Light was left to en
circle or hover over the vessel, because, due to its tenuity
it could not be confined in the interior of the vessel.



The inner Light, which is not so tenuous, is con fined in a

From the right side, which is always more tenuous
than the left (since it represents the source of Mercy)
there came forth the more tenuous, encircling Light. And
from the left side, which is not so tenuous, because it
represents the source of Power, there issued forth the
inner, more definite Light.

We shall now discuss the world of "Smell, which
is the second world to be revealed, and which issued
from the Nose of Adam Kadmon. These are the middle
Taamim. They issued in the same manner as those that
came from the ears, that is, as ten inner and ten en
circling Lights. From the right opening of the nose
issued the encircling Lights, and from the left opening
issued the inner Lights. Here the Lights were closer to
each other than those of the Ears. We haye concrete
proof of this when we observe the nose of man, wherein
the nostrils are closer to each other than ai;e the ears.
Nevertheless, we still have two separate passages capable
of absorbing the diminished Light and thereby elimin
ating the revelation of vessels in this case as well as in
the case of the ears.

But because the two Lights of the Nose are closer
together than those of the Ears, something different was
revealed here which was not revealed with the outflow
of the Ear, namely, the Vav of the He. In the Lights of
the Ears the single He alone was seen, and the W aw was
concealed. But here in the nose the constituent parts of
the He the Dalet Waw were revealed.



The truth hinted at by the revealed Waw is that the
Nose represents Beauty, which is ZO or Z eir Anpin, or
Microprosopus and comprises six Sefirat.

These Lights spread out over the Face just as did
those of the Ears, hovering over the Face and reaching
as far as the Chest.

The world of Speech, issuing from the mouth of
Adam Kadmon, was the third to be revealed. These
Lights are the lower Taamim. They, issued forth in the
same manner as the others, namely as ten inner and ten
encircling Lights. The difference is, however, that all
these Lights merge and emanate through a single channel.
Because of this, a type of vessel which reduces the Light
originates here. Still it is but one single vessel, and
furthermore, it is exceedingly tenuous because of the
supreme exaltation of this realm. For it is in the mouth
that is revealed what in the ears and the nose remained
concealed. In the ears, a He* only was disclosed, and
the nose, the Waw of the He was manifested but here
in the mouth, the Dalet of the He is also unveiled.*
The secret of this unveiled Dalet, which is equal to the
number 4, is as follows: In the ears and nose there were
only two types the inner and encircling, but in the
mouth, there are four types, since it is here that a vessel
originated. Hence, two additional types of Lights were re-

* The He alone represents but five collective Parezufim ,
which are also the ten Sefirot indicated by the Dalet (4) and
Waw (6) that make up He; but the hidden representations sym
bolized by this Dalet and Waw are only shown later as they are
revealed through the nose and mouth.



vealed in the mouth, and those are the interior and the
exterior of the vessel. Thse Lights issue from the mouth
of Adam Kadmon, and reach to his navel.

Three distinct Lights, corresponding to the three
different Ta'amim, issued from Adam Kadmon. These
Lights issued from the ears, nose and mouth, arid reached,
respectively, the middle point of the beard, the chest,
and the navel.

Remember that the names and characteristics which
we employ here: ears, nose, mouth, pertain only
to the latter worlds, starting from the world of Eman
ation down, because it is there that a Parezuf (person)
is revealed. In the exalted realm which we are now
discussing, there is no evidence of a Parezuf. Never the
less, in order to clarify the subject in question we must
employ such anthropomorphic terms.

To turn back to the world of Speech,, otherwise
known as the Bound World, or Olam Ho-akudim; these
are the ten Sefirol which issued from the mouth of Adam
Kadmon and reach to his navel. Because this was the
first place where a vessel was revealed, only a single long
vessel consisting of ten lights was discerned.

Note that these Sefirot, which issued in the mouth,
were distinguished by the quality of Nefes.b (Animal
Soul) alone. They were not able to remain in the vessel
and were obliged to return to their source to be emended.
The vessel was wrought through the departure of the
Lights. Later, the Lights returned and spread below once

Because all ten Lights were bound together in one
vessel, they are designated as Bound ( Akudim). This



is derived from Biblical expression "akudim used when
Abraham bound Isaac in order to bring him as an offering
to God. ". . . and bound Isaac his son. (Genesis
XXII, 9).

In order that the vessel might not be annulled by
too great an abundance of Light, when the Lights re
turned they did not descend to their original place, for
the Light of the Crown remained concealed in its source
and was not extended below. The Light of "Wisdom
( Chokmah ) issued, occupying the place of Crown, and
the succeeding Lights entered consecutively the vessels
following "Crown. In this way "Kingdom (M alkut)
was left without Light. This is why Kingdom is con
sidered a "non-luminous Mirror.

The departure of Lights, as described above, is des
ignated as a minor annulment, but not an actual annul
ment such as occurred in the world of Nektidim, which
will be dealt with later.



We shall now discuss the world of Points or "Neku-
dim, which is the world of "Seeing or "Visiion. Last
revealed world of those four mentioned earlier, it issued
from the eyes of Adam Kadmon. Because alii the other
apertures are filled with the Lights of Taamim of the
Name 63, the Lights of Nekndim found no passage,
except through the Eyes. They are the Nektidot of the
Name 63.

What procedure did Adam Kadmon follo w in order
to issue these? He contracted his Light, which was
spread below in His body, bringing it up above the
Navel. Then he placed a veil over the middle of the
body to restrain the Light from descending. The idea
of his contraction is similar to what we say regarding
ZON, or Microprosopus and his Feminine Polarity, of
the Emanated World, when they rise as MN (Returning
Light) to the Father and Mother of the Emanated World.
The same thing takes place here: that is, the Names of
Adam Kadmon amounting to 45 and 52 respectively
(these being his Microprosopus and Feminine Counter
part) rose as MN to his Name 6 x 3 in order that 63 and
72 might unite and through the union bring forth these




The reason this union was required in bringing
forth these Lights, though it was not needed for the
Lights of the ears, nose or mouth, is as follows: the eyes,
through which these Lights had to pass, were illuminated
by the very powerful Lights of the Name 72, which
resides in the brain and this Light veiled these Lights of
Nekudot so that they could not pass through. Therefore
the union took place, causing this Light of the Name
72 to be hidden within the Name of 63, that is, in the
Sefira of Yesod (Foundation) of the Parezuf Mother.
Thus, the Light (of 72) shone to a lesser extent than
previously, lending the Lights of Nekudot sufficient
Power to pass through.

Although these Lights issue from the eyes, they
become visible only at the point below the navel. The
reason for this is that the Lights of Taamim are spread
throughout the region extending to the navel. There
fore the Lights of Nekudot are invisible only down to
the end of the extension of T aamim.

These Lights which issued from the eyes were solely
comprised of Nefesh, or animal soul. Therefore they
are called "Kings because they originate from the Name
52 which equals the numerical value of the letters
spelling Malkut, "Kingdom. Because much Din
(Justice) was intermingled with these lights, the husk
or shell of power was engulfed therein. For the essence
of the husk is none other than the might of rigid Justice,
which is so exceedingly obscure, that it completely hin
ders the Light. The husks can only exist in the presence
of much Justice.



Subsequently when the Light of Adam Kadmon,
which is absolute purity., descended to be spread into the
Nekudim, they could not bear it and so they broke.*

The circumstances behind the shattering of the
vessels are as follows.

We have already stated previously that all the stages
of extended Light are also represented by combination of
letters. These are the functioning Lights from which
everything comes into being. Since they were unable to
endure the abundance of Light, the combination of
letters became disarranged and were severed from each
other. They were thus rendered powerless to act and
to govern. This is what is meant by their "shattering.
From that point on their husks, or shells, still engulfed
by the Light, became energized. This energy was in
vigorated even further when the husks descended below
into the material realm. T he Su premfe ator willed
tiie "shattering in order ^to sever th e husk ^from the
Divine S pirit s o fhatT Tt would_ remaTrrwi thovit dros s; in
addition, He willed the existence of this obstruction to
the Light, the husk, as a vehicle for the execution of

*Tr. N. By "breakage we mean a change of phase or appear
ance. In this case, that the Nekudim lost their original governing
powers and that a different aspect of supervision was assigned to
them; for out of these Lights many combinations were wrought.
Thus, that which, to begin with, was Emanation, becamefollow
ing the shattering of the vesselsCreation, Formation and Action.
This was their debasement at the time of the shattering of the
vessels. But later, at the time of emendation, they were combined
in a different manner so that they became the four worlds of
Azilnt , Beriah , Yetzirah , and Asiah (ABYA.)


reward or punishment. Consequently, when man sins, he
gives the husk the power to seize the Upper Degrees, and
hs is himself punished by it. Conversely, when man expels
the husk from himself, he is rewarded. The following
will illustrate the matter more fully.

The main shattering occurred in the seven lower
Sefirot in ZO (Microprosopus and his Feminine
Polarity) of the world of Emanation, to whom death is
attri buted. The front and hind Sefirot of these seven
lower degrees were lowered still further, and descended
into the worlds of Creation, Formation and Action

In this fashion, the innermost part of each vessel
descended into Creation; the interior part (which was
next to the innermost) descended into Formation; and
the exterior part descended into Action. The effect on
the first three Sefirot (Crown, Wisdom, and Intelli
gence) was only that of annulment, rather than de
basement. Only the rear portion of the first three
Sefirot fell ; and even this rear portion did not descend
any lower than the world of Emanation, as did the
seven lower Sefirot. It is for this reason that no "death
is attri buted to the first three.

When Crown, Wisdom, and Intelligence were is
sued, they were placed in the order of pillars, that is,
right, left and center, the essential order for emendation.
All the Sefirot must eventually attain this order of three
pillars; nevertheless, only the first three were sufficiently

These are: Mercy, Power, Beauty, Triumph, Glory, Founda
tion and Kingdom.



organized to bear the Light that came from Adam
Kadmon and were therefore not shattered. On the
other hand, the seven lower Sefirot had issued one be
low the other; they had no order or emendation what
soever, but were all disunited. In this condition, unable
to bear the infinitely pure Light, they broke and descended

There is intimation of the shattering of these seven Kings
in the Bible, Genesis XXXYI, starting with verse 31.
Note that "death is mentioned for every King but

* Bear in mind that the descent we speak of here does not

refer to motion from one place to another. We have already
specified that the Sefirot are spiritual extensions from the Infinite,
employed to create the world. He sends forth His light in order
to sustain them. To reiterate: it is improper to attri bute to any
thing in the spiritual realm either image or place. Thus, by the
expression "debasement from the world of Emanation to the
stage of BYA, we mean that when the Light of Adam Kadmon
descended to enter the vessels they could not receive it, that is,
they could not unit with it, and were shattered and descended
below. From their original degree which, before the shattering,
was called "Emanation, they descended to an in ferior degree
called BYA. (One must remember that whenever the words
"ascent or "descent are mentioned in connection with Lights,
they refer to changes in their governing power, to either great

er or lesser degree, in accord with the need of the mo
ment, or the merit of the lower beings.) From these vessels,

various parts were selected. Only the most exalted and ample

portions of the vessels themselvesthose which were far removed
from the root of the impure spirit (shell)rose to unite with the
Light. The remainder of the vessels became BYA, the worlds of
Creation, Formation and Action.



the eighth, the King of Hadar, for it was he who emended
all the worlds.

The first king, Bela, stands for Knowledge (DA-
AT); he is a Light without a vessel , and does not
therefore belong to the seven vessels or kings. None
theless, because he flows into them and forms their soul,
he too is connected with "death.

The second, Jobab, son of 2 erah, stands for Mercy
( Hesed). The third, Husham, is Power ( Geburah ).
The fourth, Hadad, is Beauty (Tiphereth) . The fifth,
Samlab, is Triumph and Glory ( Nezah and Hod )
the two are considered as one because they are as the
two halves (or thighs) of the body of Adam Kadmon.
The sixth, Saul, is Foundation ( Yesod ). The seventh,
Baal-hanan , stands for Kingdom ( Malkut) . But the
eighth is King Hadar, and through him the emendation
was effected. They are designated "Kings because they
originate in the Name 52, which, as we know, is the
numerical value of the word "Kingdom.

The annulments occurring in the first three Sefirot
were of varying degrees. Crown ( Refer) was only
annulled in the back portion of his Triumph ( Netzah ),
Glory {Hod) and Foundation {Yesod). Actually,
this is considered a defect, rather than an annulment.
But in the remaining two Sefirot of the first triad
{Hokinah and Bin ah) the entire rear sections were
annulled. This happened because the Light of the ear,
of which they partook, was of unequal power. Whereas
Crown {Keter), which took the Light of the ear at
a point where it shines most, was only partially affected.
And this only happened because the last three Sefirot



of CrownTriumph, Glory and Foundationwere en-
clothed in Father and Mother (Aba and Ima), the
inferior portion, and not because of Crown himself,
for he himself is complete and absolutely perfect.

Father and Mother (Aba and Ima), who partook
of the Light of the ear where it terminates, a point at
which it shines less powerfully, were therefore affected
by annulment throughout their hind part. But the
seven lower Sefirot, in whom the Light of the ears did
not shine at all, were unable to bear the powerful
Light and were therefore shattered. Although apparently
the shattering occurred only in the seven lower Sefirot
and not in the first three, this statement is only generally
true. For in the detailed portions of the Sefirot each
and every Parezuf was affected by all the consequences
connected with the "shattering: namely, the appear
ance of a defect in the rear part of Crown ( comprised
of Truimph, Glory and Foundation); the annulment
of the rear parts of Father and Mother and the descent
of their seven lower Sefirot*

* Parezufim are spoken of here although we are still at a
place in creation where there are no actual Parezufim . The
latter were only revealed following the emendation. The idea
is that the ten Sefirot of Nekudot comprised all that would later
come into being in all the Parezufim at the time o:t their man
ifestation as such. Thus, since these ten Sefirot broke, in the
order explained above, we find that all seven lower Sefirot, which
would later come into existence in all the Parezufim, considered
to be shattered, too, and each Wisdom and Intelligence as
fallen, and every Triumph, "Glory and Foundation of every
Crown as being defective.



The whole incident of the shattering of the vessels
is intimated in the verse of Genesis which says: "In
the beginning God** created . . (Genesis I, 1).
In other words, at the beginning God created the world
with the measure of Justice, specifically, with those
Sefirot embodying the quality of Justice. And then:

. . the earth was empty and void. (Genesis I, 2)
It could not bear the Light and was therefore annulled.
Then the measure of Compassion, which is the "New
Name Forty-five was supplemented to Justice, and
through It the emendation was effected. It was also
through this Name that the worlds gained stability
and permanence.

We shall now return to the subject of the shattering
of the vessels and explain it in detail These vessels or
newly-invented boundaries were not at first revealed,
but only became apparent in the ten Sefirot of Nekudot .
For as soon as the vessels had been invented, with its
first contraction, the Light of the Emanator entered
them in its full vigor and overpowered them, thereby
preventing their manifestation and inhibiting their pres
ence. But at the emanation of the ten Sefirot of Neku
dot, the Light was diminished to such an extent that
the vessels were able to triumph over It and become

Although, in speaking previously about the Lights
of the Mouth of Adam Kadmon, that is, the Bound
World, we said that a vessel was revealed, nevertheless

** Tr. N. Here the Name for God, Elohim, indicating Justice, is used
rather than Havaya, which stands for Mercy or Compassion.



it is not designated as a revelation for there was no
aggregation of vessels, but only a single vessel, which
might be referred to as a preparatory form of that which
was to be revealed in the world of Nekudot. For the
entire Bound World, with all its contents, is nothing but
a preparatory state to the world of Nekudot. Where
an actual revelation took place in that a vessel was re
vealed, together with all its contents, and was then
converted into ten vessels. Because this revelation was
effected here, Justice grew so dense at this point that it
became the original root of th e husk , or the iitra ahara

For in truth the word "vessel implies none other
than Justice (Din) which obstructs and completely shuts
out the Light. Therefore, at whatever place a boundary
begins to manifest, there the husk has a certain connec
tion, for it obstructs and limits (the Light).

Because of the presence of the husks, the Sefirot
were not capable of complete emendation, for this would
mean that the husks would also be included in the three
parallel pillars of Mercy, Justice and Compassion, and,
as a result of their cohesive action, that they would op
pose the work of the Sefirot. The Supreme Being had
no desire that the husks should issue from that which
was emended, but rather from that which remained un
emended. It was necessary then that the vessels descend
to that low point where the husks could manifest.

Subsequently, when the emendation took place, the
Sefirot were arranged in the form of pillars because the
root of impure powers had by then been expelled from



them. Note that while the vessels were themselves still
without Light, the root of the husk did not incur any
defect in them. The effect of the vessels existence was
already so limiting that the presence of the root of the
husk became possible in them. But when the Light
approached to enter the vesselsand the quality of this
Light was such that the husk had no relationship what
soever with itit could not unite with the vessels.
Thus, in order to receive the Light that would permit
them to act and to govern cooperatively, the vessels were
obliged to descend so many degrees as were necessary to
cause the root of the husk to depart from them. For
as long as the root of the husk was within them, they
were unable to receive the Light. So they were shat
tered, and their form was changed.

Instead of remaining within the realm of Emana
tion, they became BYA, the worlds of Creation, Forma
tion and Action. Bear in mind that the degree of
Emanation prior to the shattering was superior to that
of the current Emanation, for its original power was
lost at the time of the shattering. But at the time of
emendation, four worlds were constructed out of the
three. Emanation is actually the inner essence of the
original world of Creation. Only the portions that be
long to Arik Anpin (Macroprosopus)Crown, "Wisdom
and Intelligencewere left unaltered.

In the ten Sefirot of the Nekudim were comprised
all the Sefirot suitable for apportionment into all the
Farezufim. But their nature was such that in the event
of shattering, their form would change, and, following



emendation, they would be distinguished as the second
Emanation. However, to Arik Anpin alone was some
thing supplemented. In addition to the ten Sefirot al
ready belonging to it (as they did to all the other
Parezufim ) Arik Anpin also had the Crown, Wisdom
and Intelligence of the original Taamim and Nekudot
which were neither changed nor weakened by the shat
tering. These three Sefirot rose to Arik Anpin; and by
virtue of this addition three Heads were fashioned:

1) Atik The Ancient

2) KithraCrown

3) Hokmah Stimoe Concealed Wisdom

In taking this particular Crown at the time of
emendation, Atik assumed the Crown of the Name
forty-five. Likewise, Arik Anpin took Hokmah of the
Name "45 because it has Hokmah of the original
Emanation. Intelligence of the first Emanation, requir
ing "Father and Mother ( Abba & lma) ,for they are
but an extension of the brain, took Hokmah Stimoe.
But the three Heads of Arik Anpin proper were con
stituted of Crown, Wisdom and Intelligence of the
second Emanation.

This is why we refer to two different triads of
Heads. In the first we count the Unknown Head as
one, and Kithra as two. In the second triad we do not
count the Unknown Head, but start from Kithra. There
are two kinds of Emanation. Thus, according to the
first Emanation the Unknown Head is the first Head,
Kithra is the second, Hokmah Stimoe is the third, be
cause Crown, Wisdom and Intelligence are of this type;



but according to the second Emanation we do not count
the Unknown Head because there is nothing in it of this
type. Kithra is the first Head, since it is made of Crown
of the second Emanation.

Similarly, at the time of emendation, all the rest
of the Parezufim were made of the entities of the second
Emanation, comprised in the Sefirot of A Jekudim. Since
they were issued only in the degree of the second Emana
tion, Father and Mother, "whose source is in "Wisdom
and "Intelligence of Arik Anpin, instead of retaining
their original place in its head, now enclo the only its



We shall now outline the manner of the vessels descent
into the world of Creation, and their specific destina
tions therein.

To begin with, we must understand that the descent
of the vessels and the descent of the Lights occurred
simultaneously. However, the Lights remained in the
world of Emanation proper, and did not descend below
it. Their descent (even thus far) is not due to any
defectiveness in the Lights themselves. For, as previ
ously stated, defects are attri butable only to vessels, since
they represent a type of Justice and cannot bear the
Lights, which represent Absolute Mercy.

The reason for the descent of the Lights in the
world of Emanation resides in the fact that the vessels
(also referred to as Kings) were destined to rise to
their places at the time of emendation. This could not
take place if the vessels were so completely removed
from the Light as to remain entirely obscured, un
emended and therefore powerless to rise. To prevent
this from taking place, the Emanator so arranged it
that the individual Lights intended for each vessel shone
into them from their places at a distance in such a
manner that the darkness did not triumph over them.




We shall now explain the order of the descent of
these Lights. When the Light of Daat or Knowledge
(the first of the seven Kings) came forth to reign and to
shine in its place, its vessel was unable to bear it. Thus
the vessel shattered and descended to the place where
"Knowledge in the world of Creation was eventually
to abide. In order to shine into its vessel, the Light it
self descended to the place of "Kingdom of Emanation,
which is located in the world of Creation. The Light
is located therefore at a distance of but three degrees
from its vessel.

The arrangement is similar with each of the Sefirot,
namely, the Light assigned to each vessel shines into it
at a distance of three degrees. Note that the Light of
"Knowledge, which went down to the vessel of "King
dom, did not descend with its full might, for if it did,
the vessel of Kingdom would break, thereby preventing
the required flow of its Light from entering into the
world of Creation. Only a small proportion of the
Lightsuch as "Kingdom could bearentered to shine
below through it into its already descended vessel.

Immediately after the descent of "Knowledge the
Light of "Mercy was issued to reign and shine in its
place. Thus it descended into its vessel. This vessel too
could not bear the ample Light so that it too broke, and
fell to the place of "Intelligence in the world of Crea
tion, while the Light descended to the place of "Founda
tion in the world of Emanation, for the place of "King
dom was already taken by the Light of "Knowledge.
There the Light of Mercy shone into its vessel also at
a distance of three degrees.



Thereafter, "Power was issued and its vessel, being
unable to bear the might of its Light, shattered also.
The vessel descended to the place of "Wisdom of the
world of Creation, and the Light occupied the place
of "Triumph and "Glory in the world of Emanation.
As was remarked, these two Sefirot are symbolic of the
two halves of the body.

Then the Light of "Beauty was issued and desired
to reign in its place; its vessel broke and fell to the
place of "Crown of the world of Creation, but the
Light remained in its place and shone from "here into
its vessel which was now located below. The Light
of "Beauty therefore differs from the other Lights,
for they went below their places to shine ;into their
vessels, while the Light of "Beauty remained in its
own place. From there it radiated forth to its vessel.
Since it had not descended, the Light of "Beauty re
tained its original strength. But the other Lights had
descended, and although it was not due to any defect
or lack in them, their power was thereby somewhat
lessened from its original strength. Although these Lights
remained without garments (vessels) to enclo the them,
they had no desire to rise above from their places, since
their original power no longer existed.

However, when the Light of "Beauty, standing in
its full capacity of power, perceived that it had no
garment (vessel) , it desired to rise above to its place
namely the place of its issuance, which is "Intelligence.
But this would entail complete separation between
"Beauty and its vessel, and the latter would remain
unemended and entirely obscure. So the Supreme Ema-



nator arranged that the vessel belonging to "Crown
(which had not been shattered) should extend and mag
nify its size until it reached below. This vessel is drawn
by way of the middle pillar, for, as described above,
the first three Sefirot were already arranged as pillars,
even prior to the emendation. The vessel reached the
place of "Beauty and enclothed it halfway, to the place
of the Navel. The other half, which remained bare,
rose into the vessel of "Crown and became concealed

Then the Light of "Knowledge, which had de
scended below to "Kingdom of the world of Eman
ation, seeing a new vessel in its place (for "Knowledge
also has its place, in the central pillar, between "Crown
and "Beauty), rose above to its place and its vessel
descended to "Kingdom of the world of Creation.
Since its Light was remote from the vessel, the latter was
unable to remain in its place, and so it descended below
to "Kingdom.

But the vessel of "Beauty did not descend, even
with its Light far removed from it. For in the case
of Beauty the distance is not designated as complete,
since only half of the Light was concealed, and the
other half remained in its place. Hence its vessel also
did not move from the place to which it had descended
namely to "Crown in the world of Creation.

With the ascent of the Light of Knowledge to its
place, the vessel belonging to "Crown was amplified at
the position of "Beauty and extended to the point
where Beauty terminates. Then the lower half of
"Beauty, the Light that had been concealed above, re-



turned to its place; for the Light had originally ascended
in response to the fact that "Crowns vessel was reaching
only halfway down along "Beauty. Perceiving its lack
of enclothement, the lower half of the Light then rose
above into the vessel. But now, the vessel of "Crown
was so full that it extended to the terminating point of
the lower half of "Beauty causing the Light to descend
and return to its original place.

It is important to know how the upward ascent of
"Knowledge caused the magnification of the vessel of
"Crown. There are two reasons: first, while the Light
belonging to "Knowledge passed through that vessel in
order to ascend "Knowledge enclothed it and the Light
radiated therein, thereby amplifying the vessel of Crown.
Secondly, "Knowledge is a collective source for all the
six lower Sefirot .* It is their soul. Therefore when it
rose, it gave power to the vessel of "Crown, and magni
fied it in order to permit the Light of "Beauty to
descend to its original place. It was possible for the
vessel of "Knowledge to go down as far as "Kingdom
in Creation, because the separation between the Light and
the vessel was no greater than three degrees. Although
the Light itself benefitted and the vessel suffered', a lack,
the loss was not great since the immediate welfare of
the Light comes first and because it is obliged to shine
into the vessel anyway.

In the beginning, when there was no vessel at the place
of "Knowledge, the Light of "Knowledge desired to

* Tr. N. "Mercy, "Power, "Beauty, "Triumph, "Glory,



shine into its vessel, since by so doing the vessel would
benefit, and the Light itself would suffer no loss. For
even if the Light had risen back to its place, it would
have had no benefit whatsoever, since there was no vessel.
Therefore, since it descended to shine into its vessel, it
did not rise again.

However, now that a vessel came into being at the
original place of "Knowledge, "Knowledge ascended
to it, for by virtue of its ascent it gained an advantage
and acquired greater Light than the measure it had had

As for the lack in the vessel, this also does not amount
to anything, for when we say that it is necessary for the
distance between Light and vessel to be less than that of
three Sefirot, we refer to three Sefirot of the world of
Emanation, whose measure is extensive. Therefore if the
Light were to be at a distance of three Sefirot of Eman
ation from the vessel, the vessel would be designated as
entirely remote from the Light. But in this case,
although the vessel of "Knowledge descended to "King
dom in the world of Creation, its descent is not con
sidered great, for it resides at the head of the world of
Creation, and even all ten Sefirot of this world taken
together do not equal the size of even one of the Sefirot
in the world of Emanation

Furthermore, you may ask: How can it be that the
Light of Knowledge is entirely remote from its vessel at
a distance of three degrees of Emanation? The answer
is as follows. When we say that the distance of a Light
from a vessel must be no greater than three degrees, this
does not refer to the distance between a vessel and its



own Light, as will be explained later. "What it does mean
is that in order that the vessels shall not be completely
remote from the Lights, it is sufficient for them to be
within the stipulated distance of any Lights, for it does
not matter if these Lights come from Sefirot other than
their own.

Such is the case here: although the Light of "Knowl
edge was considerably removed from its vessel, it made
no difference, since at the end of Emanation there were
other Lights from which this vessel could receive illumi
nation. Or it could even receive its own Light through
the agency of those adjacent Lights. This principle applies
in the case of all the Sefirot. For there is never an instance
in which, between the Light and the vessel, there are
three Sefirot of Emanation empty of Light.

Now to complete the description of the Sefirot,
starting from "Beauty and moving downward. When
the Lights of "Triumph and "Glory came forth to
reign, they should have reigned in their own places.
But their places were not free. The Light of "Power
had descended there, as described above. Then "Intelli
gence extended her vessel and was drawn through the
left pillar to the place which was to be specified for
"Power. For these lower Sefirot were not as yet arranged
in the order of pilars. When the Light of "Power saw
a new vessel in its place, it rose up while its own vessel
descended into "Foundation of the world of Creation.
Because the Light was now further removed from the
vessel, the power of the vessel was diminished, and it
descended below. Following this, since they had been
evacuated, "Triumph and "Glory reigned momentarily



in their proper places, and their vessels broke, descending
to the place of "Triumph and "Glory of the world of
Creation. The Lights themselves rose up as far as
"Power. The reason for their joint ascent to that point
is that since "Triumph and "Glory are the two halves
of the body, it is impossible for one to rise without the
other. Therefore, when "Glory rose up as far as
"Power (because Glory is part of the same left pillar
as Power), "Triumph (although it belongs to the right
pillar) rose there as well.

Thereafter, the Light of "Foundation came forth,
but it did not proceed to its own place, since the Light
of "Mercy was occupying it. This necessitated the
extension of the vessel of "Wisdom by way of the right
pillar all the way to the place where Mercy would be
established after the Emendation. Then the Light of
"Mercy rose there and became included in the vessel of
"Wisdom. "Mercys vessel descended into "Beauty
of the world of Creation, since its Light was now at a
remote distance from it. Then "Foundation reigned in
its own place. Its vessel shattered and descended into
"Power of the world of Creation. Its Light rose by
way of the central pillar up to the place of "Knowledge
of the world of Emanation.

Following that the Light of "Kingdom came forth.
Its vessel was unable to bear this Light, and it broke.
Thus the vessel descended to the place of "Mercy of
Creation, and the Light rose to "Knowledge by way of
the central pillar, just as the Light of "Foundation had



That is why the vessel of "Beauty is located at
"Crown in the world of Creation, and the vessel of
"Kingdom at "Mercy in the world of Creation, and
there is no instance in which the distance between one
vessel and another is greater than three degrees. Also, in
the world of Emanation there is no space which is void of
Light extending more than three degrees.

So much for the matter of the shattering of the
"Kings. Now let us examine why the Lights of
"Foundation and of "Kingdom rose up to "Knowledge
that is, higher than the Lights of "Beauty. It is
important to remember that the Sefira of "Foundation
possesses a special capability which gives it preference
over the other Sefirot in that it is able to rise all the way
up to the place of "Knowledge. In the writings of
Isaac Luria explaining the uniting process between Z eir
Anpin ( microprosopus ) and "Leah during the Minha
prayers, and how this union can take place when the
Feet of "Leah reach only to the Chest of ZO. The
solution is derived from what we have said, namely that
at the time of the Minha prayer, one-third of the Sefira
of "Foundation rises to the upper third of "Beauty of
ZO, and there unites with "Leah.

This matter is also alluded to in the Z ohar, where
Joseph (Foundation) is spoken of as being above, and
below. He has this virtue because upon Foundation de
pends the union, and through it passes the generative
seed, which issues from Knowledge and proceeds to the
feminine polarity. If he had not this power of rising all
the way to "Knowledge (the soul of the six Sefirot),
where the five Mercies which constitute the generative



seed reside, "Foundation would be unable to draw this
seed from "Knowledge itself in order to bring it down
to the feminine polarity.

Since it is customary for "Foundation to make
the ascent to "Knowledge, we can see why, during the
shattering of the vessels, the Light of "Foundation rose
up to "Knowledge, even surpassing "Beauty. Further
more, the ascent was made in order to bind together all
the six Sefirot and to transmit the illumination of
"Knowledge to them for Daat, or "Knowledge is the
very soul of the Sefirot.

Now let us examine the ascent of "Kingdom to
the place of Knowledge. The matter is as follows: at
the outset, when the vessel of "Knowledge broke and
separated from its Light, the Light descended to "King
dom in the world of Emanation, and although later this
Light rose from "Kingdom to "Knowledge it still left
its impression there. It is the nature of divine Lights to
leave their "impression when they depart from any
particular place which they have occupied. It was
from this impression of the Light of "Knowledge that
the Light of "Kingdom derived its power to rise up.
Moreover, the ascent of "Kingdom represents a great
accomplishment in the process of Emendation.

