classes ::: Sanskrit,
children :::
branches ::: Architectural Engineering, Architecture, Chit, Satchitananda

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object:Chit
language class:Sanskrit
cit (chit) - consciousness; the infinite self-awareness that is "the elemental origin and primal completeness of all this varied consciousness which is here used for various formation and experience", the second term of saccidananda; "an inherent self-consciousness" in brahman,"inseparable from its being [sat] and throwing itself out as a force [tapas] of movement of consciousness which is creative of forces, forms and worlds"; the "universal conscious-stuff of existence", the "original Consciousness" which "modifies itself so as to become on the Truthplane the supermind, on the mental plane the mental reason, will, emotion, sensation, on the lower planes the vital or physical instincts, impulses, habits of an obscure force not in superficially conscious possession of itself".

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now begins generated list of local instances, definitions, quotes, instances in chapters, wordnet info if available and instances among weblinks


OBJECT INSTANCES [0] - TOPICS - AUTHORS - BOOKS - CHAPTERS - CLASSES - SEE ALSO - SIMILAR TITLES

TOPICS
SEE ALSO


AUTH

BOOKS
Big_Mind,_Big_Heart
Epigrams_from_Savitri
Infinite_Library
Letters_On_Yoga
Letters_On_Yoga_I
Mind_-_Its_Mysteries_and_Control
Process_and_Reality
Savitri
The_Book_of_Gates
The_Ever-Present_Origin
The_Integral_Yoga
The_Republic
The_Study_and_Practice_of_Yoga
The_Wit_and_Wisdom_of_Alfred_North_Whitehead
The_World_as_Will_and_Idea
Thought_Power

IN CHAPTERS TITLE
1956-03-28_-_The_starting-point_of_spiritual_experience_-_The_boundless_finite_-_The_Timeless_and_Time_-_Mental_explanation_not_enough_-_Changing_knowledge_into_experience_-_Sat-Chit-Tapas-Ananda
1.ww_-_Rural_Architecture

IN CHAPTERS CLASSNAME

IN CHAPTERS TEXT
00.03_-_Upanishadic_Symbolism
00.05_-_A_Vedic_Conception_of_the_Poet
000_-_Humans_in_Universe
0.00_-_INTRODUCTION
0.00_-_The_Book_of_Lies_Text
0.02_-_Letters_to_a_Sadhak
0.05_-_The_Synthesis_of_the_Systems
01.01_-_A_Yoga_of_the_Art_of_Life
01.02_-_The_Creative_Soul
01.03_-_The_Yoga_of_the_King_-_The_Yoga_of_the_Souls_Release
01.04_-_Sri_Aurobindos_Gita
01.04_-_The_Intuition_of_the_Age
01.12_-_Goethe
0_1960-05-24_-_supramental_flood
0_1960-06-04
0_1960-08-20
0_1960-11-12
0_1961-04-18
0_1961-07-28
0_1962-02-24
0_1962-05-29
0_1962-10-27
0_1962-10-30
0_1963-02-19
0_1965-06-23
0_1965-06-26
0_1966-04-23
0_1966-06-29
0_1966-08-10
0_1966-08-17
0_1967-02-18
0_1967-07-15
0_1967-10-25
0_1968-03-02
0_1968-04-13
0_1969-02-08
0_1969-03-26
0_1969-06-11
0_1969-06-25
0_1969-08-27
0_1969-12-31
0_1970-01-03
0_1970-01-10
0_1970-05-20
0_1970-05-23
0_1971-04-28
0_1971-10-20
0_1971-11-10
0_1972-03-10
0_1972-04-02b
0_1972-04-04
0_1972-05-13
02.01_-_The_World_War
02.02_-_Rishi_Dirghatama
02.03_-_The_Glory_and_the_Fall_of_Life
02.05_-_The_Godheads_of_the_Little_Life
02.08_-_The_World_of_Falsehood,_the_Mother_of_Evil_and_the_Sons_of_Darkness
02.10_-_The_Kingdoms_and_Godheads_of_the_Little_Mind
02.11_-_The_Kingdoms_and_Godheads_of_the_Greater_Mind
02.13_-_In_the_Self_of_Mind
03.01_-_The_Evolution_of_Consciousness
03.02_-_The_Philosopher_as_an_Artist_and_Philosophy_as_an_Art
03.03_-_The_House_of_the_Spirit_and_the_New_Creation
03.04_-_The_Vision_and_the_Boon
03.09_-_Buddhism_and_Hinduism
04.02_-_The_Growth_of_the_Flame
04.03_-_Consciousness_as_Energy
04.04_-_Evolution_of_the_Spiritual_Consciousness
04.04_-_The_Quest
04.06_-_Evolution_of_the_Spiritual_Consciousness
04.21_-_To_the_HeightsXXI
05.03_-_Bypaths_of_Souls_Journey
06.02_-_The_Way_of_Fate_and_the_Problem_of_Pain
06.33_-_The_Constants_of_the_Spirit
07.42_-_The_Nature_and_Destiny_of_Art
09.09_-_The_Origin
10.02_-_Beyond_Vedanta
10.04_-_The_Dream_Twilight_of_the_Earthly_Real
1.01_-_Adam_Kadmon_and_the_Evolution
1.01_-_Economy
1.01_-_SAMADHI_PADA
1.01_-_The_Cycle_of_Society
1.01_-_The_Ideal_of_the_Karmayogin
1.01_-_To_Watanabe_Sukefusa
1.01_-_Who_is_Tara
1.02.2.1_-_Brahman_-_Oneness_of_God_and_the_World
1.02.2.2_-_Self-Realisation
1.02.3.2_-_Knowledge_and_Ignorance
1.02.4.1_-_The_Worlds_-_Surya
1.02.4.2_-_Action_and_the_Divine_Will
1.02.9_-_Conclusion_and_Summary
1.02_-_Karma_Yoga
1.02_-_Meditating_on_Tara
1.02_-_Prayer_of_Parashara_to_Vishnu
1.02_-_SADHANA_PADA
1.02_-_The_Divine_Teacher
1.02_-_The_Philosophy_of_Ishvara
1.02_-_The_Three_European_Worlds
1.02_-_Where_I_Lived,_and_What_I_Lived_For
1.03_-_Meeting_the_Master_-_Meeting_with_others
1.03_-_Tara,_Liberator_from_the_Eight_Dangers
1.03_-_THE_EARTH_IN_ITS_EARLY_STAGES
1.03_-_THE_ORPHAN,_THE_WIDOW,_AND_THE_MOON
1.03_-_The_Psychic_Prana
1.03_-_The_Sephiros
1.03_-_YIBHOOTI_PADA
1.04_-_KAI_VALYA_PADA
1.04_-_The_Divine_Mother_-_This_Is_She
1.04_-_The_Gods_of_the_Veda
1.05_-_Adam_Kadmon
1.05_-_Bhakti_Yoga
1.05_-_Christ,_A_Symbol_of_the_Self
1.05_-_Consciousness
1.05_-_Pratyahara_and_Dharana
1.05_-_Ritam
1.05_-_THE_HOSTILE_BROTHERS_-_ARCHETYPES_OF_RESPONSE_TO_THE_UNKNOWN
1.06_-_Man_in_the_Universe
1.06_-_THE_MASTER_WITH_THE_BRAHMO_DEVOTEES
1.07_-_A_Song_of_Longing_for_Tara,_the_Infallible
1.07_-_Bridge_across_the_Afterlife
1.07_-_Jnana_Yoga
1.07_-_Note_on_the_word_Go
1.07_-_Raja-Yoga_in_Brief
1.07_-_The_Farther_Reaches_of_Human_Nature
1.07_-_The_Mantra_-_OM_-_Word_and_Wisdom
1.08_-_Information,_Language,_and_Society
1.08_-_The_Gods_of_the_Veda_-_The_Secret_of_the_Veda
1.09_-_Concentration_-_Its_Spiritual_Uses
1.09_-_Kundalini_Yoga
1.09_-_Legend_of_Lakshmi
1.09_-_SKIRMISHES_IN_A_WAY_WITH_THE_AGE
1.09_-_Sleep_and_Death
1.09_-_Taras_Ultimate_Nature
1.09_-_The_Guardian_of_the_Threshold
1.09_-_The_Pure_Existent
11.01_-_The_Eternal_Day__The_Souls_Choice_and_the_Supreme_Consummation
1.1.02_-_Sachchidananda
1.10_-_Aesthetic_and_Ethical_Culture
1.10_-_Concentration_-_Its_Practice
1.10_-_Conscious_Force
1.10_-_Harmony
1.10_-_The_descendants_of_the_daughters_of_Daksa_married_to_the_Rsis
1.10_-_Theodicy_-_Nature_Makes_No_Mistakes
11.13_-_In_these_Fateful_Days
11.15_-_Sri_Aurobindo
1.11_-_Correspondence_and_Interviews
1.11_-_Powers
1.11_-_The_Kalki_Avatar
1.1.2_-_Commentary
1.12_-_Independence
1.12_-_The_Strength_of_Stillness
1.12_-_The_Superconscient
1.12_-_TIME_AND_ETERNITY
1.13_-_And_Then?
1.13_-_THE_MASTER_AND_M.
1.14_-_The_Secret
1.14_-_The_Structure_and_Dynamics_of_the_Self
1.14_-_The_Suprarational_Beauty
1.15_-_Index
1.15_-_The_Transformed_Being
1.15_-_The_world_overrun_with_trees;_they_are_destroyed_by_the_Pracetasas
1.16_-_Man,_A_Transitional_Being
1.16_-_THE_ESSENCE_OF_THE_DEMOCRATIC_IDEA
1.17_-_The_Burden_of_Royalty
1.17_-_The_Seven-Headed_Thought,_Swar_and_the_Dashagwas
1.17_-_The_Transformation
1.18_-_M._AT_DAKSHINESWAR
1.18_-_The_Perils_of_the_Soul
1.19_-_Dialogue_between_Prahlada_and_his_father
1.19_-_Life
1.19_-_THE_MASTER_AND_HIS_INJURED_ARM
1.2.01_-_The_Upanishadic_and_Purancic_Systems
12.01_-_This_Great_Earth_Our_Mother
1.2.03_-_The_Interpretation_of_Scripture
1.21_-_Families_of_the_Daityas
1.21_-_Tabooed_Things
1.22__-_Dominion_over_different_provinces_of_creation_assigned_to_different_beings
1.240_-_1.300_Talks
1.240_-_Talks_2
1.24_-_Matter
1.24_-_RITUAL,_SYMBOL,_SACRAMENT
1.2.4_-_Speech_and_Yoga
1.24_-_The_Killing_of_the_Divine_King
1.25_-_ADVICE_TO_PUNDIT_SHASHADHAR
1.26_-_FESTIVAL_AT_ADHARS_HOUSE
1.26_-_The_Ascending_Series_of_Substance
1.27_-_On_holy_solitude_of_body_and_soul.
1.28_-_The_Killing_of_the_Tree-Spirit
1.28_-_The_Ninth_Bolgia__Schismatics._Mahomet_and_Ali._Pier_da_Medicina,_Curio,_Mosca,_and_Bertr_and_de_Born.
1.300_-_1.400_Talks
1.31_-_Adonis_in_Cyprus
1.3.2.01_-_I._The_Entire_Purpose_of_Yoga
1.39_-_Prophecy
1.400_-_1.450_Talks
1.41_-_Isis
1.439
1.450_-_1.500_Talks
1.50_-_A.C._and_the_Masters;_Why_they_Chose_him,_etc.
1.550_-_1.600_Talks
1.56_-_The_Public_Expulsion_of_Evils
1929-07-28_-_Art_and_Yoga_-_Art_and_life_-_Music,_dance_-_World_of_Harmony
1951-03-01_-_Universe_and_the_Divine_-_Freedom_and_determinism_-_Grace_-_Time_and_Creation-_in_the_Supermind_-_Work_and_its_results_-_The_psychic_being_-_beauty_and_love_-_Flowers-_beauty_and_significance_-_Choice_of_reincarnating_psychic_being
1951-04-26_-_Irrevocable_transformation_-_The_divine_Shakti_-_glad_submission_-_Rejection,_integral_-_Consecration_-_total_self-forgetfulness_-_work
1953-10-28
1954-07-28_-_Money_-_Ego_and_individuality_-_The_shadow
1954-08-25_-_Ananda_aspect_of_the_Mother_-_Changing_conditions_in_the_Ashram_-_Ascetic_discipline_-_Mothers_body
1955-02-16_-_Losing_something_given_by_Mother_-_Using_things_well_-_Sadhak_collecting_soap-pieces_-_What_things_are_truly_indispensable_-_Natures_harmonious_arrangement_-_Riches_a_curse,_philanthropy_-_Misuse_of_things_creates_misery
1955-06-01_-_The_aesthetic_conscience_-_Beauty_and_form_-_The_roots_of_our_life_-_The_sense_of_beauty_-_Educating_the_aesthetic_sense,_taste_-_Mental_constructions_based_on_a_revelation_-_Changing_the_world_and_humanity
1955-07-13_-_Cosmic_spirit_and_cosmic_consciousness_-_The_wall_of_ignorance,_unity_and_separation_-_Aspiration_to_understand,_to_know,_to_be_-_The_Divine_is_in_the_essence_of_ones_being_-_Realising_desires_through_the_imaginaton
1956-03-28_-_The_starting-point_of_spiritual_experience_-_The_boundless_finite_-_The_Timeless_and_Time_-_Mental_explanation_not_enough_-_Changing_knowledge_into_experience_-_Sat-Chit-Tapas-Ananda
1964_09_16
1.ami_-_To_the_Saqi_(from_Baal-i-Jibreel)
1f.lovecraft_-_At_the_Mountains_of_Madness
1f.lovecraft_-_Beyond_the_Wall_of_Sleep
1f.lovecraft_-_In_the_Walls_of_Eryx
1f.lovecraft_-_The_Call_of_Cthulhu
1f.lovecraft_-_The_Case_of_Charles_Dexter_Ward
1f.lovecraft_-_The_Crawling_Chaos
1f.lovecraft_-_The_Curse_of_Yig
1f.lovecraft_-_The_Dream-Quest_of_Unknown_Kadath
1f.lovecraft_-_The_Dunwich_Horror
1f.lovecraft_-_The_Ghost-Eater
1f.lovecraft_-_The_Mound
1f.lovecraft_-_The_Rats_in_the_Walls
1f.lovecraft_-_The_Shadow_out_of_Time
1f.lovecraft_-_The_Shadow_over_Innsmouth
1f.lovecraft_-_The_Temple
1f.lovecraft_-_The_Thing_on_the_Doorstep
1f.lovecraft_-_The_Unnamable
1.jk_-_Staffa
1.jk_-_The_Eve_Of_St._Agnes
1.jwvg_-_The_Wanderer
1.pbs_-_Prometheus_Unbound
1.pbs_-_The_Cenci_-_A_Tragedy_In_Five_Acts
1.poe_-_Al_Aaraaf-_Part_2
1.poe_-_Eureka_-_A_Prose_Poem
1.rb_-_By_The_Fire-Side
1.rb_-_Cleon
1.rb_-_Old_Pictures_In_Florence
1.rb_-_Paracelsus_-_Part_II_-_Paracelsus_Attains
1.rb_-_Sordello_-_Book_the_Fifth
1.rb_-_Sordello_-_Book_the_First
1.rt_-_A_Hundred_Years_Hence
1.rt_-_Cruel_Kindness
1.rt_-_Old_Letters_
1.rt_-_Urvashi
1.rwe_-_May-Day
1.rwe_-_Monadnoc
1.rwe_-_Seashore
1.rwe_-_Spiritual_Laws
1.rwe_-_The_Snowstorm
1.shvb_-_Columba_aspexit_-_Sequence_for_Saint_Maximin
1.srm_-_The_Necklet_of_Nine_Gems
1.wby_-_Meditations_In_Time_Of_Civil_War
1.whitman_-_Carol_Of_Occupations
1.whitman_-_Carol_Of_Words
1.whitman_-_Once_I_Passd_Through_A_Populous_City
1.whitman_-_Passage_To_India
1.whitman_-_So_Long
1.whitman_-_Song_of_Myself
1.whitman_-_Song_Of_Myself-_XXXIII
1.whitman_-_Song_Of_The_Broad-Axe
1.whitman_-_Who_Learns_My_Lesson_Complete?
1.ww_-_Inside_of_King's_College_Chapel,_Cambridge
1.ww_-_Rural_Architecture
20.01_-_Charyapada_-_Old_Bengali_Mystic_Poems
2.01_-_Indeterminates,_Cosmic_Determinations_and_the_Indeterminable
2.01_-_On_Books
2.02_-_Brahman,_Purusha,_Ishwara_-_Maya,_Prakriti,_Shakti
2.02_-_On_Letters
2.02_-_THE_EXPANSION_OF_LIFE
2.02_-_The_Ishavasyopanishad_with_a_commentary_in_English
2.02_-_Yoga
2.03_-_DEMETER
2.03_-_Karmayogin__A_Commentary_on_the_Isha_Upanishad
2.03_-_On_Medicine
2.03_-_The_Christian_Phenomenon_and_Faith_in_the_Incarnation
2.03_-_THE_MASTER_IN_VARIOUS_MOODS
2.04_-_ADVICE_TO_ISHAN
2.04_-_On_Art
2.05_-_Habit_3__Put_First_Things_First
2.05_-_On_Poetry
2.05_-_The_Cosmic_Illusion;_Mind,_Dream_and_Hallucination
2.05_-_VISIT_TO_THE_SINTHI_BRAMO_SAMAJ
2.07_-_On_Congress_and_Politics
2.07_-_The_Upanishad_in_Aphorism
2.08_-_ALICE_IN_WONDERLAND
2.08_-_God_in_Power_of_Becoming
2.0_-_THE_ANTICHRIST
2.1.01_-_The_Central_Process_of_the_Sadhana
2.1.02_-_Classification_of_the_Parts_of_the_Being
2.1.02_-_Love_and_Death
2.1.02_-_Nature_The_World-Manifestation
21.03_-_The_Double_Ladder
2.12_-_The_Origin_of_the_Ignorance
2.12_-_The_Realisation_of_Sachchidananda
2.13_-_On_Psychology
2.13_-_The_Difficulties_of_the_Mental_Being
2.14_-_On_Movements
2.15_-_On_the_Gods_and_Asuras
2.15_-_The_Cosmic_Consciousness
2.16_-_Oneness
2.17_-_December_1938
2.17_-_THE_MASTER_ON_HIMSELF_AND_HIS_EXPERIENCES
2.17_-_The_Soul_and_Nature
2.18_-_January_1939
2.19_-_Feb-May_1939
2.19_-_THE_MASTER_AND_DR._SARKAR
2.2.03_-_The_Divine_Force_in_Work
2.2.03_-_The_Psychic_Being
2.20_-_Nov-Dec_1939
2.21_-_1940
2.22_-_1941-1943
2.24_-_The_Evolution_of_the_Spiritual_Man
2.24_-_THE_MASTERS_LOVE_FOR_HIS_DEVOTEES
2.25_-_AFTER_THE_PASSING_AWAY
2.25_-_List_of_Topics_in_Each_Talk
2.3.02_-_The_Supermind_or_Supramental
2.3.03_-_The_Overmind
2.3.06_-_The_Mind
2.3.10_-_The_Subconscient_and_the_Inconscient
2.3.1_-_Svetasvatara_Upanishad
26.09_-_Le_Periple_d_Or_(Pome_dans_par_Yvonne_Artaud)
27.02_-_The_Human_Touch_Divine
29.09_-_Some_Dates
2_-_Other_Hymns_to_Agni
30.04_-_Intuition_and_Inspiration_in_Art
30.13_-_Rabindranath_the_Artist
3.02_-_THE_DEPLOYMENT_OF_THE_NOOSPHERE
3.04_-_The_Spirit_in_Spirit-Land_after_Death
3.05_-_The_Physical_World_and_its_Connection_with_the_Soul_and_Spirit-Lands
31.01_-_The_Heart_of_Bengal
31.03_-_The_Trinity_of_Bengal
3.2.03_-_To_the_Ganges
3.2.04_-_Sankhya_and_Yoga
3.2.06_-_The_Adwaita_of_Shankaracharya
33.05_-_Muraripukur_-_II
33.06_-_Alipore_Court
34.09_-_Hymn_to_the_Pillar
3.6.01_-_Heraclitus
37.03_-_Satyakama_And_Upakoshala
3.7.1.04_-_Rebirth_and_Soul_Evolution
3_-_Commentaries_and_Annotated_Translations
4.05_-_The_Instruments_of_the_Spirit
4.05_-_The_Passion_Of_Love
4.07_-_Purification-Intelligence_and_Will
4.0_-_NOTES_TO_ZARATHUSTRA
4.1.01_-_The_Intellect_and_Yoga
4.2.03_-_The_Birth_of_Sin
4.21_-_The_Gradations_of_the_supermind
4.24_-_The_supramental_Sense
4.26_-_The_Supramental_Time_Consciousness
4.4.5.03_-_Descent_and_Other_Experiences
5.01_-_The_Dakini,_Salgye_Du_Dalma
5.4.01_-_Notes_on_Root-Sounds
7.15_-_The_Family
7_-_Yoga_of_Sri_Aurobindo
9.99_-_Glossary
Aeneid
APPENDIX_I_-_Curriculum_of_A._A.
Avatars_of_the_Tortoise
BOOK_II._--_PART_I._ANTHROPOGENESIS.
BOOK_II._--_PART_III._ADDENDA._SCIENCE_AND_THE_SECRET_DOCTRINE_CONTRASTED
BOOK_II._--_PART_II._THE_ARCHAIC_SYMBOLISM_OF_THE_WORLD-RELIGIONS
BOOK_I._--_PART_I._COSMIC_EVOLUTION
BOOK_I._--_PART_III._SCIENCE_AND_THE_SECRET_DOCTRINE_CONTRASTED
BOOK_I._--_PART_II._THE_EVOLUTION_OF_SYMBOLISM_IN_ITS_APPROXIMATE_ORDER
Book_of_Imaginary_Beings_(text)
BOOK_XII._-_Of_the_creation_of_angels_and_men,_and_of_the_origin_of_evil
BS_1_-_Introduction_to_the_Idea_of_God
Conversations_with_Sri_Aurobindo
COSA_-_BOOK_VI
COSA_-_BOOK_X
ENNEAD_01.06_-_Of_Beauty.
ENNEAD_02.09_-_Against_the_Gnostics;_or,_That_the_Creator_and_the_World_are_Not_Evil.
ENNEAD_04.04_-_Questions_About_the_Soul.
ENNEAD_05.09_-_Of_Intelligence,_Ideas_and_Essence.
ENNEAD_06.05_-_The_One_and_Identical_Being_is_Everywhere_Present_In_Its_Entirety.345
Gorgias
Guru_Granth_Sahib_first_part
Jaap_Sahib_Text_(Guru_Gobind_Singh)
Liber
Liber_46_-_The_Key_of_the_Mysteries
Maps_of_Meaning_text
r1909_06_18
r1909_06_19
r1909_06_24
r1912_01_13
r1912_01_14
r1912_01_15
r1912_01_24
r1912_02_08
r1912_07_01
r1912_07_15
r1912_07_16
r1912_07_22
r1912_11_26
r1912_11_29
r1912_12_03b
r1912_12_16
r1912_12_17
r1912_12_31
r1913_01_13
r1913_01_14
r1913_01_16
r1913_01_17
r1913_01_18
r1913_01_20
r1913_01_21
r1913_01_24
r1913_01_26
r1913_01_31
r1913_09_13
r1913_09_16
r1913_11_24
r1913_11_25
r1913_11_29
r1913_11_30
r1913_12_12b
r1913_12_13
r1913_12_14
r1913_12_22
r1913_12_25
r1914_03_14
r1914_03_17
r1914_03_18
r1914_03_19
r1914_03_20
r1914_03_21
r1914_03_22
r1914_03_23
r1914_03_24
r1914_03_27
r1914_04_07
r1914_04_20
r1914_04_27
r1914_04_30
r1914_05_02
r1914_05_04
r1914_05_08
r1914_05_15
r1914_06_10
r1914_06_11
r1914_06_12
r1914_06_14
r1914_06_15
r1914_06_16
r1914_06_19
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Sayings_of_Sri_Ramakrishna_(text)
Sophist
Talks_001-025
Talks_026-050
Talks_100-125
Talks_125-150
Talks_176-200
Talks_500-550
Talks_600-652
Talks_With_Sri_Aurobindo_1
Talks_With_Sri_Aurobindo_2
The_Act_of_Creation_text
The_Book_of_the_Prophet_Isaiah
The_Coming_Race_Contents
The_Dwellings_of_the_Philosophers
The_Immortal
The_Monadology
The_One_Who_Walks_Away
The_Riddle_of_this_World
The_Shadow_Out_Of_Time
Verses_of_Vemana

PRIMARY CLASS

SIMILAR TITLES
Architectural Engineering
Architecture
Chit
Satchitananda
the Divine Satchitananda

DEFINITIONS


TERMS STARTING WITH

Chit ::: Chit, the divine Consciousness, is not our mental selfawareness; that we shall find to be only a form, a lower and limited mode or movement. As we progress and awaken to the soul in us and things, we shall realise that there is a consciousness also in the plant, in the metal, in the atom, in electricity, in everything that belongs to physical nature; we shall find even that it is not really in all respects a lower or more limited mode than the mental, on the contrary it is in many "inanimate" forms more intense, rapid, poignant, though less evolved towards the surface. But this also, this consciousness of vital and physical Nature is, compared with Chit, a lower and th
   refore a limited form, mode and movement. These lower modes of consciousness are the conscious-stuff of inferior planes in one indivisible existence. In ourselves also there is in our subconscious being an action which is precisely that of the "inanimate" physical Nature whence has been constituted the basis of our physical being, another which is that of plantlife, and another which is that of the lower animal creation around us. All these are so much dominated and conditioned by the thinking and reasoning conscious-being in us that we have no real awareness of these lower planes; we are unable to perceive in their own terms what these parts of us are doing, and receive it very imperfectly in the terms and values of the thinking and reasoning mind. Still we know well enough that there is an animal in us as well as that which is characteristically human,—something which is a creature of conscious instinct and impulse, not
   reflective or rational, as well as that which turns back in thought and will on its experience, meets it from above with the light and force of a higher plane and to some degree controls, uses and modifies it. But the animal in man is only the head of our subhuman being; below it there is much that is also sub-animal and merely vital, much that acts by an instinct and impulse of which the constituting consciousness is withdrawn behind the surface. Below this sub-animal being, there is at a further depth the subvital. When we advance in that ultra-normal self-knowledge and experience which Yoga brings with it, we become aware that the body too has a consciousness of its own; it has habits, impulses, instincts, an inert yet effective will which differs from that of the rest of our being and can resist it and condition its effectiveness. Much of the struggle in our being is due to this composite existence and the interaction of these varied and heterogeneous planes on each other. For man here is the result of an evolution and contains in himself the whole of that evolution up from the merely physical and subvital conscious being to the mental creature which at the top he is. But this evolution is really a manifestation and just as we have in us these subnormal selves and subhuman planes, so are there in us above our mental being supernormal and superhuman planes. There Chit as the universal conscious-stuff of existence takes other poises, moves out in other modes, on other principles and by other faculties of action. There is above the mind, as the old Vedic sages discovered, a Truth-plane, a plane of self-luminous, self-effective Idea, which can be turned in light and force upon our mind, reason, sentiments, impulses, sensations and use and control them in the sense of the real Truth of things just as we turn our mental reason and will upon our sense-experience and animal nature to use and control them in the sense of our rational and moral perceptions. There is no seeking, but rather natural possession; no conflict or separation between will and reason, instinct and impulse, desire and experience, idea and reality, but all are in harmony, concomitant, mutually effective, unified in their origin, in their development and in their effectuation. But beyond this plane and attainable through it are others in which the very Chit itself becomes revealed, Chit the elemental origin and primal completeness of all this varied consciousness which is here used for various formation and experience. There will and knowledge and sensation and all the rest of our faculties, powers, modes of experience are not merely harmonious, concomitant, unified, but are one being of consciousness and power of consciousness. It is this Chit which modifies itself so as to become on the Truthplane the supermind, on the mental plane the mental reason, will, emotion, sensation, on the lower planes the vital or physical instincts, impulses, habits of an obscure force not in superficially conscious possession of itself. All is Chit because all is Sat; all is various movement of the original Consciousness because all is various movement of the original Being. When we find, see or know Chit, we find also that its essence is Ananda or delight of self-existence. To possess self is to possess self-bliss; not to possess self is to be in more or less obscure search of the delight of existence. Chit eternally possesses its self-bliss; and since Chit is the universal conscious-stuff of being, conscious universal being is also in possession of conscious self-bliss, master of the universal delight of existence. The Divine whether it manifests itself in All-Quality or in No-Quality, in Personality or Impersonality, in the One absorbing the Many or in the One manifesting its essential multiplicity, is always in possession of self-bliss and all-bliss because it is always Sachchidananda. For us also to know and possess our true Self in the essential and the universal is to discover the essential and the universal delight of existence, self-bliss and all-bliss. For the universal is only the pouring out of the essential existence, consciousness and delight; and wherever and in whatever form that manifests as existence, there the essential consciousness must be and th
   refore there must be an essential delight.
   Ref: CWSA Vol. 23-24, Page: 387 - 88 - 89


Chit-dharma: The essential quality or nature of the mind.

Chit-ghana: Mass of Consciousness.

Chiti (Sanskrit) Citi [from the verbal root cit to think] Understanding; “that by which the effects and consequences of actions and kinds of knowledge are selected for the use of the soul,” or “conscience the inner Voice in man” (SD 1:288n). Some yogis consider chiti as a synonym of mahat, but theosophic philosophy considers mahat the root and base as well as the germ of chiti. Chiti is manas functioning under the illumination of buddhi, and therefore becomes discriminative or intuitive understanding, an organic activity as contrasted with abstract or pure thought or consciousness. This function when developed makes of the human intermediate nature an entity virtually identic with a manasaputra, and thus attracts by spiritual affinity guardian spirits or chitkalas, synonymous themselves with manasaputras.

Chitkala (Sanskrit) Citkala [from cit abstract thought or consciousness + the verbal root kal to urge on, impel, stimulate] The inciters or stimulators of consciousness or intelligent thought; manasaputras. The spiritual beings who, during the course of the early and middle third root-race, furnished humanity with the higher manasic element from their own essence; hence one of the guardian spirits of the human race. Because the chitkalas or kaumarika manasaputras belong to the Hierarchy of Light or Compassion, they have frequently been allied with what the Chinese call Kwan-Yin, the goddess of mercy or pity, who may be called the feminine aspect of the cosmic Third Logos.

Chitkara (Sanskrit) Citkara [from cit thought, consciousness + the verbal root kṛ to do, make] The thought-worker; the guardian angel in human beings.

Chiton: Burmese name for evil spirits.

Chitotsu 知訥. See POJO CHINUL

Chitragupta (Sanskrit) Citragupta [from citr to depict, color with various colors + gupta hidden] The secret recorder who paints the picture of the person’s life on the astral light; a deva-scribe in the abode of the dead, who records human virtues and vices and reads out the account of every soul’s life from his register when the excarnate soul arrives in the kingdom of Yama, the god of death; a variant of the lipikas.

Chitragupta ::: see Citragupta

Chitraratha ::: see Citraratha

Chitrasikhandin (Sanskrit) Citraśikhaṇḍin Bright-created; a title given to the seven rishis (saptarshayas) who are the ensouling powers of the seven stars of the constellation of the Great Bear (Riksha). The mystical number seven was seen to be figured in heaven by the seven large stars of the constellation Great Bear, assigned by ancient Egyptians and Hindus to the Mother of Time, and of the seven elemental powers. See also BHUTASARGA

Chitra Sikkandinas. See CHITRASIKHANDIN

Chitsakti: Power of intelligence.

Chitsamanya: Basic universal consciousness.

Chit (Sanskrit) Cit Abstract thought, consciousness as contrasted with concrete or operative thought. According to Vedantic philosophy, chit is one of the three attributes (sat, chit, ananda) of atman or Brahman or, again, of the cosmic Logos.

Chit: Sanskrit for consciousness; intelligence.

Chit ::: see cit

Chitsunya: Grand vacuity; immaterial consciousness.

Chitsvarupa: Of the very form of pure intelligence or consciousness.

Chitta ::: Chitta is ordinarily used for the mental consciousness in general, thought, feeling, etc. taken together with a stress now on one side or another, sometimes on the feelings as in citta-pramathı, sometimes on the thought-mind—that is why I translated it [on p. 75 (maccittah. )] "heart and mind" in its wider sense.
   Ref: CWSA Vol. 13, Page: 92


Chittakasa: Mental ether; mind conceived of as ether (all-pervading).

Chitta: Mind-stuff; subconscious mind.

Chit Tapas ::: see cit tapas

Chittaprasadana: Peace or tranquillity of mind.

Chitta-riddhi-pada (Sanskrit) Citta-ṛddhi-pāda [from citta intelligence, thought, memory + ṛddhi supernormal power + pāda step, inspiring ray] In raja yoga, the step of renunciation of the lower memory, in the attainment of supernormal faculty or power. “The third condition of the mystic series which leads to the acquirement of adeptship; i.e., the renunciation of physical memory, and of all thoughts connected with worldly or personal events in one’s life — benefits, personal pleasures or associations. Physical memory has to be sacrificed, and recalled by will power only when absolutely needed” (TG 324).

Chitta (Sanskrit) Citta [from the verbal root cit to fix the mind upon, design, be intent upon] Thinking, reflection, pondering; used for either the mind or the heart, as being considered respectively the seats of conscious or unconscious mentation. Also used for memory, intelligence, reason, while in astrology it is the name of the ninth mansion (Sagittarius).

Chitta ::: see citta

Chittashakti ::: see cittasakti

Chittashuddhi ::: see cittasuddhi

Chitta-smriti-upasthana (Sanskrit) Citta-smṛti-upasthāna [from citta intelligence, thought, knowledge + smṛti remembrance + upasthāna placing before oneself, a following after, pursuit] Placing before oneself the knowledge of remembrance; in Buddhist literature “keeping ever in mind the transitory character of man’s life, and the incessant revolution of the wheel of existence” (TG 324).

Chittasuddhi: Purification of the mind; purity of conscience.

Chittavidya: Psychology; science of the mind and the sub-conscience.

Chittavimukti: Freedom from the bondage of the mind.

Chit: The principle of universal intelligence or consciousness.

chitchat ::: n. --> Familiar or trifling talk; prattle.

chitinization ::: n. --> The process of becoming chitinous.

chitin ::: n. --> A white amorphous horny substance forming the harder part of the outer integument of insects, crustacea, and various other invertebrates; entomolin.

chitinous ::: a. --> Having the nature of chitin; consisting of, or containing, chitin.

chit jada granthi. ::: the ego-knot between the Self, which is pure consciousness, and the physical body, which is inert and insentient; also refers to bondage, individual self, subtle-body, samsara and mind

chit ::: n. --> The embryo or the growing bud of a plant; a shoot; a sprout; as, the chits of Indian corn or of potatoes.
A child or babe; as, a forward chit; also, a young, small, or insignificant person or animal.
An excrescence on the body, as a wart.
A small tool used in cleaving laths. ::: v. i.


chiton ::: n. --> An under garment among the ancient Greeks, nearly representing the modern shirt.
One of a group of gastropod mollusks, with a shell composed of eight movable dorsal plates. See Polyplacophora.


chit. ::: pure unitary consciousness, which is the nature of the real Self; absolute consciousness; intelligent awareness

chitra, etc. ::: see citra, etc. chitra

chitrambalam :::. the expanse of consciousness

chit ::: see cit.

chit shakti. ::: power of consciousness or intelligence

chitta, etc. ::: see citta, etc. chitta

chitta&

chitta suddhi. ::: purity of mind; purification of the mind; purity of conscience

chitta vritti nirodha. ::: cessation of the modifications of the mind; control of thoughts

chitterling ::: n. --> The frill to the breast of a shirt, which when ironed out resembled the small entrails. See Chitterlings.

chitterlings ::: n. pl. --> The smaller intestines of swine, etc., fried for food.

chitter ::: v. i. --> To chirp in a tremulous manner, as a bird.
To shiver or chatter with cold.


chittra ::: n. --> The axis deer of India.

chitty ::: a. --> Full of chits or sprouts.
Childish; like a babe.



TERMS ANYWHERE

100BaseVG "networking" A 100 {MBps} {Ethernet} standard specified to run over four pairs of {category 3} {UTP} wires (known as voice grade, hence the "VG"). It is also called 100VG-AnyLAN because it was defined to carry both {Ethernet} and {token ring} {frame} types. 100BaseVG was originally proposed by {Hewlett-Packard}, ratified by the {ISO} in 1995 and practically extinct by 1998. 100BaseVG started in the IEEE 802.3u committee as {Fast Ethernet}. One faction wanted to keep {CSMA/CD} in order to keep it pure Ethernet, even though the {collision domain} problem limited the distances to one tenth that of {10baseT}. Another faction wanted to change to a polling architecture from the hub (they called it "demand priority") in order to maintain the 10baseT distances, and also to make it a {deterministic} {protocol}. The CSMA/CD crowd said, "This is 802.3 -- the Ethernet committee. If you guys want to make a different protocol, form your own committee". The IEEE 802.12 committee was thus formed and standardised 100BaseVG. The rest is history. (1998-06-30)

16 bit "architecture, programming" Using {words} containing sixteen {bits}. This adjective often refers to the number of bits used internally by a computer's {CPU}. E.g. "The {Intel 8086} is a sixteen bit processor". Its external {data bus} or {address bus} may be narrower. The term may also refer to the size of an instruction in the computer's {instruction set} or to any other item of data. See also {16-bit application}. (1996-05-13)

32-bit application "architecture, operating system" {IBM PC} software that runs in a 32-bit {flat address space}. The term {32-bit application} came about because {MS-DOS} and {Microsoft Windows} were originally written for the {Intel 8088} and {80286} {microprocessors}. These are {16 bit} microprocessors with a {segmented address space}. Programs with more than 64 kilobytes of code and/or data therefore had to switch between {segments} quite frequently. As this operation is quite time consuming in comparison to other machine operations, the application's performance may suffer. Furthermore, programming with segments is more involved than programming in a flat address space, giving rise to some complications in programming languages like "{memory models}" in {C} and {C++}. The shift from 16-bit software to 32-bit software on {IBM PC} {clones} became possible with the introduction of the {Intel 80386} microprocessor. This microprocessor and its successors support a segmented address space with 16-bit and 32 bit segments (more precisely: segments with 16- or 32-bit address offset) or a linear 32-bit address space. For compatibility reasons, however, much of the software is nevertheless written in 16-bit models. {Operating systems} like {Microsoft Windows} or {OS/2} provide the possibility to run 16-bit (segmented) programs as well as 32-bit programs. The former possibility exists for {backward compatibility} and the latter is usually meant to be used for new software development. See also {Win32s}. (1995-12-11)

386BSD "operating system" (Or "jolix /joh'liks/) A {free software} {port} originally derived from the generally available parts of the "{Berkeley Net Release/2}" to the {Intel} {i386} architecture by William Jolitz and friends. The name Jolix is used to differentiate it from {BSDI}'s port based on the same source tape, which is called {BSD/386}. Many new and innovative features were added to 386BSD following its original release in June 1992. An unofficial {patchkit}, available from many {anonymous FTP} archives, solves many of the problems associated with 386BSD Version 0.1. In addition, many common Unix packages have been ported. 386BSD has been superseded by {FreeBSD}, {NetBSD} and {OpenBSD}. {FAQ (http://cis.ohio-state.edu/hypertext/faq/usenet/386bsd-faq/part1/faq.html)}. [{Jargon File}] (2006-06-08)

3DNow! "architecture" A {floating point} {SIMD} extention from {AMD}. [Extension of what? To do what?] (2001-12-23)

3DNow! Professional "architecture" A {floating point} {SIMD} extention from {AMD}, compatible with {Intel}'s {SSE}, introduced with the {Athlon}-4. [Relationship to {3DNow!}?] (2001-12-23)

64-bit "architecture" A term describing a computer architecture with an {ALU}, {registers} and {data bus} which handle 64 {bit}s at a time. 64-bit processors were quite common by 1996, e.g. {Digital} {Alpha}, versions of {Sun} {SPARC}, {MIPS}, {IBM} {AS/4000}. The {PowerPC} and {Intel} were expected to move to 64 bits at their next generation - {PPC 620} and {Intel P7}. Being able to deal with 64-bit binary numbers means the processor can work with {signed integers} between +-2^32 or unsigned integers between zero and 2^64-1. A 64-bit {address bus} allows the processor to address 18 million {gigabytes} as opposed to the mere four gigabytes allowed with 32 bits. In 1996 {hard disks} could already hold over 4 GB. Floating point calculations can also be more accurate. A 64-bit {OS} is needed as well to take advantage of the CPU. In 1996 there were only a few 64-bit operating systems, including {OS/400}, {Digital} {Unix}, {Solaris} (partialy). A 32-bit OS can run on a 64-bit CPU. (2004-05-12)

AADL {Axiomatic Architecture Description Language}

abacus ::: n. --> A table or tray strewn with sand, anciently used for drawing, calculating, etc.
A calculating table or frame; an instrument for performing arithmetical calculations by balls sliding on wires, or counters in grooves, the lowest line representing units, the second line, tens, etc. It is still employed in China.
The uppermost member or division of the capital of a column, immediately under the architrave. See Column.


ABCL/R2 "language" An {object-oriented}, {concurrent}, {reflective} language based on {Hybrid Group Architecture}. ABCL/R2 was produced by "masuhara@is.s.u-tokyo.ac.jp", "matsu@is.s.u-tokyo.ac.jp", "takuo@is.s.u-tokyo.ac.jp", "yonezawa@is.s.u-tokyo.ac.jp", at the {Tokyo Institute of Technology} in 1992. As a reflective language, an ABCL/R2 program can dynamically control its own behaviour, such as {scheduling} policy, from within a user-program. This system has almost all functions of {ABCL/1} and is written in {Common Lisp}. {(ftp://camille.is.s.u-tokyo.ac.jp/pub/abclr2/)}. (1993-01-28)

Abstract Syntax Notation 1 "language, standard, protocol" (ASN.1, X.208, X.680) An {ISO}/{ITU-T} {standard} for transmitting structured {data} on {networks}, originally defined in 1984 as part of {CCITT X.409} '84. ASN.1 moved to its own standard, X.208, in 1988 due to wide applicability. The substantially revised 1995 version is covered by the X.680 series. ASN.1 defines the {abstract syntax} of {information} but does not restrict the way the information is encoded. Various ASN.1 encoding rules provide the {transfer syntax} (a {concrete} representation) of the data values whose {abstract syntax} is described in ASN.1. The standard ASN.1 encoding rules include {BER} (Basic Encoding Rules - X.209), {CER} (Canonical Encoding Rules), {DER} (Distinguished Encoding Rules) and {PER} (Packed Encoding Rules). ASN.1 together with specific ASN.1 encoding rules facilitates the exchange of structured data especially between {application programs} over networks by describing data structures in a way that is independent of machine architecture and implementation language. {OSI} {Application layer} {protocols} such as {X.400} {MHS} {electronic mail}, {X.500} directory services and {SNMP} use ASN.1 to describe the {PDU}s they exchange. Documents describing the ASN.1 notations: {ITU-T} Rec. X.680, {ISO} 8824-1; {ITU-T} Rec. X.681, {ISO} 8824-2; {ITU-T} Rec. X.682, {ISO} 8824-3; {ITU-T} Rec. X.683, {ISO} 8824-4 Documents describing the ASN.1 encoding rules: {ITU-T} Rec. X.690, {ISO} 8825-1; {ITU-T} Rec. X.691, {ISO} 8825-2. [M. Sample et al, "Implementing Efficient Encoders and Decoders for Network Data Representations", IEEE Infocom 93 Proc, v.3, pp. 1143-1153, Mar 1993. Available from Logica, UK]. See also {snacc}. (2005-07-03)

ACA {Application Control Architecture}

accumulator "processor" In a {central processing unit}, a {register} in which intermediate results are stored. Without an accumulator, it would be necessary to write the result of each calculation (addition, multiplication, {shift}, etc.) to {main memory} and read them back. Access to main memory is slower than access to the accumulator which usually has direct paths to and from the {arithmetic and logic unit} (ALU). The {canonical} example is summing a list of numbers. The accumulator is set to zero initially, each number in turn is added to the value in the accumulator and only when all numbers have been added is the result written to main memory. Modern CPUs usually have many registers, all or many of which can be used as accumulators. For this reason, the term "accumulator" is somewhat archaic. Use of it as a synonym for "register" is a fairly reliable indication that the user has been around for quite a while and/or that the architecture under discussion is quite old. The term in full is almost never used of microprocessor registers, for example, though symbolic names for arithmetic registers beginning in "A" derive from historical use of the term "accumulator" (and not, actually, from "arithmetic"). Confusingly, though, an "A" register name prefix may also stand for "address", as for example on the {Motorola} {680x0} family. 2. "programming" A register, memory location or variable being used for arithmetic or logic (as opposed to addressing or a loop index), especially one being used to accumulate a sum or count of many items. This use is in context of a particular routine or stretch of code. "The FOOBAZ routine uses A3 as an accumulator." [{Jargon File}] (1999-04-20)

achit. ::: insentient; inert; unconscious; non-conscious; inanimate phenomenal object

acroterium ::: n. --> One of the small pedestals, for statues or other ornaments, placed on the apex and at the basal angles of a pediment. Acroteria are also sometimes placed upon the gables in Gothic architecture.
One of the pedestals, for vases or statues, forming a part roof balustrade.


active record pattern "programming" {Martin Fowler}'s name for {object relational mapping} viewed as a {software architecture} {pattern}. (2014-12-03)

Adaline "architecture" Name given by Widrow to {adaptive linear neurons}, that is {neurons} (see {McCulloch-Pitts}) which learn using the {Widrow-Huff Delta Rule}. See also {Madaline}. (1995-03-14)

addressing mode 1. "processor, programming" One of a set of methods for specifying the {operand}(s) for a {machine code} {instruction}. Different processors vary greatly in the number of addressing modes they provide. The more complex modes described below can usually be replaced with a short sequence of instructions using only simpler modes. The most common modes are "register" - the operand is stored in a specified {register}; "absolute" - the operand is stored at a specified memory address; and "{immediate}" - the operand is contained within the instruction. Most processors also have {indirect addressing} modes, e.g. "register indirect", "memory indirect" where the specified register or memory location does not contain the operand but contains its address, known as the "{effective address}". For an absolute addressing mode, the effective address is contained within the instruction. Indirect addressing modes often have options for pre- or post- increment or decrement, meaning that the register or memory location containing the {effective address} is incremented or decremented by some amount (either fixed or also specified in the instruction), either before or after the instruction is executed. These are very useful for {stacks} and for accessing blocks of data. Other variations form the effective address by adding together one or more registers and one or more constants which may themselves be direct or indirect. Such complex addressing modes are designed to support access to multidimensional arrays and arrays of data structures. The addressing mode may be "implicit" - the location of the operand is obvious from the particular instruction. This would be the case for an instruction that modified a particular control register in the CPU or, in a {stack} based processor where operands are always on the top of the stack. 2. In {IBM} {System 370}/{XA} the addressing mode bit controls the size of the {effective address} generated. When this bit is zero, the CPU is in the 24-bit addressing mode, and 24 bit instruction and operand effective addresses are generated. When this bit is one, the CPU is in the 31-bit addressing mode, and 31-bit instruction and operand effective addresses are generated. ["IBM System/370 Extended Architecture Principles of Operation", Chapter 5., 'Address Generation', BiModal Addressing]. (1995-03-30)

address space "operating system, architecture" The range of addresses which a processor or process can access, or at which a {device} can be accessed. The term may refer to either {physical address} or {virtual address}. The size of a processor's address space depends on the width of the processor's {address bus} and address {registers}. Each device, such as a memory {integrated circuit}, will have its own local address space which starts at zero. This will be mapped to a range of addresses which starts at some base address in the processor's address space. Similarly, each {process} will have its own address space, which may be all or a part of the processor's address space. In a {multitasking} system this may depend on where in memory the process happens to have been loaded. For a process to be able to run at any address it must consist of {position-independent code}. Alternatively, each process may see the same local address space, with the {memory management unit} mapping this to the process's own part of the processor's address space. (1999-11-01)

Advanced Computing Environment "body" (ACE) A consortium to agree on an {open} architecture based on the {MIPS R4000} chip. A computer architecture ARCS will be defined, on which either {OS/2} or {Open Desktop} can be run. (1995-02-03)

Advanced Function Presentation "printer, language" (AFP) A {page description language} from {IBM} introduced in 1984 initially as Advanced Function Printing. AFP was first developed for {mainframes} and then brought to {minicomputers} and {workstations}. It is implemented on the various {platforms} by {Print Services Facility} (PSF) software, which generates the {native} IBM printer language, {IPDS} and, depending on the version, {PostScript} and LaserJet {PCL} as well. IBM calls AFP a "printer architecture" rather than a page description language.

Advanced Network Systems Architecture "networking" (ANSA) A "{software bus}" based on a model for distributed systems developed as an {ESPRIT} project. {(http://ansa.co.uk/)}. (1996-04-01)

aegicrania ::: n. pl. --> Sculptured ornaments, used in classical architecture, representing rams&

agami karma. ::: current karma being freshly performed by the individual; new karma accumulated in the present lifetime, added to the store of sanchita karma and carried forward into future lives; actions good and bad, expected to bear fruit in future births

AIA {Application Integration Architecture}

alhambresque ::: a. --> Made or decorated after the fanciful style of the ornamentation in the Alhambra, which affords an unusually fine exhibition of Saracenic or Arabesque architecture.

Amal: “The reference here seems to be to satchitananda in its ultimate reality. There it is one single reality with a threefold aspect on the one hand and on the other an exclusive character of its own. This character is beyond everything—and is a mystery which cannot be expressed.”

Amal: “They must be Sat-Chit-Ananda.”

Amal: “This must be sat-chit-ananda - Being, Consciousness and Bliss. Here the threefold reality seems subsumed under one category doing duty for the three.

Amulet "processor" An implementation or the {Advanced RISC Machine} {microprocessor} architecture using the {micropipeline} design style. In April 1994 the Amulet group in the Computer Science department of {Manchester University} took delivery of the AMULET1 {microprocessor}. This was their first large scale asynchronous circuit and the world's first implementation of a commercial microprocessor architecture (ARM) in {asynchronous logic}. Work was begun at the end of 1990 and the design despatched for fabrication in February 1993. The primary intent was to demonstrate that an asynchronous microprocessor can consume less power than a synchronous design. The design incorporates a number of concurrent units which cooperate to give instruction level compatibility with the existing synchronous part. These include an Address unit, which autonomously generates instruction fetch requests and interleaves ({nondeterministic}ally) data requests from the Execution unit; a {Register} file which supplies operands, queues write destinations and handles data dependencies; an Execution unit which includes a multiplier, a shifter and an {ALU} with data-dependent delay; a Data interface which performs byte extraction and alignment and includes an {instruction prefetch} buffer, and a control path which performs {instruction decode}. These units only synchronise to exchange data. The design demonstrates that all the usual problems of processor design can be solved in this asynchronous framework: backward {instruction set} compatibility, {interrupts} and exact {exceptions} for {memory faults} are all covered. It also demonstrates some unusual behaviour, for instance {nondeterministic} prefetch depth beyond a branch instruction (though the instructions which actually get executed are, of course, deterministic). There are some unusual problems for {compiler} {optimisation}, as the metric which must be used to compare alternative code sequences is continuous rather than discrete, and the {nondeterminism} in external behaviour must also be taken into account. The chip was designed using a mixture of custom {datapath} and compiled control logic elements, as was the synchronous ARM. The fabrication technology is the same as that used for one version of the synchronous part, reducing the number of variables when comparing the two parts. Two silicon implementations have been received and preliminary measurements have been taken from these. The first is a 0.7um process and has achieved about 28 kDhrystones running the standard {benchmark} program. The other is a 1 um implementation and achieves about 20 kDhrystones. For the faster of the parts this is equivalent to a synchronous {ARM6} clocked at around 20MHz; in the case of AMULET1 it is likely that this speed is limited by the memory system cycle time (just over 50ns) rather than the processor chip itself. A fair comparison of devices at the same geometries gives the AMULET1 performance as about 70% of that of an {ARM6} running at 20MHz. Its power consumption is very similar to that of the ARM6; the AMULET1 therefore delivers about 80 MIPS/W (compared with around 120 from a 20MHz ARM6). Multiplication is several times faster on the AMULET1 owing to the inclusion of a specialised asynchronous multiplier. This performance is reasonable considering that the AMULET1 is a first generation part, whereas the synchronous ARM has undergone several design iterations. AMULET2 (under development in 1994) was expected to be three times faster than AMULET1 and use less power. The {macrocell} size (without {pad ring}) is 5.5 mm by 4.5 mm on a 1 micron {CMOS} process, which is about twice the area of the synchronous part. Some of the increase can be attributed to the more sophisticated organisation of the new part: it has a deeper {pipeline} than the clocked version and it supports multiple outstanding memory requests; there is also specialised circuitry to increase the multiplication speed. Although there is undoubtedly some overhead attributable to the asynchronous control logic, this is estimated to be closer to 20% than to the 100% suggested by the direct comparison. AMULET1 is code compatible with {ARM6} and is so is capable of running existing {binaries} without modification. The implementation also includes features such as interrupts and memory aborts. The work was part of a broad {ESPRIT} funded investigation into low-power technologies within the European {Open Microprocessor systems Initiative} (OMI) programme, where there is interest in low-power techniques both for portable equipment and (in the longer term) to alleviate the problems of the increasingly high dissipation of high-performance chips. This initial investigation into the role {asynchronous logic} might play has now demonstrated that asynchronous techniques can be applied to problems of the scale of a complete {microprocessor}. {(http://cs.man.ac.uk/amulet)}. (1994-12-08)

ananda-cit-sat (ananda-chit-sat) ::: Bliss-Consciousness-Being; cit-ananda with the terms reversed.

ANDF {Architecture Neutral Distribution Format}

Andrew Tanenbaum "person" Professor Andrew S. Tanenbaum (1941-) of the {Vrije Universiteit, Amsterdam} in The Netherlands. Tanenbaum is famous for his work and books on computer architecture, {operating systems} and {networks}. He wrote the textbook "Computer Networks", Second Edition, Prentice-Hall, 1981, which describes the {International Standards Organisation}, {Open Systems Interconnection} (ISO-OSI) network model. See {Amoeba}, {Mac-1}, {Mic-1}, {Mic-2}, {Micro Assembly Language}, {MINIX}, {MicroProgramming Language}, {standard}. [Home page?] (1996-04-23)

annamaya-citta (annamaya-chitta) ::: the "pervading and possessing action of consciousness" (citta) in the body. annamaya purus purusa

ANSA {Advanced Network Systems Architecture}

ANSI/SPARC Architecture "architecture" (Or "ANSI/SPARC model") {ANSI/SPARC}'s layered model of {database} architecture comprising a {physical schema}, a {conceptual schema} and user {views}. [Reference?] (1998-12-17)

ANSI/SPARC model {ANSI/SPARC Architecture}

anta ::: n. --> A species of pier produced by thickening a wall at its termination, treated architecturally as a pilaster, with capital and base.

antirachitic ::: a. --> Good against the rickets.

APA {Application Portability Architecture}

Application Control Architecture "programming" (ACA) {DEC}'s implementation of {ORB}. (1994-11-08)

Application Integration Architecture "standard" (AIA) {DEC}'s "open standards" specifications.

application lifecycle management "programming" (ALM) A combination of {software engineering}, {requirements management}, {architecture}, {coding}, {testing}, {tracking} and {release management}. (2009-06-10)

Application Portability Architecture "programming" (APA) {DEC}'s plan for portable applications software. (1994-11-28)

archi- ::: --> A prefix signifying chief, arch; as, architect, archiepiscopal. In Biol. and Anat. it usually means primitive, original, ancestral; as, archipterygium, the primitive fin or wing.

architective ::: a. --> Used in building; proper for building.

architect ::: n. --> A person skilled in the art of building; one who understands architecture, or makes it his occupation to form plans and designs of buildings, and to superintend the artificers employed.
A contriver, designer, or maker.


architectonic ::: a. --> Alt. of Architectonical ::: n. --> The science of architecture.
The act of arranging knowledge into a system.


architectonical ::: a. --> Pertaining to a master builder, or to architecture; evincing skill in designing or construction; constructive.
Relating to the systemizing of knowledge.


Architectonic: (Kant) (Gr. architektonikos; Ger. Architektonik) The formal scheme, structural design, or method of elucidation of a system. The architectonic of Kant's system rests throughout the basic distinctions of the traditional logic. -- O.F.K.

architectonic ::: metaph. Of the systematic arrangement of knowledge.

architectonics ::: n. --> The science of architecture.

architector ::: n. --> An architect.

architectress ::: n. --> A female architect.

Architect . . . the Architect who builds in trance

architect ::: the deviser, maker, or creator of anything; one who builds up something, as, men are the architects of their own fortunes. Architect, architects.

architectural ::: a. --> Of or pertaining to the art of building; conformed to the rules of architecture.

architecture ::: 1. The profession of designing buildings and other artificial constructions and environments, usually with some regard to aesthetic effect. 2. The character or style of building. 3. Construction or structure generally. architectures.

architecture "architecture" Design, the way components fit together. The term is used particularly of {processors}, both individual and in general. "The {ARM} has a really clean architecture". It may also be used of any complex system, e.g. "software architecture", "network architecture". (1995-05-02)

Architecture Neutral Distribution Format "programming, operating system" (ANDF) An emerging {OSF} {standard} for software distribution. Programs are compiled into ANDF before distribution and {executables} are produced from it for the local target system. This allows software to be developed and distributed in a single version then installed on a variety of hardware. See also {UNCOL}. ["Architecture Neutral Distribution Format: A White Paper", Open Software Foundation, Nov 1990]. (1995-10-20)

architecture ::: n. --> The art or science of building; especially, the art of building houses, churches, bridges, and other structures, for the purposes of civil life; -- often called civil architecture.
Construction, in a more general sense; frame or structure; workmanship.


architeuthis ::: n. --> A genus of gigantic cephalopods, allied to the squids, found esp. in the North Atlantic and about New Zealand.

architraved ::: a. --> Furnished with an architrave.

architrave ::: n. --> The lower division of an entablature, or that part which rests immediately on the column, esp. in classical architecture. See Column.
The group of moldings, or other architectural member, above and on both sides of a door or other opening, especially if square in form.


archivolt ::: n. --> The architectural member surrounding the curved opening of an arch, corresponding to the architrave in the case of a square opening.
More commonly, the molding or other ornaments with which the wall face of the voussoirs of an arch is charged.