It has already been explained how and why the
Lights of both "Triumph and "Glory rose to the
place of the Sefira "Power. Now, with the rising of
"Kingdom, "Triumph separated itself from "Glory and
went to the right pillar, for that is its place. Thus, the
impression of the Light of Knowledge left with Kingdom
actually makes it "Kingdom of "Knowledge, which is



composed of the substance of the Powers in the Sefira
Knowledge. When Kingdom rose, therefore, this
impression of Light rose with it. The impression, which
derives from the Powers and is the diadem of the fem
inine polarity, united with the Mercies which reside in
Knowledge, and are called the diadem of the masculine
polarity; as a result of this union, Knowledge shone
into the six Sefirot. The impression shone into the left
pillar and caused Glory to remain in her proper place.
The diadem of the masculine polarity, that is, the
Mercies, shone into the right pillar, causing Triumph
to separate from "Glory and cross over to its proper
place on the right pillar.

In this way all the six Sefirot were emended by
virtue of the ascent of Kingdom.

All the vessels which descended into the world of
Creation at the time they became defective, were selected,
and emended during which time they ascended to their
places. But they were not selected completely. Each
and every day they continue to be selected and emended
by means of our prayers. The power of the husks,
which came into being because of these vessels, gradually
declines as these selections are withdrawn from them.
When the process of selection will have been completed,
that is, when they will have been completely selected,
then the husk will be entirely annulled. This will occur
at the time of the final emendation, when the shell will be
exterminated, and the Divine Power alone will, remain.

On that eventful occasion, the Prophet tells us:
He will destroy death forever; and the Lord God will
wipe away tears from off all faces . . . (Isaiah XXV ).



And it is also said: "And the Lord shall be king over all
the earth: in that day shall the Lord be One, and His
Name One. (Zachariah XIV, 9 )



What follows is a description of the fall of the
posterior parts of Aba and Ima (Father and Mother).
We have already mentioned above that the fall of these
posterior parts is different from the shattering of the
seven lower Sefirot, for they descended to the worlds of
Creation, Formation and Action, while these, although
they descended from their degree, remained in the world
of Emanation itself. It must also be borne in mind that
the fall of the posterior parts of Father and Mother was
not due to any shortcomings of theirs for the breaking
of the vessel is a result of its merger with the root of
the evil spirit, which rendered the vessels unable to re
ceive the Light or to unite with it. The vessels were
shattered in order to be purified.

However, in the three first Sefirot, there is no trace
of the root of a shell, or evil spirit. The fact that the
other seven Sefirot were unable to issue in the arrange
ment of three pillars is proof that the evil spirit was rooted
in them. But, since the evil spirit already had no con
nection with them, the first three Sefirot were arranged
in the order of pillars. Nevertheless, they too were af
fected in that they were drawn down in the form of the
brain of Adam Kadmon into the seven lower S-efirot.

As far as they themselves are concerned, they were
emended so that they could sustain their own existence,




but their emendation was not as great as that of the
seven lower Sefirot. Instead, while their anterior por
tions remained unaffected, their posterior parts descended
from their degree.

What we mean by the terms "anterior and "pos
terior are, respectively, parts that shine and parts that
do not shine. They are the source of the "front and
"back in man. Thus, when we speak of a condition of
"face to face or "back to back in relation to Parezufim,
we refer to a change of administration: that is, when the
posterior part of the Parezuf is dominating, the anterior
part is concealedor vice versa. These alternate admin
istrations result from changing cycles, or from the actions
of mankind.*

Although the Sefirot "Wisdom and "Intelligence
are Nekudot (Points), nevertheless we find in them the
ability to see each other "face to face. This effects in
them what resembles the union that is required for the
issuance of the seven lower Sefirot which are as offspring
to them, for actually they are drawn from them. For
these two Sefirot (even only as Points) also comprise the
appropriate parts that are later to be allotted to Father
and Mother (Aba and hna) , to Israel the Ancient and
Understanding (Israel Saba and Tebunah ), at the time
that they are subdivided into these four Parezufim. (Thus,
the Sefirot of Nekudot comprise all the qualities pertain-

* TR. N. In brief, when the posterior part rules, and the
Light is hidden from the world, it means that the world is under
rigid Judgment; but when we speak of the anterior part ruling,
then it means that the Light of Mercy is shining, and that the
world is being governed through Compassion.



ing to all the Parezufim of Emanation, which are disclosed
at the time they are manifested.)

During the time that the "Kings (vessels] existed.
Father and Mother were in a condition of being "face
to face. But with their fall, Father and Mother suf
fered a diminution of all degrees, culminating in the fall
of their posterior parts. The order of this diminution is
as follows:

When "Knowledge fell, simultaneously the two
pillars, that is, Mercy and Power of "Knowledge in
Father and Mother, descended into the body. This de
prived Father and Mother of the privilege of facing, that
is, observing, each other."' When Mercy fell, the
posterior part of Father descended, causing him to turn
his back to the face of Mother. Then, instead of being,
as at first, "face to face, they were changed into a con
dition of "face to back. When the vessel of "Power
fell, the posterior part of Mother descended, causing her
to turn her back to the back of Father, who had pre
viously turned. Thus they came to the condition of
"back to back. When a third part of the vessel of
"Beauty fell, then the posterior parts of the ' Founda
tions Father and Mother descended.

When the remainder of "Beauty fell, "Mercy and
"Power of Knowledge in Israel the Ancjent and
Understanding, descended into the body. When "Tri
umph and "Glory fell, then the posterior part of Israel
the Ancient and Understanding descended. Thus they

* TR. N. Since Knowledge, which is their mediator, is no
longer present to unite them.



too assumed the position "back to back. When "Foun
dation fell, then the posterior part of their "Foun
dations descended. When "Kingdom fell, then the
posterior parts of the "Crowns of Israel the Ancient
and Understanding descended.

Thus the corruption of the posterior parts of the
Sefirot "Triumph, "Glory and "Foundation belong
ing to "Crown, was completed. The cause for the
defect in "Triumph, "Glory and "Foundation of
"Crown was that they had been drawn in the form of
brain into Father and Mother, and not because of any
fault of their own. The posterior part of Father and
Mother descended to the encircling Light of "Mercy
and "Power in the world of Emanation. The posterior
part of Israel the Ancient and Understanding descended
into the anterior and posterior parts of "Kingdom.

Now you can see that the whole incident of shatter
ing is one process, affecting the seven lower vessels and
the four posterior parts of Father and Mother, and
Israel the Ancient and Understanding. From these the
husk was built. So that in our daily prayers we express
"Pifuin Hahetoret . . . the mixture of perfumes which
comprises eleven different ingredients of incense, in order
to select these eleven distinct entities of divinity from
the husk. Their selection is to continue until the advent
of the Messiah, for only then will they be completely
extracted from the shells.



We shall now explain the subject of the 28 j 8 Sparks
(in Hebrew RESH, PEH, CHET) which are often
mentioned in discussions of the shattering of the "Kings.
We have already described above the shattering of the
seven lower Sefirot of the Nekudim, for in them alone,
and not in the three first Sefirot, did the shattering occur.
Their debasement means their death.

It is necessary to bear in mind the principle that all
things existing in the world exemplify that which oc
curred in those "Kings. The death of man) in this
world is analogous of the descent of those "Kings.
Thus, for example, when a person dies, the soul and the
body separate from each other. The soul rises jabove to
its abode, while the body descends to the earth, wherein
it is buried. In the descent of those "Kings, tljie Lights
separated from the vessels as the soul of a man jseparates
from his body. The soul of the vessel (in their case,
the Lights), rose above to its place in the world of Ema
nation, while the vessels themselves (corresponding to the
body of a man) descended below to the world pf Crea
tion. This was their "burial. The emendation of these
vessels, and their ascent, when that ocurs, instructs us
regarding the event of resurrection, when the (lead will
be made living. The very bodies that were buried will
rise, just as the vessels were raised at the time of selection.




Note that just as when a person dies, some spirit is
left in his body, designated by the Z ohar as the "heat of
the bones, so that it may be sustained until the time of
its resurrection, likewise, when those "Kings descended,
a small amount of spiritual power was left in them in
order to sustain them during the period of emendation
of the world of Emanation. This power is referred to
as the 288 Sparks, which remained in the vessels when
they descended to the world of Creation. However, the
principal Lights departed to go above into the world of
Emanation, leaving only a small part in the vessels to
animate them. 288 Lights remainthis being the sum
total of the four quantities of 72 Sparks which descended
from the four Names: 72, 63, 45, 52.

At the outset, it is necessary to know that the
superior entities of the Lights rose upward, while the
inferior ones remained in the world of Creation. Now
to explain the different degrees of strength in the Lights
and the measure of superiority of one Light over another.

It is already known that the Lights of the world of
Emanation are comprised of all the variations on the four
Havayas, which are as follows:

1) Havaya totalling 72;

2) 63;

3) 45;

4) 52:

The principal Lights are the four simple (that is,
not spelled out) letters of the Name HAVAYA when
they appear in the shapes of the four Hebrew Letters.
Thre is also another form, that is, when the HAVAYA


is considered in its numerical value, as when we say that
the four simple letters of the Havaya amount to 26.
These two distinctions exist also in the "posterior spell
ing of the Name, as well as in the fully-spelled Name,
and again in the completed spelling of the fully-spelled
Name. The process of permutation goes on ad infinitum.
It is self-evident that the shapes of the letters themselves
are considered more as origin and source of Creation than
for the numerical value they yield.

The following outline describes the stages of the
Havaya whose numerical value is 72. From this, all the
other Havayas will be understood:

The first stage is the shape of the four simple letters, thus:


The second stage is the progression of the shape of the
four simple letters, thus: Y YH YHV YHWH.
They are ten letters in all. This is the backward aspect
of the Name HAVAYA.

The third stage is the total of the simple four letters of
the Havaya, which is 26. Y-10; H-5;

W-6; H-5

The fourth stage is the total of the progression of the
four letters, which is 72. Y-10; YH-15;

YHW-21; YHWH-26

The fifth stage consists of the ten spelled-out letters of
Havaya, thus: YWD HY WYW HY.



The sixth stage is the fully spelled-out progression when
it appears as follows: YWD; YWD, HY; YWD,

The seventh stage is the number 72, which represents
the total of the spelled-out Havaya.

The eighth stage, totalling 184, is the numerical value of
the progression of the fully spelled-out Name.

Y = 10 W = 6 D = 4 x 2 =40

H = 5 Y = 10 = 15 + 20 + 15 +
W=6j-Y=10 + W = 6 = 22 + 20
+ 15 + 22 + 15 = 184

In this manner, the stages proceed ad infinitum.
And it is the same with the other Names. We must
know that each preceding stage is superior to the one
that succeeds it; recall that the Sparks that were left in
the vessel are of the most inferior quality. It must also
be borne in mind that Sparks originally descended from
each of the four Havayas in order to animate their
vessels. The sparks of the Havaya 72 descended into the
vessels that belongs to 72. And the same is true of the
others; since the Sparks of one Havaya have no power
to animate the vessel belonging to a different Havaya, it
was therefore necessary that Sparks should descend from
each individual name.

It is necessary to know further that the Havaya of
72 is superior in quality to all the other Havayas. The
next in degree is the Havaya 63; next to it is the Havaya
45; and below it is the Havaya of 52. Because of these
variations in degree the manner of their descent is dis-



similar. Thus, in the Name 72highest in degree the
shattering was not so thorough. Its descending Sparks
were few. From the Name 63 more Sparks fell than
from 72, but less than those from the Name 45. From
the Name 45, more Sparks fell than from 65, but less
than what fell from the name 52. From 52 more Sparks
fell than from all the others, for the name 52 is the
lowest of all.

The first six stages of the highest Havaya, 72, as
cended to the world of Emanation. The remaining
stagesfrom the seventh ontoge ther with their vessels
descended to the world of Creation. However, those
stages which follow the seventh are not considered sepa
rately, but are included in the seventh, which is the only
stage that is counted. It is the sum of the ten letters of
the fully spelled-out Name, which amounts to 72.

From the Lights of the Name 63, only the first four
degrees rose to the world of Emanation. The two other
superior degrees descended to the world of Creation. They
are the fifth degree: the shapes of the ten spelled-out
letters of the Name; and the sixth degree, their posterior
part. When we count the ten spelled-out letters simply
as ten letters and add their numercial value, which is 63,
the total is 73.

From the Name 45, which is "Beauty, only two
upper degrees rose to the world of Emanation, since this
Name is lower in degree than 63. The remaining degrees
descended below. The third degree, which is the numeri
cal value of the four letters of the Name Havaya and



the seventh degree, which is the numerical value of the
ten spelled-out letters, totals 71 (26 + 45).

From the Name 52, only the uppermost degree con
sisting of the four simple letters of Havaya, that is, the
letters themselves, rose to the world of Emanation. The
reason for this is that the Name 52 is in "Kingdom,
and is the lowest. Here the extent of the shattering was
greatest of all. Therefore, with the sole exception of the
first degree, which rose to Emanation, all the remaining
Lights of "Kingdom were unable to rise upward and so
they fell into the World of Creation. This is the key to
the knowledge that "Kingdom is but one Point; for
only the one of its Points, the first degree, remained in
the world of Emanation, and the remainder descended

Hence, the 72 Sparks which fell from the Name 52
are the sum of the progression of the ten backwards
letters of the simple Havaya that amount to 72. From
the Name 72 we stipulate descent of the seventh degree
only, and from the Name 63, the fifth and the seventh,
and from the Name 45 the third and the seventh and
from the Name 52 only the fourth. The reason is that
all the differences in the descent of these Names exist
only upwards of the seventh degree, while in the seventh
and other degrees below it, all are similar. Thus in every
Name the seventh degree, and all those degrees that
are below it, descended below. But the degrees below
the seventh are not counted for they are submerged in it.

Remember that the posterior part (or progression)
of a Havaya is submerged in that quality of Havaya



which is called the anterior part. Therefore.] although
the ahnrayim (posterior parts) also descend] they are
nevertheless not counted since they are submerged. One
exception to this is the Havaya 52, which will be dis
cussed shortly.

Something further must be borne in mine, and that
is, that when there are two equal numbers, only one is
counted and not the second. Proof of this iii the fact
that the ten spelled-out letters of the Name 45 fell, just
as did those of the Name 63. For when the thlj.rd degree
of 45 fell, all the other degrees were drawn after it and
were submerged in it. Yet we do not couni: the ten
spelled-out letters of 45. that is, the fifth degree, for this
degree is already found in the amount of 72 (Sparks) of
63. Even if the spelled-out letters of two different
Names were similar in amount, they would nojt both be
counted, because although the Sparks are similar in their
very being, when the lower ones fall, they remain at the
place where the upper ones had already fallen! At the
outset the ten letters of 63 descended.*' Theh the ten
letters of the Name 45 fell and remained at Jthe place
where the letters of 63 were. Although they ar!j; unequal
(the ten letters of 45 being inferior to thosjl; of 63)
nevertheless when they fell below they met those of 63
and were intermingled. They fell no lower, bjrt united
with them. This happened because they are! alike in
number (each of them consisting of ten letters). How-


* TR. N. At the start it was the upper Kings who reigned:
and later came the reign of the the lower Kings.



ever, when numbers are dissimilar, then each individually
goes down to its appropriate place. Wherever there is
similarity, they are not repeated. The ten letters of the
Name 45 are not counted individually since they are
bound with the ten letters of the Name 63. But the
seventh degree (of the Names 72, 63, and 45) is counted
separately because in each instance it differs from the
others. The third degree of the Name 45 is counted
individually because no degree descended from the other
Names which bore any similarity to this one. Likewise,
in the Name 63 we count its 73 Sparks, that is, its fifth
degree, the ten spelled-out letters, because no similar
degree descended from the Name 72; and also the numer
ical value of the ten spelled-out letters, which we count
in each of the Names, because numerically all are dis

We shall now explain the fourth aggregation of 72
Sparks of the Name 52, which is "Kingdom. We have
said above that this is the fourth stage, namely the sum
of the posterior part, or progression of the simple Havaya,
which amounts to 72. The reason we count the posterior
part here though we do not in the other cases, is that
wherever we count the "face or anterior part of a
Havaya, then the posterior part is completely excluded
from the count.* Thus, in the three other Havayas,

* TR. N. The eight stages earlier enumerated consist of
four pairs of Face and posterior part. Thus the first, third
fifth and seventh stages in all the Names are Face; while the
second, fourth, sixth and eighth stages are the posterior parts
of these Faces.



where we count the faces, the posterior parts: submerge
into the Faces and are not counted. But, heiie since we
do not count the Face, we do count the posterior part.
Yet it is necessary to know the reason why in the Name
52 the Face is not countedif we were to count the
Face then we would not have to count the posterior part,
and it would be similar to the others. Therefore, it is
necessary to give meaning to each stage separately.

Thus, we do not count the third stage the sum of
the four simple letters (of the Name 52, amounting to
26) because this was already included in the total of the
Name 45, and is submerged in it, as mentioned earlier.

The seventh stage, or degree, which represents the
amount of the spelled-out Name of 52, is not counted,
although it is unlike all the other Havayas. Therefore,
in order to understand this exclusion it is necessary to
know the content of the Havaya 52. Of what does it
consist? Note that this Havaya is spelled with Hes, and
is thus actually composed of two Havayas: in other
words, it is a double Havaya. For the letters filling in
the Havaya are actually the double of the simple letters.
Even the Waw and Dalet that fill the Yud, although dif
ferent in appearance from the simple Yud itself are the
same in numerical value.

Of these two Havayas one is designated as ZO
(Microprosopus) and one as the feminine polarity. When
these two are united, ZO gives his Havaya to her and
thus two Havayas are manifested in the feminine polar
ity. This is the Name of 52, that of the feminine


The seventh degree of the Name 52 is not counted,
for the essential part of 52 derives from ZO and there
fore we do not count it independently. For the same
reason, we do not count the fifth degree either, that is,
the form of the fully-spelled out letters of this Havaya.
Therefore, since none of the anterior (Face) degrees
could be counted, only the stage of the posterior part is

It is important to know that these Names of 72 and
63 which we have already mentioned are not those which
existed before the emendation took place, but rather those
which came into being following the emendation. In
order to understand this it is necessary to present an ex
planation, as follows.

When the ten Points issued from the eyes of Adam
Kadmon, and were traversing the world of Emanation
in their descent to the world of Creation, they left their
impressions there. From the Points of their Crown the
Pareznf Microprosopus, or Crown, was later made.* From
the Points of their "Wisdom and "Intelligence, the
Parezufim of Father and Mother (which are "Wisdom
and "Intelligence in the world of Emanation) were
made following the emendation. And from the Points
of their seven lower Sefirot, the Parezufim of ZON,
which are the seven Sefirot of Emanation, were later
made. (ZON comprises Microprosopus and his Feminine

* TR. N. This is the Parezuf of Arik Anpitt.



However later, at the time of emendation, the worlds
descended from their original degrees and they were not
located as they had been at first, but in a different man
ner, as follows. It has been shown that the seven lower
Sefirot of Macroprosopus are enclothed in the world of
Emanation, and as will be shown later, that all the
Parezufim clo the him. From this, it would seem to be
fitting that Father and Mother, which represent "Wis
dom and "Intelligence, should abide above, at the
place of "Wisdom and "Intelligence of Macroprosopus
but this was not the case. Instead, they enclothed
"Mercy and "Power of Macroprosopus.

The same condition obtains with ZO, Micrpprosopus,
which consists of the six lower Sefirot. In like manner,
they should have enclothed the six Sefirot of Macro
prosopus, but this was not the case. Instead, they clothed
only from half of its Sefira "Beauty on down. But
Kingdom remained in its first position and enfolded
"Kingdom of Macroprosopus.

Summarizing the foregoing, we shall say that the
Name 72, whose place is in "Wisdom, enfolded 'Mercy.
The Name 63, whose place is in "Intelligence, enfolded
only "Power of Arik Anpin. The Name 45, which is
synonymous with ZO was placed at the lower half of
"Beauty and "Triumph, "Glory and "Foundation of
Macroprosopus, although ZO itself comprises all of six
Sefirot. And the Name 52 is in "Kingdom itself, for
"Kingdom alone remained in its place.

It is evident then that the Names 72 and 63 men
tioned above are not those Names which existed prior to



the emendation, but those that exist following the emen
dation. In other words, the Names 72 and 63 to which
we ascribe shattering were those entities which following
the Emendation, were fit to clo the "Mercy and "Power
of Macroprosopus. If this were not the case and they had
remained in the form of the original entities, it would
have been impossible for the Names 72 and 63 to have
undergone shattering, particularly since it is known that
these two Names represent "Wisdom and "Intelligence,
the two Sefirot that have never undergone shattering.

It is essential to understand that these 288 Sparks
(RPH) are all very severe Judgments. They issued
from the Primordial "Kings that were shattered; these
"Kings in turn were issued from the "strong Light
(Butzino Decordenuso) which was hidden in the womb
of the Mother (Intelligence) as expressed in the Z ohar.
This "strong Light is the origin of all the Judgments
and Judicial Powers. Because it resides in Mother she is
designated as the source of all Judgments. The T.ohar
also notes that Judgments arise from her. It is this Light
which fixes the measure and limit of every Sefira.

Note that since she is the source of all Judgments,
this act of limiting is ascribed to her. This is because
every measure and limit to things is the result of Judg
ment, whose nature it is to restrain. This is closely
related to the nature of the husks or shells the Kelipah.

Bear in mind that "Mercy ( Hesed ) and "Justice
(Din) are the two stages created by the Supreme Eman-
ator for the purpose of governing the world. They are
of diverse nature. The nature of "Mercy is to extend
amply, without limit or measure, whereas the nature of



Justice is to conceal the Light and to completely re
strain it. However, in ho instance does one of these two
attri butes act independently of the other. Thus there
is no Mercy without Justice and no Justice without
Mercy. The root of the matter lies in this:: Mercys
nature is to flow forth, to extend itself, while that of
Justice is to restrain. But while Justice is still close to
its sources, it cannot entirely fulfill its function because
of the strength of the Light of the source, this: Infinite,
blessed be He. Because of this, Mercy triumphs greatly
over Justice. As, however, the descent below proceeds
and the source becomes more remote, the Light of Mercy
is decreased and the power of Justice is increased. In
this manner, it proceeds from stage to stage, the Light
becoming ever smaller and Justice ever increasing until
there remains only Justice, entirely without Mbrcy. At
this point Justice restrains and entirely blocks the Light;
here it is called "husk or "shell, or "rigid and severe
Justice. This sort of Justice is unfit to abide in the
Divine Realm and is expelled below. It is called "scum
because it is actually the sediment of Justice.

Let us now examine the origin and development of
Justice. We have already declared at the outset that
before anything existed in the world, it was necessary
that the Supreme Emanat
would not be extended in its full might. That act already
marked the beginning of the manifestation of the root
of Justice. Although the use of the term "Justice is
inappropriate in such an exalted realm, nevertheless, since
there was a kind of "hindering of the Light, the source,
or origin of Justice took root here. Therefore, the



starting-point of existence for the root of Justice occurred
at the first contraction of the Light. But there it abso
lutely did not manifest, because of the exalted nature
of the realm. Only when it extended below did Justice
increase in power. Thus, in each and every world the
Light is diminished and Justice increases in power until it
becomes so rigid that it cannot abide in the Divine realm,
and is thus expelled. It is called "sitra ahara (the
other side), or the extreme opposite of the Divine
Light. This other side is a different creation, opposed
in nature to the Divine Sefirot. In short, it is the
essence of the husk. Further details about the nature
of the husks will be dealt with in later chapters.



The "Strong Light is the root of all the Judgments.
From her issue the "Kings, which are composed of the
substance of these extremely severe Judgments., As it is
said in the Idra portion of the Z ohar; "A Spark brought
forth Sparks, and the number of Sparks scattered is 320.
In other words, these Sparks that issued from the Strong
Light, were divided into 320, and constituted the seven
"Kings which broke. The Judgments residing within
Mother are the Butsino or Strong Lights, they are
comprised of 320 Sparks, for five times fr DzV (Judg
ment) whose numerical value is 64 amounts to 320.
From these, the "Kings issued, but they constitute only
315, lacking five. These five are the origin from which
all of them were issued and spread into 7 x 45 (the num
ber of Adam.

The reason for this is that those seven "Kings are
ZO in whom there is a Havaya (Holy Name) with
Alef, the numerical value of which is 45, equalling
Adam. For the past reason they are seven times "Adam
(45)amounting to 315.

Nevertheless, because they originate from the 320
Judgments of Mother, they are spread out into 320 Sparks
in the following manner. There are really eight "Kings
in all. Each is divided into four, after the manner of
the four-lettered Havaya. As we have pointed out
above, the Lights of the world of Emanation are all




Havayas. Thus, we find that since four times eight is
thirty-two, and each of these thirty-two comprises ten
(for it is known that each Sefira comprises ten Sefirot)
they total 320, for 10 x 32 is 320.

At the time of the selection and emendation only
288 Sparks in all were selected. The remaining Sparks
were left in Mother and are called "thorns. In the
future, at the coming of the Messiah the Owner of the
Orchard will come and destroy these thorns. They will
vanish from the face of the earth. As it is said in the
Scriptures: "And I will take away the stony heart.
(Ezekiel XXVI, 26). It must be understood that the
thorns are 32 in number, the same as the numerical value
of the word lev (heart). This touches on the mystery
of the "stone heart. The Creator made His promise
for the future to eliminate the 32 thorns from the world.

The reason for the selection of only 288 Sparks is
that in each path "Kingdom could not be selected, for
it is the lowest of all the entities and nearest to the shell
or husk. Only the three primary Sefirot, and the six
succeeding Ones of every entity were selected. Thus
we get 288 Sparks in all; from this number, Sparks are
constantly being selected which rise above to the Divine
Realm. These 288 Sparks are the total of four quantities
of 72 Sparks that fell from above. Later, at the time of
emendation, when the Kings rose up to Mother to be
emended, she gave them a drop of MN (the Feminine
Waters) which comprises five Judgments, and thereby
completed them at the number 320, for they were origin
ally 315 in number. Later they became 325, that is,
through the union of Father and Mother, when he gave



her five Judgments. In her newly tempered state they
become five Mercies; through these Mercies the 3^0
Sparks are tempered, or sweetened, and become 325.

In the words of the Z ohar: "We have learned that
from the "Strong Light issue 325 Sparks. That is to
say, after they are tempered by the Judgments of Father,
they issue as the number of 325.

To reiterate: at the outset the "Kings were issued
f r om the five Judgments that are within Mother. These
Kings are the 320 Judgments, which we compute by
multiplying Din 64 by five. Later, they decrease in
number to 315, which is equivalent to seven times Adam
45. At the time of the emendation, they regain their
original number of 320 because of the drop of MN
feminine waterswith which Mother completes them.
They are subsequently tempered by the Judgments of
Father ("Wisdom), which turn to Mercies in Mother,
and become 325.

It is important to know also that in the Feminine
Polarity there are 320 Judgments, this total (320) being
arrived at by multiplying Din (Judgment), or 64, by 5.
This distinguishes her as "Rigid Judgment in the aspect
of the seven "Kings. Later, when the Masculine Polarity
unites with her, they become 325.

It is important to understand this concept
thoroughly, for by five times Din we mean that Din
which derives from the Holy Name ADNI, and adds up
to a total of 320.

At that point the Judgments are absolutely untem
pered. But when the five Alefs which are the five
Names of AHWH unite with them they become tern-



pered, and reach the number 325: Specifically five times
ADNI (whose number is 65), or 325.

The Feminine Polarity is then called "the virgin
( naaroh which also has the numerical value of 325)
who receives the masculine essence. In other words, after
she receives the modification of five Judgments from the
Masculine Polarity, she also becomes fit to receive the
drop of Mercies. Because of this modification, or tem
pering which the Feminine Polarity receives from the
Masculine Polarity, she is called, in the words of the
Z ohar, "Mild Judgment. For she herself is rigid
Judgment, but through the conjoining of the Masculine
with her (that is, of the five Alefs from the Name
AHYH) her Judgments are tempered. As a result, she
is designated "Mild Judgment.

It is necessary to note that this addition of "five
which the Masculine Polarity gives the Feminine Polarity
in order to temper her Judgments, are the five Judgments
called "MNZPK (the five final Hebrew letters) the
numerical value of which is 280. It is through these
five that her Judgments are tempered.

Remember that the 320 are the Judgments of the
Feminine Polarity alone, where as the Judgments of
"MNZPK belong to the Male Polarity alone. He
transfers them to the Sefira "Foundation ( Yesod ) of
the Feminine Polarity.

The foregoing should thoroughly explain the idea
of the 288 Sparks, as well as the meanings of the 320
and the 325 Judgments mentioned many times in the
Lohar and elsewhere as the "Kings which are in the
nature of Judgments, and which were later tempered
and emended in their places.



Up to now we have depicted that which pertains
to the world of Nekudot, the "chaotic world. In the
following pages we shall explain the subject of the "Olam
ha-Berudim the Emended World, and the order of the
Parezufim of the world of Emanation, as they were
arranged by the Supreme Emanator.

After the worlds were disintegrated, and Iliad des
cended from their original stages, the Supreme Emanator
issued the New Name 45 ( Mah ha-Hodosh) through
which everything was emended. In order to issue this
Name, the two Names 72 and 63 of Adam Kadmon
united again, and thus the New Name 45 was brought
to birth. It was issued from the forehead of Adam
Kadmon. It was not actually new, but was now renewed
by the power of the Light of the union of the Names
72 and 63.

This Name, 45, raised up all the extractions from
the husks, and combined them into pillars; for what
actually had caused the disintegration was the arrange
ment of the "Kings one below the other without any
thing linking them together. But now, being united as
pillars, they were able to continue to exist.

After raising the shell extractions that are of the
quality of the Name 52, the new Name, 45, united with




them; it is considered to be the Masculine Polarity, while
the Name 52 is the Feminine Polarity. (Every Sefira
was comprised of male and female.)

A portion of Sparks still remained among the husks.
By means of our daily prayers we gradually raise them,
until eventually they will all be raised to their proper
realm. Then the husks will be left without sustenance,
and will therefore be lifeless. At this point they will
completely vanish. This will occur in the future, at the
advent of Messiah, when, as the Prophet expresses it:
"He will destroy death forever. (Isaiah XXV).

Now let us examine the process of emendation in
detail. When the Supreme Emenator desired that the
worlds which had been rendered defective should be
emended, He brought forth the New Name 45, which
issued from the Forehead of Adam Kadmon, and united
with the Name 52, in order to correct the creation.

However, to fully understand the emendation, we
must investigate the nature of this new Name 45, and
the manner in which it became united with the Name
called 52. The Name 45 comprises ten Sejirot, and is
divided into four categories, namely: TNTO (or
Ta amim, Nekudot, Tagin and Otiot). This is also
true of the Name 52. When the Sejirot of 45 and 52
unite, then together they are designated as ten complete
Sejirot , since they comprise both Masculine and Feminine

TAAMIM (signs indicating pitch)
NEKUDOT (vowel sounds)

TAGIN (ornamental strokes)
OTIOT (letters)

and his Feminine Polarity

are Intelligence



However, their subdivision in Parezufim is not in accord
ance with the above arrangement. Nor do the Sefirot
of 45 and 52 correspond to each other: that is., for ex
ample, "Crown of 45 does not match with Crown of
52, "Wisdom of 45 does not match with "Wisdom of
52, and so on. Instead their order is as follows:

The two Parezufim of Atik and Arik together con
stitute "Crown of the world of Emanation. Thus Atik
took for himself all of the Crown of 45, which are the
T aa mini; half of the Crown of 52, which arc his first
five Sefirot; the first three Sefirot of "Wisdom of 52;
the first four Sefirot of "Intelligence: and the seven
"Crowns of the seven lower Sefirot of 52. Arik. took
for himself all of "Wisdom of 45, which are the Neku-
dot, and half of "Crown of 52, that is, from his Sefira
Beauty downward.

Father took to himself half of "Intelligence of 45,
(which are the Tagin), and the seven lower Sefirot of
"Wisdom, for her first three had been taken by Atik.

Mo the r took to herself the lower half of "Intelli
gence of 45, which are the Tagin, and the six lower
Sefirot of "Intelligence of 52, for the four upper ones
had been taken by Atik.

The seven lower Sefirot took to themselves the
seven lower Sefirot of the names 45 and 52, excluding,
however, the seven Crowns of the seven lower Sefirot of
52, which remained in Atik.

Do not conclude that the Parezufim are one thing,
and what they have taken is something else, for this is
not so. The truth is that the Parezufim that were con
structed here are themselves the substance of the Sefirot
of 45 and 52, in the order outlined above.



Bear in mind that that which the Parezufim took
from the Name 45 is masculine, while that from 52 is
feminine. For instance, the part which Atik took from
45 is designated "Male Atik and that taken from 52 is
designated "Female Atik The same is true in the case
of Arik Anpin.

Do not question the presence in such exalted realms
which are all Compassionof the Feminine Polarity,
which is Judgment. From the words of the Z ohar, too,
it is seen that the Feminine Polarity was revealed only
from the Parezufim of Father and Mother downward.
In fact, as stated previously, the main objective of the
emendation of every entity is that it shall constitute both
Masculine and Feminine Polarities. Thus we find that
the Parezuf of Atik is constituted of 45 and 52. How
ever, this does not signify that the Feminine Polarity of
Atik is a Parezuf distinct from him. This is impossible,
for the reason above mentioned. However, when we
speak of the "Feminine Polarity of Atik we merely
mean the feminine essence found in this Parezuf, namely
the essence of the Name 52.

The same is true of the Parezuf of Arik. But this
is not the case with Father and Mother or Microprospus
and his Feminine Polarity; here the Feminine Polarities
are Parezufim different from the masculine, and compris
ing both Names 45 and 52-^just as does the Masculine

You must understand that the emendation of the
Parezufim corresponded to the extent of the specific de
fect which had been incurred in them. Thus, in Atik, in
whom there was no defect whatsoever, the emendation


effected absolute unity in him. This means that 45 and
52 became one Parezuf and only the Face was visible in
them. However the Name 52, in relation to 45, is
called the "posterior.

In Arik also there was no trace whatsoever of annul
ment. Therefore his Feminine Polarity was emended by
being completely united with him, although not in exactly
the same way as in Atik. The masculine part here was
arranged on the right and the feminine on the left. In
other words, 45, which is the masculine, is at bis right,
and 52, which is the feminine, is at his left. In the case of
Atik., this was not so, for both right and left sides com
prised 45 and 52. The reason for this difference is that
here in Arik the posterior part of his last three Sefirot
"Triumph "Glory and "Foundation were defective.

Since Father and Mother had suffered annulment in
their posterior parts, they are considered as two absolutely
distinct Parezufim . But because this defect had affected
only their posterior parts, they are perpetually "face to
face, and their union is constant.

In ZON (the six lower Sefirot ZO and "King
dom, or Nukbah, the Feminine Polarity) shatte ring did
occur involving defect in both the Face and the posterior
parts. That is why they issued as two separate Parezufim,
entirely severed from each other; that is, they issued "back
to back with a single wall or partition between both.
In order to arrange them face to face it is necessary to
saw through the partition, and to separate them. The
act of "sawing through will be explained shortly.

There may be some questions about Atik arid Arik,
for how can we speak of union when neither of them is



severed from its Feminine Polarity? The matter is as
follows. The Names 45 and 52 united to build one
Parezuf, which is called Atik. Their posterior parts
consist of Lights which do not shine very brightly, due
to the fact that they are of the essence of Judgment,
which is submerged within. The substance that does
shine is of the essence of Mercy and it is this that is
revealed. Thus the whole Parezuf of Atik is found to be
nothing but anterior, or face, and it has no back or
posterior part whatsoever. This, you will recall, is also
true of the Sefira 'Foundation.

The only discrimination to be made in the Parezuf
Atik is that the Name 45 is designated male and the
Name 52 is designated female. This applies to Parezuf
Atik alone. In Arik the arrangement is different. Here
the Names 45 and 52 are united, making one Pareztif,
which is called Arik Anpin (Macroprosopus) only 45 is
set at the right and 52 at the left. Thus, we find that 45
is a complete Parezuf in itself, as is 52. One is desig
nated "male and the other "female. But both as one
are called Parezuf Arik Anpin.

The Name 45, in relation to every Parezuf is con
sidered as the right side pillar in the same way that ZO
represnts the six lower Sefirot in relation to the entire
world of emanation.



The following is a detailed explanation of liow the
Parezufim were emended, beginning with Atik, the first
to undergo the change. A brief recapitulation of the dif
ferences between a Nekuda (Point), a Sefira and a
Parezuf, is in order at this point.

We have already established that all created beings
are characterized by a four-fold division (corresponding
to the four letters of the Holy Name Havaya, from
which all originates). And just as there are four worlds:
Azilut, Beriah, Yezirah and Asiah, so every part of them
must necessarily comprise these four categories. And
only when they do so are they considered to be ccimplete.
Thus, when we speak of a "Point, to indicate Asiah
alone, we are referring to something which comprises
five Parezufim, each of which in turn comprises ten
Sefirot. When we speak of a "Sefira we refer to that
which comprises the four worlds, of which each consti
tutes five Parezufim of ten Sefirot each. And when we
speak of a "Parezuf we mean ten Sefirot, which com
prise the four worlds, each of which comprises the five
Parezufim that comprise ten Sefirot each.

Something further is required for a Parezuf to be
designated as complete: namely, that all ten individual
Sefirot within the particular Sefira that is being made




into a Parezuf, shall shine. Through the power of these
illuminations, the number of the members of the body
of the Parezuf attains to 613. Furthermore, Keter, the
Crown, makes up the Head, and its Lights are con
cealed. Hokmah, Wisdom, radiates ten illuminations,
as follows:


WISDOM AND the two eyes


KNOWLEDGE the forehead

MERCY and POWER the two temples of

the forehead

BEAUTY the bridge of the nose

TRIUMPH and GLORYthe two ears
FOUNDATION the tip of the nose

KINGDOM the two nostrils

"Intelligence also emanated ten Lights, from which
the Sefirot of the mouth were effected. A detailed de
scription follows:


WISDOM AND palate and throat


MERCY and POWER two sets of gums

upper and lower

TRIUMPH and GLORYthe two lips
the entire middle pillar

(KNOWLEDGE, tongue





Similarly each and every Sefira emitted its illumin
ations according to the manner decreed by the wisdom
of the Emanator. An these illuminations together com
prise a total of 6 13, designating a complete Parezuf

Since we said earlier that from the eyes, ears, nose
and mouth, issued the four senses (seeing, hearing, smell
and speech) and that these represent respectively: "Wis
dom, "Intelligence, "Beauty and "Kingdom, you may
question how we conclude that Intelligence issues from
the ears if they were made from the Sefirot of "Wisdom.
The same question may arise in connection with the nose
and the mouth, and their Sefirot, The matter is as fol
lows: The features of the face were effected through
the extension of the Sefirot of "Wisdom, but these four
vehicles of sense were issued from the Holy Name Havaya,
which resided in the interior and thereby emanated to the
exterior at the places where it found openings. The Yud
found the apertures of the eyes and spread forth
through that path, where it bacame the sense of sight.
The He found the openings of the ears and issued there,
becoming the sense of hearing; the Watv issued through
the openings of the nose and became the sense of smell,
and the final He issued through the mouth and became
the sense of speech.

There are therefore two distinct matters under con
sideration: the feahires, which were fashioned from the
Sefirot "Wisdom and "Intelligence, and the senses,
which were fashioned from the Havaya that reisided in
the interior. By means of its passing through the features,
the senses came into existence. If it were not for this



passing Light the features would exist without the senses.
This indicates that the features constitute one subject
and the senses another, one having nothing at all to do
with the other. It must be remembered that these terms
are all highly symbolic. The names assigned to them refer
to the branches which issue from them; and these are
nothing but the Light of the Infinite Himself, extended
in such a manner as to allow nothing to exist below that
did not have its root in the Upper Sources. This arrange
ment assures the existence and sustenance of the branches.

Now let us return to the matter of the individual
Pareztifim. We shall start with Atik, the first one.
Parezuf Atik is above the world of Emanation, that is,
it is not a part of that world. Nevertheless it is enfolded
in it, as we shall explain. This Atik is made from "King
dom of Adam Kadmon, and comprises both masculine
and feminine polarities that is, the Names 45 and 52.
The "Kingdom here referred to is none other than the
Sefira "Kingdom of the Infinite World, and is therefore
above the world of Emanation. In previous discussion
we have described how "Kingdom of each world is en
closed within the next world below it, and how it is
equivalent in dimension to the entire world that succeeds
it. In this way, all the worlds are bound one within the
other until finally that point is reached where everything
is bound up with the Emanator.

It is necessary to know that the masculine polarity
of Atik , namely the essence of the Name 45, which is in
him, is not enfolded within the world of Emanation at
all. Because of its high degree of concealment, it is
totally imperceptible. Only the feminine polarity of



Atik is enfolded, but even of her only the seven lower
Sefirot are enfolded. The three topmost Sefirot remain
bare and are completely imperceptible. They sire desig
nated as the ''Unknown Head because of the many un
certainties surrounding them. This has been fully ex
plained elsewhere, and require no further elaboration.*
The manner of enclothement of the seven Sefirot is
as follows:



MERCY of ATIK enclothed in



Upper parts " **


Middle parts of " "


The lower parts of " "



(Macrop roso jpus)





TRIUMPH and GLORY descended to KINGDOM of
ARIK and became there like two breasts bestowing
bounty to the worlds. FOUNDATION is divided into
two sections only:

* See Chapter III.




Upper part of

Lower part of





The World of Emanation comprises five parezufim,
which are as follows:

1) ARIK (Macroprosopus)

2) ABA (Father)

3) IMA (Mother)

4) ZO (Six Sefirot from Mercy to Foundation)


The first Farezuf is Arik, *md he pervades all the Pare
zufim to the point where his Kingdom is enclothed in
Kingdom of the World of Emanation. He is chief of
all the Parezufim, and the others are no more than
branches which issue from him. He is the one Parezuf
that extends from the very beginning of the world of
Emanation down to its end, and all the other Parezufim
ramify from him in the following way. From the throat
to the navel, he is enclothed in Aba and Ima; Aba en-
clothes his right side, Ima his left. From the navel down
ward, he is enclothed in ZO and Nukba.

Just as Arik pervades all the Parezufim, so do all the
other Parezufim pervade each other, from the point in



them which is called Beauty, downward, so thai: all end
evenly. This is in accordance with the rule that one
Sefira from a higher world is as large as the entire world
that follows it. The same principle applies tc the in
dividual Parezufim. Thus, one Sefira of an upper Pare-
zuf is as large as three Sefirot of the next consecutive
Parezuf. We find then that all the Parezufim clo the
each other, and are bound together as one, thejr source
being Arik An pin.

Arik is "Crown of the world of Emanation. His
Lights were extended to the point where a Parezuf was
constructed. In this Parezuf there is one point of dif
ference from the other Parezufim, namely: In i the head
of all the other Parezufim there are three j:ypes of
Brain"Wisdom, "Intelligence and Knowledge, with
"Knowledge comprising "Mercies and Powers. But in
this Parezuf only one type of brain is to be found in the
Head that of its Sefira "Wisdom. For "Intelligence
has descended into the throat, and "Knowledge to a
place between the shoulder blades.

The brain of the Sefira "Wisdom is c;illed the
"sealed brain, for it is closed and cannot be grasped at
all. It is spoken of as wine which is still anjd undis
turbed above its sediment because it is comprised of
absolute clarity and purity and has no admixture what




The topic of the three heads mentioned in the
Xohar "Three heads are carved out, one within the
other, each above the other, is an important one. As
mentioned earlier, the first three Sefirot of Atiks feminine
polarity, were not enclothed in Arik, remaining bare and
uncovered. They are designated by the title "the Un
known Head because this head is concealed and totally
inconceivable. This head remained above that of Arik.,
encircling it, and is but the first of the three heads. Of
it the I dra of the Xohar says: "It is the head of all the
heads; it is a head which is not a head; it does not know
and it is not known.

The second head is "Crown of Arik. It is the white
cranium mentioned earlier, which is called: the upper
head, the holy ancient Atika Kadishoh, the concealed of
all the concealed ones.

The third head is "Wisdom of Arik. It is the con
cealed brain, of which the Xohar says: "one head, the
hidden Wisdom, which is veiled, etc. . . .. However,
there is another enumeration of three heads. Although
"Crown and "Wisdom are but two heads, nevertheless
they are divided into three, and these are called "the
three Heads of Arik, for they all are actually of him.
The air between "Crown and "Intelligence of Arik,
and "Knowledge of Atik is hidden, and is designated




as "tenuous air (awira dahyia). This is an apt designa
tion since it is also called the "upper concealed brain.
It is considered as one head, the second of the three heads
of Arik.

Thus, when we say "three heads, we are referring
to "Crown, "Wisdom and "Intelligence of the fem
inine polarity of Alik, which remained unclad. " Crown
and "Wisdom of Arik, are each designated by this
name of "head, and when we speak of the "three heads
of Arik , we are not considering the three heads of the
feminine polarity of Atik, since they are not a part of
Ariks body. Ariks three heads are as follows:

1) Crown

2) Knowledge of Atiklocated between Crown and

3) Wisdom

In speaking of the shattering of the vessels, we ex
plained why there are two grades of "three heads, and
the source from which they ar drawn. Now we shall
proceed to explain this matter of the three heads of Arik
and the emendation which they effect in detail.

There are only two heads, namely "Crown and
"Wisdom, of Arik, but they are considered as three
because of "Knowledge of Atik, which is hidden be
tween them. It is important to know that each of these
three heads of Arik contains in itself three Havttyas and
One, the Superstructure, as it were, that comprises them.
There is a difference in the spelled-out letters of the
Names in the different heads; that is, those which are in
"Crown are spelled with Yuds, and have a numerical



value of 72; those which are in the Awira (the second
head) and have the spelling of the Name 63 (the letter
waiv is here spelled with an alef instead of with a yud;
and those of the third head, Wisdom, spelled with
alefs and yielding a numerical value of 45.

In each of these three heads there are three Havayas,
with a total of twelve letters. Together with the con
tainer which encompasses them, there are thirteen. From
each of these an emendation is effected. Namely, from
the thirteen found in the head which is designated "air,
thirteen "niemen are executed. These are the hairs of
this particular head. The ldra speaks of them as follows:
There are thirteen niemen of the hair, which are found
to exist on either side. The order of their division is
as follows:

4 on the right side of the head
4 on the left side of the head
4 on the nape of the neck
1 in the center of the head.

This last comprises all the others. These hairs are white,
for anything black is considered to partake of Judgment.
But here, because there is no Judgment they are white.

In ZO it is different. There Judgment does func
tion and the hair is black. There is a further difference
between the heads of ZO and that of Arik Anpin for in
ZO the hairs intermingle, whereas in Arik Anpin they
are all separate from each other. As the Zohar expresses
it: It is like pure wool whose strands are not inter
woven. The hair is long, extending to the shoulder,
and it is not rigid like those of the beard, for it is de-



signed to bestow bounty through its openings. There
fore it is long and soft, and quite different from the hair
of the beard, which will be described later.

From the thirteen letters which are in the cranium
(gulgalte) thirteen white areas (hivruti) are established
between the hairs. "His white cranium shines in the
thirteen carved paths, says the Idra. These paths are
divided in the same way as the hair, that is:

4 on the right side
4 on the left side
4 on the nape of the neck
1 in the center, which encompasses them all.

Those at the nape of the neck extend down below into
ZO so as to complete his beard, and supply it with
thirteen emendations. These hairs surround and cover
the face; they are short and rigid, because they have the
quality of Judgment, and being the containers of Com
passion as well as Judgment, they are called the " thirteen
compartments of Compassion.

The Emanator designed them for the purpose of
enabling the bounty to descend within measured limits
so that it can be received by the nether beings. It is
through these Compartments of Compassion that the
husks are subdued, for it is known that the sacred
Powers vanquish the husks.

The beard is fashioned by "Concealed Wisdom in
which Power of AT IK is found to be enclothed. When
this beard shines forth, its Light subdues the husks.

The detail pertaining to the thirteen emendations of
the beard will be presented in the following chapter.



To continue our discussion of the three heads, note
that in each of them are found both substance and
vessels, that is, inner content and outer content. In
each of these are to be found three distinct types of
essences, namely:

1) the inner essence

2) the outer essence which encircles the

3) the outermost essence which encircles
the second

Everything of divine content comprises these three
essences. In this way Crown, which is the first of the
three heads, possesses these three essences, both in its sub
stance and in its vessels. In the three essences of the
substance there are three Havayas spelled out with
Yuds which give a numerical value of 72. The dif
ference between them is in the vowels. In the interior
essence, the vowel is only placed under the initial four
letters of the Havaya, and accords with the sound (move
ment) of the letter. Thus, the Yud has a holam (.), He
has a zera (..), Waw has a komez (T), and the final He
has also a zera In the encircling Light, the




spelled-out letter are also vowelled like the simple let
ters; but in the outermost encircling Light, |the ini
tial letters are vowelled like the others, wjhile the
spelled-out letters are vowelled throughout with a komez.
In the three essences of the vessels there are three Names,
AKYK, all spelled with Yuds with the numerical value
of 161, and vowelled in the same manner as the Havayas
mentioned above.

The foregoing is a specific description, but in gen
eral all three essences of the "Crown, in relation to the
others, are no more than the encircling Light which sur
rounds all the other encircling Lights.

In the three qualities of essence of the second head
that of "air ( atvira )there are three Havayas, each
with a numerical value of 63. They are vowelled like
those of Crown. However, the difference is that wher
ever in Crown there was a letter vowelled with komez
here it is vowelled with a patah ().

In the vessels there are found three Holy Names,
AHYH spelled with Yuds and vowelled in the same
manner as the Havayas. All three essences of the head of
"Air are nothing but an encircling Light in relation to
the others.

In the three qualities of essence of the substance of
"Concealed Wisdom (the third Head) are found three
Havayas, spelled with Alefs and having a numerical
value of 45. They are vowelled in the same manner as
we have described relating to air, but wherever there is
a zera in Atvira, here a segol (. *.) replaces it. The ves
sels have three Names, AHYH, spelled with Alefs that
bear a numerical value of 143. The arrangement of the



vowels here is the same as in the Havayas. These three
qualities are considered to be the inner Light in relation
to the others.

The three heads are, collectively, three entities, as

1) "Crown ( Kitra ) which encompasses the en

circling Light

2) "Air ( Awira) which is the encircling Light

3) "Concealed Wisdom (Hokmah Stimoe which is

the inner Light

Yet each head individually comprises all three entities,
as explained above. "Crown and "Brain, enfold each
other. This is referred to in the Idra: "One is within
the other.

Now let us turn to the seven lower Sefirot of the
head. They are seven emendations which are found in
the head of Arik, designated as:

1) GULGATE HIVRE (the white cranium)

2) TALE DIBEDULHA (the crystalline dew)

3) KERUMA DE-AWIRA (the tegument of

the air)




(will of Wills*)
(the pure wool)
(the opening of
the eyes)


(the nose)

*This refers to the highest will to good.


The Acrostic GTKRAPH is an aid in remember
ing them. It has already been pointed out that the
seven lower Sefirot of Atik were enclothed in / .rik, and
that from these, seven emendations of the head were
effected as follows:

1) THE WHITE CRANIUM. This is majde from
"Mercy of Atik, which was enclothed in it. It is
called "white because of the Mercy inherent in it. Since
the cranium is its place, it follows that this "Mercy is
the source of all the Sefirot "Mercies, in addition to
being the beginning of the masculine polarity of Arik,
for the right side of Arik is masculine.

2) THE CRYSTALLINE DEW. This is the "Concealed
Wisdom, whose name, tal ("dew), is actually the first
three letters of the Havaya YHWwhich is brain.
The word "crystalline is attached because "Power of
Atik is enclothed in it. For "Wisdom itself is the right
pillar and "Power is the left; therefore the dew is
called "crystalline because all the colors are visible in
the bounty which comprises both "Mercy and "Judg
ment. Because "Power is enclothed in Atik, "Con
cealed Wisdom becomes the source of all the "Powers,
so much so that all measures and limits are drawn from it.

3) THE TEGUMENT OF THE AIR, was made from
"Beauty of Atik and this particular emendation effects
a twofold improvement. First, it hovers over the "Con
cealed Wisdom so that the hidden Light of "Knowledge
of Atik, shall not shine too powerfully there. This will
be elaborated on later. Second, it prevents th
"Concealed Wisdom from descending too powerfully
to the nether beings, and thus enables them to bear it.


4) THE WILL OF WILLS. This is made by Found
ation of Atik, which shines in the forehead of Arik. It
is for this reason that the forehead of Arik differs from
any forehead that is below it. For those lower ones are
in the nature of Judgment. When they are revealed, all
the Judgments are stirred upwhereas Ariks forehead,
because it is tempered by Foundation of Atik. which
is revealed in it, is called the forehead of the Will to
compassion which sweetens (and tempers) all the Judg
ments below. This action is continual, even when it is
covered with hair. However, when it is unveiled, all
the Judgments are subdued and are rendered totally in
effective. This is a time when the Supreme Will is
abundantly revealed, for everything is tempered by the
Light of this forehead. Yet, because the worlds are in
need of Judgment the unveiling of the forehead is not
continuous, and occurs only at intervals.

5) THE PURE WOOL. This is made by those parts of
"Triumph and "Glory of Atik that are above "Found
ation. Passing through the head, "Triumph and
"Glory effect the emendation in that the hair that has
issued from the Concealed Wisdom, is here drawn
below and acts like a group of channels which perform
certain tasks.

Here the power of "Triumph and "Glory, which sym
bolize two Waws (extended lines) provides the impetus
for all this. As a result, the hair appears in the form of
lines like the letter Watv. Being white, like natural wool,
it is called "pure wool.

6) THE OPENING OF THE EYES, is made by those
parts of "Triumph and "Glory which are below


'Foundation of Atik. Note that the emendation of the
"pure wool, which is made by the portions of "Tri
umph and "Glory of Atik which are above "Found
ation, is higher than the forehead, where an emendation
was made by "Foundation, and that this latter emend
ation is below the forehead, since it is made from the
parts below "Foundation. When the Lights pass
through the head, they effect this emendation, for the
eyes were already put there, when the particular Sefirot
of "Wisdom passed through. The purpose of this
emendation is to enable them to exist without ja curtain,
free from any cover, so that they may ever b
watch over the nether beings. Of this effect, j the Z ohar
states: "An open eye that does not slumber; no cover,
no eyelid, is upon the eye. And in the same connection
there is a verse in the Psalms: "Behold he that keepeth
Israel shall neither slumber nor sleep. (Psalm 121).
Eyelids restrain the light of the eyes, and since you already
know that anything which restrains is of the nature of
Judgment, nothing exists in these eyes to restrain their
Light, for they are very much "sweetenedor tempered.
In addition, it was necessary for these eyes to be forever
open so that the permanent existence of the Sefirot be
assured through the continued presence of Gods bounty.

Note that although we express "eyes in the plural,
denoting two eyes, a right and a left, nevertheless since
they are in Arik a place wehrein there cannot possibly
be any trace of Judgment they are considered to be
but one: and this a right eye, for the left is not counted.
As the Idra puts it: "There is no left in this Atika These
eyes are different from those below, for down there colors



are discernible in them. They are of scarlet, reddish and
purple hues, as is apparent from the words of the Z ohar.
But in this realm there is no color whatsoever. All is

While on the subject of the eye, we shall explain its
content. We have said that the organ is made of the
particular Sefirot "Wisdom and "Intelligence of "Wis
dom, and the sense of seeing therein is made of the Yud
of the Havaya which was concealed within and issued
there. The extension of all ten Sefirot is intimated in
the eyes, for the emendation of all the ten Sefirot lies in
their being arranged as pillars, namely: right, left and
center, corresponding to the pillars of "Mercy, "Judg
ment and "Compassion. Thus we find that three
Sefirot head the pillars, from which all the other Sefirot
spring. "Wisdom is the head of the right pillar, "Intel
ligence is the head of the left pillar, and "Knowledge
is the head of the central pillar. Note that there are
three colors in the eyes, and these indicate the three
heads of the pillars of the Sefirot located there. "King
dom, the last of the Sefirot, is indicated by the pupil of
the eye.

We have already explained that two emendations
were made in the head of Atik by means of "Triumph
and "Glory: these are "the pure wool and the opening
of the eyes. Still another emendation was performed
in the head of Arik, and these are the two ears.

They are wrought from the two testicles, but this
emendation is not mentioned because these two testicles,
being the interior essence of "Triumph and Glory,
are very much concealed. It is that same essence which



is bound with "Foundation. And, since the two ears
are exceedingly concealed, we do not mention their

The last, the seventh emendation of the head is:
7) THE NOSE. This is made of "Kingdom of Atik
and just as "Kingdom is divided into two partsinto

"Leah and "Rachelso are there in the nose t
ings (nostrils) called Nukba 3 de-Pareda sh

wo open-
\?ka the

feminine counterpart of the symbolic "window
symbolic importance of "Leah and Rachel will be ex
plained in a later chapter.



We shall now explain in detail the matter of the
thirteen emendations of the beard. It has already been
noted that those thirteen emendations of the beard were
made of the three Havayas and the one that comprises
them, all of which are found in the "Concealed Wisdom.

In the Idra it is stated that the entire beard springs
from the brain of the head, and that this beard is divided
into thirteen emendations. It begins at the sideburns of
the head, and encircles the face and the mouth on both
sides, reaching to the navel. On this point the Idra says:
"This most trusty beard comes forth from the ear and
rests around the holy mouth . . . and covers down to
the 'navel of the heard.

The Supreme Creator designed these thirteen channels
for the purpose of bestowing bounty through them to
the nether worlds. Thus they are designated as thirteen
founts, and because they are made of "Concealed Wis
dom, they are further designated as "the thirteen founts
from which an abundance of 'good oil flows. For it is
known that Concealed Wisdom is symbolized by the
term "the good oil. It spreads over the face, and there
effects thirteen emendations, of which the details are as



The Thirteen Emendations of the Beard


1. The narrow part of the beard, i.e. the |two side
burns of the beard. This is the place telow the

2. The upper lip, crossing from one sicfe of the
mouth to the other.

3. The break in the center of the lip. It is that
break at the center of the lip under the two
openings of the nose where no hair appears.

4. The lower lip, where it crosses from one side to
the other, as in the case of the upper lip.

5. The break which exists here in the center of this
lower lip as it does in the upper lip, and where
there is likewise no hair.

6. The place where the beard broadens, beneath
the cheeks, close to the mouth.

7. The place of the cheeks themselves, where
there is no hair, and which has the appearance
of two apples.

8. The upper surfaceit is the long hair of the
beard which reaches to the navel and! is called
"mazela (the fountain of bestowal). This term
is derived from a phrase in the Scriptures: "He
shall pour the water out of his buckets.
(Numbers XXIV, 7) Because the bounty of this
emendation flows downward.

9. The small hairs which lie between the upper
surface, i.e. the place of the 8 th emendation,
and the subspace which is the 13 th emendation.

10. The hair which lies underneath, at the throat.



11. The hair of the beard which ends equally,
and does not extend beyond itself at all.

12. The mouth, which is void of hair, for no hair
whatsoever covers the mouth.

13. The area underneath. These are the long hairs of
the beard which, like the 8 th emendation, reach
to the navel; and they too are called "fountain
of bestowal (mazela), because they flow down
below. These two founts are the principal ones in
the beard and it is from them that bounty is
bestowed to the worlds.

These thirteen emendations of the beard are the
thirteen attri butes (measures) of compassion which our
teacher, Moses, mentioned in Exodus 45, verses 6 and 7,
as follows:

1) The Lord God

2) merciful

3) gracious

4 & 5) long suffering

6) and abundant in goodness

7) and truth

8) keeping mercy

9) for thousands

10) forgiving iniquity

11) and transgression

12) and sin

13) and clears

The prophet Micah also mentions these thirteen at
tri butes in Chapter 7, verses 18-20:

1) Who is a God like unto Thee



2) that pardons iniquity

3) and passes by the transgression

4) of the remnant of His heritage.

5) He retains not His anger forever

6) because He delights in mercy

7) He will turn again, He will have compassion
upon us

8) He will subdue our iniquities

9) And Thou wilt cast all their sins into the
depths of the sea

10) Thou wilt give truth to Jacob

11) Mercy to Abraham

12) which Thou hast sworn unto our fathers

13) from the days of old.


The difference between the attri butes mentioned by
Micah and those mentioned by Moses is that Mjicahs are
the names of the emendations in their place in Arik,
while those of Moses are the names of the emendations
when they evolve downward into ZO to be enclothed
in his beard. At the time of their descent the names of
the emendations are changed and they are called The
Lord God, etc. ...

To resume the exposition of the thirteen emendations
of the beard, for we have not exhausted this subject with
what was said above, these thirteen are the selections
which were gathered from the Primordial Kings, and were
there emended. Although no shattering occurred in the
first three Sefirot, nevertheless when the selections rose
to their places to be emended, they also rose t.p to the
first three Sefirot. Therefore it was said of these thirteen



emendations of the beard that they issued from the residue
of the brain: in other words, they were issued from that
which was selected from the Primordial Kings.

It is already known that the selection is made in the
brain, that is, in the Thought, as mentioned in the Z obar.:
"They were all selected in the Thought. In addition,
because the thirteen emendations of the beard are channels
which extend from the brain, they are also called the
"sediment of the brain, or residue of the brain. Be
cause they are formed out of the excrescences which
were chosen from the Primordial Kings, they are termed
"primordial days. That is, they came into being from
the selection of the Primordial Kings, as it says in the
Idra: "These emendations are called primordial days.
They are named the "primordial days of the primordial
ones, and are therefore of the essence of Judgment:
but they are divine Judgments. It is they who subdue
the husks.

Thus, these thirteen emendations of the beard are
the individual, encircling Sefirot of "Crown and "Wis
dom, which were revealed in the countenance. They
are ten encircling Sefirot of "Crown and ten of "Wis
dom. There should be twenty, but only fourteen were
revealed; namely eight from "Wisdom and six from
"Crown, yet, because one of the emendations comprises
two of the encircling Sefirot, there are only thirteen, and
not fourteen.

We do not know any reason for this, but attri bute
it to the ineffable Wisdom of the Creator, because He
knew that this (amount) and no more was required for
the purpose of governing the world.



It is a generally established principle, in matters per
taining to the Sefirot and to the Parezufim, that wherever
we find a single Sefira or a single Parezuf which required
the combination of many entities for its construction,
we cannot say that there is a paradox, for it is but one
thing. Just so many entities were necessary in order to
bring out the one particular entity. So it is in the case
of the beard. All the entities mentioned were required
for its construction. So we find that in order to com
plete the beard of ZO, it was necessary that "Foundation
be split and that the four white hairs of Arik be present.

Note that of the encircling Sefirot of "Crown and
"Wisdom, which are in the beard, the Sefirot of "Wis
dom precede. In the first eight emendations there are
the eight Sefirot of Wisdom, while the remaining ones
come from Crown. The reason that "Wisdoms
Sefirot are first (despite the fact that it is more fitting
for "Crown, which is the first of the emendations, to
precede Wisdom), is that the principal essence of the
beard is made of "Concealed Wisdom. Thus the Sefirot
of "Wisdom precede those of "Crown, and since these
Sefirot are encircling ones, they proceed from bplow and
move upward that is, the Sefirot of "Wisdom start
from "Kingdom and terminate at "Intelligence. The
Sefirot of "Crown start from "Foundation, an cl proceed
up to "Mercy. A full description follows.

The first emendation is "The Lord God and also
"Who is a God like unto Thee?; referring to the narrow
part of the beard. This emendation corresponds to
"Kingdom of the encircling Sefirot of "Wisdom, and
it is called "Lord (in Hebrew Lamed Alefl with a



numerical value of 31) because there are thirty-one
powerful short hairs here. This Name is found in both
sideburns. Thus, there are two of these Names, one on
the right side and one on the left. Each in turn is sub
divided into three: 1) El Sbaddai; 2) El Havaya; 3) El
Adni, making a total of six. However, of the two first
mentioned Names, only one is revealed, so that we find
El in all but five Names.