ARM710 "processor" A 32-bit {RISC} {microprocessor} based on the {ARM7} processor core designed by {Advanced RISC Machines} Ltd. The A710 is the successor to the {ARM610} processor. It was released in July 1994 by {VLSI Technology Inc}. The ARM710 can run at 40MHz (fastest sample 55MHz) dissipating 500mW with a 5V supply or 25MHz with 3.3V supply. It has an 8 kilobyte on-chip {cache}, {memory management unit} and {write buffer}. The ARM700 and ARM710 processors represent a significant improvement over the {ARM610} processors. They have a higher maximum clock speed and a number of architectural improvements such as double the size of internal cache, this means that more of any process can be executed internally without accessing the (relatively) slow external memory. Other improvements are an improved {write buffer} and an enlarged {Translation Lookaside Buffer} in the {MMU}. All of these improvements increase the performance of the system and deliver more real performance than a simple comparison of clock speeds would indicate. The ARM710 has been optimised for integer performance. The FPA11 {floating point} {coprocessor} has a peak throughput of up to 5 {MFLOPS} and achieves an average throughput in excess of 3 MFLOPS for a range of calculations. (1995-04-21)

ARM7 "processor" A {RISC} {microprocessor} architecture from {Advanced RISC Machines} Ltd. (ARM). Building upon the {ARM6} family, the goal of the ARM7 design was to offer higher levels of raw compute performance at even lower levels of power consumption. The ARM7 architecture is now (Dec 1994) the most powerful low voltage {RISC} processor available on the market. The ARM7 offers several architectural extensions which address specific market needs, encompassing fast multiply and innovative embedded {ICE} support. Software development tools are available. The ARM7 architecture is made up of a core CPU plus a range of system peripherals which can be added to a CPU core to give a complete system on a chip, e.g. 4K or 8K {cache}, {Memory Management Unit}, {Write Buffer}, {coprocessor} interface, {ICEbreaker} embedded {ICE} support and {JTAG} {boundary scan}. The {ARM710} {microprocessor} is built around the ARM7 core. {(http://systemv.com/armltd/arm7.html)}. (1995-01-05)

ARM800 "processor" A {microprocessor} based on the {ARM8} processor core designed by {Advanced RISC Machines} Ltd. Planned features include a 60-100Mhz {clock rate}; 0.35-0.4 micron silicon fabrication; an improvement on the {ARM7}'s 1.4 cycle/instruction; a 16 Kbyte {cache}. Some estimates were 100 MIPS and 120 Kdhrystones at 70Mhz (twice the {ARM700}). Samples of the ARM800 are expected to be available in late 1995. It may run on a voltage below 3.3V. {Digital Semiconductor}'s Hudson fab is 0.35 micron and they have announced a licensing deal for the ARM architecture (see {StrongARM}). (1995-02-07)

array 1. "programming" A collection of identically typed data items distinguished by their indices (or "subscripts"). The number of dimensions an array can have depends on the language but is usually unlimited. An array is a kind of {aggregate} data type. A single ordinary variable (a "{scalar}") could be considered as a zero-dimensional array. A one-dimensional array is also known as a "{vector}". A reference to an array element is written something like A[i,j,k] where A is the array name and i, j and k are the indices. The {C} language is peculiar in that each index is written in separate brackets, e.g. A[i][j][k]. This expresses the fact that, in C, an N-dimensional array is actually a vector, each of whose elements is an N-1 dimensional array. Elements of an array are usually stored contiguously. Languages differ as to whether the leftmost or rightmost index varies most rapidly, i.e. whether each row is stored contiguously or each column (for a 2D array). Arrays are appropriate for storing data which must be accessed in an unpredictable order, in contrast to {lists} which are best when accessed sequentially. Array indices are {integers}, usually {natural numbers}, whereas the elements of an {associative array} are identified by strings. 2. "architecture" A {processor array}, not to be confused with an {array processor}. (2007-10-12)

A

Astral "language" A programming language based on {Pascal}, never implemented. ["ASTRAL: A Structured and Unified Approach to Database Design and Manipulation", T. Amble et al, in Proc of the Database Architecture Conf, Venice, June 1979]. (2000-01-27)

asynchronous "architecture" Not synchronised by a shared signal such as {clock} or {semaphore}, proceeding independently. Opposite: {synchronous}. 1. "operating system" A {process} in a {multitasking} system whose execution can proceed independently, "in the {background}". Other processes may be started before the asynchronous process has finished. 2. "communications" A communications system in which data transmission may start at any time and is indicated by a {start bit}, e.g. {EIA-232}. A data {byte} (or other element defined by the {protocol}) ends with a {stop bit}. A continuous marking condition (identical to stop bits but not quantized in time), is then maintained until data resumes. (1995-12-08)

asynchronous logic "architecture" A {data-driven} circuit design technique where, instead of the components sharing a common {clock} and exchanging data on clock edges, data is passed on as soon as it is available. This removes the need to distribute a common clock signal throughout the circuit with acceptable {clock skew}. It also helps to reduce power dissipation in {CMOS} circuits because {gates} only switch when they are doing useful work rather than on every clock edge. There are many kinds of asynchronous logic. Data signals may use either "dual rail encoding" or "data bundling". Each dual rail encoded {Boolean} is implemented as two wires. This allows the value and the timing information to be communicated for each data bit. Bundled data has one wire for each data bit and another for timing. Level sensitive circuits typically represent a logic one by a high voltage and a logic zero by a low voltage whereas transition signalling uses a change in the signal level to convey information. A speed independent design is tolerant to variations in gate speeds but not to propagation delays in wires; a delay insensitive circuit is tolerant to variations in wire delays as well. The purest form of circuit is delay-insensitive and uses dual-rail encoding with transition signalling. A transition on one wire indicates the arrival of a zero, a transition on the other the arrival of a one. The levels on the wires are of no significance. Such an approach enables the design of fully delay-insensitive circuits and automatic layout as the delays introduced by the layout compiler can't affect the functionality (only the performance). Level sensitive designs can use simpler, stateless logic gates but require a "return to zero" phase in each transition. {(http://cs.man.ac.uk/amulet/async/)}. (1995-01-18)

AT bus architecture {Industry Standard Architecture}

Axiomatic Architecture Description Language "language, architecture, parallel" (AADL) A language allowing concise modular specification of {multiprocessor} architectures from the compiler/operating-system interface level down to chip level. AADL is rich enough to specify target architectures while providing a concise model for clocked {microarchitectures}. ["AADL: A Net-Based Specification Method for Computer Architecture Design", W. Damm et al in Languages for Parallel Architectures, J.W. deBakker ed, Wiley, 1989]. (2003-06-30)

azurite ::: n. --> Blue carbonate of copper; blue malachite.

back-end "programming" Any software performing either the final stage in a process, or a task not apparent to the user. A common usage is in a {compiler}. A compiler's back-end generates {machine language} and performs optimisations specific to the machine's {architecture}. The term can also be used in the context of {network} applications. E.g. "The back-end of the system handles {socket} protocols". Contrast {front end}. (1996-04-09)

band ::: v. t. --> A fillet, strap, or any narrow ligament with which a thing is encircled, or fastened, or by which a number of things are tied, bound together, or confined; a fetter.
A continuous tablet, stripe, or series of ornaments, as of carved foliage, of color, or of brickwork, etc.
In Gothic architecture, the molding, or suite of moldings, which encircles the pillars and small shafts.
That which serves as the means of union or connection


barbaresque ::: a. --> Barbaric in form or style; as, barbaresque architecture.

Basic Object Adapter "architecture" (BOA) Part of the {CORBA} architecture. [Details?] (2004-06-23)

Chit ::: Chit, the divine Consciousness, is not our mental selfawareness; that we shall find to be only a form, a lower and limited mode or movement. As we progress and awaken to the soul in us and things, we shall realise that there is a consciousness also in the plant, in the metal, in the atom, in electricity, in everything that belongs to physical nature; we shall find even that it is not really in all respects a lower or more limited mode than the mental, on the contrary it is in many "inanimate" forms more intense, rapid, poignant, though less evolved towards the surface. But this also, this consciousness of vital and physical Nature is, compared with Chit, a lower and th
   refore a limited form, mode and movement. These lower modes of consciousness are the conscious-stuff of inferior planes in one indivisible existence. In ourselves also there is in our subconscious being an action which is precisely that of the "inanimate" physical Nature whence has been constituted the basis of our physical being, another which is that of plantlife, and another which is that of the lower animal creation around us. All these are so much dominated and conditioned by the thinking and reasoning conscious-being in us that we have no real awareness of these lower planes; we are unable to perceive in their own terms what these parts of us are doing, and receive it very imperfectly in the terms and values of the thinking and reasoning mind. Still we know well enough that there is an animal in us as well as that which is characteristically human,—something which is a creature of conscious instinct and impulse, not
   reflective or rational, as well as that which turns back in thought and will on its experience, meets it from above with the light and force of a higher plane and to some degree controls, uses and modifies it. But the animal in man is only the head of our subhuman being; below it there is much that is also sub-animal and merely vital, much that acts by an instinct and impulse of which the constituting consciousness is withdrawn behind the surface. Below this sub-animal being, there is at a further depth the subvital. When we advance in that ultra-normal self-knowledge and experience which Yoga brings with it, we become aware that the body too has a consciousness of its own; it has habits, impulses, instincts, an inert yet effective will which differs from that of the rest of our being and can resist it and condition its effectiveness. Much of the struggle in our being is due to this composite existence and the interaction of these varied and heterogeneous planes on each other. For man here is the result of an evolution and contains in himself the whole of that evolution up from the merely physical and subvital conscious being to the mental creature which at the top he is. But this evolution is really a manifestation and just as we have in us these subnormal selves and subhuman planes, so are there in us above our mental being supernormal and superhuman planes. There Chit as the universal conscious-stuff of existence takes other poises, moves out in other modes, on other principles and by other faculties of action. There is above the mind, as the old Vedic sages discovered, a Truth-plane, a plane of self-luminous, self-effective Idea, which can be turned in light and force upon our mind, reason, sentiments, impulses, sensations and use and control them in the sense of the real Truth of things just as we turn our mental reason and will upon our sense-experience and animal nature to use and control them in the sense of our rational and moral perceptions. There is no seeking, but rather natural possession; no conflict or separation between will and reason, instinct and impulse, desire and experience, idea and reality, but all are in harmony, concomitant, mutually effective, unified in their origin, in their development and in their effectuation. But beyond this plane and attainable through it are others in which the very Chit itself becomes revealed, Chit the elemental origin and primal completeness of all this varied consciousness which is here used for various formation and experience. There will and knowledge and sensation and all the rest of our faculties, powers, modes of experience are not merely harmonious, concomitant, unified, but are one being of consciousness and power of consciousness. It is this Chit which modifies itself so as to become on the Truthplane the supermind, on the mental plane the mental reason, will, emotion, sensation, on the lower planes the vital or physical instincts, impulses, habits of an obscure force not in superficially conscious possession of itself. All is Chit because all is Sat; all is various movement of the original Consciousness because all is various movement of the original Being. When we find, see or know Chit, we find also that its essence is Ananda or delight of self-existence. To possess self is to possess self-bliss; not to possess self is to be in more or less obscure search of the delight of existence. Chit eternally possesses its self-bliss; and since Chit is the universal conscious-stuff of being, conscious universal being is also in possession of conscious self-bliss, master of the universal delight of existence. The Divine whether it manifests itself in All-Quality or in No-Quality, in Personality or Impersonality, in the One absorbing the Many or in the One manifesting its essential multiplicity, is always in possession of self-bliss and all-bliss because it is always Sachchidananda. For us also to know and possess our true Self in the essential and the universal is to discover the essential and the universal delight of existence, self-bliss and all-bliss. For the universal is only the pouring out of the essential existence, consciousness and delight; and wherever and in whatever form that manifests as existence, there the essential consciousness must be and th
   refore there must be an essential delight.
   Ref: CWSA Vol. 23-24, Page: 387 - 88 - 89


Chitragupta ::: see Citragupta

Chitraratha ::: see Citraratha

Chit ::: see cit

Chitta ::: Chitta is ordinarily used for the mental consciousness in general, thought, feeling, etc. taken together with a stress now on one side or another, sometimes on the feelings as in citta-pramathı, sometimes on the thought-mind—that is why I translated it [on p. 75 (maccittah. )] "heart and mind" in its wider sense.
   Ref: CWSA Vol. 13, Page: 92


Chit Tapas ::: see cit tapas

Chitta ::: see citta

Chittashakti ::: see cittasakti

Chittashuddhi ::: see cittasuddhi

Berkeley Software Design, Inc "company" (BSDI) A company that sells {BSD/OS}, a commercial version of {Berkeley Standard Distribution} {Unix}, networking, and Internet technologies originally developed by the {Computer Systems Research Group} (CSRG) at the {University of California at Berkeley}. Leading CSRG computer scientists founded BSDI in 1991. BSDI's BSD/OS represents over 20 years of development by the worldwide BSD technical community. BSD technology is known worldwide for its powerful, flexible and portable architecture and advanced development environments. BSDI designs, develops, markets, and supports the {BSD/OS} {operating system}, {Internet} server software for {IBM PCs}, and other products. BSDI planned to release an Internet gateway product for {Novell} {IPX} networks in 1995. {(http://bsdi.com/)}. E-mail: "bsdi-info@bsdi.com". Address: 5575 Tech Center Drive,

bhava (sannyasochita bhava) ::: the state of mind conducive to renunciation.

big-endian 1. "data, architecture" A computer {architecture} in which, within a given multi-{byte} numeric representation, the most significant byte has the lowest address (the word is stored "big-end-first"). Most processors, including the {IBM 370} family, the {PDP-10}, the {Motorola} {microprocessor} families, and most of the various {RISC} designs current in mid-1993, are big-endian. See {-endian}. 2. "networking, standard" A backward {electronic mail address}. The world now follows the {Internet} {hostname} {standard} (see {FQDN}) and writes e-mail addresses starting with the name of the computer and ending up with the {country code} (e.g. fred@doc.acme.ac.uk). In the United Kingdom the {Joint Networking Team} decided to do it the other way round (e.g. me@uk.ac.wigan.cs) before the {Internet} {domain} standard was established. Most {gateway sites} required {ad-hockery} in their {mailers} to handle this. By July 1994 this parochial idiosyncracy was on the way out and mailers started to reject big-endian addresses. By about 1996, people would look at you strangely if you suggested such a bizarre thing might ever have existed. [{Jargon File}] (1998-08-09)

bit bang Transmission of data on a {serial line} accomplished by rapidly changing a single output bit, in software, at the appropriate times. The technique is a simple loop with eight OUT and SHIFT instruction pairs for each byte. Input is more interesting. And {full-duplex} (doing input and output at the same time) is one way to separate the real hackers from the {wannabees}. Bit bang was used on certain early models of {Prime} computers, presumably when {UARTs} were too expensive, and on archaic {Zilog Z80} micros with a {Zilog} PIO but no SIO. In an interesting instance of the {cycle of reincarnation}, this technique is now (1991) coming back into use on some {RISC} architectures because it consumes such an infinitesimal part of the processor that it actually makes sense not to have a {UART}. [{Jargon File}]

bit slice "architecture" A technique for constructing a {processor} from modules, each of which processes one {bit-field} or "slice" of an {operand}. Bit slice processors usually consist of an {ALU} of 1, 2, 4 or 8 bits and control lines (including {carry} or {overflow} signals usually internal to the {CPU}). For example, two 4-bit ALUs could be arranged side by side, with control lines between them, to form an 8-bit ALU. A {sequencer} executes a program to provide data and control signals. The {AMD Am2901} is an example. (1994-11-15)

BLOB 1. {binary large object}. 2. "architecture" {blitter object}. [{Jargon File}]

Blue Glue {Systems Network Architecture}

bracket ::: n. --> An architectural member, plain or ornamental, projecting from a wall or pier, to support weight falling outside of the same; also, a decorative feature seeming to discharge such an office.
A piece or combination of pieces, usually triangular in general shape, projecting from, or fastened to, a wall, or other surface, to support heavy bodies or to strengthen angles.
A shot, crooked timber, resembling a knee, used as a support.


bronchitic ::: a. --> Of or pertaining to bronchitis; as, bronchitic inflammation.

bronchitis ::: n. --> Inflammation, acute or chronic, of the bronchial tubes or any part of them.

Buddhi (.Discrimination) ::: Buddhi is a construction of conscious being which quite exceeds its beginnings in the basic chitta; it is the intelligence with its power of knowledge and will. Buddhi takes up and deals with all the rest of the action of the mind and life and body. It is in its nature thought-power and will-power of the Spirit turned into the lower form of a mental activity. We may distinguish three successive gradations of the action of this intelligence. There is first an inferior perceptive understanding which simply takes up, records, understands and responds to the communications of the sense-mind, memory, heart and sensational mentality. It creates by their means an elementary thinking mind which does not go beyond their data, but subjects itself to their mould and rings out their repetitions, runs round and round in the habitual circle of thought and will suggested by them or follows, with an obedient subservience of the reason to the suggestions of life, any fresh determinations which may be offered to its perception and conception. Beyond this elementary understanding, which we all use to an enormous extent, there is a power of arranging or selecting reason and will-force of the intelligence which has for its action and aim an attempt to arrive at a plausible, sufficient, settled ordering of knowledge and will for the use of an intellectual conception of life. In spite of its more purely intellectual character this secondary or intermediate reason is really pragmatic in its intention. It creates a certain kind of intellectual structure, frame, rule into which it tries to cast the inner and outer life so as to use it with a certain mastery and government for the purposes of some kind of rational will. It is this reason which gives to our normal intellectual being our set aesthetic and ethical standards, our structures of opinion and our established norms of idea and purpose. It is highly developed and takes the primacy in all men of an at all developed understanding. But beyond it there is a reason, a highest action of the buddhi which concerns itself disinterestedly with a pursuit of pure truth and right knowledge; it seeks to discover the real Truth behind life and things and our apparent selves and to subject its will to the law of Truth. Few, if any of us, can use this highest reason with any purity, but the attempt to do it is the topmost capacity of the inner instrument, the antahkarana.
   Ref: CWSA Vol. 23-24, Page: 651-52


Buddhi is a construction of conscious being which quite exceeds its beginnings in the basic chitta; it is the intelligence with its power of knowledge and will. Buddhi takes up and deals with all the rest of the action of the mind and life and body. It is in its nature thought-power and will-power of the Spirit turned into the lower form of a mental activity. We may distinguish three successive gradations of the action of this intelligence. There is first an inferior perceptive understanding which simply takes up, records, understands and responds to the communications of the sense-mind, memory, heart and sensational mentality. It creates by their means an elementary thinking mind which does not go beyond their data, but subjects itself to their mould and rings out their repetitions, runs round and round in the habitual circle of thought and will suggested by them or follows, with an obedient subservience of the reason to the suggestions of life, any fresh determinations which may be offered to its perception and conception. Beyond this elementary understanding, which we all use to an enormous extent, there is a power of arranging or selecting reason and will-force of the intelligence which has for its action and aim an attempt to arrive at a plausible, sufficient, settled ordering of knowledge and will for the use of an intellectual conception of life. In spite of its more purely intellectual character this secondary or intermediate reason is really pragmatic in its intention It creates a certain kind of intellectual structure, frame, rule into which it tries to cast the inner and outer life so as to use it with a certain mastery and government for the purposes of some kind of rational will. It is this reason which gives to our normal intellectual being our set aesthetic and ethical standards, our structures of opinion and our established norms of idea and purpose. It is highly developed and takes the primacy in all men of an at all developed understanding. But beyond it there is a reason, a highest action of the buddhi which concerns itself disinterestedly with a pursuit of pure truth and right knowledge; it seeks to discover the real Truth behind life and things and our apparent selves and to subject its will to the law of Truth. Few, if any of us, can use this highest reason with any purity, but the attempt to do it is the topmost capacity of the inner instrument, the antahkarana.
   Ref: CWSA Vol. 23-24, Page: 651-52


buddhisaktih. (vishuddhata, prakasha, vichitrabodha, jnanadharanasamarthyam iti buddhishaktih) ::: purity, clarity, variety of understanding, capacity to hold all knowledge: these constitute the power of the thinking mind.

building ::: p. pr. & vb. n. --> of Build ::: n. --> The act of constructing, erecting, or establishing.
The art of constructing edifices, or the practice of civil architecture.
That which is built; a fabric or edifice constructed, as


bus "architecture, networking" A set of electrical conductors (wires, PCB tracks or connections in an {integrated circuit}) connecting various "stations", which can be {functional units} in a computer or {nodes} in a {network}. A bus is a {broadcast} channel, meaning that each station receives every other station's transmissions and all stations have equal access to the bus. Various schemes have been invented to solve the problem of collisions: multiple stations trying to transmit at once, e.g. {CSMA/CD}, {bus master}. The term is almost certainly derived from the electrical engineering term "bus bar" - a substantial, rigid power supply conductor to which several connections are made. This was once written "'bus bar" as it was a contraction of "omnibus bar" - a connection bar "for all", by analogy with the passenger omnibus - a conveyance "for all". {More on derivation (/pub/misc/omnibus.html)}. There are busses both within the {CPU} and connecting it to external {memory} and {peripheral} devices. The data bus, address bus and control signals, despite their names, really constitute a single bus since each is useless without the others. The width of the data bus is usually specified in {bits} and is the number of parallel connectors. This and the {clock rate} determine the bus's data rate (the number of {bytes} per second which it can carry). This is one of the factors limiting a computer's performance. Most current {microprocessors} have 32-bit busses both internally and externally. 100 or 133 {megahertz} bus clock rates are common. The bus clock is typically slower than the processor clock. Some processors have internal busses which are wider than their external busses (usually twice the width) since the width of the internal bus affects the speed of all operations and has less effect on the overall system cost than the width of the external bus. Various bus designs have been used in the {PC}, including {ISA}, {EISA}, {Micro Channel}, {VL-bus} and {PCI}. Other peripheral busses are NuBus, TURBOchannel, VMEbus, MULTIBUS and STD bus. See also {bus network}. {Ukranian (http://open-taxi.com/mynews/~adrian/10)}. (2010-07-10)

bus master "architecture" The device in a computer which is driving the {address bus} and bus control signals at some point in time. In a simple architecture only the (single) {CPU} can be bus master but this means that all communications between ("slave") I/O devices must involve the CPU. More sophisticated architectures allow other capable devices (or multiple CPUs) to take turns at controling the bus. This allows, for example, a {network controller} card to access a {disk controller} directly while the CPU performs other tasks which do not require the bus, e.g. fetching code from its {cache}. Note that any device can drive data onto the {data bus} when the CPU reads from that device, but only the bus master drives the {address bus} and control signals. {Direct Memory Access} is a simple form of bus mastering where the I/O device is set up by the CPU to read from or write to one or more contiguous blocks of memory and then signal to the CPU when it has done so. Full bus mastering (or "First Party DMA", "bus mastering DMA") implies that the I/O device is capable of performing more complex sequences of operations without CPU intervention (e.g. servicing a complete {NFS} request). This will normally mean that the I/O device contains its own processor or {microcontroller}. See also {distributed kernel}. (1996-08-26)

byte-code "file format, software" A {binary} file containing an {executable} program, consisting of a sequence of ({op code}, data) pairs. Byte-code op codes are most often fixed size {bit patterns}, but can be variable size. The data portion consists of zero or more {bits} whose format typically depends on the op code. A byte-code program is interpreted by a {byte-code interpreter}. The advantage of this technique compared with outputing {machine code} for some particular processor is that the same byte-code can be executed on any processor on which the byte-code interpreter runs. The byte-code may be compiled to machine code ("native code") for speed of execution but this usually requires significantly greater effort for each new taraget architecture than simply porting the interpreter. For example, {Java} is compiled to byte-code which runs on the {Java Virtual Machine}. (2006-05-29)

byte "unit" /bi:t/ (B) A component in the machine {data hierarchy} larger than a {bit} and usually smaller than a {word}; now nearly always eight bits and the smallest addressable unit of storage. A byte typically holds one {character}. A byte may be 9 bits on 36-bit computers. Some older architectures used "byte" for quantities of 6 or 7 bits, and the PDP-10 and IBM 7030 supported "bytes" that were actually {bit-fields} of 1 to 36 (or 64) bits! These usages are now obsolete, and even 9-bit bytes have become rare in the general trend toward power-of-2 word sizes. The term was coined by Werner Buchholz in 1956 during the early design phase for the {IBM} {Stretch} computer. It was a mutation of the word "bite" intended to avoid confusion with "bit". In 1962 he described it as "a group of bits used to encode a character, or the number of bits transmitted in parallel to and from input-output units". The move to an 8-bit byte happened in late 1956, and this size was later adopted and promulgated as a standard by the {System/360} {operating system} (announced April 1964). James S. Jones "jsjones@graceland.edu" adds: I am sure I read in a mid-1970's brochure by IBM that outlined the history of computers that BYTE was an acronym that stood for "Bit asYnchronous Transmission E..?" which related to width of the bus between the Stretch CPU and its CRT-memory (prior to Core). Terry Carr "bear@mich.com" says: In the early days IBM taught that a series of bits transferred together (like so many yoked oxen) formed a Binary Yoked Transfer Element (BYTE). [True origin? First 8-bit byte architecture?] See also {nibble}, {octet}. [{Jargon File}] (2003-09-21)

Byzantine "jargon, architecture" A term describing any system that has so many labyrinthine internal interconnections that it would be impossible to simplify by separation into loosely coupled or linked components. The city of Byzantium, later renamed Constantinople and then Istanbul, and the Byzantine Empire were vitiated by a bureaucratic overelaboration bordering on lunacy: quadruple banked agencies, dozens or even scores of superfluous levels and officials with high flown titles unrelated to their actual function, if any. Access to the Emperor and his council was controlled by powerful and inscrutable eunuchs and by rival sports factions. [Edward Gibbon, "Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire"]. (1999-01-15)

CA 1. "theory, architecture" {cellular automaton}. 2. "company" {Computer Associates}. 3. "cryptography" {Certificate Authority}.

Cache On A STick "architecture" (COAST) {Intel Corporation} attempt to's standardise the modular {L2 cache} subsystem in {Pentium}-based computers. A COAST module should be about 4.35" wide by 1.14" high. According to earlier specifications from {Motorola}, a module between 4.33" and 4.36" wide, and between 1.12" and 1.16" high is within the COAST standard. Some module vendors, including some major motherboard suppliers, greatly violate the height specification. Another COAST specification violated by many suppliers concerns clock distribution in synchronous modules. The specification requires that the clock tree to each synchronous chip be balanced, i.e. equal length from edge of the connector to individual chips. An unbalanced clock tree increases reflections and noise. For a 256 {kilobyte} cache module the standard requires the same clock be used for both chips but some vendors use separate clocks to reduce loading on the clock driver and hence increase the clock speed. However, this creates unbalanced loading in other motherboard configurations, such as motherboards with soldered caches in the system. (1996-06-10)

CAM 1. "storage, architecture" {content addressable memory}. 2. "application" {computer aided manufacturing}.

Carl Friedrich Gauss "person" A German mathematician (1777 - 1855), one of all time greatest. Gauss discovered the {method of least squares} and {Gaussian elimination}. Gauss was something of a child prodigy; the most commonly told story relates that when he was 10 his teacher, wanting a rest, told his class to add up all the numbers from 1 to 100. Gauss did it in seconds, having noticed that 1+...+100 = 100+...+1 = (101+...+101)/2. He did important work in almost every area of mathematics. Such eclecticism is probably impossible today, since further progress in most areas of mathematics requires much hard background study. Some idea of the range of his work can be obtained by noting the many mathematical terms with "Gauss" in their names. E.g. {Gaussian elimination} ({linear algebra}); {Gaussian primes} (number theory); {Gaussian distribution} (statistics); {Gauss} [unit] (electromagnetism); {Gaussian curvature} (differential geometry); {Gaussian quadrature} (numerical analysis); {Gauss-Bonnet formula} (differential geometry); {Gauss's identity} ({hypergeometric functions}); {Gauss sums} ({number theory}). His favourite area of mathematics was {number theory}. He conjectured the {Prime Number Theorem}, pioneered the {theory of quadratic forms}, proved the {quadratic reciprocity theorem}, and much more. He was "the first mathematician to use {complex numbers} in a really confident and scientific way" (Hardy & Wright, chapter 12). He nearly went into architecture rather than mathematics; what decided him on mathematics was his proof, at age 18, of the startling theorem that a regular N-sided polygon can be constructed with ruler and compasses if and only if N is a power of 2 times a product of distinct {Fermat primes}. (1995-04-10)

carver ::: n. --> One who carves; one who shapes or fashions by carving, or as by carving; esp. one who carves decorative forms, architectural adornments, etc.
One who carves or divides meat at table.
A large knife for carving.


cathedral ::: 1. A large and important church of imposing architectural beauty. 2. Of, relating to, or resembling a cathedral.

CATNIP {Common Architecture for Next Generation Internet Protocol}

cavetto ::: n. --> A concave molding; -- used chiefly in classical architecture. See Illust. of Column.

CDA 1. "file format" {Compound Document Architecture}. 2. "legal" {Communications Decency Act}.

cellular multiprocessing "architecture, parallel" (CMP) The partitioning of {processors} into separate computing environments running different {operating systems}. The term cellular multiprocessing appears to have been coined by {Unisys}, who are developing a system where computers communicate as clustered machines through a high speed {bus}, rather than through communication {protocols} such as {TCP/IP}. The Unisys system is based on {Intel} processors, initially the {Pentium II Xeon} and moving on to the 64-bit {Merced} processors later in 1999. It will be scalable from four up to 32 processors, which can be clustered or partitioned in various ways. For example a sixteen processor system could be configured as four {Windows NT} systems (each functioning as a four-processor {symmetric multiprocessing} system), or an 8-way NT and 8-way {Unix} system. Supported operating systems will be {Windows NT}, {SCO}'s {Unixware} 7.0, Unisys' {SVR4} {Unix} and possibly the OS2200 and MCP-AS {mainframe} operating systems (with the assistance of Unisys' own dedicated {chipset}). {(http://marketplace.unisys.com/ent/cmp.html)}. (1998-09-09)

Cellular Neural Network "architecture" (CNN) The CNN Universal Machine is a low cost, low power, extremely high speed {supercomputer} on a chip. It is at least 1000 times faster than equivalent {DSP} solutions of many complex {image processing} tasks. It is a stored program supercomputer where a complex sequence of image processing {algorithms} is programmed and downloaded into the chip, just like any digital computer. Because the entire computer is integrated into a chip, no signal leaves the chip until the image processing task is completed. Although the CNN universal chip is based on analogue and logic operating principles, it has an on-chip analog-to-digital input-output interface so that at the system design and application perspective, it can be used as a digital component, just like a DSP. In particular, a development system is available for rapid design and prototyping. Moreover, a {compiler}, an {operating system}, and a {user-friendly} CNN {high-level language}, like the {C} language, have been developed which makes it easy to implement any image processing algorithm. [Professor Leon Chua, University of California at Berkeley]. (1995-04-27)

celluloid ::: n. --> A substance composed essentially of gun cotton and camphor, and when pure resembling ivory in texture and color, but variously colored to imitate coral, tortoise shell, amber, malachite, etc. It is used in the manufacture of jewelry and many small articles, as combs, brushes, collars, and cuffs; -- originally called xylonite.

central processing unit "architecture, processor" (CPU, processor) The part of a computer which controls all the other parts. Designs vary widely but the CPU generally consists of the {control unit}, the {arithmetic and logic unit} (ALU), {registers}, temporary {buffers} and various other logic. The control unit fetches {instructions} from memory and decodes them to produce signals which control the other parts of the computer. These signals cause it to transfer data between memory and ALU or to activate {peripherals} to perform input or output. Various types of memory, including {cache}, {RAM} and {ROM}, are often considered to be part of the CPU, particularly in modern {microprocessors} where a single {integrated circuit} may contain one or more processors as well as any or all of the above types of memory. The CPU, and any of these components that are in separate chips, are usually all located on the same {printed circuit board}, known as the {motherboard}. This in turn is located in the {system unit} (sometimes incorrectly referred to as the "CPU"). A {parallel computer} has several CPUs which may share other resources such as memory and peripherals. The term "processor" has to some extent replaced "CPU", though RAM and ROM are not logically part of the processor. {List of processors (http://lldn.timesys.com/complete_list_of_processors)}. (2007-04-02)

Chalmers University of Technology "body, education" A Swedish university founded in 1829 offering master of science and doctoral degrees. Research is carried out in the main engineering sciences as well as in technology related mathematical and natural sciences. Five hundred faculty members work in more than 100 departments organised in nine schools. Chalmers collaborates with the University of Göteborg. Around 8500 people work and study on the Chalmers campus, including around 500 faculty members and some 600 teachers and doctoral students. About 4800 students follow the master degree programs. Every year 700 Masters of Science in Engineering and in Architecture graduate from Chalmers, and about 190 PhDs and licentiates are awarded. Some 40% of Sweden's engineers and architects are Chalmers graduates. About a thousand research projects are in progress and more than 1500 scientific articles and research reports are published every year. Chalmers is a partner in 80 EC research projects. {(http://chalmers.se/Home-E.html)}. Address: S-412 96 Göteborg, Sweden. (1995-02-16)

chevron ::: n. --> One of the nine honorable ordinaries, consisting of two broad bands of the width of the bar, issuing, respectively from the dexter and sinister bases of the field and conjoined at its center.
A distinguishing mark, above the elbow, on the sleeve of a non-commissioned officer&


chitchat ::: n. --> Familiar or trifling talk; prattle.

chitinization ::: n. --> The process of becoming chitinous.

chitin ::: n. --> A white amorphous horny substance forming the harder part of the outer integument of insects, crustacea, and various other invertebrates; entomolin.

chitinous ::: a. --> Having the nature of chitin; consisting of, or containing, chitin.

chit jada granthi. ::: the ego-knot between the Self, which is pure consciousness, and the physical body, which is inert and insentient; also refers to bondage, individual self, subtle-body, samsara and mind

chit ::: n. --> The embryo or the growing bud of a plant; a shoot; a sprout; as, the chits of Indian corn or of potatoes.
A child or babe; as, a forward chit; also, a young, small, or insignificant person or animal.
An excrescence on the body, as a wart.
A small tool used in cleaving laths. ::: v. i.


chiton ::: n. --> An under garment among the ancient Greeks, nearly representing the modern shirt.
One of a group of gastropod mollusks, with a shell composed of eight movable dorsal plates. See Polyplacophora.


chit. ::: pure unitary consciousness, which is the nature of the real Self; absolute consciousness; intelligent awareness

chitra, etc. ::: see citra, etc. chitra

chitrambalam :::. the expanse of consciousness

chit ::: see cit.

chit shakti. ::: power of consciousness or intelligence

chitta, etc. ::: see citta, etc. chitta

chitta&

chitta suddhi. ::: purity of mind; purification of the mind; purity of conscience

chitta vritti nirodha. ::: cessation of the modifications of the mind; control of thoughts

chitterling ::: n. --> The frill to the breast of a shirt, which when ironed out resembled the small entrails. See Chitterlings.

chitterlings ::: n. pl. --> The smaller intestines of swine, etc., fried for food.

chitter ::: v. i. --> To chirp in a tremulous manner, as a bird.
To shiver or chatter with cold.


chittra ::: n. --> The axis deer of India.

chitty ::: a. --> Full of chits or sprouts.
Childish; like a babe.


cit (Chit) ::: consciousness.

cit (chit) ::: consciousness; the infinite self-awareness that is "the elemental origin and primal completeness of all this varied consciousness which is here used for various formation and experience", the second term of saccidananda; "an inherent self-consciousness" in brahman,"inseparable from its being [sat] and throwing itself out as a force [tapas] of movement of consciousness which is creative of forces, forms and worlds"; the "universal conscious-stuff of existence", the "original Consciousness" which "modifies itself so as to become on the Truthplane the supermind, on the mental plane the mental reason, will, emotion, sensation, on the lower planes the vital or physical instincts, impulses, habits of an obscure force not in superficially conscious possession of itself".

citra (chitra) ::: picture; two-dimensional image (rūpa) or writing (lipi)"formed from the material provided by the background, by the mental eye acting through the material"; short for citra-dr.s.t.i.

citra-dr.s.t.i (chitra-drishti) ::: vision of citra rūpa and citra lipi. citra-drsti

Citragupta (Chitragupta) ::: [the name of an attendant of Yama who records the good and evil deeds of each man].

citra lipi (chitralipi; chitra-lipi; chitra lipi) ::: pictorial writing: twodimensional lipi seen on a background from which the mental eye draws its material.

Citraratha (Chitraratha) ::: [the name of the chief of the gandharvas].

citraratha (chitraratha) ::: another term for citra ratih., taken from a sortilege from Kadambari; Citraratha, king of the gandharvas, is in Kadambari the husband of Madira and father of Kadambari.

citra ratih. (chitra ratih) ::: various delight; a combination of different forms of ananda. citra rupa

citra tejas (chitra tejas) ::: pictorial rūpa composed of tejas.

cit-sakti (Chit Shakti) ::: consciousness-force, conscious force; the divine Energy; the Mother.

cit-sakti (chit-shakti; chitshakti) ::: consciousness-force, same as citcit-sakti tapas; "the Consciousness-Force of the eternal Existence" who "is the universal creatrix".

cit samudra (chit samudra) ::: ocean of consciousness.

citta (Chitta) ::: basic consciousness; mind-stuff, the general stuff of mental consciousness; passive memory; "heart and mind".

citta (chitta) ::: the "primary stuff of consciousness" which is "universal in Nature, but is subconscient and mechanical in nature of Matter"; the "pervading and possessing action of consciousness" in the living body which forms into the sense-mind (manas); it consists of a lower layer of passive memory in which "the impressions of all things seen, thought, sensed, felt are recorded", and a higher layer (also called manas-citta) of the emotional mind where "waves of reaction and response . . . rise up from the basic consciousness"; also short for cittakasa.

cittakasa (chittakasha; chittakash) ::: the ether (akasa) of the citta cittakasa or basic mental consciousness, a mental akasa defined as the "ether of the pranic manas", whose contents are experienced especially in antardarsi jagrat and svapnasamadhi.

cittakasa (jagrat chittakasha) ::: the waking cittakasa; a mental ether in which images are seen in jagrat samadhi. jjagrat agrat rupa

cit tapas (Chit Tapas) ::: consciousness-force, pure energy of Consciousness; the infinite divine selfawareness which is also the infinite all-effective Will.

cit-tapas (chit-tapas; chittapas; chit tapas) ::: consciousness-force; knowledge-power; the unity of cit and tapas; "the infinite divine selfawareness which is also the infinite all-effective Will", represented by cit in the description of the nature of divine being as sat-cit-ananda or saccidananda; the "divine Conscious-Force" which "is omnipresent ... in the material cosmos, but veiled, operative secretly behind the actual phenomenon of things, and it expresses itself there characteristically through its own subordinate term, Life" (pran.a).

cittasakti (Chittashakti) ::: [the full power (and perfection) of the citta]. ::: cittasaktih [nominative]

cittasakti (chittashakti) ::: the power, capacity and right state of activcittasakti ity of the emotional being, one of the four kinds of sakti forming the second member of the sakti catus.t.aya.

cittasaktih. (snigdhata, tejahslagha, kalyanasraddha, premasamarthyam, iti chittashaktih) ::: richness of feeling, assertion of psychic force, faith in the universal good, capacity for unbounded love: these constitute the power of the emotional being.

cittasuddhi (Chittashuddhi) ::: purification of the citta.

cittasuddhi (chittashuddhi; chittasuddhi) ::: purification of the emocittasuddhi tional being.

cittasya (chittasya) ::: of the emotional being.

cit-tattva (chit-tattwa) ::: the principle of consciousness (cit).

Clean "language" A {lazy} {higher-order} {purely functional language} from the {University of Nijmegen}. Clean was originally a subset of {Lean}, designed to be an experimental {intermediate language} and used to study the {graph rewriting} model. To help focus on the essential implementation issues it deliberately lacked all {syntactic sugar}, even {infix} expressions or {complex lists}, As it was used more and more to construct all kinds of applications it was eventually turned into a general purpose functional programming language, first released in May 1995. The new language is {strongly typed} (Milner/Mycroft type system), provides {modules} and {functional I/O} (including a {WIMP} interface), and supports {parallel processing} and {distributed processing} on {loosely coupled} parallel architectures. Parallel execution was originally based on the {PABC} {abstract machine}. It is one of the fastest implementations of functional languages available, partly aided by programmer {annotations} to influence evaluation order. Although the two variants of Clean are rather different, the name Clean can be used to denote either of them. To distinguish, the old version can be referred to as Clean 0.8, and the new as Clean 1.0 or Concurrent Clean. The current release of Clean (1.0) includes a compiler, producing code for the {ABC} {abstract machine}, a {code generator}, compiling the ABC code into either {object-code} or {assembly language} (depending on the {platform}), I/O libraries, a {development environment} (not all platforms), and {documentation}. It is supported (or will soon be supported) under {Mac OS}, {Linux}, {OS/2}, {Windows 95}, {SunOS}, and {Solaris}. {(http://cs.kun.nl/~clean/)}. E-mail: "clean@cs.kun.nl". Mailing list: "clean-request@cs.kun.nl". ["Clean - A Language for Functional Graph Rewriting", T. Brus et al, IR 95, U Nijmegen, Feb 1987]. ["Concurrent Clean", M.C. van Eekelen et al, TR 89-18, U Nijmegen, Netherlands, 1989]. [{Jargon File}] (1995-11-08)

client "programming" A computer system or process that requests a service of another computer system or process (a "{server}") using some kind of {protocol} and accepts the server's responses. A client is part of a {client-server} software architecture. For example, a {workstation} requesting the contents of a file from a {file server} is a client of the file server. (1997-10-27)

Client-Server Analyst Programmer "job" A person who analyses and designs {application programs} for a {client-server architecture}. Typical skills include {ODBC}, {Windows 95}, {Windows NT}, {Macintosh}, {Novell}, {OS/2}, {Unix}, and {RPC}. (2004-03-09)

cloud computing "architecture" A loosely defined term for any system providing access via the {Internet} to processing power, storage, software or other computing services, often via a {web browser}. Typically these services will be rented from an external company that hosts and manages them. (2009-04-21)

cluster 1. "architecture" Multiple {servers} providing the same service. The term may imply {resilience} to failure and/or some kind of {load balancing} between the servers. Compare {RAIS}. 2. "file system" An elementary unit of allocation of a {disk} made up of one or more physical {blocks}. A {file} is made up of a whole number of possibly non-contiguous clusters. The cluster size is a tradeoff between space efficiency (the bigger is the cluster, the bigger is on the average the wasted space at the end of each file) and the length of the {FAT}. (1996-11-04)

CMA {Concert Multithread Architecture} from {DEC}.

CNN "architecture" {Cellular Neural Network}.

cognitive architecture "architecture" A computer architecure involving {non-deterministic}, multiple {inference} processes, as found in {neural networks}. Cognitive architectures model the human brain and contrast with single processor computers. The term might also refer to software architectures, e.g. {fuzzy logic}. [Origin? Better definition? Reference?] (1995-11-29)

column ::: n. --> A kind of pillar; a cylindrical or polygonal support for a roof, ceiling, statue, etc., somewhat ornamented, and usually composed of base, shaft, and capital. See Order.
Anything resembling, in form or position, a column in architecture; an upright body or mass; a shaft or obelisk; as, a column of air, of water, of mercury, etc.; the Column Vendome; the spinal column.
A body of troops formed in ranks, one behind the other; --


Common Architecture for Next Generation Internet Protocol "networking" (CATNIP, originally Common Architecture Technology for Next-generation Internet Protocol) A network architecture designed to provide a compressed form of the existing {network layer} {protocols} and to integrate {CLNP}, {IP}, and {IPX}. It provides for any of the {transport layer} {protocols} in use, including {TP4}, {CLTP}, {TCP}, {UDP}, {IPX}, and {SPX}, to run over any of the network layer protocol formats: CLNP, IP (version 4), IPX and CATNIP. CATNIP was originally proposed by Robert L. Ullmann of {Lotus Development Corporation} on 1993-12-22. It was published as {RFC 1707} in October 1994 but it is not an {Internet} standard of any kind. (1996-03-23)

Common Object Request Broker Architecture "standard, programming" (CORBA) An {Object Management Group} specification which provides a standard messaging interface between distributed {objects}. The original CORBA specification (1.1) has been revised through version 2 (CORBA 2) with the latest specification being version 3 (CORBA 3). In its most basic form CORBA consists of the {Interface Definition Language} (IDL) and the Dynamic Invocation Interface (DII). The IDL definition is complied into a Stub (client) and Skeleton (server) component that communicate through an {Object Request Broker} (ORB). When an ORB determines that a request is to a remote object, it may execute the request by communicating with the remote ORB. The Corba IDL can be mapped to a number of languages including {C}, {C++}, {Java}, {COBOL}, {Smalltalk}, {Ada}, {Lisp}, {Python}, and {IDLscript}. CORBA ORBs are widely available for a number of platforms. The OMG standard for inter-ORB communication is {IIOP}, this ensures that all CORBA 2 compliant ORBS are able to interoperate. See also {COSS}, {Component Object Model}, {RMI}. {OMG CORBA specs (http://www.omg.org/technology/documents/corba_spec_catalog.htm)}. (2007-09-04)

Complex Instruction Set Computer (CISC) A processor where each instruction can perform several low-level operations such as memory access, arithmetic operations or address calculations. The term was coined in contrast to {Reduced Instruction Set Computer}. Before the first RISC processors were designed, many computer architects were trying to bridge the "{semantic gap}" - to design {instruction sets} to support {high-level languages} by providing "high-level" instructions such as procedure call and return, loop instructions such as "decrement and branch if non-zero" and complex {addressing modes} to allow data structure and {array} accesses to be compiled into single instructions. While these architectures achieved their aim of allowing high-level language constructs to be expressed in fewer instructions, it was observed that they did not always result in improved performance. For example, on one processor it was discovered that it was possible to improve the performance by NOT using the procedure call instruction but using a sequence of simpler instructions instead. Furthermore, the more complex the instruction set, the greater the overhead of decoding an instruction, both in execution time and silicon area. This is particularly true for processors which used {microcode} to decode the (macro) instruction. It is easier to debug a complex instruction set implemented in microcode than one whose decoding is "{hard-wired}" in silicon. Examples of CISC processors are the {Motorola} {680x0} family and the {Intel 80186} through {Intel 486} and {Pentium}. (1994-10-10)

component architecture "programming" A notion in {object-oriented} programming where "components" of a program are completely generic. Instead of having a specialised set of {methods} and {fields} they have generic methods through which the component can advertise the functionality it supports to the system into which it is loaded. This enables completely {dynamic loading} of {objects}. {JavaBeans} is an example of a component architecture. See also {design pattern}. (1997-11-20)

Component Object Model "programming" (COM) An open software architecture from {DEC} and {Microsoft}, allowing interoperation between {ObjectBroker} and {OLE}. Microsoft evolved COM into {DCOM}. On page XV of Box's book in the foreword by Charlie Kindel he says, "It is Mark Ryland's fault that some people call COM the 'Common Object Model.' He deeply regrets it and apologizes profusely." ["Essential COM", Don Box]. [Details? URL?] (1999-06-12)

component "programming" An {object} adhering to a {component architecture}. (1997-11-20)

Compound Document Architecture "file format" (CDA) {DEC}'s set of {standards} for compound document creation, storage, retrieval, interchange and manipulation. (1996-11-03)

conchite ::: n. --> A fossil or petrified conch or shell.

conchitic ::: a. --> Composed of shells; containing many shells.

::: "Consciousness is not only power of awareness of self and things, it is or has also a dynamic and creative energy. It can determine its own reactions or abstain from reactions; it can not only answer to forces, but create or put out from itself forces. Consciousness is Chit but also Chit Shakti.” Letters on Yoga

“Consciousness is not only power of awareness of self and things, it is or has also a dynamic and creative energy. It can determine its own reactions or abstain from reactions; it can not only answer to forces, but create or put out from itself forces. Consciousness is Chit but also Chit Shakti.” Letters on Yoga

Consul "language" A {constraint}-based {declarative language} based on {axiomatic set theory} and designed for {parallel} execution on {MIMD} architectures. Consul's fundamental {data type} is the {set} and its fundamental {operators} are the {logical connectives} ("and", "or", "not") and {quantifiers} ("forall", "exists"). It is written in {Lisp}-like {syntax}, e.g., (plus x y z) which means the relation x = y+z (not an {assignment statement}). {["Design of the CONSUL Programming Language", D. Baldwin, C. A. Quiroz Gonzalez, University of Rochester. Computer Science Department, TR208, 1987 Feb (http://hdl.handle.net/1802/6372)]} {["Consul: A Parallel Constraint Language", D. Baldwin, IEEE Software 6(4):62-71, 1989 July (http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/52.31653)]} (2014-10-04)

control bus "architecture" In a {digital computer}, the signal paths that carry commands from the {instruction decode} logic to various {functional units} such as the {ALU}, {memory address register}, {memory data register} and other {buffers}. Named by analogy with the {address bus} and {data bus}, each of which carries a set of related signals, the signals carried by the control bus are more varied and independent. (2018-01-29)

control structure "programming" One of the {instructions}, {statements} or groups of statements in a programming language that determines the sequence of execution of other instructions or statements (the {control flow}). In {assembly language} this typically consists of {jumps} and {conditional jumps} along with {function} call and {return}, though some architectures include other constructs such as an instruction which skips the following instruction depending on some condition ({PDP}?), various kinds of {loop} instructions (later {Motorola 680x0}) or conditional execution of all instructions (Advanced RISC Machine). Basic control structures (whatever their names in particular languages) include "if CONDITION then EXPRESSION else EXPRESSION", the {switch statement}, "while CONDITION do EXPRESSION", function call, the suspect "{goto}" and the much-feared "{come from}". Other constructs handle errors and {exceptions} such as {traps} and {interrupts}. (1997-09-14)

control unit 1. "processor" The part of a {CPU} that sends control signals to other components to cause them to execute the {machine cycle} - fetch, decode, execute, store. 2. "architecture" Any device that controls the I/O operations of one or more {peripheral} devices, e.g. a {disk controller}. (2008-05-21)

CORBA {Common Object Request Broker Architecture}

corbel ::: n. --> A bracket supporting a superincumbent object, or receiving the spring of an arch. Corbels were employed largely in Gothic architecture. ::: v. t. --> To furnish with a corbel or corbels; to support by a corbel; to make in the form of a corbel.

Core Protocol Stack "architecture" 1. A portion of the {Web Services} {architecture} for defining and describing various {Web Services}. 2. The architectural {protocol} layers of a {Bluetooth} {wireless} {communication} system, comprising the {Host Control Interface} (HCI), {Logical Link Control and Adaptation Protocol} (L2CAP), {RS232 Serial Cable Emulation Profile} (RFCOMM), {Service Discovery Protocol} (SDP), and {Object Exchange} (OBEX). (2002-06-28)

corinthian ::: a. --> Of or relating to Corinth.
Of or pertaining to the Corinthian order of architecture, invented by the Greeks, but more commonly used by the Romans.
Debauched in character or practice; impure.
Of or pertaining to an amateur sailor or yachtsman; as, a corinthian race (one in which the contesting yachts must be manned by amateurs.)


Cray Research, Inc. "company" US manufacturer of large powerful {mainframe} {supercomputers}, co-founded by noted computer architect, {Seymour Cray}. Quarterly sales $216M, profits $8M (Aug 1994). Cray were bought by {Silicon Graphics, Inc.}. [More details?] (1999-10-19)

crossette ::: n. --> A return in one of the corners of the architrave of a door or window; -- called also ancon, ear, elbow.
The shoulder of a joggled keystone.


crystallite ::: n. --> A minute mineral form like those common in glassy volcanic rocks and some slags, not having a definite crystalline outline and not referable to any mineral species, but marking the first step in the crystallization process. According to their form crystallites are called trichites, belonites, globulites, etc.

cycle of reincarnation A term coined by {Ivan Sutherland} ca. 1970 to refer to a well-known effect whereby function in a computing system family is migrated out to special-purpose {peripheral} hardware for speed, then the peripheral evolves toward more computing power as it does its job, then somebody notices that it is inefficient to support two asymmetrical processors in the architecture and folds the function back into the main {CPU}, at which point the cycle begins again. Several iterations of this cycle have been observed in {graphics-processor} ({blitter}) design, and at least one or two in communications and {floating-point} processors. Also known as "the Wheel of Life", "the Wheel of Samsara" and other variations of the basic Hindu/Buddhist theological idea. [{Jargon File}] (1994-11-16)

Cyrix 6x86 "processor" (6x86) {IBM} and {Cyrix}'s {sixth-generation}, 64-bit {80x86}-compatible {microprocessor}. The 6x86 combines aspects of both {RISC} and {CISC}. It has a {superscalar}, {superpipelined} {core}, and performs {register renaming}, {speculative execution}, {out-of-order completion}, and {data dependency removal}. It has a 16-kilobyte {primary cache} and is socket-compatible with the {Pentium} P54C. It has four performance levels: PR 120+, PR 150+, PR 166+ and PR 200+. The chip was designed by Cyrix and is manufactured by IBM. The architecture of the 6x86 is more advanced than that of the Pentium, incorporating some of the features of Intel's {Pentium Pro}. At a given {clock rate} it executes most code more quickly than a Pentium would. However, its {FPU} is considerably less efficient than Intel's. {IBM FAQ (http://chips.ibm.com/products/x86/6x86/faqs/6x86_faqs.html)}, {Cyrix FAQ (http://cyrix.com/process/prodinfo/6x86/faq-6x86.htm)}. (1997-05-26)

DAA Distributed Application Architecture: under design by Hewlett-Packard and Sun. A distributed object management environment that will allow applications to be developed independent of operating system, network or windowing system.

DAG 1. "architecture" {Data Address Generator}. 2. "mathematics" {directed acyclic graph}. (1997-08-30)

Data Address Generator "architecture" (DAG) The mechanism which generates temporary memory addresses for data that is transferred between memory and {registers} in a {Digital Signal Processor}. Certain {DSP} architectures incorporate more than one DAG to simplify the programming needed to move blocks of data between buffers. For instance, certain {Fast Fourier Transform} {algorithms} requiring {bit reversing}, can use the DAG for that purpose, or they can use two DAGS, one for Program Memory Data (PMD), and the other for Data Memory Data (DMD). (1997-08-12)

database 1. "database" One or more large structured sets of persistent data, usually associated with software to update and {query} the data. A simple database might be a single file containing many {records}, each of which contains the same set of {fields} where each field is a certain fixed width. A database is one component of a {database management system}. See also {ANSI/SPARC Architecture}, {atomic}, {blob}, {data definition language}, {deductive database}, {distributed database}, {fourth generation language}, {functional database}, {object-oriented database}, {relational database}. {Carol E. Brown's tutorial (http://accounting.rutgers.edu/raw/aies/www.bus.orst.edu/faculty/brownc/lectures/db_tutor/db_tutor.htm)}. 2. "hypertext" A collection of {nodes} managed and stored in one place and all accessible via the same {server}. {Links} outside this are "external", and those inside are "internal". On the {World-Wide Web} this is called a {website}. 3. All the facts and rules comprising a {logic programming} program. (2005-11-17)

data bus "architecture" The bus (connections between and within the {CPU}, memory, and peripherals) used to carry {data}. Other connections are the {address bus} and control signals. The width and {clock rate} of the data bus determine its data rate (the number of {bytes} per second it can carry), which is one of the main factors determining the processing power of a computer. Most current processor designs use a 32-bit bus, meaning that 32 bits of data can be transferred at once. Some processors have an internal data bus which is wider than their external bus in order to make external connections cheaper while retaining some of the benefits in processing power of a wider bus. See also {data path}. (1995-01-16)

data driven A data driven architecture/language performs computations in an order dictated by data dependencies. Two kinds of data driven computation are {dataflow} and {demand driven}. From about 1970 research in parallel {data driven} computation increased. Centres of excellence emerged at {MIT}, {CERT-ONERA} in France, {NTT} and {ETL} in Japan and {Manchester University}.

Data Driven Machine "language" (DDM) A {dataflow} language. ["The Architecture and System Method of DDM-1: A Recursively Structured Data Driven Machine", A. Davis, Proc 5th Ann Symp Comp Arch, IEEE 1978]. (1999-04-26)

data feed "data, architecture" Some process for transferring {data} from one system to another in a predetermined form. (2009-05-17)

data flow "architecture" A data flow architecture or language performs a computation when all the {operands} are available. Data flow is one kind of {data driven} architecture, the other is {demand driven}. It is a technique for specifying {fine-grain concurrency}, usually in the form of two-dimensional graphs in which instructions that are available for concurrent execution are written alongside each other while those that must be executed in sequence are written one under the other. Data dependencies between instructions are indicated by directed arcs. Instructions do not reference memory since the data dependence arcs allow data to be transmitted directly from the producing instruction to the consuming one. Data flow schemes differ chiefly in the way that they handle {re-entrant} code. Static schemes disallow it, dynamic schemes use either "code copying" or "tagging" at every point of reentry. An example of a data flow architecture is {MIT}'s {VAL} machine.

Data Link Switching "networking" (DLSw) A standard for transporting {IBM} {Systems Network Architecture} (SNA) and {network basic input/output system} (NetBIOS) traffic over an {Internet protocol} network. Initially, in 1992, DLSw was proprietary to IBM. It was submitted to the {IETF} as {RFC 1434} in 1993, later updated by {RFC 1795}. {(http://www.cisco.com/univercd/cc/td/doc/cisintwk/ito_doc/dlsw.htm)}. (2008-01-11)

data path "architecture" A {CPU}'s internal {data bus} and {functional units}. The width of the data path in bits is a major determiner of the processor's performance. (1997-07-09)

DCA 1. Defense Communications Agency. See {DISA}. 2. {Document Content Architecture} from {IBM}.

death code A routine whose job is to set everything in the computer - {registers}, memory, flags - to zero, including that portion of memory where it is running; its last act is to stomp on its own "store zero" instruction. Death code isn't very useful, but writing it is an interesting hacking challenge on architectures where the instruction set makes it possible, such as the {PDP-8} or the {Data General} {Nova}. Perhaps the ultimate death code is on the {TI 990} series, where all {registers} are actually in {RAM}, and the instruction "store immediate 0" has the {opcode} 0. The {program counter} will immediately wrap around core as many times as it can until a user hits HALT. Any empty memory location is death code. Worse, the manufacturer recommended use of this instruction in startup code (which would be in {ROM} and therefore survive). [{Jargon File}]

delayed control-transfer "architecture" A technique used on the {SPARC} processor to reduce the effect of {pipeline breaks} by executing the instruction after a branch instruction (the "delay instruction" in the "delay slot"). If there is no useful instruction which can be placed in the delay slot then the "annul bit" on the control transfer instruction can be set, preventing execution of the delay instruction (unless the control transfer is conditional and is taken). Annulled branches are indicated in SPARC assembler language by appending ",A" to the {operation code}. For example, LOOP: ... CMP  %L0,10 BLE,A LOOP ADD   %L2, %L3,

Delta-4 Definition and Design of an open Dependable Distributed system architecture. An Esprit project investigating the achievement of dependability in open distributed systems, including real-time systems.

demand driven A demand driven architecture/language performs computations when the result is required by some other computation. E.g. {Imperial College}'s {ALICE} running {HOPE}. See also {data flow}, {lazy evaluation}, {reduction}. (1995-02-16)

devilfish ::: n. --> A huge ray (Manta birostris / Cephaloptera vampyrus) of the Gulf of Mexico and Southern Atlantic coasts. Several other related species take the same name. See Cephaloptera.
A large cephalopod, especially the very large species of Octopus and Architeuthis. See Octopus.
The gray whale of the Pacific coast. See Gray whale.
The goosefish or angler (Lophius), and other allied fishes. See Angler.


dink /dink/ Said of a machine that has the {bitty box} nature; a machine too small to be worth bothering with - sometimes the system you're currently forced to work on. First heard from an {MIT} hacker working on a {CP/M} system with 64K, in reference to any {6502} system, then from fans of 32 bit architectures about 16-bit machines. "GNUMACS will never work on that dink machine." Probably derived from mainstream "dinky", which isn't sufficiently pejorative. See {macdink}. [{Jargon File}] (1994-10-31)

direct mapped cache "architecture" A {cache} where the cache location for a given address is determined from the middle address bits. If the {cache line} size is 2^n then the bottom n address bits correspond to an offset within a cache entry. If the cache can hold 2^m entries then the next m address bits give the cache location. The remaining top address bits are stored as a "tag" along with the entry. In this scheme, there is no choice of which block to flush on a cache miss since there is only one place for any block to go. This simple scheme has the disadvantage that if the program alternately accesses different addresses which map to the same cache location then it will suffer a cache miss on every access to these locations. This kind of {cache conflict} is quite likely on a multi-processor. See also {fully associative cache}, {set associative cache}.

Direct Memory Access "architecture" (DMA) A facility of some architectures which allows a peripheral to read and write memory without intervention by the CPU. DMA is a limited form of {bus master}ing. (1996-08-23)

Disiple "language, DSP" A {DSP} language. ["A Compiler that Easily Retargets High Level Language Programs for Different Signal Processing Architectures", J.E. Peters & S.M. Dunn, Proc ICASSP 89, pp. 1103-1106, May 1989]. (2000-11-16)

Distributed Computing Environment (DCE) An architecture consisting of {standard} programming interfaces, conventions and {server} functionalities (e.g. naming, distributed file system, {remote procedure call}) for distributing applications transparently across networks of {heterogeneous} computers. DCE is promoted and controlled by the {Open Software Foundation} (OSF). {Usenet} newsgroup: {news:comp.soft-sys.dce}. {(http://dstc.edu.au/AU/research_news/dce/dce.html)}. (1994-12-07)

Distributed Data Management "protocol, database" (DDM) An {IBM} {data} {protocol} architecture for data management services across {distributed} systems in an {SNA} environment. DDM provides a common {data management language} for data interchange among different IBM system platforms. Products supporting DDM include {AS/400}, {System/36}, {System/38} and {CICS/DDM}. On the AS/400, DDM controls remote file processing. DDM enables application programs running on one AS/400 system to access data files stored on another system supporting DDM. Similarly, other systems that have DDM can access files in the database of the local AS/400 system. DDM makes it easier to distribute file processing between two or more systems. {OS/400 Distributed Data Management V3R6 Reference (http://as400bks.rochester.ibm.com/cgi-bin/bookmgr/bookmgr.cmd/BOOKS/QBJALH00/CCONTENTS)}. (1999-04-26)

distributed memory "architecture" The kind of memory in a {parallel processor} where each processor has fast access to its own local memory and where to access another processor's memory it must send a message via the inter-processor network. Opposite: {shared memory}. (1995-03-22)

distributed system A collection of (probably heterogeneous) automata whose distribution is transparent to the user so that the system appears as one local machine. This is in contrast to a network, where the user is aware that there are several machines, and their location, storage replication, load balancing and functionality is not transparent. Distributed systems usually use some kind of {client-server} organisation. Distributed systems are considered by some to be the "next wave" of computing. {Distributed Computing Environment} is the {Open Software Foundation}'s software architecture for distributed systems. {(http://dstc.edu.au/AU/research_news/dist-env.html)}. (1994-12-06)

DNA computing "architecture" The use of DNA molecules to encode computational problems. Standard operations of molecular biology can then be used to solve some {NP-hard} {search problems} in parallel using a very large number of molecules. The exponential scaling of NP-hard problems still remains, so this method will require a huge amount of DNA to solve large problems. [L. M. Adleman, "Molecular Computation of Solutions to Combinatorial Problems", Science 266:1021-1024, 1994]. (1997-02-11)

dogtooth ::: n. --> See Canine tooth, under Canine.
An ornament common in Gothic architecture, consisting of pointed projections resembling teeth; -- also called tooth ornament.