The Idra mentions three worlds which exist in this
emendation, and they are represented by the three
Names, El. The numerical value of the first Name, when
it is spelled out, is 1000; the second is 57; the third 96.
This is the subdivision that is spoken of in the Idra.
However, the secret of the matter is as follows. The
beard was made from the selections chosen from the
Name 52, known as the Primordial Kings; and for that
reason it is called the primordial days. It was here that
these days began to be selected and to appear as Powers,
which subdued the husks, or the dross that is expelled
from the Kings. However, what is here revealed is the
selection of three different Kings. They are Bela, Jobab
and Husham, and they signify respectively: "Knowledge,
"Mercies and "Powers. And what remained of them?
Only the very tough husks, called "furnace and inferno.
The source of the selection of the first three Kings is
here; this is the hidden meaning of the three worlds men
tioned above. And it was from these three worlds that
the lower degrees evolved. Namely, the posterior part
of "Intelligence, ZO and Nukba, the feminine counter
part of ZO, and others which belong to the worlds of
BYA Creation, Formation and Action. That which



has been expelled from all these degrees and has not
remained with them, is the unadulterated dross which
we call the husk.

Through these sources the husks of excrescences
that still remain are subdued. This is related to the sub
ject of unity, which shall be discussed shortly.

Note that in the first EL, which is El Shacldai, the
Light of "Concealed Wisdom shines with greater force
than in the other Names, because El Shaddai is closer to
"Concealed Wisdom than the others. In "Concealed
Wisdom is a progression of the Name Elohtm comprised
of Hes whose numerical value is 1000, which the Idra
calls: "A thousand worlds which are sealed in tie ring,
for "Concealed Wisdom is symbolized by a "ring
since it is the origin of all the worlds.

Both "The Lord God and "Who is a God like unto
Thee? are one in that they both represent the first em
endation of the beard.

The second emendation is "merciful jind also
remitter or raiser, of sin, or in the original wording,
"that pardons iniquity; and as we have earlier explained,
this emendation is the upper lip and its extension on
either side thereof. This emendation is Foundation of
the encircling Sejirot of "Wisdom and is called "re
mitter of sin. It points to the hair which is found on
this lip and which rises upward. Hence the reference,
raiser of sin .

The third emendation is represented by the phrase
"gracious and also "and passes by the transgression.
We have mentioned that this emendation is the [break at
the center of the upper lip, where there is no hair. This



emendation is Glory of the encircling Sefirot of "Wis
dom, and the reason that there is no hair found there,
as previously stated, is that hair is Judgment. It restricts
the Light, for everything that restricts is Judgment. In
order that the Light which shines from the openings of
the nose should pass through without any hindrance,
there is no hair in the middle of the upper lip which is
directly opposite the nose. It is called "and passes by
the transgression to indicate the passing through of the
bounty through this break, without veil or hindrance.*

The fourth emendation is "long and also "of the
remnant of His heritage. We have said that this is the
lower lip, extending on both sides, like the upper one.
This emendation is "Triumph of the encircling Sefirot
of "Wisdom.

The fifth emendation is "suffering and also "He
retains not his anger forever. We have indicated that
this is the break in the lower lip where there is no hair,
and this emendation is "Beauty of the encircling Sefirot
of "Wisdom. The reason there is no hair here is the
same as in the case of the third emendation; namely,
because it is directly beneath the nose, and the Light
which shines from the nose must extend without any
hindrance. Here too, there is no hair beneath the mouth
so that the Light of the mouth is able to extend to the
nether beings without any obstruction. The name of the
emendation itself indicates this.

* Tr. N. The Hebrew for "transgression is "pesha which
transposed, reads shefa meaning bountythus, in spite of the
transgression, He transmits the bounty, without veil or hinderance.



The name of the sixth emendation is "and abundant
in goodness and also "because He delights in mercy.
We have stated earlier that this is the place below the
cheeks where the beard broadens. This emendation is
"Power of the encircling Sefirot of "Wisdom? and it
is called "abundant in goodness because here "Mercy
is even more greatly extended than in the others; and
"Mercy as you will recall, tempers the Judgments.
Understand that we-rab hesed ("and abundant in good
ness) amounts to 280, which is the number of the final
letters Mem, Nun, Z addi Pe, Hof, (MNZPK,) which
are 280 "Powers. They are tempered by the "abundance
in goodness which are the 280 "Mercies.

The seventh emendation is "and Truth and also
"He will turn again, He will have compassion upon us.
We have said that this emendation corresponds to the
area of the cheeks, where there is no hair and where the
cheeks resemble two apples. This emendation is "Mercy
of the encircling Sefirot of "Wisdom. It is caljled "He
will turn again, He will have compassion upon us be
cause there are periods when these two "apples shine
below and other periods when they do not. As i|: says in
the Idra : "He will return. This signifies times !of con
cealment and times of revelation. Hence, "He \jdll turn
again, He will have compassion upon us.* In these
two "apples there are 370 Lights, in other words, two
Names El (Alef Lamed spelled out) amounting to 370.
Of these the Idra says: "These apples . . . shine into 370
sides. They are the 370 Lights mentioned abojve. Of

* TR. N. Until He turns again to have compassion,
concealment prevails.



the 370, 150 evolve below to ZO and the balance of 220
remains with him. Arik is here designated by the name
of "Erek Apaiym to indicate the 220 (Resh Chaf)
Lights. For together with the vessel containing the 220
Lights, we get the number of "Erek. This is the seventh
emendation in which are comprised the first six emenda
tions, as it is expressed in the Idra. "This is the seventh
emendation in which contains six . . . It is called "And

The eighth emendation is "keeping mercy arid also
"He will subdue our iniquities. We have already ex
plained that this emendation is the upper surface of the
beard, and that it reaches to the navel. This emendation
is "Intelligence of the encircling Sefirot of "Wisdom,
and also "Foundation of the encircling Sefirot of
"Crown, both being united.

In this connection we have said previously that two
Sefirot unite in one emendation and that there are there
fore thirteen and not fourteen emendations. This em
endation is called the "upper fountain, because there are
two fountains: the upper area and the lower area.
Since this is the upper area, it is called "upper fountain
and this mazela is masculine. The "lower fountain
(13th emendation) is the feminine polarity, and these
unite for the purpose of transmitting bounty to the
nether worlds. The precise manner in which bounty is
extended will be taken up later.

In this 8 th emendation there is one Havaya spelled
with Yuds of which the numerical value is 72, connoting
the word Hesed (which has the same numerical value).
By the Light of this emendation the outer forces (husks)



are subdued in such a manner that they cannot draw
sustenance from the sacred fount; hence they flee it. This
is what the words He will subdue our iniquities ' mean.
In other words, by the power of this emendation the
sins are subdued, for they are the actual husks and outer
forces. As it says in the Idra : "and whoever sees this
emendation is subdued and vanquished by it, for it is
said He will subdue our iniquities.

The ninth emendation is for thousands and also
and Thou wilt cast all their sins into the depths of the
sea; we have said that this emendation are the small
hairs which lie between the upper and lower areas. This
emendation is Glory of the encircling Sefirot of
Crown. In this emendation there are three Names
AHYH (comprised of Hes) which have the same
numerical value as Adni and Elobim. All begin with
the letter Alef and connote the expression for thousands
(loalofim) .*

These are the Names to which the husks hav

e access

for nourishment, for they are of the feminine polarity.
When the divine Power wishes to eliminate all nourish
ing of these evil spirits, the fount of keeping mercy
(which is complete "Mercy since Mercy of tlie inner
Sefirot of Crown is located there) shines into this
emendation so that the husks cannot draw nourishment
from his Light. This emendation is the sacred! Power
and as it is expressed in the Idra: and from this place
all who seek to accuse man are reprimanded and subdued.
For this reason this emendation is termed depths of the
sea ( mezulot), because it subdues the husks which are

* TN. N. alef means a thousand.



called the deep darkness (zalmowet). The letters of
Mezulot are the same as those of zalmowet. (interchange
able) .

The tenth emendation is forgiving iniquity and
also Thou wilt give truth to Jacob. As we have said,
this emendation is the hair which is at the throat. This
emendation is "Triumph of the encircling Sefirof of
Crown, and since it is from this Sefira, it is called
Glory because the Sefira of Triumph, as we learn
elsewhere, is called "Glory. The ldra describes this
emendation in the words of the Bible and from the
Glory of His Majesty, saying "Those hairs which are
underneath the beard are called 'Glory of His Majesty.

The eleventh emendation is and transgression as
well as Mercy to Abraham and we have said that this
emendation refers to the hairs of the beard which are all
even and do not protrude at all beyond each other. This
emendation is "Beauty of the encircling Sefirof of

The twelfth emendation is and seen and also
which Thou hast sworn unto our ancestors. We have
said that this emendation is the mouth, which is free
from hair, for no hair at all covers it. This emendation
is Judgment of the encircling Sefirof of "Crown.
The reason there is no hair found here is so that the mouth
remain free and the bounty be extended without hin
drance. Again, as it is stated in the ldra: Therefore no
hair is found upon the sacred mouth because of the
Spirit which issues therefrom, and no foreign element is
able to mingle with or even approach it. From this
mouth issues a Spirit which is subdivided into 37 paths,
indicating Hebei ha-peh the breath of the mouth.



Hebei has the numerical value of 37, which is the amount
of the spelled-out letters of the Name 63, YHWH if
we take the spelled-out letters minus the initials of the
letters.'*' Of this it is said in the Idra: "When that Spirit
issues forth it is divided into 37,000 sides, and it is the
very Spirit which the prophets were enveloped. It is
called the "mouth of God and was the Spirit which
cloaked the holy ancestors. Therefore this emendation
is called: "which Thou hast sworn unto our ancestors.

The thirteenth emendation is "and clears and also
"from the days of old. We have already explained that
this emendation is the lower area of the beard and that
it is extended to the navel, just like the surface area.
This emendation is "Mercy of the encircling Sefirot of
"Crown and is called the "lower fount since it is the
lower area of the beard. It is the feminine polarity in
relation to all the other emendations, and comprises all
the earlier ones. "This thirteenth one comprises all,
says the Idra.

As stated previously, the thirteenth emendations of
the beard were made of the three Havayas, plus an ad
ditional one that forms themboth of which are present
in "Concealed Wisdom. Thus they are thirteen, namely:
the twelve letters of the three Havayas, and the
thirteenth, which embraces them. The first twelve em
endations were made of the twelve letters in the three
Havayas, and the thirteenth emendation, the last, is made

* TR. N. Thus Waw-Dalet o the spelled-out Yud amounts
to 10; Yud of the spelled-out He" is also 10; Alef-Waw of the
Waw makes 7; and Yud of the final He is again 10; the sum
total being 37.



of that which comprises the twelve. Since it is made
from this essence, this last emendation also embraces the
thirteen emendations. Because it comprises the whole
beard it is called "from the days of old, for the "beard
itself is similarly defined.

In this emendation is found the Name AHYH
formed with Ylids and having a numerical value of 161 ,
the number of we-nakeh ("and clears). When these
two founts unite (the thirteenth and the eight) then
power is given to the fount known as "and clears, for
the purpose of "clearing or purifying, and extracting
all the Sparks that fell into the husks. The name "and
clears also points to this.

Whenever the Supreme Emanator will desire to re
turn the world to the perfection it had at the beginning
of creation that is, to withdraw all the sacred Sparks
from the oppressors who have seized them then this
beard will bestir itself for it is "she that subdues the
husks. For she is of the essence of power, and she will
bestir herself through the power of this fount ( inazela )
called "and clears to clear everything tyranized by the
husksboth what was left there as dross from the
Primordial Kings, and the Sparks which they have
snatched from the Divine Spirit.

This fount will perform yet another action. That
is, when the husks see that all their sustenance is vanishing
from them they will want to rise after the Sparks in
order to receive from them some kind of bounty. But by
the power of this fount they will be subdued, and will
be unable to rise. Then the husks will remain lifeless.
The Divine Power will bestir itself and It alone will



remain, pure and without any admixture whatsoever.
In the words of Isaiah: "And the Lord alone shall be
exalted in that day. (Isaiah II, 11).

Just as the Divine Spirit will be cleared of dross, so
will Israel below become distinct and segregated from
the nations of the world, for the Israelites are the branches
of the Divine Spirit and the barbarians among this nations
are the branches of the husks; and the power of the
branch is drawn in the same direction as its Source. In
this way, Israel will be separated from the barbarians; as
the Divine Spirit will be divorced completely from the
husks. Then the world will remain completely perfected
as never before. Israel will be redeemecj. The
redemption will be so complete that there will never
again be exile, for it is already known that the single
purpose of all the periods of exile was to select the Sparks
of the Holy Spirit from amidst the husks. Since at that
time, through the power of the fount entitled "and
clears, the entire selection will have been made to the
extent that nothing will be left in the husks not even
an infinitesimal trace. No exile will any longer be
necessary for the purpose of selecting Sparks, since they
will already have been extracted. The word;; of the
prophets will be fulfilled: "He will destroy death for ever;
and the Lord God will wipe away tears from off all faces;
and the rebuke of his people shall He take away from
off all the earth; for the Lord hath spoken it. (Isaiah
XXV, 8)

And th Lord shall be King over all the earth; in that
day shall the Lord be One and His Name one.
(Zechariah XIV, 9)


Tbi rteen

Up to this point we have explained the particulars
regarding the thirteen emendations of the beard. Now
we come to the explanation of the distri bution of the
bounty by way of the two founts to the lower Parezufim
(Heavenly Persons). This description comes from the
writings of Rabbi Hayyim Vital.

First, the matter of bestowal, the most significant
aspect of all this great wisdom. Remember that a number
of luminaries are found in the Divine Spirit, each having
its own specific function. There are, to begin with,
luminaries that stand prepared to draw bounty through
their channels, and others to work emendations, as though
to provide the "spices for the "food. In order to
understand this concept thoroughly, let us compare the
channels to a water faucet. For like the water in the
faucet, bestowal must come precisely measured, neither
too much, nor too little at a time. The heavenly
channels are opened up to a degree that befits each par
ticular bestowal. Let us examine the terms "opening
and "closing.

All the operations of the heavenly supervision de
pend on the intermingling of the three Lights: "Mercy,
"Judgment and "Compassion. Judgment seals or
closes, and Mercy amply bestows. Therefore when




"Ju4gment exerts its power to a great degree the Light
is restricted, but when he weakens and "Mercy exerts
its power, then bounty is increased. But there are degrees
and measures in their respective exertions of power
just as there are degrees and varying measures in the
water faucet. That accounts for the varying measures
of bestowal granted on weekdays, on Sabbaths,, and on

When "Mercy exerts its power, the bestowal in
creases. When it weakens, the bestowal decreases. How
ever, many things are required in order to establish the
bestowal in its different measures. Tempering is required
for "Judgment, garments are required for "Mercy:
might is required for Light to streng then itself in its
descent; and protection for the Light, so as to preserve
it from the husks is required as well. That is why what
we have called luminaries are present, in addition to the
channels of bestowal. All serve to run the: system
correctly. Indeed, there are many luminaries,, but we
do not know them all. For the Emanator, blessed be He,
made them, and He knows their paths, even if we do not.

Now to go on to the channels of bestowal themselves,
for they are chief factors in the drawing of the bounty
needed for the world. From the Source down to the
Parezuf Atik everything is in a state of great conceal
ment: but from Atik down, more is revealed, with the
bounty beginning to be unveiled in Atiks Arik receptor.

The matter of "union of the Lights represents one
of the most arcane aspects of the creation. Because the
Emanator arranged the attri butes in the order of right
and left"Mercy and "Judgment bounty must



likewise descend in this manner. Therefore it must pass
from Mercy to Judgment, taking energy from both
in order for it to be complete and appropriate for giving
sustenance to all beings. Nevertheless, there is bounty
which inclines more to the right, namely to "Mercy;
and a bounty which inclines to Judgment. These
represent alternately, the masculine and feminine pre
ponderances. In the words of the Talmud: . . . the
lower of which triumphs. Yet, the supervision of the
two goes forth with common consent and the bounty
emerges whole, as it must be.

Only the Emanator Blessed be He Himself can
grant this bounty to the worlds below; no created being
can ever claim this power. The bounty is uniform
(immutable) because the Sefirot approach Him from
below and upwards and because their arousal is always
the same quantitatively, though not qualitatively. So
that when the first Sefirot is aroused, all the others follow
suit, reaching all the way to the Emanator. He bestows
the essence of bounty to them. Empowering them to act.
In this manner, every recipient receives equally.

The channels of bestowal are themselves actually the
vessels that go through the process of uniting. One can
trace the descent of the bestowal as it passes through the
attri butes, from one Sefira to another.

"Mercy and Judgment of Atik are enclosed in
"Crown and Wisdom of Arik. This Crown and
Wisdom are as male and female. Crown is male, head
of the entire right pillar, (also male), and is built from
the Name 45. Concealed Wisdom is head of the entire



left pillar, which is female, and is built from the Name

"Foundation is the same for both pillars since
"Foundation here is used by the male, and the "Diadem
(Afar ah ) is used by the female. It is there that the
union of Arik and its feminine polarity takes place.
However, there will be no mention about the drawing
of bounty as a result of this union. For actually this
union is not located where the nether beings can receive
from itespecially Father and Mothersince these two
are above it. The secret here is a profound one, for
union merely consists of the mutual consent of the attri
butes. We find that there is a type of union known as
"kissing, and another in which the "Foundations of
different worlds unite. They indicate that there is unity
and agreement between the attri butes from beginning to
end. This is a profound and difficult path in the wisdom,
requiring much reflection on the part of the student for
the term "union in this context means perfect agree

The beard, as you already know, issues from "Con
cealed Wisdom, and Father and Mother stand beneath
the beard. Thus MY AN DUCHRIN and MY AN
NUKVIN are drawn into "Crown and "Wisdom from
"Mercy and "Judgment (of Atik ), then they are ex
tended from the very beginning to the end of Arik in
order to effect such a union of absolute agreement. Sub
sequently, the completed bounty returns and issues into
the beard from "Concealed Wisdom. There, in the
beard itself, the bounty is drawn by way of the two
founts, the fount of keeping mercy and that of



clears. All the other emendations are represented by
the Lights which emend the bounty, while the two founts
known as keeping mercy and clears are the ones
that draw it out.

Note that the bounty is drawn by way of the fount
"and clears to its end, which reaches the navel. There
at the end, ZO (Zeir Anpin) is nourished. But Father
and Mother, who stand beneath the fount, are, accord
ing to Rabbi Shimon ben Yohai, also included in it.
Therefore, Father and Mother take the bounty at its
source, as it extends into the fount: This is considered
to be the principal bounty which sustains, for that
which ZO receives is only reflected glow. When this
principal bounty enters into "and clears, it enters first
into the brain of Father and Mother. It must go through
their Crown which is also the throat of Arik. Then
it returns to the back and enters the interior, issuing
from the palate to the throat. This is in accord with
the sequential order, whereby the throat, ("Intelligence)
is to receive from the palate (Wisdom), and there
after to enter through the throat into Father and Mother.

After the entrance of Father and Mother into
ZON, the bounty is granted to the latter, which is con
sequently emended through the union of Father and
Mother. The bounty, further perfected by this union,
is thereafter issued into the worlds as far down as the
world of Action. Here, all beings receive their nourish
ment for sustenance from it.

Anyone who can grasp this matter of Gods bounty
will apprehend His greatness, for it is by means of great
and majestic wisdom that the bounty issues forth, and



is apportioned to the angels, His servants, and to all
the other created beings.

We have previously stated that Knowledge of
Arik. which, unlike the other Parzufim that reside
in the head, "resides between the shoulders of Adam
Kadmon. In order to thoroughly understand this matter,
it is necessary to know what this "Knowledge is, and
from what it is made. For the Sefirot are only ten, as
it says in the Book of Creation (Sefer Yezira )"ten
and not eleven and when we count this "Knowledge
(Daath) into the total of the Sefirot, then there are
eleven. How can this be?

First let us examine "Knowledge of ZO, and from
this all the other Parezufim will be understood. It must
be borne in mind that the Supreme Emanator issued
ten Sefirot for the purpose of governing the world,
but that the chief functions of administration rest with
the seven lower Sefirot. The first three Sefirot serve
only as radiance and as additional Light wii;h which
to amend the seven lower Sefirot, innovating those below
with enough new Light for governing the world.

This principle applies equally to the world of Eman-,
ation in general as well as to the Parezuf of ZO. For
all mens actions depend upon the seven Sefirot of
Emanation that reside in the collective Parezufim of
that world.

Arik and Father and Mother, which are above them,
serve only to emend the seven lower Sefirot for the
purpose of governing the world. Likewise, in the Parezuf
of ZO, his seven lower Sefirot (and principal elements)
govern the world, while his first three Sefirot, serve



only as a supplement, for the revelation of new Light
whereby to innovate the world. All the Sefirot are made
for the purpose of governing the world, but the prin
cipal functions of government are performed by the
seven lower ones whereas the first three emanate and
infuse them with power.

"Crown, "Wisdom and "Intelligence, which are
the first three Parezufim, are designed to emend ZO
and the feminine polarity for the governing of the world;
it is by virtue of these illuminations that ZON own
first three Sefirot ("Crown, "Wisdom and Intelli
gence) are made. "Crown is made for ZO from the
illumination of Arik, while "Wisdom and "Intelligence
are made from the illumination of Father and Mother.
These Sefirot comprise the brains of this Parezuf (And
the brains are considered to be merely supplemental.)

When the two brains have been formed in ZO he
acquires a third one called "Knowledge (Daat), a
composite of both five "Mercies derived from "Wisdom
and five "Powers "Intelligence. The "Mercies exist
for the purpose of emending the Parezuf of ZO itself,
and the "Powers are meant to perfect his feminine
counterpart. The relationship between "Mercies and
"Powers is analogous to the relationship of male to

"Knowledge of ZO is comprised of "Powers,
despite the fact that they are not intended as part of
his Emendation but rather for that of the feminine
counterpart. That is because ZO and Nukba are termed
"one person. This interdependence prevails even when
she becomes separated from him and constitutes an



individual Parezuf; she nonetheless remains as one half
of ZO. This relationship demands that all her emenda
tions pass through ZO to be considered complete. Thus
ZO comprises both the five "Mercies and five "Powers.

The first three Sefirot come to ZO from Arik and
Father and Mother. They shine upon him, thereby
engendering in him the three first Sefirot. These three
Sefirot ("Crown, "Wisdom and "Intelligence) form
his upper Parezufim, yet "knowledge represents ZO
himself, specifically in the form of the six Sefirot that
take root in him when he is bestowed with "Crown,
"Wisdom, and "Intelligenceor, the brain. The brain
(now referred to as "Knowledge) is born after the entry
of the first three Sefirot. For, after ZO is amended
by the power of his newly revealed illumina tion, the
six lower Sefirot are also considered to be emended, and
in this way the third brain, called "Knowledge comes
into being. In other words, the six Sefirot of ZO
are now crowned and emended by the inner Light.
In fact, ZO has never really lacked these six Sefirot
(even before the formulation of the brain), but it is the
power of the newly revealed Lightitself no less than
the very essence of these six Sefirot which projects
the brain into existence.

This brain is considered to be the soul of the six
Sefirot, for it spreads throughout the body of ZO in
order to emend the degrees, much like the sold within
the human body. "Mercies, which constitute i the prin
cipal extension of this brain into the body of ZO,
occupy only the five Sefirot: "Mercy, "Jujdgment,
"Beauty, "Triumph and "Glory; immediately fol-



lowing this extension the five Sefirot form an aggre
gate in Foundation, as well as in Kingdom. ZO
contains no more than the extension of these five Sefirot.
Hence, the initial extension of Knowledge takes place
in the five Sefirot. Moreover, the Mercies are doubled,
rising also to the first three Sefirot, so that all of ZOs
ten Sefirot are emended by this inner Light. Never the
less, it is the five Sefirot that are most important. In
the same manner the Judgments are issued into the
body of the feminine counterpart in order to emend
her Parezuf with inner Light.

Because this brain ("Knowledge) is the inner
Light of the six Sefirot, it has no vessel. It is all inner
Light. An apparent paradox arises, however, when we
learn that during the extension of the brain into ZO,
the vessels of "Mercy, "Judgment and Beauty be
come Wisdom, Intelligence and Knowledge.
Beauty therefore forms a vessel for Knowledge. The
explanation of this paradox entails the hidden reason
for the alternation between Knowledge and Crown,
and runs as follows.

Neither Crown nor Knowledge can be counted
as part of the other ten Sefirot; for, as we have already
learned, Crown, is that which encircles the Parezuf
without forming a part of it, and "Knowledge lacks a
vessel and is the pure inner Light. All the other Sefirot
possess both body and souli.e. outer and inner sub
stance. Since this is the case, we might be led to
conclude that the number of Sefirot is nine and not
ten. However, the truth of the matter is that the
vessel belonging to Beauty rises to the place of


"Knowledge without enclosing it, and merges instead
with the vessel that forms the lower part of "Crown
(the cranium) to encompass "Knowledge. At this
juncture the inner '"Knowledge, and the vessel of
"Beauty which rose to meet it (and is now therefore
an actual part of Crowns vessel) become one Sefira,
thus forming the tenth Sefira.

At times, emphasizing its role as inner substance,
we call this Sefira Knowledge; but when we refer
to its role as a vessel, we call it "Crown. In this way,
it comprises both. This means that, although jive count
"Crown among the ten Sefirot, we do not refjer to the
actual "Crown, since it is not really part: of the
Parezuf in question. That is why it is called Keter,
from the term keteris, or that which "encompasses.
What we are actually referring to is the vessel belonging
to ""Beauty, which rises upward, joins with the vessel
belonging to Crown and thereby assumes its title.
Together, these two encompass the brain, while "Beauty
serves as a vessel for "Knowledge.

The brain of "Knowledge emends the six Sefirot
that comprise ZO. It functions as their inner Light,
or, in other words, is their brain. The entire process
takes place at the time of the general emendation.
During the period of the "Primordial Kings however,
"Knowledgeencompassed by the uppermost: third of
"Beautywas situated between the shoulders; of ZO.
What then became of the Light of "Beauty that
radiated in the remaining two-thirds of tile vessel?
Immediately after the extension, these two-thirds were
sufficiently augmented to encloth the entire Sefira. Now



that Knowledge formed part of the Crowns, * it
became closely united with Mercy and Power, the
three comprising one interdependent unit. Bela cor
responds to "Knowledge, Jobab to "Mercy, and
Husham to Power.

When this particular Knowledge was shattered,
only the parts that belonged to it broke. But the parts
belonging to Beauty remained there, and were not
shattered until later when Beauty itself was shattered.

Everything regarding the Sefira Knowledge in
the Parezuf ZO applies equally to Father and Mother.
For their Knowledge also serves the purpose of emend
ing their seven lower Sefirot with inner Light, or brain.
Every Parezuf is an aggregate of all five Parezufim, and
the seven lower Sefirot of Father and Mother are just
the same as ZON of the collective world of Emanation;
hence their Knowledge is exactly the same as Knowl
edge of ZO, for in both Parezufim it resides in the
head, close to the brain. Whereas in Arik, "Knowledge
is situated between the shoulders. Note that the com
plete emendation of all Parezufim is dependent on

We find then that the "Mercies serve to emend
the masculine principle and that the Powers serve to
emend the feminine principle. Since here Arik and its
feminine counterpart, the two great luminaries, are
equal (one being on the right and one on the left) the

* TR. N. Referred to here in the plural because it constitutes
"Crown, as well as the upper third of "Beauty, which is thus
also considered as a Crown.


"Mercies and "Powers issue from "Foundation of the
feminine counterpart of Atik, which is situated in the
chest of the collective Parczuf. Then, the five Mercies
spread out in his body, but rather return, rising above
the "Foundation and half are revealed at the base of
"Foundation on downward. The "Powers are extend
ed to the left side, and all five of them are unveiled.

Now to examine the order of their extension and
issuance from Foundation of Atik. It is known that
the Names of 45 and 52, of which the Parczuf Atik
was made, were completely united so that one formed
the posterior part and one of the anterior-although
that particular Parezuf is considered to be all "face
This "Foundation of Atik, which is placed opposite
"Knowledge of Arik, is therefore made of the two
components, namely, male and female belonging to
the "Foundation of Atik, which are united iis one.

However, the "Mercies and "Powers were unable
to stand together as one within "Foundation ( Yesod )
of Atik, for this "Foundation is the male polarity and
is therefore narrower than the "Foundation of the fe
male polarity. Because of its form, the mal polarity
could only contain one of the two, either the "Mercies
or the "Powers, and so prevented them from uniting
in "Foundation of the female polarity as well.

The "Powers are extended first to "Foundation,
for they are the lowest order of the brain; this matter
of precedence causes the "Mercies, which come later,
to remain above the "Powers. Later, when the "Mercies
come to "Foundation, they expel these "Powers
which are then issued by way of the mouth of "Founda-



tion into the body of Arik. However, they do not
spread to the right side. Half are veiled in the vessel
and encircling "Foundation on the outsidehalf of
them on the right and half on the left. This happens
because the "Powers, in relation to the "Mercies, are
as feminine to masculine, and since their great desire
is to unite with the "Mercies, the}. rise and encircle
them out-side of "Foundation. In this way, the
"Mercies and the "Powers stand together from the
chest on upwards"Mercies on the inside, "Powers
on the outside.

Subsquently, when the "Mercies issue from Founda
tion, and find half of the "Powers on the right side,
they thrust them over to the left. It is necessary to
know that from over to the left. It is necessary to
issue is under the chest for the concealed ones are to
tion. Although the place from which the 2Vz "Mercies
issue is under the chest for the concealed ones are to
be found abovenever theless, when they emerge,
they immediately rise above the chest and thrust over
to the left the "Powers which they find there. After
wards, they spread themselves below the temper and
modify the "Powers which are opposite them.

The "Powers that were on the right side then move
to the left, above the chest, where they find their re
maining half. Since there is no room above the chest
for all five "Powers, those that, to begin with, were
on the right side, and were therefore superior, now
remain above the chest on the left side, pushing those
that were originally there down below the chest. This
locates half of the "Mercies within "Foundation,



"above the chest, and half of them below, outside: Founda
tion; while all the "Powers are outside, half of them
above and half below.

These four divisions of Lights are found in the body
of Arik and for this reason there are four Parezurim
clothing Arik from the throat to the navel:

1) Father

2) Mother

3) Israel the Ancient

4) Understanding

From the illumination of the "Mercies which are
concealed in "Foundation comes Father, and in this
connection the Z oher says : "Father is hidden and con
cealed, having been drawn from these covered and
concealed "Mercies. From the unveiled "Mercies, Israel
the Ancient is drawn. From the "Powers which are
above the chest, Mother is drawn, and from thjDse below
the chest, Understanding is drawn.

Since the difference between the "Mercies and
the "Powers, is that the "Powers are all extended and
revealed while only half of the "Mercies are revealed
and the other half are covered, it influences the nature
of the Parezufim. Thus Father, and Israel the Ancient
are two distinct and separate Parezufim. Simply be
cause the "Mercies tended are disunited: while Mother,
and Understanding, which are drawn from the "Powers
(which are coequal in their extension), are united with
each other, for the feet of Mother are located in the
head of Understanding.

There are two kinds of "Mercies and "Powers.
The first kind are those which came at the beginning,



served to amend the Parezuf, and were then extended
in the manner above described; but the second type
are perpetually involved in bestowing to the worlds.
When these second types appear, they illuminate the
first as well. Because of the partition of Foundation
which separates them, the Powers that are situated
above "Foundation, and the illumination of the con
cealed "Mercies, from which Father issued, indirectly
receive energy from the Mercies and Powers ex
tending there. The "Mercies and Powers situated
below the Foundation, however, receive direct illum
ination; because of this difference, since each of their
Lights is divided into two rays, these latter ones possess
sufficient power to issue four branches, or two Parezufim.
(This will be described shortly.) However, when the
second type of Mercies and "Powers extend they do
not expel the Mercies that remain in Foundation,
as these are already considered part of the body of
Foundation itself, and serve as a transmitter for the
new bounty of Powers and Merciesin as much
as the Light is drawn because of the awakening of these
lower ones. These channels permit "Mercies and Pow
ers to extend and pass through.

Until now we have been discussing the Parezuf of
Arik, in all its particulars. Now let us turn to the de
tails pertaining to the Parezufim of Father and Mother,
which clo the Arik from the throat to the navel.

First recall that Father and Mother are synonymous
with Wisdom and Intelligence of the collective
world of Emanation. But, like all the Parezufim, each
of these encompasses ten Sefirot. We have already men-



tioned earlier that the Parezufim of Father arid Mother
are separated from each other, in such a way that each
individually comprises the two Names 45 and i52. This
is not the case with the Parezufim of Atik and Arik and
their feminine counterparts, for those are united so that
the Name 45 is considered to be male and the Name 52

Father is composed of half of Intelligence of the
Name 45 and of the seven lower Sefirot of Wisdom
belonging to the Name 52the first three Sefirot having
been appropriated by Atik as his feminine counterpart.
Mother is composed of the lower half of Intelligence
of 45 and the six lower Sefirot of Intelligence of
52, since the first four Sefirot were taken by Atik as his
feminine counterpart.

These two Pareztifim are subdivided into four, be
cause of the different types of illumination coming to
them from the "Mercies and Powers of Arik. Col
lectively, these Parezufim, from the chest up, are called
Father and Mother: and from that point downwards,
they are called Israel the Ancient and Understanding.
We find then that the upper Father and Mother enclo the
Arik down to the chest, one on his right and one on his
left, while from the chest down to the navel, Arik is
clothed by Israel the Ancient, and Understanding, also
divided between right and left.

Israel the Ancient, and Understanding clo the the
upper Father and Mother from their mutual chest down
ward. Bear in mind that the inclusive Father and Mother
are called Father and Mother only as far as the chest,
because up to that point they are bare and unclothed.



From the chest down, however, they are enclothed by
Israel the Ancient, and by Understanding, so that we no
longer consider that portion of them as part of their
Parezufim. Instead, from this point on they are repre
sented respectively by Israel the Ancient, and by Under

This explains why in one place the Parezufim of the
upper Father and Mother are clothed by the Parezufim
of Israel the Ancient, and Understanding from their
chest downso that these four end evenly inside and
why elsewhere the feet of Mother ("Intelligence)
are in the head of Understanding so that the upper
Father and Mother end in the chest at the place where
Israel the Ancient, and Understanding begin.

The nature of the upper Lights is such that they
change according to their position, and that is what is
meant when we say that the feet of "Intelligence are in
the head of Understanding. This situation obtains only
between Mother and Understanding, and not in the case
of Father and Israel the Ancient.

Nevertheless, both Father and Mother end evenly at
the chest, because her soles, which are located on the
inside, are not considered as part of her, and that which
is seen outside is an equal terminus. Also, when we say
that upper Father and Mother reach to the chest of Arik,
and that Israel the Ancient, and Understanding reach to
the navel, we refer to that which is seen of these Parezu
fim. Whereas on the inside, all four clo the Arik down
to the navel and end equally. This is an important fact.

The upper Father and Mother are composed of the
Names 4 5 and 52 of Father, while Israel the Ancient,



and Understanding are composed of the Names 45 and
52 of Mother. When Mother and Father united, Father
gave his Name 52 to Mother in exchange for :ier Name
45, which he thereupon gave to Israel the j Ancient.
Mother gave her Name 52 to Understanding. Thus the
Name 45 belonging to Father and the 45 belpnging to
Mother are both in the right side: Father has one Name
45 and Israel the Ancient has the other; similarly, the
Name 52 of both are on the left side. Mother has one
and Understanding the other. The uniting of the upper
Father with Mother, as well as that of Israel the Ancient
with Understanding therefore corresponds to tike uniting
of the Names 45 and 52.

Father and Mother commence from the throat of
Arik. Their "Crowns clo the his throat, one on the
right, the other on the left; their remaining Sefirot
clo the his bodyFa ther the right arm, that is, his
"Mercy, and Mother the left arm, his "Power. In this
connection, the *Zohar says: "Father is united with Mercy
and Mother with Power, because they clo the Mercy and
Power respectively.

The "Wisdom, "Intelligence and "Knowledge
belonging to Father and Mother were formed from the
arms of Arik, and from his body came the rest of their
Sefirot. The glow of his (Ariks) Sefirot alternates in
the making of Father and Mother: their "Wisdom "In
telligence and "Knowledge come from his first sections
of "Mercy, "Power and "Beauty, their "Mercy,
"Power, and "Beauty were formed out of the second
sections of "Mercy, "Power and "Beauty belonging
to Arik; and from the third section of "Mercy, "Power



and "Beauty of Arik, came their "Triumph, "Glory
and "Foundation. Thereafter, these Sefirot all rose and
enveloped Arik in the preceding order.

It is necessary to know that the union of Father and
Mother is perpetual, that it never ceases, and that these
Parezufim are not dependent upon the actions of man.
Therefore, the Z ohar speaks of them as "Friends who
never part. Two kinds of union exist between Father and
Mother: "outer, a union between the outer Lights, and
"inner, a union of the inner Lights. The former which
takes place only in the upper Father and Mothernever
ceases. It requires no arousal whatsoever from below.
But the union of the inner Lights, namely that union of
Father and Mother which is performed for the purpose
of bringing brain to ZO, is not perpetual, but rather
intermittent. Here, the arousal by the lower beings
(men) is necessary in order to bring it about. All four
Parezufim : Father and Mother, Israel the Ancient, and
Understanding, are included in this union the four
becoming but two.

Bear in mind that between Father and Mother there
is an intermediary"Knowledgewhich unites them.
This is represented by the fountain of "and clears
(mazel wenakeh) of the beard.

It is important to note that the Parezufim of Israel
the Ancient, and Understanding, from their chest down
ward, are divided in two. These are called the second
Israel the Ancient, and the second Understanding, and
it is the Sefirot Triumph, "Glory and "Foundation
of these two which are drawn into ZO as the latters



brain. These three Sefirot are called the third Israel the
Ancient, and the third Understanding.

Remember that at times the Pareztifim of the upper
Father and Mother, Israel the Ancient, and Understanding
are united as one, and that what was previously 'Found
ation of upper Father and Mother becomes the location
for the chest of the collective Parezuf. However, this
occurs only at the time of union. There are other oc
casions when Israel the Ancient, and Understanding rise
and are included in Father and Mother in order to unite;
and yet other times when the upper Father and Mother
descend and are included in Israel the Ancient, and

The first pregnancy, which occurs in order to en
gender the six Sefirot (ZO), sees Israel the Ancient, and
Understanding rise into upper Father and Mother. In the
second pregnancy, which takes place so that the first
three Sefirot may be supplemented to ZO, upper Father
and Mother descend into both Israel the Ancient, and
Understanding. These periodic changes in the Parezufim
occur during the first and second maturity of ZO.

This procedure will be further enumerated during
discussions regarding ZO and his acquisition of brain.

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General Principles of Kabbalah


QUOTES [1 / 1 - 1 / 1]

KEYS (10k)

   1 Rabbi Moses Luzzatto


1:The Creator desired that the Light be veiled in order to grant existence to the lower beings, which could not otherwise survive in its full presence. ~ Rabbi Moses Luzzatto, General Principles of Kabbalah,

*** NEWFULLDB 2.4M ***

1:The Creator desired that the Light be veiled in order to grant existence to the lower beings, which could not otherwise survive in its full presence. ~ Rabbi Moses Luzzatto, General Principles of Kabbalah,