Domain Analysis "systems analysis" 1. Determining the operations, data objects, properties and {abstractions} appropriate for designing solutions to problems in a given {domain}. 2. The {domain engineering} activity in which domain knowledge is studied and formalised as a domain definition and a domain specification. A {software reuse} approach that involves combining software components, subsystems, etc., into a single application system. 3. The process of identifying, collecting organising, analysing and representing a {domain model} and software architecture from the study of existing systems, underlying theory, emerging technology and development histories within the domain of interest. 4. The analysis of systems within a domain to discover commonalities and differences among them. (1997-12-26)

Domain Architecture Model "systems analysis" A set of software architectures generic to a {domain} that define organising frameworks for constructing new application designs and implementations within the domain, consistent with the domain requirements model. (1997-12-26)

domain architecture "systems analysis" A generic, organisational structure or design for software systems in a {domain}. The domain architecture contains the designs that are intended to satisfy requirements specified in the {domain model}. A domain architecture can be adapted to create designs for software systems within a domain and also provides a framework for configuring {assets} within individual software systems. (1997-12-26)

domain engineering "systems analysis" 1. The development and evolution of {domain} specific knowledge and artifacts to support the development and evolution of systems in the domain. Domain engineering includes engineering of {domain models}, components, methods and tools and may also include {asset management}. 2. The engineering process of analysing and modelling a domain, designing and modelling a generic solution architecture for a product line within that domain, implementing and using reusable components of that architecture and maintaining and evolving the domain, architecture and implementation models. 3. A reuse-based approach to defining the scope ({domain definition}), specifying the structure ({domain architecture}) and building the Assets (requirements, designs, software code, documentation) for a class of systems, subsystems or applications. Domain engineering can include domain definition, domain analysis, developing the domain architecture domain implementation.

domain-specific language "language" A machine-processable language whose terms are derived from a {domain model} and that is used for the definition of components or software architectures supporting that domain. A domain-specific language is often used as input to an application generator. (1997-12-26)

doric ::: a. --> Pertaining to Doris, in ancient Greece, or to the Dorians; as, the Doric dialect.
Belonging to, or resembling, the oldest and simplest of the three orders of architecture used by the Greeks, but ranked as second of the five orders adopted by the Romans. See Abacus, Capital, Order.
Of or relating to one of the ancient Greek musical modes or keys. Its character was adapted both to religions occasions and to war.


Drawing: Essential element of painting, sculpture and architecture. The Florentine Renaissance and all classical epochs in general considered drawing the basis of the aforesaid arts which were called the arts of drawing. -- L.V.

Dynamic Address Translation "architecture" (DAT) Conversion of a {virtual address} into a {physical address}, as performed by a {memory management unit} and an {operating system} which supports {virtual memory}. (1995-01-30)

dynamic translation "architecture" A {virtual machine} implementation approach, used to speed up execution of {byte-code} programs. To execute a program unit such as a {method} or a {function}, the virtual machine compiles its bytecodes into (hardware) machine code. The translated code is also placed in a cache, so that next time that unit's machine code can be executed immediately, without repeating the translation. This technique was pioneered by the commercial {Smalltalk} implementation currently known as {VisualWorks}, in the early 1980s. Currently it is also used by some implementations of the {Java Virtual Machine} under the name {JIT} (Just In Time compilation). [Peter L. Deutsch and Alan Schiffman. "Efficient Implementation of the Smalltalk-80 System", 11th Annual Symposium on Principles of Programming Languages, Jan 1984, pp. 297-302]. (2002-04-15)

eager evaluation Any {evaluation strategy} where evaluation of some or all function arguments is started before their value is required. A typical example is {call-by-value}, where all arguments are passed evaluated. The opposite of eager evaluation is {call-by-need} where evaluation of an argument is only started when it is required. The term "{speculative evaluation}" is very close in meaning to eager evaluation but is applied mostly to parallel architectures whereas eager evaluation is used of both sequential and parallel evaluators. Eager evaluation does not specify exactly when argument evaluation takes place - it might be done fully speculatively (all {redex}es in the program reduced in parallel) or may be done by the caller just before the function is entered. The term "eager evaluation" was invented by Carl Hewitt and Henry Baker "hbaker@netcom.com" and used in their paper ["The Incremental Garbage Collection of Processes", Sigplan Notices, Aug 1977. {(ftp://ftp.netcom.com/pub/hb/hbaker/Futures.html)}]. It was named after their "eager beaver" evaluator. See also {conservative evaluation}, {lenient evaluation}, {strict evaluation}. (1994-12-22)

edifice ::: n. --> A building; a structure; an architectural fabric; -- chiefly applied to elegant houses, and other large buildings; as, a palace, a church, a statehouse.

EISA {Extended Industry-Standard Architecture}

elegancy ::: n. --> The state or quality of being elegant; beauty as resulting from choice qualities and the complete absence of what deforms or impresses unpleasantly; grace given by art or practice; fine polish; refinement; -- said of manners, language, style, form, architecture, etc.
That which is elegant; that which is tasteful and highly attractive.


elizabethan ::: a. --> Pertaining to Queen Elizabeth or her times, esp. to the architecture or literature of her reign; as, the Elizabethan writers, drama, literature. ::: n. --> One who lived in England in the time of Queen Elizabeth.

elytrin ::: n. --> See Chitin.

emulation "architecture" When one system performs in exactly the same way as another, though perhaps not at the same speed. A typical example would be emulation of one computer by (a program running on) another. You might use an emulation as a replacement for a system whereas you would use a simulation if you just wanted to analyse it and make predictions about it. (2003-05-22)

endian "data, architecture" Suffix used in the terms {big-endian} and {little-endian} that describe the ordering of {bytes} in a multi-byte number. The term comes from Swift's "Gulliver's Travels" via the famous paper "On Holy Wars and a Plea for Peace" by Danny Cohen, USC/ISI IEN 137, 1980-04-01. The Lilliputians, being very small, had correspondingly small political problems. The Big-Endian and Little-Endian parties debated over whether soft-boiled eggs should be opened at the big end or the little end. See also {middle-endian}, {holy wars}, {NUXI problem}, {swab}. (2007-08-14)

endophragma ::: n. --> A chitinous structure above the nervous cord in the thorax of certain Crustacea.

Enterprise JavaBeans "specification, business, programming" (EJB) A {server}-side {component architecture} for writing reusable {business logic} and {portable} {enterprise} applications. EJB is the basis of {Sun}'s {Java 2 Platform, Enterprise Edition} (J2EE). Enterprise JavaBean components are written entirely in {Java} and run on any EJB compliant server. They are {operating system}, {platform}, and {middleware} independent, preventing vendor {lock-in}. EJB servers provide system-level services (the "plumbing") such as {transactions}, security, {threading}, and {persistence}. The EJB architecture is inherently transactional, {distributed}, {multi-tier}, {scalable}, secure, and {wire protocol} neutral - any {protocol} can be used: {IIOP}, {JRMP}, {HTTP}, {DCOM} etc. EJB 1.1 requires {RMI} for communication with components. EJB 2.0 is expected to require support for RMI/IIOP. EJB applications can serve assorted clients: {browsers}, Java, {ActiveX}, {CORBA} etc. EJB can be used to wrap {legacy systems}. EJB 1.1 was released in December 1999. EJB 2.0 is in development. Sun claims broad industry adoption. 30 vendors are shipping server products implementing EJB. Supporting vendors include {IBM}, {Fujitsu}, {Sybase}, {Borland}, {Oracle}, and {Symantec}. An alternative is Microsoft's MTS ({Microsoft Transaction Server}). {(http://java.sun.com/products/ejb/)}. {FAQ (http://java.sun.com/products/ejb/faq.html)}. (2000-04-20)

Enterprise Resource Planning "application, business" (ERP) Any {software} system designed to support and automate the business processes of medium and large businesses. This may include manufacturing, distribution, personnel, project management, payroll, and financials. ERP systems are accounting-oriented information systems for identifying and planning the {enterprise}-wide resources needed to take, make, distribute, and account for customer orders. ERP systems were originally extensions of {MRP II} systems, but have since widened their scope. An ERP system also differs from the typical MRP II system in technical requirements such as {relational database}, use of {object oriented programming} language, {computer aided software engineering} tools in development, {client/server} {architecture}, and {open system} {portability}. {JBOPS} are the major producers of ERP software. {"ERP Systems - Using IT to gain a competitive advantage", Shankarnarayanan S. (http://expressindia.com/newads/bsl/advant.htm)}. (1999-07-27)

entomolin ::: n. --> See Chitin.

entrochal ::: a. --> Pertaining to, or consisting of, entrochites, or the joints of encrinites; -- used of a kind of stone or marble.

entrochite ::: n. --> A fossil joint of a crinoid stem.

epistyle ::: n. --> A massive piece of stone or wood laid immediately on the abacus of the capital of a column or pillar; -- now called architrave.

EPOC "operating system" A family of graphical {operating systems} developed by {Psion} for portable devices, primarily {PDA}s. The name EPOC came from epoch, the beginning of an era, but was backfitted by the engineers to "Electronic Piece Of Cheese". The first version, later known as EPOC16, was developed in the late 1980s and early 1990s for Psion's "{SIBO}" (SIxteen Bit Organisers) devices. All EPOC16 devices feature an {8086}-family processor and a 16-bit architecture. EPOC16 is a single-user {pre-emptive multitasking} operating system, written in Intel 8086 {assembler language} and {C} and designed to be delivered in {ROM}. It supported a simple programming language called {OPL} and an {IDE} called {OVAL}. EPOC16 was followed by {EPOC32} in 1997. (2009-05-26)

ESA 1. "architecture" {Enterprise Systems Architecture}. 2. "body" European Space Agency. (1999-10-31)

essential trinity of Sachchidananda, ::: Existence, Consciousness, Bliss with self-awareness and self-force, Chit and Tapas, for double terms of Consciousness".

euchite ::: n. --> One who resolves religion into prayer.

Extended Architecture "storage" (XA) A {CD-ROM} drive specification required by {Green Book CD-ROM} and {White Book CD-ROM} formats. Drives labelled "XA ready" may require a {firmware} upgrade. (1994-11-02)

Extended Industry-Standard Architecture "architecture, standard" (EISA) /eesa/ A {bus} standard for {IBM compatibles} that extends the {ISA} bus architecture to 32 bits and allows more than one {CPU} to share the bus. The {bus mastering} support is also enhanced to provide access to 4 GB of memory. Unlike {MCA}, EISA can accept older {XT bus architecture} and {ISA} boards. EISA was announced in late 1988 by compatible vendors as a counter to {IBM}'s MCA in its {PS/2} series. Although somewhat inferior to the MCA it became much more popular due to the proprietary nature of MCA. [Main sponsors? Open standard?] (1996-06-25)

facade ::: n. --> The front of a building; esp., the principal front, having some architectural pretensions. Thus a church is said to have its facade unfinished, though the interior may be in use.

fascia ::: n. --> A band, sash, or fillet; especially, in surgery, a bandage or roller.
A flat member of an order or building, like a flat band or broad fillet; especially, one of the three bands which make up the architrave, in the Ionic order. See Illust. of Column.
The layer of loose tissue, often containing fat, immediately beneath the skin; the stronger layer of connective tissue covering and investing all muscles; an aponeurosis.


fault 1. "programming" A manifestation of an {error} in {software}. A fault, if encountered, may cause a {failure}. 2. "architecture" {page fault}. (1996-05-14)

fault tolerance "architecture" 1. The ability of a system or component to continue normal operation despite the presence of hardware or software faults. This often involves some degree of {redundancy}. 2. The number of faults a system or component can withstand before normal operation is impaired. (1995-04-06)

fenestration ::: n. --> The arrangement and proportioning of windows; -- used by modern writers for the decorating of an architectural composition by means of the window (and door) openings, their ornaments, and proportions.
The state or condition of being fenestrated.


fetch-execute cycle "architecture, processor" The sequence of actions that a {central processing unit} performs to execute each {machine code} instruction in a program. At the beginning of each cycle the CPU presents the value of the {program counter} on the {address bus}. The CPU then fetches the instruction from {main memory} (possibly via a {cache} and/or a {pipeline}) via the {data bus} into the {instruction register}. From the instruction register, the data forming the instruction is decoded and passed to the {control unit} which sends a sequence of control signals to the relevant {function units} of the CPU to perform the actions required by the instruction such as reading values from {registers}, passing them to the {ALU} to add them together and writing the result back to a register. The program counter is then incremented to address the next instruction and the cycle is repeated. The fetch-execute cycle was first proposed by {John von Neumann}. (1998-06-25)

Fiber Distributed Data Interface (FDDI) A 100 Mbit/s {ANSI} {standard} {local area network} architecture, defined in X3T9.5. The underlying medium is {optical fibre} (though it can be copper cable, in which case it may be called {CDDI}) and the topology is a {dual-attached}, counter-rotating {token ring}. FDDI rings are normally constructed in the form of a "dual ring of trees". A small number of devices, typically infrastructure devices such as {routers} and {concentrators} rather than {host} computers, are connected to both rings - these are referred to as "{dual-attached}". Host computers are then connected as {single-attached} devices to the {routers} or {concentrators}. The dual ring in its most degenerate form is simply collapsed into a single device. In any case, the whole dual ring is typically contained within a computer room. This network topology is required because the dual ring actually passes through each connected device and requires each such device to remain continuously operational (the standard actually allows for optical bypasses but these are considered to be unreliable and error-prone). Devices such as {workstations} and {minicomputers} that may not be under the control of the {network managers} are not suitable for connection to the dual ring. As an alternative to a dual-attached connection, the same degree of resilience is available to a {workstation} through a {dual-homed} connection which is made simultaneously to two separate devices in the same FDDI ring. One of the connections becomes active while the other one is automatically blocked. If the first connection fails, the backup link takes over with no perceptible delay. {Usenet} newsgroup: {news:comp.dcom.lans.fddi}. (1994-12-13)

Fine Arts: Opposite of mechanical arts. Distinction of the arts whose principle is based on beauty (poetry, painting, sculpture, architecture, music). -- L.V.

finial ::: n. --> The knot or bunch of foliage, or foliated ornament, that forms the upper extremity of a pinnacle in Gothic architecture; sometimes, the pinnacle itself.

first generation 1. "architecture" {first generation computer}. 2. "language" {first generation language}.

first generation computer "architecture" A prototype computer based on {vacuum tubes} and other esoteric technologies. Chronologically, any computer designed before the mid-1950s. Examples include {Howard Aiken}'s {Mark 1} (1944), Maunchly and Eckert's {ENIAC} (1946), and the {IAS} computer. (1996-11-22)

flat 1. Lacking any complex internal structure. "That {bitty box} has only a flat file system, not a hierarchical one." The verb form is {flatten}. Usually used pejoratively (at least with respect to file systems). 2. Said of a memory architecture like that of the {VAX} or {Motorola} {680x0} that is one big linear address space (typically with each possible value of a processor register corresponding to a unique address). This is a {Good Thing}. The opposite is a "{segmented}" architecture like that of the {Intel 80x86} in which addresses are composed from a base-register/offset pair. Segmented designs are generally considered cretinous. 3. A flat {domain} is one where all elements except {bottom} are incomparable (equally well defined). E.g. the integers. [{Jargon File}]

flat address space "architecture" The memory architecture in which any memory location can be selected from a single contiguous block by a single integer offset. Almost all popular {processors} have a flat address space, but the {Intel x86} family has a {segmented address space}. A flat address space greatly simplifies programming because of the simple correspondence between addresses (pointers) and integers. (1996-09-10)

flute ::: v. i. --> A musical wind instrument, consisting of a hollow cylinder or pipe, with holes along its length, stopped by the fingers or by keys which are opened by the fingers. The modern flute is closed at the upper end, and blown with the mouth at a lateral hole.
A channel of curved section; -- usually applied to one of a vertical series of such channels used to decorate columns and pilasters in classical architecture. See Illust. under Base, n.
To play on, or as on, a flute; to make a flutelike sound.


Flynn's taxonomy "architecture" A classification of computer architectures based on the number of streams of instructions and data: {Single instruction/single data} stream (SISD) - a sequential computer. Multiple instruction/single data stream (MISD) - unusual. {Single instruction/multiple data} streams (SIMD) - e.g. an {array processor}. {Multiple instruction/multiple data} streams (MIMD) - multiple autonomous processors simultaneously executing different instructions on different data. [Flynn, M. J., "Some Computer Organizations and Their Effectiveness", IEEE Transactions on Computing C-21, No. 9, Sep 1972, pp 948-960]. ["A Survey of Parallel Computer Architectures", Duncan, Ralph, IEEE Computer, Feb 1990, pp 5-16]. (2003-05-29)

foliage ::: n. --> Leaves, collectively, as produced or arranged by nature; leafage; as, a tree or forest of beautiful foliage.
A cluster of leaves, flowers, and branches; especially, the representation of leaves, flowers, and branches, in architecture, intended to ornament and enrich capitals, friezes, pediments, etc. ::: v. t.


fossil 1. In software, a misfeature that becomes understandable only in historical context, as a remnant of times past retained so as not to break compatibility. Example: the retention of {octal} as default base for string escapes in {C}, in spite of the better match of {hexadecimal} to ASCII and modern byte-addressable architectures. See {dusty deck}. 2. More restrictively, a feature with past but no present utility. Example: the force-all-caps (LCASE) bits in the V7 and {BSD} Unix tty driver, designed for use with monocase terminals. (In a perversion of the usual backward-compatibility goal, this functionality has actually been expanded and renamed in some later {USG Unix} releases as the IUCLC and OLCUC bits.) 3. The FOSSIL (Fido/Opus/Seadog Standard Interface Level) driver specification for serial-port access to replace the {brain-dead} routines in the IBM PC ROMs. Fossils are used by most {MS-DOS} {BBS} software in preference to the "supported" ROM routines, which do not support interrupt-driven operation or setting speeds above 9600; the use of a semistandard FOSSIL library is preferable to the {bare metal} serial port programming otherwise required. Since the FOSSIL specification allows additional functionality to be hooked in, drivers that use the {hook} but do not provide serial-port access themselves are named with a modifier, as in "video fossil". [{Jargon File}]

fourth generation computer "architecture" A computer built using {Very Large Scale Integration} (VLSI) {integrated circuits}, especially a {microcomputer} based on a {microprocesseor}, or a {parallel processor} containing two to thousands of {CPUs}. VLSI made it routine to fabricate an entire CPU, main memory, or similar device with a single integrated circuit that can be mass produced at very low cost. This has resulted in new classes of machines such as {personal computers}, and high performance parallel processors that contains thousands of CPUs. (1996-11-22)

Free On-line Dictionary of Computing "introduction" FOLDOC is a searchable dictionary of acronyms, jargon, programming languages, tools, architecture, operating systems, networking, theory, conventions, standards, mathematics, telecoms, electronics, institutions, companies, projects, products, history, in fact anything to do with computing. Copyright 1985 by Denis Howe Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1.1 or any later version published by the Free Software Foundation; with no Invariant Sections, Front- or Back-Cover Texts. A copy of the license is included in the section entitled "{GNU Free Documentation License}". Please refer to the dictionary as "The Free On-line Dictionary of Computing, http://foldoc.org/, Editor Denis Howe" or similar. Please make the URL both text (for humans) and a hyperlink (for Google). You can search the latest version of the dictionary at URL http://foldoc.org/. Where {LaTeX} commands for certain non-{ASCII} symbols are mentioned, they are described in their own entries. "\" is also used to represent the Greek lower-case lambda used in {lambda-calculus}. See {Pronunciation} for how to interpret the pronunciation given for some entries. Cross-references to other entries look {like this}. Note that not all cross-references actually lead anywhere yet, but if you find one that leads to something inappropriate, please let me know. Dates after entries indicate when that entry was last updated. {More about FOLDOC (about.html)}. (2018-05-22)

frieze ::: n. --> That part of the entablature of an order which is between the architrave and cornice. It is a flat member or face, either uniform or broken by triglyphs, and often enriched with figures and other ornaments of sculpture.
Any sculptured or richly ornamented band in a building or, by extension, in rich pieces of furniture. See Illust. of Column.
A kind of coarse woolen cloth or stuff with a shaggy or tufted (friezed) nap on one side.


fusarole ::: n. --> A molding generally placed under the echinus or quarter round of capitals in the Doric, Ionic, and Corinthian orders of architecture.

GAIA GUI Application Interoperability Architecture. An {OSF} project.

GCC "compiler, programming" The {GNU} {Compiler} Collection, which currently contains front ends for {C}, {C++}, {Objective-C}, {Fortran}, {Java}, and {Ada}, as well as libraries for these languages (libstdc++, libgcj, etc). GCC formerly meant the GNU {C} compiler, which is a very high quality, very portable compiler for {C}, {C++} and {Objective C}. The compiler supports multiple {front-ends} and multiple {back-ends} by translating first into {Register Transfer Language} and from there into {assembly code} for the target architecture. {(http://gcc.gnu.org/)}. {Bug Reports (http://gcc.gnu.org/bugzilla/)}. {FTP} gcc-2.X.X.tar.gz from your nearest {GNU archive site}. {MS-DOS (ftp://oak.oakland.edu/pub/msdos/djgpp/)}. Mailing lists: gcc-help@gcc.gnu.org, gcc-announce@gcc.gnu.org (announcements). ["Using and Porting GNU CC", R.M. Stallman, 1992-12-16]. (2003-08-05)

GCOS "operating system" /jee'kohs/ An {operating system} developed by {General Electric} from 1962; originally called GECOS (the General Electric Comprehensive Operating System). The GECOS-II operating system was developed by {General Electric} for the 36-bit {GE-635} in 1962-1964. Contrary to rumour, GECOS was not cloned from {System/360} [{DOS/360}?] - the GE-635 architecture was very different from the {IBM 360} and GECOS was more ambitious than DOS/360. GE Information Service Divsion developed a large special multi-computer system that was not publicised because they did not wish {time sharing} customers to challenge their bills. Although GE ISD was marketing {DTSS} - the first commercial time sharing system - GE Computer Division had no license from Dartmouth and GE-ISD to market it to external customers, so they designed a time-sharing system to sell as a standard part of GECOS-III, which replaced GECOS-II in 1967. GECOS TSS was more general purpose than DTSS, it was more a programmer's tool (program editing, e-mail on a single system) than a BASIC TSS. The {GE-645}, a modified 635 built by the same people, was selected by {MIT} and {Bell} for the {Multics} project. Multics' infancy was as painful as any infancy. Bell pulled out in 1969 and later produced {Unix}. After the buy-out of GE's computer division by {Honeywell}, GECOS-III was renamed GCOS-3 (General Comprehensive Operating System). Other OS groups at Honeywell began referring to it as "God's Chosen Operating System", allegedly in reaction to the GCOS crowd's uninformed and snotty attitude about the superiority of their product. [Can anyone confirm this?] GCOS won and this led in the orphaning and eventual death of Honeywell {Multics}. Honeywell also decided to launch a new product line called Level64, and later DPS-7. It was decided to mainatin, at least temporarily, the 36-bit machine as top of the line, because GCOS-3 was so successfull in the 1970s. The plan in 1972-1973 was that GCOS-3 and Multics should converge. This plan was killed by Honeywell management in 1973 for lack of resources and the inability of Multics, lacking {databases} and {transaction processing}, to act as a business operating system without a substantial reinvestment. The name "GCOS" was extended to all Honeywell-marketed product lines and GCOS-64, a completely different 32-bit operating system, significanctly inspired by Multics, was designed in France and Boston. GCOS-62, another different 32-bit low-end DOS level was designed in Italy. GCOS-61 represented a new version of a small system made in France and the new {DPS-6} 16-bit {minicomputer} line got GCOS-6. When the intended merge between GCOS-3 and Multics failed, the Phoenix designers had in mind a big upgrade of the architecture to introduce {segmentation} and {capabilities}. GCOS-3 was renamed GCOS-8, well before it started to use the new features which were introduced in next generation hardware. The GCOS licenses were sold to the Japanese companies {NEC} and {Toshiba} who developed the Honeywell products, including GCOS, much further, surpassing the {IBM 3090} and {IBM 390}. When Honeywell decided in 1984 to get its top of the range machines from NEC, they considered running Multics on them but the Multics market was considered too small. Due to the difficulty of porting the ancient Multics code they considered modifying the NEC hardware to support the Multics compilers. GCOS3 featured a good {Codasyl} {database} called IDS (Integrated Data Store) that was the model for the more successful {IDMS}. Several versions of transaction processing were designed for GCOS-3 and GCOS-8. An early attempt at TP for GCOS-3, not taken up in Europe, assumed that, as in {Unix}, a new process should be started to handle each transaction. IBM customers required a more efficient model where multiplexed {threads} wait for messages and can share resources. Those features were implemented as subsystems. GCOS-3 soon acquired a proper {TP monitor} called Transaction Driven System (TDS). TDS was essentially a Honeywell development. It later evolved into TP8 on GCOS-8. TDS and its developments were commercially successful and predated IBM {CICS}, which had a very similar architecture. GCOS-6 and GCOS-4 (ex-GCOS-62) were superseded by {Motorola 68000}-based {minicomputers} running {Unix} and the product lines were discontinued. In the late 1980s Bull took over Honeywell and Bull's management chose Unix, probably with the intent to move out of hardware into {middleware}. Bull killed the Boston proposal to port Multics to a platform derived from DPS-6. Very few customers rushed to convert from GCOS to Unix and new machines (of CMOS technology) were still to be introduced in 1997 with GCOS-8. GCOS played a major role in keeping Honeywell a dismal also-ran in the {mainframe} market. Some early Unix systems at {Bell Labs} used GCOS machines for print spooling and various other services. The field added to "/etc/passwd" to carry GCOS ID information was called the "{GECOS field}" and survives today as the "pw_gecos" member used for the user's full name and other human-ID information. [{Jargon File}] (1998-04-23)

gizzard ::: n. --> The second, or true, muscular stomach of birds, in which the food is crushed and ground, after being softened in the glandular stomach (crop), or lower part of the esophagus; the gigerium.
A thick muscular stomach found in many invertebrate animals.
A stomach armed with chitinous or shelly plates or teeth, as in certain insects and mollusks.


gothic ::: a. --> Pertaining to the Goths; as, Gothic customs; also, rude; barbarous.
Of or pertaining to a style of architecture with pointed arches, steep roofs, windows large in proportion to the wall spaces, and, generally, great height in proportion to the other dimensions -- prevalent in Western Europe from about 1200 to 1475 a. d. See Illust. of Abacus, and Capital.


Gothic: A style in architecture, sculpture and pointing between the 12th and the 16th centurv.

gothicism ::: n. --> A Gothic idiom.
Conformity to the Gothic style of architecture.
Rudeness of manners; barbarousness.


greco-roman ::: a. --> Having characteristics that are partly Greek and partly Roman; as, Greco-Roman architecture.

Green Book CD-ROM A standard {CD-ROM} format developed by {Philips} for {CD-i}. It is {ISO 9660} compliant and uses mode 2 form 2 addressing. It can only be played on drives which are XA ({Extended Architecture}) compatible. Many Green Book discs contain {CD-i} applications which can only be played on a {CD-i} player but many others contain films or music videos. Video CDs in Green Book format are normally labelled "Digital Video on CD" Green Book was obsoleted by {White book CD-ROM} in March 1994. (1994-11-02)

green lightning [IBM] 1. Apparently random flashing streaks on the face of 3278-9 terminals while a new symbol set is being downloaded. This hardware bug was left deliberately unfixed, as some genius within IBM suggested it would let the user know that "something is happening". That, it certainly does. Later microprocessor-driven IBM colour graphics displays were actually *programmed* to produce green lightning! 2. [proposed] Any bug perverted into an alleged feature by adroit rationalisation or marketing. "Motorola calls the CISC {cruft} in the 88000 architecture "compatibility logic", but I call it green lightning". See also {feature}.

grindelia ::: n. --> The dried stems and leaves of tarweed (Grindelia), used as a remedy in asthma and bronchitis.

hagioscope ::: n. --> An opening made in the interior walls of a cruciform church to afford a view of the altar to those in the transepts; -- called, in architecture, a squint.

halotrichite ::: n. --> An iron alum occurring in silky fibrous aggregates of a yellowish white color.

Hal/S "language" (Hal/Shuttle) A {real-time} {high-level language} for flight control applications. Hal was developed for {NASA} by {Intermetrics, Inc.} in the 1970s for on-board {software}. The initial version was a {Fortran} {preprocessor}, written in Fortran. In 1972, as the space shuttle project advanced, the language was renamed Hal/S and made more adaptable to {architecture} of different computers by using {XPL}. In all, 11 different implementations, mostly based on {IBM 360}, were created. Applications also included projects by {JPL} (Galileo probe, Deep Space network). ["Two-Dimensional Characteristics of HAL, A Language for Spaceflight Applications", J.S. Miller, SIGPLAN Notices 7(10), Oct 1972]. ["Space Station Flight Software: Hal/S or Ada?", Allan R. Klumpp, "Computer", March 1985]. (2002-07-13)

Halt and Catch Fire "humour, processor" (HCF) Any of several undocumented and semi-mythical {machine instructions} with destructive side-effects, supposedly included for test purposes on several well-known architectures going as far back as the {IBM 360}. The {Motorola 6800} {microprocessor} was the first for which an HCF {opcode} became widely known. This instruction caused the processor to read every memory location sequentially until reset. [{Gerry Wheeler, Byte, December 1977, p46, "Undocumented M6800 Instructions" (https://archive.org/details/byte-magazine-1977-12)}]. (2014-09-20)

Harvard architecture "architecture" A computer {architecture} in which program instructions are stored in different memory from data. Each type of memory is accessed via a separate {bus}, allowing instructions and data to be fetched in parallel. Contrast: {von Neumann architecture}. [Why Harvard?] (2004-01-14)

HCF 1. "operating system" {Host Command Facility}. 2. "architecture" {Halt and Catch Fire}. [{Jargon File}] (1999-01-24)

Hewlett Packard Precision Architecture (HP-PA) {Hewlett Packard}'s range of RISC processors. [Details?] (1995-02-22)

Hierarchical Object Oriented Design "programming" (HOOD) An architectural design method, primarily for {Ada}, leading to automated checking, {documentation} and {source code} generation. (2009-01-14)

High Performance Routing "networking" (HPR) Routing designed to work in conjunction with {APPN} {Intermediate Session Routing} (ISR) network nodes. HPR nodes perform many of the same functions as ISR nodes. For example, HPR nodes use the same method of calculating routes based on the {Topology} Routing Service database and {class of service} tables. HPR nodes also supports such APPN features as connection networks and support for parallel {transmission groups} (TGs). In the HPR architecture, both partner nodes must support HPR for {RTP} connections to take place between the nodes. If one node supports HPR and the partner node does not, then the link will support ISR functionality only. ["APPN Architecture and Product Implementations Tutorial", IBM, GG24-3669-92]. (1997-05-08)

hit 1. "architecture" {cache hit}. 2. "web" A request to a {web server} from a {web browser} or other {client} (e.g. a {robot}). The number of hits on a server may be important for determining advertising revenue. In the course of loading a single {web page}, a browser may hit a web server many times e.g. to retrieve the page itself and each {image} on the page. In contrast, caching by browsers and {web proxies} reduces the number of hits on the server because some requests are satisfied from the cache. 3. "jargon" To press and release a key on the keyboard. Some prefer the less aggressive "tap". (2000-02-20)

hit rate "architecture" The fraction of all memory reads which are satisfied from the {cache}. (1997-01-21)

horizontal encoding "processor" An {instruction set} where each field (a bit or group of bits) in an instruction word controls some {functional unit} or {gate} directly, as opposed to {vertical encoding} where instruction fields are decoded (by {hard-wired} {logic} or {microcode}) to produce the control signals. Horizontal encoding allows all possible combinations of control signals (and therefore operations) to be expressed as instructions whereas vertical encoding uses a shorter instruction word but can only encode those combinations of operations built into the decoding logic. An {instruction set} may use a mixture of horizontal and vertical encoding within each instruction. Because an architecture using horizontal encoding typically requires more instruction word bits it is sometimes known as a {very long instruction word} (VLIW) architecture. (1995-04-23)

HPcode Stack-based intermediate language used by {HP} in many of its compilers for {RISC} and stack-based architectures. Supports {Fortran}, {Ada}, {Pascal}, {COBOL} and {C++}. Descended from Stanford's {U-code}.

HP-PA {Hewlett Packard Precision Architecture}

Hurd "operating system" The {GNU} project's replacement for the {Unix} {kernel}. The Hurd is a collection of {servers} that run on the {Mach} {microkernel} to implement {file systems}, {network protocols}, file access control, and other features that are implemented by the Unix kernel or similar kernels such as {Linux}. The GNU {C Library} provides the {Unix} {system call} interface, and calls the Hurd for services it can't provide itself. The Hurd aims to establish a framework for shared development and maintenance, allowing a broad range of users to share projects without knowing much about the internal workings of the system - projects that might never have been attempted without freely available source, a well-designed interface, and a multi-server-based design. Currently there are free ports of the {Mach} {kernel} to the {Intel 80386} {IBM PC}, the {DEC} {PMAX} {workstation}, the {Luna} {88k}, with more in progress, including the {Amiga} and {DEC} {Alpha}-3000 machines. According to Thomas Bushnell, BSG, the primary architect of the Hurd: 'Hurd' stands for 'Hird of Unix-Replacing Daemons' and 'Hird' stands for 'Hurd of Interfaces Representing Depth'. Possibly the first software to be named by a pair of {mutually recursive} acronyms. {The Hurd Home (http://gnu.org/software/hurd/hurd.html)}. [June 1994 GNU's Bulletin]. (2004-02-24)

hydractinian ::: n. --> Any species or marine hydroids, of the genus Hydractinia and allied genera. These hydroids form, by their rootstalks, a firm, chitinous coating on shells and stones, and esp. on spiral shells occupied by hermit crabs. See Illust. of Athecata.

hydrocarbonate ::: n. --> A hydrocarbon.
A hydrous carbonate, as malachite.


hyperthyrion ::: n. --> That part of the architrave which is over a door or window.

hypoderma ::: n. --> A layer of tissue beneath the epidermis in plants, and performing the physiological function of strengthening the epidermal tissue. In phanerogamous plants it is developed as collenchyma.
An inner cellular layer which lies beneath the chitinous cuticle of arthropods, annelids, and some other invertebrates.


IA32 "architecture" The {processor} chip architecture and {instruction set} used by {Intel} in its {Pentium} processors. (2007-06-17)

IAB {Internet Architecture Board}

IBM 370ESA "computer, IBM" (Enterprise System Architecture) An {IBM} {mainframe} {computer} introduced in 1988. Successor to the {IBM 370XA} had enhanced access registers that allowed access to other forms of virtual memory. This enhancement allowed more data storage in main and virtual memory, reducing {I/O} operating and improving speed and efficiency. The IBM 370ESA was rebranded as the IBM390, and later as the zSeries. (2004-06-06)

IBM 704 "computer" A large, scientific computer made by {IBM} and used by the largest commercial, government and educational institutions. The IBM 704 had 36-bit memory words, 15-bit addresses and instructions with one address. A few {index register} instructions had the infamous 15-bit decrement field in addition to the 15-bit address. The 704, and {IBM 709} which had the same basic architecture, represented a substantial step forward from the {IBM 650}'s {magnetic drum} storage as they provided random access at electronic speed to {core storage}, typically 32k words of 36 bits each. [Or did the 704 actually come *before* the 650?] A typical 700 series installation would be in a specially built room of perhaps 1000 to 2000 square feet, with cables running under a raised floor and substantial air conditioning. There might be up to eight {magnetic tape} transports, each about 3 x 3 x 6 feet, on one or two "channels." The 1/2 inch tape had seven tracks and moved at 150 inches per second, giving a read/write speed of 15,000 six bit characters (plus parity) per second. In the centre would be the operator's {console} consisting of cabinets and tables for storage of tapes and boxes of cards; and a {card reader}, a {card punch}, and a {line printer}, each perhaps 4 x 4 x 5 feet in dimension. Small {jobs} could be entered via {punched cards} at the console, but as a rule the user jobs were transferred from cards to {magnetic tape} by {off-line} equipment and only control information was entered at the console (see {SPOOL}). Before each job, the {operating system} was loaded from a read-only system tape (because the system in {core} could have been corrupted by the previous user), and then the user's program, in the form of card images on the input tape, would be run. Program output would be written to another tape (typically on another channel) for printing off-line. Well run installations would transfer the user's cards to tape, run the job, and print the output tape with a turnaround time of one to four hours. The processing unit typically occupied a position symmetric but opposite the operator's console. Physically the largest of the units, it included a glass enclosure a few feet in dimension in which could be seen the "core" about one foot on each side. The 36-bit word could hold two 18-bit addresses called the "Contents of the Address Register" ({CAR}) and the "Contents of the Decrement Register" ({CDR}). On the opposite side of the floor from the tape drives and operator's console would be a desk and bookshelves for the ever-present (24 hours a day) "field engineer" dressed in, you guessed it, a grey flannel suit and tie. The maintenance of the many thousands of {vacuum tubes}, each with limited lifetime, and the cleaning, lubrication, and adjustment of mechanical equipment, was augmented by a constant flow of {bug} reports, change orders to both hardware and software, and hand-holding for worried users. The 704 was oriented toward scientific work and included {floating point} hardware and the first {Fortran} implementation. Its hardware was the basis for the requirement in some programming languages that loops must be executed at least once. The {IBM 705} was the business counterpart of the 704. The 705 was a decimal machine with a circular register which could hold several variables (numbers, values) at the same time. Very few 700 series computers remained in service by 1965, but the {IBM 7090}, using {transistors} but similar in logical structure, remained an important machine until the production of the earliest {integrated circuits}. [Was the 704 scientific, business or general purpose? Difference between 704 and 709?] (1996-01-24)

IBM 709 "computer" A computer made by {IBM} oriented toward scientific work. The 709 had the same basic architecture as the {IBM 704} but with many {I/O} and performance refinements over the 704. The IBM 709 (like the 704) had 36-bit memory words, 15-bit addresses and instructions with one address. A few {index register} instructions had the infamous 15-bit decrement field in addition to the 15-bit address. The {IBM 7090} was a transistorised version of the 709. [Difference between 704 and 709?] (1999-01-19)

ICA {Independent Computing Architecture}

..if we suppose the unity to be unbroken, we then arrive at the existence of consciousness in all forms of the Force which is at work in the world. Even if there be no conscient or superconscient Purusha inhabiting all forms, yet is there in those forms a conscious force of being of which even their outer parts overtly or inertly partake. Necessarily, in such a view, the word consciousness changes its meaning. It is no longer synonymous with mentality but indicates a self-aware force of existence of which mentality is a middle term; below mentality it sinks into vital and material movements which are for us subconscient; above, it rises into the supramental which is for us the superconscient. But in all it is one and the same thing organising itself differently. This is, once more, the Indian conception of Chit which, as energy, creates the worlds. Essentially, we arrive at that unity which materialistic Science perceives from the other end when it asserts that Mind cannot be another force than Matter, but must be merely development and outcome of material energy. Indian thought at its deepest affirms on the other hand that Mind and Matter are rather different grades of the same energy, different organisations of one conscious Force of Existence.
   Ref: CWSA Vol. 21-22, Page: 95-96 ::: The essence of consciousness is the power to be aware of itself and its objects, and in its true nature this power must be direct, self-fulfilled and complete: if it is in us indirect, incomplete, unfulfilled in its workings, dependent on constructed instruments, it is because consciousness here is emerging from an original veiling Inconscience and is yet burdened and enveloped with the first Nescience proper to the Inconscient.
   Ref: CWSA Vol. 21-22, Page: 1053


Independent Computing Architecture "protocol" (ICA) {Citrix}'s {proprietary} {protocol} that allows {client} {desktop computers} to run {applications} on {application servers}. Originally used between {Windows} systems, ICA is now also suported on {Unix} and {Macintosh} desktops and servers as well as some {thin client} hardware. (2012-07-08)

Indian Aesthetics: Art in India is one of the most diversified subjects. Sanskrit silpa included all crafts, fine art, architecture and ornament, dancing, acting, music and even coquetry. Behind all these endeavors is a deeprooted sense of absolute values derived from Indian philosophy (q.v.) which teaches the incarnation of the divine (Krsna, Shiva, Buddha), the transitoriness of life (cf. samsara), the symbolism and conditional nature of the phenomenal (cf. maya). Love of splendour and exaggerated greatness, dating back to Vedic (q.v.) times mingled with a grand simplicity in the conception of ultimate being and a keen perception and nature observation. The latter is illustrated in examples of verisimilous execution in sculpture and painting, the detailed description in a wealth of drama and story material, and the universal love of simile. With an urge for expression associated itself the metaphysical in its practical and seemingly other-worldly aspects and, aided perhaps by the exigencies of climate, yielded the grotesque as illustrated by the cave temples of Ellora and Elephanta, the apparent barbarism of female ornament covering up all organic beauty, the exaggerated, symbol-laden representations of divine and thereanthropic beings, a music with minute subdivisions of scale, and the like. As Indian philosophy is dominated by a monistic, Vedantic (q.v.) outlook, so in Indian esthetics we can notice the prevalence of an introvert unitary, soul-centric, self-integrating tendency that treats the empirical suggestively and by way of simile, trying to stylize the natural in form, behavior, and expression. The popular belief in the immanence as well as transcendence of the Absolute precludes thus the possibility of a complete naturalism or imitation. The whole range of Indian art therefore demands a sharing and re-creation of absolute values glimpsed by the artist and professedly communicated imperfectly. Rules and discussions of the various aspects of art may be found in the Silpa-sastras, while theoretical treatments are available in such works as the Dasarupa in dramatics, the Nrtya-sastras in dancing, the Sukranitisara in the relation of art to state craft, etc. Periods and influences of Indian art, such as the Buddhist, Kushan, Gupta, etc., may be consulted in any history of Indian art. -- K.F.L.

indirection "programming" Manipulating data via its address. Indirection is a powerful and general programming technique. It can be used for example to process data stored in a sequence of consecutive memory locations by maintaining a {pointer} to the current item and incrementing it to point to the next item. Indirection is supported at the {machine language} level by {indirect addressing}. Many processor and {operating system} architectures use {vectors} which are also an instance of indirection, being locations which hold the address of a routine to handle a particular event. The event handler can be changed simply by pointing the vector at a new piece of code. {C} includes operators "&" which returns the address of a {variable} and its inverse "*" which returns the variable at a given address. (1997-02-06)

Industry Standard Architecture "architecture, standard" (ISA) A {bus} {standard} for {IBM compatibles} that extends the {XT bus architecture} to 16 bits. It also allows for {bus mastering} although only the first 16 {MB} of {main memory} is available for direct access. In reference to the XT bus architecture it is sometimes referred to as "AT bus architecture". Compare {EISA}, {MCA}. (1996-06-25)

In its narrower meaning, the fine arts and literature. The problem of the distinction and classification of the arts originated with Lessing in reaction to the interference of poetical values in painting and vice versa. He distinguished poetry dealing with consecutive actions from painting concerned with figures coexisting in space. Later, aestheticians divided the arts into many classifications. Zimmermann, a pupil of Herbart, distinguished three groups: arts of material representation (architecture, sculpture, etc.), arts of perceptive representation (painting, music). arts of the representation of thought (poetry). This partition suggested to Fiedler the aesthetics of pure visibility, to Hanslick the aesthetics of pure musicality. And from Fiedler's idea was derived the so-called Science of Art independent of aesthetics. -- L.V.

input "architecture" {Data} transferred from the outside world into a computer system via some kind of {input device}. Opposite: {output}. (1997-04-28)

Instruction Address Register "architecture" (IAR) The {IBM} name for {program counter}. The IAR can be accessed by way of a {supervisor} call in {supervisor state}, but cannot be directly addressed in {problem state}. (1995-03-21)

instruction prefetch "architecture" A technique which attempts to minimise the time a {processor} spends waiting for {machine instructions} to be fetched from memory. Instructions following the one currently being executed are loaded into a prefetch queue when the processor's {external bus} is otherwise idle. If the processor executes a {branch} instruction or receives an {interrupt} then the queue must be flushed and reloaded from the new address. Instruction prefetch is often combined with {pipelining} in an attempt to keep the pipeline busy. By 1995 most processors used prefetching, e.g. {Motorola 680x0}, {Intel 80x86}. [First processors using prefetch?] (1998-03-29)

instruction register "architecture" (IR) The part of a {central processing unit} (CPU) {control unit} that holds the {machine instruction} currently being executed. The CPU's {fetch-execute cycle} loads instructions from {memory} into the instruction register. The IR in turn drives the {instruction decoding} logic that determines what operation teh CPU should perform on what data. Modern processors have an {instruction pipeline} to minimise the time the control unit is waiting for instructions and data to be fetched from memory. This may distrubute the job of the IR over several registers in the pipeline. (2018-08-31)

instruction scheduling "architecture" The {compiler} phase that orders instructions on a {pipelined}, {superscalar}, or {VLIW} architecture so as to maximise the number of function units operating in parallel and to minimise the time they spend waiting for each other. Examples are filling a {delay slot}; interspersing {floating-point} instructions with integer instructions to keep both units operating; making adjacent instructions independent, e.g. one which writes a register and another which reads from it; separating memory writes to avoid filling the {write buffer}. Norman P. Jouppi and David W. Wall, {"Available Instruction-Level Parallelism for Superscalar and Superpipelined Processors" (ftp://gatekeeper.dec.com/archive/pub/DEC/WRL/research-reports/WRL-TR-89.7.ps.Z)}, Proceedings of the Third International Conference on Architectural Support for Programming Languages and Operating Systems, pp. 272--282, 1989. [The SPARC Architecture Manual, v8, ISBN 0-13-825001-4]

instruction set architecture "architecture" (ISA) The parts of a {processor}'s design that need to be understood in order to write {assembly language}, such as the {machine language} instructions and {registers}. Parts of the architecture that are left to the implementation, such as number of {superscalar} {functional units}, {cache} size and {cycle} speed, are not part of the ISA. The definition of {SPARC}, for example, carefully distinguishes between an implementation and a specification. (1999-01-16)

instruction set "architecture" The collection of {machine language} {instructions} that a particular {processor} understands. The term is almost synonymous with "{instruction set architecture}" since the instructions are fairly meaningless in isolation from the {registers} etc. that they manipulate. (1999-07-05)

:::   ". . . in such a view, the word consciousness changes its meaning. It is no longer synonymous with mentality but indicates a self-aware force of existence of which mentality is a middle term; below mentality it sinks into vital and material movements which are for us subconscient; above, it rises into the supramental which is for us the superconscient. But in all it is one and the same thing organising itself differently. This is, once more, the Indian conception of Chit which, as energy, creates the worlds.” *The Life Divine

“… in such a view, the word consciousness changes its meaning. It is no longer synonymous with mentality but indicates a self-aware force of existence of which mentality is a middle term; below mentality it sinks into vital and material movements which are for us subconscient; above, it rises into the supramental which is for us the superconscient. But in all it is one and the same thing organising itself differently. This is, once more, the Indian conception of Chit which, as energy, creates the worlds.” The Life Divine

Integrated Information Technology "company" (IIT) A Santa Clara based company producing a programmable, single chip {H.261} and {MPEG} system. The chip contains a {RISC} processor, originally based on the {MIPS} architecture but now called {RISCit}, and a "Pixel Processor". (1994-11-03)

Integrated Systems Architecture (ISA for {ODP}) An {Esprit} 2 project continuing the {ANSA} project. (1995-02-21)

Intel 8048 "processor" The {microcontroller} used in {IBM PC} keyboards. The 8048 was inspired by, and similar to, the {Fairchild F8} microprocessor but, being a microcontroller, was designed for low cost and small size. The 8048 has a modified {Harvard architecture}, with program {ROM} on chip and 64 to 256 bytes of {RAM} also on chip. I/O is mapped in its own {address space}. Though the 8048 was eventually replaced by the very popular but bizarre {Intel 8051} and {Intel 8052}, even in 2000 it is still very popular due to its low cost, wide availability, and development tools. [Was it really __the_first__ microcontroller? Are the ROM and RAM both on-chip?] (2000-06-01)

Intel 8086 "processor" A sixteen bit {microprocessor} chip used in early {IBM PCs}. The {Intel 8088} was a version with an eight-bit external data bus. The Intel 8086 was based on the design of the {Intel 8080} and {Intel 8085} (it was {source compatible} with the 8080) with a similar {register set}, but was expanded to 16 bits. The Bus Interface Unit fed the instruction stream to the Execution Unit through a 6 byte {prefetch} queue, so fetch and execution were concurrent - a primitive form of {pipelining} (8086 instructions varied from 1 to 4 bytes). It featured four 16-bit general {registers}, which could also be accessed as eight 8-bit registers, and four 16-bit {index registers} (including the {stack pointer}). The data registers were often used implicitly by instructions, complicating {register allocation} for temporary values. It featured 64K 8-bit I/O (or 32K 16 bit) ports and fixed {vectored interrupts}. There were also four {segment registers} that could be set from index registers. The segment registers allowed the CPU to access 1 meg of memory in an odd way. Rather than just supplying missing bytes, as most segmented processors, the 8086 actually shifted the segment registers left 4 bits and added it to the address. As a result, segments overlapped, and it was possible to have two pointers with the same value point to two different memory locations, or two pointers with different values pointing to the same location. Most people consider this a {brain damaged} design. Although this was largely acceptable for {assembly language}, where control of the segments was complete (it could even be useful then), in higher level languages it caused constant confusion (e.g. near/far pointers). Even worse, this made expanding the address space to more than 1 meg difficult. A later version, the {Intel 80386}, expanded the design to 32 bits, and "fixed" the segmentation, but required extra modes (suppressing the new features) for compatibility, and retains the awkward architecture. In fact, with the right assembler, code written for the 8008 can still be run on the most recent {Intel 486}. The {Intel 80386} added new {op codes} in a kludgy fashion similar to the {Zilog Z80} and {Zilog Z280}. The {Intel 486} added full {pipelines}, and {clock doubling} (like the {Zilog Z280}). So why did {IBM} chose the 8086 series when most of the alternatives were so much better? Apparently IBM's own engineers wanted to use the {Motorola 68000}, and it was used later in the forgotten {IBM Instruments} 9000 Laboratory Computer, but IBM already had rights to manufacture the 8086, in exchange for giving Intel the rights to its {bubble memory} designs. Apparently IBM was using 8086s in the IBM {Displaywriter} {word processor}. Other factors were the 8-bit {Intel 8088} version, which could use existing {Intel 8085}-type components, and allowed the computer to be based on a modified 8085 design. 68000 components were not widely available, though it could use {Motorola 6800} components to an extent. {Intel} {bubble memory} was on the market for a while, but faded away as better and cheaper memory technologies arrived. (1994-12-23)

Intel Corporation "company" A US microelectronics manufacturer. They produced the {Intel 4004}, {Intel 8080}, {Intel 8086}, {Intel 80186}, {Intel 80286}, {Intel 80386}, {Intel 486} and {Pentium} {microprocessor} families as well as many other {integrated circuits} and {personal computer} networking and communications products. Gordon Moore and Robert Noyce founded Intel in 1968 to design, manufacture, and market semiconductor computer memory to replace {magnetic core} memory, the dominant computer memory at that time. Dr. Andrew S. Grove joined Intel soon after its incorporation. Three years later, in 1971, Intel introduced the world's first {microprocessor}, the {Intel 4004}. Intel has design, development, production, and administration facilities throughout the western US, Europe and Asia. In 1995 nearly 75% of the world's {personal computers} use Intel architecture. Annual revenues are rapidly approaching $10 billion. In March, 1994, "Business Week" named Intel one of the top ten American companies in terms of profit, one of the top 15 market value winners, and 16th out of the magazine's top 1,000 companies overall. Intel invested a record $2.9 billion in capital and R&D in 1993, and expects to increase combined spending on these activities to $3.5 billion in 1994. Quarterly sales were $2770M and profits, $640M in Aug 1994. {(http://intel.com/)}. Address: Santa Clara, CA, USA. (1995-03-01)

intelligent ::: a. --> Endowed with the faculty of understanding or reason; as, man is an intelligent being.
Possessed of intelligence, education, or judgment; knowing; sensible; skilled; marked by intelligence; as, an intelligent young man; an intelligent architect; an intelligent answer.
Gognizant; aware; communicate.


Intelligent Input/Output "architecture" /i:-too-oh/ (I2O) A specification which aims to provide an {I/O} {device driver} architecture that is independent of both the specific device being controlled and the host {operating system}. The Hardware Device Module (HDM) manages the device and the OS Services Module (OSM) interfaces to the host operating system. The HDM is portable across multiple operating systems, processors and busses. The HDM and OSM communicate via a two layer {message passing} {protocol}. A Message Layer sets up a communications session and runs on top of a Transport Layer which defines how the two parties share information. I2O is also designed to facilitate intelligent I/O subsystems, with support for {message passing} between multiple independent processors. By relieving the host of {interrupt} intensive I/O tasks required by the various layers of a driver architecture, the I2O intelligent I/O architecture greatly improves I/O performance. I2O systems will be able to more efficiently deliver the I/O throughput required by a wide range of high bandwidth applications, such as networked {video}, {groupware} and {client-server} processing. I2O does not restrict where the layered modules execute, providing support for single processor, {multiprocessor}, and {clustered} systems. I2O is not intended to replace the driver architectures currently in existence. Rather, the objective is to provide an open, standards-based approach, which is complementary to existing drivers, and provides a framework for the rapid development of a new generation of portable, intelligent I/O. {(http://i2osig.org/)}. (1997-11-04)

Interface Architect An interface builder for Motif distributed by Hewlett-Packard (see UIMX).

Interface Definition Language (IDL) 1. An {OSF} standard for defining {RPC} stubs. [Details?] 2. Part of an effort by {Project DOE} at {SunSoft, Inc.} to integrate distributed {object} technology into the {Solaris} {operating system}. IDL provides the standard interface between objects, and is the base mechanism for object interaction. The {Object Management Group}'s {CORBA} 1.1 (Common Object Request Broker Architecture) specifies the interface between objects. IDL (Interface Definition Language) is the base mechanism for object interaction. The SunSoft OMG IDL CFE (Compiler Front End) version 1.2 provides a complete framework for building CORBA 1.1-compliant preprocessors for OMG IDL. To use it you write a back-end. A complete compiler of IDL would translate IDL into {client} side and {server} side routines for remote communication in the same manner as {Sun}'s current {RPCL} compiler. The IDL compiler front end allows integration of new back ends which can translate IDL to various programming languages. Several companies including Sunsoft are building back ends to the CFE which translate IDL into target languages, e.g. {Pascal} or {C++}, in the context of planned CORBA-compliant products. IDL requires C++ 2.1. Not to be confused with any of the other {IDLs}. E-mail: "idl-cfe@sun.com". {(ftp://omg.org/pub/omg_idl_cfe.tar.Z)}, {(ftp://omg.org/pub/OMG_IDL_CFE_1.2/)}. Telephone: Mache Creeger, SunSoft, Inc. +1 (415) 336 5884. (1993-05-04)

Intermedia "hypertext" A {hypertext} system developed by a research group at {IRIS} (Brown University) to support education and research. Intermedia was a "shell" over {A/UX} 1.1, programmed using an {object-oriented} toolkit and standard {DBMS} functions. The {data model} and architecture were designed for flexibility and consistency. Intermedia consisted of several {applications} sharing an {event-driven} {gui}. These included a {text editor} (InterText), graphics editor (InterDraw), picture viewer (InterPix), timeline editor (InterVal), 3D model viewer (InterSpect), {animation} editor (InterPlay) and video editor (InterVideo). [{Yankelovich et al, "Intermedia: The Concept and the Construction of a Seamless Information Environment" (http://research.microsoft.com/en-us/um/people/sdrucker/papers/intermedia1.pdf)}] {(http://elab.eserver.org/hfl0032.html)}. (2014-11-02)

International Organization for Standardization "standard, body" (ISO) A voluntary, nontreaty organisation founded in 1946, responsible for creating international {standards} in many areas, including computers and communications. Its members are the national standards organisations of 89 countries, including the {American National Standards Institute}. ISO produced the {OSI} seven layer model for network architecture. The term "ISO" is not actually an acronym for anything. It is a pun on the Greek prefix "iso-", meaning "same". Some ISO documents say ISO is not an acronym even though it is an anagram of the initials of the organisation's name. {(http://iso.ch/)}. (1999-06-22)

Internet Architecture Board (IAB) The technical body that oversees the development of the {Internet} suite of {protocols}. It has two task forces: the {Internet Engineering Task Force} and the {Internet Research Task Force}. "IAB" previously stood for Internet Activities Board. (1994-12-06)

Internet Engineering Task Force "networking, standard, body" (IETF) The IETF is a large, open international community of network designers, operators, vendors and researchers whose purpose is to coordinate the operation, management and evolution of the {Internet} and to resolve short- and mid-range {protocol} and architectural issues. It is a major source of proposals for {protocol} {standards} which are submitted to the {Internet Architecture Board} (IAB) for final approval. The IETF meets three times a year and extensive minutes are included in the IETF Proceedings. The IETF Secretariat, run by The {Corporation for National Research Initiatives} with funding from the US government, maintains an index of {Internet-Drafts} whereas {RFCs} are maintained by The {Internet Architecture Board}. {(http://ietf.org)}. (1999-01-27)

Internet "networking" 1. With a lower-case "i", any set of {networks} interconnected with {routers}. 2. With an upper-case "I", the world's collection of interconnected networks. The Internet is a three-level {hierarchy} composed of {backbone networks}, {mid-level networks}, and {stub networks}. These include commercial (.com or .co), university (.ac or .edu) and other research networks (.org, .net) and military (.mil) networks and span many different physical networks around the world with various {protocols}, chiefly the {Internet Protocol}. Until the advent of the {web} in 1990, the Internet was almost entirely unknown outside universities and corporate research departments and was accessed mostly via {command line} interfaces such as {telnet} and {FTP}. Since then it has grown to become a ubiquitous aspect of modern information systems, becoming highly commercial and a widely accepted medium for all sort of customer relations such as advertising, brand building and online sales and services. Its original spirit of cooperation and freedom have, to a great extent, survived this explosive transformation with the result that the vast majority of information available on the Internet is free of charge. While the web (primarily in the form of {HTML} and {HTTP}) is the best known aspect of the Internet, there are many other {protocols} in use, supporting applications such as {electronic mail}, {chat}, {remote login} and {file transfer}. There were 20,242 unique commercial domains registered with {InterNIC} in September 1994, 10% more than in August 1994. In 1996 there were over 100 {Internet access providers} in the US and a few in the UK (e.g. the {BBC Networking Club}, {Demon}, {PIPEX}). There are several bodies associated with the running of the Internet, including the {Internet Architecture Board}, the {Internet Assigned Numbers Authority}, the {Internet Engineering and Planning Group}, {Internet Engineering Steering Group}, and the {Internet Society}. See also {NYsernet}, {EUNet}. {The Internet Index (http://openmarket.com/intindex)} - statistics about the Internet. (2015-03-26)

Internet Research Task Force (IRTF) The IRTF is chartered by the {Internet Architecture Board} to consider long-term {Internet} issues from a theoretical point of view. It has Research Groups, similar to {Internet Engineering Task Force} Working Groups, which are each tasked to discuss different research topics. Multi-cast audio/video conferencing and {privacy enhanced mail} are samples of IRTF output. (1994-12-08)

ionic ::: a. --> Of or pertaining to Ionia or the Ionians.
Pertaining to the Ionic order of architecture, one of the three orders invented by the Greeks, and one of the five recognized by the Italian writers of the sixteenth century. Its distinguishing feature is a capital with spiral volutes. See Illust. of Capital.
Of or pertaining to an ion; composed of ions. ::: n.


Irvine Dataflow "language" (Always called "Id") A non-{strict}, {single assignment} language and {incremental compiler} developed by Arvind and Gostelow and used on {MIT}'s {Tagged-Token Dataflow Architecture} and planned to be used on {Motorola}'s {Monsoon}. See also {Id Nouveau}. ["An Asynchronous Programming Language for a Large Multiprocessor Machine", Arvind et al, TR114a, Dept ISC, UC Irvine, Dec 1978]. ["The U-Interpreter", Arvind et al, Computer 15(2):42-50, 1982]. (1998-02-14)

ISA 1. "architecture" {Integrated Systems Architecture}. 2. "body" {International Smalltalk Association}. 3. "architecture" {instruction set architecture}. 4. "architecture" {Industry Standard Architecture}. (1997-02-13)

ISA bus {Industry Standard Architecture}

ISO 8613 {Open Document Architecture}

jacobian ::: a. --> Of or pertaining to a style of architecture and decoration in the time of James the First, of England.

JavaBeans "programming" A {component architecture} for the {Java} programming language, developed initially by {Sun}, but now available from several other vendors. JavaBeans components are called "{beans}". JavaBeans allows developers to create reusable software components that can then be assembled together using visual application builder tools including {Sybase}'s {PowerJ}, {Borland}'s {JBuilder}, {IBM}'s {Visual Age for Java}, {SunSoft}'s {Java Workshop} and {Symantec}'s {Visual Cafe}. JavaBeans support Introspection (a builder tool can analyze how a Bean works), Customisation (developers can customise the appearance and behaviour of a Bean), Events (Beans can communicate), Properties (developers can customise and program with Beans(?)) and Persistence (customised Beans can be stored and reused). {(http://javasoft.com/beans/)}. (1997-11-20)

Java "programming, language" An {object-oriented}, {distributed}, {interpreted}, {architecture-neutral}, {portable}, {multithreaded}, dynamic, buzzword-compliant, general-purpose programming language developed by {Sun Microsystems} in the early 1990s (initially for set-top television controllers) and released to the public in 1995. Java was named after the Indonesian island, a source of {programming fluid}. Java first became popular as the earliest portable dynamic client-side content for the {web} in the form of {platform}-independent {Java applets}. In the late 1990s and into the 2000s it also became very popular on the server side, where an entire set of {APIs} defines the {J2EE}. Java is both a set of public specifications (controlled by {Oracle}, who bought {Sun Microsystems}, through the {JCP}) and a series of implementations of those specifications. Java is syntactially similar to {C++} without user-definable {operator overloading}, (though it does have {method} overloading), without {multiple inheritance} and extensive automatic {coercions}. It has automatic {garbage collection}. Java extends {C++}'s {object-oriented} facilities with those of {Objective C} for {dynamic method resolution}. Whereas programs in C++ and similar languages are compiled and linked to platform-specific binary executables, Java programs are typically compiled to portable {architecture-neutral} {bytecode} ".class" files, which are run using a {Java Virtual Machine}. The JVM is also called an {interpreter}, though it is more correct to say that it uses {Just-In-Time Compilation} to convert the {bytecode} into {native} {machine code}, yielding greater efficiency than most interpreted languages, rivalling C++ for many long-running, non-GUI applications. The run-time system is typically written in {POSIX}-compliant {ANSI C} or {C++}. Some implementations allow Java class files to be translated into {native} {machine code} during or after compilation. The Java compiler and {linker} both enforce {strong type checking} - procedures must be explicitly typed. Java aids in the creation of {virus}-free, tamper-free systems with {authentication} based on {public-key encryption}. Java has an extensive library of routines for all kinds of programming tasks, rivalling that of other languages. For example, the {java.net} package supports {TCP/IP} {protocols} like {HTTP} and {FTP}. Java applications can access objects across the {Internet} via {URLs} almost as easily as on the local {file system}. There are also capabilities for several types of distributed applications. The Java {GUI} libraries provide portable interfaces. For example, there is an abstract {Window} class with implementations for {Unix}, {Microsoft Windows} and the {Macintosh}. The {java.awt} and {javax.swing} classes can be used either in web-based {Applets} or in {client-side applications} or {desktop applications}. There are also packages for developing {XML} applications, {web services}, {servlets} and other web applications, {security}, date and time calculations and I/O formatting, database ({JDBC}), and many others. Java is not related to {JavaScript} despite the name. {(http://oracle.com/java)}. (2011-08-21)

Java Virtual Machine "language, architecture" (JVM) A specification for software which interprets {Java} programs that have been compiled into {byte-codes}, and usually stored in a ".class" file. The JVM {instruction set} is {stack}-oriented, with variable instruction length. Unlike some other instruction sets, the JVM's supports {object-oriented} programming directly by including instructions for object {method} invocation (similar to {subroutine} call in other instruction sets). The JVM itself is written in {C} and so can be {ported} to run on most {platforms}. It needs {thread} support and {I/O} (for {dynamic class loading}). The Java byte-code is independent of the platform. There are also some hardware implementations of the JVM. {Specification (http://javasoft.com/docs/books/vmspec/html/VMSpecTOC.doc.html)}. {Sun's Java chip (http://news.com/News/Item/0,4,9328,00.html)}. [Documentation? Versions?] (2000-01-03)

Jhumur: “Sleeping Vishnu who is at the core of creation, Brahman who is seated on the lotus which comes out of the navel of Vishnu. The Architect has the whole play, the whole perception. He knows what He is building. He is the supreme consciousness in the deepest involution, the sleeping Lord at the core of things.”

Jhumur: “The Book of bliss is really the ultimate Satchitananda, the everlasting day when one has moved out of all contact with the unconscious and lives no longer in between sunlight and darkness but wholly in the light, wholly in the Divine. There was once a question that somebody asked Mother when She used to take our classes. She (the person) said that in our world there is a change from lesser to greater if one tries to progress. It is a constant change. When one enters the higher plane, the upper hemisphere as you call it, will there be no change, will it always be the same? Mother said,”No, it is not that. One perfection can then be manifested later in another kind of perfection.” There is a variety of different laws of perfection, hence the myriad volumes of the Book of Bliss. Delight has so many modes of expression, perfection or delight, they are all the same and there is not just one way of manifesting the Divine. There are infinite modes of expression of that delight.”

John von Neumann "person" /jon von noy'mahn/ Born 1903-12-28, died 1957-02-08. A Hungarian-born mathematician who did pioneering work in quantum physics, game theory, and {computer science}. He contributed to the USA's Manhattan Project that built the first atomic bomb. von Neumann was invited to Princeton University in 1930, and was a mathematics professor at the {Institute for Advanced Studies} from its formation in 1933 until his death. From 1936 to 1938 {Alan Turing} was a visitor at the Institute and completed a Ph.D. dissertation under von Neumann's supervision. This visit occurred shortly after Turing's publication of his 1934 paper "On Computable Numbers with an Application to the Entscheidungs-problem" which involved the concepts of logical design and the universal machine. von Neumann must have known of Turing's ideas but it is not clear whether he applied them to the design of the IAS Machine ten years later. While serving on the BRL Scientific Advisory Committee, von Neumann joined the developers of {ENIAC} and made some critical contributions. In 1947, while working on the design for the successor machine, {EDVAC}, von Neumann realized that ENIAC's lack of a centralized control unit could be overcome to obtain a rudimentary stored program computer. He also proposed the {fetch-execute cycle}. His ideas led to what is now often called the {von Neumann architecture}. {(http://sis.pitt.edu/~mbsclass/is2000/hall_of_fame/vonneuma.htm)}. {(http://ei.cs.vt.edu/~history/VonNeumann.html)}. {(http://ftp.arl.mil/~mike/comphist/54nord/)}. (2004-01-14)

Joint Academic NETwork (JANET) The {wide area network} which links UK academic and research institutes. JANET is controlled by the {Joint Network Team} (JNT) and Network Executive (NE). It is an {internet} (a large number of interconnected sub-networks) that provides connectivity within the community as well as access to external services and other communities. The {hub} is the JANET subnetwork, a private {X.25} {packet-switched} network that interconnects over 100 sites. At the majority of sites, {local area networks} (LANs) are connected to JANET allowing off-site access for the computers and terminals connected to these networks. The {Coloured Book} {protocol} architecture is used to support interactive terminal access to computers (for both character terminals and screen terminals), inter-host file transfers, {electronic mail} and remote {batch} job submission. {(http://nic.ja.net/)}. See also {JIPS}, {SuperJanet}. (1995-02-07)

Joint Test Action Group "architecture, body, electronics, integrated circuit, standard, testing" (JTAG, or "IEEE Standard 1149.1") A {standard} specifying how to control and monitor the pins of compliant devices on a {printed circuit board}. Each device has four JTAG control lines. There is a common reset (TRST) and clock (TCLK). The data line {daisy chains} one device's test data out (TDO) pin to the test data in (TDI) pin on the next device. The {protocol} contains commands to read and set the values of the pins (and, optionally {internal registers}) of devices. This is called "{boundary scanning}". The protocol makes board testing easier as signals that are not visible at the board connector may be read and set. The protocol also allows the testing of equipment, connected to the JTAG port, to identify components on the board (by reading the device identification register) and to control and monitor the device's outputs. JTAG is not used during normal operation of a board. {JTAG Technologies B.V. (http://jtag.com/)}. {Boundary Scan/JTAG Technical Information - Xilinx, Inc. (http://xilinx.com/support/techsup/journals/jtag/)}. {Java API for Boundary Scan FAQs - Xilinx Inc. (http://xilinx.com/products/software/sx/sxfaqs.htm)}. {JTAG Boundary-Scan Test Products - Corelis, Inc. (http://corelis.com/products/scanovrv.html)}. {"Logic analyzers stamping out bugs at the cutting edge", EDN Access, 1997-04-10 (http://ednmag.com/ednmag/reg/1997/041097/08df_02.htm)}. {IEEE 1149.1 Device Architecture - Boundary-Scan Tutorial from ASSET InterTech, Inc. (http://asset-intertech.com/tutorial/arch.htm)}. {"Application-Specific Integrated Circuits", Michael John Sebatian Smith, published Addison-Wesley - Design Automation Cafe (http://dacafe.com/DACafe/EDATools/EDAbooks/ASIC/Book/CH14/CH14.2.htm)}. {Software Debug options on ASIC cores - Embedded Systems Programming Archive (http://embedded.com/97/feat9701.htm)}. {Designing for On-Board Programming Using the IEEE 1149.1 (JTAG) Access Port - Intel (http://developer.intel.com/design/flcomp/applnots/292186.htm)}. {Built-In Self-Test Using Boundary Scan by Texas Instruments - EDTN Network (http://edtn.com/scribe/reference/appnotes/md003e9a.htm)}. (1999-11-15)

Kali A {data parallel} language. ["Supporting Shared Data Structures on Distributed Memory Architectures", C. Koelbel et al in Second ACM SIGPLAN Symp on Princ and Prac of Parallel Programming, pp.177-186, Mar 1990]. (1994-11-09)

killer micro [Popularised by Eugene Brooks] A {microprocessor}-based machine that infringes on mini, mainframe, or supercomputer performance turf. Often heard in "No one will survive the attack of the killer micros!", the battle cry of the downsizers. Used especially of {RISC} architectures. The popularity of the phrase "attack of the killer micros" is doubtless reinforced by the movie title "Attack Of The Killer Tomatoes" (one of the {canonical} examples of so-bad-it's-wonderful among hackers). This has even more flavour now that killer micros have gone on the offensive not just individually (in workstations) but in hordes (within {massively parallel computers}). [{Jargon File}]

kirtimukha ::: "glory-face", [an architectural ornament in the form of a non-human face].

Knowledge Systems Laboratory (KSL) An {artificial intelligence} research laboratory within the Department of Computer Science at {Stanford University}. Current work focuses on {knowledge representation} for sharable engineering knowledge bases and systems, computational environments for modelling physical devices, architectures for adaptive intelligent systems, and {expert systems} for science and engineering. (1994-12-06)

lantern ::: n. --> Something inclosing a light, and protecting it from wind, rain, etc. ; -- sometimes portable, as a closed vessel or case of horn, perforated tin, glass, oiled paper, or other material, having a lamp or candle within; sometimes fixed, as the glazed inclosure of a street light, or of a lighthouse light.
An open structure of light material set upon a roof, to give light and air to the interior.
A cage or open chamber of rich architecture, open below


Lean An experimental language from the {University of Nijmegen} and {University of East Anglia}, based on graph rewriting and useful as an intermediate language. Lean is descended from {Dactl0}. {Clean} is a subset of Lean. ["Towards an Intermediate Language Based on Graph Rewriting", H.P. Barendregt et al in PARLE: Parallel Architectures and Languages Europe, G. Goos ed, LNCS 259, Springer 1987, pp.159-175]. (1995-01-25)

linear address space A memory addressing scheme used in processors where the whole memory can be accessed using a single address that fits in a single register or instruction. This contrasts with a {segmented memory} architecture, such as that used on the {Intel 8086}, where an address is given by an offset from a base address held in one of the "segment registers". Linear addressing greatly simplifies programming at the {assembly language} level but requires more instruction word bits to be allocated for an address. (1995-02-16)

link farm "file system, Unix" A directory tree that contains mostly {symbolic links} to files in a master directory tree of files. Link farms save space when one is maintaining several nearly identical copies of the same source tree - for example, when the only difference is architecture-dependent object files. They also mean that changes to the master tree are instantly visible in the link farm. Good {text editors} provide the option to replace a link with a new version of the target file when saving thus allowing the farm to have its own versions of just those files that differ from the master tree. E.g. "Let's freeze the source and then rebuild the FROBOZZ-3 and FROBOZZ-4 link farms." Link farms may also be used to get around restrictions on the number of "-I" (include-file directory) arguments on older C preprocessors. However, they can also get completely out of hand, becoming the file system equivalent of {spaghetti code}. [{Jargon File}] (2001-02-08)

LISA 1. "computer" Local Integrated Software Architecture. A {personal computer} introduced by {Apple Computer, Inc.} in 1983. The LISA was a predecessor of the {Macintosh} and was the first personal computer on the market with a {graphical user interface}. It was origionally named after {Steve Jobs}'s daughter. The acronym was applied later. [Spec?] 2. "tool" A system for statistical data analysis, similar to {S}. {FTP MIT (ftp://dolphin.mit.edu/)}. 3. "event" {Large Installation Systems Administration}. (2001-10-16)

Lisp Machine 1. "architecture" Any {machine} (whether notional or actual) whose instruction set is {Lisp}. 2. "hardware, operating system" A line of {workstations} made by {Symbolics, Inc.} from the mid-1970s (having grown out of the {MIT AI Lab}) to late 1980s. All system code for Symbolics Lisp Machines was written in {Lisp Machine Lisp}. Symbolics Lisp Machines were also notable for having had {space-cadet keyboards}. [More details and historical background?] {Lisp Machine Museum (http://kogs-www.informatik.uni-hamburg.de/~moeller/symbolics-info/symbolics.html)}. (2003-07-03)

lithic ::: a. --> Of or pertaining to stone; as, lithic architecture.
Pertaining to the formation of uric-acid concretions (stone) in the bladder and other parts of the body; as, lithic diathesis.
Pertaining to or denoting lithium or some of its compounds. ::: n.


little-endian "data, architecture" A computer architecture in which, within a given 16- or 32-bit {word}, bytes at lower addresses have lower significance (the word is stored "little-end-first"). The {PDP-11} and {VAX} families of computers and {Intel} {microprocessors} and a lot of communications and networking hardware are little-endian. The term is sometimes used to describe the ordering of units other than bytes; most often, bits within a byte. Compare {big-endian}, {middle-endian}. See {NUXI problem}. [{Jargon File}] (1995-08-16)

locality 1. In sequential architectures programs tend to access data that has been accessed recently (temporal locality) or that is at an address near recently referenced data (spatial locality). This is the basis for the speed-up obtained with a {cache} memory. 2. In a multi-processor architecture with distributed memory it takes longer to access the memory attached to a different processor. This overhead increases with the number of communicating processors. Thus to efficiently employ many processors on a problem we must increase the proportion of references which are to local memory. (1995-02-28)

loggia ::: n. --> A roofed open gallery. It differs from a veranda in being more architectural, and in forming more decidedly a part of the main edifice to which it is attached; from a porch, in being intended not for entrance but for an out-of-door sitting-room.

lonis quatorze ::: --> Of, pertaining to, or resembling, the art or style of the times of Louis XIV. of France; as, Louis quatorze architecture.

loose bytes Commonwealth hackish term for the padding bytes or {shims} many compilers insert between members of a {record} or {structure} to cope with alignment requirements imposed by the machine architecture.

Lorem ipsum "text" A common piece of text used as mock-{content} when testing a given page layout or {font}. The following text is often used: "Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetaur adipisicing elit, sed do eiusmod tempor incididunt ut labore et dolore magna aliqua. Ut enim ad minim veniam, quis nostrud exercitation ullamco laboris nisi ut aliquip ex ea commodo consequat. Duis aute irure dolor in reprehenderit in voluptate velit esse cillum dolore eu fugiat nulla pariatur. Excepteur sint occaecat cupidatat non proident, sunt in culpa qui officia deserunt mollit anim id est laborum." This continues at length and variously. The text is not really Greek, but badly garbled Latin. It started life as extracted phrases from sections 1.10.32 and 1.10.33 of Cicero's "De Finibus Bonorum et Malorum" ("The Extremes of Good and Evil"), which read: Sed ut perspiciatis unde omnis iste natus error sit voluptatem accusantium doloremque laudantium, totam rem aperiam, eaque ipsa quae ab illo inventore veritatis et quasi architecto beatae vitae dicta sunt explicabo. Nemo enim ipsam voluptatem quia voluptas sit aspernatur aut odit aut fugit, sed quia consequuntur magni dolores eos qui ratione voluptatem sequi nesciunt. Neque porro quisquam est, qui dolorem ipsum quia dolor sit amet, consectetur, adipisci velit, sed quia non numquam eius modi tempora incidunt ut labore et dolore magnam aliquam quaerat voluptatem. Ut enim ad minima veniam, quis nostrum exercitationem ullam corporis suscipit laboriosam, nisi ut aliquid ex ea commodi consequatur? Quis autem vel eum iure reprehenderit qui in ea voluptate velit esse quam nihil molestiae consequatur, vel illum qui dolorem eum fugiat quo voluptas nulla pariatur? At vero eos et accusamus et iusto odio dignissimos ducimus qui blanditiis praesentium voluptatum deleniti atque corrupti quos dolores et quas molestias excepturi sint occaecati cupiditate non provident, similique sunt in culpa qui officia deserunt mollitia animi, id est laborum et dolorum fuga. Et harum quidem rerum facilis est et expedita distinctio. Nam libero tempore, cum soluta nobis est eligendi optio cumque nihil impedit quo minus id quod maxime placeat facere possimus, omnis voluptas assumenda est, omnis dolor repellendus. Temporibus autem quibusdam et aut officiis debitis aut rerum necessitatibus saepe eveniet ut et voluptates repudiandae sint et molestiae non recusandae. Itaque earum rerum hic tenetur a sapiente delectus, ut aut reiciendis voluptatibus maiores alias consequatur aut perferendis doloribus asperiores repellat. Translation: But I must explain to you how all this mistaken idea of denouncing pleasure and praising pain was born and I will give you a complete account of the system, and expound the actual teachings of the great explorer of the truth, the master-builder of human happiness. No one rejects, dislikes, or avoids pleasure itself, because it is pleasure, but because those who do not know how to pursue pleasure rationally encounter consequences that are extremely painful. Nor again is there anyone who loves or pursues or desires to obtain pain of itself, because it is pain, but because occasionally circumstances occur in which toil and pain can procure him some great pleasure. To take a trivial example, which of us ever undertakes laborious physical exercise, except to obtain some advantage from it? But who has any right to find fault with a man who chooses to enjoy a pleasure that has no annoying consequences, or one who avoids a pain that produces no resultant pleasure? On the other hand, we denounce with righteous indignation and dislike men who are so beguiled and demoralized by the charms of pleasure of the moment, so blinded by desire, that they cannot foresee the pain and trouble that are bound to ensue; and equal blame belongs to those who fail in their duty through weakness of will, which is the same as saying through shrinking from toil and pain. These cases are perfectly simple and easy to distinguish. In a free hour, when our power of choice is untrammelled and when nothing prevents our being able to do what we like best, every pleasure is to be welcomed and every pain avoided. But in certain circumstances and owing to the claims of duty or the obligations of business it will frequently occur that pleasures have to be repudiated and annoyances accepted. The wise man therefore always holds in these matters to this principle of selection: he rejects pleasures to secure other greater pleasures, or else he endures pains to avoid worse pains. -- Translation by H. Rackham, from his 1914 edition of De Finibus. However, since textual fidelity was unimportant to the goal of having {random} text to fill a page, it has degraded over the centuries, into "Lorem ipsum...". The point of using this text, or some other text of incidental intelligibility, is that it has a more-or-less normal (for English and Latin, at least) distribution of ascenders, descenders, and word-lengths, as opposed to just using "abc 123 abc 123", "Content here content here", or the like. The text is often used when previewing the layout of a document, as the use of more understandable text would distract the user from the layout being examined. A related technique is {greeking}. {Lorem Ipsum - All the facts (http://lipsum.com/)}. (2006-09-18)

Madhav: “Each of the seven worlds—the earths—were seen in their innate immortal nature. The principle of Sat-Chit-Ananda is embedded in each of them.” The Book of the Divine Mother

Madhav: “The triple heavens are the heavens of Sat, Chit and Ananda.” The Book of the Divine Mother

Madhav: “Triune ecstasies are the rapturous delights of Sat, Chit, Ananda, each with its distinct flavour.” The Book of the Divine Mother

mail-shell ::: n. --> A chiton.

malachite ::: n. --> Native hydrous carbonate of copper, usually occurring in green mammillary masses with concentric fibrous structure.

manas-citta (manas-chitta; manas chitta) ::: the emotional mind, "the life of sensations and emotions which are at the mercy of the outward touches of life and matter and their positive or negative reactions, joy and grief, pleasure and pain", constituting a "surface desire-soul" behind which is "the subliminal soul in us open to the universal delight [ananda] which the cosmic soul takes in its own existence and in the existence of the myriad souls that represent it and in the operations of mind, life and matter by which Nature lends herself to their play and development".

Manas (Sense-mind) ::: …the manas is a development from the external chitta; it is a first organising of the crude stuff of the consciousness excited and aroused by external contacts, bahya-sparsa.
   Ref: CSA Vol. 23-24, Page: 663


marble ::: n. --> A massive, compact limestone; a variety of calcite, capable of being polished and used for architectural and ornamental purposes. The color varies from white to black, being sometimes yellow, red, and green, and frequently beautifully veined or clouded. The name is also given to other rocks of like use and appearance, as serpentine or verd antique marble, and less properly to polished porphyry, granite, etc.
A thing made of, or resembling, marble, as a work of art, or record, in marble; or, in the plural, a collection of such works;


mechitarist ::: n. --> One of a religious congregation of the Roman Catholic Church devoted to the improvement of Armenians.

mediaeval ::: a. --> Of or relating to the Middle Ages; as, mediaeval architecture.

mekhitarist ::: n. --> See Mechitarist.

melchite ::: n. --> One of a sect, chiefly in Syria and Egypt, which acknowledges the authority of the pope, but adheres to the liturgy and ceremonies of the Eastern Church.

moresque ::: a. --> Of or pertaining to, or in the manner or style of, the Moors; Moorish. ::: n. --> The Moresque style of architecture or decoration. See Moorish architecture, under Moorish.

morisco ::: a. --> Moresque. ::: n. --> A thing of Moorish origin; as: (a) The Moorish language. (b) A Moorish dance, now called morris dance. Marston. (c) One who dances the Moorish dance. Shak. (d) Moresque decoration or architecture.

multivalvular ::: a. --> Having many valves.
Many-valved; having more than two valves; -- said of certain shells, as the chitons.


n. 1. An arched structure, usually of masonry or concrete, serving to cover a space. Also fig. 2. An arched overhead covering, such as the sky, that resembles the architectural structure in form. Chiefly poet. v. **3. vaulted. **Having a hemispherical vault or dome.

nervure ::: n. --> One of the nerves of leaves.
One of the chitinous supports, or veins, in the wings of incests.


obtected ::: a. --> Covered; protected.
Covered with a hard chitinous case, as the pupa of certain files.


odontoblast ::: n. --> One of the more or less columnar cells on the outer surface of the pulp of a tooth; an odontoplast. They are supposed to be connected with the formation of dentine.
One of the cells which secrete the chitinous teeth of Mollusca.


odontophore ::: n. --> A special structure found in the mouth of most mollusks, except bivalves. It consists of several muscles and a cartilage which supports a chitinous radula, or lingual ribbon, armed with teeth. Also applied to the radula alone. See Radula.

oillet ::: n. --> A small opening or loophole, sometimes circular, used in mediaeval fortifications.
A small circular opening, and ring of moldings surrounding it, used in window tracery in Gothic architecture.


omphalopsychite ::: n. --> A name of the Hesychasts, from their habit of gazing upon the navel.

orchitis ::: n. --> Inflammation of the testicles.

orthostade ::: n. --> A chiton, or loose, ungirded tunic, falling in straight folds.

overmind ::: Sri Aurobindo: "The overmind is a sort of delegation from the supermind (this is a metaphor only) which supports the present evolutionary universe in which we live here in Matter. If supermind were to start here from the beginning as the direct creative Power, a world of the kind we see now would be impossible; it would have been full of the divine Light from the beginning, there would be no involution in the inconscience of Matter, consequently no gradual striving evolution of consciousness in Matter. A line is therefore drawn between the higher half of the universe of consciousness, parardha , and the lower half, aparardha. The higher half is constituted of Sat, Chit, Ananda, Mahas (the supramental) — the lower half of mind, life, Matter. This line is the intermediary overmind which, though luminous itself, keeps from us the full indivisible supramental Light, depends on it indeed, but in receiving it, divides, distributes, breaks it up into separated aspects, powers, multiplicities of all kinds, each of which it is possible by a further diminution of consciousness, such as we reach in Mind, to regard as the sole or the chief Truth and all the rest as subordinate or contradictory to it.” *Letters on Yoga

   "The overmind is the highest of the planes below the supramental.” *Letters on Yoga

"In its nature and law the Overmind is a delegate of the Supermind Consciousness, its delegate to the Ignorance. Or we might speak of it as a protective double, a screen of dissimilar similarity through which Supermind can act indirectly on an Ignorance whose darkness could not bear or receive the direct impact of a supreme Light.” The Life Divine

"The Overmind is a principle of cosmic Truth and a vast and endless catholicity is its very spirit; its energy is an all-dynamism as well as a principle of separate dynamisms: it is a sort of inferior Supermind, — although it is concerned predominantly not with absolutes, but with what might be called the dynamic potentials or pragmatic truths of Reality, or with absolutes mainly for their power of generating pragmatic or creative values, although, too, its comprehension of things is more global than integral, since its totality is built up of global wholes or constituted by separate independent realities uniting or coalescing together, and although the essential unity is grasped by it and felt to be basic of things and pervasive in their manifestation, but no longer as in the Supermind their intimate and ever-present secret, their dominating continent, the overt constant builder of the harmonic whole of their activity and nature.” The Life Divine

   "The overmind sees calmly, steadily, in great masses and large extensions of space and time and relation, globally; it creates and acts in the same way — it is the world of the great Gods, the divine Creators.” *Letters on Yoga

"The Overmind is essentially a spiritual power. Mind in it surpasses its ordinary self and rises and takes its stand on a spiritual foundation. It embraces beauty and sublimates it; it has an essential aesthesis which is not limited by rules and canons, it sees a universal and an eternal beauty while it takes up and transforms all that is limited and particular. It is besides concerned with things other than beauty or aesthetics. It is concerned especially with truth and knowledge or rather with a wisdom that exceeds what we call knowledge; its truth goes beyond truth of fact and truth of thought, even the higher thought which is the first spiritual range of the thinker. It has the truth of spiritual thought, spiritual feeling, spiritual sense and at its highest the truth that comes by the most intimate spiritual touch or by identity. Ultimately, truth and beauty come together and coincide, but in between there is a difference. Overmind in all its dealings puts truth first; it brings out the essential truth (and truths) in things and also its infinite possibilities; it brings out even the truth that lies behind falsehood and error; it brings out the truth of the Inconscient and the truth of the Superconscient and all that lies in between. When it speaks through poetry, this remains its first essential quality; a limited aesthetical artistic aim is not its purpose.” *Letters on Savitri

"In the overmind the Truth of supermind which is whole and harmonious enters into a separation into parts, many truths fronting each other and moved each to fulfil itself, to make a world of its own or else to prevail or take its share in worlds made of a combination of various separated Truths and Truth-forces.” Letters on Yoga

*Overmind"s.


Overmind ::: “The overmind is a sort of delegation from the supermind (this is a metaphor only) which supports the present evolutionary universe in which we live here in Matter. If supermind were to start here from the beginning as the direct creative Power, a world of the kind we see now would be impossible; it would have been full of the divine Light from the beginning, there would be no involution in the inconscience of Matter, consequently no gradual striving evolution of consciousness in Matter. A line is therefore drawn between the higher half of the universe of consciousness, parardha , and the lower half, aparardha. The higher half is constituted of Sat, Chit, Ananda, Mahas (the supramental)—the lower half of mind, life, Matter. This line is the intermediary overmind which, though luminous itself, keeps from us the full indivisible supramental Light, depends on it indeed, but in receiving it, divides, distributes, breaks it up into separated aspects, powers, multiplicities of all kinds, each of which it is possible by a further diminution of consciousness, such as we reach in Mind, to regard as the sole or the chief Truth and all the rest as subordinate or contradictory to it.” Letters on Yoga

palladian ::: a. --> Of, pertaining to, or designating, a variety of the revived classic style of architecture, founded on the works of Andrea Palladio, an Italian architect of the 16th century.

palmette ::: n. --> A floral ornament, common in Greek and other ancient architecture; -- often called the honeysuckle ornament.

parapleura ::: n. --> A chitinous piece between the metasternum and the pleuron of certain insects.

pargeting ::: p. pr. & vb. n. --> of Parget ::: n. --> Plasterwork; esp.: (a) A kind of decorative plasterwork in raised ornamental figures, formerly used for the internal and external decoration of houses. (b) In modern architecture, the plastering of the inside of flues, intended to give a smooth surface

pawnees ::: n. pl. --> A tribe of Indians (called also Loups) who formerly occupied the region of the Platte river, but now live mostly in the Indian Territory. The term is often used in a wider sense to include also the related tribes of Rickarees and Wichitas. Called also Pani.

pedestal ::: 1. An architectural support or base, as for a column or statue. 2. A support or foundation.

pediment ::: n. --> Originally, in classical architecture, the triangular space forming the gable of a simple roof; hence, a similar form used as a decoration over porticoes, doors, windows, etc.; also, a rounded or broken frontal having a similar position and use. See Temple.

pendant ::: n. --> Something which hangs or depends; something suspended; a hanging appendage, especially one of an ornamental character; as to a chandelier or an eardrop; also, an appendix or addition, as to a book.
A hanging ornament on roofs, ceilings, etc., much used in the later styles of Gothic architecture, where it is of stone, and an important part of the construction. There are imitations in plaster and wood, which are mere decorative features.
One of a pair; a counterpart; as, one vase is the pendant


pentastyle ::: a. --> Having five columns in front; -- said of a temple or portico in classical architecture. ::: n. --> A portico having five columns.

peribolos ::: n. --> In ancient architecture, an inclosed court, esp., one surrounding a temple.

periostracum ::: n. --> A chitinous membrane covering the exterior of many shells; -- called also epidermis.

peschito ::: n. --> See Peshito.

pilaster ::: n. --> An upright architectural member right-angled in plan, constructionally a pier (See Pier, 1 (b)), but architecturally corresponding to a column, having capital, shaft, and base to agree with those of the columns of the same order. In most cases the projection from the wall is one third of its width, or less.

pinnacle ::: n. --> An architectural member, upright, and generally ending in a small spire, -- used to finish a buttress, to constitute a part in a proportion, as where pinnacles flank a gable or spire, and the like. Pinnacles may be considered primarily as added weight, where it is necessary to resist the thrust of an arch, etc.
Anything resembling a pinnacle; a lofty peak; a pointed summit.


placophora ::: n. pl. --> A division of gastropod Mollusca, including the chitons. The back is covered by eight shelly plates. Called also Polyplacophora. See Illust. under Chiton, and Isopleura.

plasterwork ::: n. --> Plastering used to finish architectural constructions, exterior or interior, especially that used for the lining of rooms. Ordinarly, mortar is used for the greater part of the work, and pure plaster of Paris for the moldings and ornaments.

platband ::: n. --> A border of flowers in a garden, along a wall or a parterre; hence, a border.
A flat molding, or group of moldings, the width of which much exceeds its projection, as the face of an architrave.
A list or fillet between the flutings of a column.


plateresque ::: a. --> Resembling silver plate; -- said of certain architectural ornaments.

plinth ::: n. --> In classical architecture, a vertically faced member immediately below the circular base of a column; also, the lowest member of a pedestal; hence, in general, the lowest member of a base; a sub-base; a block upon which the moldings of an architrave or trim are stopped at the bottom. See Illust. of Column.

pneumoskeleton ::: n. --> A chitinous structure which supports the gill in some invertebrates.

portico ::: n. --> A colonnade or covered ambulatory, especially in classical styles of architecture; usually, a colonnade at the entrance of a building.

prakasho, vichitrabodho, jnanasamarthyam) ::: purity, clarity, variety of understanding, capacity for all knowledge (the elements of buddhisakti).

PRAKRTI. ::: Prakrti is only the executive or working force; the Pow'er behind the Prakrti is Shakti. It b the Chit-Shakti in manifestation ::: that is the spiritual consciousness.

prarabdha karma. ::: the destined acts that one has to undergo in one's present life; the part of sanchita karma which is ready to be experienced through the present body incarnation; portion of the past karma which is responsible for the present body &

prophragma ::: n. --> An internal dorsal chitinous process between the first two divisions of the thorax of insects.

proto-doric ::: a. --> Pertaining to, or designating, architecture, in which the beginnings of the Doric style are supposed to be found.

purusha. ::: the supreme Self which pervades the universe; conscious spirit; the living Principle; cosmic being whose mind is the moon, whose eyes are the sun and whose breath is the wind; That which fills the whole world with the form of sat-chit-ananda

quaint ::: a. --> Prudent; wise; hence, crafty; artful; wily.
Characterized by ingenuity or art; finely fashioned; skillfully wrought; elegant; graceful; nice; neat.
Curious and fanciful; affected; odd; whimsical; antique; archaic; singular; unusual; as, quaint architecture; a quaint expression.


rachitic ::: a. --> Of or pertaining to rachitis; affected by rachitis; rickety.

rachitis ::: n. --> Literally, inflammation of the spine, but commonly applied to the rickets. See Rickets.
A disease which produces abortion in the fruit or seeds.


rachitome ::: n. --> A dissecting instrument for opening the spinal canal.

radula ::: n. --> The chitinous ribbon bearing the teeth of mollusks; -- called also lingual ribbon, and tongue. See Odontophore.

rhabdopleura ::: n. --> A genus of marine Bryozoa in which the tubular cells have a centralchitinous axis and the tentacles are borne on a bilobed lophophore. It is the type of the order Pterobranchia, or Podostomata

rhachitis ::: n. --> See Rachitis.

rickets ::: n. pl. --> A disease which affects children, and which is characterized by a bulky head, crooked spine and limbs, depressed ribs, enlarged and spongy articular epiphyses, tumid abdomen, and short stature, together with clear and often premature mental faculties. The essential cause of the disease appears to be the nondeposition of earthy salts in the osteoid tissues. Children afflicted with this malady stand and walk unsteadily. Called also rachitis.

romanesque ::: a. --> Somewhat resembling the Roman; -- applied sometimes to the debased style of the later Roman empire, but esp. to the more developed architecture prevailing from the 8th century to the 12th.
Of or pertaining to romance or fable; fanciful. ::: n. --> Romanesque style.


rūpa (chitrarupa; chitra rupa) ::: pictorial image: two-dimensional rūpa seen on a background from which the mental eye draws its material.

Sachchidananda ::: [Sat-Chit-Ananda]

sanchita karma. ::: all the accumulated actions of all previous births that still remains to be experienced; the store of karmic debts accumulated from the past or previous births; a collection of past karmas

saracenical ::: a. --> Of or pertaining to the Saracens; as, Saracenic architecture.

sat-chit-ananda. ::: the natural state of being-knowledge-bliss; Truth being in bliss; Truth being in bliss; the Source of knowledge or consciousness; pure knowledge &

sat-cit-ananda (sat-chit-ananda) ::: (usually spelled saccidananda) sat-cit-ananda Existence-Consciousness-Bliss, "the infinite being [sat], the infinite consciousness [cit], the infinite delight [ananda] which are the supreme planes of existence and from which all else derives or descends into this obscurer ambiguous manifestation"; referred to as "thrice seven" planes because "each of the divine principles contains in itself the whole potentiality of all the other six notes of our being" (see loka).

sat samudra (chit samudra) ::: ocean of existence.

sclerite ::: n. --> A hard chitinous or calcareous process or corpuscle, especially a spicule of the Alcyonaria.

scotia ::: n. --> A concave molding used especially in classical architecture.
Scotland


scroll ::: n. --> A roll of paper or parchment; a writing formed into a roll; a schedule; a list.
An ornament formed of undulations giving off spirals or sprays, usually suggestive of plant form. Roman architectural ornament is largely of some scroll pattern.
A mark or flourish added to a person&


seaboat ::: --> A boat or vessel adapted to the open sea; hence, a vessel considered with reference to her power of resisting a storm, or maintaining herself in a heavy sea; as, a good sea boat.
A chitin.


sea bug ::: --> A chiton.

sea devil ::: --> Any very large ray, especially any species of the genus Manta or Cepholoptera, some of which become more than twenty feet across and weigh several tons. See also Ox ray, under Ox.
Any large cephalopod, as a large Octopus, or a giant squid (Architeuthis). See Devilfish.
The angler.


Seder V, Kodashim (holy things), 11 tractates: sacrifices, slaughter of animals, ritual dietetics, first born animals, vows, excommunication, sacrilege, temple architecture and rituals.

Sense-mind ::: The manas is a development from the external chitta; it is a first organising of the crude stuff of the consciousness excited and aroused by external contacts, bahya-sparsa.
   Ref: CWSA Vol. 23-24, Page: 663


sertularian ::: n. --> Any species of Sertularia, or of Sertularidae, a family of hydroids having branched chitinous stems and simple sessile hydrothecae. Also used adjectively.

seta ::: n. --> Any slender, more or less rigid, bristlelike organ or part; as the hairs of a caterpillar, the slender spines of a crustacean, the hairlike processes of a protozoan, the bristles or stiff hairs on the leaves of some plants, or the pedicel of the capsule of a moss.
One of the movable chitinous spines or hooks of an annelid. They usually arise in clusters from muscular capsules, and are used in locomotion and for defense. They are very diverse in form.
One of the spinelike feathers at the base of the bill of


shell ::: n. --> A hard outside covering, as of a fruit or an animal.
The covering, or outside part, of a nut; as, a hazelnut shell.
A pod.
The hard covering of an egg.
The hard calcareous or chitinous external covering of mollusks, crustaceans, and some other invertebrates. In some mollusks, as the cuttlefishes, it is internal, or concealed by the mantle. Also,


shipbuilder ::: n. --> A person whose occupation is to construct ships and other vessels; a naval architect; a shipwright.

shipbuilding ::: n. --> Naval architecturel the art of constructing ships and other vessels.

*Sri Aurobindo: "In the ancient Indian system there is only one triune supernal, Sachidananda. Or if you speak of the upper hemisphere as the supernal, there are three, Sat plane, Chit plane and Ananda plane. The Supermind could be added as a fourth, as it draws upon the other three and belongs to the supper hemisphere.” Letters on Yoga and On Himself*

sthapatya ::: (literally) architecture; (by extension) sculpture; sculpsthapatya tural; three-dimensional images (rūpa) or writing (lipi) seen in relief, as if sculptured, on a background from which the mental eye draws its material (cf. citra); short for sthapatyadr.s.t.i.

story ::: v. t. --> A set of rooms on the same floor or level; a floor, or the space between two floors. Also, a horizontal division of a building&

suddhananda (shuddhananda; suddhananda) ::: pure ananda, "the suddhananda pure delight of the Infinite"; the form of subjective ananda corresponding to the plane of transcendent bliss (anandaloka) or to the sub-planes created by the "repetition of the Ananda plane in each lower world of consciousness". It brings the "sense of Supreme Beauty in all things" (sarvasaundarya), differing from cidghanananda in that it "transcends or contains" the beauty of gun.a (quality) proper to vijñana, depending "not on knowledge-perception of the separate guna & yatharthya [truth] of things, but on being-perception in chit of the universal ananda of things"; its highest intensities are experienced when the soul "casts itself into the absolute existence of the spirit and is enlarged into its own entirely self-existent bliss infinitudes". suddha pravr suddha pravrtti

supernal ::: “In the ancient Indian system there is only one triune supernal, Sachidananda. Or if you speak of the upper hemisphere as the supernal, there are three, Sat plane, Chit plane and Ananda plane. The Supermind could be added as a fourth, as it draws upon the other three and belongs to the supper hemisphere.” Letters on Yoga and On Himself

taenia ::: n. --> A genus of intestinal worms which includes the common tapeworms of man. See Tapeworm.
A band; a structural line; -- applied to several bands and lines of nervous matter in the brain.
The fillet, or band, at the bottom of a Doric frieze, separating it from the architrave.


taenidium ::: n. --> The chitinous fiber forming the spiral thread of the tracheae of insects. See Illust. of Trachea.

tarsiatura ::: n. --> A kind of mosaic in woodwork, much employed in Italy in the fifteenth century and later, in which scrolls and arabesques, and sometimes architectural scenes, landscapes, fruits, flowers, and the like, were produced by inlaying pieces of wood of different colors and shades into panels usually of walnut wood.

tectonic ::: a. --> Of or pertaining to building or construction; architectural.

Tehmi: “It is Ananda. This is preceded by a description of Satchitananda.”

Tehmi: “Satchitananda. In the previous line it is the holocaust of the Purusha . By that sacrifice heaven comes down to us.”

Teleological Argument for God: (Gr. telos, end or purpose) Sometimes referred to as the argument from design. Events, objects, or persons are alleged to reveal a kind of relationship which suggests a purpose or end toward which they move. Such ends reveal a Fashioner or Designer who guides and directs toward the fulfillment of their functions. This Architect is God. Paley (1745-1805) in his Natural Theology is a classic expositor of the argument. Kant favored the argument, but held that it leaned too heavily upon the cosmological argument which in turn rested upon the ontological, both of which crumbled when critical analysis is applied. -- V.F.

teufit ::: n. --> The lapwing; -- called also teuchit.

theca ::: n. --> A sheath; a case; as, the theca, or cell, of an anther; the theca, or spore case, of a fungus; the theca of the spinal cord.
The chitinous cup which protects the hydranths of certain hydroids.
The more or less cuplike calicle of a coral.
The wall forming a calicle of a coral.


  "The void is the condition of the Self — free, wide and silent. It seems void to the mind but in reality it is simply a state of pure existence and consciousness, Sat and Chit with Shanti.” *Letters on Yoga

“The void is the condition of the Self—free, wide and silent. It seems void to the mind but in reality it is simply a state of pure existence and consciousness, Sat and Chit with Shanti.” Letters on Yoga

Thnetopsychite: (Gr.) One who confesses the doctrine that the soul dies when the body dies and rises when it is resurrected. -- K.F.L.

trachitis ::: n. --> Tracheitis.

trematodea ::: n. pl. --> An extensive order of parasitic worms. They are found in the internal cavities of animals belonging to all classes. Many species are found, also, on the gills and skin of fishes. A few species are parasitic on man, and some, of which the fluke is the most important, are injurious parasites of domestic animals. The trematodes usually have a flattened body covered with a chitinous skin, and are furnished with two or more suckers for adhesion. Most of the species are hermaphrodite. Called also Trematoda, and Trematoidea. See Fluke,

trichite ::: n. --> A kind of crystallite resembling a bunch of hairs, common in obsidian. See Illust. of Crystallite.
A delicate, hairlike siliceous spicule, found in certain sponges.


Trinity ::: Madhav: “The Trinity is Sat-Chit-Ananda, the triple formulation of the Reality as Existence-Consciousness-Bliss.” The Book of the Divine Mother

trochite ::: n. --> A wheel-like joint of the stem of a fossil crinoid.

trophonian ::: a. --> Of or pertaining to Trophonius, his architecture, or his cave and oracle.

tubulicole ::: n. --> Any hydroid which has tubular chitinous stems.

tuscan ::: a. --> Of or pertaining to Tuscany in Italy; -- specifically designating one of the five orders of architecture recognized and described by the Italian writers of the 16th century, or characteristic of the order. The original of this order was not used by the Greeks, but by the Romans under the Empire. See Order, and Illust. of Capital. ::: n.

uncinus ::: n. --> One of the peculiar minute chitinous hooks found in large numbers in the tori of tubicolous annelids belonging to the Uncinata.

upokororo ::: n. --> An edible fresh-water New Zealand fish (Prototroctes oxyrhynchus) of the family Haplochitonidae. In general appearance and habits, it resembles the northern lake whitefishes and trout. Called also grayling.

urechitin ::: n. --> A glucoside extracted from the leaves of a certain plant (Urechitis suberecta) as a bitter white crystalline substance.

urechitoxin ::: n. --> A poisonous glucoside found accompanying urechitin, and extracted as a bitter white crystalline substance.

verditer ::: n. --> Verdigris.
Either one of two pigments (called blue verditer, and green verditer) which are made by treating copper nitrate with calcium carbonate (in the form of lime, whiting, chalk, etc.) They consist of hydrated copper carbonates analogous to the minerals azurite and malachite.


vicitrabodha (vichitrabodha; vichitra bodha) ::: "richness and great variety and minuteness of the perceptions", an element of buddhisakti.

vicitra (vichitra) ::: rich and varied; variegated.

vignette ::: n. --> A running ornament consisting of leaves and tendrils, used in Gothic architecture.
A decorative design, originally representing vine branches or tendrils, at the head of a chapter, of a manuscript or printed book, or in a similar position; hence, by extension, any small picture in a book; hence, also, as such pictures are often without a definite bounding line, any picture, as an engraving, a photograph, or the like, which vanishes gradually at the edge.


Visvakarman ::: the divine architect of the universe, identified with Tvas.t.r..

vitruvian ::: a. --> Of or pertaining to Vitruvius, an ancient Roman architect.

wichitas ::: n. pl. --> A tribe of Indians native of the region between the Arkansas and Red rivers. They are related to the Pawnees. See Pawnees.

wood ::: 1. A dense growth of trees or underbrush covering a relatively small or confined area. Often used in the plural. 2. The trunks or main stems of trees as suitable for architectural and other purposes; timber or lumber. wood"s, woods.

zoophorous ::: n. --> The part between the architrave and cornice; the frieze; -- so called from the figures of animals carved upon it.



QUOTES [9 / 9 - 91 / 91]


KEYS (10k)

   4 Sri Aurobindo
   2 Sri Ramakrishna
   2 Johann Wolfgang von Goethe
   1 Kurt Vonnegut

NEW FULL DB (2.4M)

   7 Nichita St nescu
   6 Chitra Banerjee Divakaruni
   4 Louis Kahn
   4 Joan D Chittister
   2 Ralph Waldo Emerson
   2 Philip Johnson
   2 Peter Eisenman
   2 Oscar Niemeyer
   2 Kenneth Atchity
   2 Johann Wolfgang von Goethe
   2 Jean Nouvel

1:Chit is an action of Being, not of the Void. What it sees, that becomes. ~ Sri Aurobindo, Isha Upanishad: Brahman, Oneness of God and the World,
2:Absolute consciousness is in its nature absolute power; the nature of Chit is Shakti. ~ Sri Aurobindo, The Life Divine, The Origin of the Ignorance,
3:The Power of self-aware existence, whether drawn into itself or acting in the works of its consciousness and force, its knowledge and its will, Chit and Tapas, Chit and its Shakti,-that is Prakriti.
   ~ Sri Aurobindo, The Synthesis Of Yoga,
4:People say like that [the Transcendent is something beyond Sachchidananda] because the transcendent Absolute is not only what to us is existence but also what to us is non-existence. But there is really no such thing as non-existence. So the Transcendent can be conceived as transcendent Sat, transcendent Chit, transcendent Ananda. ~ Sri Aurobindo, Letters On Yoga - I,
5:SRI AUROBINDO'S SYMBOL
   [facsimile]
   The descending triangle represents Sat-Chit-Ananda.
   The ascending triangle represents the aspiring answer from matter under the form of life, light and love.
   The junction of both - the central square - is the perfect manifestation having at its centre the Avatar of the Supreme - the lotus.
   The water - inside the square - represents the multiplicity,
   the creation.
   4 April 1958
   ~ The Mother, Words Of The Mother I,
6:Purusha and Prakriti in their union and duality arise from the being of Sachchidananda. Self-conscious existence is the essential nature of the Being; that is Sat or Purusha. The Power of self-aware existence, whether drawn into itself or acting in the works of its consciousness and force, its knowledge and its will, Chit and Tapas, Chit and its Shakti,-that is Prakriti. Delight of being, Ananda, is the eternal truth of the union of this conscious being and its conscious force whether absorbed in itself or else deployed in the inseparable duality of its two aspects.
   ~ Sri Aurobindo, The Synthesis Of Yoga, Soul and Nature,
7:D.: Will the description of Brahman as Sat-Chit-Ananda suit this suddha manas? For this too will be destroyed in the final emancipation.
M.: If suddha manas is admitted, the Bliss (Ananda) experienced by the Jnani must also be admitted to be reflected. This reflection must finally merge into the Original. Therefore the jivanmukti state is compared to the reflection of a spotless mirror in another similar mirror. What will be found in such a reflection? Pure Akasa (Ether). Similarly, the jnani's reflected Bliss (Ananda) represents only the true Bliss. These are all only words. It is enough that a person becomes antarmukhi (inward-bent). The sastras are not needed for an inward turned mind. They are meant for the rest. ~ Sri Ramana Maharshi, Talks, 513,
8:The usual sadhanas have for aim the union with the Supreme Consciousness (Sat-chit-ananda). And those who reach there are satisfied with their own liberation and leave the world to its unhappy plight. On the contrary, Sri Aurobindo's sadhana starts where the others end. Once the union with the Supreme is realised one must bring down that realisation to the exterior world and change the conditions of life upon the earth until a total transformation is accomplished. In accordance with this aim, the sadhaks of the integral yoga do not retire from the world to lead a life of contemplation and meditation. Each one must devote at least one third of his time to a useful work. All activities are represented in the Ashram and each one chooses the work most congenial to his nature, but must do it in a spirit of service and unselfishness, keeping always in view the aim of integral transformation. ~ The Mother, Words Of The Mother I,
9:But in the integral conception the Conscious Soul is the Lord, the Nature-Soul is his executive Energy. Purusha is of the nature of Sat, the being of conscious self-existence pure and infinite; Shakti or Prakriti is of the nature of Chit, - it is power of the Purusha's self-conscious existence, pure and infinite. The relation of the two exists between the poles of rest and action. When the Energy is absorbed in the bliss of conscious self-existence, there is rest; when thePurusha pours itself out in the action of its Energy, there is action, creation and the enjoyment or Ananda of becoming. But if Ananda is the creator and begetter of all becoming, its method is Tapas or force of the Purusha's consciousness dwelling upon its own infinite potentiality in existence and producing from it truths of conception or real Ideas, vijnana, which, proceedingfrom an omniscient and omnipotent Self-existence, have the surety of their own fulfilment and contain in themselves the nature and law of their own becoming in the terms of mind, life and matter. The eventual omnipotence of Tapas and the infallible fulfilment of the Idea are the very foundation of all Yoga. In man we render these terms by Will and Faith, - a will that is eventually self-effective because it is of the substance of Knowledge and a faith that is the reflex in the lower consciousness of a Truth or real Idea yet unrealised in the manifestation. It is this self-certainty of the Idea which is meant by the Gita when it says, yo yac-chraddhah sa eva sah, 'whatever is a man's faith or the sure Idea in him, that he becomes.'
   ~ Sri Aurobindo, The Synthesis Of Yoga, The Conditions of the Synthesis, The Synthesis of the Systems, 43,

*** WISDOM TROVE ***

1:Thus one should know oneself to be of the nature of Existence-Consciousness-Bliss[Sat-Chit-Ananda]. ~ adi-shankara, @wisdomtrove
2:Through all your bodies and souls shines awareness, the pure light of chit. Hold on to it unswervingly. Without awareness, the body would not last a second. There is in the body a current of energy, affection and intelligence, which guides, maintains and energises the body. Discover that current and stay with it. ~ sri-nisargadatta-maharaj, @wisdomtrove
3:As one and the same material, viz. water, is called by different names by different people&

*** NEWFULLDB 2.4M ***

1:Madame, may I see your dog’s chit, please, ~ Kenneth Oppel,
2:People with autism aren't interested in social chit-chat. ~ Temple Grandin,
3:him to pay attention to some chit, and he refused on the grounds the girl ~ Julie Johnstone,
4:In many parts of India, chit funds address gaps left by the traditional banking sector. ~ R Vaidyanathan,
5:The multiple differences of this world are a sportive play of Chit-Shakti, the one Whole. ~ Sri Ramana Maharshi,
6:But liking someone whose species you dislike is something--worth more than currency on a chit. ~ Cecil Castellucci,
7:Thus one should know oneself to be of the nature of Existence-Consciousness-Bliss[Sat-Chit-Ananda]. ~ Adi Shankara,
8:I guess I'm not really fond of just chit-chatting. I want to learn something and have an experience. ~ Rachel Kushner,
9:To keep the mind constantly turned within and to abide in the Self is Atmavichara, Sat-Chit-Ananda (Being-Consciousness-Bliss). ~ Sri Ramana,
10:Chit is an action of Being, not of the Void. What it sees, that becomes. ~ Sri Aurobindo, Isha Upanishad: Brahman, Oneness of God and the World,
11:If the lift is broken, I'll just sit and wait for them to sort it out. I don't believe in friendly conversation or chit-chat. ~ Marco Pierre White,
12:Nu suntem niciodată chit cu cei faţă de care avem obligaţii...,căci, dacă nu le mai datorăm bani, le datorăm totuşi recunoştinţă. ~ Alexandre Dumas,
13:Absolute consciousness is in its nature absolute power; the nature of Chit is Shakti. ~ Sri Aurobindo, The Life Divine, The Origin of the Ignorance,
14:I poo poo the chit.'
The attendant looked stunned. 'You cannot poo-poo the chit!'
I do.' Kate said solemnly. 'I do poo-poo.'
We'll walk. ~ Kenneth Oppel,
15:You are my flesh and blood and I have always doted on you, but right now I would have to say you deserve a haughty, ruined chit for your own and she deserves you. ~ Mary Balogh,
16:Kate gave a disdainful wave of her hand. “I poo-poo the chit.” The attendant looked stunned. “You cannot poo-poo the chit!” “I do,” she said solemnly. “I do poo-poo. ~ Kenneth Oppel,
17:The silence between us stretched out, but it wasn’t awkward. Sometimes there are people you can be quiet with, and you never feel the need to fill the gap with meaningless chit-chat. ~ Claudia Gray,
18:She'd always pitied the plight of genies until once when she'd freed one from a young beserker. Instead of thanks, the chit had laid into her, screaming, "To each her own, lightening whore! ~ Kresley Cole,
19:Ralph, honey, did Maurice suggest this topic as the way to go in the ‘getting to know you on an intimate level’ chit-chat category?” “No. He said to shut up.” “Listen to Maurice. He is your friend.” I ~ Gini Koch,
20:The highest octave kundalini is the golden light which occurs in the supraconscious; it is the supraconscious. It's what they call Sat Chit Ananda - existence, consciousness, bliss ... full consciousness. ~ Frederick Lenz,
21:His essential nature is sat-chit-ananda: (Sat) Absolute Being - He encompasses everything because there is nothing outside of him; (Chit) Absolute Consciousness - He is the complete consciousness ~ Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan,
22:The Power of self-aware existence, whether drawn into itself or acting in the works of its consciousness and force, its knowledge and its will, Chit and Tapas, Chit and its Shakti,-that is Prakriti.
   ~ Sri Aurobindo, The Synthesis Of Yoga,
23:Paul McCartney chit-chats with you, he makes eye contact with you, he seems really interested in what you're saying. He really puts everyone else at ease and makes them feel good so they're not nervous, which I think is really cool. ~ Rob Huebel,
24:A man’s life, Choje taught his monks, did not move in a linear progression, with each day an equal chit on the calendar of existence. Rather it moved from defining moment to defining moment, marked by the decisions that roiled the soul. ~ Eliot Pattison,
25:Find hard to talk to stranger. Terrible at chit-chat. Think people look at me funny then I start panic think have to be clever all of time. They not understand I artist, not entertainer! Magic of Bigfoot what happen when people not looking. ~ Graham Roumieu,
26:Somewhere around chapter seven she had started wondering if Lucinda, the annoyingly incompetent heroine of The Black Duke, truly deserved to live. The chit was forever whining about her life, while refusing to do anything about it. ~ Karen Hawkins,
27:The Lord is the refuge of all who seek refuge, the saviour of all who have to be saved. He is the Embodiment of Being-Awareness-Bliss (Sat-chit-ananda). He is now at Puttaparthi as the Effulgent Emperor over the region of Truth, Goodness and Beauty. ~ Sathya Sai Baba,
28:He did not blame them. Because in truth, that's what he did, what he was. Seduce and dominate. Charm and manipulate. A user of women. How they would scoff, Rothbury mused bitterly, if they knew that he was secretly in love with the silly little chit, spectacles and all. ~ Olivia Parker,
29:If you explore beneath shyness or party chit-chat, you can sometimes turn a dull exchange into an intriguing one. I've found this to be particularly true in the case of professors or intellectuals, who are full of fascinating information, but need encouragement before they'll divulge it. ~ Joyce Carol Oates,
30:Listen you..you.."he sputtered.

"You what ? You've already used hellion,draft girl and missy' .i can think of several more degradation,but then again im not the one trying so hard to be intimidating."

"How about you,maddending,foolish,moronic little chit ?"

"Much better !" she applauded. ~ Kate Noble,
31:This is what enlightenment is all about - a deep understanding that there is no problem. Then, with no problem to solve, what will you do? Immediately you start living. You will eat, you will sleep, you will love, you will work, you will have a chit-chat, you will sing, you will dance - what else is there to do? ~ Rajneesh,
32:The silence between us stretched out, but it wasn't awkward. Sometimes there are people you can be quiet with, and you never feel the need to fill the gap with meaningless chit-chat. I'd only become that close to a couple people in my hometown, and I'd always thought it took years. Lucas and I were already there. ~ Claudia Gray,
33:I have a title and a legacy to consider,” Alex said. “I can’t just choose any bride I want.” “Why the devil not?” Jack argued. “I would think that a title and fortune such as yours would buy a fellow a measure of eccentricity now and then. Marry the chit and spend the rest of your life grinning at all the naysayers.” Alex ~ Elizabeth Boyle,
34:Are you mad because I didn’t take the kiss? It wasn’t an insult. I have every intention of cashing that check. Just not with all your friends watching.”
“I appreciate that.”
“Yeah?” Another searching look. Then he smiled. “Good.”
“Doesn’t mean I’ll accept the chit when you cash it. But you scored points for chivalry. ~ Kelley Armstrong,
35:You unbelievably lucky chit!” Alex spoke. “You have parental permission—nay, parental expectation!—to avoid all versions of limp-necked, pasty white, simpering dandies who might come calling for your hand in marriage. Are you sure your father wouldn’t like to assume charge of me as well?” “I’m not sure my father could handle you. ~ Sarah MacLean,
36:They all fuss about me so,” she said. “They rub it in that I’m an old woman.”
“And you don’t feel like one.”
“No, I don’t, Jane. In spite of all my aches and pains–and I’ve got plenty. Inside I go on feeling just like a chit like Gina. Perhaps everyone does. The glass shows them how old they are and they just don’t believe it. ~ Agatha Christie,
37:I don't know what you believe in. I believe we just stop. Because if we move on to an afterlife, any kind of afterlife, that means there will be other people there. I'm tired of the chit chat. Oh, that is a handsome boy. He takes after his grandfather. Did they change the breakfast again? It tastes different to me.
For Eternity? No thanks. ~ Joey Comeau,
38:People say like that [the Transcendent is something beyond Sachchidananda] because the transcendent Absolute is not only what to us is existence but also what to us is non-existence. But there is really no such thing as non-existence. So the Transcendent can be conceived as transcendent Sat, transcendent Chit, transcendent Ananda. ~ Sri Aurobindo, Letters On Yoga - I,
39:In spite of all my aches and pains, and I've got plenty. Inside I go on feeling just a chit like Gina. Perhaps everyone does. The glass shows them how old they are and they just don't believe it. It seems only a few months ago that we were at Florence. Do you remember Fräulein Schweich and her boots?”

The two elderly women laughed together at events that had happened nearly half a century ago. ~ Agatha Christie,
40:It’s nice to hear your voice…?” The statement came out sounding like a question, as though I
were playing jeopardy and I’d chosen my category-
‘I’ll take ‘Charming Chit Chat’ for $200, Alex’ and behind the $200 read: ‘This is what you say
to the hot guy- you abandoned- when he returns after you inexplicably leave him and his private
jet in Las Vegas after having amazing and multiple occurrences of the hot sex. ~ Penny Reid,
41:And then I got it. Dan didn’t need me to bake cakes, or entertain his uncle, or dress up, or field his mother’s expectations, or make his sisters feel important, or chit-chat nicely to his relations. He just needed me to be there. Because when I was with him, it made it easier for him to be with his family. To be able to point across a room and say, “She’s with me,” to his Uncle Patrick, his mother, his cousins, but most important, to himself. ~ Kate Kerrigan,
42:SRI AUROBINDO'S SYMBOL
   [facsimile]
   The descending triangle represents Sat-Chit-Ananda.
   The ascending triangle represents the aspiring answer from matter under the form of life, light and love.
   The junction of both - the central square - is the perfect manifestation having at its centre the Avatar of the Supreme - the lotus.
   The water - inside the square - represents the multiplicity,
   the creation.
   4 April 1958
   ~ The Mother, Words Of The Mother I,
43:So, Lucile thinks, Gabrielle has the prospect of escape; but in her apartment at the rue des Cordeliers, she sits still and silent, in the conscious postures of pregnant women. Sometimes she cries; this chit Louise Gély trips down the stairs to join her in a few sniffles. Gabrielle is crying for her marriage, her soul and her king; Louise is crying, she supposes, for a broken doll or a kitten run over in the street. Can’t stand it, she thinks. Men are better company. ~ Hilary Mantel,
44:He for a considerable time used to frequent the Green Room, and seemed to take delight in dissipating his gloom, by mixing in the sprightly chit-chat of the motley circle then to be found there. Mr. David Hume related to me from Mr. Garrick, that Johnson at last denied himself this amusement, from considerations of rigid virtue; saying, ‘I’ll come no more behind your scenes, David; for the silk stockings and white bosoms of your actresses excite my amorous propensities. ~ Samuel Johnson,
45:He told me once that the devil dwells in you.” “No doubt he does believe it. And what do you think, Mariana Farr?” He did look faintly devilish, smiling down at me with his dark clothes and his dark hair and those glinting eyes the color of the forest that surrounded us, shutting us off together from the wider world. I studied him closely, and shrugged in my turn. “I am no simple chit in hanging sleeves, my lord. I have eyes of my own to judge with, and I see no horns. ~ Susanna Kearsley,
46:She was a clever girl, but she filled that brain of hers with far too much fluff on the types of gowns and the styles of bonnets. Then again, he shouldn’t be wishing her intelligence was put to use elsewhere. Lord knows the little chit might end up a brilliant political hostess or married to a member of the House of Lords. He wouldn’t give her credit for anything less and the very idea of her having any influence over a man in politics was terrifying.

-Lucien's thoughts about Audrey. His Wicked Seduction ~ Lauren Smith,
47:Sure. I'll make small talk. Chit chat.
Discuss the ins and outs of a "typical" day.
Pass the time lightly. Say tiny things.
I'm happy to tread surfaces with a smile,
and will. Sometimes.

Yet- when I look at you,
I know there are layers.
Dimensions. Collections of ancient wisdom.
Roads. Stories on stories on stories.
Core needs.

There is humanness.

This is where I light up.
This is where I thrive.