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Wikipedia - Ace Atkins -- American journalist and author
Wikipedia - A. Craig Copetas -- Author and international correspondent
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Wikipedia - Administrative units of Pakistan -- Provinces and territories under the administrative authority of Pakistan
Wikipedia - Adobe Authorware
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Wikipedia - Adventure Activities Licensing Authority -- The licensing authority for outdoor activity centres for young people in Great Britain
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Wikipedia - Agri-Food and Veterinary Authority of Singapore -- Former statutory board in Singapore
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Wikipedia - Alan Dershowitz -- American lawyer, author
Wikipedia - Alan Epstein -- American author
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Wikipedia - Alan Marshall (New Zealand author)
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Wikipedia - Ambient authority -- Term used in the study of access control systems
Wikipedia - Ambrose Evans-Pritchard -- is an economics and business journalist, author and The Daily Telegraph editor.
Wikipedia - Amei Wallach -- American filmmaker and author
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Wikipedia - American Authors
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Wikipedia - American Society of Composers, Authors and Publishers -- American not-for-profit performance-rights organization
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Wikipedia - Anti-authoritarian International
Wikipedia - Anti-authoritarianism -- opposition to authoritarianism
Wikipedia - Anti-authoritarian
Wikipedia - Anti-clericalism -- Opposition to religious authority
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Wikipedia - Appeal to authority
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Wikipedia - Arrest warrant -- Warrant authorizing the arrest and detention of an individual
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Wikipedia - Artistic control -- The authority to decide how a final media product will appear
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Wikipedia - Association of Nigerian Authors -- Nigerian authors Association
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Wikipedia - AtB -- Public transport authority of Trondelag, Norway
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Wikipedia - Aubrey de Grey -- English author and biogerontologist
Wikipedia - Auctorum -- Term indicating that a biological name is not used in the sense established by the original author
Wikipedia - Audrey Kobayashi -- Canadian geography professor and author
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Wikipedia - Aulus Gellius -- Latin author and grammarian
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Wikipedia - Austin Roberts (zoologist) -- South African ornithologist, zoologist and author
Wikipedia - Austin Steward -- abolitionist and author
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Wikipedia - Australian Curriculum, Assessment and Reporting Authority -- Independent statutory authority
Wikipedia - Auteur -- Leader of a collaborative work equivalent to the author of a book
Wikipedia - Author citation (botany) -- Refers to citing the person (or group of people) who validly published a botanical name
Wikipedia - AuthorHouse -- American publishing company
Wikipedia - Authorial intentionalism
Wikipedia - Authorial intentionality
Wikipedia - Authoring language
Wikipedia - Authoring of adaptive hypermedia
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Wikipedia - Authoritarian communism
Wikipedia - Authoritarianism -- Form of social organization characterized by submission to authority
Wikipedia - Authoritarian personality -- Psychological trait/personality type
Wikipedia - Authoritarian socialism -- socialist economic-political system rejecting political liberalism
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Wikipedia - Authoritarian
Wikipedia - Authoritative name server
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Wikipedia - Authority (Law > Order: Special Victims Unit)
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Wikipedia - Authority
Wikipedia - Authorization certificate
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Wikipedia - Authorization
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Wikipedia - Authorship
Wikipedia - Author Solutions -- American self-publishing parent company
Wikipedia - Authors' rights
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Wikipedia - Bibliographic database -- Database providing an authoritative source of bibliographic information
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Wikipedia - Buckinghamshire County Council -- Former upper-tier local authority for Buckinghamshire, England
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Wikipedia - Category:Animal taxa by author
Wikipedia - Category:Artist authors
Wikipedia - Category:Authors of Kabbalistic works
Wikipedia - Category:Botanical taxa by author
Wikipedia - Category:Creative Commons-licensed authors
Wikipedia - Category:CS1 maint: extra text: authors list
Wikipedia - Category:CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list
Wikipedia - Category:CS1 maint: numeric names: authors list
Wikipedia - Category:CS1 maint: uses authors parameter
Wikipedia - Category:Israel Antiquities Authority
Wikipedia - Category:Lists of biologists by author abbreviation
Wikipedia - Category:Pages using authority control with parameters
Wikipedia - Category:Self-published authors
Wikipedia - Category:Taxa by author
Wikipedia - Category:Taxon authorities
Wikipedia - Category:Wikipedia articles with Semantic Scholar author identifiers
Wikipedia - Category:Wikipedia articles with suppressed authority control identifiers
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Wikipedia - Centralized government -- Type of government in whichM-BM- powerM-BM- orM-BM- legal authorityM-BM- is exerted or coordinated by aM-BM- de factoM-BM- political executive to whichM-BM- federal states,M-BM- local authorities, and smaller units are considered subject
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Wikipedia - Certificate authority -- An entity that issues digital certificates
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Wikipedia - Certificate Transparency -- Internet security standard for auditing digital certificates by creating public logs recording certificates issued by publicly trusted certificate authorities
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Wikipedia - Charismatic authority
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Wikipedia - Charles Baxter (author) -- American novelist, essayist, and poet
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Wikipedia - Charles Fleming (author) -- American author
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Wikipedia - Charles Martin (author) -- American writer
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Wikipedia - Charles Platt (author)
Wikipedia - Charles Platt (science-fiction author)
Wikipedia - Charles Pomeroy Otis -- American educator and author
Wikipedia - Charles Purdom -- British author, drama critic, town planner, and economist
Wikipedia - Charles R. Conn -- CEO, Investor, Author
Wikipedia - Charles Ruas -- American author, literarary and art critic
Wikipedia - Charles Spurgeon -- British preacher, author, pastor and evangelist
Wikipedia - Charles W. Akers -- American historian, author, and educator
Wikipedia - Charles Webb (author) -- American writer
Wikipedia - Charles Wheeler Denison -- American cleric, author and newspaper editor
Wikipedia - Charley Lippincott -- Author, promoter and jazz fan.
Wikipedia - Charlie Fletcher -- British screenwriter and author
Wikipedia - Charlie Jane Anders -- American science fiction author and commentator
Wikipedia - Charlotta Falkman -- Swedish-Finnish author
Wikipedia - Charlotte Auerbach -- Geneticist, author
Wikipedia - Charlotte Bunch -- American author and activist
Wikipedia - Charlotte Carmichael Stopes -- 19th/20th-century British scholar, author, and campaigner for women's rights
Wikipedia - Charlotte Elkins -- American author
Wikipedia - Charlton Ogburn -- American journalist and author (1911-1998)
Wikipedia - Charter -- Grant of authority or rights
Wikipedia - Chattanooga Area Regional Transportation Authority -- American mass transit provider in Tennessee
Wikipedia - Chelsea Clinton -- American author and global health advocate
Wikipedia - Chen Qiufan -- Chinese science fiction author
Wikipedia - Chental-Song Bembry -- American children's book author
Wikipedia - Cherie Johnson -- American actress, writer and film producer and author
Wikipedia - Cherry Chevapravatdumrong -- American author and producer
Wikipedia - Cheryl Dumesnil -- American author, poet and editor
Wikipedia - Cheryl Margaret Cran -- Canadian entrepreneur and author
Wikipedia - Cheryl Strayed -- Author, memoirist, podcaster
Wikipedia - Chetan Bhagat -- Indian author and columnist (born 1974)
Wikipedia - Chicago Housing Authority Police Department -- Defunct police department within the Chicago Housing Authority
Wikipedia - Chicago Housing Authority -- Municipal corporation that oversees public housing in Chicago, Illinois, United States
Wikipedia - Chicago Transit Authority -- Operator of mass transit
Wikipedia - Chiefly About War Matters -- 1862 essay by American author Nathaniel Hawthorne
Wikipedia - Chief Tahachee -- American actor, author
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Wikipedia - Chilakamarthi Prabhakar Chakravarthy Sharma -- Indian author
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Wikipedia - Chittaranjan Das -- Indian politician, poet and author and leader of the Bengali Swaraj Party (1870-1925)
Wikipedia - Chittoor Urban Development Authority -- Urban planning agency in Chittoor, Andhra Pradesh, India
Wikipedia - Chloe Lukasiak -- American actress, dancer, model, author, producer and reality television personality
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Wikipedia - Chris Armold -- American author
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Wikipedia - Chris Chase -- Actor and author
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Wikipedia - Chris Crowe (author) -- American author and professor
Wikipedia - Chris DeRose (author) -- American author (born 1980)
Wikipedia - Chris Dier -- American educator and author (born 1988)
Wikipedia - Chris Eboch -- American children's book author
Wikipedia - Chris Else -- New Zealand author
Wikipedia - Chris Enss -- American author and screenwriter
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Wikipedia - Chris Jericho -- American-Canadian professional wrestler, musician, author, and actor
Wikipedia - Chris Kreski -- American author and screenwriter
Wikipedia - Chris Leavins -- Canadian actor, playwright, author (born 1968)
Wikipedia - Chris Lintott -- British astrophysicist, author, and broadcaster
Wikipedia - Chris Monroe -- American cartoonist, illustrator, and author with weekly comic strip, Violet Days
Wikipedia - Christa Faust -- American author
Wikipedia - Christa Parravani -- American author and assistant professor
Wikipedia - Christia Brown -- American psychologist and author
Wikipedia - Christian Bauer -- French chess grandmaster and author
Wikipedia - Christian Bobin -- French author and poet
Wikipedia - Christian de la Huerta -- Author, spiritual leader
Wikipedia - Christian Dorph -- Danish author
Wikipedia - Christiane Collange -- French journalist and author
Wikipedia - Christiane F. -- German author
Wikipedia - Christian Ehring -- German comedian and author
Wikipedia - Christian M. Nebehay -- Austrian art dealer, art collector and author
Wikipedia - Christian Rapp (author) -- Austrian author, cultural scientist, and exhibition curator
Wikipedia - Christian Topography -- One of the earliest essays in scientific geography written by a Christian author
Wikipedia - Christie Barlow -- British author of women's fiction
Wikipedia - Christina Hoff Sommers -- American author and philosopher
Wikipedia - Christina Lamb -- British journalist and author
Wikipedia - Christina McDowell -- American author
Wikipedia - Christina Tosi -- American chef, author & television personality
Wikipedia - Christine D'haen -- Flemish author and poet
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Wikipedia - Christine Maria Jasch -- Austrian economist, author and non-fiction writer
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Wikipedia - Christine Whiting Parmenter -- American author
Wikipedia - Christopher Barzak -- American author
Wikipedia - Christopher Bram -- American author (born 1952)
Wikipedia - Christopher B. Wright -- American webcomic author
Wikipedia - Christopher C. Bell -- Writer, author, lecturer
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Wikipedia - Christopher Dow (author) -- American writer
Wikipedia - Christopher Edwards (author) -- American author
Wikipedia - Christopher Emery -- US government official and author
Wikipedia - Christopher Evans (author) -- Welsh-born UK chemist, teacher, and author.
Wikipedia - Christopher Green (paediatrician) -- Paediatrician and author (b. 1948)
Wikipedia - Christopher Hitchens -- British-American author and journalist (1949-2011)
Wikipedia - Christopher McDougall -- American journalist and author
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Wikipedia - Christopher Nolan (author)
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Wikipedia - Christopher Stasheff -- American science fiction and fantasy author
Wikipedia - Christopher Steele -- British intelligence officer, author of Steele dossier
Wikipedia - Christopher Tolkien -- British book editor, son of author J. R. R. Tolkien
Wikipedia - Christopher Wase -- English 17th century scholar, author, translator, and educator
Wikipedia - Christopher Weaver -- American entrepreneur, author, software developer, scientist, and educator at MIT
Wikipedia - Christopher Woodforde -- Priest and author
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Wikipedia - Chuan Sha -- Chinese-born Canadian poet and author
Wikipedia - Chuck Heaton -- American sportswriter, columnist, author, and commentator
Wikipedia - Chuck Klosterman -- American author and columnist
Wikipedia - Cindy Callaghan -- American author of children's books (born c. 1976)
Wikipedia - Cindy Crabb -- American author, musician, and feminist (born 1970)
Wikipedia - Civil Aviation Authority of Singapore -- National aviation authority of Singapore
Wikipedia - Civil Aviation Safety Authority -- Australia's national civil aviation authority
Wikipedia - C. J. Cherryh -- American science fiction and fantasy author
Wikipedia - C. J. Chivers -- American journalist and author
Wikipedia - C. J. Hamilton (author) -- Irish author
Wikipedia - C.J. Tudor -- British author
Wikipedia - Claire Berlinski -- American journalist and author
Wikipedia - Claire Chao -- Chinese-American writer and author
Wikipedia - Claire Dunne -- Australian actress and author (born 1937)
Wikipedia - Claire Fuller -- English author (born 1967)
Wikipedia - Claire Wallace (broadcaster) -- Canadian journalist, broadcaster and author
Wikipedia - Claire Wineland -- American activist and author
Wikipedia - Claire Wolfe -- American libertarian author and columnist
Wikipedia - Clara Harrison Stranahan -- American author
Wikipedia - Clara Longworth de Chambrun -- 19th/20th-century American author and patron of the arts
Wikipedia - Clara Marshall -- American physician, educator and author
Wikipedia - Clare Azzopardi -- Maltese author
Wikipedia - Clare Bell -- British author in the United States
Wikipedia - Clare Jaynes -- Pen named used by two American women who were co-authors in the 1940s
Wikipedia - Clare Wright -- American Australian historian, author and broadcaster
Wikipedia - Clark Howard -- Radio host, consumer advocate, author (born 1955)
Wikipedia - Clark McMeekin -- American authors (joint pen name)
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Wikipedia - Claude Porter White -- American author and composer
Wikipedia - Claudia Dain -- American author of romance novels
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Wikipedia - Claudius Bohm -- German Librarian and Author
Wikipedia - Clayton Cramer -- American historian, author, gun enthusiast, and software engineer
Wikipedia - Clayton Emery -- Author
Wikipedia - Clemantine Wamariya -- Rwandan-American activist and author
Wikipedia - Cleopatra Abdou -- Egyptian-American psychologist, author, and professor
Wikipedia - Cleopatra the Alchemist -- Egyptian alchemist and author
Wikipedia - Clifford Stoll -- American astronomer, author and teacher
Wikipedia - Clifford Warren Ashley -- American artist, author, sailor, and knot expert
Wikipedia - Clive A. Stace -- British botanist and botanical author
Wikipedia - Clive Barker -- English author, film director, and visual artist
Wikipedia - Clive Dunn -- English actor, comedian, artist, author, and singer
Wikipedia - Clive James -- Australian author and broadcaster
Wikipedia - Closed city -- Settlement where specific authorization is required to visit
Wikipedia - Cloud Atlas (novel) -- 2004 novel by British author David Mitchell
Wikipedia - C. L. Polk -- Canadian author of fantasy fiction
Wikipedia - Clyde E. Love -- American mathematician and author
Wikipedia - Coalition Provisional Authority Order 17 -- Order made by the Coalition Provisional Authority in Iraq
Wikipedia - Coalition Provisional Authority Order 1 -- Order made by the Coalition Provisional Authority in Iraq
Wikipedia - Coalition Provisional Authority Order 2 -- Order made by the Coalition Provisional Authority in Iraq
Wikipedia - Co-authored
Wikipedia - Cokie Roberts -- American journalist and author
Wikipedia - Colby Buzzell -- American blogger and author
Wikipedia - Coleen Nolan -- Irish/British singer, author, beauty queen and television presenter
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Wikipedia - Colin Dann -- English author
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Wikipedia - Colin Simpson (author)
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Wikipedia - Combined authority -- Type of local government institution in England
Wikipedia - Comics Code Authority -- Voluntary code to self-regulate the content of comic books in the United States
Wikipedia - Command and control -- Military exercise of authority by a commanding officer over assigned forces
Wikipedia - Commander-in-chief -- Supreme commanding authority of a military
Wikipedia - Command hierarchy -- Group of people who carry out orders based on others authority within the group
Wikipedia - Commissioners of Irish Lights -- General Lighthouse Authority for Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland
Wikipedia - Commission for Discipline Inspection of the Central Military Commission -- Chief military disciplinary authority of China
Wikipedia - Committee of Advertising Practice -- Advertising regulation authority in the United Kingdom
Wikipedia - Community day school -- A school for high-risk students operated by the local public school authority
Wikipedia - Competition and Markets Authority -- UK government non-ministerial department
Wikipedia - Composer -- Musician who is an author of music in any form
Wikipedia - Composite Gazetteer of Antarctica -- The authoritative international gazetteer containing all the Antarctic toponyms
Wikipedia - Concentration Camps Inspectorate -- Central SS administrative and managerial authority for the concentration camps of the Third Reich
Wikipedia - Conciliarity -- Support for authority of church councils
Wikipedia - Con Coughlin -- British journalist and author
Wikipedia - Condemned property -- Property that has been closed, seized, or restricted by authorities
Wikipedia - Connie Glynn -- British voice actor, YouTuber, author
Wikipedia - Conn Iggulden -- British author
Wikipedia - Connirae Andreas -- American author and psychotherapist
Wikipedia - Connor Freff Cochran -- American author and illustrator, computer and music industry journalist, publisher, producer, and business manager
Wikipedia - Conservation status -- Indication of the chance of a species' extinction, regardless of authority used
Wikipedia - Consortium imperii -- The sharing of Roman imperial authority by two or more emperors.
Wikipedia - Constitutional Convention of Puerto Rico -- US approved Public Law 600, authorizing Puerto Rico to draft its own constitution in 1951
Wikipedia - Constitutionalism -- Belief that government authority derives from fundamental law
Wikipedia - Contemporary Authors Online
Wikipedia - Contemporary Authors -- Biographical reference work published by Gale Cengage
Wikipedia - Contumacy -- Stubborn refusal to obey authority
Wikipedia - Convention of Scottish Local Authorities -- National association of Scottish councils
Wikipedia - Cora Daniels -- African-American author
Wikipedia - Coralie Colmez -- Mathematics tutor and author
Wikipedia - Coralie Trinh Thi -- French actress, director & author (born 1976)
Wikipedia - Cordelia Edvardson -- German-born Swedish journalist, author and Holocaust survivor
Wikipedia - Coretta Scott King -- American author, activist, and civil rights leader; wife of Martin Luther King, Jr.
Wikipedia - Corinne Griffith -- American actress, film producer, author
Wikipedia - Corinne Jacker -- American screenwriter and author
Wikipedia - Cornelia James Cannon -- American feminist reformer and author
Wikipedia - Cornelia Ludecke -- Polar researcher, author
Wikipedia - Cornelia Otis Skinner -- American actress and author
Wikipedia - Cory Doctorow -- Canadian-British blogger, journalist, and science fiction author
Wikipedia - Council for National Academic Awards -- Former national degree-awarding authority in the United Kingdom from 1965 until 1993
Wikipedia - Count Yogi -- American golfer and author
Wikipedia - County record office -- Local authority repository
Wikipedia - Courtney Sina Meredith -- New Zealand poet, playwright, and author
Wikipedia - Court of equity -- Court authorized to apply principles of equity to cases
Wikipedia - Court -- Judicial institution with authority to resolve legal disputes
Wikipedia - Cox's Bazar Development Authority -- Government Agency of Bangladesh
Wikipedia - Craig Claiborne -- American restaurant critic, food journalist and book author
Wikipedia - Craig Clevenger -- American author of contemporary fiction
Wikipedia - Craig Ferguson -- Scottish-born American television host, comedian, author, and actor
Wikipedia - Craig Larman -- Canadian-born computer scientist, author, and organizational development consultant
Wikipedia - Crispin Glover -- American actor, filmmaker, musician and author
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Wikipedia - Cristina Fernandez Cubas -- Spanish author
Wikipedia - Crollalanza theory of Shakespeare authorship
Wikipedia - Cronyism -- Practice of authority figures awarding positions to friends as a reward
Wikipedia - Crystal Marie Fleming -- American sociologist and author
Wikipedia - C.S. O'Cinneide -- Canadian author
Wikipedia - Culture of Northern Nigeria -- Nigerian authors culture in north
Wikipedia - Curtis Stone -- Australian chef, author and television personality
Wikipedia - Curtis White (author)
Wikipedia - Cuyahoga Metropolitan Housing Authority -- Public housing agency in Ohio, United States
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Wikipedia - Cynthia Illingworth -- paediatrician and medical author
Wikipedia - Cynthia Westcott -- Plant pathologist, author, and expert on roses
Wikipedia - Cyntoia Brown -- American author and speaker
Wikipedia - Cyril Alington -- Educationalist, scholar, cleric and author
Wikipedia - Cyrus Broacha -- Indian anchor, theatre personality, comedian, political satirist, columnist, podcaster, and author
Wikipedia - Cyrus Field Adams -- American Republican civil rights activist and author
Wikipedia - Cyrus Mistry (writer) -- Indian author and playwright
Wikipedia - Cy Schneider -- American advertising executive and author
Wikipedia - C. Z. Guest -- American actress, author, horsewoman, designer and socialite
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Wikipedia - Dag Hammarskjold -- Swedish diplomat, economist, and author
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Wikipedia - Dale Ahlquist -- American author
Wikipedia - Dale Franks -- American author and commentator
Wikipedia - Dalia GrinkeviM-DM-^MiM-EM-+tM-DM-^W -- Lithuanian doctor and author
Wikipedia - Dalkhan Khozhaev -- Chechen author, fighter
Wikipedia - Dallas Clayton -- American author and illustrator
Wikipedia - Dallas Housing Authority -- Public housing authority of Dallas, Texas, United States
Wikipedia - Dan Andersson -- Swedish author and poet
Wikipedia - Dana Schwartz -- American journalist and author
Wikipedia - Dan Atkinson -- British journalist and author
Wikipedia - Dan Blum -- American author
Wikipedia - Dan Bongino -- American conservative political commentator, radio show host, and author
Wikipedia - Dan Brown -- American author
Wikipedia - Dan Buettner -- American explorer, author and film producer
Wikipedia - Dan Cohen (filmmaker) -- American author, journalist, and blogger
Wikipedia - Dan Cragg -- American science-fiction author
Wikipedia - Dan Gibson (author) -- Canadian author
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Wikipedia - Daniel Allen Butler -- American author and playwright
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Wikipedia - Daniel Blythe -- British author
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Wikipedia - Daniel Dreisbach -- American author, academic, and attorney
Wikipedia - Daniele Del Giudice -- Italian author and lecturer
Wikipedia - Daniel Gade -- Retired U.S. Army officer, academic, author, politician
Wikipedia - Daniel Halpern -- American publisher and author
Wikipedia - Daniel Hardcastle -- English author and YouTuber
Wikipedia - Daniel J. Flynn -- American author
Wikipedia - Daniel Keyes -- American author
Wikipedia - Daniel Kraus (author) -- American author
Wikipedia - Daniel L. Akin -- Theological seminary president and author
Wikipedia - Danielle Hairston -- American psychiatrist, author
Wikipedia - Daniel Migliore -- American theologian and author
Wikipedia - Daniel Pinchbeck -- American author and journalist
Wikipedia - Daniel Pinkwater -- American author of children's books and young adult fiction
Wikipedia - Daniel Suarez (author) -- American writer
Wikipedia - Daniel T. Jones (author) -- Author and researcher
Wikipedia - Daniel Tudor (journalist) -- British author & journalist specializing in Korean affairs
Wikipedia - Daniel Yergin -- American author, speaker, and economic historian
Wikipedia - Dan Massey -- American activist, scientist, and author
Wikipedia - Danny Ellis -- Irish singer-songwriter and author
Wikipedia - Dan Smith (British author) -- Author and peace researcher
Wikipedia - Dan Wells (author) -- American horror writer
Wikipedia - Dan Wickenden -- American author (1913-1989)
Wikipedia - Dan Willis (author) -- American author
Wikipedia - Daphne Athas -- American author
Wikipedia - Darcel Leonard Wynne -- American dancer, choreographer, author and producer
Wikipedia - Darcie Edgemon -- American children's book author; writer
Wikipedia - Darcy DiNucci -- Author and designer
Wikipedia - Dare Wright -- children's author, model, and photographer
Wikipedia - Darfur Regional Authority -- 2007-16 interim governing body for the Darfur region of Sudan
Wikipedia - Dario De Toffoli -- Italian board game designer, gamebook author, and elite games player
Wikipedia - Darkhan Kydyrali -- Kazakh scholar and author
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Wikipedia - Darron Smith -- African American scholar, author and blogger
Wikipedia - Darryl Cunningham -- British author and cartoonist
Wikipedia - Daryl Cobb -- American author of children's books
Wikipedia - Daryl Davis -- American R&B and blues musician, activist, author, actor and bandleader
Wikipedia - Data center security -- Set of policies, precautions and practices to avoid unauthorized access and manipulation of a data center's resources
Wikipedia - Dave Asprey -- American entrepreneur and author
Wikipedia - Dave Crenshaw -- American author and public speaker
Wikipedia - Dave Cullen -- American author
Wikipedia - Dave Draper -- American bodybuilder, actor, and author
Wikipedia - Dave Gorman -- English author, comedian, and television presenter
Wikipedia - Dave Grossman (author) -- American writer and law enforcement trainer
Wikipedia - Dave Hebner -- Professional wrestling authority figure, promoter, road agent and referee
Wikipedia - Dave Hyatt -- American software engineer and a Shadowrun game expansion author
Wikipedia - Dave Ramsey -- American financial advisor and author
Wikipedia - Dave Rich -- British author
Wikipedia - Dave Thompson (author) -- English writer
Wikipedia - David Agus -- English scientist, American physician, Professor of Medicine and Engineering and author
Wikipedia - David Arnason -- Canadian author and poet
Wikipedia - David Atwood Wasson -- |American minister and author
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Wikipedia - David Bailey (writer) -- British editor and author
Wikipedia - David Baldacci -- American author
Wikipedia - David Bellamy -- English professor, botanist, author, broadcaster and environmental campaigner
Wikipedia - David Bell (author)
Wikipedia - David Benioff -- American author and producer
Wikipedia - David Berlinski -- American educator and author
Wikipedia - David Bishop (writer) -- New Zealand screenwriter and author
Wikipedia - David Blacker -- Sri Lankan author
Wikipedia - David Bone -- Commodore and author (b. 1874, d. 1959)
Wikipedia - David Bowker (writer) -- British author and screenwriter
Wikipedia - David Brin -- American author
Wikipedia - David Britton -- British author, artist, and publisher
Wikipedia - David Browne (journalist) -- American journalist and author
Wikipedia - David Bullard -- (1952-) South African columnist and author
Wikipedia - David Burnham -- American investigative journalist and author in Washington, D.C.
Wikipedia - David Callahan -- American author
Wikipedia - David Cannadine -- British author and historian
Wikipedia - David Carr (journalist) -- American columnist, and author
Wikipedia - David C. Fisher -- American author, professor, and a pastor
Wikipedia - David Conway (author) -- Irish author and alternative rock musician
Wikipedia - David Conyers -- Australian author
Wikipedia - David Coombs -- British author, historian, and teacher
Wikipedia - David Coventry -- New Zealand author and musician
Wikipedia - David Craig (author) -- British author
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Wikipedia - David Deida -- American author
Wikipedia - David Devadas -- Indian journalist and author
Wikipedia - David Dinkins -- American politician, lawyer, and author (1927-2020)
Wikipedia - David Doubilet -- Underwater photographer and author
Wikipedia - David Drake (actor) -- American playwright, stage director, actor and author
Wikipedia - David Drake -- American author of science fiction and fantasy literature
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Wikipedia - David Elkind -- American child psychologist and author
Wikipedia - David Ellerman -- American philosopher and author
Wikipedia - David Elliot Cohen -- American author and editor
Wikipedia - David Evanier -- American author
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Wikipedia - David G. Compton -- British author
Wikipedia - David George Campbell -- American ecologist, environmentalist, and author
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Wikipedia - David Grossman -- Israeli author
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Wikipedia - David Harris (protester) -- American journalist and author
Wikipedia - David Henry Sterry -- Author, comic, activist, book doctor
Wikipedia - David Hill (author) -- New Zealand author
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Wikipedia - David Irving -- British author and Holocaust denier
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Wikipedia - David J. Hall (photographer) -- Underwater wildlife photographer, author, and naturalist.
Wikipedia - David Katz (author) -- American journalist and author
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Wikipedia - David Levithan -- American author and editor
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Wikipedia - David Lodge (author)
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Wikipedia - David Mattingly (author)
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Wikipedia - David Mitchell (author) -- English novelist and screenwriter
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Wikipedia - David R. Barker -- American author, academic and businessman (born 1961)
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Wikipedia - David Ritz -- American author
Wikipedia - David Roberts (climber) -- Climber, mountaineer, and author
Wikipedia - David Sedaris -- American author
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Wikipedia - David Shrier -- American, futurist and author
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Wikipedia - David Vogel (author)
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Wikipedia - David W. Brown -- American author
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Wikipedia - David W. Frank -- thespian, author and educator
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Wikipedia - David Zinczenko -- American publisher, author, and businessman
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Wikipedia - Declaration (law) -- Authoritative establishment of fact by a court of law
Wikipedia - Declaration of Boulogne -- Declaration about the nature and purpose of the Esperanto movement and the Fundamento as a basis for the Esperanto language; authored by L. L. Zamenhof and approved at the First World Esperanto Congress, Boulogne-sur-Mer, 1905
Wikipedia - Decommissioned highway -- Road which is no longer in use, or route no longer officially authorized or maintained
Wikipedia - Dede Wilson (baker) -- American baker and cookbook author
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Wikipedia - Demi (author)
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Wikipedia - Derbyite theory of Shakespeare authorship
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Wikipedia - Despotism -- Government by oppressive authority
Wikipedia - Determinatio -- Authoritative determination by the legislator concerning the application of practical principles
Wikipedia - Detroit Land Bank Authority -- Public authority in Detroit, Michigan, United States
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Wikipedia - Diana de Vere Beauclerk -- English author
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Wikipedia - Diane Atkinson -- British historian and author
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Wikipedia - Diane Fanning -- American crime writer and author
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Wikipedia - Diane Williams (author) -- American short-story writer and author
Wikipedia - Dianne Crampton -- American businesswoman and author
Wikipedia - Dictatorship -- Authoritarian form of government
Wikipedia - Didier Ottinger -- French museum curator, art critic and author
Wikipedia - Diego Jimenez Torres Airport -- Airport owned by the Puerto Rico Ports Authority
Wikipedia - Die Harzreise -- travel report by German poet and author Heinrich Heine on a journey to the Harz mountains
Wikipedia - Dieter Nuhr -- German cabaret artist, TV host, author
Wikipedia - Dietmar Dath -- German author, journalist and translator
Wikipedia - Digangana Suryavanshi -- Indian actress and author
Wikipedia - DigiNotar -- Former certificate authority
Wikipedia - Digital Author Identifier -- A unique number to all academic authors in the Netherlands as a form of authority control
Wikipedia - Digital rights management -- Technology to control access to copyrighted works and prevent unauthorized copying
Wikipedia - Dike Chukwumerije -- Nigerian author, spoken word and performance poet
Wikipedia - Dima Ghawi -- American author and speaker
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Wikipedia - Dinesh D'Souza -- Indian-American political commentator, filmmaker, author, convicted felon, conspiracy theorist
Wikipedia - Dino Attanasio -- Belgian author of comics
Wikipedia - Dinon -- Greek historian, chronicler, and author
Wikipedia - Directorate General of Civil Aviation (India) -- National civil aviation authority of the Government of India
Wikipedia - Directorate General of Jute (Bangladesh) -- state industrial regulatory authority
Wikipedia - Dirk Cussler -- American author
Wikipedia - District of Columbia Housing Authority -- Public housing agency in Washington, D.C., United States
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Wikipedia - D. J. Butler -- American speculative fiction author
Wikipedia - Dmitry Shparo -- Russian Arctic explorer, endurance skier, and author
Wikipedia - Doctor Dolittle and the Green Canary -- The eleventh work of Doctor Dolittle Books, the author was Hugh Lofting
Wikipedia - Doctor Dolittle and the Secret Lake -- The tenth work of Doctor Dolittle Books, the author was Hugh Lofting
Wikipedia - Doctor Dolittle in the Moon -- The eighth work of Doctor Dolittle Books, the author was Hugh Lofting
Wikipedia - Doctor Dolittle's Caravan -- The sixth work of Doctor Dolittle Books, the author was Hugh Lofting
Wikipedia - Doctor Dolittle's Circus -- The fourth work of Doctor Dolittle Books, the author was Hugh Lofting
Wikipedia - Doctor Dolittle's Garden -- The seventh work of Doctor Dolittle Books, the author was Hugh Lofting
Wikipedia - Doctor Dolittle's Post Office -- The third work of Doctor Dolittle Books, the author was Hugh Lofting
Wikipedia - Doctor Dolittle's Puddleby Adventures -- The final work of Doctor Dolittle Books short stories, the author was Hugh Lofting
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Wikipedia - Dogma -- A principle or set of principles laid down by an authority as incontrovertibly true.
Wikipedia - Dolly Alderton -- British journalist, author and podcaster
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Wikipedia - Dom DeLuise -- American actor, chef, director, producer, author
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Wikipedia - Dominic Frisby -- British author, comedian and voice actor
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Wikipedia - Donald H. Graves -- American author and educator.
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Wikipedia - Donald Ogden Stewart -- American author and screenwriter
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Wikipedia - Don Burke -- Australian television presenter, author, and horticulturist
Wikipedia - Don Conroy -- Irish artist, media personality, author and environmentalist
Wikipedia - Don Failla -- American author
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Wikipedia - Dorothy Butler -- Children's book author
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Wikipedia - Draft:Bharatha Thennakoon -- Sri Lanka author and Journalist (born 1988)
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Wikipedia - Draft:Indrajit Banerjee -- Author & Director, Knowledge Societies Division UNESCO
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Wikipedia - Drew Daywalt -- American author and filmmaker
Wikipedia - Drive-by download -- Unintended download of computer software from the Internet, either M-bM-^QM- which a person has authorized but without understanding the consequences or M-bM-^QM-! download that happens without a person's knowledge, often a computer virus, spyware, malware
Wikipedia - Dubai Electricity and Water Authority -- Company
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Wikipedia - DVD authoring
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Wikipedia - Eamonn Fingleton -- Irish financial journalist and author
Wikipedia - Eando Binder -- American duo of sci-fi authors
Wikipedia - Earl Emerson -- American mystery novelist and author
Wikipedia - Earl Ofari Hutchinson -- American author and media critic
Wikipedia - Early life of Samuel Johnson -- Life of the English author (1709-1784)
Wikipedia - Eavan Boland -- Irish poet, author, and professor
Wikipedia - Eben Alexander (author)
Wikipedia - Eben Burgoon -- American-born comic author and educator
Wikipedia - Ebun Joseph -- Nigerian lecturer, author, and consultant
Wikipedia - Eckart Breitschuh -- German comic-book artist and author
Wikipedia - Ed Cha -- American role-playing games author
Wikipedia - Ed Darack -- American author and photographer
Wikipedia - Edgar Allan Poe -- 19th-century American author, poet, editor and literary critic
Wikipedia - Edgar Kupfer-Koberwitz -- German journalist, author and concentration camp survivor
Wikipedia - Edith Ayrton -- British author and activist
Wikipedia - Edith Cadivec -- Austrian author
Wikipedia - Edith Durham -- 19th and 20th-century British artist and author
Wikipedia - Edith Joan Lyttleton -- New Zealand author
Wikipedia - Edith Maxwell (author) -- American writer
Wikipedia - Edith Meiser -- American author and actress
Wikipedia - Edith Mitchell Dabbs -- American author
Wikipedia - Ed Moloney -- Irish journalist and author
Wikipedia - Edmond Jean Francois Barbier -- French jurisconsult and author
Wikipedia - Edmond Pidoux -- Swiss author
Wikipedia - Edmund de Waal -- British artist and author
Wikipedia - Edmund Gosse -- English poet, author and critic
Wikipedia - Edmund Hamer Broadbent -- Plymouth Brethren missionary and author (1861-1945)
Wikipedia - Edna Alford -- Canadian author and editor
Wikipedia - Edna Coll -- Puerto Rican educator and author
Wikipedia - Ednah Robinson Aiken -- American author, playwright, novelist
Wikipedia - Edna Yost -- American author
Wikipedia - Ed Regis (author)
Wikipedia - Eduardo Benot -- Spanish author
Wikipedia - Edward Abbey -- American author and essayist (1927-1989)
Wikipedia - Edward Ball (American author) -- American history writer and journalist (born 1958)
Wikipedia - Edward Bellamy -- American author
Wikipedia - Edward Bulwer-Lytton -- British statesman and author (1803-1873)
Wikipedia - Edward Deering Mansfield -- American author
Wikipedia - Edward Everett Hale -- American author, historian and Unitarian minister (1822-1909)
Wikipedia - Edward Falco -- American author