You can't be caged in a pool for long.
Not when you're someone
who wants oceans. ~ Victoria Erickson,
48:I don't want to call Jess, because we have bigger fish to fry than to chit-chat about my issues. I'm so upset with her right now that fried fish doesn't even sound good to me. Although once in Calabria, William and I had the most perfect fried sardines, silvery melt-in-your-mouth crisp and not at all fishy. God, what I would do to have a platter of them, along with a helping of 'nduja, the region's famously spicy pepperoncini salami spread, smeared across a fresh loaf of crusty bread. And an earthen pitcher of vino rosso, made by the contadini locali. ~ Jenny Gardiner,
49:Hero soon lost interest in the conversation, and left her chair to go and look out of the window into the busy street. When the Viscount at last rose to go she was employed in drawing faces on the dusty window-panes.
'If ever I saw such a troublesome chit!' exclaimed Sherry. 'Now look at your glove! What's more, I dare say Stoke don't like to have his windows looking like that.'
Mr. Stoke, watching in some amusement her ladyship's conscience-stricken scrutiny of one dirty finger-tip, said that he thought her window sketches brightened the room, and earned a grateful smile. ~ Georgette Heyer,
50:We cannot make ourselves known to each other; we are not healed and forgiven by each other’s presence. With words as valueless as poker chips, we play games whose object it is to keep us from seeing each other’s cards. Chit-chat games in which “How are you?” means “Don’t tell me who you are,” and “I’m alone and scared” becomes “Fine thanks.” Games where the players create the illusion of being in the same room but where the reality of it is that each is alone inside a skin in that room, like bathyspheres at the bottom of the sea. Blind man’s buff games where everyone is blind. ~ Frederick Buechner,
51:Purusha and Prakriti in their union and duality arise from the being of Sachchidananda. Self-conscious existence is the essential nature of the Being; that is Sat or Purusha. The Power of self-aware existence, whether drawn into itself or acting in the works of its consciousness and force, its knowledge and its will, Chit and Tapas, Chit and its Shakti,-that is Prakriti. Delight of being, Ananda, is the eternal truth of the union of this conscious being and its conscious force whether absorbed in itself or else deployed in the inseparable duality of its two aspects.
   ~ Sri Aurobindo, The Synthesis Of Yoga, Soul and Nature,
52:I really just want someone to come over and brush my hair or let me cry in their lap while they pet my head and tell me I'll be okay." And I cried harder because I felt so ashamed to want that from a friend—from someone who was not a romantic partner or a parent⁠—because I didn't have either right now but I still wanted it. We section off physical comfort and intimacy so heavily. We reserve it for partners only, and platonic friends can only chit-chat and that's it. How can you tell people to be okay with being single while also telling them they can only get the basic human needs of physical touch from not being single? ~ Lane Moore,
53:Are you mad because I didn’t take the kiss? It wasn’t an insult. I have every intention of cashing that check. Just not with all your friends watching.”
“I appreciate that.”
“Yeah?” Another searching look. Then he smiled. “Good.”
“Doesn’t mean I’ll accept the chit when you cash it. But you scored points for chivalry.”
“Yeah?”
I nodded. “Hayley was very impressed.”
He laughed. “Just what I need.”
“Did I hear someone say my name?” Hayley said, slipping over between us.
“That was Rafe,” I said, as we headed into the yard. “He said you’re just what he--”
Rafe coughed, covering the rest. I grinned and jogged to catch up with the others. ~ Kelley Armstrong,
54:She enticed him. She intrigued him. By heaven, she entranced him.
A woman, he thought again. Aidan hadn't been convinced, yet maybe Alec was right. Perhaps a woman was just what he needed.
But he rather suspected this prickly chit wasn't what either of them had in mind. No, he strongly suspected, Miss Fionna Hawkes was not the kind of woman with whom one had a hot, torrid affair.
Yet there was no denying that desire that scalded his veins like fire.
He wanted her, the lovely Miss Fionna Hawkes.
Around him. Beneath him. Atop him... he didn't care how.
And that certainly shocked him, as much as he was sure it would shock the fetchingly lovely Miss Hawkes. ~ Samantha James,
55:D.: Will the description of Brahman as Sat-Chit-Ananda suit this suddha manas? For this too will be destroyed in the final emancipation.
M.: If suddha manas is admitted, the Bliss (Ananda) experienced by the Jnani must also be admitted to be reflected. This reflection must finally merge into the Original. Therefore the jivanmukti state is compared to the reflection of a spotless mirror in another similar mirror. What will be found in such a reflection? Pure Akasa (Ether). Similarly, the jnani's reflected Bliss (Ananda) represents only the true Bliss. These are all only words. It is enough that a person becomes antarmukhi (inward-bent). The sastras are not needed for an inward turned mind. They are meant for the rest. ~ Sri Ramana Maharshi, Talks, 513,
56:My child, he had a child. My daughter, he had a daughter. She was just old enough to cook a holiday meal, and do a little sewing for himS in those days he merely sailed between Mexico and Peru and hundreds of times she waves him farewell or welcome. We have no way of know whether she was more beautiful or intelligent than the thousands of other girls that lived about him, but she was his. I suppose it seems ignoble to you that a great oak of a man should go about the world like a blind man about an empty house merely because a chit of a girl has been withdrawn from it. No, no, you cannot understand this, my adored one, but I understand and grow pale...You will laught at me, but I think he goes about the hemispheres to pass the time between now and his old age. ~ Thornton Wilder,
57:When Charles Darwin was trying to decide whether he should propose to his cousin Emma Wedgwood, he got out a pencil and paper and weighed every possible consequence. In favor of marriage he listed children, companionship, and the 'charms of music and female chit-chat.' Against marriage he listed the 'terrible loss of time,' lack of freedom to go where he wished, the burden of visiting relatives, the expense and anxiety provoked by children, the concern that 'perhaps my wife won't like London,' and having less money to spend on books. Weighing one column against the other produced a narrow margin of victory, and at the bottom Darwin scrawled, 'Marry—Marry—Marry Q.E.D.' Quod erat demonstrandum, the mathematical sign-off that Darwin himself restated in English: 'It being proved necessary to Marry. ~ Brian Christian,
58:The question is, Miss Finch . . . what are you doing in this village?”
“I’ve been trying to explain it to you. We have a community of ladies here in Spindle Cove, and we support one another with friendship, intellectual stimulation, and healthful living.”
“No, no. I can see how this might appeal to a mousy, awkward chit with no prospects for something better. But what are you doing here?”
Perplexed, she turned her gloved hands palms-up. “Living happily.”
“Really,” he said, giving her a skeptical look. Even his horse snorted in seeming disbelief. “A woman like you.”
She bristled. Just what kind of woman did he think she was?
“If you think yourself content with no man in your life, Miss Finch, that only proves one thing.” In a swift motion, he pulled himself into the saddle. His next words were spoken down at her, making her feel small and patronized. “You’ve been meeting all the wrong men. ~ Tessa Dare,
59:The usual sadhanas have for aim the union with the Supreme Consciousness (Sat-chit-ananda). And those who reach there are satisfied with their own liberation and leave the world to its unhappy plight. On the contrary, Sri Aurobindo's sadhana starts where the others end. Once the union with the Supreme is realised one must bring down that realisation to the exterior world and change the conditions of life upon the earth until a total transformation is accomplished. In accordance with this aim, the sadhaks of the integral yoga do not retire from the world to lead a life of contemplation and meditation. Each one must devote at least one third of his time to a useful work. All activities are represented in the Ashram and each one chooses the work most congenial to his nature, but must do it in a spirit of service and unselfishness, keeping always in view the aim of integral transformation. ~ The Mother, Words Of The Mother I,
60:Conversation turned to the swimming team and an upcoming meet, and Rafe’s gaze returned to the forest, like he was looking for an escape route.
I eased over, close enough to murmur, “Go on.”
“Hmm?”
This obviously isn’t your thing either.” I slowed to let the others get ahead. “You showed up. Good enough. Go on. Enjoy the rest of your night.”
“Trying to get rid of me?” He managed a smile that barely touched his eyes. “Or trying to get out of our deal? I won thirty minutes of your time, remember.”
“You can have a rain check on that, too.”
He searched my face. “Are you mad because I didn’t take the kiss? It wasn’t an insult. I have every intention of cashing that check. Just not with all your friends watching.”
“I appreciate that.”
“Yeah?” Another searching look. Then he smiled. “Good.”
“Doesn’t mean I’ll accept the chit when you cash it. But you scored points for chivalry. ~ Kelley Armstrong,
61:… In 1885, when he turned twenty-five, he let out the word that he was ready to settle down with the right girl. The matrons heaved a collective sigh of relief. How wonderful. The boy actually understood his duties to God and country.

He had no intention of marrying, of course, until he was at least forty-five – a society that so worshiped the infernal institution of marriage deserved to be misled. Let them try to matchmake. He did say the right girl, didn’t he? The right girl wouldn’t come along for twenty years, and she’d be a naive, plump-chested chit of seventeen who worshiped the ground on which he trod.

Little could he guess that at twenty-eight he would marry, out of the blue, a lady who was quite some years removed from seventeen, neither naive nor plump-chested, and who examined the ground on which he trod with a most suspicious eye, seeing villany in everything he said and did.

Her name was Louisa Cantwell, and she would be his undoing. ~ Sherry Thomas,
62:I can go an entire day without any socialisation, without a conversation with anyone. I wonder sometimes if I'm invisible. I feel like the old men and women who used to bother me by engaging in unnecessary chit-chat with the cashiers while I was stuck behind them, in a hurry, wanting to get on to the next place. When you don’t have a next place to go to, time slows down enormously. I feel myself noticing other people more, catching more eyes, or seeking out eye contact. I'm now ripe and ready for a conversation about anything with anyone; it would make my day if somebody would meet my eye, or if there was someone to talk to. But everyone is too busy, and that makes me feel invisible; and invisibility, contrary to what I believed before, lacks any sense of lightness and liberty. Instead it makes me feel heavy. And so I drag myself around, trying to convince myself that I don't feel heavy, invisible, bored and worthless, and that I am free. I do not convince myself well. ~ Cecelia Ahern,
63:and many tough life choices, Gwen must decide who or what she will become. Fleet Cadet or Civilian? Friend or lover? Average or extraordinary? Can she make new friends? Can she trust the old ones, such as Logan Sangre, her sexy high school crush and an Earth special operative? Time and time again, Gwen’s uncanny ability to come up with the best answer in a crisis saves her life and others. And now, her unique Logos voice makes her an extremely valuable commodity to the Atlanteans—so much so that her enigmatic commanding officer Aeson Kassiopei, who is also the Imperial Prince of Atlantis, has taken an increasingly personal interest in her. Before the end of the journey, Gwen must convince him that she has what it takes to compete in the deadly Games of the Atlantis Grail. It’s becoming apparent—the life of her family and all of Earth depends on it. COMPETE is the second book in The Atlantis Grail series. Don’t miss another book by Vera Nazarian! Subscribe to the mailing list to be notified when the next books by Vera Nazarian are available. We promise not to spam you or chit-chat, only make occasional book release announcements. ~ Vera Nazarian,
64:Then she jerked back with a siren's smile that made his confidence falter. "Well." She tapped her chin. "That was a decent kiss, all things being equal." She pressed her hand to her chest. "My heart is, if not quite racing, then heading into a quick walk. But I need a thermometer to determine if and how high my body heated. I shall just go--"

"Don't you dare." He caught her by the arm as she was on the verge of fleeing. "You know bloody well that you responded to that kiss."

With a suspicious glee in her eyes, she tugged her arm from his grip. "I'm not saying I didn't respond-- just that I didn't respond to any overwhelming degree. But it was a good kiss, I suppose. Better than some, not as good as others."

"What the hell do you mean? How many chaps have you kissed in the last nine years, anyway?"

"No more than you've kissed women, I should imagine."

"My God."

"But don't worry-- I don't think the average woman would complain about your kissing. You're perfectly competent."

Competent? Bloody insolent chit. Even knowing she was trying to provoke him didn't ease his wounded pride. "Perhaps we should try again."

-Giles and Minerva ~ Sabrina Jeffries,
65:We’ve all struggled with this: how to explain the desire to do something most people find pathological at best, selfish at worst, incomprehensible always. We sometimes describe it as a chit we were each handed at birth, a card to get out of jail free if one thinks of her life as jail.

Or we talk about the horizontal light, which is how we refer to the light that sometimes replaces sunlight, the light we see for a brief moment virtually every day, the light that isn’t golden, but is as silver as the nacre inside a seashell, and comes not down from the heavens but from beyond the skyline, oozing and seeping until it lies over the day like an opalescent blanket inviting us to slide beneath it. There’s no telling when we’ll see the horizontal light; it appears at a different time every day, and most days we overlook it—it tends to come and go in an instant—and on other days we see and it lingers, but we manage to ignore it or, at least, after a while, to look away from it.

But then there are the days we can’t look away. “Man, the horizontal light was really strong today,” one of us will say, and the other two will say, “But you resisted,” and the first one will say, “Yeah, well, today I resisted. Who knows about tomorrow?” and we all say, “Who ever knows about tomorrow?” and we refresh our drinks. ~ Judith Claire Mitchell,
66:The girl really needed to let him go.
This was the voyage Gray went respectable. And it was off to a very bad start.
It was all her fault-this delicate wisp of a governess, with that porcelain complexion and her big, round eyes tilting up at him like Wedgwood teacups. She looked as if she might break if he breathed on her wrong, and those eyes keep beseeching him, imploring him, making demands. Please, rescue me from this pawing brute. Please, take me on your ship and away to Tortola. Please, strip me out of this revolting gown and initiate me in the pleasure of the flesh right here on the barstool.
Well, innocent miss that she was, she might have lacked words to voice the third quite that way. But worldly man that he was, Gray cold interpret the silent petition quite clearly. He only wished he could discourage his body’s instinctive, affirmative response.
He didn’t know what to do with the girl. He ought to do the respectable thing, seeing as how this voyage marked the beginning of his respectable career. But Miss Turner had him pegged. He was no kind of gentleman, and damned if he knew the respectable thing. Allowing a young, unmarried, winsome lady to travel unaccompanied probably wasn’t it. But then, if he refused her, who was to say she wouldn’t end up in an even worse situation? The chit couldn’t handle herself for five minutes in a tavern. Was he truly going to turn her loose on the Gravesend quay? ~ Tessa Dare,
67:The whole world has been asking for the same these thousands of years. There is, again, the universal dissatisfaction. We make an ideal but we have rushed only half the way after it when we make a newer one. We struggle hard to attain to some goal and then discover we do not want it. This dissatisfaction we are having time after time, and what is there in the mind if there is to be only dissatisfaction? What is the meaning of this universal dissatisfaction? It is because freedom is every man's goal. He seeks it ever, his whole life is a struggle after it. The child rebels against law as soon as it is born. Its first utterance is a cry, a protest against the bondage in which it finds itself. This longing for freedom produces the idea of a Being who is absolutely free. The concept of God is a fundamental element in the human constitution. In the Vedanta, Sat-chit-ânanda (Existence-Knowledge-Bliss) is the highest concept of God possible to the mind. It is the essence of knowledge and is by its nature the essence of bliss. We have been stifling that inner voice long enough, seeking to follow law and quiet the human nature, but there is that human instinct to rebel against nature's laws. We may not understand what the meaning is, but there is that unconscious struggle of the human with the spiritual, of the lower with the higher mind, and the struggle attempts to preserve one's separate life, what we call our "individuality". ~ Swami Vivekananda,
68:A young woman stepped in front of the dais and cleared her throat. She had reddish-brown hair that hung in loose waves down her back. Her figure was slender and regal, and Ian could have easily drowned in her emerald eyes. But what captured his attention the most was the way the lass carried herself—confident, yet seemingly unaware of her true beauty.
She wore a black gown with hanging sleeves, and the embroidered petticoat under her skirts was lined in gray. With the added reticella lace collar and cuffs dyed with yellow starch, she looked as though she should have been at the English court rather than in the Scottish Highlands.
“Pardon me, Ruairi. Ravenna wanted me to tell you that we’re taking little Mary to the beach. We won’t be long. We’ll be in the garden until the mounts are readied, if you need us.”
When the woman’s eyes met Ian’s, something clicked in his mind. His face burned as he remembered. He shifted in the seat and pulled his tunic away from his chest. Why was the room suddenly hot? He felt like he was suffocating in the middle of the Sutherland great hall.
God help him.
This was the same young chit who had pined after him, following him around the castle and nipping at his heels like Angus, Ruairi’s black wolf. But like everything else that had transformed around here, so had she. She was no longer a girl but had become an enchantress—still young, but beautiful nevertheless. His musings were interrupted by a male voice.
“Munro, ye do remember Lady Elizabeth, eh?”
How could he forget the reason why he’d avoided Sutherland lands for the past three years? ~ Victoria Roberts,
69:Darius bit his tongue to keep from grinning as Nicole hoisted herself into the wagon. He managed to keep the smile contained until he stepped aside to allow Wellborn to assist his wife. The moment he turned his back on the little minx, however, he let it loose. She was making it awfully hard to keep up the disgruntled employer pretense that he’d started last night. He usually had no trouble being disgruntled around people, especially when he was trussed up in a jacket with ridiculously tight sleeves and a collar that made his neck itch. His bad temper was legendary in the Thornton household. ’Twas why his mother finally stopped forcing him to attend parties and why his father put him in charge of King Star’s accounting records. Yet a few teasing comments from Nicole had him mighty close to whistling, for pity’s sake. He actually liked the chit. Outside of his sister and mother, he couldn’t remember ever actually liking a woman before. Oh, he’d been attracted to several and even admired a few, but he’d always felt pressured to put on an act for them, to cover up his flaws so they wouldn’t see his true self. When the act became too tedious, he simply forfeited the chase. Without much regret. Nicole, however, had already seen his flaws. He’d paraded them before her since the moment she arrived for her interview. Yet instead of turning up her nose, she’d come to accept them as part of him, even teased him about them. It left him with no tedious act to maintain, only a growing hunger to learn more about her, to prove that he could accept her flaws, as well. Starting with that bullheaded stubbornness that kept her from asking for help. ~ Karen Witemeyer,
70:What, sir, would you think of a member of the Weaker Sex who assumed the guise of a man, and left the home of her natural protector by way of the window?"
"I should assume," replied Sir Richard, "that she had strong reasons for acting with such resolution."
"She did not wish to marry me," said Mr. Griffin gloomily.
"Oh!" said Sir Richard.
"Well, I'm sure I can't see why she should be so set against me, but that's not it, sir. The thing is that here's my mother determined to find her, and to make her marry me, and so hush up the scandal. But I don't like it above half. If she dislikes the notion so much, I don't think I ought to marry her, do you?"
"Emphatically not!"
"I must say I am very glad to hear you say that, Sir Richard!" said Mr. Griffin, much cheered. "For you must know that my mother has been telling me ever since yesterday that I must marry her now, to save her name. But I think she would very likely make me uncomfortable, and nothing could make up for that, in my opinion."
"A lady capable of escaping out of a window in the guise of a a man would quite certainly make you more than uncomfortable," said Sir Richard.
"Yes, though she's only a chit of a girl, you know. In fact, she is not yet out. I am very happy to have had the benefit of the opinion of a Man of the World. I feel that I can rely on your judgment."
"On my judgment, you might, but in nothing else, I assure you," said Sir Richard. "You know nothing of me, after all. How do you know that I am not now concealing your cousin from you?"
"Ha-ha! Very good, upon my word! Very good, indeed!" said Mr. Griffin, saluting a jest of the first water. ~ Georgette Heyer,
71:But in the integral conception the Conscious Soul is the Lord, the Nature-Soul is his executive Energy. Purusha is of the nature of Sat, the being of conscious self-existence pure and infinite; Shakti or Prakriti is of the nature of Chit, - it is power of the Purusha's self-conscious existence, pure and infinite. The relation of the two exists between the poles of rest and action. When the Energy is absorbed in the bliss of conscious self-existence, there is rest; when thePurusha pours itself out in the action of its Energy, there is action, creation and the enjoyment or Ananda of becoming. But if Ananda is the creator and begetter of all becoming, its method is Tapas or force of the Purusha's consciousness dwelling upon its own infinite potentiality in existence and producing from it truths of conception or real Ideas, vijnana, which, proceedingfrom an omniscient and omnipotent Self-existence, have the surety of their own fulfilment and contain in themselves the nature and law of their own becoming in the terms of mind, life and matter. The eventual omnipotence of Tapas and the infallible fulfilment of the Idea are the very foundation of all Yoga. In man we render these terms by Will and Faith, - a will that is eventually self-effective because it is of the substance of Knowledge and a faith that is the reflex in the lower consciousness of a Truth or real Idea yet unrealised in the manifestation. It is this self-certainty of the Idea which is meant by the Gita when it says, yo yac-chraddhah sa eva sah, 'whatever is a man's faith or the sure Idea in him, that he becomes.'
   ~ Sri Aurobindo, The Synthesis Of Yoga, The Conditions of the Synthesis, The Synthesis of the Systems, 43,
72:So, these competitors . . . What do they hope to gain by interfering with your journey?” The instant the question left his mouth, he knew it was too direct. Nicole dropped her gaze and removed her hand from his arm. “With all due respect, Mr. Thornton . . .” Drat. They were back to Mr. Thornton again. “ . . . the details of the business I’m conducting for my father are not your concern.” “They are if they put you in danger. And what of the rest of my staff?” Darius snatched the napkin from his lap and threw it onto the table before lurching to his feet and pacing behind his chair. “I have a right to know if having you here is putting them at risk.” “No greater risk than they face from your exploding boilers!” Nicole shot from her seat, color running high in her cheeks. The audacity of the chit. “I take every precaution—” “As do I.” She glared at him. “The Wellborns are in no peril, especially if they keep my presence here a secret. It’s doubtful that Jenkins’s sons will find me, anyway. Heaven knows they aren’t the sharpest knives in the drawer.” “As master of this house, it’s my duty to know the business of those under my roof.” He didn’t know what nonsense he was spouting now. He didn’t care. Nicole had let a vital piece of information slip in her anger, and he wasn’t about to let the argument cool long enough for her to notice her lapse. “Well, perhaps it’s time I collect the pay I’ve earned and leave you and your roof to your own devices.” Not on her life. The woman would be unprotected. Vulnerable. Easy prey for that Jenkins scum. But he couldn’t let her know his refusal was out of concern for her. She’d simply assure him she’d be fine and walk out the door. Darius crossed his arms over his chest and looked down his nose at her. “You agreed to accept payment after a term of two weeks. I’ll not pay a cent before then. You owe me ten more days, Miss Greyson. Or do you plan to renege on our agreement?” Her hands fisted at her sides. “I never go back on my word. ~ Karen Witemeyer,
73:As for the negation of the Christian Trinity in the Quran - and this negation is extrinsic and conditional - we must take account of certain shades of meaning. The Trinity can be envisaged according to a "vertical" perspective or according to either of two "horizontal" perspectives, one of them being supreme and the other not. The vertical perspective- Beyond-Being, Being and Existence - envisages the hypostases as "descending" from Unity or from the Absolute - or from the Essence it could be said - which means that it envisages the degrees of Reality. The supreme horizontal perspective corresponds to the Vedantic triad Sat (supraontological Reality), Chit (Absolute Consciousness) and Ananda (Infinite Beatitude), which means that it envisages the Trinity inasmuch as It is hidden in Unity(1). The non-supreme horizontal perspective on the contrary situates Unity as an essence hidden within the Trinity, which is then ontological and represents the three fundamental aspects or modes of Pure Being, whence the triad : Being, Wisdom, Will (Father, Son, Spirit).

Now the concept of a Trinity seen as a deployment (tajalli) of Unity or of the Absolute is in no way opposed to the unitary doctrine of Islam ; what is opposed to it is solely the attribution of absoluteness to the Trinity alone, or even to the ontological Trinity alone, as it is envisaged exoterically. This last point of view does not, strictly speaking, attain to the Absolute and this is as much as to say that it attributes an absolute character to what is relative and is ignorant of Maya and the degrees of reality or of illusion ; it does not conceive of the metaphysical - but not pantheistic - identity between manifestation and the Principle; still less, therefore, does it conceive of the consequence this identity implies from the point of view of the intellect and the knowledge which delivers.

(1) The Absolute is not the Absolute inasmuch as it contains aspects, but inasmuch as It transcends them; inasmuch as It is Trinity It is therefore not Absolute. ~ Frithjof Schuon,
74:A Word To The Unwise
Charles Main, of Main & Winchester, attend
With friendly ear the chit-chat of a friend
Who knows you not, yet knows that you and he
Travel two roads that have a common end.
We journey forward through the time allowed,
I humbly bending, you erect and proud.
Our heads alike will stable soon the worm
The one that's lifted, and the one that's bowed.
You in your mausoleum shall repose,
I where it pleases Him who sleep bestows;
What matter whether one so little worth
Shall stain the marble or shall feed the rose?
Charles Main, I had a friend who died one day.
A metal casket held his honored clay.
Of cyclopean architecture stood
The splendid vault where he was laid away.
A dozen years, and lo! the roots of grass
Had burst asunder all the joints; the brass,
The gilded ornaments, the carven stones
Lay tumbled all together in a mass.
A dozen years! That taxes your belief.
Make it a thousand if the time's too brief.
'Twill be the same to you; when you are dead
You cannot even count your days of grief.
Suppose a pompous monument you raise
Till on its peak the solar splendor blaze
While yet about its base the night is black;
But will it give your glory length of days?
Say, when beneath your rubbish has been thrown,
Some rogue to reputation all unknown
Men's backs being turned-should lift his thieving hand,
Efface your name and substitute his own.
120
Whose then would be the monument? To whom
Would be the fame? Forgotten in your gloom,
Your very name forgotten-ah, my friend,
The name is all that's rescued by the tomb.
For memory of worth and work we go
To other records than a stone can show.
These lacking, naught remains; with these
The stone is needless for the world will know.
Then build your mausoleum if you must,
And creep into it with a perfect trust;
But in the twinkling of an eye the plow
Shall pass without obstruction through your dust.
Another movement of the pendulum,
And, lo! the desert-haunting wolf shall come,
And, seated on the spot, shall howl by night
O'er rotting cities, desolate and dumb.
~ Ambrose Bierce,
75:1. In the court, Siva, though motionless, dances before Shakti in stillness. In Arunachala, with solemnity, He stands. She withdraws there into His still Self. 2. 'A,' 'Ru,' and 'Na' Sat, Chit, and Ananda -- the Supreme Self, the individual self -- their union is Absolute; Thus, the great saying -- 'You are That.' 'Achala' bespeaks perfection. Worship Arunachala shining, golden; simply remembering unlocks the door. 3. Touching the lotus feet of the Lord of Arunachala, freed from attachment to wealth, family, place, ever purer, seeking grace -- darkness recedes. In the rising sun, golden, steady, full of grace, there abide, joyously sunk in the Sea of Bliss. 4. Annamalai! Don't let me pine forgetful. Don't crush me to dust, leaving me confused between body and Self. Turn Your restoring glance upon me, eye of my eyes! You Who are all Consciousness, You Who are neither male nor female, don't fail me! Seat Yourself in my heart. 5. You Who are all Consciousness, ruling over sublime Shonagiri, forgive the stumblings of this little one. Rain Cloud, shower me with Your gracious glance. Save me from being lost once more in the dreary waste. I cannot ford the grim stream of manifestation. Mother, what can match Your care? 6. 'Killer of Kama, Destroyer of Desire,' tied to You we know Your name. A question, though, if the title fits: How can mighty Kama continue, bold and conquering? How can he creep unseen upon one sheltered beneath Your feet? Tell me, You Who killed him? 7. Arunachala! As soon as You claimed me, I was Yours, body and soul. What is left to want? You are success and You are failure both, Oh my life! They are meaningless without You. Beloved, do as You will with me, but promise me ever greater desire for Your Feet! 8. To rescue me -- born of virtuous Sundara and Sundari in holy Tiruchuli, seat of Bhuminatheshware -- from the pain of the world, He raised me to his seat, His heart rejoices. Siva shines forth. And the Self flowers. Such is Arunachala, known across the universe! 9. Bearing me in the world as my father and mother, You hid in my mind. Before I drowned in the deep illusion, You drew me, Arunachala, You Who are All Consciousness, such is the wonder of Your Grace!

~ Sri Ramana Maharshi, The Necklet of Nine Gems
,
76:You will help, won’t you?”
Dragging his gaze from the doorway, he shook his head as if to clear it. “Help?” he uttered dryly. “I’m tempted to offer her my very desirable hand in marriage! First I ought to know her name, though I’ll tell you she suddenly seems damned familiar.”
“You will help?”
“Didn’t I just say so? Who is that delectable creature?”
“Elizabeth Cameron. She made her debut last-“ Alex stopped as Roddy’s smile turned harsh and sardonic.
“Little Elizabeth Cameron,” he mused half to himself. “I should have guessed, of course. The chit set the city on its ear just after you left on your honeymoon trip, but she’s changed. Who would have guessed,” he continued in a more normal voice, “that fate would have seen fit to endow her with more looks than she had then.”
“Roddy!” Alex said, sensing that his attitude toward helping was undergoing a change. “You already said you’d help.
“You don’t need help, Alex,” he snickered. “You need a miracle.
“But-“
“Sorry. I’ve changed my mind.”
“Is it the-the gossip about that old scandal that bothers you?”
“In a sense.”
Alexandra’s blue eyes began to spark with dangerous fire. “You’re a fine one to believe gossip, Roddy! You above all know it’s usually lies, because you’ve started your share of it!”
“I didn’t say I believe it,” he drawled coolly. “In fact, I’d find it hard to believe that any man’s hands, including Thornton’s, have ever touched that porcelain skin of hers. However,” he said, abruptly closing the lid on his snuffbox and tucking it away, “society is not as discerning as I, or, in this instance, as kind. They will cut her dead tonight, never fear, and not even the influential Townsendes or my influential self could prevent it. Though I hate the thought of sinking any lower in your esteem than I can see I already have, I’m going to tell you an unlovely truth about myself, my sweet Alex,” he added with a sardonic grin. “Tonight, any unattached bachelor who’s foolish enough to show an interest in that girl is going to be the laughingstock of the Season, and I do not like being laughed at. I do not have the courage, which is why I am always the one to make jokes of others ~ Judith McNaught,
77:Your mom probably wouldn't be too happy if you're dating someone who quit school."
I laugh. "Nope, don't think so. But I do think she likes you."
"Why do you say that?" he says, cocking his head at me.
"When I called her, she told me to tell you good morning. And then she told me you were 'a keeper.'" She also said he was hot, which is a ten and a half on the creep-o-meter.
"She won't think that when I start failing out of all my classes. I've missed too much school to give a convincing performance in that aspect."
"Maybe you and I could do an exchange," I say, cringing at how many different ways that could sound.
"You mean besides swapping spit?"
I'm hyperaware of the tickle in my stomach, but I say, "Gross! Did Rachel teach you that?"
He nods, still grinning. "I laughed for days."
"Anyway, since you're helping me try to change, I could help you with your schoolwork. You know, tutor you. We're in all the same classes together, and I could really use the volunteer hours for my college application."
His smile disappears as if I had slapped him. "Galen, is something wrong?"
He unclenches his jaw. "No."
"It was just a suggestion. I don't have to tutor you. I mean, we'll already be spending all day together in school and then practicing at night. You'll probably get sick of me." I toss in a soft laugh to keep it chit-chatty, but my innards feel as though they're cartwheeling.
"Not likely."
Our eyes lock. Searching his expression, my breath catches as the setting sun makes his hair shine almost purple. But it's the way each dying ray draws out silver flecks in his eyes that makes me look away-and accidentally glance at his mouth.
He leans in. I raise my chin, meeting his gaze. The sunset probably deepens the heat on my cheeks to a strawberry red, but he might not notice since he can't seem to decide if he wants to look at my eyes or my mouth. I can smell the salt on his skin, feel the warmth of his breath. He's so close, the wind wafts the same strand of my hair onto both our cheeks.
So when he eases away, it's me who feels slapped. He uproots the hand he buried in the sand beside me. "It's getting dark. I should take you home," he says. "We can do this again-I mean, we can practice again-tomorrow after school. ~ Anna Banks,
78:If we can use an H-bomb--and as you said it's no checker game; it's real, it's war and nobody is fooling around--isn't it sort of ridiculous to go crawling around in the weeds, throwing knives and maybe getting yourself killed . . . and even losing the war . . . when you've got a real weapon you can use to win? What's the point in a whole lot of men risking their lives with obsolete weapons when one professor type can do so much more just by pushing a button?'
Zim didn't answer at once, which wasn't like him at all. Then he said softly, 'Are you happy in the Infantry, Hendrick? You can resign, you know.'
Hendrick muttered something; Zim said, 'Speak up!'
I'm not itching to resign, sir. I'm going to sweat out my term.'
I see. Well, the question you asked is one that a sergeant isn't really qualified to answer . . . and one that you shouldn't ask me. You're supposed to know the answer before you join up. Or you should. Did your school have a course in History and Moral Philosophy?'
What? Sure--yes, sir.'
Then you've heard the answer. But I'll give you my own--unofficial--views on it. If you wanted to teach a baby a lesson, would you cuts its head off?'
Why . . . no, sir!'
Of course not. You'd paddle it. There can be circumstances when it's just as foolish to hit an enemy with an H-Bomb as it would be to spank a baby with an ax. War is not violence and killing, pure and simple; war is controlled violence, for a purpose. The purpose of war is to support your government's decisions by force. The purpose is never to kill the enemy just to be killing him . . . but to make him do what you want him to do. Not killing . . . but controlled and purposeful violence. But it's not your business or mine to decide the purpose of the control. It's never a soldier's business to decide when or where or how--or why--he fights; that belongs to the statesmen and the generals. The statesmen decide why and how much; the generals take it from there and tell us where and when and how. We supply the violence; other people--"older and wiser heads," as they say--supply the control. Which is as it should be. That's the best answer I can give you. If it doesn't satisfy you, I'll get you a chit to go talk to the regimental commander. If he can't convince you--then go home and be a civilian! Because in that case you will certainly never make a soldier. ~ Robert A Heinlein,
79:Addressing this doubt, in order to explain the mind, it is taught: || citir eva cetana-padād avarūḍhā cetya-saṅkocinī cittam || 5 || Awareness (citi) itself, descending from its state of pure consciousness (cetana), becomes contracted by the object perceived: this is [called] the mind (citta). Far from teaching an absolute distinction of divine spirit and mundane matter, Tantra teaches that they are in fact different phases of one thing, i.e., Awareness. Take the example of h2o: in one phase, we call it steam, in another, water, in another, ice. These three states are very different from one another, and we necessarily interact with each of them in very different ways. This is a perfect analogy for what Kṣemarāja intends here: there are three different states or phases of one ‘thing’—in one state, we call it God, in another, pure consciousness, in another, the mind. The implications of this are of course huge. First, though, let’s explore the specific three terms that Kṣemarāja is using here for these three states of the One. First we have citi, introduced in the first sūtra, which we translate (imperfectly) as Awareness. Citi (pronounced CHIT-ee) is the state in which Awareness is fully expanded, that is to say, untouched by any trace of contraction, including that of subjectivity or selfhood. In other words, there is no concealment whatsoever operative on the citi level (not that it’s really a level, of course). When citi manifests as an individuated subject, then that is the phase called cetana, here translated as ‘pure consciousness’. We have to define this second phase, cetana, more carefully so that we don’t confuse it with the third phase (the mind). Cetana (CHAY-tuh-nuh) is the state of being the conscious knower or agent of consciousness. We experience cetana in the space between trains of thought, a space of awareness momentarily devoid of thought-forms (vikalpas). That’s why I translate it as ‘pure consciousness’. We experience it dozens of times a day, but usually only for a second, and usually without the reflective self-awareness (vimarśa) by which we can know that we are experiencing cetana. (This ‘knowing’, when it does occur, does not take the form of a thought, or else it is no longer the cetana state.) The cetana state is open and expansive awareness; in fact, it is as expanded as awareness can be while still having a subtle ‘sense of self’. ~ Christopher D Wallis,
80:Though I’m surprised that you read novels.”
“I do have other interests than shooting, you know.”
“I never said otherwise.”
“But you think me a complete tomboy. Admit it.”
He measured his words. “I think you a woman with a few unusual interests that happen to be similar to those of some men. Those interests don’t, however, make you a tomboy.”
No tomboy would fire his blood the way she did right now in her elegant redingote, despite the black smudges of power along its sleeves and the mud caked along its hem. And no tomboy would have kept him up last night imagining what it would be like to raise her skirts so he could run his hands along the pale swaths of thigh that lay above her garters.
“And yet,” she said hoarsely, “you kissed me as if I were some mannish chit beneath your notice. God forbid you should treat me as a desirable woman in front of my suitors. It might give them ideas.”
He stared at her, thunderstruck. She was angry because he’d accorded her the respect she deserved? “Forgive me, my lady,” he said acidly. “I didn’t think you’d want me to toss you down in the grass and ravish you. I see I was mistaken.”
Two spots of color appeared on her cheeks. “There is a vast space between ravishing me and treating me like a child. The gentlemen expected you to kiss me on the lips, as they would have. You won such a kiss, after all. When you didn’t take it, I’m sure they thought it was because I was somehow…unattractive to you. And that only hurts my cause.”
Her cause, which was to be affianced to one of those arses. Anger boiled up in him. “Let me see if I understand you correctly. You wanted me to kiss you with some degree of passion so your suitors would be convinced if your desirability as a woman. Is that right?”
She cast him a resentful look, then nodded.
He strode up close, unable to contain his temper. “Isn’t it enough for you that they’re already barking at your heels like randy hounds? That they’re seizing your hand at the breakfast table and inviting you for tete-a-tete practice at their estates?”
“What good does that do me when you seek to turn their affections away at every turn? You provoked me to accept that shooting challenge because you wanted me to frighten them off with my enthusiasm for guns. Admit it.”
All right, so that was true. But he had good reason for it. “I wanted them to see you for who you really are and not the woman you keep pretending to be.”
Pretending to be?” she said in a choked voice. “And who is that? A lady worthy of marriage? You wanted to expose me as some…adventuress or man in woman’s attire or…oh, I don’t know what.”
“No!” he protested, suddenly all at sea in their argument.
“You know what, Mr. Pinter? Ever since we made our agreement, you’ve only made matters worse, for some nefarious reason of your own.” She planted her hands on her hips and gave him a look of pure defiance. “So you’re dismissed from my employ. I no longer require your services. ~ Sabrina Jeffries,
81:Outside the room they found his family standing in the Great Hall, discussing something in heated whispers as Freddy nervously paced the other end.
Oliver cleared his throat, and they all jumped. “My fiancée has made it clear that she doesn’t appreciate my attempt at a joke.”
“Oliver enjoys shocking people,” Maria said calmly. When he looked at her, surprised that she had noticed, she arched one eyebrow at him. “I’m sure you know that about him by now. I find it a great flaw in his character.”
She seemed to consider many things as flaws in his character. Not that he could blame her.
Gran glanced from Maria to him. “So the two of you didn’t meet in a brothel?”
“We did,” he said, “but only because poor Freddy got lost and wandered into one by mistake. I was trying to determine what he was looking for when Maria rushed in, mad with worry over where he might have gone off to. With two such Americans lost in the wicked city, hopelessly innocent of its dangers, I felt compelled to help them. I’ve been squiring them about town the last week. Isn’t that right, sweetheart?”
She cast him a sugary and thoroughly false smile. “Oh, yes, dearest. And you were a very informative guide, too.”
Jarret arched one eyebrow. “Astonishing that after finding you in a brothel, Oliver, Miss Butterfield wasn’t put off of marrying you.”
“I ought to have been,” Maria said. “But he swore those days were behind him when he pledged his undying love to me on bended knee.”
When Gabriel and Jarret barely managed to stifle their laughter, Oliver gritted his teeth. Bended knee, indeed. She was determined to prick his pride at every opportunity. She probably felt he deserved it. He could only pray that Gran backed down from the right before he had to bring the chit around any of his friends, or Maria would have them taunting him unmercifully for the next decade.
“I’m afraid, my dear,” he said tersely, “that my brothers have trouble envisioning me bending a knee to anyone.”
She affected a look of wide-eyed shock. “Have they no idea what a romantic you are? I’ll have to show them the sonnets you wrote praising my beauty. I believe I left them in my redingote pocket.” The teasing wench actually looked back toward the entrance. “I could go fetch them if you like.”
“Not now,” he said, torn between a powerful urge to laugh and an equally powerful urge to strangle her. “It’s time for dinner, and I’m starved.”
“So am I,” Freddy put in. At a frown from Maria, he mumbled, “Not that it matters, mind you.”
“Of course it matters,” Gran said graciously. “We don’t like our guests to be uncomfortable. Come along then, Mr. Dunse. You may take me in to dinner, since my grandson is otherwise occupied.”
As they trooped toward the dining room, Oliver bent his head to whisper, “I see you’re enjoying making me out to be a besotted idiot.”
A minxish smile tipped up her fetching lips. “Oh, yes. It’s great fun.”
“Then my explanation of how you ended up in a brothel met with your approval?”
“It’ll do for now.” She cast him a glance from beneath her long lashes. “You’re by no means out of the woods yet, sir.”
But I will be by the time the night is over. No matter what it took, he would get her to stay and do this, so help him God. ~ Sabrina Jeffries,
82:The news that she had gone of course now spread rapidly, and by lunch time Riseholme had made up its mind what to do, and that was hermetically to close its lips for ever on the subject of Lucia. You might think what you pleased, for it was a free country, but silence was best. But this counsel of perfection was not easy to practice next day when the evening paper came. There, for all the world to read were two quite long paragraphs, in "Five o'clock Chit-Chat," over the renowned signature of Hermione, entirely about Lucia and 25 Brompton Square, and there for all the world to see was the reproduction of one of her most elegant photographs, in which she gazed dreamily outwards and a little upwards, with her fingers still pressed on the last chord of (probably) the Moonlight Sonata. . . . She had come up, so Hermione told countless readers, from her Elizabethan country seat at Riseholme (where she was a neighbour of Miss Olga Bracely) and was settling for the season in the beautiful little house in Brompton Square, which was the freehold property of her husband, and had just come to him on the death of his aunt. It was a veritable treasure house of exquisite furniture, with a charming music-room where Lucia had given Hermione a cup of tea from her marvellous Worcester tea service. . . . (At this point Daisy, whose hands were trembling with passion, exclaimed in a loud and injured voice, "The very day she arrived!") Mrs. Lucas (one of the Warwickshire Smythes by birth) was, as all the world knew, a most accomplished musician and Shakespearean scholar, and had made Riseholme a centre of culture and art. But nobody would suspect the blue stocking in the brilliant, beautiful and witty hostess whose presence would lend an added gaiety to the London season.

Daisy was beginning to feel physically unwell. She hurried over the few remaining lines, and then ejaculating "Witty! Beautiful!" sent de Vere across to Georgie's with the paper, bidding him to return it, as she hadn't finished with it. But she thought he ought to know. . . . Georgie read it through, and with admirable self restraint, sent Foljambe back with it and a message of thanks--nothing more--to Mrs. Quantock for the loan of it. Daisy, by this time feeling better, memorised the whole of it.

Life under the new conditions was not easy, for a mere glance at the paper might send any true Riseholmite into a paroxysm of chattering rage or a deep disgusted melancholy. The Times again recorded the fact that Mr. and Mrs. Philip Lucas had arrived at 25 Brompton Square, there was another terrible paragraph headed 'Dinner,' stating that Mrs. Sandeman entertained the following to dinner. There was an Ambassador, a Marquis, a Countess (dowager), two Viscounts with wives, a Baronet, a quantity of Honourables and Knights, and Mr. and Mrs. Philip Lucas. Every single person except Mr. and Mrs. Philip Lucas had a title. The list was too much for Mrs. Boucher, who, reading it at breakfast, suddenly exclaimed:

"I didn't think it of them. And it's a poor consolation to know that they must have gone in last."

Then she hermetically sealed her lips again on this painful subject, and when she had finished her breakfast (her appetite had quite gone) she looked up every member of that degrading party in Colonel Boucher's "Who's Who. ~ E F Benson,
83:With a scowl, he turned from the window, but it was too late. The sight of Lady Celia crossing the courtyard dressed in some rich fabric had already stirred his blood. She never wore such fetching clothes; generally her lithe figure was shrouded in smocks to protect her workaday gowns from powder smudges while she practiced her target shooting.
But this morning, in that lemon-colored gown, with her hair finely arranged and a jeweled bracelet on her delicate wrist, she was summer on a dreary winter day, sunshine in the bleak of night, music in the still silence of a deserted concert hall.
And he was a fool.
"I can see how you might find her maddening," Masters said in a low voice.
Jackson stiffened. "Your wife?" he said, deliberately being obtuse.
"Lady Celia."
Hell and blazes. He'd obviously let his feelings show. He'd spent his childhood learning to keep them hidden so the other children wouldn't see how their epithets wounded him, and he'd refined that talent as an investigator who knew the value of an unemotional demeanor.
He drew on that talent as he faced the barrister. "Anyone would find her maddening. She's reckless and spoiled and liable to give her husband grief at every turn." When she wasn't tempting him to madness.
Masters raised an eyebrow. "Yet you often watch her. Have you any interest there?"
Jackson forced a shrug. "Certainly not. You'll have to find another way to inherit your new bride's fortune."
He'd hoped to prick Masters's pride and thus change the subject, but Masters laughed. "You, marry my sister-in-law? That, I'd like to see. Aside from the fact that her grandmother would never approve, Lady Celia hates you."
She did indeed. The chit had taken an instant dislike to him when he'd interfered in an impromptu shooting match she'd been participating in with her brother and his friends at a public park. That should have set him on his guard right then.
A pity it hadn't. Because even if she didn't despise him and weren't miles above him in rank, she'd never make him a good wife. She was young and indulged, not the sort of female to make do on a Bow Street Runner's salary.
But she'll be an heiress once she marries.
He gritted his teeth. That only made matters worse. She would assume he was marrying her for her inheritance. So would everyone else. And his pride chafed at that.
Dirty bastard. Son of shame. Whoreson. Love-brat. He'd been called them all as a boy. Later, as he'd moved up at Bow Street, those who resented his rapid advancement had called him a baseborn upstart. He wasn't about to add money-grubbing fortune hunter to the list.
"Besides," Masters went on, "you may not realize this, since you haven't been around much these past few weeks, but Minerva claims that Celia has her eye on three very eligible potential suitors."
Jackson's startled gaze shot to him. Suitors? The word who was on his lips when the door opened and Stoneville entered. The rest of the family followed, leaving Jackson to force a smile and exchange pleasantries as they settled into seats about the table, but his mind kept running over Masters's words.
Lady Celia had suitors. Eligible ones. Good-that was good. He needn't worry about himself around her anymore. She was now out of his reach, thank God. Not that she was ever in his reach, but-
"Have you got any news?" Stoneville asked.
Jackson started. "Yes." He took a steadying breath and forced his mine to the matter at hand. ~ Sabrina Jeffries,
84:You do that a great deal, don’t you?”
He swallowed the rest of his wine. “What?”
“Close up into yourself whenever someone tries to peer into your soul. Make a joke of it.”
“If you came out here to lecture me,” he snapped, “don’t bother. Gran has perfected that talent. You can’t possibly compete.”
“I only want to understand.”
“I want to be consumed by a star, but we don’t all get what we want.”
“What?”
“Never mind.” Turning for the nearest door into the house, he started to stalk off, but she caught his arm.
“Why are you so angry at your grandmother?” Maria asked.
“I told you-she’s trying to ruin the lives of me and my siblings.”
“By requiring you to marry so you can have children? I thought all lords and ladies were expected to do that. And the five of you are certainly old enough.” Her tone turned teasing. “Some of you are beyond being old enough.”
“Watch it, minx,” he clipped out. “I’m not in the mood for having my nose tweaked tonight.”
“Because of your grandmother, you mean. It’s not just her demand that has you angry, is it? It goes back longer than that.”
Oliver glared at her. “Why do you care? Has she got you fighting her battles for her now?”
“Hardly. She just informed me that I was, and I quote, ‘exactly the sort of woman who would not meet my requirements of a wife.’”
A smile touched his lips at her accurate mimicking of Gran at her most haughty. “I told you she would think that.”
“Yes,” she said dryly. “You both excel at insulting people.”
“One of my many talents.”
“There you go again. Making a joke to avoid talking about what makes you uncomfortable.”
“And what is that?”
“What did your grandmother do, besides giving you an ultimatum about marriage, that has you at daggers drawn?”
Blast it all, would she not leave off? “How do you know she did anything? Perhaps I’m just contrary.”
“You are. But that’s not what has you so angry at her.”
“If you plan to spend the next two weeks asking ridiculous questions that have no answers, then I will pay you to return to London.”
She smiled. “No, you won’t. You need me.”
“True. But since I’m paying for the service you’re providing, I get some say in how it’s rendered. Bedeviling me with questions isn’t part of our bargain.”
“You haven’t paid me anything yet,” she said lightly, “so I should think there’s some leeway in the terms. Especially since I’ve been working hard all evening furthering your cause. I just finished telling your grandmother that I have ‘feelings’ for you, and that I know you have ‘feelings’ for me.”
“You didn’t choke on that lie?” he quipped.
“I do have feelings for you-probably not the sort she meant, though apparently she believed me. But she was suspicious. She’s more astute than you give her credit for. First she accused us of acting a farce, and then, when I denied that, she accused me of thinking to marry you so I could gain a fortune from her down the line.”
“And what did you say to that?”
“I told her she could keep her precious fortune.”
“Did you, indeed? I would have given my right arm to see that.” Maria was proving to be an endless source of amazement. No one ever stood up to Gran-except this American chit, with her naïve beliefs in justice and right and morality.
It amazed him that she’d done it, considering how he’d treated her. No one, not even his siblings, had ever defended him with so little reason. It stirred something that had long lain dead inside him.
His conscience? No, that wasn’t dead; it was nonexistent. ~ Sabrina Jeffries,
85:He recognized her deft hand and eye for detail immediately. He flipped through the pages, past vignettes of the dairymaid and her vague-featured gentleman engaged in a courtship of sorts: a kiss on the hand, a whisper in the ear. By the book’s midpoint, the chit’s voluminous petticoats were up around her ears, and the illustrations comprised a sequence of quite similar poses in varying locales. Not just the dairy, but a carriage, the larder, in a hayloft lit with candles and strewn with…were those rose petals?
I’ll be damned.
Gray was fast divining the true source of the French painting master’s mythic exploits. More unsettling by far, however, as he perused the book, he noted a subtle alteration in the gentleman lover’s features. With each successive illustration, the hero appeared taller, broader in the shoulders, and his hair went from a cropped style to collar length in the space of two pages.
The more pages Gray turned, the more he recognized himself.
It was unmistakable. She’d used him as the model for these bawdy illustrations. She’d sketched him in secret; not once, but many times. And here he’d nearly gone mad with envy over each scrap of foolscap she’d inked for once crewman or another. His emotions underwent a dizzying progression-from surprised, to flattered, to (with the benefit of one especially inventive situation in an orchard) undeniably aroused.
But as he lingered over a nude study of this amalgam of the real him and some picaresque fantasy, he began to feel something else entirely. He felt used.
She’d rendered his form with astonishing accuracy, given that it must have been drawn before she’d any opportunity to actually see him unclothed. Not that she’d achieved an exact likeness. Her virgin’s imagination was rather generous in certain aspects and somewhat stinting in others, he noted with a bitter sort of amusement. But she’d laid him bare in these pages, without his knowledge or consent. God, she’d even drawn his scars. All in service of some adolescent erotic fantasy.
And now he began to grow angry.
He had been handling the leaves of the book with his fingertips only, anxious he might smudge or rip the pages. Now he abandoned all caution and flipped roughly through the remainder of the volume. Until he came to the end, and his hand froze.
There they were, the two of them. He and she fully clothed and unengaged in any physical intimacies-yet intimate, in a way he had never known. Never dreamed. Sitting beneath a willow tree, his head in her lap. One of her hands lay twined with his, atop his chest. The other rested on his brow. The sky soared vast and expansive above, gauzy clouds spinning into forever.
The hot fist of desire that had gripped his loins loosened, moved upward through his torso, churning the contents of his gut along the way. Then it clutched at his heart and squeezed until it hurt. Somehow, this illustration was the most dismaying of all. So naïve, so ridiculous. at least the bawdy situations were plausible, if sometimes physically improbable. This was utterly impossible. To her, he'd never been more than a fantasy.
It occurred to Gray that more secrets might be packed within these trunks. If he sorted through her belongings, he might find the answers to all his questions. Perhaps answers to questions he'd never thought to ask. In spite of this, he let the lid of the trunk clap shut and fastened the strap with shaking fingers. He'd suffered as many of her fantasies as he could bear for one day.
It was time to acquaint her with reality. ~ Tessa Dare,
86:Come on, Gray,” another sailor called. “Just one toast.”
Miss Turner raised her eyebrows and leaned into him. “Come on, Mr. Grayson. Just one little toast,” she taunted, in the breathy, seductive voice of a harlot. It was a voice his body knew well, and vital parts of him were quickly forming a response.
Siren.
“Very well.” He lifted his mug and his voice, all the while staring into her wide, glassy eyes. “To the most beautiful lady in the world, and the only woman in my life.”
The little minx caught her breath. Gray relished the tense silence, allowing a broad grin to spread across his face. “To my sister, Isabel.”
Her eyes narrowed to slits. The men groaned.
“You’re no fun anymore, Gray,” O’Shea grumbled.
“No, I’m not. I’ve gone respectable.” He tugged on Miss Turner’s elbow. “And good little governesses need to be in bed.”
“Not so fast, if you please.” She jerked away from him and turned to face the assembled crew. “I haven’t made my toast yet. We ladies have our sweethearts too, you know.”
Bawdy murmurs chased one another until a ripple of laughter caught them up. Gray stepped back, lifting his own mug to his lips. If the girl was determined to humiliate herself, who was he to stop her? Who was he, indeed?
Swaying a little in her boots, she raised her tankard. “To Gervais. My only sweetheart, mon cher petit lapin.”
My dear little rabbit?
Gray sputtered into his rum. What a fanciful imagination the chit had.
“My French painting master,” she continued, slurring her words, “and my tutor in the art of passion.”
The men whooped and whistled. Gray plunked his mug on the crate and strode to her side. “All right, Miss Turner. Very amusing. That’s enough joking for one evening.”
“Who’s joking?” she asked, lowering her mug to her lips and eyeing him saucily over the rim. “He loved me. Desperately.”
“The French do everything desperately,” he muttered, beginning to feel a bit desperate himself. He knew she was spinning naïve schoolgirl tales, but the others didn’t. The mood of the whole group had altered, from one of good-natured merriment to one of lust-tinged anticipation. These were sailors, after all. Lonely, rummed-up, woman-starved, desperate men. And to an innocent girl, they could prove more dangerous than sharks.
“He couldn’t have loved you too much, could he?” Gray grabbed her arm again. “He seems to have let you go.”
“I suppose he did.” She sniffed, then flashed a coquettish smile at the men. “I suppose that means I need a new sweetheart.”
That was it. This little scene was at its end.
Gray crouched, grasping his wayward governess around the thighs, and then straightened his legs, tossing her over one shoulder. She let out a shriek, and he felt the dregs of her rum spill down the back of his coat.
“Put me down, you brute!” She squirmed and pounded his back with her fists.
Gray bound her legs to his chest with one arm and gave her a pat on that well-padded rump with the other.
“Well, then,” he announced to the group, forcing a roguish grin, “we’ll be off to bed.”
Cheers and coarse laughter followed them as Gray toted his wriggling quarry down the companionway stairs and into the ladies’ cabin.
With another light smack to her bum that she probably couldn’t even feel through all those skirts and petticoats, Gray slid her from his shoulder and dropped her on her feet. She wobbled backward, and he caught her arm, reversing her momentum. Now she tripped toward him, flinging her arms around his neck and sagging against his chest. Gray just stood there, arms dangling at his sides.
Oh, bloody hell. ~ Tessa Dare,
87:A Point Of Honour
``Tell me again; I did not hear: It was wailing so sadly. Nay,
Hush! little one, for mother wants to know what they have to say.
There! At my breast be good and still! What quiets you calms me too.
They say that the source is poisoned; still, it seems pure enough for you!
``I shall bring them to shame, aye one and all, my Father who loves me so,
Dear Mother, a little severe at times, but with story as white as snow,
And sister Effie, so trim and quick, so fair and betrothed so long,
Who will wait for her lover for years and years, but would die at the thought of
wrong.
``O don't! For I know what my brother Ralph, if he knew it, would think and say.
He would drive me across the lonely moor, and would curse me all the way;
Would call on the cold wet winds to whip, and the sunshine to pass me by,
And vow that the ditch were too good a grave for a thing as foul as I.
``And then there is grand-dad, worn and white, who can scarcely speak or see,
But sits in the sun in his wicker chair, with the Bible upon his knee.
To him 'twould but sound like a buzzing hive if they talked to him of my fall:
Yet I almost think that I dread his face, turned heavenward, more than all.
``We have never been either rich or poor, but a proud, stiff yeoman stock.
And to think that I am the first to bring sin's scab on a cleanly flock!
The pet lamb, too, as they call me still, the dearest of all their dears!
Hush, little one! But you well may wail, suckled not upon milk, but tears.
``He never will marry me now, that's sure. Who takes a wife with a stain?
How we used to sit in the bluebell wood, and roam through the primrose lane!
And I was thinking of some one else, while the nightingale trilled above.
He alone, I think, will forgive me though, such a wonderful thing is Love.
``Do you think I do not foresee it all?-a mother and not a wife,
A babe but without a father still, and the lack and the shame for life,
The nudge and the sidelong sneer, in church, at market, year out, year in.
But what would you have me do to escape the wages of my sin?
``Give up the child? To whom? To what? To honest and kindly folk
Who have never a chit of their own and long for a wee thing to kiss and stroke,
Who will call it their own, will rear as such, will teach it to lisp and pray:
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He will find the money for that and more. There is nothing he will not pay.
``Pay? Well, go on: I am listening hard, for the little one's now at rest.
Just look how it sucks and smiles in sleep on the pillow of mother's breast.
Though I never thought-does Love ever think?-that such was the end of all,
It is wicked, but still for a joy like this I would almost repeat my fall.
``Yes, I understand. He has done his best. O, you make it perfectly clear.
He is doing it all for me, no doubt; he has nothing to face or fear.
But 'tis strange that fathers with gold may pay for their guilt, and can then
forget,
And that lasting shame and a broken heart are the share of the mother's debt.
``I have sometimes thought that Nature has against woman some lasting pique,
For she makes us weak where we should be strong, and strong where we might
be weak,
Most good when a little badness pays, and bad when 'tis safe being good.
To be always good, and nothing but good, 's the one hope for womanhood.
``And I then should be good, or seem to be, which is pretty well much the same,
Should hold up my head with the straightest then, and be shocked at a sister's
shame.
Be called by the Vicar his model maid, be kissed by the Vicar's wife,
And may-be marry an honest man, and be happy and loved for life.
``The hollyhocks now up the garden walk are flowering strong and straight,
The bees are out in the mignonette, and the mossrose lingers late;
The orchard reddens, the acorn cups are thick 'neath the pollard oak,
And up from the old red chimney-stack curls the first blue Autumn smoke.
The kine from the lowland are trailing home, and file betwixt shed and rick,
In the wide brown bowls on the dairy shelf the cream lies smooth and thick;
I can hear the geese in the farmyard pond, I can see the neat new thatch.
Now what if I went there brave and bold, and took courage to lift the latch?
``They never would know, they would cluster round, they would drag me in
through the door,
Would fondle and cuddle, and hug and kiss, and pull me down to the floor;
And who should kiss first, and who kiss last, would be all they would think of
then;
And at night we should all of us kneel and pray, and I too should say, ``Amen!''
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``They never would know; but I should know, and, when they were all asleep,
I should lie awake through the long dark night, and wonder, and sob, and weep,
Through the dear sweet bitter detested past would my wavering fancy roam,
And at dawn I should learn to smile again, for at least I should be at home.
``And where would It be? I must not ask-for I'm to be strong and wise,If well or ailing, alive or dead, what colour its hair and eyes,
Never knit a sock for its little feet, to the end never know its name.
There's a shamelessness yet more shameful far than the worst abyss of shame!
``Well, you see I am going. And where? Why, home! Yes, straight unto Father's
door,
With this tell-tale thing in my warm weak arms, right over the windy moor.
I shall tremble and stammer and halt, no doubt, and look like a thing accurst,
And so double my fault by my helplessness; and then I shall know the worst.
``If my Mother scolds, I will bow my head; if my sister shrinks, I will weep;
If my brother smites, I will let him smite, for a sin so dark and deep.
But what if my Father rises up, and drives from the door,-what then?
Well, then I will go to the Father of all Who pardoned Magdalen.''
~ Alfred Austin,
88:The Cock And The Bull
You see this pebble-stone? It’s a thing I bought
Of a bit of a chit of a boy i’ the mid o’ the day —
I like to dock the smaller parts-o’-speech,
As we curtail the already cur-tail’d cur
(You catch the paronomasia, play ’po’ words?),
Did, rather, i’ the pre-Landseerian days.
Well, to my muttons. I purchased the concern,
And clapt it i’ my poke, having given for same
By way o’ chop, swop, barter or exchange —
‘Chop’ was my snickering dandiprat’s own term —
One shilling and fourpence, current coin o’ the realm.
O-n-e one and f-o-u-r four
Pence, one and fourpence — you are with me, sir? —
What hour it skills not: ten or eleven o’ the clock,
One day (and what a roaring day it was
Go shop or sight-see — bar a spit o’ rain!)
In February, eighteen sixty nine,
Alexandrina Victoria, Fidei
Hm — hm — how runs the jargon? being on throne.
Such, sir, are all the facts, succinctly put,
The basis or substratum — what you will —
Of the impending eighty thousand lines.
‘Not much in ’em either,’ quoth perhaps simple Hodge.
But there’s a superstructure. Wait a bit.
Mark first the rationale of the thing:
Hear logic rivel and levigate the deed.
That shilling — and for matter o’ that, the pence —
I had o’ course upo’ me — wi’ me say —
(Mecum’s the Latin, make a note o’ that)
When I popp’d pen i’ stand, scratch’d ear, wip’d snout,
(Let everybody wipe his own himself)
Sniff’d — tch! — at snuffbox; tumbled up, he-heed,
Haw-haw’d (not hee-haw’d, that’s another guess thing
Then fumbled at, and stumbled out of, door,
I shoved the timber ope wi’ my omoplat;
And in vestibulo, i’ the lobby to-wit,
(Iacobi Facciolati’s rendering, sir,)
Donn’d galligaskins, antigropeloes,
57
And so forth; and, complete with hat and gloves,
One on and one a-dangle i’ my hand,
And ombrifuge (Lord love you!), case o’ rain,
I flopp’d forth, ’sbuddikins! on my own ten toes,
(I do assure you there be ten of them,)
And went clump-clumping up hill and down dale
To find myself o’ the sudden i’ front o’ the boy.
Put case I hadn’t ’em on me, could I ha’ bought
This sort-o’-kind-o’-what-you-might-call toy,
This pebble-thing, o’ the boy-thing? Q.E.D.
That’s proven without aid from mumping Pope,
Sleek porporate or bloated Cardinal.
(Isn’t it, old Fatchaps? You’re in Euclid now.)
So, having the shilling — having i’ fact a lot —
And pence and halfpence, ever so many o’ them,
I purchased, as I think I said before,
The pebble (lapis, lapidis, -di, -dem, -de —
What nouns ’crease short i’ the genitive, Fatchaps, eh?)
O’ the boy, a bare-legg’d beggarly son of a gun,
For one-and-fourpence. Here we are again.
Now Law steps in, bigwigg’d, voluminous-jaw’d;
Investigates and re-investigates.
Was the transaction illegal? Law shakes head.
Perpend, sir, all the bearings of the case.
At first the coin was mine, the chattel his.
But now (by virtue of the said exchange
And barter) vice versa all the coin,
Per juris operationem, vests
I’ the boy and his assigns till ding o’ doom;
(In sæcula sæculo-o-o-orum;
I think I hear the Abate mouth out that.)
To have and hold the same to him and them… .
Confer some idiot on Conveyancing.
Whereas the pebble and every part thereof,
And all that appertaineth thereunto,
Quodcunque pertinet ad eam rem,
(I fancy, sir, my Latin’s rather pat)
Or shall, will, may, might, can, could, would or should,
(Subaudi cætera — clap we to the close —
For what’s the good of law in a case o’ the kind)
58
Is mine to all intents and purposes.
This settled, I resume the thread o’ the tale.
Now for a touch o’ the vendor’s quality.
He says a gen’lman bought a pebble of him,
(This pebble i’ sooth, sir, which I hold i’ my hand) —
And paid for ’t, like a gen’lman, on the nail.
‘Did I o’ercharge him a ha’penny? Devil a bit.
Fiddlepin’s end! Get out, you blazing ass!
Gabble o’ the goose. Don’t bugaboo-baby me!
Go double or quits? Yah! tittup! what’s the odds?’
— There’s the transaction view’d i’ the vendor’s light.
Next ask that dumpled hag, stood snuffling by,
With her three frowsy blowsy brats o’ babes,
The scum o’ the kennel, cream o’ the filth-heap — Faugh!
Aie, aie, aie, aie! ?t?t?t?t?t??,
(’Stead which we blurt out Hoighty toighty now) —
And the baker and candlestickmaker, and Jack and Gill,
Blear’d Goody this and queasy Gaffer that.
Ask the schoolmaster. Take schoolmaster first.
He saw a gentleman purchase of a lad
A stone, and pay for it rite, on the square,
And carry it off per saltum, jauntily,
Propria quæ maribus, gentleman’s property now
(Agreeably to the law explain’d above),
In proprium usum, for his private ends.
The boy he chuck’d a brown i’ the air, and bit
I’ the face the shilling: heaved a thumping stone
At a lean hen that ran cluck clucking by,
(And hit her, dead as nail i’ post o’ door,)
Then abiit — what’s the Ciceronian phrase? —
Excessit, evasit, erupit — off slogs boy;
Off like bird, avi similis — (you observed
The dative? Pretty i’ the Mantuan!) — Anglice,
Off in three flea skips. Hactenus, so far,
So good, tam bene. Bene, satis, male — ,
Where was I with my trope ’bout one in a quag?
I did once hitch the syntax into verse:
Verbum personale, a verb personal,
Concordat — ay, ‘agrees,’ old Fatchaps — cum
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Nominativo, with its nominative,
Genere, i’ point o’ gender, numero,
O’ number, et persona, and person. Ut,
Instance: Sol ruit, down flops sun, et and,
Montes umbrantur, out flounce mountains. Pah!
Excuse me, sir, I think I’m going mad.
You see the trick on ’t though, and can yourself
Continue the discourse ad libitum.
It takes up about eighty thousand lines,
A thing imagination boggles at;
And might, odds-bobs, sir! in judicious hands,
Extend from here to Mesopotamy.
~ Charles Stuart Calverley,
89:From this, engender all the lures of love,
From this, O first hath into human hearts
Trickled that drop of joyance which ere long
Is by chill care succeeded. Since, indeed,
Though she thou lovest now be far away,
Yet idol-images of her are near
And the sweet name is floating in thy ear.
But it behooves to flee those images;
And scare afar whatever feeds thy love;
And turn elsewhere thy mind; and vent the sperm,
Within thee gathered, into sundry bodies,
Nor, with thy thoughts still busied with one love,
Keep it for one delight, and so store up
Care for thyself and pain inevitable.
For, lo, the ulcer just by nourishing
Grows to more life with deep inveteracy,
And day by day the fury swells aflame,
And the woe waxes heavier day by day-
Unless thou dost destroy even by new blows
The former wounds of love, and curest them
While yet they're fresh, by wandering freely round
After the freely-wandering Venus, or
Canst lead elsewhere the tumults of thy mind.
Nor doth that man who keeps away from love
Yet lack the fruits of Venus; rather takes
Those pleasures which are free of penalties.
For the delights of Venus, verily,
Are more unmixed for mortals sane-of-soul
Than for those sick-at-heart with love-pining.
Yea, in the very moment of possessing,
Surges the heat of lovers to and fro,
Restive, uncertain; and they cannot fix
On what to first enjoy with eyes and hands.
The parts they sought for, those they squeeze so tight,
And pain the creature's body, close their teeth
Often against her lips, and smite with kiss
Mouth into mouth,- because this same delight
Is not unmixed; and underneath are stings
Which goad a man to hurt the very thing,
Whate'er it be, from whence arise for him
Those germs of madness. But with gentle touch
Venus subdues the pangs in midst of love,
And the admixture of a fondling joy
Doth curb the bites of passion. For they hope
That by the very body whence they caught
The heats of love their flames can be put out.
But Nature protests 'tis all quite otherwise;
For this same love it is the one sole thing
Of which, the more we have, the fiercer burns
The breast with fell desire. For food and drink
Are taken within our members; and, since they
Can stop up certain parts, thus, easily
Desire of water is glutted and of bread.
But, lo, from human face and lovely bloom
Naught penetrates our frame to be enjoyed
Save flimsy idol-images and vain-
A sorry hope which oft the winds disperse.
As when the thirsty man in slumber seeks
To drink, and water ne'er is granted him
Wherewith to quench the heat within his members,
But after idols of the liquids strives
And toils in vain, and thirsts even whilst he gulps
In middle of the torrent, thus in love
Venus deludes with idol-images
The lovers. Nor they cannot sate their lust
By merely gazing on the bodies, nor
They cannot with their palms and fingers rub
Aught from each tender limb, the while they stray
Uncertain over all the body. Then,
At last, with members intertwined, when they
Enjoy the flower of their age, when now
Their bodies have sweet presage of keen joys,
And Venus is about to sow the fields
Of woman, greedily their frames they lock,
And mingle the slaver of their mouths, and breathe
Into each other, pressing teeth on mouths-
Yet to no purpose, since they're powerless
To rub off aught, or penetrate and pass
With body entire into body- for oft
They seem to strive and struggle thus to do;
So eagerly they cling in Venus' bonds,
Whilst melt away their members, overcome
By violence of delight. But when at last
Lust, gathered in the thews, hath spent itself,
There come a brief pause in the raging heat-
But then a madness just the same returns
And that old fury visits them again,
When once again they seek and crave to reach
They know not what, all powerless to find
The artifice to subjugate the bane.
In such uncertain state they waste away
With unseen wound.
To which be added too,
They squander powers and with the travail wane;
Be added too, they spend their futile years
Under another's beck and call; their duties
Neglected languish and their honest name
Reeleth sick, sick; and meantime their estates
Are lost in Babylonian tapestries;
And unguents and dainty Sicyonian shoes
Laugh on their feet; and (as ye may be sure)
Big emeralds of green light are set in gold;
And rich sea-purple dress by constant wear
Grows shabby and all soaked with Venus' sweat;
And the well-earned ancestral property
Becometh head-bands, coifs, and many a time
The cloaks, or garments Alidensian
Or of the Cean isle. And banquets, set
With rarest cloth and viands, are prepared-
And games of chance, and many a drinking cup,
And unguents, crowns and garlands. All in vain,
Since from amid the well-spring of delights
Bubbles some drop of bitter to torment
Among the very flowers- when haply mind
Gnaws into self, now stricken with remorse
For slothful years and ruin in baudels,
Or else because she's left him all in doubt
By launching some sly word, which still like fire
Lives wildly, cleaving to his eager heart;
Or else because he thinks she darts her eyes
Too much about and gazes at another,-
And in her face sees traces of a laugh.
These ills are found in prospering love and true;
But in crossed love and helpless there be such
As through shut eyelids thou canst still take in-
Uncounted ills; so that 'tis better far
To watch beforehand, in the way I've shown,
And guard against enticements. For to shun
A fall into the hunting-snares of love
Is not so hard, as to get out again,
When tangled in the very nets, and burst
The stoutly-knotted cords of Aphrodite.
Yet even when there enmeshed with tangled feet,
Still canst thou scape the danger-lest indeed
Thou standest in the way of thine own good,
And overlookest first all blemishes
Of mind and body of thy much preferred,
Desirable dame. For so men do,
Eyeless with passion, and assign to them
Graces not theirs in fact. And thus we see
Creatures in many a wise crooked and ugly
The prosperous sweethearts in a high esteem;
And lovers gird each other and advise
To placate Venus, since their friends are smit
With a base passion- miserable dupes
Who seldom mark their own worst bane of all.
The black-skinned girl is "tawny like the honey";
The filthy and the fetid's "negligee";
The cat-eyed she's "a little Pallas," she;
The sinewy and wizened's "a gazelle";
The pudgy and the pigmy is "piquant,
One of the Graces sure"; the big and bulky
O she's "an Admiration, imposante";
The stuttering and tongue-tied "sweetly lisps";
The mute girl's "modest"; and the garrulous,
The spiteful spit-fire, is "a sparkling wit";
And she who scarcely lives for scrawniness
Becomes "a slender darling"; "delicate"
Is she who's nearly dead of coughing-fit;
The pursy female with protuberant breasts
She is "like Ceres when the goddess gave
Young Bacchus suck"; the pug-nosed lady-love
"A Satyress, a feminine Silenus";
The blubber-lipped is "all one luscious kiss"-
A weary while it were to tell the whole.
But let her face possess what charm ye will,
Let Venus' glory rise from all her limbs,-
Forsooth there still are others; and forsooth
We lived before without her; and forsooth
She does the same things- and we know she does-
All, as the ugly creature, and she scents,
Yes she, her wretched self with vile perfumes;
Whom even her handmaids flee and giggle at
Behind her back. But he, the lover, in tears
Because shut out, covers her threshold o'er
Often with flowers and garlands, and anoints
Her haughty door-posts with the marjoram,
And prints, poor fellow, kisses on the doors-
Admitted at last, if haply but one whiff
Got to him on approaching, he would seek
Decent excuses to go out forthwith;
And his lament, long pondered, then would fall
Down at his heels; and there he'd damn himself
For his fatuity, observing how
He had assigned to that same lady more-
Than it is proper to concede to mortals.
And these our Venuses are 'ware of this.
Wherefore the more are they at pains to hide
All the-behind-the-scenes of life from those
Whom they desire to keep in bonds of love-
In vain, since ne'ertheless thou canst by thought
Drag all the matter forth into the light
And well search out the cause of all these smiles;
And if of graceful mind she be and kind,
Do thou, in thy turn, overlook the same,
And thus allow for poor mortality.
Nor sighs the woman always with feigned love,
Who links her body round man's body locked
And holds him fast, making his kisses wet
With lips sucked into lips; for oft she acts
Even from desire, and, seeking mutual joys,
Incites him there to run love's race-course through.
Nor otherwise can cattle, birds, wild beasts,
And sheep and mares submit unto the males,
Except that their own nature is in heat,
And burns abounding and with gladness takes
Once more the Venus of the mounting males.
And seest thou not how those whom mutual pleasure
Hath bound are tortured in their common bonds?
How often in the cross-roads dogs that pant
To get apart strain eagerly asunder
With utmost might?- When all the while they're fast
In the stout links of Venus. But they'd ne'er
So pull, except they knew those mutual joys-
So powerful to cast them unto snares
And hold them bound. Wherefore again, again,
Even as I say, there is a joint delight.
And when perchance, in mingling seed with his,
The female hath o'erpowered the force of male
And by a sudden fling hath seized it fast,
Then are the offspring, more from mothers' seed,
More like their mothers; as, from fathers' seed,
They're like to fathers. But whom seest to be
Partakers of each shape, one equal blend
Of parents' features, these are generate
From fathers' body and from mothers' blood,
When mutual and harmonious heat hath dashed
Together seeds, aroused along their frames
By Venus' goads, and neither of the twain
Mastereth or is mastered. Happens too
That sometimes offspring can to being come
In likeness of their grandsires, and bring back
Often the shapes of grandsires' sires, because
Their parents in their bodies oft retain
Concealed many primal germs, commixed
In many modes, which, starting with the stock,
Sire handeth down to son, himself a sire;
Whence Venus by a variable chance
Engenders shapes, and diversely brings back
Ancestral features, voices too, and hair.
A female generation rises forth
From seed paternal, and from mother's body
Exist created males: since sex proceeds
No more from singleness of seed than faces
Or bodies or limbs of ours: for every birth
Is from a twofold seed; and what's created
Hath, of that parent which it is more like,
More than its equal share; as thou canst mark,-
Whether the breed be male or female stock.
Nor do the powers divine grudge any man
The fruits of his seed-sowing, so that never
He be called "father" by sweet children his,
And end his days in sterile love forever.
What many men suppose; and gloomily
They sprinkle the altars with abundant blood,
And make the high platforms odorous with burnt gifts,
To render big by plenteous seed their wives-
And plague in vain godheads and sacred lots.
For sterile are these men by seed too thick,
Or else by far too watery and thin.
Because the thin is powerless to cleave
Fast to the proper places, straightaway
It trickles from them, and, returned again,
Retires abortively. And then since seed
More gross and solid than will suit is spent
By some men, either it flies not forth amain
With spurt prolonged enough, or else it fails
To enter suitably the proper places,
Or, having entered, the seed is weakly mixed
With seed of the woman: harmonies of Venus
Are seen to matter vastly here; and some
Impregnate some more readily, and from some
Some women conceive more readily and become
Pregnant. And many women, sterile before
In several marriage-beds, have yet thereafter
Obtained the mates from whom they could conceive
The baby-boys, and with sweet progeny
Grow rich. And even for husbands (whose own wives,
Although of fertile wombs, have borne for them
No babies in the house) are also found
Concordant natures so that they at last
Can bulwark their old age with goodly sons.
A matter of great moment 'tis in truth,
That seeds may mingle readily with seeds
Suited for procreation, and that thick
Should mix with fluid seeds, with thick the fluid.
And in this business 'tis of some import
Upon what diet life is nourished:
For some foods thicken seeds within our members,
And others thin them out and waste away.
And in what modes the fond delight itself
Is carried on- this too importeth vastly.
For commonly 'tis thought that wives conceive
More readily in manner of wild-beasts,
After the custom of the four-foot breeds,
Because so postured, with the breasts beneath
And buttocks then upreared, the seeds can take
Their proper places. Nor is need the least
For wives to use the motions of blandishment;
For thus the woman hinders and resists
Her own conception, if too joyously
Herself she treats the Venus of the man
With haunches heaving, and with all her bosom
Now yielding like the billows of the sea-
Aye, from the ploughshare's even course and track
She throws the furrow, and from proper places
Deflects the spurt of seed. And courtesans
Are thuswise wont to move for their own ends,
To keep from pregnancy and lying in,
And all the while to render Venus more
A pleasure for the men- the which meseems
Our wives have never need of.
               Sometimes too
It happens- and through no divinity
Nor arrows of Venus- that a sorry chit
Of scanty grace will be beloved by man;
For sometimes she herself by very deeds,
By her complying ways, and tidy habits,
Will easily accustom thee to pass
With her thy life-time- and, moreover, lo,
Long habitude can gender human love,
Even as an object smitten o'er and o'er
By blows, however lightly, yet at last
Is overcome and wavers. Seest thou not,
Besides, how drops of water falling down
Against the stones at last bore through the stones?


--
author class:Lucretius
~ 'tis that's Venus unto us:, The Passion Of Love
,
90:Amours De Voyage, Canto V
There is a city, upbuilt on the quays of the turbulent Arno,
Under Fiesole's heights,--thither are we to return?
There is a city that fringes the curve of the inflowing waters,
Under the perilous hill fringes the beautiful bay,-Parthenope, do they call thee?--the Siren, Neapolis, seated
Under Vesevus's hill,--are we receding to thee?-Sicily, Greece, will invite, and the Orient;--or are we turn to
England, which may after all be for its children the best?
I. Mary Trevellyn, at Lucerne, to Miss Roper, at Florence.
So you are really free, and living in quiet at Florence;
That is delightful news; you travelled slowly and safely;
Mr. Claude got you out; took rooms at Florence before you;
Wrote from Milan to say so; had left directly for Milan,
Hoping to find us soon;--if he could, he would, you are certain.-Dear Miss Roper, your letter has made me exceedingly happy.
You are quite sure, you say, he asked you about our intentions;
You had not heard as yet of Lucerne, but told him of Como.-Well, perhaps he will come; however, I will not expect it.
Though you say you are sure,--if he can, he will, you are certain.
O my dear, many thanks from your ever affectionate Mary.
II. Claude to Eustace.
Florence.
Action will furnish belief,--but will that belief be the true one?
This is the point, you know. However, it doesn't much matter.
What one wants, I suppose, is to predetermine the action,
So as to make it entail, not a chance belief, but the true one.
Out of the question, you say; if a thing isn't wrong we may do it.
Ah! but this wrong, you see--but I do not know that it matters.
Eustace, the Ropers are gone, and no one can tell me about them.
40
Pisa.
Pisa, they say they think, and so I follow to Pisa,
Hither and thither inquiring. I weary of making inquiries.
I am ashamed, I declare, of asking people about it.-Who are your friends? You said you had friends who would certainly know them.
Florence.
But it is idle, moping, and thinking, and trying to fix her
Image once more and more in, to write the whole perfect inscription
Over and over again upon every page of remembrance.
I have settled to stay at Florence to wait for your answer.
Who are your friends? Write quickly and tell me. I wait for your answer.
III. Mary Trevellyn to Miss Roper.--at Lucca Baths.
You are at Lucca baths, you tell me, to stay for the summer;
Florence was quite too hot; you can't move further at present.
Will you not come, do you think, before the summer is over?
Mr. C. got you out with very considerable trouble;
And he was useful and kind, and seemed so happy to serve you.
Didn't stay with you long, but talked very openly to you;
Made you almost his confessor, without appearing to know it,-What about?--and you say you didn't need his confessions.
O my dear Miss Roper, I dare not trust what you tell me!
Will he come, do you think? I am really so sorry for him.
They didn't give him my letter at Milan, I feel pretty certain.
You had told him Bellaggio. We didn't go to Bellaggio;
So he would miss our track, and perhaps never come to Lugano,
Where we were written in full, To Lucerne across the St. Gothard.
But he could write to you;--you would tell him where you were going.
IV. Claude to Eustace.
Let me, then, bear to forget her. I will not cling to her falsely:
Nothing factitious or forced shall impair the old happy relation.
I will let myself go, forget, not try to remember;
41
I will walk on my way, accept the chances that meet me,
Freely encounter the world, imbibe these alien airs, and
Never ask if new feelings and thoughts are of her or of others.
Is she not changing herself?--the old image would only delude me.
I will be bold, too, and change,--if it must be. Yet if in all things,
Yet if I do but aspire evermore to the Absolute only,
I shall be doing, I think, somehow, what she will be doing;-I shall be thine, O my child, some way, though I know not in what way,
Let me submit to forget her; I must; I already forget her.
V. Claude to Eustace.
Utterly vain is, alas! this attempt at the Absolute,--wholly!
I, who believed not in her, because I would fain believe nothing,
Have to believe as I may, with a wilful, unmeaning acceptance.
I, who refused to enfasten the roots of my floating existence
In the rich earth, cling now to the hard, naked rock that is left me,-Ah! she was worthy, Eustace,--and that, indeed, is my comfort,-Worthy a nobler heart than a fool such as I could have given her.
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------Yes, it relieves me to write, though I do not send, and the chance that
Takes may destroy my fragments. But as men pray, without asking

Whether One really exist to hear or do anything for them,-Simply impelled by the need of the moment to turn to a Being

In a conception of whom there is freedom from all limitation,-So in your image I turn to an ens rationis of friendship,

Even so write in your name I know not to whom nor in what wise.

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------There was a time, methought it was but lately departed,
When, if a thing was denied me, I felt I was bound to attempt it;

Choice alone should take, and choice alone should surrender.

There was a time, indeed, when I had not retired thus early,

Languidly thus, from pursuit of a purpose I once had adopted,

But it is all over, all that! I have slunk from the perilous field in

42

Whose wild struggle of forces the prizes of life are contested.

It is over, all that! I am a coward, and know it.

Courage in me could be only factitious, unnatural, useless.

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------Comfort has come to me here in the dreary streets of the city,
Comfort--how do you think?--with a barrel-organ to bring it.

Moping along the streets, and cursing my day as I wandered,

All of a sudden my ear met the sound of an English psalm-tune,

Comfort me it did, till indeed I was very near crying.

Ah, there is some great truth, partial, very likely, but needful,

Lodged, I am strangely sure, in the tones of the English psalm-tune.

Comfort it was at least; and I must take without question

Comfort, however it come, in the dreary streets of the city.

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------I shall behold thee again (is it so?) at a new visitation,
O ill genius thou! I shall at my life's dissolution

(When the pulses are weak, and the feeble light of the reason

Flickers, an unfed flame retiring slow from the socket),

Low on a sick-bed laid, hear one, as it were, at the doorway,

And, looking up, see thee standing by, looking emptily at me;

I shall entreat thee then, though now I dare to refuse thee,-Pale and pitiful now, but terrible then to the dying.-Well, I will see thee again, and while I can, will repel thee.

VI. Claude to Eustace.

Rome is fallen, I hear, the gallant Medici taken,

Noble Manara slain, and Garibaldi has lost il Moro;-Rome is fallen; and fallen, or falling, heroical Venice.

I, meanwhile, for the loss of a single small chit of a girl, sit

Moping and mourning here,--for her, and myself much smaller.

Whither depart the souls of the brave that die in the battle,

Die in the lost, lost fight, for the cause that perishes with them?

Are they upborne from the field on the slumberous pinions of angels

43

Unto a far-off home, where the weary rest from their labour,

And the deep wounds are healed, and the bitter and burning moisture

Wiped from the generous eyes? or do they linger, unhappy,

Pining, and haunting the grave of their by-gone hope and endeavour?

All declamation, alas! though I talk, I care not for Rome nor

Italy; feebly and faintly, and but with the lips, can lament the

Wreck of the Lombard youth, and the victory of the oppressor.

Whither depart the brave?--God knows; I certainly do not.

VII. Mary Trevellyn to Miss Roper.

He has not come as yet; and now I must not expect it.

You have written, you say, to friends at Florence, to see him,

If he perhaps should return;--but that is surely unlikely.

Has he not written to you?--he did not know your direction.

Oh, how strange never once to have told him where you were going!

Yet if he only wrote to Florence, that would have reached you.

If what you say he said was true, why has he not done so?

Is he gone back to Rome, do you think, to his Vatican marbles?-O my dear Miss Roper, forgive me! do not be angry!-You have written to Florence;--your friends would certainly find him.

Might you not write to him ?--but yet it is so little likely!

I shall expect nothing more.--Ever yours, your affectionate Mary.

VIII. Claude to Eustace.

I cannot stay at Florence, not even to wait for a letter.

Galleries only oppress me. Remembrance of hope I had cherished

(Almost more than as hope, when I passed through Florence the first time)

Lies like a sword in my soul. I am more a coward than ever,

Chicken-hearted, past thought. The caffès and waiters distress me.

All is unkind, and, alas! I am ready for anyone's kindness.

Oh, I knew it of old, and knew it, I thought, to perfection,

If there is any one thing in the world to preclude all kindness

It is the need of it,--it is this sad, self-defeating dependence.

Why is this, Eustace? Myself, were I stronger, I think I could tell you.

But it is odd when it comes. So plumb I the deeps of depression,

Daily in deeper, and find no support, no will, no purpose.

44

All my old strengths are gone. And yet I shall have to do something.

Ah, the key of our life, that passes all wards, opens all locks,

Is not I will, but I must. I must,--I must,--and I do it.

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------After all, do I know that I really cared so about her?
Do whatever I will, I cannot call up her image;

For when I close my eyes, I see, very likely, St. Peter's,

Or the Pantheon facade, or Michel Angelo's figures,

Or, at a wish, when I please, the Alban hills and the Forum,-But that face, those eyes,--ah, no, never anything like them;

Only, try as I will, a sort of featureless outline,

And a pale blank orb, which no recollection will add to.

After all, perhaps there was something factitious about it;

I have had pain, it is true: I have wept; and so have the actors.

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------At the last moment I have your letter, for which I was waiting;
I have taken my place, and see no good in inquiries.

Do nothing more, good Eustace, I pray you. It only will vex me.

Take no measures. Indeed, should we meet, I could not be certain;

All might be changed, you know. Or perhaps there was nothing to be changed.

It is a curious history, this; and yet I foresaw it;

I could have told it before. The Fates, it is clear, are against us;

For it is certain enough I met with the people you mention;

They were at Florence the day I returned there, and spoke to me even;

Stayed a week, saw me often; departed, and whither I know not.

Great is Fate, and is best. I believe in Providence partly.

What is ordained is right, and all that happens is ordered.

Ah, no, that isn't it. But yet I retain my conclusion.

I will go where I am led, and will not dictate to the chances.

Do nothing more, I beg. If you love me, forbear interfering.

IX. Claude to Eustace.

Shall we come out of it all, some day, as one does from a tunnel?

45

Will it be all at once, without our doing or asking,

We shall behold clear day, the trees and meadows about us,

And the faces of friends, and the eyes we loved looking at us?

Who knows? Who can say? It will not do to suppose it.

X. Claude to Eustace,-from Rome.

Rome will not suit me, Eustace; the priests and soldiers possess it;

Priests and soldiers:--and, ah! which is the worst, the priest or the soldier?

Politics, farewell, however! For what could I do? with inquiring,

Talking, collating the journals, go fever my brain about things o'er

Which I can have no control. No, happen whatever may happen,

Time, I suppose, will subsist; the earth will revolve on its axis;

People will travel; the stranger will wander as now in the city;

Rome will be here, and the Pope the custode of Vatican marbles.

I have no heart, however, for any marble or fresco;

I have essayed it in vain; 'tis in vain as yet to essay it:

But I may haply resume some day my studies in this kind;

Not as the Scripture says, is, I think, the fact. Ere our death-day,

Faith, I think, does pass, and Love; but Knowledge abideth.

Let us seek Knowledge;--the rest may come and go as it happens.

Knowledge is hard to seek, and harder yet to adhere to.

Knowledge is painful often; and yet when we know we are happy.

Seek it, and leave mere Faith and Love to come with the chances.

As for Hope,--to-morrow I hope to be starting for Naples.

Rome will not do, I see, for many very good reasons.

Eastward, then, I suppose, with the coming of winter, to Egypt.

XI. Mary Trevellyn to Miss Roper.

You have heard nothing; of course I know you can have heard nothing.

Ah, well, more than once I have broken my purpose, and sometimes,

Only too often, have looked for the little lake steamer to bring him.

But it is only fancy,--I do not really expect it.

Oh, and you see I know so exactly how he would take it:

Finding the chances prevail against meeting again, he would banish

Forthwith every thought of the poor little possible hope, which

I myself could not help, perhaps, thinking only too much of;

46

He would resign himself, and go. I see it exactly.

So I also submit, although in a different manner.

Can you not really come? We go very shortly to England.

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
So go forth to the world, to the good report and the evil!

Go, little book! thy tale, is it not evil and good?

Go, and if strangers revile, pass quietly by without answer.

Go, and if curious friends ask of thy rearing and age,

Say, 'I am flitting about many years from brain unto brain of

Feeble and restless youths born to inglorious days:

But,' so finish the word, 'I was writ in a Roman chamber,

When from Janiculan heights thundered the cannon of France.'

~ Arthur Hugh Clough,
91:The Ghost - Book Iv
Coxcombs, who vainly make pretence
To something of exalted sense
'Bove other men, and, gravely wise,
Affect those pleasures to despise,
Which, merely to the eye confined,
Bring no improvement to the mind,
Rail at all pomp; they would not go
For millions to a puppet-show,
Nor can forgive the mighty crime
Of countenancing pantomime;
No, not at Covent Garden, where,
Without a head for play or player,
Or, could a head be found most fit,
Without one player to second it,
They must, obeying Folly's call,
Thrive by mere show, or not at all
With these grave fops, who, (bless their brains!)
Most cruel to themselves, take pains
For wretchedness, and would be thought
Much wiser than a wise man ought,
For his own happiness, to be;
Who what they hear, and what they see,
And what they smell, and taste, and feel,
Distrust, till Reason sets her seal,
And, by long trains of consequences
Insured, gives sanction to the senses;
Who would not (Heaven forbid it!) waste
One hour in what the world calls Taste,
Nor fondly deign to laugh or cry,
Unless they know some reason why;
With these grave fops, whose system seems
To give up certainty for dreams,
The eye of man is understood
As for no other purpose good
Than as a door, through which, of course,
Their passage crowding, objects force,
A downright usher, to admit
New-comers to the court of Wit:
(Good Gravity! forbear thy spleen;
190
When I say Wit, I Wisdom mean)
Where (such the practice of the court,
Which legal precedents support)
Not one idea is allow'd
To pass unquestion'd in the crowd,
But ere it can obtain the grace
Of holding in the brain a place,
Before the chief in congregation
Must stand a strict examination.
Not such as those, who physic twirl,
Full fraught with death, from every curl;
Who prove, with all becoming state,
Their voice to be the voice of Fate;
Prepared with essence, drop, and pill,
To be another Ward or Hill,
Before they can obtain their ends,
To sign death-warrants for their friends,
And talents vast as theirs employ,
_Secundum artem_ to destroy,
Must pass (or laws their rage restrain)
Before the chiefs of Warwick Lane:
Thrice happy Lane! where, uncontroll'd,
In power and lethargy grown old,
Most fit to take, in this bless'd land,
The reins--which fell from Wyndham's hand,
Her lawful throne great Dulness rears,
Still more herself, as more in years;
Where she, (and who shall dare deny
Her right, when Reeves and Chauncy's by?)
Calling to mind, in ancient time,
One Garth, who err'd in wit and rhyme,
Ordains, from henceforth, to admit
None of the rebel sons of Wit,
And makes it her peculiar care
That Schomberg never shall be there.
Not such as those, whom Polly trains
To letters, though unbless'd with brains,
Who, destitute of power and will
To learn, are kept to learning still;
Whose heads, when other methods fail,
Receive instruction from the tail,
Because their sires,--a common case
191
Which brings the children to disgrace,-Imagine it a certain rule
They never could beget a fool,
Must pass, or must compound for, ere
The chaplain, full of beef and prayer,
Will give his reverend permit,
Announcing them for orders fit;
So that the prelate (what's a name?
All prelates now are much the same)
May, with a conscience safe and quiet,
With holy hands lay on that fiat
Which doth all faculties dispense,
All sanctity, all faith, all sense;
Makes Madan quite a saint appear,
And makes an oracle of Cheere.
Not such as in that solemn seat,
Where the Nine Ladies hold retreat,-The Ladies Nine, who, as we're told,
Scorning those haunts they loved of old,
The banks of Isis now prefer,
Nor will one hour from Oxford stir,-Are held for form, which Balaam's ass
As well as Balaam's self might pass,
And with his master take degrees,
Could he contrive to pay the fees.
Men of sound parts, who, deeply read,
O'erload the storehouse of the head
With furniture they ne'er can use,
Cannot forgive our rambling Muse
This wild excursion; cannot see
Why Physic and Divinity,
To the surprise of all beholders,
Are lugg'd in by the head and shoulders;
Or how, in any point of view,
Oxford hath any thing to do.
But men of nice and subtle learning,
Remarkable for quick discerning,
Through spectacles of critic mould,
Without instruction, will behold
That we a method here have got
To show what is, by what is not;
And that our drift (parenthesis
192
For once apart) is briefly this:
Within the brain's most secret cells
A certain Lord Chief-Justice dwells,
Of sovereign power, whom, one and all,
With common voice, we Reason call;
Though, for the purposes of satire,
A name, in truth, is no great matter;
Jefferies or Mansfield, which you will-It means a Lord Chief-Justice still.
Here, so our great projectors say,
The Senses all must homage pay;
Hither they all must tribute bring,
And prostrate fall before their king;
Whatever unto them is brought,
Is carried on the wings of Thought
Before his throne, where, in full state,
He on their merits holds debate,
Examines, cross-examines, weighs
Their right to censure or to praise:
Nor doth his equal voice depend
On narrow views of foe and friend,
Nor can, or flattery, or force
Divert him from his steady course;
The channel of Inquiry's clear,
No sham examination's here.
He, upright justicer, no doubt,
_Ad libitum_ puts in and out,
Adjusts and settles in a trice
What virtue is, and what is vice;
What is perfection, what defect;
What we must choose, and what reject;
He takes upon him to explain
What pleasure is, and what is pain;
Whilst we, obedient to the whim,
And resting all our faith on him,
True members of the Stoic Weal,
Must learn to think, and cease to feel.
This glorious system, form'd for man
To practise when and how he can,
If the five Senses, in alliance,
To Reason hurl a proud defiance,
And, though oft conquer'd, yet unbroke,
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Endeavour to throw off that yoke,
Which they a greater slavery hold
Than Jewish bondage was of old;
Or if they, something touch'd with shame,
Allow him to retain the name
Of Royalty, and, as in sport,
To hold a mimic formal court;
Permitted--no uncommon thing-To be a kind of puppet king,
And suffer'd, by the way of toy,
To hold a globe, but not employ;
Our system-mongers, struck with fear,
Prognosticate destruction near;
All things to anarchy must run;
The little world of man's undone.
Nay, should the Eye, that nicest sense,
Neglect to send intelligence
Unto the Brain, distinct and clear,
Of all that passes in her sphere;
Should she, presumptuous, joy receive
Without the Understanding's leave,
They deem it rank and daring treason
Against the monarchy of Reason,
Not thinking, though they're wondrous wise,
That few have reason, most have eyes;
So that the pleasures of the mind
To a small circle are confined,
Whilst those which to the senses fall
Become the property of all.
Besides, (and this is sure a case
Not much at present out of place)
Where Nature reason doth deny,
No art can that defect supply;
But if (for it is our intent
Fairly to state the argument)
A man should want an eye or two,
The remedy is sure, though new:
The cure's at hand--no need of fear-For proof--behold the Chevalier!-As well prepared, beyond all doubt,
To put eyes in, as put them out.
But, argument apart, which tends
194
To embitter foes and separate friends,
(Nor, turn'd apostate from the Nine,
Would I, though bred up a divine,
And foe, of course, to Reason's Weal,
Widen that breach I cannot heal)
By his own sense and feelings taught,
In speech as liberal as in thought,
Let every man enjoy his whim;
What's he to me, or I to him?
Might I, though never robed in ermine,
A matter of this weight determine,
No penalties should settled be
To force men to hypocrisy,
To make them ape an awkward zeal,
And, feeling not, pretend to feel.
I would not have, might sentence rest
Finally fix'd within my breast,
E'en Annet censured and confined,
Because we're of a different mind.
Nature, who, in her act most free,
Herself delights in liberty,
Profuse in love, and without bound,
Pours joy on every creature round;
Whom yet, was every bounty shed
In double portions on our head,
We could not truly bounteous call,
If Freedom did not crown them all.
By Providence forbid to stray,
Brutes never can mistake their way;
Determined still, they plod along
By instinct, neither right nor wrong;
But man, had he the heart to use
His freedom, hath a right to choose;
Whether he acts, or well, or ill,
Depends entirely on his will.
To her last work, her favourite Man,
Is given, on Nature's better plan,
A privilege in power to err.
Nor let this phrase resentment stir
Amongst the grave ones, since indeed
The little merit man can plead
In doing well, dependeth still
195
Upon his power of doing ill.
Opinions should be free as air;
No man, whate'er his rank, whate'er
His qualities, a claim can found
That my opinion must be bound,
And square with his; such slavish chains
From foes the liberal soul disdains;
Nor can, though true to friendship, bend
To wear them even from a friend.
Let those, who rigid judgment own,
Submissive bow at Judgment's throne,
And if they of no value hold
Pleasure, till pleasure is grown cold,
Pall'd and insipid, forced to wait
For Judgment's regular debate
To give it warrant, let them find
Dull subjects suited to their mind.
Theirs be slow wisdom; be my plan,
To live as merry as I can,
Regardless, as the fashions go,
Whether there's reason for't or no:
Be my employment here on earth
To give a liberal scope to mirth,
Life's barren vale with flowers to adorn,
And pluck a rose from every thorn.
But if, by Error led astray,
I chance to wander from my way,
Let no blind guide observe, in spite,
I'm wrong, who cannot set me right.
That doctor could I ne'er endure
Who found disease, and not a cure;
Nor can I hold that man a friend
Whose zeal a helping hand shall lend
To open happy Folly's eyes,
And, making wretched, make me wise:
For next (a truth which can't admit
Reproof from Wisdom or from Wit)
To being happy here below,
Is to believe that we are so.
Some few in knowledge find relief;
I place my comfort in belief.
Some for reality may call;
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Fancy to me is all in all.
Imagination, through the trick
Of doctors, often makes us sick;
And why, let any sophist tell,
May it not likewise make us well?
This I am sure, whate'er our view,
Whatever shadows we pursue,
For our pursuits, be what they will,
Are little more than shadows still;
Too swift they fly, too swift and strong,
For man to catch or hold them long;
But joys which in the fancy live,
Each moment to each man may give:
True to himself, and true to ease,
He softens Fate's severe decrees,
And (can a mortal wish for more?)
Creates, and makes himself new o'er,
Mocks boasted vain reality,
And is, whate'er he wants to be.
Hail, Fancy!--to thy power I owe
Deliverance from the gripe of Woe;
To thee I owe a mighty debt,
Which Gratitude shall ne'er forget,
Whilst Memory can her force employ,
A large increase of every joy.
When at my doors, too strongly barr'd,
Authority had placed a guard,
A knavish guard, ordain'd by law
To keep poor Honesty in awe;
Authority, severe and stern,
To intercept my wish'd return;
When foes grew proud, and friends grew cool,
And laughter seized each sober fool;
When Candour started in amaze,
And, meaning censure, hinted praise;
When Prudence, lifting up her eyes
And hands, thank'd Heaven that she was wise;
When all around me, with an air
Of hopeless sorrow, look'd despair;
When they, or said, or seem'd to say,
There is but one, one only way
Better, and be advised by us,
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Not be at all, than to be thus;
When Virtue shunn'd the shock, and Pride,
Disabled, lay by Virtue's side,
Too weak my ruffled soul to cheer,
Which could not hope, yet would not fear;
Health in her motion, the wild grace
Of pleasure speaking in her face,
Dull regularity thrown by,
And comfort beaming from her eye,
Fancy, in richest robes array'd,
Came smiling forth, and brought me aid;
Came smiling o'er that dreadful time,
And, more to bless me, came in rhyme.
Nor is her power to me confined;
It spreads, it comprehends mankind.
When (to the spirit-stirring sound
Of trumpets breathing courage round,
And fifes well-mingled, to restrain
And bring that courage down again;
Or to the melancholy knell
Of the dull, deep, and doleful bell,
Such as of late the good Saint Bride
Muffled, to mortify the pride
Of those who, England quite forgot,
Paid their vile homage to the Scot;
Where Asgill held the foremost place,
Whilst my lord figured at a race)
Processions ('tis not worth debate
Whether they are of stage or state)
Move on, so very, very slow,
Tis doubtful if they move, or no;
When the performers all the while
Mechanically frown or smile,
Or, with a dull and stupid stare,
A vacancy of sense declare,
Or, with down-bending eye, seem wrought
Into a labyrinth of thought,
Where Reason wanders still in doubt,
And, once got in, cannot get out;
What cause sufficient can we find,
To satisfy a thinking mind,
Why, duped by such vain farces, man
198
Descends to act on such a plan?
Why they, who hold themselves divine,
Can in such wretched follies join,
Strutting like peacocks, or like crows,
Themselves and Nature to expose?
What cause, but that (you'll understand
We have our remedy at hand,
That if perchance we start a doubt,
Ere it is fix'd, we wipe it out;
As surgeons, when they lop a limb,
Whether for profit, fame, or whim,
Or mere experiment to try,
Must always have a styptic by)
Fancy steps in, and stamps that real,
Which, _ipso facto_, is ideal.
Can none remember?--yes, I know,
All must remember that rare show
When to the country Sense went down,
And fools came flocking up to town;
When knights (a work which all admit
To be for knighthood much unfit)
Built booths for hire; when parsons play'd,
In robes canonical array'd,
And, fiddling, join'd the Smithfield dance,
The price of tickets to advance:
Or, unto tapsters turn'd, dealt out,
Running from booth to booth about,
To every scoundrel, by retail,
True pennyworths of beef and ale,
Then first prepared, by bringing beer in,
For present grand electioneering;
When heralds, running all about
To bring in Order, turn'd it out;
When, by the prudent Marshal's care,
Lest the rude populace should stare,
And with unhallow'd eyes profane
Gay puppets of Patrician strain,
The whole procession, as in spite,
Unheard, unseen, stole off by night;
When our loved monarch, nothing both,
Solemnly took that sacred oath,
Whence mutual firm agreements spring
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Betwixt the subject and the king,
By which, in usual manner crown'd,
His head, his heart, his hands, he bound,
Against himself, should passion stir
The least propensity to err,
Against all slaves, who might prepare,
Or open force, or hidden snare,
That glorious Charter to maintain,
By which we serve, and he must reign;
Then Fancy, with unbounded sway,
Revell'd sole mistress of the day,
And wrought such wonders, as might make
Egyptian sorcerers forsake
Their baffled mockeries, and own
The palm of magic hers alone.
A knight, (who, in the silken lap
Of lazy Peace, had lived on pap;
Who never yet had dared to roam
'Bove ten or twenty miles from home,
Nor even that, unless a guide
Was placed to amble by his side,
And troops of slaves were spread around
To keep his Honour safe and sound;
Who could not suffer, for his life,
A point to sword, or edge to knife;
And always fainted at the sight
Of blood, though 'twas not shed in fight;
Who disinherited one son
For firing off an alder gun,
And whipt another, six years old,
Because the boy, presumptuous, bold
To madness, likely to become
A very Swiss, had beat a drum,
Though it appear'd an instrument
Most peaceable and innocent,
Having, from first, been in the hands
And service of the City bands)
Graced with those ensigns, which were meant
To further Honour's dread intent,
The minds of warriors to inflame,
And spur them on to deeds of fame;
With little sword, large spurs, high feather,
200
Fearless of every thing but weather,
(And all must own, who pay regard
To charity, it had been hard
That in his very first campaign
His honours should be soil'd with rain)
A hero all at once became,
And (seeing others much the same
In point of valour as himself,
Who leave their courage on a shelf
From year to year, till some such rout
In proper season calls it out)
Strutted, look'd big, and swagger'd more
Than ever hero did before;
Look'd up, look'd down, look'd all around,
Like Mavors, grimly smiled and frown'd;
Seem'd Heaven, and Earth, and Hell to call
To fight, that he might rout them all,
And personated Valour's style
So long, spectators to beguile,
That, passing strange, and wondrous true,
Himself at last believed it too;
Nor for a time could he discern,
Till Truth and Darkness took their turn,
So well did Fancy play her part,
That coward still was at the heart.
Whiffle (who knows not Whiffle's name,
By the impartial voice of Fame
Recorded first through all this land
In Vanity's illustrious band?)
Who, by all-bounteous Nature meant
For offices of hardiment,
A modern Hercules at least,
To rid the world of each wild beast,
Of each wild beast which came in view,
Whether on four legs or on two,
Degenerate, delights to prove
His force on the parade of Love,
Disclaims the joys which camps afford,
And for the distaff quits the sword;
Who fond of women would appear
To public eye and public ear,
But, when in private, lets them know
201
How little they can trust to show;
Who sports a woman, as of course,
Just as a jockey shows a horse,
And then returns her to the stable,
Or vainly plants her at his table,
Where he would rather Venus find
(So pall'd, and so depraved his mind)
Than, by some great occasion led,
To seize her panting in her bed,
Burning with more than mortal fires,
And melting in her own desires;
Who, ripe in years, is yet a child,
Through fashion, not through feeling, wild;
Whate'er in others, who proceed
As Sense and Nature have decreed,
From real passion flows, in him
Is mere effect of mode and whim;
Who laughs, a very common way,
Because he nothing has to say,
As your choice spirits oaths dispense
To fill up vacancies of sense;
Who, having some small sense, defies it,
Or, using, always misapplies it;
Who now and then brings something forth
Which seems indeed of sterling worth;
Something, by sudden start and fit,
Which at a distance looks like wit,
But, on examination near,
To his confusion will appear,
By Truth's fair glass, to be at best
A threadbare jester's threadbare jest;
Who frisks and dances through the street,
Sings without voice, rides without seat,
Plays o'er his tricks, like Aesop's ass,
A gratis fool to all who pass;
Who riots, though he loves not waste,
Whores without lust, drinks without taste,
Acts without sense, talks without thought,
Does every thing but what he ought;
Who, led by forms, without the power
Of vice, is vicious; who one hour,
Proud without pride, the next will be
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Humble without humility:
Whose vanity we all discern,
The spring on which his actions turn;
Whose aim in erring, is to err,
So that he may be singular,
And all his utmost wishes mean
Is, though he's laugh'd at, to be seen:
Such, (for when Flattery's soothing strain
Had robb'd the Muse of her disdain,
And found a method to persuade
Her art to soften every shade,
Justice, enraged, the pencil snatch'd
From her degenerate hand, and scratch'd
Out every trace; then, quick as thought,
From life this striking likeness caught)
In mind, in manners, and in mien,
Such Whiffle came, and such was seen
In the world's eye; but (strange to tell!)
Misled by Fancy's magic spell,
Deceived, not dreaming of deceit,
Cheated, but happy in the cheat,
Was more than human in his own.
Oh, bow, bow all at Fancy's throne,
Whose power could make so vile an elf
With patience bear that thing, himself.
But, mistress of each art to please,
Creative Fancy, what are these,
These pageants of a trifler's pen,
To what thy power effected then?
Familiar with the human mind,
And swift and subtle as the wind,
Which we all feel, yet no one knows,
Or whence it comes, or where it goes,
Fancy at once in every part
Possess'd the eye, the head, the heart,
And in a thousand forms array'd,
A thousand various gambols play'd.
Here, in a face which well might ask
The privilege to wear a mask
In spite of law, and Justice teach
For public good to excuse the breach,
Within the furrow of a wrinkle
203
'Twixt eyes, which could not shine but twinkle,
Like sentinels i' th' starry way,
Who wait for the return of day,
Almost burnt out, and seem to keep
Their watch, like soldiers, in their sleep;
Or like those lamps, which, by the power
Of law, must burn from hour to hour,
(Else they, without redemption, fall
Under the terrors of that Hall,
Which, once notorious for a hop,
Is now become a justice shop)
Which are so managed, to go out
Just when the time comes round about,
Which yet, through emulation, strive
To keep their dying light alive,
And (not uncommon, as we find,
Amongst the children of mankind)
As they grow weaker, would seem stronger,
And burn a little, little longer:
Fancy, betwixt such eyes enshrined,
No brush to daub, no mill to grind,
Thrice waved her wand around, whose force
Changed in an instant Nature's course,
And, hardly credible in rhyme,
Not only stopp'd, but call'd back Time;
The face of every wrinkle clear'd,
Smooth as the floating stream appear'd,
Down the neck ringlets spread their flame,
The neck admiring whence they came;
On the arch'd brow the Graces play'd;
On the full bosom Cupid laid;
Suns, from their proper orbits sent,
Became for eyes a supplement;
Teeth, white as ever teeth were seen,
Deliver'd from the hand of Green,
Started, in regular array,
Like train-bands on a grand field day,
Into the gums, which would have fled,
But, wondering, turn'd from white to red;
Quite alter'd was the whole machine,
And Lady ---- ---- was fifteen.
Here she made lordly temples rise