Wikipedia - Edward Field (poet) -- American poet and author
Wikipedia - Edward George Hudson Oliver -- (1938 - ) South African botanist is the recognized world authority on the subfamily ''Ericoideae''
Wikipedia - Edward Hutton (writer) -- British author
Wikipedia - Edward-John Bottomley -- South African journalist and author
Wikipedia - Edward L. Beach Jr. -- US Navy submarine officer and author
Wikipedia - Edward L. Beach Sr. -- Author and United States Naval officer
Wikipedia - Edward Lear -- British artist, illustrator, author and poet
Wikipedia - Edward Phillips -- English author
Wikipedia - Edward Sherman Gould -- 19th century author and critic
Wikipedia - Edward Shotter -- English Anglican priest and author (1933-2019)
Wikipedia - Edward Terry (author) -- British writer
Wikipedia - Edward Walsingham -- English author
Wikipedia - Edwin Abbott Abbott -- British theologian and author
Wikipedia - Edwin Bhend -- Swiss chess player and author
Wikipedia - Edwin Bryant (author)
Wikipedia - Edwin Checkley -- American athlete, physician, and the author of a book about strength-training
Wikipedia - Edwin E. Tozer -- British retired management and IT consultant and SF author
Wikipedia - Edwin Newman -- American newscaster, journalist and author
Wikipedia - Edwin Orion Brownell -- Canadian musician and author
Wikipedia - Edwin Torres (judge) -- New York state supreme court judge and author
Wikipedia - Ed Wood -- American screenwriter, director, producer, actor, author, and film editor
Wikipedia - E. E. Cowper -- Journalist and author of Juvenile Fiction
Wikipedia - E. E. Cummings -- American poet, painter, essayist, author, and playwright (1894-1962)
Wikipedia - E. E. Speight -- Lexicographer, educationalist, philosopher, poet, anthropologist, publisher, author; Speight was a Yorkshireman who was professor of English in Japan and latterly India.
Wikipedia - Efraim Diveroli -- American former arms dealer and author
Wikipedia - Egerton Ryerson Young -- Canadian methodist cleric and author
Wikipedia - Egon Wolff -- Chilean playwright and author
Wikipedia - E. H. D. Sewell -- English cricketer, journalist, and author
Wikipedia - E. H. Putley -- British scientist and author.
Wikipedia - Eigra Lewis Roberts -- Welsh author
Wikipedia - Eileen Alice Willa -- New Zealand museum curator, botanist and author
Wikipedia - Eileen Gibb -- British author of books about a fictional steam loco
Wikipedia - Eileen Kennedy-Moore -- American psychologist, author
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Wikipedia - Eileen Tallman Sufrin -- Canadian author and labour activist
Wikipedia - Ekaterina Mikhailovna Lopatina -- Russian author
Wikipedia - Elaine Aron -- Psychologist and author
Wikipedia - Elaine Mokhtefi -- Algerian activist and author born in New York (*1928)
Wikipedia - Elaine Williams -- Author of lesbian pulp fiction
Wikipedia - Elana K. Arnold -- American children's author
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Wikipedia - Eleanor Cameron -- Canadian born children's author and critic
Wikipedia - Eleanor Hallowell Abbott -- American author
Wikipedia - Eleanor Updale -- British author
Wikipedia - Eleanour Sinclair Rohde -- British horticulturalist and author
Wikipedia - Elena Dahl -- Russian-Swedish author and translator
Wikipedia - Elena Favilli -- Italian author, and entrepreneur
Wikipedia - Elena Georgievskaya -- Russian author and political activist
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Wikipedia - Elena Santiago -- Spanish author
Wikipedia - Elenor Yorke -- American author
Wikipedia - Eleonora Aguiari -- Italian installation artist and author
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Wikipedia - Elinor Frances Vallentin -- British botanist, author and illustrator
Wikipedia - Elinor Lipman -- American author
Wikipedia - Elinor Mordaunt -- British author
Wikipedia - Elinor Sweetman -- Irish poet and author
Wikipedia - Elinor Whitney Field -- American children's book author
Wikipedia - Eliot Crawshay-Williams -- British author, soldier, and politician
Wikipedia - Eliphas LM-CM-)vi -- French occult author and ceremonial magician
Wikipedia - Elisabeth Badinter -- French author, historian
Wikipedia - Elisabeth Dored -- Twentieth century Norwegian artist and author
Wikipedia - Elisabetta Dami -- Italian childrenM-bM-^@M-^Ys books author (born 1958)
Wikipedia - Elise Fellows White -- American author, composer
Wikipedia - Eli Valley -- American cartoonist and author
Wikipedia - Elizabeth Acevedo -- Dominican-American poet and author
Wikipedia - Elizabeth Ann "Betty" Hyland -- American author who wrote on the topic of schizophrenia
Wikipedia - Elizabeth Baity -- American children's author
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Wikipedia - Elizabeth Bear -- American author
Wikipedia - Elizabeth Byrd -- Historical fiction author
Wikipedia - Elizabeth Caffin -- NZ writer, author and publisher
Wikipedia - Elizabeth Caroline Gray -- Author on the Etruscans, 1800-1887
Wikipedia - Elizabeth Celi -- Australian psychologist and author
Wikipedia - Elizabeth Cobbs -- American historian and author
Wikipedia - Elizabeth Dole -- American politician and author
Wikipedia - Elizabeth Donald -- American author
Wikipedia - Elizabeth Drew -- American political journalist and author
Wikipedia - Elizabeth Ehrlich -- American author
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Wikipedia - Elizabeth Esther -- American Christian author and blogger
Wikipedia - Elizabeth Farrand -- Author and librarian
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Wikipedia - Elizabeth Laird (author) -- British children's writer
Wikipedia - Elizabeth Lawrence (author) -- American writer and landscape architect
Wikipedia - Elizabeth Lesser -- Author and co-founder/senior adviser of Omega Institute, Rhinebeck, NY, US
Wikipedia - Elizabeth Moorhead -- American author
Wikipedia - Elizabeth Pipko -- American author, model and founder of Exodus Movement
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Wikipedia - Elizabeth Robins Pennell -- American author
Wikipedia - Elizabeth Ross Haynes -- American sociologist and author
Wikipedia - Elizabeth Seeger -- American children's author and educator
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Wikipedia - Elizabeth Wong (author) -- Fiction writer and retired official
Wikipedia - Elizabeth Yates (author) -- American writer
Wikipedia - Elizabeth Young (journalist) -- English literary critic and author
Wikipedia - Elizabeth Zimmermann -- Knitting designer and author
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Wikipedia - Eliza Jane Ashley -- Cook and author
Wikipedia - Eliza Jane Cate -- American author
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Wikipedia - Ella Wheeler Wilcox -- American author and poet
Wikipedia - Ellen Auster -- Canadian professor and author
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Wikipedia - Elliott West -- American historian and author
Wikipedia - El Llano en llamas -- Collection of short stories by Mexican author Juan Rulfo
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Wikipedia - Emanuela Barasch Rubinstein -- Israeli author and scholar
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Wikipedia - Eric A. Meyer -- Web design consultant and author
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Wikipedia - Erin Bow -- American author
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Wikipedia - Estado Novo (Portugal) -- 1933-1974 authoritarian regime in Portugal
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Wikipedia - E. T. A. Hoffmann -- German Romantic author
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Wikipedia - European Food Safety Authority
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Wikipedia - Evie Christie -- Canadian poet and author
Wikipedia - Executive (government) -- Part of government that has sole authority and responsibility for the daily administration of the state
Wikipedia - Exit control lock -- Device to prevent unauthorized exit
Wikipedia - Eyre Chatterton -- Irish-born Anglican bishop and author
Wikipedia - Eyres Monsell -- Electoral ward of the unitary authority of Leicester
Wikipedia - Fabio Lanzoni -- Italian model, actor, and author
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Wikipedia - Faith Compton Mackenzie -- British author
Wikipedia - Faith Jaques -- British children's book author and illustrator
Wikipedia - Family Violence Prevention and Services Act -- United States law first authorized in 1984
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Wikipedia - Fantasy author
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Wikipedia - Fascism -- Form of far-right, authoritarian ultranationalism
Wikipedia - Fathollah Mojtabaei -- An Iranian author and historian
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Wikipedia - Federal Civil Defense Authority -- Defunct civil defense agency
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Wikipedia - Filibuster (military) -- Leader of an unauthorized foreign military expedition
Wikipedia - Financial Conduct Authority -- British regulator
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Wikipedia - First day of issue -- Postage stamp on a cover, postal card or stamped envelope franked on the first day the issue is authorized for use
Wikipedia - First Responder Network Authority -- American public safety broadband network operator
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Wikipedia - Flavius Mallius Theodorus -- 4th century Roman consul, scholar and author
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Wikipedia - Francis Fukuyama -- American political scientist, political economist, and author
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Wikipedia - Francis MacManus -- Author, broadcaster
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Wikipedia - Francoise-Albine Benoist -- 18th-century French author
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Wikipedia - Frank Chin -- American author and playwright
Wikipedia - Frank Collin -- Former leader of the National Socialist Party of America and New Age author
Wikipedia - Frank Eliason -- American corporate executive and author
Wikipedia - Frankenstein authorship question
Wikipedia - Frank G. Menke -- American newspaper reporter, author, and sports historian
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Wikipedia - Frank J. Coppa -- American historian, author, and educator
Wikipedia - Frank John William Goldsmith -- English author and survivor of the Titanic
Wikipedia - Frank Kane (author) -- American writer
Wikipedia - Franklin Burroughs (author) -- American author of nonfiction
Wikipedia - Frank L. Kluckhohn -- American author and journalist
Wikipedia - Frank N. Westcott -- American author
Wikipedia - Frank Paparelli -- American jazz pianist, composer and author
Wikipedia - Frank Ripploh -- German actor, director and author
Wikipedia - Frank Stagg (theologian) -- American theologian, author and pastor (1911-2001)
Wikipedia - Frank Turek -- Christian author
Wikipedia - Frank Zarnowski -- Author and sports announcer (b. 1943)
Wikipedia - Fran Lebowitz -- American author and public speaker
Wikipedia - Fran Van Cleave -- American author
Wikipedia - Franz Kurowski -- German author
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Wikipedia - Frederick Hackwood -- British author and teacher
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Wikipedia - Frederick W. Allsopp -- British-US-American author, newspaperman, book collector, and bookstore owner
Wikipedia - Frederic Passy -- French economist, author, and statesman
Wikipedia - Frederika Menezes -- Goan author, poet and artist
Wikipedia - Frederike Geerdink -- Dutch journalist and author
Wikipedia - Fred H. Colvin -- American machinist, technical journalist, author, and editor
Wikipedia - Fred Kaplan (journalist) -- American author and journalist (born 1954)
Wikipedia - Fred Rhodes (writer) -- Australian master mariner, journalist, author and cotton farming lobbyist
Wikipedia - Fredric Dannen -- American journalist and author
Wikipedia - Freeman Wills Crofts -- Irish mystery author, later based in England
Wikipedia - Frida Boisen -- Swedish journalist and author
Wikipedia - Frieda Friedman -- American author
Wikipedia - Friedo Lampe -- German author
Wikipedia - Friedrich Alefeld -- German botanist, author, and medical practitioner (1820-1872)
Wikipedia - Friedrich Durrenmatt -- Swiss author and dramatist (1921-1990)
Wikipedia - Friedrich Georg Junger -- German lawyer and author
Wikipedia - Friedrich von Bodenstedt -- 19th-century German author
Wikipedia - Friedrich von der Trenck -- Prussian army officer, adventurer, and author (1726-1794)
Wikipedia - Fritz Polking -- German nature photographer,author and book publisher
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Wikipedia - Fritz Steuben -- German author
Wikipedia - Fuhrerprinzip -- principle of political authority in the Third Reich
Wikipedia - Fujino M-EM-^Lmori -- Japanese light novel author
Wikipedia - Fulcanelli -- French alchemist and esoteric author
Wikipedia - Fumiko Hayashi (author))
Wikipedia - Fumiko Hayashi (author) -- Japanese novelist and poet
Wikipedia - Fundamento de Esperanto -- 1905 book by L. L. Zamenhof, describing the basic grammar and vocabulary of Esperanto; the only obligatory authority over the language, according to the Declaration of Boulogne
Wikipedia - Futabatei Shimei -- Japanese author, translator and literary critic
Wikipedia - Futaro Yamada -- Japanese author
Wikipedia - Future history -- Postulated history of the future and is used by authors in the subgenre of speculative fiction
Wikipedia - F.X. Toole -- Boxing trainer, author
Wikipedia - Fyodor Dostoevsky -- Russian author
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Wikipedia - Gabiden Mustafin -- Kazakh author and senior official in the Communist Party of Kazakhstan
Wikipedia - Gabriele Eckart -- German author
Wikipedia - Gabriel Harvey -- English author
Wikipedia - Gabriella Battaini-Dragoni -- Italian author, educator and politician
Wikipedia - Gabrielle Hamilton (chef) -- American chef and author
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Wikipedia - Gabrielle Union -- American actress, activist, and author
Wikipedia - Gabriel Rivera-Barraza -- Mexican-American author
Wikipedia - Gad Beck -- Holocaust survivor, author
Wikipedia - Gaelen Foley -- American author
Wikipedia - Gae Polisner -- American author
Wikipedia - Gail Hareven -- Israeli author
Wikipedia - Gamaliel -- First century leading authority on Jewish law in the Sanhedrin
Wikipedia - Ganggang Hu Guidice -- Chinese-American author and artist
Wikipedia - Garcelle Beauvais -- American actress, television personality, author, and former fashion model
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Wikipedia - Garrard Conley -- American author and LGBTQ activist
Wikipedia - Garrett Epps -- American author and legal scholar
Wikipedia - Garrison Keillor -- American author, storyteller, humorist, voice actor, and radio personality
Wikipedia - Garth Von Buchholz -- Canadian author
Wikipedia - Gary Alan Fine -- American sociologist and author
Wikipedia - Gary Bernstein -- American photographer and author
Wikipedia - Gary Blackwood (author) -- American author
Wikipedia - Gary Catona -- American author and voice coach
Wikipedia - Gary Gentile -- American author and pioneering technical diver
Wikipedia - Gary Jennings -- American author
Wikipedia - Gary Kinder (author) -- American writer
Wikipedia - Gary Kreps -- Communication scholar, professor, author
Wikipedia - Gary Null -- American talk radio host and author who advocates for alternative medicine
Wikipedia - Gavin Menzies -- British naval officer and author of pseudohistory
Wikipedia - Gavino Gulia -- Maltese botanist and author
Wikipedia - Gayle Laakmann McDowell -- Founder, consultant, coder, author and speaker
Wikipedia - Gayle Tzemach Lemmon -- American author
Wikipedia - Gedalia Dov Schwartz -- American-born Orthodox rabbi, author, legal jurist
Wikipedia - Ged Maybury -- New Zealand children's book author
Wikipedia - G. Edward Griffin -- American conspiracy theorist, film producer, author, and political lecturer
Wikipedia - Ge Fei (author) -- Chinese novelist
Wikipedia - Gelett Burgess -- US artist, art critic, poet, author and humorist
Wikipedia - Genan Wakil -- Author
Wikipedia - Gene D. Phillips -- American author, educator, and Catholic priest
Wikipedia - Gene Edward Veith -- American Lutheran author, scholar, and professor
Wikipedia - General Authority of Meteorology and Environmental Protection -- Government agency in Saudi Arabia
Wikipedia - General authority
Wikipedia - Gene Wilder -- American actor, filmmaker, singer-songwriter, comedian and author (1933-2016)
Wikipedia - Genni Batterham -- Australian artist, author, disability rights activist and filmmaker
Wikipedia - Geoff Chapple (writer) -- New Zealand author and journalist
Wikipedia - Geoff Hill (Northern Ireland journalist) -- Author, journalist and long-distance motorcycle rider
Wikipedia - Geoffrey Cain -- American journalist, author, and writer
Wikipedia - Geoffrey Chaucer -- 14th century English poet and author
Wikipedia - Geoffrey Notkin -- American actor, author, and entrepreneur.
Wikipedia - Geoffrey Prout -- English boatbuilder and author
Wikipedia - George Alec Effinger -- American science fiction author
Wikipedia - George Antheil -- American avant-garde composer, pianist, author and inventor
Wikipedia - George Arliss -- English actor, author, playwright, and filmmaker
Wikipedia - George Foreman -- American professional boxer, ordained Baptist minister, author and entrepreneur
Wikipedia - George Forrest (author) -- American musical theatre composer (1915-1999)
Wikipedia - George Gilfillan -- Scottish author and poet
Wikipedia - George Hamilton Teed -- Canadian author
Wikipedia - George Howe Colt -- American journalist and author
Wikipedia - George Kelson -- English cricketer, fisherman, and author
Wikipedia - George Levy -- American motorsports author
Wikipedia - George Lewis Becke -- Australian author
Wikipedia - George MacDonald Fraser -- English-born author of Scottish descent
Wikipedia - George MacDonald -- Scottish author, poet and Christian minister
Wikipedia - George McKay Brown -- Scottish poet, author and dramatist
Wikipedia - George Megalogenis -- Australian journalist and author
Wikipedia - George Moir -- Scottish advocate and author
Wikipedia - George Muhoho -- Former director general of the Kenya Airports Authority
Wikipedia - George Orwell -- English author and journalist (1903 - 1950)
Wikipedia - George Pelecanos -- American author
Wikipedia - George Racey Jordan -- American military officer, businessman, lecturer, activist, and author.
Wikipedia - George R. Dekle Sr. -- American lawyer, professor, and author
Wikipedia - George Rodwell -- English composer, musical director, and author
Wikipedia - George Samuel Clason -- American author
Wikipedia - George Samuel Dougherty -- American detective and author
Wikipedia - Georges Anglade -- Haitian-Canadian geographer, author and politician (1944-2010)
Wikipedia - George Stephens (playwright) -- English author and dramatist
Wikipedia - George Valavanis -- Pontic Greek journalist and author
Wikipedia - George Weigel -- Conservative Catholic American author
Wikipedia - George Wolfe (CPA) -- Chair of the Coalition Provisional Authority
Wikipedia - George Wyatt Proctor -- Author, journalist and lecturer
Wikipedia - Georgiann Makropoulos -- American wrestling historian and author
Wikipedia - Georgina Harding -- English author
Wikipedia - Gerald A. Browne -- American author and editor
Wikipedia - Gerald Clarke (author) -- American writer
Wikipedia - Gerald Gardner (scriptwriter) -- American author
Wikipedia - Gerald Hausman -- American author
Wikipedia - Gerald Huther -- German neurobiologist and author
Wikipedia - Gerald M. Best -- Railroad historian, author, photographer
Wikipedia - Gerald Walpin -- American lawyer and author
Wikipedia - Gerald Willoughby-Meade -- British author
Wikipedia - Gerald W. Smith -- American engineer and author
Wikipedia - Gerald W. Thomas -- American academic, author, and veteran
Wikipedia - Gerald Zaltman -- American academic, author, and editor
Wikipedia - Gerard Beirne -- Irish author
Wikipedia - Gerard Jones -- American author and comic book writer (born 1957)
Wikipedia - Gerard K. O'Neill -- Physicist, author, and inventor
Wikipedia - Gerhard Delling -- German journalist and author
Wikipedia - Gerhard Hirschfeld -- German historian and author
Wikipedia - Geri Halliwell -- English singer-songwriter, author and actress
Wikipedia - Germaine de StaM-CM-+l -- Swiss author
Wikipedia - German military administration in occupied France during World War II -- Interim occupation authority established by Nazi Germany during World War II
Wikipedia - Gerrit Berveling -- Dutch Esperanto author
Wikipedia - Gertrude Stein -- American author (1874-1946)
Wikipedia - Gertrude Torkornoo -- Ghanaian judge and author
Wikipedia - Ghana Revenue Authority -- Tax Company
Wikipedia - Ghana Tourism Authority -- Ghanaian tourism parastatal
Wikipedia - Ghost word -- Word created by error in a dictionary or other authoritative work
Wikipedia - Ghostwriter -- Writer who writes for the credited author
Wikipedia - Ghulam Mustafa Tabassum -- Pakistani poet and author
Wikipedia - Ghulam Nabi Gowhar -- Kashmiri author, novelist, poet
Wikipedia - Gibraltar Port Authority -- Agency in Gibraltar Port
Wikipedia - Gideon Ariel -- Israeli authority in biomechanics
Wikipedia - Gideon Levy -- Israeli journalist and author
Wikipedia - Gila Almagor -- Israeli actress, film star, and author
Wikipedia - Gilbert Henry Collins -- British author
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Wikipedia - Gillian Baverstock -- British author and elder daughter of English novelist Enid Blyton
Wikipedia - Gillian Chan -- Canadian children's author
Wikipedia - Gillian Cross -- British author of children's books
Wikipedia - Gil Scott-Heron -- American musician, poet and author
Wikipedia - Gina Calanni -- American politician and author
Wikipedia - Gina Cascone -- American author and screenwriter
Wikipedia - Gina Loudon -- American conservative author, anchor, columnist, show host, and news commentator
Wikipedia - Gina Smith (author)
Wikipedia - Gioconda Belli -- Nicaraguan author, novelist and poet
Wikipedia - Giovanni Boccaccio -- Italian author and poet
Wikipedia - Girl Authority -- American cover pop girl group
Wikipedia - Gisella Perl -- Gynecologist and author
Wikipedia - Giulia Enders -- German author
Wikipedia - Giuseppe Cederna -- Italian actor and author
Wikipedia - Gladys Knight -- American singer, songwriter, actress, businesswoman, and author
Wikipedia - Gladys Peto -- British author and fashion designer
Wikipedia - Gladys Skelton -- Australian poet, playwright and author
Wikipedia - Glen Duncan -- British author
Wikipedia - Glenn Adamson -- American curator, author, and historian
Wikipedia - Glennon Doyle -- American author
Wikipedia - Glen Rounds -- American author and illustrator
Wikipedia - Globus cruciger -- Globular object sometimes topped with a cross; Christian symbol of authority
Wikipedia - G. N. Georgano -- British author
Wikipedia - Godfrey Barker -- British journalist and author
Wikipedia - Godman Akinlabi -- Nigerian pastor and author
Wikipedia - Goldie Taylor -- American author and opinion writer
Wikipedia - Gorch Fock (author) -- German writer
Wikipedia - Gordon Anderson (author) -- American philosopher
Wikipedia - Gordon Aylward -- Australian chemical author
Wikipedia - Gordon Cheng -- Australian Christian author and writer
Wikipedia - Gordon Claridge -- British psychologist and author
Wikipedia - Gordon Daugherty -- American computer scientist and author
Wikipedia - Gordon Eklund -- American science fiction author
Wikipedia - Gordon Moore -- American businessman, co-founder of Intel and author
Wikipedia - Gordon Pape -- Author and newsletter publisher
Wikipedia - Gordon Scurfield -- English biologist and author
Wikipedia - Gosta M-CM-^Egren -- Finnish author
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Wikipedia - Government of Haryana -- Governing authority of the Indian state of Haryana
Wikipedia - Government of Ireland -- Ministerial cabinet exercising executive authority in the country of the Republic of Ireland
Wikipedia - Government of Madhya Pradesh -- Indian governing authority
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Wikipedia - Government of Spain -- Executive authority of Spain
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Wikipedia - Grace Campbell (author) -- Canadian novelist
Wikipedia - Grace Dent -- English columnist, broadcaster and author
Wikipedia - Grace Greylock Niles -- American botanist, author, and artist
Wikipedia - Grace Lee Boggs -- American social activist, philosopher, feminist, and author
Wikipedia - Grace Tabor -- American landscape architect and author
Wikipedia - Graeme Cowan -- Australian author of four books
Wikipedia - Graeme Macrae Burnet -- Scottish author and Booker Prize winner
Wikipedia - Graham Masterton -- British horror author
Wikipedia - Greatrex Newman -- English author, song-writer and screenwriter
Wikipedia - Greg Autry -- American space policy expert, author
Wikipedia - Greg Behrendt -- American comedian and author
Wikipedia - Gregg Braden -- American author
Wikipedia - Greg King (author) -- American author
Wikipedia - Gretel Killeen -- Australian television host, author and comedian
Wikipedia - Grosvenor Clarkson -- American author and publicist
Wikipedia - G. R. S. Mead -- English author, editor, translator, and theosophist
Wikipedia - Grzegorz BM-DM-^Ybnik -- Polish historian and author
Wikipedia - G. S. Lassey -- Ghanaian judge and author
Wikipedia - Gub Gub's Book -- The spin-off of Doctor Dolittle Books, the author was Hugh Lofting
Wikipedia - Guilherme Weber -- Brazilian actor, director and author
Wikipedia - Guillermo del Toro -- Mexican filmmaker and author
Wikipedia - Gulzar -- Urdu author
Wikipedia - Gunilla Gerland -- Author, lecturer and debater on the topic of Asperger syndrome
Wikipedia - Gunnar Gunnarsson -- Icelandic author
Wikipedia - Gunnar Sandelin -- Swedish social worker, author, lecturer and journalist
Wikipedia - Gunnar Tjomlid -- Norwegian blogger, author and sceptic (born 1974)
Wikipedia - Gunther Schuller -- American composer, conductor, horn player, author, historian, educator, publisher, and jazz musician
Wikipedia - Gunvantrai Acharya -- Indian Gujarati language author and journalist
Wikipedia - Gurcharan Das -- Indian author
Wikipedia - Gustav Schwab -- German teacher, pastor, author and editor (1792-1850)
Wikipedia - Gus Weill -- American author
Wikipedia - Guus Kuijer -- Dutch author
Wikipedia - Guy Adams -- English author
Wikipedia - Guy Arnold -- British author
Wikipedia - Guy A. Sims -- African American comic book author
Wikipedia - Guy Carleton Drewry -- American author and poet
Wikipedia - Guy Clapperton -- British journalist, speaker and author
Wikipedia - Guy Kawasaki -- American businessman and author
Wikipedia - Gwen Bristow -- American author and jounalist
Wikipedia - Gwen Carr -- American activist, public speaker and author
Wikipedia - Gwen Cooper (author) -- American novelist
Wikipedia - Gwenda Blair -- American author and journalist
Wikipedia - Gwen Harden -- Australian botanist and author
Wikipedia - Gwen John (playwright) -- British author and playwright
Wikipedia - Gwyn Cready -- American author of romance novels
Wikipedia - Gyorgy Dragoman -- Hungarian author and literary translator
Wikipedia - Gypsy Rose Lee -- American burlesque performer, actress and author
Wikipedia - Habib Ahmadzadeh -- Iranian author
Wikipedia - Hafsah Faizal -- American designer and author
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Wikipedia - Hailey Abbott -- American author
Wikipedia - Haim Sabato -- Israeli rabbi and author
Wikipedia - Hal Clement -- American author and artist
Wikipedia - Hal Elrod -- American author
Wikipedia - Half of a Yellow Sun -- Novel by the Nigerian author Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie
Wikipedia - Halldor Laxness -- Icelandic author
Wikipedia - Halle Butler -- American author
Wikipedia - Hamida Ghafour -- Canadian journalist and author
Wikipedia - Hamid Mir -- Pakistani journalist, columnist, and author
Wikipedia - Hamish Blake -- Australian comedian, actor, and author
Wikipedia - Hank Green -- American vlogger, author, and entrepreneur
Wikipedia - Hank Shaw (author) -- American chef and writer
Wikipedia - Hank Woon -- American author, game designer and screenwriter
Wikipedia - Hannah Beckerman -- English author and journalist
Wikipedia - Hannah Blank -- American author
Wikipedia - Hannah Mary Bouvier Peterson -- American textbook author
Wikipedia - Hannah Witton -- YouTuber, author, and British broadcaster
Wikipedia - Hans Aanrud -- Norwegian author (1863-1953)
Wikipedia - Hans Christian Andersen -- Danish author, fairy tale writer, and poet
Wikipedia - Hans-Hasso von Veltheim -- German Indologist, Anthroposophist, Far East traveler, occultist and author
Wikipedia - Hans Holzer -- Austrian-American author and parapsychologist
Wikipedia - Hansi Bochow-Bluthgen -- German author, editor, and translator
Wikipedia - Hans Kung -- Swiss Catholic priest, theologian and author
Wikipedia - Hans Much -- German author, writer and physician
Wikipedia - Hans Seland -- Norwegian politician and author
Wikipedia - Hans Wilhelm Hammerbacher -- German author (1903-1980)
Wikipedia - Harald JM-CM-$hner -- German journalist and author
Wikipedia - Harald Lesch -- German physicist, astronomer, natural philosopher, author, television presenter and professor
Wikipedia - Hari Rhodes -- American actor and author
Wikipedia - Harley Jane Kozak -- American actress and author
Wikipedia - Harl Vincent -- American mechanical engineer and science fiction author
Wikipedia - Harmen van Straaten -- Dutch author and illustrator
Wikipedia - Harold Avery -- English author of children's literature
Wikipedia - Harold Davis (photographer) -- American photographer and author
Wikipedia - Harold Fisch -- British-Israeli author, literary critic, translator, and diplomat
Wikipedia - Harriet Beecher Stowe -- 19th-century American abolitionist and author
Wikipedia - Harriet Doerr -- American author
Wikipedia - Harriet Isabel Adams -- British author, artist and scientific illustrator
Wikipedia - Harriet Lane (author) -- British author
Wikipedia - Harriet Louise Keeler -- American teacher, botanist, and author (1846-1921)
Wikipedia - Harriet Mann Miller -- American author, naturalist, ornithologist
Wikipedia - Harriet Mason -- Botanical illustrator, plant collector, poor-law inspector, author
Wikipedia - Harriet Rohmer -- American author, editor, and publisher
Wikipedia - Harrison Candelaria Fletcher -- American journalist and author
Wikipedia - Harry Baer -- German actor, producer and author
Wikipedia - Harry Basch -- American actor and author
Wikipedia - Harry Bosch -- Fictional detective created by author Michael Connelly
Wikipedia - Harry Harrison (writer) -- American science fiction author
Wikipedia - Harry Kraemer -- Business executive, author and professor (b. 1955)
Wikipedia - Harry Shapiro (author) -- British author and journalist
Wikipedia - Harry Thurston Peck -- American classical scholar, author, editor, and critic (1856-1914)
Wikipedia - Hartford H Keifer -- American zoologist and mite authority
Wikipedia - Hart's Rules -- Authoritative reference book and style guide published in England by Oxford University Press
Wikipedia - Hassan Hassan -- American author
Wikipedia - Hassan Tavanayanfard -- Iranian economist and author
Wikipedia - Hawker Hunter Tower Bridge incident -- Unauthorised London jet excursion of 1968
Wikipedia - Hazel Edwards -- Australian author
Wikipedia - Hazel Hayes -- Irish YouTuber, filmmaker and author
Wikipedia - H. C. McNeile -- British soldier and author
Wikipedia - Health Service Executive -- National public health and social services authority in Ireland
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Wikipedia - Heather Rose -- Australian author (born 1964)
Wikipedia - Hector Feliciano -- Puerto Rican journalist and author
Wikipedia - Hector Varela (author) -- Puerto Rican writer
Wikipedia - Hedwig Lachmann -- German author, translator and poet (1865-1918)
Wikipedia - Heimat ist das, was gesprochen wird -- 2001 book by Nobel Prize-winning author Herta Muller
Wikipedia - Heinrich Anacker -- Swiss-German author
Wikipedia - Heinrich Breloer -- German author and film director
Wikipedia - Heinrich von Staden (author) -- German diplomat and author
Wikipedia - Heinz Stubig -- German author and university teacher
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Wikipedia - He Jianming -- Chinese author
Wikipedia - Helena DahlbM-CM-$ck -- Swedish author
Wikipedia - Helen Baker (author) -- English author
Wikipedia - Helen Brown (author) -- Author and columnist
Wikipedia - Helene Adler -- German author
Wikipedia - Helen Garner -- Australian author
Wikipedia - Helen Keller -- American deaf-blind author, political activist and lecturer
Wikipedia - Helen MacMurchy -- Canadian doctor and author
Wikipedia - Helen Mayer Hacker -- Sociologist and author
Wikipedia - Helen M. Robinson -- American author and educator
Wikipedia - Helen Nielsen -- American author and script writer
Wikipedia - Helen Papashvily -- American author
Wikipedia - Helen Pluckrose -- British author
Wikipedia - Helen Trinca -- Australian journalist and author
Wikipedia - Helen Uche Ibezim -- Nigerian author and educator
Wikipedia - Helen Wing -- American author, composer
Wikipedia - Helmut Krausnick -- German historian and author
Wikipedia - Helmut Schlegel -- German Franciscan, Catholic priest, meditation instructor, author, librettist and songwriter
Wikipedia - Help:Authority control -- Wikipedia help page about authority control
Wikipedia - Hendratta Ali -- Petroleum geologist, hydrologist and author
Wikipedia - Hendrika Ruger -- Dutch-Canadian author and publisher (born 1928)
Wikipedia - Henri Cordier -- French linguist, historian, ethnographer, author, editor and Orientalist
Wikipedia - Henrietta Boggs -- American author
Wikipedia - Henriette Davidis -- German cookbook author
Wikipedia - Henrik Ekman -- Swedish author and journalist
Wikipedia - Henry Airay -- Preacher, author
Wikipedia - Henry Alley -- American author and educator
Wikipedia - Henry Clews -- British-American financier and author (1834-1923)
Wikipedia - Henry Cloud -- American Christian self help author
Wikipedia - Henry Conway (socialite) -- British socialite and author (born 1983)
Wikipedia - Henry Edward Watts -- British journalist and author
Wikipedia - Henry Frith -- Irish author and translator (1840-1917)
Wikipedia - Henry George Hart -- British Army officer and author of Hart's Army List
Wikipedia - Henry Grierson -- English cricketer, barrister, and author
Wikipedia - Henry Hamilton Bailey -- surgeon and author of surgical textbooks
Wikipedia - Henry Jaeger -- German author, reformed criminal, and journalist
Wikipedia - Henry Kendall (poet) -- Australian author and bush poet
Wikipedia - Henry Kistemaeckers (playwright) -- Belgian author and playwright
Wikipedia - Henry Kuttner -- American author of science fiction, fantasy and horror fiction
Wikipedia - Henry Littlefield -- Author and historian
Wikipedia - Henry Mills Alden -- American author and magazine editor
Wikipedia - Henry Pope Anderson -- Farm labor union organizer, activist, author, and historian
Wikipedia - Henry Sherman -- American judge and author
Wikipedia - Henry Snowden Ward -- 19th/20th-century English photographer and author
Wikipedia - Henry Tenedero -- Author, professor, and entrepreneur
Wikipedia - Henry Trewhitt -- American author and journalist
Wikipedia - Henry Wilhelm -- American researcher and author
Wikipedia - Heraa Hashmi -- Author and activist
Wikipedia - Heraldic authority -- Office or institution that deals with heraldry
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Wikipedia - Herbert Tichy -- Austrian author, geologist, journalist, and climber
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Wikipedia - Jacksonville Expressway Authority -- Former Florida road and tolls and bridge authority
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Wikipedia - J. Michael Yates -- Canadian author (1938-2019)
Wikipedia - Joakim Lundell -- Swedish reality contestant, musician and author
Wikipedia - Joan Alcover -- Spanish author
Wikipedia - Joan Bennett Kennedy -- First wife of Ted Kennedy; American socialite, musician, author, and former model
Wikipedia - Joan Bernott -- American author of short science fiction
Wikipedia - Joan Cambridge -- Guyanese author and journalist
Wikipedia - Joan Collins -- British actress, author and columnist
Wikipedia - Joan Gould -- American author and journalist
Wikipedia - Joan Grant -- English author
Wikipedia - Joanie Holzer Schirm -- Author, entrepreneur, and community activist
Wikipedia - Joan Kent -- English author
Wikipedia - Joanna Cannan -- British author
Wikipedia - Joanna Cole (author) -- American writer of childrenM-bM-^@M-^Ys books
Wikipedia - Joanna Handerek -- Polish philosopher of culture, academic, author, and professor
Wikipedia - Joanne Caras -- US television presenter & author
Wikipedia - Joanne Fedler -- Australian author
Wikipedia - Joanne Lipman -- American journalist, editor, and author
Wikipedia - Joan Walsh Anglund -- American poet and children's book author
Wikipedia - Joao Emanuel Carneiro -- Brazilian screenwriter, film director, and telenovela author
Wikipedia - Joao Mario Grilo -- Portuguese film director, author, and professor
Wikipedia - Joao M. P. Lemos -- Portuguese illustrator and comic book author
Wikipedia - Joao Soares de Albergaria de Sousa -- Portuguese politician, property owner, and author
Wikipedia - Jodi Carmichael -- Canadian author
Wikipedia - Jodi Picoult -- American author
Wikipedia - Jody Rosen -- American journalist and author
Wikipedia - Joe Andoe -- American artist, painter, and author
Wikipedia - Joe Clifford Faust -- American author
Wikipedia - Joe Clifford -- American author and editor
Wikipedia - Joe Conason -- Journalist, author and political commentator (born 1954)
Wikipedia - Joe Dabney -- American author
Wikipedia - Joe Esposito (author) -- American writer
Wikipedia - Joe Eszterhas -- Hungarian-American screenwriter and author
Wikipedia - Joe Fig -- American artist and author
Wikipedia - Joe Fiorito -- Canadian journalist and author
Wikipedia - Joe Fugate -- Author and game designer
Wikipedia - Joe Hyams -- author
Wikipedia - Joe Kelly (parenting writer) -- American author
Wikipedia - Joel Comm -- American author and Internet marketer
Wikipedia - Joel Osteen -- American televangelist and author
Wikipedia - Joel Rosenberg (science fiction author) -- Canadian American science fiction and fantasy writer
Wikipedia - Joel Zoss -- American singer, songwriter and author
Wikipedia - Joe Orton -- English playwright and author
Wikipedia - Joe Ovelman -- American artist and author (born 1970)
Wikipedia - Joe Scarborough -- American cable news and talk radio host, lawyer, author, and former politician
Wikipedia - Joe Wicks (coach) -- British fitness coach, TV presenter and author
Wikipedia - Joey Adams -- comedian and author
Wikipedia - Jogindranath Sarkar -- Bengali author
Wikipedia - Johan Bojer -- Norwegian author
Wikipedia - Johan Daisne -- Flemish author
Wikipedia - Johann Christian Carl Gunther -- German botanist, pharmacist, batologist, and author (1769-1833)
Wikipedia - Johannes Anyuru -- Swedish poet and author
Wikipedia - Johannes Balzli -- Austrian/German author, newspaper editor
Wikipedia - Johannes de Thurocz -- Hungarian historian and author
Wikipedia - Johann Goercke -- Prussian army surgeon and author
Wikipedia - Johann Lafer -- Austrian chef, television chef, entrepreneur and non-fiction author
Wikipedia - John Abramson -- American physician and author
Wikipedia - John A. Farrell -- American author
Wikipedia - John Alcock (behavioral ecologist) -- American behavioral ecologist and author
Wikipedia - John Aldrich (political scientist) -- American political scientist and author
Wikipedia - John Allen Paulos -- American mathematician and author
Wikipedia - John Altman (author) -- American thriller writer
Wikipedia - John Anster -- Irish lawyer, academic and author
Wikipedia - John Anthony West -- American author and amateur egyptologist
Wikipedia - John Arlott -- English journalist, author, and cricket commentator
Wikipedia - John Ashworth (preacher) -- 19th-century British preacher, manufacturer, and author
Wikipedia - John Azor Kellogg -- American Civil War officer, author, Republican politician, and public administrator
Wikipedia - John Baker (author) -- British author
Wikipedia - John Barnes (author) -- American science fiction author
Wikipedia - John Bellairs -- American author
Wikipedia - John Berendt -- American author
Wikipedia - John Birmingham -- British-born Australian author
Wikipedia - John Bollinger -- American author and financial analyst
Wikipedia - John Bowe (author) -- American author
Wikipedia - John Boyd (author)
Wikipedia - John Boyne -- Irish novelist, author of children's and youth fiction
Wikipedia - John Bradshaw (author)
Wikipedia - John Brady (author) -- British writer
Wikipedia - John Browne (anatomist) -- English anatomist, surgeon, and author
Wikipedia - John Brown (fugitive slave) -- African-American slave and author
Wikipedia - John Brunner (novelist) -- British author of science fiction novels and stories
Wikipedia - John Buchan -- British politician and author
Wikipedia - John Byrne (comics) -- Author and artist of comic books
Wikipedia - John Campbell (author) -- Scottish author
Wikipedia - John Carlin (journalist) -- British journalist and author
Wikipedia - John Carreyrou -- American journalist and author
Wikipedia - John Carter Cash -- American singer, author, songwriter and producer
Wikipedia - John Casey (climate change author) -- American writer on climate change
Wikipedia - John Cecil Masterman -- English academic, author and WW2 spymaster
Wikipedia - John Chippendall Montesquieu Bellew -- English clergyman and author
Wikipedia - John Christopher Fine -- American marine biologist, wreck diver and author
Wikipedia - John Clive -- Actor, author
Wikipedia - John C. Maher -- Irish-British author and academic
Wikipedia - John C. Maxwell -- American author, speaker and pastor
Wikipedia - John Connolly (author) -- Irish author, primarily of detective fiction
Wikipedia - John Cornwell (writer) -- British journalist, author, and academic
Wikipedia - John Crowley (author) -- American writer
Wikipedia - John Cushnie -- British landscape designer, author, journalist, and broadcaster
Wikipedia - John C. Wright (author)
Wikipedia - John Dalton (author) -- American author
Wikipedia - John Darlington (academic) -- British academic and author
Wikipedia - John David Jackson (physicist) -- American theoretical physicist and textbook author
Wikipedia - John Davison (theologian) -- British theologian and author
Wikipedia - John Dean -- American author, Watergate figure
Wikipedia - John Debra Sapong -- Ghanaian judge and author
Wikipedia - John Dickie (historian) -- British author, historian and academic
Wikipedia - John Dowling (pastor) -- American Baptist minister and author
Wikipedia - John Fair Stoddard -- American educator and author
Wikipedia - John Flanagan (author) -- Australian fantasy author
Wikipedia - John F. MacArthur -- American pastor and author
Wikipedia - John Gabriel Stedman -- military officer and author
Wikipedia - John G. Bennett -- British mathematician and author
Wikipedia - John Gell (Manx language activist) -- Manx speaker, teacher, and author
Wikipedia - John Gilstrap -- Author
Wikipedia - John Gloag -- English soldier and author
Wikipedia - John Grant (author) -- Scottish writer
Wikipedia - John Graves (author) -- American writer
Wikipedia - John Green (author) -- American author, vlogger and philanthropist
Wikipedia - John Grisham -- American author
Wikipedia - John Gunn (Australian writer) -- Australian author
Wikipedia - John Hadfield -- British author and publisher
Wikipedia - John Harvey (author) -- British author of crime fiction
Wikipedia - John Henry Jowett -- British Protestant preacher and author
Wikipedia - John Hodgman -- American author and humorist
Wikipedia - John Holt (author) -- English author (1743-1801)
Wikipedia - John Howard (author) -- English author
Wikipedia - John Howkins -- Author and speaker of Creative Industries
Wikipedia - John Humphrys -- British broadcaster, journalist and author
Wikipedia - John Jeshua Kettler -- Author
Wikipedia - John J. McNamara (author) -- American sailor
Wikipedia - John J. Miller (journalist) -- American author, journalist and educator
Wikipedia - John Kendrick Bangs -- American author, editor and satirist
Wikipedia - John Kerr (author)
Wikipedia - John Knowles (author) -- English biographer and naval author
Wikipedia - John Kotter -- Author of books about leadership
Wikipedia - John Lewin (Manx author) -- Manx author
Wikipedia - John Lithgow -- American actor, musician, and author
Wikipedia - John Locke (author) -- American writer
Wikipedia - John Lockman -- English author
Wikipedia - John Loftus (author) -- American writer and radio personality
Wikipedia - John Maddox Roberts -- American author
Wikipedia - John Man (author)
Wikipedia - John Mariani -- American author and food critic
Wikipedia - John Mattera -- American wreck diver and author
Wikipedia - John Meiklejohn -- Scottish academic, journalist, and author
Wikipedia - John Money -- Psychologist, sexologist and author
Wikipedia - John Montgomery (art historian) -- American art historian, illustrator, and author
Wikipedia - John Moore (American author) -- American engineer and writer
Wikipedia - John Muir -- Scottish-born American naturalist and author
Wikipedia - John Munro (author) -- British engineer, professor and writer
Wikipedia - John Newhouse -- American journalist and author
Wikipedia - John N. H. Brennan -- Irish author and solicitor
Wikipedia - John Nichols (printer) -- English printer, author and antiquarian
Wikipedia - John Nyren -- English cricketer and author
Wikipedia - John Odam -- American lawyer, author, and politician
Wikipedia - John of Patmos -- Author of the Book of Revelation
Wikipedia - John O'Hurley -- American actor, comedian, singer, author, game show host and television personality
Wikipedia - John Parish Robertson -- Scottish merchant and author
Wikipedia - John Pavlovitz -- American pastor and author
Wikipedia - John Pearson (author) -- English biographer and novelist
Wikipedia - John Percy Groves -- British author, soldier, and librarian
Wikipedia - John Philip Sousa Baton -- traditional symbol of the authority of the directorate of the United States Marine Band "The President's Own"
Wikipedia - John Phillips (author) -- English author
Wikipedia - John Powers (journalist) -- American journalist and author
Wikipedia - John Putnam Demos -- American author and historian
Wikipedia - John R. Clarke -- American scientist and underwater breathing apparatus authority
Wikipedia - John R. Levine -- American Internet author and consultant
Wikipedia - John Robinson (bishop of Woolwich) -- British biblical scholar, author and Anglican bishop (1919-1983)
Wikipedia - John S. Durham (ambassador) -- African-American journalist and author
Wikipedia - John Seymour Chaloner -- British author and publisher
Wikipedia - John Shirley (scribe) -- Author, translator, and scribe
Wikipedia - John Skipp -- American horror and fantasy author
Wikipedia - John Sladek -- American science fiction author (1937-2000)
Wikipedia - John Sterling (author) -- Scottish author
Wikipedia - John Stossel -- American reporter, investigative journalist, author, and libertarian columnist
Wikipedia - John Strelecky -- American author, philosopher, and speaker (born 1696)
Wikipedia - John Taylor Gatto -- American author and school teacher
Wikipedia - John Todd (author) -- American minister and author
Wikipedia - John Toland (author)
Wikipedia - John Townsend Trowbridge -- American author
Wikipedia - John Varley (author) -- American science fiction author
Wikipedia - John V. Pavlik -- American academic and author
Wikipedia - John Whitbourn -- English author
Wikipedia - John White (Christian author) -- British Christian author in Canada
Wikipedia - John William Cunliffe -- American author
Wikipedia - John Williams (author) -- Welsh writer
Wikipedia - John Wilson (Scottish writer) -- Scottish advocate, literary critic, and author (1785-1854)
Wikipedia - John W. Loftus -- American atheist author
Wikipedia - John Zogby -- American public opinion pollster, author, and public speaker
Wikipedia - Joko Beck -- American Zen teacher and author
Wikipedia - Jolan Foldes -- Hungarian author
Wikipedia - Jon Amtrup -- Norwegian author, journalist and sailor
Wikipedia - Jonas Bonnier -- Swedish author
Wikipedia - Jonathan Addleton -- American diplomat and author
Wikipedia - Jonathan Adler -- American potter, interior decorater, and author
Wikipedia - Jonathan Ames -- American author
Wikipedia - Jonathan Bardon -- Irish historian and author
Wikipedia - Jonathan ben Uzziel -- Talmudic rabbi, author of Targum Jonathan
Wikipedia - Jonathan Black -- British author
Wikipedia - Jonathan Brent -- American academic, author, and publisher
Wikipedia - Jonathan Fast -- American author and social work teacher
Wikipedia - Jonathan Ingram -- British inventor, businessman, author (born 1961)
Wikipedia - Jonathan Metzl -- American psychiatrist and author
Wikipedia - Jonathan Mitchell (writer) -- American author and autistic blogger
Wikipedia - Jonathan Nolan -- British-American screenwriter, television producer, director and author
Wikipedia - Jonathan O. Ndagi -- Nigerian professor and author
Wikipedia - Jonathan Rosen -- American author
Wikipedia - Jonathan Sacks -- British Orthodox rabbi, philosopher, theologian, author, and politician (1948-2020)
Wikipedia - Jonathan Schneer -- American historian and author
Wikipedia - Jonathan Strong -- American author
Wikipedia - Jonathan Twingley -- American artist, illustrator and author
Wikipedia - Jon Berkeley -- Irish illustrator and author
Wikipedia - Jon Burr -- American double bass player and author
Wikipedia - Jon Levy (behaviorist) -- American behaviorist and author
Wikipedia - Jon Taffer -- Bar consultant, television personality, and author
Wikipedia - Jon Wynne-Tyson -- English author and publisher
Wikipedia - Jordan Anderson -- Author of the 1865 ''Letter from a Freedman to His Old Master''
Wikipedia - Jordan Belfort -- American fraudster, author, motivational speaker, and former stockbroker
Wikipedia - Jorge Huerta -- Chicano scholar, author, and theatre director
Wikipedia - Jorge Ramos (news anchor) -- Mexican-born American journalist and author
Wikipedia - Jorg M. Fegert -- German psychotherapist and author (b. 1956)
Wikipedia - Jose Agustin Catala -- Venezuelan journalist and author
Wikipedia - Jose Arguelles -- American author and artist
Wikipedia - Jose Asuncion Silva -- Colombian author
Wikipedia - Jose Cadalso -- Colonel of the Royal Spanish Army, author, poet, playwright and essayist
Wikipedia - Josef Centeno -- American chef, restaurateur, and cookbook author
Wikipedia - Josefina Villamil Tinajero -- Mexican-American author
Wikipedia - Josef Pfundheller -- Austrian author
Wikipedia - Josef Velek -- Czech journalist, author and environmentalist
Wikipedia - Jose Hamilton Ribeiro -- Brazilian journalist and author
Wikipedia - Jose Maria Salaverria -- Spanish author
Wikipedia - Jose Olivarez -- American author and poet
Wikipedia - Jose Pablo Iriarte -- American author
Wikipedia - Josepha Laroche -- Professor and author
Wikipedia - Joseph Ames (author)
Wikipedia - Joseph Berger (author) -- American journalist, author, and speaker
Wikipedia - Joseph B. MacInnis -- Canadian physician, author, poet and aquanaut
Wikipedia - Joseph Bottum (author) -- American author
Wikipedia - Joseph Canteloube -- French composer, musicologist, and author
Wikipedia - Joseph C. Evans -- British author
Wikipedia - Joseph Delaney -- British author
Wikipedia - Joseph Erskine Agnew -- Music publisher and author
Wikipedia - Joseph F. Hair, Jr. -- American author and professor
Wikipedia - Josephine Cunnington Edwards -- Seventh-day Adventist author and teacher
Wikipedia - Josephine Feeney -- British children's author
Wikipedia - Josephine Mason Milligan -- American botanist, social activist and author
Wikipedia - Joseph Jefferson -- 19th-century American actor and author
Wikipedia - Joseph Karo -- Author of the last great codification of the jewish law, the Shulchan Aruch
Wikipedia - Joseph Murphy (author)
Wikipedia - Joseph S. Clark Jr. -- American politician, lawyer, and author
Wikipedia - Joseph Spence (author) -- 18th-century English historian
Wikipedia - Joseph Weismann -- French holocaust survivor and author
Wikipedia - Josh Karp -- American journalist and author
Wikipedia - Josh Spero -- British journalist and author
Wikipedia - Joshua Bryant -- American actor, director, author, and speaker
Wikipedia - Joshua Clark -- American author, editor and publisher
Wikipedia - Joshua Claybourn -- American attorney, author, and historian
Wikipedia - Joshua Corin -- American author and screenwriter
Wikipedia - Joshua Ferris -- American author
Wikipedia - Joshua Francis Fisher -- American author and philanthropist (1807-1873)
Wikipedia - Joshua Lyon -- American journalist and author
Wikipedia - Joshua Ronen -- American author, academic, accountant
Wikipedia - Josiah Bancroft -- Fantasy writer, author of "Senlin Ascends"
Wikipedia - Josiah Conder (editor and author) -- British writer
Wikipedia - Jostein Gaarder -- Norwegian author
Wikipedia - Jovan MuM-EM-!katirovic -- Serbian author, lawyer and educator
Wikipedia - Joy Adamson -- 20th-century naturalist naturalist, artist and author
Wikipedia - Joyce Carol Oates -- American author
Wikipedia - Joyce Cavalccante -- Brazilian journalist and author
Wikipedia - Joyce de Guatemala -- Mexican sculptor and author
Wikipedia - Joy Chambers -- Actress and author
Wikipedia - Joy James -- American political philosopher, academic and author
Wikipedia - Joy McCullough -- American author of young adult fiction
Wikipedia - Jozsef M-CM-^Acs (author) -- Hungarian writer
Wikipedia - J. R. Eccles -- English schoolmaster and author
Wikipedia - J. R. R. Tolkien -- British philologist and author, creator of classic fantasy works
Wikipedia - J. Scott Burgeson -- American author (born 1967)
Wikipedia - JT McCormick -- American author
Wikipedia - Juan Ignacio Gonzalez del Castillo -- Spanish author of comic theatre
Wikipedia - Juanita Tamayo Lott -- Filipina-American statistician, demographer, policy analyst and author
Wikipedia - Juan Luis Arsuaga -- Spanish paleoanthropologist and author
Wikipedia - Juan Miguel Aguilera -- Spanish science fiction author
Wikipedia - Jude Brewer -- American author, screenwriter and producer
Wikipedia - Jude Deveraux -- American author of historical romances
Wikipedia - Jude Milhon -- American hacker & author
Wikipedia - Judi Barrett -- American children's author
Wikipedia - Judith and Garfield Reeves-Stevens -- Canadian wife-and-husband science fiction writer duo, William Shatner co-authors
Wikipedia - Judith D. Zuk -- American horticulturist, author and conservationist
Wikipedia - Judith Holofernes -- German singer, guitarist, songwriter and author
Wikipedia - Judith McCoy Miller -- American author
Wikipedia - Judith Newman -- American journalist and author
Wikipedia - Judith Reisman -- American conservative author
Wikipedia - Judson A. Brewer -- American psychiatrist, neuroscientist and author
Wikipedia - Judy Ann Santos -- Filipino film and television actress, reality television host, recording artist, film producer,chef and author
Wikipedia - Judy Balaban -- American actress and author
Wikipedia - Judy Dlamini -- South African businesswoman and author
Wikipedia - Judy Fong Bates -- Chinese-Canadian author
Wikipedia - Judy Nunn -- Actress and author
Wikipedia - Judy Sheindlin -- American lawyer, judge, television personality, television producer, and author
Wikipedia - Jukka Mallinen -- Finnish translator, author and interpreter
Wikipedia - Jule Selbo -- American screenwriter, playwright, author, producer and professor
Wikipedia - Jules Feiffer -- North-American cartoonist and author
Wikipedia - Jules Valles -- French journalist and author
Wikipedia - Julia Baird -- British retired teacher and author
Wikipedia - Julia Carter Aldrich -- American author, editor
Wikipedia - Julia Child -- American cooking teacher, author, and television personality (1912-2004)
Wikipedia - Julia Esquivel -- Guatemalan author and activist
Wikipedia - Julia McNair Wright -- American author
Wikipedia - Julia Morton -- American author and botanist
Wikipedia - Juliana Berners -- English prioress and author
Wikipedia - Juliana Hatfield -- American guitarist/singer-songwriter and author
Wikipedia - Julian Baggini -- English philosopher, author and journalist
Wikipedia - Julian Cope -- English musician and author
Wikipedia - Julian Davies (author) -- Australian author
Wikipedia - Julian Huxley -- British evolutionary biologist, philosopher, author
Wikipedia - Julianne Malveaux -- American journalist, economist, author, commentator
Wikipedia - Julia Quinn -- American historical romance author
Wikipedia - Julia R. Burdge -- American chemist and author
Wikipedia - Julia Wightman -- Temperance activist and author
Wikipedia - Julie Carpenter -- American Researcher, Educator, Author, Speaker, Human-Robot Interaction Specialist
Wikipedia - Julie Cross -- American author of young adult fiction
Wikipedia - Julie Ellis -- Fiction Author
Wikipedia - Julie Holland -- Author, psychiatrist and psychoparmacologist
Wikipedia - Julie Iromuanya -- American author and academic
Wikipedia - Julie Klassen -- American author
Wikipedia - Julie Nixon Eisenhower -- American author
Wikipedia - Julie Walters -- English actress and author
Wikipedia - Julius and Agnes Zancig -- Stage magicians and authors on occultism
Wikipedia - Julius Lester -- American author, photographer and educator.
Wikipedia - Junauda Petrus -- US author, filmmaker, performance artist, and pleasure activist
Wikipedia - Juran Hisao -- Japanese author
Wikipedia - Jurek Becker -- German writer, film-author and GDR dissident
Wikipedia - Jurgen Elsner -- German music ethnologist and author
Wikipedia - Jurgen Holtz -- German actor, artist and author
Wikipedia - Jurisdiction -- Practical authority granted to a formally constituted legal body or to a political leader to deal with legal matters
Wikipedia - Justina Blakeney -- American designer and author
Wikipedia - Justin Cronin -- American author
Wikipedia - Justine Ettler -- Australian author
Wikipedia - Justin Fleming -- Australian playwright and author
Wikipedia - Jutta Richter -- German author
Wikipedia - Kaari Utrio -- Finnish author
Wikipedia - Kacen Callender -- Saint Thomian author
Wikipedia - Kadir Nelson -- American painter, illustrator, and author
Wikipedia - Kai Bird -- American author and columnist
Wikipedia - Kaira Rouda -- American author
Wikipedia - Kai Twilfer -- German author
Wikipedia - Kaj Gynt -- Stockholm-born actress and author of the 1927 Broadway revue, Rang Tang
Wikipedia - Kalisha Buckhanon -- African-American author
Wikipedia - Kameni, pM-EM-^YichaziM-EM-!... -- Poetic book by Czech author Vladimir Holan
Wikipedia - Kan'ami -- Japanese Noh actor, author, and musician
Wikipedia - Kane Hodder -- American actor, stuntman, and author
Wikipedia - Kane (wrestler) -- American professional wrestler, actor, author, businessman, and politician
Wikipedia - Kanika Dhillon -- Indian author and screenwriter
Wikipedia - Kansas City Area Transportation Authority -- Public transit agency in metropolitan Kansas City
Wikipedia - Kanwaljeet Singh (activist) -- Indian activist and author
Wikipedia - Kaori Ekuni -- Japanese author
Wikipedia - Karaite Judaism -- A Jewish religious movement characterized by the recognition of the written Torah alone as its supreme authority in Jewish religious law and theology.
Wikipedia - Karen Ackerman -- American author of children's books
Wikipedia - Karen A. Page -- Two-time James Beard Award-winning author
Wikipedia - Karen Berg -- American author
Wikipedia - Karen Duve -- German author
Wikipedia - Karen Robards -- American author
Wikipedia - Karen Russell -- Author
Wikipedia - Kari-Margrete Rensel Lovgren -- Norwegian humanitarian and author
Wikipedia - Karin Alvtegen -- Swedish author of crime fiction
Wikipedia - Karleen Bradford -- Canadian children's author
Wikipedia - Karl Gottfried von Leitner -- Austrian author
Wikipedia - Karl Gotthelf Lessing -- German author
Wikipedia - Karl Knies -- German economist and author
Wikipedia - Karl Lippegaus -- German music journalist, author and radio presenter
Wikipedia - Karl M. Baer -- German-Israeli author, social worker, reformer, suffragist and Zionist
Wikipedia - Karl Michael von Levetzow -- German author
Wikipedia - Karl Philipp Moritz -- German author, editor and essayist
Wikipedia - Karola Fings -- German historian of modern age and author
Wikipedia - Karoline Leach -- British playwright and author
Wikipedia - Karsonya Wise Whitehead -- American educator, author and filmmaker
Wikipedia - Kartikeya Ladha -- Indian author
Wikipedia - Katarzyna Sanak-Kosmowska -- Polish marketing/public relations theorist, academic, author, and professor
Wikipedia - Kate Andersen Brower -- American journalist and author
Wikipedia - Kate Armstrong (memoirist) -- Canadian author (born 1962)
Wikipedia - Kate Bornstein -- American author, playwright, performance artist, and gender theorist
Wikipedia - Kate Calloway -- American author of crime fiction
Wikipedia - Kate Chopin -- American author
Wikipedia - Kate Constable -- Australian author
Wikipedia - Kate Ellis (author) -- British author of crime fiction
Wikipedia - Kate Figes -- English author
Wikipedia - Kate Forsyth -- Australian author
Wikipedia - Kate Fox (writer) -- British poet, author and comedian
Wikipedia - Kate Heartfield -- Canadian author of speculative fiction
Wikipedia - Kate Jackson (author) -- herpetologist and author
Wikipedia - Kate Johnson (writer) -- British author
Wikipedia - Kate Mason Rowland -- American author, historian, genealogist, biographer, editor, historic preservationist
Wikipedia - Kate Ritchie -- Australian actress, radio presenter, and children's author
Wikipedia - Kate Saunders -- English author, actress and journalist
Wikipedia - Katharina Dalton -- British medical doctor and author
Wikipedia - Katharine Dooris Sharp -- Botanist and author
Wikipedia - Katharine Emma Maltwood -- Artist and author
Wikipedia - Katharine Ross -- American actress and author
Wikipedia - Katherine Eban -- American journalist and author
Wikipedia - Katherine Ellison -- American author
Wikipedia - Katherine Hughes (activist) -- Canadian journalist, author, archivist and political activist
Wikipedia - Katherine MacLean -- American science fiction author
Wikipedia - Katherine Mansfield -- New Zealand author
Wikipedia - Kathleen Belew -- American historian and author
Wikipedia - Kathleen Brooks -- American author of over thirty titles
Wikipedia - Kathleen Cambor -- American author
Wikipedia - Kathleen Christison -- American political analyst and author
Wikipedia - Kathleen Ferguson -- Irish author
Wikipedia - Kathleen Finneran -- American author
Wikipedia - Kathleen Knox -- Irish author and poet
Wikipedia - Kathleen Stock -- British author and professor of philosophy
Wikipedia - Kathryn Croft -- British author
Wikipedia - Kathryn Deans -- Australian children's fantasy author
Wikipedia - Kathryn Finney -- American author, entrepreneur, innovator and businesswoman
Wikipedia - Kathy Brodsky -- American author and poet
Wikipedia - Kathy Iandoli -- American author and journalist
Wikipedia - Kathy Y. Wilson -- American columnist, author, playwright, and commentator
Wikipedia - Katie Daffan -- American author and Confederate sympathizer
Wikipedia - Katie Flynn -- British author
Wikipedia - Katie Rodan -- American dermatologist, entrepreneur, and author
Wikipedia - Katrin Askan -- German author
Wikipedia - Katrina van Grouw -- British science author and illustrator
Wikipedia - Katya Cengel -- American author and journalist (born 1976)
Wikipedia - Kavita Daswani -- Indian-American author
Wikipedia - Kayla Williams (author) -- American writer
Wikipedia - Keath Fraser -- Canadian fiction author
Wikipedia - Keeanga-Yamahtta Taylor -- American academic and author
Wikipedia - Keegan Allen -- American actor, photographer, author, and musician
Wikipedia - Keegan Longueira -- South African adventurer, motivational speaker and author
Wikipedia - Keely Shaye Smith -- American journalist, author, television host, and actress
Wikipedia - Keiko Kasza -- Japanese American author and illustrator
Wikipedia - Keith Charters -- British author and publisher
Wikipedia - Keith Ferrazzi -- American author and entrepreneur
Wikipedia - Keith Fink -- American attorney, author, and academic
Wikipedia - Keith Monroe -- United States author
Wikipedia - Kekla Magoon -- American author (born 1980)
Wikipedia - Kelly Clarkson -- American singer-songwriter, actress, author, and television personality
Wikipedia - Kelly Starling Lyons -- American author
Wikipedia - Kelly Weinersmith -- American biologist and author
Wikipedia - Ken Blanchard -- American author
Wikipedia - Ken Davis (journalist) -- American TV producer, journalist, and author
Wikipedia - Kenji Miyazawa -- Japanese poet and author
Wikipedia - Kennedy Odede -- Kenyan social entrepreneur and author
Wikipedia - Kenneth Bernard -- American author, poet, and playwright
Wikipedia - Kenneth Brown (author)
Wikipedia - Kenneth Muir (scholar) -- 20th-century English literary scholar and author
Wikipedia - Kenn Kaufman -- American naturalist, author, artist and conservationist
Wikipedia - Kenny Klein -- American musician and author
Wikipedia - Ken Robinson (British author)
Wikipedia - Ken Segall -- American author
Wikipedia - Ken Smith (chess player) -- American chess player and author
Wikipedia - Ken Whitmore -- British author
Wikipedia - Kenya Moore -- American actress, author, and entrepreneur
Wikipedia - Kerime Nadir -- Turkish novelist and author
Wikipedia - Kerry Andrew -- English composer, performer and author (b1978)
Wikipedia - Kerry-Anne Walsh -- Australian author, former journalist and political commentator
Wikipedia - Kerry Blair -- American author
Wikipedia - Kerry Cohen -- American author
Wikipedia - Kerry Young (author) -- British writer
Wikipedia - Kevin Allen (journalist) -- American sports journalist and author
Wikipedia - Kevin Barry (author) -- Irish writer
Wikipedia - Kevin Belton -- American chef, television presenter, author and educator
Wikipedia - Kevin Brown (poet) -- American poet, author and teacher
Wikipedia - Kevin Canty (author) -- American novelist and short story writer
Wikipedia - Kevin Chong -- Canadian author
Wikipedia - Kevin Cordi -- American teacher, storyteller and author
Wikipedia - Kevin Cullen -- American journalist and author
Wikipedia - Kevin Donnelly -- Australian educator, author, and commentator (born 1952)
Wikipedia - Kevin J. Anderson -- American science fiction author
Wikipedia - Kevin Killian -- American poet, author, and playwright
Wikipedia - Kevin McCarey -- English filmmaker and author
Wikipedia - Kevin Mitnick -- American computer security consultant, author, convicted criminal, and hacker
Wikipedia - Kevin Roose -- technology columnist and author
Wikipedia - Kevin Sharp -- American country music singer, author, and motivational speaker
Wikipedia - Kevin Whitehead -- American jazz critic and author
Wikipedia - Kevlin Henney -- author, presenter, and consultant on software development.
Wikipedia - Kewal Dheer -- Indian writer and author
Wikipedia - Key retainer -- Interchangeable core that retains one key (Key A) while the second key (Key B) is used for authorized purposes.
Wikipedia - Khin Maung Win (physician) -- Burmese doctor, author, and businessman
Wikipedia - Kiana Danial -- Iranian author (born 1984)
Wikipedia - Kidi Bebey -- French journalist and author
Wikipedia - Kimberley Chambers (author) -- British novelist
Wikipedia - Kimberly Amato -- American actress and author
Wikipedia - Kim Edwards -- American author and educator
Wikipedia - Kim France -- American editor, journalist, and author
Wikipedia - Kim Gruenenfelder -- American author and screenwriter
Wikipedia - Kim McCosker -- Australian author
Wikipedia - Kimmo Kiljunen -- Finnish author and politician
Wikipedia - Kina Kadreva -- Bulgarian author
Wikipedia - Kingston upon Hull -- City and unitary authority in the East Riding of Yorkshire, England
Wikipedia - Kira Henehan -- American author and novelist
Wikipedia - Kiran Desai -- Indian author
Wikipedia - Kirsten Boie -- German author of children's books
Wikipedia - Kitty Lee Jenner -- English author and artist
Wikipedia - Kiyoshi Kuromiya -- Japanese American author and civil rights activist
Wikipedia - K. K. Srivastava -- Indian poet and author
Wikipedia - Klaus Agthe -- German-born businessman and author
Wikipedia - Klaus SchM-CM-$fer (catholic theologian) -- German catholic theologian, priest and author
Wikipedia - Klaus T. Steindl -- Austrian author, director, and film producer
Wikipedia - Kleanthis Palaiologos -- Greek coach and author
Wikipedia - KM-EM-^Mji Uno -- Japanese author
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Wikipedia - List of botanists by author abbreviation (B) -- Wikipedia list article
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Wikipedia - List of botanists by author abbreviation (H) -- Wikipedia list article
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Wikipedia - List of botanists by author abbreviation (Q-R) -- Wikimedia list article
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Wikipedia - List of botanists by author abbreviation
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Wikipedia - List of Kurdish poets and authors -- Wikipedia list article
Wikipedia - List of Lithuanian-language authors -- Wikipedia list article
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Wikipedia - List of Malayalam-language authors -- Wikipedia list article
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Wikipedia - List of science-fiction authors
Wikipedia - List of science fiction authors -- Wikipedia list article
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Wikipedia - List of unpublished books by notable authors
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Wikipedia - List of winners and shortlisted authors of the Booker Prize for Fiction
Wikipedia - List of winners and shortlisted authors of the Booker Prize -- Wikipedia list article
Wikipedia - List of zoologists by author abbreviation
Wikipedia - Lists of biologists by author abbreviation -- Wikipedia list article
Wikipedia - Lists of Slovak authors
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Wikipedia - Marcy Dermansky -- American author and editor
Wikipedia - Marele Day -- Australian author of mystery novels
Wikipedia - Maren Elisabeth Bang -- 19th-century Norwegian author of cookbooks and housekeeping guides
Wikipedia - Margaret Atwood Judson -- American historian and author
Wikipedia - Margaret Beames -- Children's book author
Wikipedia - Margaret Busby -- Publisher, writer and author (born 1944)
Wikipedia - Margaret Chanler Aldrich -- American nurse and author
Wikipedia - Margaret Dilloway -- Japanese American author
Wikipedia - Margaret Higonnet -- American author and historian (b. 1941)
Wikipedia - Margaret Jepson -- English author
Wikipedia - Margaret Maxfield -- American mathematician and maths book author
Wikipedia - Margaret Mayo (children's author) -- British writer, mostly of children's books, born 1935
Wikipedia - Margaret Mayo (novelist) -- British author of romance novels, born 1936
Wikipedia - Margaret Mitchell -- American author and journalist
Wikipedia - Margaret Moore -- Canadian author of romance novels.
Wikipedia - Margaret Neilson Armstrong -- American designer, illustrator, and author.
Wikipedia - Margaret Ogola -- Kenyan author
Wikipedia - Margaret Orbell -- New Zealand author, editor and academic (1935-2006)
Wikipedia - Margaret Prescod -- Barbadian activist, author and journalist
Wikipedia - Margaret Roscoe -- English botanical illustrator and author
Wikipedia - Margaret Sarfo -- Ghanaian author and journalist
Wikipedia - Margaret Scott (Australian author) -- Australian poet
Wikipedia - Margaret Scott (New Zealand author) -- New Zealand author and Katherine Mansfield scholar (1928-2014)
Wikipedia - Margaret Simons -- Australian academic, journalist and author
Wikipedia - Margaret Smith (author)
Wikipedia - Margery Cuyler -- American children's book author
Wikipedia - Margery Sharp -- English author
Wikipedia - Margherita Oggero -- Italian screenwriter and author
Wikipedia - Margie Warrell -- Australian author
Wikipedia - Margit Auer -- German author
Wikipedia - Margot Asquith -- Anglo-Scottish socialite, author and wit
Wikipedia - Margret Helgadottir -- Norwegian-Icelandic author and editor (born 1971)
Wikipedia - Margret Rasfeld -- German author and activist
Wikipedia - Marguerite de Launay, baronne de Staal -- French author and lady-in-waiting
Wikipedia - Marguerite Wildenhain -- American ceramic artist, educator and author
Wikipedia - Maria Antonieta Collins -- Mexican journalist and author
Wikipedia - Maria Bartiromo -- American television personality, author
Wikipedia - Maria Beig -- German author
Wikipedia - Maria Celestina Fernandes -- Angolan children's author
Wikipedia - Maria de Sousa -- Portuguese scientist,immunologist, author and poet
Wikipedia - Maria Elise Turner Lauder -- Canadian author
Wikipedia - Maria Elizabetha Jacson -- Early 19thC English botanist and author
Wikipedia - Marian Cannon Schlesinger -- American artist and author
Wikipedia - Marianne Clementine HM-CM-%heim -- Norwegian author
Wikipedia - Marianne Curley -- Australian author
Wikipedia - Marianne Williamson -- American author, politician, and activist
Wikipedia - Mariarosa Dalla Costa -- Italian author
Wikipedia - Maria Rundell -- 19th-century British author of cookery books
Wikipedia - Maria Shriver -- Journalist and author from the United States
Wikipedia - Maria Turtschaninoff -- Finnish author
Wikipedia - Mari Bastashevski -- Danish artist, researcher, and author
Wikipedia - Mari Carmen Ramirez -- Author, curator, art historian
Wikipedia - Marie Battiste -- North American author and educator
Wikipedia - Marie Brennan -- American fantasy author
Wikipedia - Marie Calloway -- American author
Wikipedia - Marie-Christine LM-CM-)vesque -- Canadian author
Wikipedia - Marie Conway Oemler -- American author (1879-1932)
Wikipedia - Marieke Nijkamp -- Dutch author
Wikipedia - Marie Kondo -- Japanese organizing consultant, author, and television show host
Wikipedia - Marie Louise Burgess-Ware -- African American author
Wikipedia - Marieluise FleiM-CM-^_er -- German author and playwright
Wikipedia - Marie Marguerite Bouvet -- American author
Wikipedia - Marie Muracciole -- French art curator, art critic and author
Wikipedia - Marie Wann -- American statistician and author
Wikipedia - Marilyn Brown (author) -- American novelist
Wikipedia - Marilyn vos Savant -- American columnist, author and lecturer
Wikipedia - Marilyn Wann -- American author and activist
Wikipedia - Marilyn Yalom -- American feminist author and historian
Wikipedia - Marina Wheeler -- British lawyer, author and columnist
Wikipedia - Mari Ness -- American poet and author
Wikipedia - Mario Acevedo (author) -- American novelist and artist
Wikipedia - Marion Dane Bauer -- American children's author
Wikipedia - Marion Deuchars -- British illustrator and author
Wikipedia - Marion Elza Dodd -- American bookseller and author
Wikipedia - Marion Hartog -- English poet, author, and educator
Wikipedia - Marion Maddox -- Australian author, academic and political commentator
Wikipedia - Mario Puzo -- American author, screenwriter, and journalist
Wikipedia - Mario Scaccia -- Italian actor and author
Wikipedia - Marita Crawley -- British songwriter and author
Wikipedia - Marjane Satrapi -- Iranian-French graphic novelist, cartoonist, illustrator, film director, and children's book author
Wikipedia - Mark Aarons -- Australian journalist and author
Wikipedia - Mark Anderson (writer) -- American journalist and book author
Wikipedia - Mark Anthony (writer) -- American author
Wikipedia - Markar Esayan -- Armenian author, journalist and politician
Wikipedia - Mark Batterson -- American pastor and author
Wikipedia - Mark Beech (writer) -- British author
Wikipedia - Mark Biltz -- American Christian pastor and author
Wikipedia - Mark Buchanan -- American physicist and author
Wikipedia - Mark Burnett -- British television and film producer and author
Wikipedia - Mark Cahill -- American author, speaker, and evangelist
Wikipedia - Mark Canter -- American journalist and author
Wikipedia - Mark Clapham -- British author
Wikipedia - Mark Clemens -- Australian photographer and author
Wikipedia - Mark Crick -- British photographer and author
Wikipedia - Mark Curtis (British author) -- British historian and journalist
Wikipedia - Mark Dawidziak -- American author and critic
Wikipedia - Mark Dodgson -- Australian academic and author
Wikipedia - Mark Dunn -- American author and playwright
Wikipedia - Mark Edward -- Mentalist, magician, author & skeptic
Wikipedia - Mark Ellis (American author) -- American novelist and comic-book writer
Wikipedia - Mark Eshbaugh -- American artist, author and musician
Wikipedia - Mark Felton -- British author, historian, and Youtuber
Wikipedia - Mark Forster (author) -- British author
Wikipedia - Mark Galli -- American author and editor
Wikipedia - Mark Immelman -- South African sportcaster, coach, author
Wikipedia - Mark Judge (writer) -- American journalist and author
Wikipedia - Mark Lane (author) -- American lawyer, politician and writer
Wikipedia - Mark Lewisohn -- English author and historian
Wikipedia - Mark Leyner -- American postmodernist author
Wikipedia - Mark Manson -- American author and blogger
Wikipedia - Marko Kutlic -- Marko Kutlic is Croatian singer, songwriter and author.
Wikipedia - Mark Olshaker -- American author
Wikipedia - Mark P. Witton -- British palaeontologist, author and palaeoartist
Wikipedia - Mark Ryan (actor) -- English actor, author, action director and voice actor
Wikipedia - Mark Satin -- American political theorist, author, and newsletter publisher
Wikipedia - Mark Schilling -- American film critic, journalist, translator, and author
Wikipedia - Mark Schlabach -- American sports journalist, author, columnist, and reporter
Wikipedia - Mark S. Geston -- American science fiction and fantasy author
Wikipedia - Mark Stein (author) -- Author
Wikipedia - Mark Tercek -- Author and president of The Nature Conservancy
Wikipedia - Mark the Evangelist -- Author of the Gospel of Mark and Christian saint; traditionally identified with John Mark
Wikipedia - Mark Twain -- American author and humorist
Wikipedia - Mark Vanhoenacker -- Belgian American Pilot and Author
Wikipedia - Mark Williams (radio host) -- American conservative activist, radio talk show host and author
Wikipedia - Mark Wilson (magician) -- American magician and author
Wikipedia - Marla Alupoaicei -- American Christian author and speaker
Wikipedia - Marlee Matlin -- American actress, author and activist
Wikipedia - Marlovian theory of Shakespeare authorship -- fringe theory that Cristopher Marlowe was the real author of William Shakespeare's works
Wikipedia - Marriage license -- document authorizing a couple to marry
Wikipedia - Marricke Kofi Gane -- Ghanaian author, businessman, and politician
Wikipedia - Marshall Chapman -- American singer-songwriter and author
Wikipedia - Marshall Frady -- American journalist and author
Wikipedia - Marshall Vian Summers -- American author and spiritual teacher
Wikipedia - Marta Dhanis -- Portuguese journalist and author
Wikipedia - Martha Ackmann -- American author and journalist
Wikipedia - Martha Isabel FandiM-CM-1o Pinilla -- Colombian and Italian mathematician and author
Wikipedia - Martha J. Lamb -- American author
Wikipedia - Martha Mitchell (author) -- American librarian and archivist
Wikipedia - Martha Stone Hubbell -- American author
Wikipedia - Marthe Cohn -- French spy during the Second World War, author and Holocaust survivor
Wikipedia - Martial law in the Philippines -- Authorized military government in the Philippines
Wikipedia - Martina Deuchler -- Swiss academic and author
Wikipedia - Martina Haag -- Swedish actress and author
Wikipedia - Martin Bayerle -- American treasure hunter and author
Wikipedia - Martin Behrmann -- German author and choral conductor
Wikipedia - Martin Caidin -- American author specializing in aeronautics and aviation
Wikipedia - Martin Dannecker -- German sexologist and author
Wikipedia - Martin Davies (writer) -- British author
Wikipedia - Martin Edwards (author) -- British crime novelist, critic and solicitor
Wikipedia - Martin E. Marty -- American historian of religion, educator, author, and theologian
Wikipedia - Martin Fackler (journalist) -- American journalist and author
Wikipedia - Martin Flanagan (journalist) -- Australian journalist and author
Wikipedia - Martin Ford (author)
Wikipedia - Martin Fowler (software engineer) -- American software developer, author and international public speaker on software development
Wikipedia - Martin H. Wiggers -- German economist, editor, author and businessman
Wikipedia - Martin Kevan -- actor and author
Wikipedia - Martin Luther King Jr. authorship issues -- Disputes over authorship of works by Martin Luther King Jr.
Wikipedia - Martin Malone (author) -- Irish novelist and short story writer
Wikipedia - Martin Montague -- Entrepreneur and author
Wikipedia - Martin Newell (musician) -- English singer-songwriter, poet, columnist, and author
Wikipedia - Martin Stephen -- British author (born 1949)
Wikipedia - Martin Wehrle -- German journalist and author
Wikipedia - Marty Chan -- Chinese-Canadian author/playwright
Wikipedia - Marty Feldman -- British author, actor, comedian and director (1934-1982)
Wikipedia - Marvin Dana -- American author and journalist
Wikipedia - Mary Alice Jones -- American children's author
Wikipedia - Mary Anne Barker -- Author (1831-1911)
Wikipedia - Mary Ansell (actress) -- British actor and author
Wikipedia - Mary Berg (chef) -- Canadian television host, author and chef
Wikipedia - Mary Cunningham Agee -- American business executive and author
Wikipedia - Mary Dearborn -- American biographer and author
Wikipedia - Mary de Bunsen -- British Air Transport Auxiliary pilot and author.
Wikipedia - Mary Elizabeth Braddon -- English author
Wikipedia - Mary Elizabeth Parsons -- American botanist and author (1859-1947)
Wikipedia - Mary Ellen Bamford -- American author
Wikipedia - Mary Ellen Bromfield -- American actress, dancer, and author
Wikipedia - Mary Ellen Chase -- American educator, scholar, and author
Wikipedia - Mary E. Sweeney -- Educator, author, Home Economics professional
Wikipedia - Mary Everest Boole -- Author of didactic works on mathematics
Wikipedia - Mary Gentle -- British science fiction and fantasy author
Wikipedia - Mary Hanford Ford -- American lecturer, author, art, literature critic and suffragette
Wikipedia - Mary Howitt -- English poet, and author, editor
Wikipedia - Mary Ingalls -- Elder sister of author Laura Ingalls Wilder
Wikipedia - Mary Jo Buttafuoco -- American author and motivational speaker
Wikipedia - Maryland Transportation Authority -- Maryland state government agency
Wikipedia - Mary Lane -- Non-fiction author specializing in Western European art and history
Wikipedia - Mary L. Gray -- American anthropologist and author
Wikipedia - Mary Lou Belli -- American television director and author
Wikipedia - Mary Louisa Armitt -- American librarian and author
Wikipedia - Mary-Louise O'Callaghan -- Australian journalist and author
Wikipedia - Mary Margaret Francis -- Author, wife of Dick Francis
Wikipedia - Mary Martha Sherwood -- British children's author, editor
Wikipedia - Mary McCallum -- New Zealand author and journalist
Wikipedia - Mary McCarthy (author) -- American writer
Wikipedia - Mary Miller (writer) -- American author
Wikipedia - Mary M. Talbot -- British academic and author
Wikipedia - Mary Quayle Innis -- Canadian author and historian
Wikipedia - Mary Roberts Coolidge -- American sociologist and author
Wikipedia - Mary Rodgers -- American composer, author and screenwriter
Wikipedia - Mary Rogers Miller -- American author and educator
Wikipedia - Mary-Russell Ferrell Colton -- American artist, author, educator
Wikipedia - Mary Russell Mitford -- English author and dramatist (1787-1855)
Wikipedia - Mary Schenck Woolman -- American educator and author
Wikipedia - Maryse CondM-CM-) -- Guadeloupean, French-language author
Wikipedia - Mary Sophia Bentham -- British botanist and author
Wikipedia - Mary T. Reynolds -- American authority on the Irish writer James Joyce
Wikipedia - Mary Virginia Terhune -- American autho