204
Before the pious Dashwood's eyes,
Temples which, built aloft in air,
May serve for show, if not for prayer;
In solemn form herself, before,
Array'd like Faith, the Bible bore.
There over Melcombe's feather'd head-Who, quite a man of gingerbread,
Savour'd in talk, in dress, and phiz,
More of another world than this,
To a dwarf Muse a giant page,
The last grave fop of the last age-In a superb and feather'd hearse,
Bescutcheon'd and betagg'd with verse,
Which, to beholders from afar,
Appear'd like a triumphal car,
She rode, in a cast rainbow clad;
There, throwing off the hallow'd plaid,
Naked, as when (in those drear cells
Where, self-bless'd, self-cursed, Madness dwells)
Pleasure, on whom, in Laughter's shape,
Frenzy had perfected a rape,
First brought her forth, before her time,
Wild witness of her shame and crime,
Driving before an idol band
Of drivelling Stuarts, hand in hand;
Some who, to curse mankind, had wore
A crown they ne'er must think of more;
Others, whose baby brows were graced
With paper crowns, and toys of paste,
She jigg'd, and, playing on the flute,
Spread raptures o'er the soul of Bute.
Big with vast hopes, some mighty plan,
Which wrought the busy soul of man
To her full bent; the Civil Law,
Fit code to keep a world in awe,
Bound o'er his brows, fair to behold,
As Jewish frontlets were of old;
The famous Charter of our land
Defaced, and mangled in his hand;
As one whom deepest thoughts employ,
But deepest thoughts of truest joy,
Serious and slow he strode, he stalk'd;
205
Before him troops of heroes walk'd,
Whom best he loved, of heroes crown'd,
By Tories guarded all around;
Dull solemn pleasure in his face,
He saw the honours of his race,
He saw their lineal glories rise,
And touch'd, or seem'd to touch, the skies:
Not the most distant mark of fear,
No sign of axe or scaffold near,
Not one cursed thought to cross his will
Of such a place as Tower Hill.
Curse on this Muse, a flippant jade,
A shrew, like every other maid
Who turns the corner of nineteen,
Devour'd with peevishness and spleen;
Her tongue (for as, when bound for life,
The husband suffers for the wife,
So if in any works of rhyme
Perchance there blunders out a crime,
Poor culprit bards must always rue it,
Although 'tis plain the Muses do it)
Sooner or later cannot fail
To send me headlong to a jail.
Whate'er my theme, (our themes we choose,
In modern days, without a Muse;
Just as a father will provide
To join a bridegroom and a bride,
As if, though they must be the players,
The game was wholly his, not theirs)
Whate'er my theme, the Muse, who still
Owns no direction but her will,
Plies off, and ere I could expect,
By ways oblique and indirect,
At once quite over head and ears
In fatal politics appears.
Time was, and, if I aught discern
Of fate, that time shall soon return,
When, decent and demure at least,
As grave and dull as any priest,
I could see Vice in robes array'd,
Could see the game of Folly play'd
Successfully in Fortune's school,
206
Without exclaiming rogue or fool.
Time was, when, nothing both or proud,
I lackey'd with the fawning crowd,
Scoundrels in office, and would bow
To cyphers great in place; but now
Upright I stand, as if wise Fate,
To compliment a shatter'd state,
Had me, like Atlas, hither sent
To shoulder up the firmament,
And if I stoop'd, with general crack,
The heavens would tumble from my back.
Time was, when rank and situation
Secured the great ones of the nation
From all control; satire and law
Kept only little knaves in awe;
But now, Decorum lost, I stand
Bemused, a pencil in my hand,
And, dead to every sense of shame,
Careless of safety and of fame,
The names of scoundrels minute down,
And libel more than half the town.
How can a statesman be secure
In all his villanies, if poor
And dirty authors thus shall dare
To lay his rotten bosom bare?
Muses should pass away their time
In dressing out the poet's rhyme
With bills, and ribands, and array
Each line in harmless taste, though gay;
When the hot burning fit is on,
They should regale their restless son
With something to allay his rage,
Some cool Castalian beverage,
Or some such draught (though they, 'tis plain,
Taking the Muse's name in vain,
Know nothing of their real court,
And only fable from report)
As makes a Whitehead's Ode go down,
Or slakes the Feverette of Brown:
But who would in his senses think,
Of Muses giving gall to drink,
Or that their folly should afford
207
To raving poets gun or sword?
Poets were ne'er designed by Fate
To meddle with affairs of state,
Nor should (if we may speak our thought
Truly as men of honour ought)
Sound policy their rage admit,
To launch the thunderbolts of Wit
About those heads, which, when they're shot,
Can't tell if 'twas by Wit or not.
These things well known, what devil, in spite,
Can have seduced me thus to write
Out of that road, which must have led
To riches, without heart or head,
Into that road, which, had I more
Than ever poet had before
Of wit and virtue, in disgrace
Would keep me still, and out of place;
Which, if some judge (you'll understand
One famous, famous through the land
For making law) should stand my friend,
At last may in a pillory end;
And all this, I myself admit,
Without one cause to lead to it?
For instance, now--this book--the Ghost-Methinks I hear some critic Post
Remark most gravely--'The first word
Which we about the Ghost have heard.'
Peace, my good sir!--not quite so fast-What is the first, may be the last,
Which is a point, all must agree,
Cannot depend on you or me.
Fanny, no ghost of common mould,
Is not by forms to be controll'd;
To keep her state, and show her skill,
She never comes but when she will.
I wrote and wrote, (perhaps you doubt,
And shrewdly, what I wrote about;
Believe me, much to my disgrace,
I, too, am in the self-same case
But still I wrote, till Fanny came
Impatient, nor could any shame
On me with equal justice fall
208
If she had never come at all.
An underling, I could not stir
Without the cue thrown out by her,
Nor from the subject aid receive
Until she came and gave me leave.
So that, (ye sons of Erudition
Mark, this is but a supposition,
Nor would I to so wise a nation
Suggest it as a revelation)
If henceforth, dully turning o'er
Page after page, ye read no more
Of Fanny, who, in sea or air,
May be departed God knows where,
Rail at jilt Fortune; but agree
No censure can be laid on me;
For sure (the cause let Mansfield try)
Fanny is in the fault, not I.
But, to return--and this I hold
A secret worth its weight in gold
To those who write, as I write now,
Not to mind where they go, or how,
Through ditch, through bog, o'er hedge and stile,
Make it but worth the reader's while,
And keep a passage fair and plain
Always to bring him back again.
Through dirt, who scruples to approach,
At Pleasure's call, to take a coach?
But we should think the man a clown,
Who in the dirt should set us down.
But to return--if Wit, who ne'er
The shackles of restraint could bear,
In wayward humour should refuse
Her timely succour to the Muse,
And, to no rules and orders tied,
Roughly deny to be her guide,
She must renounce Decorum's plan,
And get back when, and how she can;
As parsons, who, without pretext,
As soon as mention'd, quit their text,
And, to promote sleep's genial power,
Grope in the dark for half an hour,
Give no more reason (for we know
209
Reason is vulgar, mean, and low)
Why they come back (should it befall
That ever they come back at all)
Into the road, to end their rout,
Than they can give why they went out.
But to return--this book--the Ghost-A mere amusement at the most;
A trifle, fit to wear away
The horrors of a rainy day;
A slight shot-silk, for summer wear,
Just as our modern statesmen are,
If rigid honesty permit
That I for once purloin the wit
Of him, who, were we all to steal,
Is much too rich the theft to feel:
Yet in this book, where Base should join
With Mirth to sugar every line;
Where it should all be mere chit-chat,
Lively, good-humour'd, and all that;
Where honest Satire, in disgrace,
Should not so much as show her face,
The shrew, o'erleaping all due bounds,
Breaks into Laughter's sacred grounds,
And, in contempt, plays o'er her tricks
In science, trade, and politics.
By why should the distemper'd scold
Attempt to blacken men enroll'd
In Power's dread book, whose mighty skill
Can twist an empire to their will;
Whose voice is fate, and on their tongue
Law, liberty, and life are hung;
Whom, on inquiry, Truth shall find
With Stuarts link'd, time out of mind,
Superior to their country's laws,
Defenders of a tyrant's cause;
Men, who the same damn'd maxims hold
Darkly, which they avow'd of old;
Who, though by different means, pursue
The end which they had first in view,
And, force found vain, now play their part
With much less honour, much more art?
Why, at the corners of the streets,
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To every patriot drudge she meets,
Known or unknown, with furious cry
Should she wild clamours vent? or why,
The minds of groundlings to inflame,
A Dashwood, Bute, and Wyndham name?
Why, having not, to our surprise,
The fear of death before her eyes,
Bearing, and that but now and then,
No other weapon but her pen,
Should she an argument afford
For blood to men who wear a sword?
Men, who can nicely trim and pare
A point of honour to a hair-(Honour!--a word of nice import,
A pretty trinket in a court,
Which my lord, quite in rapture, feels
Dangling and rattling with his seals-Honour!--a word which all the Nine
Would be much puzzled to define-Honour!--a word which torture mocks,
And might confound a thousand Lockes-Which--for I leave to wiser heads,
Who fields of death prefer to beds
Of down, to find out, if they can,
What honour is, on their wild plan-Is not, to take it in their way,
And this we sure may dare to say
Without incurring an offence,
Courage, law, honesty, or sense):
Men, who, all spirit, life, and soul
Neat butchers of a button-hole,
Having more skill, believe it true
That they must have more courage too:
Men who, without a place or name,
Their fortunes speechless as their fame,
Would by the sword new fortunes carve,
And rather die in fight than starve
At coronations, a vast field,
Which food of every kind might yield;
Of good sound food, at once most fit
For purposes of health and wit,
Could not ambitious Satire rest,
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Content with what she might digest?
Could she not feast on things of course,
A champion, or a champion's horse?
A champion's horse--no, better say,
Though better figured on that day,
A horse, which might appear to us,
Who deal in rhyme, a Pegasus;
A rider, who, when once got on,
Might pass for a Bellerophon,
Dropt on a sudden from the skies,
To catch and fix our wondering eyes,
To witch, with wand instead of whip,
The world with noble horsemanship,
To twist and twine, both horse and man,
On such a well-concerted plan,
That, Centaur-like, when all was done,
We scarce could think they were not one?
Could she not to our itching ears
Bring the new names of new-coin'd peers,
Who walk'd, nobility forgot,
With shoulders fitter for a knot
Than robes of honour; for whose sake
Heralds in form were forced to make,
To make, because they could not find,
Great predecessors to their mind?
Could she not (though 'tis doubtful since
Whether he plumber is, or prince)
Tell of a simple knight's advance
To be a doughty peer of France?
Tell how he did a dukedom gain,
And Robinson was Aquitain?
Tell how her city chiefs, disgraced,
Were at an empty table placed,-A gross neglect, which, whilst they live,
They can't forget, and won't forgive;
A gross neglect of all those rights
Which march with city appetites,
Of all those canons, which we find
By Gluttony, time out of mind,
Established, which they ever hold
Dearer than any thing but gold?
Thanks to my stars--I now see shore--
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Of courtiers, and of courts no more-Thus stumbling on my city friends,
Blind Chance my guide, my purpose bends
In line direct, and shall pursue
The point which I had first in view,
Nor more shall with the reader sport
Till I have seen him safe in port.
Hush'd be each fear--no more I bear
Through the wide regions of the air
The reader terrified, no more
Wild ocean's horrid paths explore.
Be the plain track from henceforth mine-Cross roads to Allen I resign;
Allen, the honor of this nation;
Allen, himself a corporation;
Allen, of late notorious grown
For writings, none, or all, his own;
Allen, the first of letter'd men,
Since the good Bishop holds his pen,
And at his elbow takes his stand,
To mend his head, and guide his hand.
But hold--once more, Digression hence-Let us return to Common Sense;
The car of Phoebus I discharge,
My carriage now a Lord Mayor's barge.
Suppose we now--we may suppose
In verse, what would be sin in prose-The sky with darkness overspread,
And every star retired to bed;
The gewgaw robes of Pomp and Pride
In some dark corner thrown aside;
Great lords and ladies giving way
To what they seem to scorn by day,
The real feelings of the heart,
And Nature taking place of Art;
Desire triumphant through the night,
And Beauty panting with delight;
Chastity, woman's fairest crown,
Till the return of morn laid down.
Then to be worn again as bright
As if not sullied in the night;
Dull Ceremony, business o'er,
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Dreaming in form at Cottrell's door;
Precaution trudging all about
To see the candles safely out,
Bearing a mighty master-key,
Habited like Economy,
Stamping each lock with triple seals;
Mean Avarice creeping at her heels.
Suppose we too, like sheep in pen,
The Mayor and Court of Aldermen
Within their barge, which through the deep,
The rowers more than half asleep,
Moved slow, as overcharged with state;
Thames groan'd beneath the mighty weight,
And felt that bauble heavier far
Than a whole fleet of men of war.
Sleep o'er each well-known faithful head
With liberal hand his poppies shed;
Each head, by Dulness render'd fit
Sleep and his empire to admit.
Through the whole passage not a word,
Not one faint, weak half-sound was heard;
Sleep had prevail'd to overwhelm
The steersman nodding o'er the helm;
The rowers, without force or skill,
Left the dull barge to drive at will;
The sluggish oars suspended hung,
And even Beardmore held his tongue.
Commerce, regardful of a freight
On which depended half her state,
Stepp'd to the helm; with ready hand
She safely clear'd that bank of sand,
Where, stranded, our west-country fleet
Delay and danger often meet,
Till Neptune, anxious for the trade,
Comes in full tides, and brings them aid.
Next (for the Muses can survey
Objects by night as well as day;
Nothing prevents their taking aim,
Darkness and light to them the same)
They pass'd that building which of old
Queen-mothers was design'd to hold;
At present a mere lodging-pen,
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A palace turn'd into a den;
To barracks turn'd, and soldiers tread
Where dowagers have laid their head.
Why should we mention Surrey Street,
Where every week grave judges meet
All fitted out with hum and ha,
In proper form to drawl out law,
To see all causes duly tried
'Twixt knaves who drive, and fools who ride?
Why at the Temple should we stay?
What of the Temple dare we say?
A dangerous ground we tread on there,
And words perhaps may actions bear;
Where, as the brethren of the seas
For fares, the lawyers ply for fees.
What of that Bridge, most wisely made
To serve the purposes of trade,
In the great mart of all this nation,
By stopping up the navigation,
And to that sand bank adding weight,
Which is already much too great?
What of that Bridge, which, void of sense
But well supplied with impudence,
Englishmen, knowing not the Guild,
Thought they might have a claim to build,
Till Paterson, as white as milk,
As smooth as oil, as soft as silk,
In solemn manner had decreed
That on the other side the Tweed
Art, born and bred, and fully grown,
Was with one Mylne, a man unknown,
But grace, preferment, and renown
Deserving, just arrived in town:
One Mylne, an artist perfect quite
Both in his own and country's right,
As fit to make a bridge as he,
With glorious Patavinity,
To build inscriptions worthy found
To lie for ever under ground.
Much more worth observation too,
Was this a season to pursue
The theme, our Muse might tell in rhyme:
215
The will she hath, but not the time;
For, swift as shaft from Indian bow,
(And when a goddess comes, we know,
Surpassing Nature acts prevail.
And boats want neither oar nor sail)
The vessel pass'd, and reach'd the shore
So quick, that Thought was scarce before.
Suppose we now our City court
Safely delivered at the port.
And, of their state regardless quite,
Landed, like smuggled goods, by night,
The solemn magistrate laid down,
The dignity of robe and gown,
With every other ensign gone,
Suppose the woollen nightcap on;
The flesh-brush used, with decent state,
To make the spirits circulate,
(A form which, to the senses true,
The lickerish chaplain uses too,
Though, something to improve the plan,
He takes the maid instead of man)
Swathed, and with flannel cover'd o'er,
To show the vigour of threescore,
The vigour of threescore and ten,
Above the proof of younger men,
Suppose, the mighty Dulman led
Betwixt two slaves, and put to bed;
Suppose, the moment he lies down,
No miracle in this great town,
The drone as fast asleep as he
Must in the course of nature be,
Who, truth for our foundation take,
When up, is never half awake.
There let him sleep, whilst we survey
The preparations for the day;
That day on which was to be shown
Court pride by City pride outdone.
The jealous mother sends away,
As only fit for childish play,
That daughter who, to gall her pride,
Shoots up too forward by her side.
The wretch, of God and man accursed,
216
Of all Hell's instruments the worst,
Draws forth his pawns, and for the day
Struts in some spendthrift's vain array;
Around his awkward doxy shine
The treasures of Golconda's mine;
Each neighbour, with a jealous glare,
Beholds her folly publish'd there.
Garments well saved, (an anecdote
Which we can prove, or would not quote)
Garments well saved, which first were made
When tailors, to promote their trade,
Against the Picts in arms arose,
And drove them out, or made them clothes;
Garments immortal, without end,
Like names and titles, which descend
Successively from sire to son;
Garments, unless some work is done
Of note, not suffer'd to appear
'Bove once at most in every year,
Were now, in solemn form, laid bare,
To take the benefit of air,
And, ere they came to be employ'd
On this solemnity, to void
That scent which Russia's leather gave,
From vile and impious moth to save.
Each head was busy, and each heart
In preparation bore a part;
Running together all about
The servants put each other out,
Till the grave master had decreed,
The more haste ever the worse speed.
Miss, with her little eyes half-closed,
Over a smuggled toilette dosed;
The waiting-maid, whom story notes
A very Scrub in petticoats,
Hired for one work, but doing all,
In slumbers lean'd against the wall.
Milliners, summon'd from afar,
Arrived in shoals at Temple Bar,
Strictly commanded to import
Cart loads of foppery from Court;
With labour'd visible design,
217
Art strove to be superbly fine;
Nature, more pleasing, though more wild,
Taught otherwise her darling child,
And cried, with spirited disdain,
Be Hunter elegant and plain!
Lo! from the chambers of the East,
A welcome prelude to the feast,
In saffron-colour'd robe array'd,
High in a car, by Vulcan made,
Who work'd for Jove himself, each steed,
High-mettled, of celestial breed,
Pawing and pacing all the way,
Aurora brought the wish'd-for day,
And held her empire, till out-run
By that brave jolly groom, the Sun.
The trumpet--hark! it speaks--it swells
The loud full harmony; it tells
The time at hand when Dulman, led
By Form, his citizens must head,
And march those troops, which at his call
Were now assembled, to Guildhall,
On matters of importance great,
To court and city, church and state.
From end to end the sound makes way,
All hear the signal and obey;
But Dulman, who, his charge forgot,
By Morpheus fetter'd, heard it not;
Nor could, so sound he slept and fast,
Hear any trumpet, but the last.
Crape, ever true and trusty known,
Stole from the maid's bed to his own,
Then in the spirituals of pride,
Planted himself at Dulman's side.
Thrice did the ever-faithful slave,
With voice which might have reach'd the grave,
And broke Death's adamantine chain,
On Dulman call, but call'd in vain.
Thrice with an arm, which might have made
The Theban boxer curse his trade,
The drone he shook, who rear'd the head,
And thrice fell backward on his bed.
What could be done? Where force hath fail'd,
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Policy often hath prevail'd;
And what--an inference most plain-Had been, Crape thought might be again.
Under his pillow (still in mind
The proverb kept, 'fast bind, fast find')
Each blessed night the keys were laid,
Which Crape to draw away assay'd.
What not the power of voice or arm
Could do, this did, and broke the charm;
Quick started he with stupid stare,
For all his little soul was there.
Behold him, taken up, rubb'd down,
In elbow-chair, and morning-gown;
Behold him, in his latter bloom,
Stripp'd, wash'd, and sprinkled with perfume;
Behold him bending with the weight
Of robes, and trumpery of state;
Behold him (for the maxim's true,
Whate'er we by another do,
We do ourselves; and chaplain paid,
Like slaves in every other trade,
Had mutter'd over God knows what,
Something which he by heart had got)
Having, as usual, said his prayers,
Go titter, totter to the stairs:
Behold him for descent prepare,
With one foot trembling in the air;
He starts, he pauses on the brink,
And, hard to credit, seems to think;
Through his whole train (the chaplain gave
The proper cue to every slave)
At once, as with infection caught,
Each started, paused, and aim'd at thought;
He turns, and they turn; big with care,
He waddles to his elbow-chair,
Squats down, and, silent for a season,
At last with Crape begins to reason:
But first of all he made a sign,
That every soul, but the divine,
Should quit the room; in him, he knows,
He may all confidence repose.
'Crape--though I'm yet not quite awake--
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Before this awful step I take,
On which my future all depends,
I ought to know my foes and friends.
My foes and friends--observe me still-I mean not those who well or ill
Perhaps may wish me, but those who
Have't in their power to do it too.
Now if, attentive to the state,
In too much hurry to be great,
Or through much zeal,--a motive, Crape,
Deserving praise,--into a scrape
I, like a fool, am got, no doubt
I, like a wise man, should get out:
Note that remark without replies;
I say that to get out is wise,
Or, by the very self-same rule,
That to get in was like a fool.
The marrow of this argument
Must wholly rest on the event,
And therefore, which is really hard,
Against events too I must guard.
Should things continue as they stand,
And Bute prevail through all the land
Without a rival, by his aid
My fortunes in a trice are made;
Nay, honours on my zeal may smile,
And stamp me Earl of some great Isle:
But if, a matter of much doubt,
The present minister goes out,
Fain would I know on what pretext
I can stand fairly with the next?
For as my aim, at every hour,
Is to be well with those in power,
And my material point of view,
Whoever's in, to be in too,
I should not, like a blockhead, choose
To gain these, so as those to lose:
'Tis good in every case, you know,
To have two strings unto our bow.'
As one in wonder lost, Crape view'd
His lord, who thus his speech pursued:
'This, my good Crape, is my grand point;
220
And as the times are out of joint,
The greater caution is required
To bring about the point desired.
What I would wish to bring about
Cannot admit a moment's doubt;
The matter in dispute, you know,
Is what we call the _Quomodo_.
That be thy task.'--The reverend slave,
Becoming in a moment grave,
Fix'd to the ground and rooted stood,
Just like a man cut out out of wood,
Such as we see (without the least
Reflection glancing on the priest)
One or more, planted up and down,
Almost in every church in town;
He stood some minutes, then, like one
Who wish'd the matter might be done,
But could not do it, shook his head,
And thus the man of sorrow said:
'Hard is this task, too hard I swear,
By much too hard for me to bear;
Beyond expression hard my part,
Could mighty Dulman see my heart,
When he, alas! makes known a will
Which Crape's not able to fulfil.
Was ever my obedience barr'd
By any trifling nice regard
To sense and honour? Could I reach
Thy meaning without help of speech,
At the first motion of thy eye
Did not thy faithful creature fly?
Have I not said, not what I ought,
But what my earthly master taught?
Did I e'er weigh, through duty strong,
In thy great biddings, right and wrong?
Did ever Interest, to whom thou
Canst not with more devotion bow,
Warp my sound faith, or will of mine
In contradiction run to thine?
Have I not, at thy table placed,
When business call'd aloud for haste,
Torn myself thence, yet never heard
221
To utter one complaining word,
And had, till thy great work was done,
All appetites, as having none?
Hard is it, this great plan pursued
Of voluntary servitude;
Pursued without or shame, or fear,
Through the great circle of the year,
Now to receive, in this grand hour,
Commands which lie beyond my power,
Commands which baffle all my skill,
And leave me nothing but my will:
Be that accepted; let my lord
Indulgence to his slave afford:
This task, for my poor strength unfit,
Will yield to none but Dulman's wit.'
With such gross incense gratified,
And turning up the lip of pride,
'Poor Crape'--and shook his empty head-'Poor puzzled Crape!' wise Dulman said,
'Of judgment weak, of sense confined,
For things of lower note design'd;
For things within the vulgar reach,
To run of errands, and to preach;
Well hast thou judged, that heads like mine
Cannot want help from heads like thine;
Well hast thou judged thyself unmeet
Of such high argument to treat;
Twas but to try thee that I spoke,
And all I said was but a joke.
Nor think a joke, Crape, a disgrace,
Or to my person, or my place;
The wisest of the sons of men
Have deign'd to use them now and then.
The only caution, do you see,
Demanded by our dignity,
From common use and men exempt,
Is that they may not breed contempt.
Great use they have, when in the hands
Of one like me, who understands,
Who understands the time and place,
The person, manner, and the grace,
Which fools neglect; so that we find,
222
If all the requisites are join'd,
From whence a perfect joke must spring,
A joke's a very serious thing.
But to our business--my design,
Which gave so rough a shock to thine,
To my capacity is made
As ready as a fraud in trade;
Which, like broad-cloth, I can, with ease,
Cut out in any shape I please.
Some, in my circumstance, some few,
Aye, and those men of genius too,
Good men, who, without love or hate,
Whether they early rise or late,
With names uncrack'd, and credit sound,
Rise worth a hundred thousand pound,
By threadbare ways and means would try
To bear their point--so will not I.
New methods shall my wisdom find
To suit these matters to my mind;
So that the infidels at court,
Who make our city wits their sport,
Shall hail the honours of my reign,
And own that Dulman bears a brain.
Some, in my place, to gain their ends,
Would give relations up, and friends;
Would lend a wife, who, they might swear
Safely, was none the worse for wear;
Would see a daughter, yet a maid,
Into a statesman's arms betray'd;
Nay, should the girl prove coy, nor know
What daughters to a father owe,
Sooner than schemes so nobly plann'd
Should fail, themselves would lend a hand;
Would vote on one side, whilst a brother,
Properly taught, would vote on t'other;
Would every petty band forget;
To public eye be with one set,
In private with a second herd,
And be by proxy with a third;
Would, (like a queen, of whom I read,
The other day--her name is fled-In a book,--where, together bound,
223
'Whittington and his Cat' I found-A tale most true, and free from art,
Which all Lord Mayors should have by heart;
A queen oh!--might those days begin
Afresh, when queens would learn to spin-Who wrought, and wrought, but for some plot,
The cause of which I've now forgot,
During the absence of the sun
Undid what she by day had done)
Whilst they a double visage wear,
What's sworn by day, by night unswear.
Such be their arts, and such, perchance,
May happily their ends advance;
Prom a new system mine shall spring,
A _locum tenens_ is the thing.
That's your true plan. To obligate
The present ministers of state,
My shadow shall our court approach,
And bear my power, and have my coach;
My fine state-coach, superb to view,
A fine state-coach, and paid for too.
To curry favour, and the grace
Obtain of those who're out of place;
In the mean time I--that's to say,
I proper, I myself--here stay.
But hold--perhaps unto the nation,
Who hate the Scot's administration,
To lend my coach may seem to be
Declaring for the ministry,
For where the city-coach is, there
Is the true essence of the Mayor:
Therefore (for wise men are intent
Evils at distance to prevent,
Whilst fools the evils first endure,
And then are plagued to seek a cure)
No coach--a horse--and free from fear,
To make our Deputy appear,
Fast on his back shall he be tied,
With two grooms marching by his side;
Then for a horse--through all the land,
To head our solemn city-band,
Can any one so fit be found
224
As he who in Artillery-ground,
Without a rider, (noble sight!)
Led on our bravest troops to fight?
But first, Crape, for my honour's sake-A tender point--inquiry make
About that horse, if the dispute
Is ended, or is still in suit:
For whilst a cause, (observe this plan
Of justice) whether horse or man
The parties be, remains in doubt,
Till 'tis determined out and out,
That power must tyranny appear
Which should, prejudging, interfere,
And weak, faint judges overawe,
To bias the free course of law.
You have my will--now quickly run,
And take care that my will be done.
In public, Crape, you must appear,
Whilst I in privacy sit here;
Here shall great Dulman sit alone,
Making this elbow-chair my throne,
And you, performing what I bid,
Do all, as if I nothing did.'
Crape heard, and speeded on his way;
With him to hear was to obey;
Not without trouble, be assured,
A proper proxy was procured
To serve such infamous intent,
And such a lord to represent;
Nor could one have been found at all
On t'other side of London Wall.
The trumpet sounds--solemn and slow
Behold the grand procession go,
All moving on, cat after kind,
As if for motion ne'er design'd.
Constables, whom the laws admit
To keep the peace by breaking it;
Beadles, who hold the second place
By virtue of a silver mace,
Which every Saturday is drawn,
For use of Sunday, out of pawn;
Treasurers, who with empty key
225
Secure an empty treasury;
Churchwardens, who their course pursue
In the same state, as to their pew
Churchwardens of St Margaret's go,
Since Peirson taught them pride and show,
Who in short transient pomp appear,
Like almanacs changed every year;
Behind whom, with unbroken locks,
Charity carries the poor's box,
Not knowing that with private keys
They ope and shut it when they please:
Overseers, who by frauds ensure
The heavy curses of the poor;
Unclean came flocking, bulls and bears,
Like beasts into the ark, by pairs.
Portentous, flaming in the van,
Stalk'd the professor, Sheridan,
A man of wire, a mere pantine,
A downright animal machine;
He knows alone, in proper mode,
How to take vengeance on an ode,
And how to butcher Ammon's son
And poor Jack Dryden both in one:
On all occasions next the chair
He stands, for service of the Mayor,
And to instruct him how to use
His A's and B's, and P's and Q's:
O'er letters, into tatters worn,
O'er syllables, defaced and torn,
O'er words disjointed, and o'er sense,
Left destitute of all defence,
He strides, and all the way he goes
Wades, deep in blood, o'er Criss-cross-rows:
Before him every consonant
In agonies is seen to pant;
Behind, in forms not to be known,
The ghosts of tortured vowels groan.
Next Hart and Duke, well worthy grace
And city favour, came in place;
No children can their toils engage,
Their toils are turn'd to reverend age;
When a court dame, to grace his brows
226
Resolved, is wed to city-spouse,
Their aid with madam's aid must join,
The awkward dotard to refine,
And teach, whence truest glory flows,
Grave sixty to turn out his toes.
Each bore in hand a kit; and each
To show how fit he was to teach
A cit, an alderman, a mayor,
Led in a string a dancing bear.
Since the revival of Fingal,
Custom, and custom's all in all,
Commands that we should have regard,
On all high seasons, to the bard.
Great acts like these, by vulgar tongue
Profaned, should not be said, but sung.
This place to fill, renown'd in fame,
The high and mighty Lockman came,
And, ne'er forgot in Dulman's reign,
With proper order to maintain
The uniformity of pride,
Brought Brother Whitehead by his side.
On horse, who proudly paw'd the ground,
And cast his fiery eyeballs round,
Snorting, and champing the rude bit,
As if, for warlike purpose fit,
His high and generous blood disdain'd,
To be for sports and pastimes rein'd,
Great Dymock, in his glorious station,
Paraded at the coronation.
Not so our city Dymock came,
Heavy, dispirited, and tame;
No mark of sense, his eyes half-closed,
He on a mighty dray-horse dozed:
Fate never could a horse provide
So fit for such a man to ride,
Nor find a man with strictest care,
So fit for such a horse to bear.
Hung round with instruments of death,
The sight of him would stop the breath
Of braggart Cowardice, and make
The very court Drawcansir quake;
With dirks, which, in the hands of Spite,
227
Do their damn'd business in the night,
From Scotland sent, but here display'd
Only to fill up the parade;
With swords, unflesh'd, of maiden hue,
Which rage or valour never drew;
With blunderbusses, taught to ride
Like pocket-pistols, by his side,
In girdle stuck, he seem'd to be
A little moving armoury.
One thing much wanting to complete
The sight, and make a perfect treat,
Was, that the horse, (a courtesy
In horses found of high degree)
Instead of going forward on,
All the way backward should have gone.
Horses, unless they breeding lack,
Some scruple make to turn their back,
Though riders, which plain truth declares,
No scruple make of turning theirs.
Far, far apart from all the rest,
Fit only for a standing jest,
The independent, (can you get
A better suited epithet?)
The independent Amyand came,
All burning with the sacred flame
Of Liberty, which well he knows
On the great stock of Slavery grows;
Like sparrow, who, deprived of mate,
Snatch'd by the cruel hand of Fate,
From spray to spray no more will hop,
But sits alone on the house-top;
Or like himself, when all alone
At Croydon he was heard to groan,
Lifting both hands in the defence
Of interest, and common sense;
Both hands, for as no other man
Adopted and pursued his plan,
The left hand had been lonesome quite,
If he had not held up the right;
Apart he came, and fix'd his eyes
With rapture on a distant prize,
On which, in letters worthy note,
228
There 'twenty thousand pounds' was wrote.
False trap, for credit sapp'd is found
By getting twenty thousand pound:
Nay, look not thus on me, and stare,
Doubting the certainty--to swear
In such a case I should be loth-But Perry Cust may take his oath.
In plain and decent garb array'd,
With the prim Quaker, Fraud, came Trade;
Connivance, to improve the plan,
Habited like a juryman,
Judging as interest prevails,
Came next, with measures, weights, and scales;
Extortion next, of hellish race
A cub most damn'd, to show his face
Forbid by fear, but not by shame,
Turn'd to a Jew, like Gideon came;
Corruption, Midas-like, behold
Turning whate'er she touch'd to gold;
Impotence, led by Lust, and Pride,
Strutting with Ponton by her side;
Hypocrisy, demure and sad,
In garments of the priesthood clad,
So well disguised, that you might swear,
Deceived, a very priest was there;
Bankruptcy, full of ease and health,
And wallowing in well-saved wealth,
Came sneering through a ruin'd band,
And bringing B---- in her hand;
Victory, hanging down her head,
Was by a Highland stallion led;
Peace, clothed in sables, with a face
Which witness'd sense of huge disgrace,
Which spake a deep and rooted shame
Both of herself and of her name,
Mourning creeps on, and, blushing, feels
War, grim War, treading on her heels;
Pale Credit, shaken by the arts
Of men with bad heads and worse hearts,
Taking no notice of a band
Which near her were ordain'd to stand,
Well-nigh destroyed by sickly fit,
229
Look'd wistful all around for Pitt;
Freedom--at that most hallow'd name
My spirits mount into a flame,
Each pulse beats high, and each nerve strains,
Even to the cracking; through my veins
The tides of life more rapid run,
And tell me I am Freedom's son-Freedom came next, but scarce was seen,
When the sky, which appear'd serene
And gay before, was overcast;
Horror bestrode a foreign blast,
And from the prison of the North,
To Freedom deadly, storms burst forth.
A car like those, in which, we're told,
Our wild forefathers warr'd of old,
Loaded with death, six horses bear
Through the blank region of the air.
Too fierce for time or art to tame,
They pour'd forth mingled smoke and flame
From their wide nostrils; every steed
Was of that ancient savage breed
Which fell Geryon nursed; their food
The flesh of man, their drink his blood.
On the first horses, ill-match'd pair,
This fat and sleek, that lean and bare,
Came ill-match'd riders side by side,
And Poverty was yoked with Pride;
Union most strange it must appear,
Till other unions make it clear.
Next, in the gall of bitterness,
With rage which words can ill express,
With unforgiving rage, which springs
From a false zeal for holy things,
Wearing such robes as prophets wear,
False prophets placed in Peter's chair,
On which, in characters of fire,
Shapes antic, horrible, and dire
Inwoven flamed, where, to the view,
In groups appear'd a rabble crew
Of sainted devils; where, all round,
Vile relics of vile men were found,
Who, worse than devils, from the birth
230
Perform'd the work of hell on earth,
Jugglers, Inquisitors, and Popes,
Pointing at axes, wheels, and ropes,
And engines, framed on horrid plan,
Which none but the destroyer, Man,
Could, to promote his selfish views,
Have head to make or heart to use,
Bearing, to consecrate her tricks,
In her left hand a crucifix,
'Remembrance of our dying Lord,'
And in her right a two-edged sword,
Having her brows, in impious sport,
Adorn'd with words of high import,
'On earth peace, amongst men good will,
Love bearing and forbearing still,'
All wrote in the hearts' blood of those
Who rather death than falsehood chose:
On her breast, (where, in days of yore,
When God loved Jews, the High Priest wore
Those oracles which were decreed
To instruct and guide the chosen seed)
Having with glory clad and strength,
The Virgin pictured at full length,
Whilst at her feet, in small pourtray'd,
As scarce worth notice, Christ was laid,-Came Superstition, fierce and fell,
An imp detested, e'en in hell;
Her eye inflamed, her face all o'er
Foully besmear'd with human gore,
O'er heaps of mangled saints she rode;
Fast at her heels Death proudly strode,
And grimly smiled, well pleased to see
Such havoc of mortality;
Close by her side, on mischief bent,
And urging on each bad intent
To its full bearing, savage, wild,
The mother fit of such a child,
Striving the empire to advance
Of Sin and Death, came Ignorance.
With looks, where dread command was placed,
And sovereign power by pride disgraced,
Where, loudly witnessing a mind
231
Of savage, more than human kind,
Not choosing to be loved, but fear'd,
Mocking at right, Misrule appear'd.
With eyeballs glaring fiery red,
Enough to strike beholders dead,
Gnashing his teeth, and in a flood
Pouring corruption forth and blood
From his chafed jaws; without remorse
Whipping and spurring on his horse,
Whose sides, in their own blood embay'd,
E'en to the bone were open laid,
Came Tyranny, disdaining awe,
And trampling over Sense and Law;
One thing, and only one, he knew,
One object only would pursue;
Though less (so low doth passion bring)
Than man, he would be more than king.
With every argument and art
Which might corrupt the head and heart,
Soothing the frenzy of his mind,
Companion meet, was Flattery join'd;
Winning his carriage, every look
Employed, whilst it conceal'd a hook;
When simple most, most to be fear'd;
Most crafty, when no craft appear'd;
His tales, no man like him could tell;
His words, which melted as they fell,
Might even a hypocrite deceive,
And make an infidel believe,
Wantonly cheating o'er and o'er
Those who had cheated been before:-Such Flattery came, in evil hour,
Poisoning the royal ear of Power,
And, grown by prostitution great,
Would be first minister of state.
Within the chariot, all alone,
High seated on a kind of throne,
With pebbles graced, a figure came,
Whom Justice would, but dare not name.
Hard times when Justice, without fear,
Dare not bring forth to public ear
The names of those who dare offend
232
'Gainst Justice, and pervert her end!
But, if the Muse afford me grace,
Description shall supply the place.
In foreign garments he was clad;
Sage ermine o'er the glossy plaid
Cast reverend honour; on his heart,
Wrought by the curious hand of Art,
In silver wrought, and brighter far
Than heavenly or than earthly star,
Shone a White Rose, the emblem dear
Of him he ever must revere;
Of that dread lord, who, with his host
Of faithful native rebels lost,
Like those black spirits doom'd to hell,
At once from power and virtue fell:
Around his clouded brows was placed
A bonnet, most superbly graced
With mighty thistles, nor forgot
The sacred motto--'Touch me not.'
In the right hand a sword he bore
Harder than adamant, and more
Fatal than winds, which from the mouth
Of the rough North invade the South;
The reeking blade to view presents
The blood of helpless innocents,
And on the hilt, as meek become
As lamb before the shearers dumb,
With downcast eye, and solemn show
Of deep, unutterable woe,
Mourning the time when Freedom reign'd,
Fast to a rock was Justice chain'd.
In his left hand, in wax impress'd,
With bells and gewgaws idly dress'd,
An image, cast in baby mould,
He held, and seem'd o'erjoy'd to hold
On this he fix'd his eyes; to this,
Bowing, he gave the loyal kiss,
And, for rebellion fully ripe,
Seem'd to desire the antitype.
What if to that Pretender's foes
His greatness, nay, his life, he owes;
Shall common obligations bind,
233
And shake his constancy of mind?
Scorning such weak and petty chains,
Faithful to James he still remains,
Though he the friend of George appear:
Dissimulation's virtue here.
Jealous and mean, he with a frown
Would awe, and keep all merit down,
Nor would to Truth and Justice bend,
Unless out-bullied by his friend:
Brave with the coward, with the brave
He is himself a coward slave:
Awed by his fears, he has no heart
To take a great and open part:
Mines in a subtle train he springs,
And, secret, saps the ears of kings;
But not e'en there continues firm
'Gainst the resistance of a worm:
Born in a country, where the will
Of one is law to all, he still
Retain'd the infection, with full aim
To spread it wheresoe'er he came;
Freedom he hated, Law defied,
The prostitute of Power and Pride;
Law he with ease explains away,
And leads bewilder'd Sense astray;
Much to the credit of his brain,
Puzzles the cause he can't maintain;
Proceeds on most familiar grounds,
And where he can't convince, confounds;
Talents of rarest stamp and size,
To Nature false, he misapplies,
And turns to poison what was sent
For purposes of nourishment.
Paleness, not such as on his wings
The messenger of Sickness brings,
But such as takes its coward rise
From conscious baseness, conscious vice,
O'erspread his cheeks; Disdain and Pride,
To upstart fortunes ever tied,
Scowl'd on his brow; within his eye,
Insidious, lurking like a spy,
To Caution principled by Fear,
234
Not daring open to appear,
Lodged covert Mischief; Passion hung
On his lip quivering; on his tongue
Fraud dwelt at large; within his breast
All that makes villain found a nest;
All that, on Hell's completest plan,
E'er join'd to damn the heart of man.
Soon as the car reach'd land, he rose,
And, with a look which might have froze
The heart's best blood, which was enough
Had hearts been made of sterner stuff
In cities than elsewhere, to make
The very stoutest quail and quake,
He cast his baleful eyes around:
Fix'd without motion to the ground,
Fear waiting on Surprise, all stood,
And horror chill'd their curdled blood;
No more they thought of pomp, no more
(For they had seen his face before)
Of law they thought; the cause forgot,
Whether it was or ghost, or plot,
Which drew them there: they all stood more
Like statues than they were before.
What could be done? Could Art, could Force.
Or both, direct a proper course
To make this savage monster tame,
Or send him back the way he came?
What neither art, nor force, nor both,
Could do, a Lord of foreign growth,
A Lord to that base wretch allied
In country, not in vice and pride,
Effected; from the self-same land,
(Bad news for our blaspheming band
Of scribblers, but deserving note)
The poison came and antidote.
Abash'd, the monster hung his head,
And like an empty vision fled;
His train, like virgin snows, which run,
Kiss'd by the burning bawdy sun,
To love-sick streams, dissolved in air;
Joy, who from absence seem'd more fair,
Came smiling, freed from slavish Awe;
235
Loyalty, Liberty, and Law,
Impatient of the galling chain,
And yoke of Power, resumed their reign;
And, burning with the glorious flame
Of public virtue, Mansfield came.
~ Charles Churchill,

IN CHAPTERS [268/268]



  158 Integral Yoga
   29 Yoga
   9 Hinduism
   6 Poetry
   5 Philosophy
   3 Occultism
   3 Mysticism
   3 Christianity
   2 Integral Theory
   1 Fiction
   1 Cybernetics


  180 Sri Aurobindo
   15 The Mother
   15 Sri Ramakrishna
   12 Swami Vivekananda
   11 A B Purani
   10 Nolini Kanta Gupta
   9 Satprem
   5 Sri Ramana Maharshi
   4 Patanjali
   3 Rabindranath Tagore
   3 James George Frazer
   2 Vyasa
   2 Swami Sivananda Saraswati
   2 Pierre Teilhard de Chardin
   2 Mahendranath Gupta


  110 Record of Yoga
   22 The Synthesis Of Yoga
   14 The Gospel of Sri Ramakrishna
   11 Evening Talks With Sri Aurobindo
   8 Talks
   8 Letters On Yoga I
   8 Isha Upanishad
   7 The Life Divine
   7 Raja-Yoga
   4 Vedic and Philological Studies
   4 Patanjali Yoga Sutras
   3 The Secret Doctrine
   3 The Golden Bough
   3 Tagore - Poems
   3 Letters On Yoga II
   3 Essays Divine And Human
   3 Collected Works of Nolini Kanta Gupta - Vol 04
   2 Vishnu Purana
   2 The Phenomenon of Man
   2 Questions And Answers 1955
   2 Questions And Answers 1950-1951
   2 Collected Works of Nolini Kanta Gupta - Vol 07
   2 Collected Works of Nolini Kanta Gupta - Vol 02
   2 Amrita Gita
   2 Agenda Vol 03
   2 Agenda Vol 02


00.03 - Upanishadic Symbolism, #Collected Works of Nolini Kanta Gupta - Vol 02, #Nolini Kanta Gupta, #Integral Yoga
   Man has two aspects or natures; he dwells in two worlds. The first is the manifest world the world of the body, the life and the mind. The body has flowered into the mind through the life. The body gives the basis or the material, the life gives power and energy and the mind the directing knowledge. This triune world forms the humanity of man. But there is another aspect hidden behind this apparent nature, there is another world where man dwells in his submerged, larger and higher consciousness. To that his soul the Purusha in his heart only has access. It is the world where man's nature is transmuted into another triune realitySat, Chit and Ananda.
   The one, however, is not completely divorced from the other. The apparent, the inferior nature is only a preparation for the real, the superior nature. The Path of the Fathers concerns itself with man as a mental being and seeks so to ordain and accomplish its duties and ideals as to lead him on to the Path of the Gods; the mind, the life, and the body consciousness should be so disciplined, educated, purified, they should develop along such a line and gradually rise to such a stage as to make them fit to receive the light which belongs to the higher level, so allowing the human soul imbedded in them to extricate itself and pass on to the Immortal Life.
  --
   In Yajnavalkya's enumeration, however, it is to be noted, first of all, that he stresses on the number three. The principle of triplicity is of very wide application: it permeates all fields of consciousness and is evidently based upon a fundamental fact of reality. It seems to embody a truth of synthesis and comprehension, points to the order and harmony that reigns in the cosmos, the spheric music. The metaphysical, that is to say, the original principles that constitute existence are the well-known triplets: (i) the superior: Sat, Chit, Ananda; and (ii) the inferior: Body, Life and Mindthis being a reflection or translation or concretisation of the former. We can see also here how the dual principle comes in, the twin godhead or the two gods to which Yajnavalkya refers. The same principle is found in the conception of Ardhanarishwara, Male and Female, Purusha-Prakriti. The Upanishad says 14 yet again that the One original Purusha was not pleased at being alone, so for a companion he created out of himself the original Female. The dual principle signifies creation, the manifesting activity of the Reality. But what is this one and a half to which Yajnavalkya refers? It simply means that the other created out of the one is not a wholly separate, independent entity: it is not an integer by itself, as in the Manichean system, but that it is a portion, a fraction of the One. And in the end, in the ultimate analysis, or rather synthesis, there is but one single undivided and indivisible unity. The thousands and hundreds, very often mentioned also in the Rig Veda, are not simply multiplications of the One, a graphic description of its many-sidedness; it indicates also the absolute fullness, the complete completeness (prasya pram) of the Reality. It includes and comprehends all and is a rounded totality, a full circle. The hundred-gated and the thousand-pillared cities of which the ancient Rishis chanted are formations and embodiments of consciousness human and divine, are realities whole and entire englobing all the layers and grades of consciousness.
   Besides this metaphysics there is also an occult aspect in numerology of which Pythagoras was a well-known adept and in which the Vedic Rishis too seem to take special delight. The multiplication of numbers represents in a general way the principle of emanation. The One has divided and subdivided itself, but not in a haphazard way: it is not like the chaotic pulverisation of a piece of stone by hammer-blows. The process of division and subdivision follows a pattern almost as neat and methodical as a genealogical tree. That is to say, the emanations form a hierarchy. At the top, the apex of the pyramid, stands the one supreme Godhead. That Godhead is biune in respect of manifestation the Divine and his creative Power. This two-in-one reality may be considered, according to one view of creation, as dividing into three forms or aspects the well-known Brahma, Vishnu and Rudra of Hindu mythology. These may be termed the first or primary emanations.

0.00 - INTRODUCTION, #The Gospel of Sri Ramakrishna, #Sri Ramakrishna, #Hinduism
   According to the Tantra, the Ultimate Reality is Chit, or Consciousness, which is identical with Sat, or Being, and with Ananda, or Bliss. This Ultimate Reality, Satchidananda, Existence-Knowledge-Bliss Absolute, is identical with the Reality preached in the Vedas. And man is identical with this Reality; but under the influence of maya, or illusion, he has forgotten his true nature. He takes to be real a merely apparent world of subject and object, and this error is the cause of his bondage and suffering. The goal of spiritual discipline is the rediscovery of his true identity with the divine Reality.
   For the achievement of this goal the Vedanta prescribes an austere negative method of discrimination and renunciation, which can be followed by only a few individuals endowed with sharp intelligence and unshakable will-power. But Tantra takes into consideration the natural weakness of human beings, their lower appetites, and their love for the concrete. It combines philosophy with rituals, meditation with ceremonies, renunciation with enjoyment. The underlying purpose is gradually to train the aspirant to meditate on his identity with the Ultimate.
  --
   Sri Ramakrishna set himself to the task of practising the disciplines of Tantra; and at the bidding of the Divine Mother Herself he accepted the Brahmani as his guru. He performed profound and delicate ceremonies in the Panchavati and under the bel-tree at the northern extremity of the temple compound. He practised all the disciplines of the sixty-four principal Tantra books, and it took him never more than three days to achieve the result promised in any one of them. After the observance of a few preliminary rites, he would be overwhelmed with a strange divine fervour and would go into samadhi, where his mind would dwell in exaltation. Evil ceased to exist for him. The word "carnal" lost its meaning. The whole world and everything in it appeared as the lila, the sport, of Siva and Sakti. He beheld held everywhere manifest the power and beauty of the Mother; the whole world, animate and inanimate, appeared to him as pervaded with Chit, Consciousness, and with Ananda, Bliss.
   He saw in a vision the Ultimate Cause of the universe as a huge luminous triangle giving birth every moment to an infinite number of worlds. He heard the Anahata Sabda, the great sound Om, of which the innumerable sounds of the universe are only so many echoes. He acquired the eight supernatural powers of yoga, which make a man almost omnipotent, and these he spurned as of no value whatsoever to the Spirit. He had a vision of the divine Maya, the inscrutable Power of God, by which the universe is created and sustained, and into which it is finally absorbed. In this vision he saw a woman of exquisite beauty, about to become a mother, emerging from the Ganges and slowly approaching the Panchavati. Presently she gave birth to a child and began to nurse it tenderly. A moment later she assumed a terrible aspect, seized the child with her grim jaws, and crushed it. Swallowing it, she re-entered the waters of the Ganges.

0.02 - Letters to a Sadhak, #Some Answers From The Mother, #The Mother, #Integral Yoga
  I have seen your Chit for washing soap. You got the last one on
  the 22nd of March. This makes only 16 days, while a soap must
  --
  up to me at the same time as the Chit for the new one.
  I do not see the need of leaving a blank page at the beginning.
  --
  unless a Chit signed by me could be produced.
  "To turn towards Thee, unite with Thee, live in Thee and

0.05 - The Synthesis of the Systems, #The Synthesis Of Yoga, #Sri Aurobindo, #Integral Yoga
  We have in this central Tantric conception one side of the truth, the worship of the Energy, the Shakti, as the sole effective force for all attainment. We get the other extreme in the Vedantic conception of the Shakti as a power of Illusion and in the search after the silent inactive Purusha as the means of liberation from the deceptions created by the active Energy. But in the integral conception the Conscious Soul is the Lord, the Nature-Soul is his executive Energy. Purusha is of the nature of Sat, the being of conscious self-existence pure and infinite; Shakti or Prakriti is of the nature of Chit, - it is power of the Purusha's self-conscious existence, pure and infinite. The relation of the two exists between the poles of rest and action. When the Energy is absorbed
  The Conditions of the Synthesis

01.12 - Goethe, #Collected Works of Nolini Kanta Gupta - Vol 02, #Nolini Kanta Gupta, #Integral Yoga
   One view considers Evil as coeval with Good: the Prince of Evil is God's peer, equal to him in all ways, absolutely separate, independent and self-existent. Light and Darkness are eternal principles living side by side, possessing equal reality. For, although it is permissible to the individual to pass out of the Darkness and enter into Light, the Darkness itself does not disappear: it remains and maintains its domain, and even it is said that some human beings are meant eternally for this domain. That is the Manichean principle and that also is fundamentally the dualistic conception of Chit-a Chit in some Indian systems (although the principle of Chit or light is usually given a higher position and priority of excellence).
   The Christian too accepts the dual principle, but does not give equal status to the two. Satan is there, an eternal reality: it is anti-God, it seeks to oppose God, frustrate his work. It is the great tempter whose task it is to persuade, to inspire man to remain always an earthly creature and never turn to know or live in God. Now the crucial question that arises is, what is the necessity of this Antagonist in God's scheme of creation? What is the meaning of this struggle and battle? God could have created, if he had chosen, a world without Evil. The orthodox Christi an answer is that in that case one could not have fully appreciated the true value and glory of God's presence. It is to manifest and proclaim the great victory that the strife and combat has been arranged in which Man triumphs in the end and God's work stands vindicated. The place of Satan is always Hell, but he cannot drag down a soul into his pit to hold it there eternally (although according to one doctrine there are or may be certain eternally damned souls).

0 1960-11-12, #Agenda Vol 01, #unset, #Zen
   Chittagong was hit by a cyclone, there were tidal waves somewhere else The cyclone went up the wrong side!for according to Xs predictions, it was Karachi that should have disappeared.
   He said only in 1962 or 1963 would Karachi totally disappear. And three-fourths of Bombay underwater!

0 1961-04-18, #Agenda Vol 02, #The Mother, #Integral Yoga
   All who experience this say that the first movement of the manifestation, or the creation (creation, manifestation, objectification: all these words are imperfect) is Chit, Consciousness that becomes Power. Consequently, Consciousness goes voyaging along in SAT, in Beingstatic, eternal, infinite and necessarily outside time and space and this movement of Consciousness is what produces time and space within this Infinity and Eternity.8 This leads to the understanding that things can simultaneously be absolutely free and absolutely determined.
   This vision I had is of no value to anyone else, but it gave me a kind of satisfaction, a kind of peace (for a while).

0 1961-07-28, #Agenda Vol 02, #The Mother, #Integral Yoga
   The way Theon told it, there was first the universal Mother (he didnt call her the universal Mother, but Sri Aurobindo used that name), the universal Mother in charge of creation. For creating she made four emanations: Consciousness or Light; Life; Love or Beatitude and (Mother tries in vain to remember the fourth) I must have cerebral anemia today! In India they speak only of three: Sat- Chit-Ananda (Sat is Existence, expressed by Life; Chit is Consciousness, expressed by Power; Ananda is Bliss, synonymous with Love). But according to Theon, there were four (I knew them by heart). Well, these emanations (Theon narrated it in such a way that someone not a philosopher, someone with a childlike mind, could understand), these emanations, conscious of their own power, separated themselves from their Origin; that is, instead of being entirely surrendered to the supreme Will and expressing only. Ah, the fourth emanation is Truth! Instead of carrying out only the supreme Will, they seem to have acquired a sense of personal power. (They were personalities of sorts, universal personalities, each representing a mode of being.) Instead of remaining connected, they cut the linkeach acted on his own, to put it simply. Then, naturally, Light became darkness, Life became death, Bliss became suffering and Truth became falsehood. And these are the four great Asuras: the Asura of Inconscience, the Asura of Falsehood, the Asura of Suffering and the Asura of Death.
   Once this had occurred, the divine Consciousness turned towards the Supreme and said (Mother laughs): Well, heres what has happened. Whats to be done? Then from the Divine came an emanation of Love (in the first emanation it wasnt Love, it was Ananda, Bliss, the Delight of being which became Suffering), and from the Supreme came Love; and Love descended into this domain of Inconscience, the result of the creation of the first emanation, Consciousness Consciousness and Light had become Inconscience and Darkness. Love descended straight from the Supreme into this Inconscience; the Supreme, that is, created a new emanation, which didnt pass through the intermediate worlds (because, according to the story, the universal Mother first created all the gods who, when they descended, remained in contact with the Supreme and created all the intermediate worlds to counterbalance this fallits the old story of the Fall, this fall into the Inconscient. But that wasnt enough). Simultaneously with the creation of the gods, then, came this direct Descent of Love into Matter, without passing through all the intermediate worlds. Thats the story of the first Descent. But youre speaking of the descent heralded by Sri Aurobindo, the Supramental Descent, arent you?

0 1962-02-24, #Agenda Vol 03, #The Mother, #Integral Yoga
   The Manifestation is always said to begin with Sachchidananda: first Sat, pure Existence; then Chit, the awareness of this Existence; and then Ananda, the Delight of Existence which makes it go on. But between Chit and Ananda there is Tapas that is, Chit realizing itself. And when you become this tapas, this tapas of things, you have the knowledge that gives the power to change.9 The tapas of things is what governs their existence in the Manifestation.
   You see, I am expressing this for the first time, but I began to live it a while back. When you are THERE, you have a feeling of (what shall I say?) of such formidable power! The universal power, really. You have the sense of total mastery over the universe.

0 1962-10-30, #Agenda Vol 03, #The Mother, #Integral Yoga
   Whenever weve meditated together, Ive always had the impression that you entered into that sort of rather blissful silence; its something permanent, yes, but not an annihilation. Its Sat the Sat that comes before Chit-Tapas.3 In other words it can last an eternity with no sense of time, and be an infinity with no sense of space.
   But I tell you, it also has an EXTRAORDINARY utility: it automatically renews all the energies. Actually, thats the true reason for sleep: to be able to enter that state. And thats why those who can enter it consciously in meditation need much less sleep. Much less. Its what enables the body to last: Sat. And whenever I have meditated with you, Ive always had a feeling of entering that state.
  --
   Sat: existence or being; Chit-Tapas: consciousness-energy; the third member of the trinity is Ananda: bliss.
   Satprem has just turned thirty-nine.

0 1965-06-26, #Agenda Vol 06, #The Mother, #Integral Yoga
   Words like Tat, Sat, Chit are strong, but Purusha
   Lets just propose Spirit.

0 1966-06-29, #Agenda Vol 07, #The Mother, #Integral Yoga
   In Indian philosophy, they put Existence before Consciousness. They say Sat- Chit-Ananda.2 So if we say, Chit-Sat-Ananda! And its not true.
   Its not true, the Rishis always spoke of Fire, Agni, which is the primordial substance.
  --
   Chit-Tapas is heat.
   They say, Sat, Chit-Tapas, Ananda. They put Chit-Tapas together. And its Chit first, then Tapas. Its the creative power of consciousness.
   But Sri Aurobindo always said Consciousness-Force, indissolubly. We cant separate one from the other. There is no consciousness without force and no force without consciousness its Consciousness-Force. Thats what the world is!

0 1971-10-20, #Agenda Vol 12, #The Mother, #Integral Yoga
   Dear Chitta,
   It is a long time, almost two years I think, since I have written a letter to anyone. I have been so much retired and absorbed in my Sadhana that contact with the outside world has till lately been reduced to minimum.

03.01 - The Evolution of Consciousness, #The Integral Yoga, #Sri Aurobindo, #Integral Yoga
  Consciousness is Chit but also Chit Shakti.
  Consciousness is usually identified with mind, but mental consciousness is only the human range which no more exhausts all the possible ranges of consciousness than human sight exhausts all the gradations of colour or human hearing all the gradations of sound - for there is much above or below that is to man invisible and inaudible. So there are ranges of consciousness above and below the human range, with which the normal human has no contact and they seem to it unconscious,

10.02 - Beyond Vedanta, #Collected Works of Nolini Kanta Gupta - Vol 04, #Nolini Kanta Gupta, #Integral Yoga
   The whole bifurcation between Tantra and Vedanta hinges upon one point. The Vedanta overlooked one term of the Truth and missed thereby a whole world of experience and reality. The central term of Vedanta is taken as Consciousness, Consciousness pure and simple. It omitted the fact that Consciousness is also Energy. That Chit is Tapas is the central principle in Tantra. The exclusive stress on Chit, Pure Consciousness, led to the realisation of the Pure Purusha as mere Witness, Observer, a passive consciousness. Subsequently it was also added that the Purusha is not merely a Witness, (sk), but the Upholder (bhart), even Enjoyer (bhokt) of the world and creation; finally it was added also that the Purusha may be a creator also (kart), but all this is somewhat outside the pale of orthodox Vedanta, Mayavada. Tantra equated Consciousness with Energy; for it Conscious Energy or Consciousness-Energy is the indivisible Mother-Reality.
   The Vedanta ends in Ananda, it is a static unitary Ananda. The Tantra posits a dynamic Ananda, a dual Ananda between Ishwara and Ishwari, Shiva and Shakti. The Vaishnava takes a further step and transmutes Ananda into Love, a terrestrial humanised love.

1.01 - SAMADHI PADA, #Patanjali Yoga Sutras, #Swami Vivekananda, #Hinduism
  understand what Chitta is, and what are these Vrttis. I have
  this eye. Eyes do not see. Take away the brain centre which is
  --
  processes in the mind-stuff, called Chitta. The waves of
  thought in the Chitta are called Vrtti (the whirlpool is the
  literal translation). What is thought? Thought is a force, as is
  --
  storehouse of force in nature; the instrument called Chitta
  takes hold of that force, and, when it passes out at the other
  --
  and is nothing. So you understand what is meant by Chitta. It
  is the mind-stuff, and Vrttis are the waves and ripples rising in
  --
  lake is the Chitta, and the waves are the Vrttis. Again, this
  mind is in three states; one is darkness, which is called Tamas,
  --
  This Chitta is always trying to get back to its natural pure
  state, but the organs draw it out. To restrain it, and to check
  --
  only in this way can the Chitta get into its proper course.
  Although this Chitta is in every animal, from the lowest to the
  highest, it is only in the human form that we find intellect, and
  --
  dog, although they have mind, because their Chitta cannot as
  yet take that form which we call intellect.
  --
  the concentrated form of the Chitta, is what brings us to
  Samadhi.
  --
  of the Chitta', it causes a ripple, and that ripple rouses a series
  of ripples; this is memory. So in sleep. When the peculiar
  kind of ripple called sleep throws the Chitta into a ripple of
  memory it is called a dream. Dream is another form of the
  --
  the Chitta , the mind-stuff, out of which they are all
  manufactured. This mind-stuff takes in the forces of nature,
  --
  has succeeded only in quelling the waves in the Chitta and
  holding them down, they are still there in the form of
  --
  function as the big worlds do. So the vibrations of this Chitta
  will subside, but will go on like molecular vibrations, and
  --
  good and evil respectively, pacify the Chitta.
  We must have these four sorts of ideas. We must have
  --
  shows that we are not able to hold the Chitta down; it comes
  out in waves towards the object, and we lose our power. Every
  --
  of motion. The Chitta, the mind-stuff, is the engine which
  draws in the Prana from the surroundings, and manufactures
  --
  vitamgavishciyan va Chittam
  Or (by meditation on) the heart that has given up all
  --
  the Chitta , and third the PuraSa qualified, not the PuraSa
  itself, but the egoism. By practice, the Yogi gets established in
  --
  reactionary wave in the Chitta, which is knowledge, but the
  mixture of these three makeup what we call knowledge. In all
  --
  the Chitta ; you will always remember the simile of the lake,
  the mind- stuff, and the vibration, the word, the sound, like a
  --
  purified, the Chitta becomes firmly fixed.
  48. WT H Veil
  --
  somewhere in the Chitta, ready, waiting like tigers to jump
  up. These have to be suppressed that the one idea which we
  --
  the Chitta rise and cover the Soul, and we only are a little
  reflection of the Soul through these waves, so, if the wave be

1.02.2.1 - Brahman - Oneness of God and the World, #Isha Upanishad, #unset, #Zen
  These two terms, as we see them, are like all others, representations in Chit, in the free and all-creative self-awareness of
  1 The series of ideas under this heading seem to me to be the indispensable metaphysical
  --
  and formulating what it regards. Chit is a power not only of
  knowledge, but of expressive will, not only of receptive vision,
  --
  For Chit is an action of Being, not of the Void. What it sees, that
  becomes. It sees itself beyond Space and Time; that becomes in
  --
  supreme Chit. Neither Vidya nor Avidya by itself is the absolute
  knowledge. (See verses 9 - 11.)
  --
  There are, then, seven constituents of Chit active in the universe.
  We are habitually aware of three elements in our being,
  --
  has also three constituents, Sat, Chit-Tapas and Ananda.
  Sat is essence of our being, pure, infinite and undivided,
  --
  of Chit, it works out all things according to their nature with a
  perfect knowledge and prevision; the Vast, because it is of the
  --
  These seven powers of Chit are spoken of by the Vedic Rishis
  as the Waters, they are imaged as currents flowing into or rising

1.02.3.2 - Knowledge and Ignorance, #Isha Upanishad, #unset, #Zen
  working out of the actions of the divine Energy, the Chit-Shakti.
  To get back to the essential fact of his freedom he must recover
  --
  participating in it or to His self-absorbed state of Chit in Sat
  from which the universe proceeds and towards which it returns.
  --
  only of the play of Prakriti or Chit-Shakti and consequently a
  certain limited capacity of force of consciousness which has to

1.02.4.1 - The Worlds - Surya, #Isha Upanishad, #unset, #Zen
  By this Will, Tapas or Chit-Shakti, the worlds are created.
  THE HIGHER WORLDS
  --
  When Tapas dwells upon active power of Chit as its basis,
  the result is Tapoloka or world of energy of self-conscience. The

1.02.4.2 - Action and the Divine Will, #Isha Upanishad, #unset, #Zen
  of Immortality; Knowledge is incomplete without action. Chit
  fulfils itself by Tapas, Consciousness by energy. And as Surya

1.02.9 - Conclusion and Summary, #Isha Upanishad, #unset, #Zen
  But in Chit, Will and Seeing are one. Therefore in Vijnana
  or truth-ideation also which comes luminously out of Chit, Will
  and Sight are combined and no longer as in the mind separated

1.02 - Prayer of Parashara to Vishnu, #Vishnu Purana, #Vyasa, #Hinduism
  ga, a number of synonymes for this term, as, ###. They are also explained, though not very distinctly, to the following purport: "Manas is that which considers the consequences of acts to all creatures, and provides for their happiness. Mahat, the Great principle, is so termed from being the first of the created principles, and from its extension being greater than that of the rest. Mati is that which discriminates and distinguishes objects preparatory to their fruition by Soul. Brahmā implies that which effects the developement and augmentation of created things. Pur p. 15 is that by which the coñcurrence of nature occupies and fills all bodies. Buddhi is that which communicates to soul the knowledge of good and evil. Khyāti is the means of individual fruition, or the faculty of discriminating objects by appropriate designations, and the like. Īśvara is that which knows all things as if they were present. Prajñā is that by which the properties of things are known. Chiti is that by which the consequences of acts and species of knowledge are selected for the use of soul. Smriti is the faculty of recognising all things, past, present, or to come. Samvit is that in which all things are found or known, and which is found or known in all things: and Vipura is that which is free from the effects of contrarieties, as of knowledge and ignorance, and the like. Mahat is also called Īśvara, from its exercising supremacy over all things; Bhāva, from its elementary existence; Eka, or 'the one,' from its singleness; Puruṣa, from its abiding within the body; and from its being ungenerated it is called Swayambhu." Now in this nomenclature we have chiefly two sets of words; one, as Manas, Buddhi, Mati, signifying mind, intelligence, knowledge, wisdom, design; and the other, as Brahmā, Īśvara, &c., denoting an active creator and ruler of the universe: as the Vāyu adds, 'Mahat, impelled by the desire to create, causes various creation:' and the Mahābhārata has, 'Mahat created Aha
  kāra.' The Purāṇas generally employ the same expression, attributing to Mahat or Intelligence the 'act of creating. Mahat is therefore the divine mind in creative operation, the νοῦς ὁ διακόσμων τε καὶ πάντων ἀίτιος of Anaxagoras; an ordering and disposing mind, which was the cause of all things: The word itself suggests some relationship to the Phœnician Mot, which, like Mahat, was the first product of the mixture of spirit and matter, and the first rudiment of creation: "Ex connexione autem ejus spiritus prodiit mot . . . hinc seminium omnis creaturæ et omnium rerum creatio." Brucker, I. 240. Mot, it is true, . appears to be a purely material substance, whilst Mahat is an incorporeal substance; but they agree in their place in the cosmogony, and are something alike in name. How far also the Phœnician system has been accurately described, is matter of uncertainty. See Sā

1.02 - SADHANA PADA, #Patanjali Yoga Sutras, #Swami Vivekananda, #Hinduism
  the instruments? The Chitta, or mind-stuff, the Buddhi,
  determinative faculty, the Manas, or mind, and the Indriyani,
  --
  finer. So, if good waves in the conscious Chitta be constantly
  raised, they will go down, become subtle, and oppose the
  --
  what is called freedom of the Chitta. We shall realise that all
  these difficulties and struggles have fallen off from us. All
  --
  From that, the covering to the light of the Chitta is
  attenuated.
  The Chitta has, by its own nature, all knowledge. It is made of
  Sattva particles, but is covered by Rajas and Tamas particles,
  --
  svasvavishayasanprayoge Chittasy svaroopanukar
  ivendriyanan pratyaharah

1.03 - Meeting the Master - Meeting with others, #Evening Talks With Sri Aurobindo, #unset, #Zen
   Sri Aurobindo: In order to distinguish the work intended by the Shakti and that dictated by the lower nature you have to be very careful. You must develop the power of looking within. When you look within you must first realise yourself as the Purusha, that is to say, the being quite separate from the movements of Prakriti, Nature, going on in the Prana (the vital parts), the Chitta, the Mind etc. Any movement that arises in Prakriti has to be rejected and anything that comes from Above has to be accepted. Not only must you separate yourself, but the Purusha must become the calm and passive witness. Thus there will be a portion in yourself which will be quiet, unaffected by anything in Prakriti. The calm of the Sakshi, witness, then extends to the nature and then nature remains quite unmoved by any disturbance. You can not merely remain unmoved but also, as Anumanta, give the sanction to certain movements of nature and withhold it from others.
   G: Is this the Yoga? No Asanas, no Pranayama!
  --
   A wire was sent in reply to Krishnashashi asking him not to come to Pondicherry. (Krishnashashi, a sadhak from Chittagong, had become deranged in mind.) Another wire was sent to a disciple at Calcutta to stop Krishnashashi from proceeding to Pondicherry.
   The contents of a letter from a pleader of Wardha one Mr. Rajwade were read out to Sri Aurobindo. It showed signs of increasing mental disorder. He wanted to become a yogi, a writer, and then an M.A. and Ll.M., if possible! He wanted to raise a loan of Rs. 3000/- if Sri Aurobindo promised him that he would finish the course.

1.03 - The Psychic Prana, #Raja-Yoga, #Swami Vivkenanda, #unset
  Everything that we see, or imagine, or dream, we have to perceive in space. This is the ordinary space, called the Mahksha, or elemental space. When a Yogi reads the thoughts of other men, or perceives supersensuous objects he sees them in another sort of space called the Chittksha, the mental space. When perception has become objectless, and the soul shines in its own nature, it is called the Chidksha, or knowledge space. When the Kundalini is aroused, and enters the canal of the Sushumna, all the perceptions are in the mental space. When it has reached that end of the canal which opens out into the brain, the objectless perception is in the knowledge space. Taking the analogy of electricity, we find that man can send a current only along a wire, (The reader should remember that this was spoken before the discovery of wireless telegraphy. Ed.) but nature requires no wires to send her tremendous currents. This proves that the wire is not really necessary, but that only our inability to dispense with it compels us to use it.
  Similarly, all the sensations and motions of the body are being sent into the brain, and sent out of it, through these wires of nerve fibres. The columns of sensory and motor fibres in the spinal cord are the Ida and Pingala of the Yogis. They are the main channels through which the afferent and efferent currents travel. But why should not the mind send news without any wire, or react without any wire? We see this is done in nature. The Yogi says, if you can do that, you have got rid of the bondage of matter. How to do it? If you can make the current pass through the Sushumna, the canal in the middle of the spinal column, you have solved the problem. The mind has made this network of the nervous system, and has to break it, so that no wires will be required to work through. Then alone will all knowledge come to us no more bondage of body; that is why it is so important that we should get control of that Sushumna. If we can send the mental current through the hollow canal without any nerve fibres to act as wires, the Yogi says, the problem is solved, and he also says it can be done.

1.03 - YIBHOOTI PADA, #Patanjali Yoga Sutras, #Swami Vivekananda, #Hinduism
  sarvar thataikagratayoh kshciyodayau Chittasya
  samadhiparinamah
  --
  manifested respectively, the Chitta gets the modifi-
  cation called Samadhi.
  --
  the Chitta , and this subsides and becomes finer and finer, but
  is never lost. It remains there in minute form, and if we can
  --
  hridaye Chittasanvit
  In the heart, knowledge of minds.

1.04 - KAI VALYA PADA, #Patanjali Yoga Sutras, #Swami Vivekananda, #Hinduism
  pravrittibhede prayojakam Chittam ekam anekesham
  Though the activities of the different created minds
  --
  Among the various Chittas that which is attained by
  Samadhi is desireless.
  --
  vastusamye Chittabhedat tayorvibliaktah panthah
  The object being the same, perception and desire vary
  --
  taduparagapekshatvat Chittasya vastu jnatajnatam
  Things are known or unknown to the mind, being
  --
  drashtridrishyoparaktan Chittan sarvartham
  Coloured by the seer and the seen the mind is able to
  --
  tada vivekanimnan kaivalyapragbharan Chittam
  Then bent on discriminating the mind attains the
  --
  kaivalyan, svaroopapratishtha va Chitishaktireti
  The resolution in the inverse order of the qualities,

1.04 - The Divine Mother - This Is She, #Twelve Years With Sri Aurobindo, #Nirodbaran, #Integral Yoga
  My aim in drawing this picture of the Mother is not merely to demonstrate her dynamism. There have been quite a number of people in the world, Napoleon for example, who had a magnificent vital energy, but they are of a different category. Here all her actions are symbolic, they are the expressions of the Divine Force, Chit shakti, she embodies, and that force she has given freely to the young ones as she had done to the older generation. It infiltrates everything that it comes in contact with; she leaves a part of her Divine Presence wherever she goes. She has said also she never forgets any person who has come in contact with her even for a moment! The person finds a place in her Divine Consciousness. Sri Aurobindo said to me that with each one of us here she has her emanation. I believe that would be in some sense true for all those who have come in contact with her, and it would help them through life's strenuous and perilous journey.
  I shall now finish this chapter with an account of my utter discomfiture in trying to argue with the Mother over a subject about which I had very little knowledge. The Mother was describing to Sri Aurobindo the physical features of the brothers of a particular family. At some point, I don't remember exactly when, I was foolish enough to contradict her. She replied, "Better keep quiet! You know nothing." The episode was over and I had forgotten all about it. But the surprise of surprises, later on the Mother called me out of Sri Aurobindo's room and putting her hand on my shoulder explained almost in an apologetic tone how I was wrong. I expressed my sincere regret for my interruption and said that I certainly did not mind her rebuke. I was indeed very much moved by her divine considerateness. If she would be rude or severe on occasions she once said that Sri Aurobindo was a gentleman, she was not we have seen her Mahakali aspect, freezing silence, ironical smile, cold look, her Mahalakshmi graciousness too was showered upon us often. For example, she used to give me, on my birthdays, a pair of fine dhotis from the stock meant for Sri Aurobindo. However hard she might appear outside, and it was unfortunately for us very necessary she is our true Mother and her only concern is to lead us to the Light.

1.04 - The Gods of the Veda, #Vedic and Philological Studies, #Sri Aurobindo, #Integral Yoga
  But we have first one more step in our evidence to notice,the final & conclusive link. In the Taittiriya Upanishad we are told that there are three vyahritis, Bhur, Bhuvar, Swar, but the Rishi Mahachamasya insisted on a fourth, Mahas. What is this fourth vyahriti? It is evidently some old Vedic idea and can hardly fail to be our maho arnas. I have already, in my introduction, outlined briefly the Vedic, Vedantic & Puranic system of the seven worlds and the five bodies. In this system the three vyahritis constitute the lower half of existence which is in bondage to Avidya. Bhurloka is the material world, our dwelling place, in which Annam predominates, in which everything is subject to or limited by the laws of matter & material consciousness. Bhuvar are the middle worlds, antariksha, between Swar & Bhur, vital worlds in which Prana, the vital principle predominates and everything is subject to or limited by the laws of vitality & vital consciousness. Swarloka is the supreme world of the triple system, the pure mental kingdom in which manasei ther in itself or, as one goes higher, uplifted & enlightened by buddhipredominates & by the laws of mind determines the life & movements of the existences which inhabit it. The three Puranic worlds Jana, Tapas, Satya,not unknown to the Vedaconstitute the Parardha; they are the higher ranges of existence in which Sat, Chit, Ananda, the three mighty elements of the divine nature predominate respectively, creative Ananda or divine bliss in Jana, the power of Chit (Chich-chhakti) or divine Energy in Tapas, the extension [of] Sat or divine being in Satya. But these worlds are hidden from us, avyaktalost for us in the sushupti to which only great Yogins easily attain & only with the Anandaloka have we by means of the anandakosha some difficult chance of direct access. We are too joyless to bear the surging waves of that divine bliss, too weak or limited to move in those higher ranges of divine strength & being. Between the upper hemisphere & the lower is Maharloka, the seat of ideal knowledge & pure Truth, which links the free spirits to the bound, the gods who deliver to the gods who are in chains, the wide & immutable realms to these petty provinces where all shifts, all passes, all changes. We see therefore that Mahas is still vijnanam and we can no longer hesitate to identify our subjective principle of mahas, source of truth & right thinking awakened by Saraswati through the perceptive intelligence, with the Vedantic principle of vijnana or pure buddhi, instrument of pure Truth & ideal knowledge.
  We do not find that the Rishi Mahachamasya succeeded in getting his fourth vyahriti accepted by the great body of Vedantic thinkers. With a little reflection we can see the reason why. The vijnana or mahat is superior to reasoning. It sees and knows, hears and knows, remembers & knows by the ideal principles of drishti, sruti and smriti; it does not reason and know.Or withdrawing into the Mahan Atma, it is what it exercises itself upon and therefore knowsas it were, by conscious identity; for that is the nature of the Mahan Atma to be everything separately and collectively & know it as an object of his Knowledge and yet as himself. Always vijnana knows things in the whole & therefore in the part, in the mass & therefore in the particular. But when ideal knowledge, vijnana, looks out on the phenomenal world in its separate details, it then acquires an ambiguous nature. So long as it is not assailed by mind, it is still the pure buddhi and free from liability to errors. The pure buddhi may assign its reasons, but it knows first & reasons afterwards,to explain, not to justify. Assailed by mind, the ideal buddhi ceases to be pure, ceases to be ideal, becomes sensational, emotional, is obliged to found itself on data, ends not in knowledge but in opinion and is obliged to hold doubt with one hand even while it tries to grasp certainty by the other. For it is the nature of mind to be shackled & frightened by its data. It looks at things as entirely outside itself, separate from itself and it approaches them one by one, groups them & thus arrives at knowledge by synthesis; or if [it] looks at things in the mass, it has to appreciate them vaguely and then take its parts and qualities one by one, arriving at knowledge by a process of analysis. But it cannot be sure that the knowledge it acquires, is pure truth; it can never be safe against mixture of truth & error, against one-sided knowledge which leads to serious misconception, against its own sensations, passions, prejudices and false associations. Such truth as it gets can only be correct even so far as it goes, if all the essential data have been collected and scrupulously weighed without any false weights or any unconscious or semi-conscious interference with the balance. A difficult undertaking! So we can form reliable conclusions, and then too always with some reserve of doubt,about the past & the present.Of the future the mind can know nothing except in eternally fixed movements, for it has no data. We try to read the future from the past & present and make the most colossal blunders. The practical man of action who follows there his will, his intuition & his instinct, is far more likely to be correct than the scientific reasoner. Moreover, the mind has to rely for its data on the outer senses or on its own inner sensations & perceptions & it can never be sure that these are informing it correctly or are, even, in their nature anything but lying instruments. Therefore we say we know the objective world on the strength of a perpetual hypothesis. The subjective world we know only as in a dream, sure only of our own inner movements & the little we can learn from them about others, but there too sure only of this objective world & end always in conflict of transitory opinions, a doubt, a perhaps. Yet sure knowledge, indubitable Truth, the Vedic thinkers have held, is not only possible to mankind, but is the goal of our journey. Satyam eva jayate nanritam satyena pantha vitato devayanah yenakramantyrishayo hyaptakama yatra tat satyasya paramam nidhanam. Truth conquers and not falsehood, by truth the path has been extended which the gods follow, by which sages attaining all their desire arrive where is that Supreme Abode of Truth. The very eagerness of man for Truth, his untameable yearning towards an infinite reality, an infinite extension of knowledge, the fact that he has the conception of a fixed & firm truth, nay the very fact that error is possible & persistent, mare indications that pure Truth exists.We follow no chimaera as a supreme good, nor do the Powers of Darkness fight against a mere shadow. The ideal Truth is constantly coming down to us, constantly seeking to deliver us from our slavery to our senses and the magic circle of our limited data. It speaks to our hearts & creates the phenomenon of Faith, but the heart has its lawless & self-regarding emotions & disfigures the message. It speaks to the Imagination, our great intellectual instrument which liberates us from the immediate fact and opens the mind to infinite possibility; but the imagination has her pleasant fictions & her headlong creative impulse and exaggerates the truth & distorts & misplaces circumstances. It speaks to the intellect itself, bids it criticise its instruments by vichara and creates the critical reason, bids it approach the truth directly by a wide passionless & luminous use of the pure judgment, and creates shuddha buddhi or Kants pure reason; bids it divine truth & learn to hold the true divination & reject the counterfeit, and creates the intuitive reason & its guardian, intuitive discrimination or viveka. But the intellect is impatient of error, eager for immediate results and hurries to apply what it receives before it has waited & seen & understood. Therefore error maintains & even extends her reign. At last come the logician & modern rationalist thinker; disgusted with the exaggeration of these movements, seeing their errors, unable to see their indispensable utility, he sets about sweeping them away as intellectual rubbish, gets rid of faith, gets rid of flexibility of mind, gets rid of sympathy, pure reason & intuition, puts critical reason into an ill lightened dungeon & thinks now, delivered from these false issues, to compass truth by laborious observation & a rigid logic. To live on these dry & insufficient husks is the last fate of impure vijnanam or buddhi confined in the data of the mind & sensesuntil man wronged in his nature, cabined in his possibilities revolts & either prefers a luminous error or resumes his broadening & upward march.
  It was this aspect of impure mahas, vijnanam working not in its own home, swe dame but in the house of a stranger, as a servant of an inferior faculty, reason as we call it, which led the Rishi Mahachamasya to include mahas among the vyahritis. But vijnana itself is an integral part of the supreme movement, it is divine thought in divine being,therefore not a vyahriti. The Veda uses to express this pure Truth &ideal knowledge another word, equivalent in meaning to mahat,the word brihat and couples with it two other significant expressions, satyam & ritam. This trinity of satyam ritam brihatSacchidananda objectivisedis the Mahan Atma. Satyam is Truth, the principle of infinite & divine Being, Sat objectivised to Knowledge as the Truth of things self-manifested; Ritam is Law, the motion of things thought out, the principle of divine self-aware energy, Chit-shakti objectivised to knowledge as the Truth of things selfarranged; Brihat is full content & fullness, satisfaction, Nature, the principle of divine Bliss objectivised to knowledge as the Truth of things contented with its own manifestation in law of being & law of action. For, as the Vedanta tells us, there is no lasting satisfaction in the little, in the unillumined or half-illumined things of mind & sense, satisfaction there is only in the large, the self-true & self-existent. Nalpe sukham asti bhumaiva sukham. Bhuma, brihat, mahat, that is God. It is Ananda therefore that insists on largeness & constitutes the mahat or brihat. Ananda is the soul of Nature, its essentiality, creative power & peace. The harmony of creative power & peace, pravritti & nivritti, jana & shama, is the divine state which we feelas Wordsworth felt itwhen we go back to the brihat, the wide & infinite which, containing & contented with its works, says of it Sukritam, What I have made, is good. Whoever enters this kingdom of Mahat, this Maho Arnas or great sea of ideal knowledge, comes into possession of his true being, true knowledge, true bliss. He attains the ideal powers of drishti, sruti, smritisees truth face to face, hears her unerring voice or knows her by immediate recognising memoryjust as we say of a friend This is he and need no reasoning of observation, comparison, induction or deduction to tell us who he is or to explain our knowledge to ourselvesthough we may, already knowing the truth, use a self-evident reasoning masterfully in order to convince others. The characteristic of ideal knowledge is first that it is direct in its approach, secondly, that it is self-evident in its revelation, swayamprakasha, thirdly, that it is unerring fact of being, sat, satyam in its substance. Moreover, it is always perfectly satisfied & divinely pleasurable; it is atmarati & atmastha, confines itself to itself & does not reach out beyond itself to grasp at error or grope within itself to stumble over ignorance. It is, too, perfectly effective whether for knowledge, speech or action, satyakarma, satyapratijna, satyavadi. The man who rising beyond the state of the manu, manishi or thinker which men are now, becomes the kavi or direct seer, containing what he sees,he who draws the manomaya purusha up into the vijnanamaya,is in all things true. Truth is his characteristic, his law of being, the stamp that God has put upon him. But even for the manishi ideal Truth has its bounties. For from thence come the intuitions of the poet, the thinker, the artist, scientist, man of action, merchant, craftsman, labourer each in his sphere, the seed of the great thoughts, discoveries, faiths that help the world and save our human works & destinies from decay & dissolution. But in utilising these messages from our higher selves for the world, in giving them a form or a practical tendency, we use our intellects, feelings or imaginations and alter to their moulds or colour with their pigments the Truth. That alloy seems to be needed to make this gold from the mines above run current among men. This then is Maho Arnas.The psychological conceptions of our remote forefa thers concerning it have so long been alien to our thought & experience that they may be a little difficult to follow & more difficult to accept mentally. But we must understand & grasp them in their fullness if we have any desire to know the meaning of the Veda. For they are the very centre & keystone of Vedic psychology. Maho Arnas, the Great Ocean, is the stream of our being which at once divides & connects the human in us from the divine, & to cross over from the human to the divine, from this small & divided finite to that one, great & infinite, from this death to that immortality, leaving Diti for Aditi, alpam for bhuma, martyam for amritam is the great preoccupation & final aim of Veda & Vedanta.
  We can now understand the intention of the Rishi in his last verse and the greatness of the climax to which he has been leading us. Saraswati is able to give impulsion to Truth and awaken to right thinking because she has access to the Maho Arnas, the great ocean. On that level of consciousness, we are usually it must be remembered asleep, sushupta. The chetana or waking consciousness has no access; it lies behind our active consciousness, is, as we might say, superconscious, for us, asleep. Saraswati brings it forward into active consciousness by means of the ketu or perceptive intelligence, that essential movement of mind which accepts & realises whatever is presented to it. To focus this ketu, this essential perception on the higher truth by drawing it away from the haphazard disorder of sensory data is the great aim of Yogic meditation. Saraswati by fixing essential perception on the satyam ritam brihat above makes ideal knowledge active and is able to inform it with all those plentiful movements of mind which she, dhiyavasu, vajebhir vajinivati, has prepared for the service of the Master of the sacrifice. She is able to govern all the movements of understanding without exception in their thousand diverse movements & give them the single impression of truth and right thinkingvisva dhiyo vi rajati. A governed & ordered activity of soul and mind, led by the Truth-illuminated intellect, is the aim of the sacrifice which Madhuchchhanda son of Viswamitra is offering to the Gods.
  --
  Next, it is to Indra that he turns. I have already said that in my view Indra is the master of mental force. Let us see whether there is anything here to contradict the hypothesis. Indra yahi Chitrabhano suta ime tu ayavah, Anwibhis tana putasah. Indrayahi dhiyeshito viprajutah sutavatah Upa brahmani vaghatah. Indrayahi tutujana upa brahmani harivah Sute dadhishwa nas chanah. There are several important words here that are doubtful in their sense, anwi, tana, vaghatah, brahmani; but none of them are of importance for our present purpose except brahmani. For reasons I shall give in the proper place I do not accept Brahma in the Veda as meaning speech of any kind, but as either soul or a mantra of the kind afterwards called dhyana, the object of which was meditation and formation in the soul of the divine Power meditated on whether in an image or in his qualities. It is immaterial which sense we take here. Indra, sings the Rishi, arrive, O thou of rich and varied light, here are these life-streams poured forth, purified, with vital powers, with substance. Arrive, O Indra, controlled by the understanding, impelled forward in various directions to my soul faculties, I who am now full of strength and flourishing increase. Arrive, O Indra, with protection to my soul faculties, O dweller in the brilliance, confirm our delight in the nectar poured. It seems to me that the remarkable descriptions dhiyeshito viprajutah are absolutely conclusive, that they prove the presence of a subjective Nature Power, not a god of rain & tempest, & prove especially a mind-god. What is it but mental force which comes controlled by the understanding and is impelled forward by it in various directions? What else is it that at the same time protects by its might the growing & increasing soul faculties from impairing & corrupting attack and confirms, keeps safe & continuous the delight which the Aswins have brought with them? The epithets Chitrabhano, harivas become at once intelligible and appropriate; the god of mental force has indeed a rich and varied light, is indeed a dweller in the brilliance. The progress of the thought is clear. Madhuchchhanda, as a result of Yogic practice, is in a state of spiritual & physical exaltation; he has poured out the nectar of vitality; he is full of strength & ecstasy This is the sacrifice he has prepared for the gods. He wishes it to be prolonged, perhaps to be made, if it may now be, permanent. The Aswins are called to give & take the delight, Indra to supply & preserve that mental force which will sustain the delight otherwise in danger of being exhausted & sinking by its own fierceness rapidly consuming its material in the soul faculties. The state and the movement are one of which every Yogin knows.
  But he is not content with the inner sacrifice. He wishes to pour out this strength & joy in action on the world, on his fellows, on the peoples, therefore he calls to the Visve Devah to come, A gata!all the gods in general who help man and busy themselves in supporting his multitudinous & manifold action. They are kindly, omasas, they are charshanidhrito, holders or supporters of all our actions, especially actions that require effort, (it is in this sense that I take charshani, again on good philological grounds), they are to distribute this nectar to all or to divide it among themselves for the action,dasvanso may have either force,for Madhuchchhanda wishes not only to possess, but to give, to distribute, he is dashush. Omasas charshanidhrito visve devasa a gata, daswanso dashushah sutam. He goes on, Visve devaso apturah sutam a ganta turnayah Usra iva swasarani. Visve devaso asridha ehimayaso adruhah, Medham jushanta vahnayah. O you all-gods who are energetic in works, come to the nectar distilled, ye swift ones, (or, come swiftly), like calves to their own stalls,(so at least we must translate this last phrase, till we can get the real meaning, for I do not believe this is the real or, at any rate, the only meaning). O you all-gods unfaltering, with wide capacity of strength, ye who harm not, attach yourselves to the offering as its supporters. And then come the lines about Saraswati. For although Indra can sustain for a moment or for a time he is at present a mental, not an ideal force; it is Saraswati full of the vijnana, of mahas, guiding by it the understanding in all its ways who can give to all these gods the supporting knowledge, light and truth which will confirm and uphold the delight, the mental strength & supply inexhaustibly from the Ocean of Mahas the beneficent & joy-giving action,Saraswati, goddess of inspiration, the flowing goddess who is the intermediary & channel by which divine truth, divine joy, divine being descend through the door of knowledge into this human receptacle. In a word, she is our inspirer, our awakener, our lurer towards Immortality. It is immortality that Madhuchchhandas prepares for himself & the people who do sacrifice to Heaven, devayantah. The Soma-streams he speaks of are evidently no intoxicating vegetable juices; he calls them ayavah, life-forces; & elsewhere amritam, nectar of immortality; somasah, wine-draughts of bliss & internal well being. It is the clear Yogic idea of the amritam, the divine nectar which flows into the system at a certain stage of Yogic practice & gives pure health, pure strength & pure physical joy to the body as a basis for a pure mental & spiritual vigour and activity.
  --
  But he is more than that; he is tuvijata, urukshaya. Uru, we shall find in other hymns, the Vast, is a word used as equivalent to Brihat to describe the ideal level of consciousness, the kingdom of ideal knowledge, in its aspect of joyous comprehensive wideness and capacity. It is clearly told us that men by overcoming & passing beyond the two firmaments of Mind-invitality, Bhuvar, & mind in intellectuality, Swar, arrive in the Vast, Uru, and make it their dwelling place. Therefore Uru must be taken as equivalent to Brihat; it must mean Mahas. Our Vedic Varuna, then, is a dweller in Mahas, in the vastness of ideal knowledge. But he is not born there; he is born or appears first in tuvi, that is, in strength or force. Since Uru definitely means the Vast, means Mahas, means a particular plane of consciousness, is, in short, a fixed term of Vedic psychology, it is inevitable that tuvi thus coupled with it and yet differentiated, must be another fixed term of Vedic psychology & must mean another plane of consciousness. We have found the meaning of Mahas by consulting Purana & Vedanta as well as the Veda itself. Have we any similar light on the significance of Tuvi? Yes. The Puranas describe to us three worlds above Maharloka,called, respectively, in the Puranic system, Jana, Tapas and Satya. By a comparison with Vedantic psychology we know that Jana must be the world of Ananda of which the Mahajana Atma is the sustaining Brahman as the Mahan Atma is the sustaining Brahman of the vijnana, and we get this light on the subject that, just as Bhur, Bhuvah, Swar are the lower or human half of existence, the aparardha of the Brahmanda, (the Brahma-circle or universe of manifest consciousness), and answer objectively to the subjective field covered by Annam, Prana & Manas, just as Mahas is the intermediate world, link between the divine & human hemispheres, and corresponds to the subjective region of Vijnana, so Jana, Tapas & Satya are the divine half of existence, & answer to the Ananda with its two companion principles Sat and Chit, the three constituting the Trinity of those psychological states which are, to & in our consciousness, Sacchidananda,God sustaining from above His worlds. But why is the world of Chit called Tapoloka? According to our conceptions this universe has been created by & in divine Awareness by Force, Shakti, or Power which [is] inherent in Awareness, Force of Awareness or Chit Shakti that moves, forms & realises whatever it wills in Being. This force, this Chit-shakti in its application to its work, is termed in the ancient phraseology Tapas. Therefore, it is told us that when Brahma the Creator lay uncreative on the great Ocean, he listened & heard a voice crying over the waters OM Tapas! OM Tapas! and he became full of the energy of the mantra & arose & began creation. Tapas & Tu or Tuvi are equivalent terms. We can see at once the meaning. Varuna, existing no doubt in Sat, appears or is born to us in Tapas, in the sea of force put out in itself by the divine Awareness, & descending through divine delight which world is in Jana, in production or birth by Tapas, through Ananda, that is to say, into the manifest world, dwells in ideal knowledge & Truth and makes there Ritam or the Law of the Truth of Being his peculiar province. It is the very process of all creation, according to our Vedic&Vedantic Rishis. Descending into the actual universe we find Varuna master of the Akash or ether, matrix and continent of created things, in the Akash watching over the development of the created world & its peoples according to the line already fixed by ideal knowledge as suitable to their nature and purposeya thatathyato vihitam shashwatibhyah samabhyah and guiding the motion of things & souls in the line of theritam. It is in his act of guidance and bringing to perfection of the imperfect that he increases by the law and the truth, desires it and naturally attains to it, has the spriha & the sparsha of the ritam. It is from his fidelity to ideal Truth that he acquires the mighty power by which he maintains the heavens and orders its worlds in their appointed motion.
  Such is his general nature and power. But there are also certain particular subjective functions to which he is called. He is rishadasa, he harries and slays the enemies of the soul, and with Mitra of pure discernment he works at the understanding till he brings it to a gracious pureness and brightness. He is like Agni, a kavih, one of those who has access to and commands ideal knowledge and with Mitra he supports and upholds Daksha when he is at his works; for so I take Daksham apasam. Mitra has already been described as having a pure daksha. The adjective daksha means in Sanscrit clever, intelligent, capable, like dakshina, like the Greek . We may also compare the Greek , meaning judgment, opinion etc & , I think or seem, and Latin doceo, I teach, doctrina etc. As these identities indicate, Daksha is originally he who divides, analyses, discerns; he is the intellectual faculty or in his person the master of the intellectual faculty which discerns and distinguishes. Therefore was Mitra able to help in making the understanding bright & pure,by virtue of his purified discernment.
  --
  We are no longer with Madhuchchhanda Vaiswamitra. It is Medhatithi of the Kanwas who has taken the word, a soul of great clearness & calmness who is full of a sort of vibrating peace. Yet we find the same strain, the same fixed ideas, the same subjective purpose & spiritual aspiration. A few words here & there in my translation may be challenged and given a different meaning. Throughout the Veda there are words like radhas etc to which I have given a sense based on reasons of context & philology but which must be allowed to remain conjectural till I am able to take up publicly the detailed examination of the language & substance of the Rigveda. But we have sumati again and the ever recurring vaja, the dhartara charshaninam, holders of actions, & rayah which certainly meant felicity in the Veda. It is clear from the third verse that Varuna and Indra are called to share in the felicity of the poets soul,that felicity is his material of sacrifice,anukamam tarpayetham, he says, Delight in it to your hearts content; and again in the seventh shloka he tells them, Vam aham huve Chitraya radhase, a phrase which, in view of verse 3, I can only translate I call you for rich and varied ecstasy; for it is evidently meant to describe that felicity, that heart-filling satisfaction which he has already offered in the third sloka. In return he asks them to give victory. Always in the Veda there is the idea of the spiritual battle as well as the outer struggles of life, the battle with the jealous forces of Nature, with Vala, the grudging guardian of light, with the great obscuring dragon Vritra & his hosts, with the thieving Panis, with all the many forces that oppose mans evolution & support limitation and evil. A great many of the words for sacrifice, mean also war and battle, in Sanscrit or in its kindred tongues.
  Indra and Varuna are called to give victory, because both of them are samrat. The words samrat & swarat have in Veda an ascertained philosophical sense.One is swarat when, having self-mastery & self-knowledge, & being king over his whole system, physical, vital, mental & spiritual, free in his being, [one] is able to guide entirely the harmonious action of that being. Swarajya is spiritual Freedom. One is Samrat when one is master of the laws of being, ritam, rituh, vratani, and can therefore control all forces & creatures. Samrajya is divine Rule resembling the power of God over his world. Varuna especially is Samrat, master of the Law which he follows, governor of the heavens & all they contain, Raja Varuna, Varuna the King as he is often styled by Sunahshepa and other Rishis. He too, like Indra & Agni & the Visvadevas, is an upholder & supporter of mens actions, dharta charshaninam. Finally in the fifth sloka a distinction is drawn between Indra and Varuna of great importance for our purpose. The Rishi wishes, by their protection, to rise to the height of the inner Energies (yuvaku shachinam) and have the full vigour of right thoughts (yuvaku sumatinam) because they give then that fullness of inner plenty (vajadavnam) which is the first condition of enduring calm & perfection & then he says, Indrah sahasradavnam, Varunah shansyanam kratur bhavati ukthyah. Indra is the master-strength, desirable indeed, (ukthya, an object of prayer, of longing and aspiration) of one class of those boons (vara, varyani) for which the Rishis praise him, Varuna is the master-strength, equally desirable, of another class of these Vedic blessings. Those which Indra brings, give force, sahasram, the forceful being that is strong to endure & strong to overcome; those that attend the grace of Varuna are of a loftier & more ample description, they are shansya. The word shansa is frequently used; it is one of the fixed terms of Veda. Shall we translate it praise, the sense most suitable to the ritual explanation, the sense which the finally dominant ritualistic school gave to so many of the fixed terms of Veda? In that case Varuna must be urushansa, because he is widely praised, Agni narashansa because he is strongly praised or praised by men,ought not a wicked or cruel man to be nrishansa because he is praised by men?the Rishis call repeatedly on the gods to protect their praise, & Varuna here must be master of things that are praiseworthy. But these renderings can only be accepted, if we consent to the theory of the Rishis as semi-savage poets, feeble of brain, vague in speech, pointless in their style, using language for barbaric ornament rather than to express ideas. Here for instance there is a very powerful indicated contrast, indicated by the grammatical structure, the order & the rhythm, by the singular kratur bhavati, by the separation of Indra & Varuna who have hitherto been coupled, by the assignment of each governing nominative to its governed genitive and a careful balanced order of words, first giving the master Indra then his province sahasradavnam, exactly balancing them in the second half of the first line the master Varuna & then his province shansyanam, and the contrast thus pointed, in the closing pada of the Gayatri all the words that in their application are common at once to all these four separated & contrasted words in the first line. Here is no careless writer, but a style careful, full of economy, reserve, point, force, and the thought must surely correspond. But what is the contrast forced on us with such a marshalling of the stylists resources? That Indras boons are force-giving, Varunas praiseworthy, excellent, auspicious, what you will? There is not only a pointless contrast, but no contrast at all. No, shansa & shansya must be important, definite, pregnant Vedic terms expressing some prominent idea of the Vedic system. I shall show elsewhere that shansa is in its essential meaning self-expression, the bringing out of our sat or being that which is latent in it and manifesting it in our nature, in speech, in our general impulse & action. It has the connotation of self-expression, aspiration, temperament, expression of our ideas in speech; then divulgation, publication, praiseor in another direction, cursing. Varuna is urushansa because he is the master of wide self-expression, wide aspirations, a wide, calm & spacious temperament, Agni narashansa because he is master of strong self-expression, strong aspirations, a prevailing, forceful & masterful temperament;nrishansa had originally the same sense, but was afterwards diverted to express the fault to which such a temper is prone,tyranny, wrath & cruelty; the Rishis call to the gods to protect their shansa, that which by their yoga & yajna they have been able to bring out in themselves of being, faculty, power, joy,their self-expression. Similarly, shansya here means all that belongs to self-expression, all that is wide, noble, ample in the growth of a soul. It will follow from this rendering that Indra is a god of force, Varuna rather a god of being and as it appears from other epithets, of being when it is calm, noble, wide, self-knowing, self-mastering, moving freely in harmony with the Law of things because it is aware of that Law and accepts it. In that acceptance is his mighty strength; therefore is he even more than the gods of force the king, the giver of internal & external victory, rule, empire, samrajya to his votaries. This is Varuna.

1.05 - Adam Kadmon, #A Garden of Pomegranates - An Outline of the Qabalah, #Israel Regardie, #Occultism
  This trinity of the original spiritual Monad, its Creative vehicle, and Intuition, form a synthetic integral Unity which philosophically may be denominated the Transcen- dental Ego. It is a Unity in a unique manner, and its attri butes are summed up in the three Hindu hypostases, more true, perhaps, of the Sephiros than the parts of man, of Sat, Chit, Ananda ; Absolute Being, Wisdom, and Bliss.
  " Below " the real man exists that part of him which is perishable - the so-called lower self. " Below " and

1.05 - Consciousness, #Sri Aurobindo or the Adventure of Consciousness, #Satprem, #Integral Yoga
  we even start noticing it as a current or inner force before realizing it is a consciousness. Consciousness is force, consciousness-force, as Sri Aurobindo calls it, for the two terms are truly inseparable and interchangeable. The ancient wisdom of India knew this well, and never spoke of consciousness, Chit, without adjoining to it the term Agni, heat, flame, energy: Chit-Agni (sometimes also called Tapas, a synonym of Agni: Chit-Tapas). The Sanskrit word for spiritual or yogic discipline is tapasya, that which produces heat or energy, or,
  more correctly, consciousness-heat or consciousness-energy. Agni, or Chit-Agni, is the same everywhere. We speak of descending or ascending Force, of inner force, of mental, vital, or material force, but there are not a hundred different kinds of forces; there is only one Force in the world, a single current that circulates through us as it circulates through all things, and takes on one attribute or another,
  depending upon the particular level of its action. Our electric current can light up a tabernacle or a bar, a schoolroom or a restaurant; it is still the same current, though it illuminates different objects. So too,
  --
  Consciousness-Force, Chit-Agni.
  While consciousness is a force, the reverse is also true: force is consciousness; all the forces are conscious.52 Universal Force is universal Consciousness. This is what the seeker discovers. After coming in contact with the current of consciousness-force in himself,
  --
  All here is Consciousness, because all is Being or Spirit. All is Chit, because all is Sat Sat- Chit at every level of Its own manifestation. The history of our earthly evolution is nothing but a slow conversion of Force into Consciousness or, more exactly, a slow 52
  On Yoga II, Tome 2, 197
  --
  Ananda Consciousness-Joy, Chit-Ananda. To be conscious is joy.
  When consciousness is released from the thousands of mental, vital or physical vibrations in which it was buried, we awaken to joy. The whole being is in effect filled with a mass of vibrant, crystalline,

1.05 - Pratyahara and Dharana, #Raja-Yoga, #Swami Vivkenanda, #unset
  After you have practised Pratyahara for a time, take the next step, the Dhran, holding the mind to certain points. What is meant by holding the mind to certain points? Forcing the mind to feel certain parts of the body to the exclusion of others. For instance, try to feel only the hand, to the exclusion of other parts of the body. When the Chitta, or mind-stuff, is confined and limited to a certain place it is Dharana. This Dharana is of various sorts, and along with it, it is better to have a little play of the imagination. For instance, the mind should be made to think of one point in the heart. That is very difficult; an easier way is to imagine a lotus there. That lotus is full of light, effulgent light. Put the mind there. Or think of the lotus in the brain as full of light, or of the different centres in the Sushumna mentioned before.
  The Yogi must always practice. He should try to live alone; the companionship of different sorts of people distracts the mind; he should not speak much, because to speak distracts the mind; not work much, because too much work distracts the mind; the mind cannot be controlled after a whole day's hard work. One observing the above rules becomes a Yogi. Such is the power of Yoga that even the least of it will bring a great amount of benefit. It will not hurt anyone, but will benefit everyone. First of all, it will tone down nervous excitement, bring calmness, enable us to see things more clearly. The temperament will be better, and the health will be better. Sound health will be one of the first signs, and a beautiful voice. Defects in the voice will be changed. This will be among the first of the many effects that will come. Those who practise hard will get many other signs. Sometimes there will be sounds, as a peal of bells heard at a distance, commingling, and falling on the ear as one continuous sound. Sometimes things will be seen, little specks of light floating and becoming bigger and bigger; and when these things come, know that you are progressing fast.

1.05 - Ritam, #Vedic and Philological Studies, #Sri Aurobindo, #Integral Yoga
    N Chit sa dabhyate janah.
    Yam bhuteva piprati, pnti martyam rishah

1.06 - Man in the Universe, #The Life Divine, #Sri Aurobindo, #Integral Yoga
  18:We have seen that the Non-Being beyond may well be an inconceivable existence and perhaps an ineffable Bliss. At least the Nirvana of Buddhism which formulated one most luminous effort of man to reach and to rest in this highest Non-Existence, represents itself in the psychology of the liberated yet upon earth as an unspeakable peace and gladness; its practical effect is the extinction of all suffering through the disappearance of all egoistic idea or sensation and the nearest we can get to a positive conception of it is that it is some inexpressible Beatitude (if the name or any name can be applied to a peace so void of contents) into which even the notion of self-existence seems to be swallowed up and disappear. It is a Sachchidananda to which we dare no longer apply even the supreme terms of Sat, of Chit and of Ananda. For all terms are annulled and all cognitive experience is overpassed.
  19:On the other hand, we have hazarded the suggestion that since all is one Reality, this inferior negation also, this other contradiction or non-existence of Sachchidananda is none other than Sachchidananda itself. It is capable of being conceived by the intellect, perceived in the vision, even received through the sensations as verily that which it seems to deny, and such would it always be to our conscious experience if things were not falsified by some great fundamental error, some possessing and compelling Ignorance, Maya or Avidya. In this sense a solution might be sought, not perhaps a satisfying metaphysical solution for the logical mind, - for we are standing on the border-line of the unknowable, the ineffable and straining our eyes beyond, - but a sufficient basis in experience for the practice of the divine life.

1.06 - THE MASTER WITH THE BRAHMO DEVOTEES, #The Gospel of Sri Ramakrishna, #Sri Ramakrishna, #Hinduism
  Sri Ramakrishna, accompanied by Rakhal and several other devotees, came to Calcutta in a carriage and called for M. at the school where he was teaching. Then they all set out for the Maidan. Sri Ramakrishna wanted to see the Wilson Circus. As the carriage rolled along the crowded Chitpore Road, his joy was very great. Like a little child he leaned first out of one side of the carriage and then out of the other, talking to himself as if addressing the passers-by. To M. he said: "I find the attention of the people fixed on earthly things. They are all rushing about for the sake of their stomachs. No one is thinking of God."
  They arrived at the circus. Tickets for the cheapest seats were purchased. The devotees took the Master to a high gallery, and they all sat on a bench. He said joyfully: "Ha! This is a good place. I can see the show well from here." There were exhibitions of various feats. A horse raced around a circular track over which large iron rings were hung at intervals. The circus rider, an Englishwoman, stood on one foot on the horse's back, and as the horse passed under the rings, she jumped through them, always alighting on one foot on the horse's back. The horse raced around the entire circle, and the woman never missed the horse or lost her balance.

1.07 - A Song of Longing for Tara, the Infallible, #How to Free Your Mind - Tara the Liberator, #Thubten Chodron, #unset
  when he gave the Chittamani Tara initiations and teachings to a group of us
  at Kopan Monastery. In Lamas style, this may not be a literal translation, and

1.07 - Bridge across the Afterlife, #Preparing for the Miraculous, #George Van Vrekhem, #Integral Yoga
  [the middle term Chit-tapas in the Vedantic sat- Chit/tapas-
  ananda];

1.07 - Jnana Yoga, #Amrita Gita, #Swami Sivananda Saraswati, #Hinduism
  2. This Atman is Satchidananda (Existence-Absolute, Consciousness-Absolute, Bliss-Absolute). It exists in the past, present and future. So it is Sat. It is pure or Absolute Consciousness without any thought. So it is Chit. It is absolute Bliss. So it is Ananda.
  3. The unreal body perishes, but the Atman or the indweller is Immortal. So, you should not grieve when anyone dies. In essence everyone is Immortal Atman.

1.07 - Raja-Yoga in Brief, #Raja-Yoga, #Swami Vivkenanda, #unset
  Yama, Niyama, sana, Prnyma, Pratyhra, Dhrna, Dhyna, and Samdhi are the steps in Raja-Yoga, of which non-injury, truthfulness, non-covetousness, chastity, not receiving anything from another are called Yama. This purifies the mind, the Chitta. Never producing pain by thought, word, and deed, in any living being, is what is called Ahims, non-injury. There is no virtue higher than non-injury. There is no happiness higher than what a man obtains by this attitude of non-offensiveness, to all creation. By truth we attain fruits of work. Through truth everything is attained. In truth everything is established. Relating facts as they are this is truth. Not taking others' goods by stealth or by force, is called Asteya, non-covetousness. Chastity in thought, word, and deed, always, and in all conditions, is what is called Brahmacharya. Not receiving any present from anybody, even when one is suffering terribly, is what is called Aparigraha. The idea is, when a man receives a gift from another, his heart becomes impure, he becomes low, he loses his independence, he becomes bound and attached.
  The following are helps to success in Yoga and are called Niyama or regular habits and observances; Tapas, austerity; Svdhyya, study; Santosha, contentment; Shaucha, purity; Ishvara-pranidhna, worshipping God. Fasting, or in other ways controlling the body, is called physical Tapas. Repeating the Vedas and other Mantras, by which the Sattva material in the body is purified, is called study, Svadhyaya. There are three sorts of repetitions of these Mantras. One is called the verbal, another semi-verbal, and the third mental. The verbal or audible is the lowest, and the inaudible is the highest of all. The repetition which is loud is the verbal; the next one is where only the lips move, but no sound is heard. The inaudible repetition of the Mantra, accompanied with the thinking of its meaning, is called the "mental repetition," and is the highest. The sages have said that there are two sorts of purification, external and internal. The purification of the body by water, earth, or other materials is the external purification, as bathing etc. Purification of the mind by truth, and by all the other virtues, is what is called internal purification. Both are necessary. It is not sufficient that a man should be internally pure and externally dirty. When both are not attainable the internal purity is the better, but no one will be a Yogi until he has both. Worship of God is by praise, by thought, by devotion.

1.07 - The Farther Reaches of Human Nature, #Sex Ecology Spirituality, #Ken Wilber, #Philosophy
  But by collapsing "paradigm" into a mere theory (itself unanchored), the scientific enterprise could be collapsed into various forms of literary Chitchat (and the new masters of the universe were therefore . . . the literary critics).
  And likewise, on the New Age front, a flurry of "new paradigms" could then step in and redress the ugliness of the old paradigm.

1.07 - The Mantra - OM - Word and Wisdom, #Bhakti-Yoga, #Swami Vivekananda, #Hinduism
   "As one lump of clay being known, all things of clay are known", so the knowledge of the microcosm must lead to the knowledge of the macrocosm. Now form is the outer crust, of which the name or the idea is the inner essence or kernel. The body is the form, and the mind or the Antahkarana is the name, and sound-symbols are universally associated with Nma (name) in all beings having the power of speech. In the individual man the thought-waves rising in the limited Mahat or Chitta (mindstuff), must manifest themselves, first as words, and then as the more concrete forms.
  In the universe, Brahm or Hiranyagarbha or the cosmic Mahat first manifested himself as name, and then as form, i.e. as this universe. All this expressed sensible universe is the form, behind which stands the eternal inexpressible Sphota, the manifester as Logos or Word. This eternal Sphota, the essential eternal material of all ideas or names is the power through which the Lord creates the universe, nay, the Lord first becomes conditioned as the Sphota, and then evolves Himself out as the yet more concrete sensible universe. This Sphota has one word as its only possible symbol, and this is the (Om). And as by no possible means of analysis can we separate the word from the idea this Om and the eternal Sphota are inseparable; and therefore, it is out of this holiest of all holy words, the mother of all names and forms, the eternal Om, that the whole universe may be supposed to have been created. But it may be said that, although thought and word are inseparable, yet as there may be various word-symbols for the same thought, it is not necessary that this particular word Om should be the word representative of the thought, out of which the universe has become manifested. To this objection we reply that this Om is the only possible symbol which covers the whole ground, and there is none other like it. The Sphota is the material of all words, yet it is not any definite word in its fully formed state.

1.08 - Information, Language, and Society, #Cybernetics, or Control and Communication in the Animal and the Machine, #Norbert Wiener, #Cybernetics
  have a mind almost as patterned, Chitin-­bound, as its body. It
  is what we might expect a priori from an animal whose growing

1.08 - The Gods of the Veda - The Secret of the Veda, #Vedic and Philological Studies, #Sri Aurobindo, #Integral Yoga
  What then is maho arnas? Is it the great sea of general being, substance of general existence out of which the substance of thought & speech are formed? It is possible; but such an interpretation is not entirely in consonance with the context of this passage. The suggestion I shall advance will therefore be different. Mahas, as a neuter adjective, means great,maho arnas, the great water; but mahas may be equally a noun and then maho arnas will mean Mahas the sea. In some passages again, mahas is genitive singular or accusative plural of a noun mah; maho arnas may well be the flowing stream or flood of Mah, as in the expression vasvo arnavam, the sea of substance, in a later Sukta.We are therefore likely to remain in doubt unless we can find an actual symbolic use of either word Mah or Mahas in a psychological sense which would justify us in supposing this Maho Arnas to be a sea of substance of knowledge rather than vaguely the sea of general substance of being. For this is the significance which alone entirely suits the actual phraseology of the last Rik of the Sukta. We find our clue in the Taittiriya Upanishad. It is said there that there are three recognised vyahritis of the Veda, Bhur, Bhuvar, Swah, but the Rishi Mahachamasya affirmed a fourth. The name of this doubtful fourth vyahriti is Mahas. Now the mystic vyahritis of the Veda are the shabdas or sacred words expressing objectively the three worlds, subjectively mentalised material being, mentalised vital being & pure mental being, the three manifest states of our phenomenal consciousness. Mahas, therefore, must express a fourth state of being, which is so much superior to the other three or so much beyond the ordinary attainment of our actual human consciousness that it is hardly considered in Vedic thought a vyahriti, whatever one or two thinkers may have held to the contrary. What do we know of this Mahas from Vedantic or later sources? Bhuh, Bhuvah, Swar of the Veda rest substantially upon the Annam, Prana, Manas, matter, life & mind of the Upanishads. But the Upanishads speak of a fourth state of being immediately aboveManas, preceding it therefore & containing it, Vijnanam, ideal knowledge, and a fifth immediately above Vijnanam, Ananda or Bliss. Physically, these five are the pancha kshitayah, five earths or dwelling-places, of the Rig Veda and they are the pancha koshas, five sheaths or bodies of the Upanishads. But in our later Yogic systems we recognise seven earths, seven standing grounds of the soul on which it experiences phenomenal existence. The Purana gives us their names [the names of the two beyond the five already mentioned], Tapas and Satya, Energy&Truth. They are the outward expressions of the two psychological principles, Self-Awareness &Self-Being ( Chit&Sat) which with Ananda, Self-Bliss, are the triune appearance in the soul of the supreme Existence which the Vedanta calls Brahman. Sat, Chit & Ananda constitute to Vedantic thought the parardha or spiritual higher half [of] our existence; in less imaginative language, we are in our supreme existence self-existence, self-awareness & self-delight. Annam, Prana & Manas constitute to Vedantic thought the aparardha or lower half; again, in more abstract speech, we are in our lower phenomenal existence mind, life & matter. Vijnana is the link; standing in ideal knowledge we are aware, looking upward, of our spiritual existence, looking downward, we pour it out into the three vyahritis, Bhur, Bhuvah & Swar, mental, vital & material existence, the phenomenal symbols of our self-expression. Objectively vijnana becomes mahat, the great, wide or extended state of phenomenal being,called also brihat, likewise signifying vast or great,into which says the Gita, the Self or Lord casts his seed as into a womb in order to engender all these objects & creatures. The Self, standing in vijnanam or mahat, is called the Mahan Atma, the great Self; so that, if we apply the significance [of] these terms to the Vedic words mah, mahas, mahi, mahn, then, even accepting mahas as an adjective and maho arnas in the sense of the great Ocean, it may very well be the ocean of the ideal or pure ideative state of existence in true knowledge which is intended, the great ocean slumbering in our humanity and awakened by the divine inspiration of Saraswati. But have we at all the right to read these high, strange & subtle ideas of a later mysticism into the primitive accents of the Veda? Let us at least support for a while that hypothesis. We may very well ask, if not from the Vedic forefa thers, whence did the Aryan thinkers get these striking images, this rich & concrete expression of the most abstract ideas and persist in them even after the Indian mind had rarefied & lifted its capacity to the height of the most difficult severities & abstractions known to any metaphysical thinking? Our hypothesis of a Vedic origin remains not only a possible suggestion but the one hypothesis in lawful possession of the field, unless a foreign source or a later mixed ideation can be proved. At present this later ideation may be assumed, it has not been & cannot be proved. The agelong tradition of India assigns the Veda as the source & substance of our theosophies; Brahmana, Aranyaka, Upanishad & Purana as only the interpretation & later expression; the burden of disproof rests on those who negative the tradition.
  Vjebhir vjinvat and maho arnas are therefore fixed in their significance. The word vashtu in the tenth Rik offers a difficulty. It is equivalent to vahatu, says the Brahmana; to kmayatu, says Sayana; but, deferring to the opinion of the Brahmana, he adds that it means really kmayitw vahatu. Undoubtedly the root va means in classical Sanscrit to desire; but from the evidence of the classical Sanscrit we have it established that in more ancient times its ordinary meaning must have been to subdue or control; for although the verb has lost this sense in the later language, almost all its derivatives bear that meaning & the sense of wish, will or desire only persists in a few of them, va, wish and possibly va, a woman. It is this sense which agrees best with the context of the tenth rik and is concealed in the vahatu of the Brahmanas. There is no other difficulty of interpretation in the passage.
  What then is it that Madhuchchhanda, son of Viswamitra, has to say in this Sukta of the goddess of inspiration, speech and knowledge? He does not directly address her, but he assigns to this deity the general control, support and illumination of the sacrifice he is performing. Let Saraswati he says control our Yajna. The epithets which fill the Rik must express either the permanent & characteristic qualities in her which fit her for this high office of control or the possible & suitable qualities with which he wishes her to be equipped in the performance of that office. First, pvak. She is the great purifier. It is as we shall see not a literary inspiration he invokes, but a divine inspiration, an inspiration of truths and right thoughts and, it may be, right feelings. Saraswati by this inspiration, by this inspired truth & knowledge & right feeling, is asked to purify, first, the mental state of the Yogin; for a mind unpurified cannot hold the light from on high. Knowledge purifies, says the Gita, meaning the higher spiritual knowledge which comes by ruti, divine inspiration; there is nothing in the whole world so pure as knowledge: Saraswati who purifies, Pvak Saraswat. Vjebhir vjin vat. She is full of substantial energy, stored with a great variety in substance of knowledge, Chitraravastama, as is said in another hymn of the strong god Agni. The inspiration & resultant knowledge prayed for is not that of any isolated truth or slight awakening, but a great substance of knowledge & a high plenty of inspiration; the mental state has to be filled with this strong & copious substance of Saraswati.Dhiyvasuh. She is rich in understanding. Dh in the Veda is the buddhi, the faculty of reason that understands, discerns & holds knowledge. This inspiration has to be based on a great intellectual capacity which supports & holds the flood of the inspiration. Thus rich, thus strong & plenteous, thus purifying the divine inspiration has to hold & govern the Sacrifice.
  The thought passes on in the eleventh Rik from the prayer to the fulfilment. Yajnam dadhe Saraswat. Saraswati upholds the Yajna; she has accepted the office of governance & already upbears in her strength the action of the sacrifice. In that action she is Chodayitr unritnm, chetant sumatnm. That great luminous impulse of inspiration in which the truths of being start to light of themselves and are captured and possessed by the mind, that spiritual enlightenment and awakening in which right thoughts & right seeing become spontaneously the substance of our purified mental state, proceed from Saraswati & are already being poured by her into the system, like the Aryan stream into the Indus. Mati means any activity of the mind; right thoughts in the intellect, right feelings in the heart, right perceptions in the sensational mind, sumati may embrace any or all of these associations; in another context, by a different turn of the prefix, it may express kindly thoughts, friendly feelings, happy perceptions.
  --
    Indryhi Chitrabhno, sut ime tw yavah,
    Anwbhis tan ptsah.
  --
  The modern naturalistic account of Indra is that he is the god of rain, the wielder of lightning, the master of the thunderbolt. It is as the lightning, we presume, that he is addressed as harivas and Chitrabhno, brilliant and of a richly varied effulgence. He comes to the brahmni, the hymnal utterances of the Rishis, in the sense of being called by the prayer to the sacrifice, and he comes for the sole purpose of drinking the physical Soma wine, by which he is immediately increased,sadyo vriddho ajyathh, says another Sukta,that is, as soon as the Soma offering is poured out, the rains of the monsoon suddenly increase in force. So at least we must understand, if these hymns are to have any precise naturalistic sense. Otherwise we should have to assume that the Rishis sang without attaching any meaning to their words. If, however, we suppose the hymns to Indra to be sung at monsoon offerings, in the rainy months of the year only, we get ideas, imbecile enough, but still making some attempt at sense. On another hypothesis, we may suppose Indra to be one of the gods of light or day slaying Vritra the lord of night & darkness, and also a god of lightning slaying Vritra the lord of the drought. Stated generally, these hypotheses seem plausible enough; systematically stated & supported by Comparative Mythology and some Puranic details their easy acceptance & great vogue is readily intelligible. It is only when we look carefully at the actual expressions used by the Rishis, that they no longer seem to fit in perfectly and great gulfs of no-sense have to be perfunctorily bridged by empirical guesses. A perfect system of naturalistic Veda fails to evolve.
  When we look carefully at the passage before us, we find an expression which strikes one as a very extraordinary phrase in reference to a god of lightning and rain. Indryhi, says Madhuchchhanda, dhiyeshito viprajtah. On any ordinary acceptance of the meaning of words, we have to render this line, Come, O Indra, impelled by the understanding, driven by the Wise One. Sayana thinks that vipra means Brahmin and the idea is that Indra is moved to come by the intelligent sacrificing priests and he explains dhiyeshito, moved to come by our understanding, that is to say, by our devotion. But understanding does not mean devotion and the artificiality of the interpretation is apparent.We will, as usual, put aside the ritualistic & naturalistic traditions and see to what the natural sense of the words themselves leads us. I question the traditional acceptance of viprajta as a compound of vipra & jta; it seems tome clearly to be vi prajtah, driven forward variously or in various directions. I am content to accept the primary sense of impelled for ishita, although, whether we read dhiy ishito with the Padapatha, or dhiy shito, it may equally well mean, controlled by the understanding; but of themselves the expressions impelled & driven forward in various paths imply a perfect control.We have then, Come, O Indra, impelled (or controlled, governed) by the understanding and driven forward in various paths. What is so driven forward? Obviously not the storm, not the lightning, not any force of material Nature, but a subjective force, and, as one can see at a glance, a force of mind. Now Indra is the king of Swar and Swar in the symbolical interpretation of the Vedic terms current in after times is the mental heaven corresponding to the principle of Manas, mind. His name means the Strong. In the Puranas he is that which the Rishis have to conquer in order to attain their goal, that which sends the Apsaras, the lower delights & temptations of the senses to bewilder the sage and the hero; and, as is well known, in the Indian system of Yoga it is the Mind with its snares, sensuous temptations & intellectual delusions which is the enemy that has to be overcome & the strong kingdom that has to be conquered. In this passage Indra is not thought of in his human form, but as embodied in the principle of light or tejas; he is harivas, substance of brightness; he is Chitrabhnu, of a rich & various effulgence, epithets not easily applicable to a face or figure, but precisely applicable to the principle of mind which has always been supposed in India to be in its material element made of tejas or pure light.We may conclude, therefore, that in Indra, master of Swarga, we have the divine lord of mental force & power. It is as this mental power that he comes sutvatah upa brahmni vghatah, to the soul-movements of the chanter of the sacred song, of the holder of the nectar-wine. He is asked to come, impelled or controlled by the understanding and driven forward by it in the various paths of sumati & snrit, right thinking & truth. We remember the image in the Kathopanishad in which the mind & senses are compared to reins & horses and the understanding to the driver. We look back & see at once the connection with the function demanded of the Aswins in the preceding verses; we look forward & see easily the connection with the activity of Saraswati in the closing riks. The thought of the whole Sukta begins to outline itself, a strong, coherent and luminous progression of psychological images begins to emerge.
  Brahmni, says Sayana, means the hymnal chants; vghatah is the ritwik, the sacrificial priest. These ritual senses belong to the words but we must always inquire how they came to bear them. As to vghat, we have little clue or evidence, but on the system I have developed in another work (the Origins of Aryan Speech), it may be safely concluded that the lost roots vagh & vgh, must have conveyed the sense of motion evident in the Latin vagus & vagari, wandering & to wander & the sense of crying out, calling apparent in the Latin vagire, to cry, & the Sanscrit vangh, to abuse, censure. Vghat may mean the sacrificial priest because he is the one who calls to the deity in the chant of the brahma, the sacred hymn. It may also mean one who increases in being, in his brahma, his soul, who is getting vja or substance.
  --
  Brahmni therefore may mean either the soul-activities, as dhiyas means the mental activities, or it may mean the words of the mantra which express the soul. If we take it in the latter sense, we must refer it to the girah of the second rik, the mantras taken up by the Aswins into the understanding in order to prepare for action & creation. Indra is to come to these mantras and support them by the brilliant substance of a mental force richly varied in its effulgent manifestation, controlled by the understanding and driven forward to its task in various ways. But it seems to me that the rendering is not quite satisfactory. The main point in this hymn is not the mantras, but the Soma wine and the power that it generates. It is in the forces of the Soma that the Aswins are to rejoice, in that strength they are to take up the girah, in that strength they are to rise to their fiercest intensity of strength & delight. Indra, as mental power, arrives in his richly varied lustre; yhi Chitrabhno. Here says the Rishi are these life-forces in the nectar-wine; they are purified in their minute parts & in their whole extent, for so I understand anwbhis tan ptsah; that is to say the distillings of Ananda or divine delight whether in the body as nectar, [or] in the subjective system as streams of life-giving delight are purified of all that impairs & weakens the life forces, purified both in their little several movements & in the whole extent of their stream. These are phenomena that can easily be experienced & understood in Yoga, and the whole hymn like many in the Veda reads to those who have experience like a practical account of a great Yogic internal movement accurate in its every detail. Streng thened, like the Aswins, by the nectar, Indra is to prepare the many-sided activity supported by the Visve devah; therefore he has to come not only controlled by the understanding, dhishnya, like the Aswins, but driven forward in various paths. For an energetic & many-sided activity is the object & for this there must be an energetic and many-sided but well-ordered action of the mental power. He has to come, thus manifold, thus controlled, to the spiritual activities generated by the Soma & the Aswins in the increasing soul (vghatah) full of the life-giving nectar, the immortalising Ananda, sutvatah. He has to come to those soul-activities, in this substance of mental brilliancy, yhi upa brahmni harivas. He has to come, ttujna, with a protective force, or else with a rapidly striving force & uphold by mind the joy of the Sacrificer in the nectar-offering, the offering of this Ananda to the gods of life & action & thought, sute dadhishwa na chanah. Protecting is, here, the best sense for ttujna. For Indra is not only to support swift & energetic action; that has already been provided for; he has also to uphold or bear in mind and by the power of mind the great & rapid delight which the Sacrificer is about to pour out into life & action, jvayja. The divine delight must not fail us in our activity; hostile shocks must not be allowed to disturb our established pleasure in the great offering. Therefore Indra must be there in his light & power to uphold and to protect.
  We have gained, therefore, another great step in the understanding of the Veda. The figure of the mighty Indra, in his most essential quality & function, begins to appear to us as in a half-luminous silhouette full of suggestions. We have much yet to learn about him, especially his war with Vritra, his thunderbolt & his dealings with the seven rivers. But the central or root idea is fixed. The rest is the outgrowth, foliage & branchings.

1.09 - Concentration - Its Spiritual Uses, #Raja-Yoga, #Swami Vivkenanda, #unset
  A good deal of explanation is necessary here. We have to understand what Chitta is, and what the Vrittis are. I have eyes. Eyes do not see. Take away the brain centre which is in the head, the eyes will still be there, the retinae complete, as also the pictures of objects on them, and yet the eyes will not see. So the eyes are only a secondary instrument, not the organ of vision. The organ of vision is in a nerve centre of the brain. The two eyes will not be sufficient. Sometimes a man is asleep with his eyes open. The light is there and the picture is there, but a third thing is necessary the mind must be joined to the organ. The eye is the external instrument; we need also the brain centre and the agency of the mind. Carriages roll down a street, and you do not hear them. Why? Because your mind has not attached itself to the organ of hearing. First, there is the instrument, then there is the organ, and third, the mind attached to these two. The mind takes the impression farther in, and presents it to the determinative faculty Buddhi which reacts. Along with this reaction flashes the idea of egoism. Then this mixture of action and reaction is presented to the Purusha, the real Soul, who perceives an object in this mixture. The organs (Indriyas), together with the mind (Manas), the determinative faculty (Buddhi), and egoism (Ahamkra), form the group called the Antahkarana (the internal instrument). They are but various processes in the mind-stuff, called Chitta. The waves of thought in the Chitta are called Vrittis (literally "whirlpool") . What is thought? Thought is a force, as is gravitation or repulsion. From the infinite storehouse of force in nature, the instrument called Chitta takes hold of some, absorbs it and sends it out as thought. Force is supplied to us through food, and out of that food the body obtains the power of motion etc. Others, the finer forces, it throws out in what we call thought. So we see that the mind is not intelligent; yet it appears to be intelligent. Why? Because the intelligent soul is behind it. You are the only sentient being; mind is only the instrument through which you catch the external world. Take this book; as a book it does not exist outside, what exists outside is unknown and unknowable. The unknowable furnishes the suggestion that gives a blow to the mind, and the mind gives out the reaction in the form of a book, in the same manner as when a stone is thrown into the water, the water is thrown against it in the form of waves. The real universe is the occasion of the reaction of the mind. A book form, or an elephant form, or a man form, is not outside; all that we know is our mental reaction from the outer suggestion. "Matter is the permanent possibility of sensations," said John Stuart Mill. It is only the suggestion that is outside. Take an oyster for example. You know how pearls are made. A parasite gets inside the shell and causes irritation, and the oyster throws a sort of enamelling round it, and this makes the pearl. The universe of experience is our own enamel, so to say, and the real universe is the parasite serving as nucleus. The ordinary man will never understand it, because when he tries to do so, he throws out an enamel, and sees only his own enamel. Now we understand what is meant by these Vrittis. The real man is behind the mind; the mind is the instrument his hands; it is his intelligence that is percolating through the mind. It is only when you stand behind the mind that it becomes intelligent. When man gives it up, it falls to pieces and is nothing. Thus you understand what is meant by Chitta. It is the mind-stuff, and Vrittis are the waves and ripples rising in it when external causes impinge on it. These Vrittis are our universe.
  The bottom of a lake we cannot see, because its surface is covered with ripples. It is only possible for us to catch a glimpse of the bottom, when the ripples have subsided, and the water is calm. If the water is muddy or is agitated all the time, the bottom will not be seen. If it is clear, and there are no waves, we shall see the bottom. The bottom of the lake is our own true Self; the lake is the Chitta and the waves the Vrittis. Again, the mind is in three states, one of which is darkness, called Tamas, found in brutes and idiots; it only acts to injure. No other idea comes into that state of mind. Then there is the active state of mind, Rajas, whose chief motives are power and enjoyment. "I will be powerful and rule others." Then there is the state called Sattva, serenity, calmness, in which the waves cease, and the water of the mind-lake becomes clear. It is not inactive, but rather intensely active. It is the greatest manifestation of power to be calm. It is easy to be active. Let the reins go, and the horses will run away with you. Anyone can do that, but he who can stop the plunging horses is the strong man. Which requires the greater strength, letting go or restraining? The calm man is not the man who is dull. You must not mistake Sattva for dullness or laziness. The calm man is the one who has control over the mind waves. Activity is the manifestation of inferior strength, calmness, of the superior.
  The Chitta is always trying to get back to its natural pure state, but the organs draw it out. To restrain it, to check this outward tendency, and to start it on the return journey to the essence of intelligence is the first step in Yoga, because only in this way can the Chitta get into its proper course.
  Although the Chitta is in every animal, from the lowest to the highest, it is only in the human form that we find it as the intellect. Until the mind-stuff can take the form of intellect it is not possible for it to return through all these steps, and liberate the soul. Immediate salvation is impossible for the cow or the dog, although they have mind, because their Chitta cannot as yet take that form which we call intellect.
  The Chitta manifests itself in the following forms scattering, darkening, gathering, one-pointed, and concentrated. The scattering form is activity. Its tendency is to manifest in the form of pleasure or of pain. The darkening form is dullness which tends to injury. The commentator says, the third form is natural to the Devas, the angels, and the first and second to the demons. The gathering form is when it struggles to centre itself. The one-pointed form is when it tries to concentrate, and the concentrated form is what brings us to Samdhi.
  
  --
  There is another class of Vrittis called Vikalpa. A word is uttered, and we do not wait to consider its meaning; we jump to a conclusion immediately. It is the sign of weakness of the Chitta. Now you can understand the theory of restraint. The weaker the man, the less he has of restraint. Examine yourselves always by that test. When you are going to be angry or miserable, reason it out how it is that some news that has come to you is throwing your mind into Vrittis.
  --
  --
  Memory can come from direct perception, false knowledge, verbal delusion, and sleep. For instance, you hear a word. That word is like a stone thrown into the lake of the Chitta; it causes a ripple, and that ripple rouses a series of ripples; this is memory. So in sleep. When the peculiar kind of ripple called sleep throws the Chitta into a ripple of memory, it is called a dream. Dream is another form of the ripple which in the waking state is called memory.
  12. Their control is by practice and nonattachment.
  --
  What is practice? The attempt to restrain the mind in Chitta form, to prevent its going out into waves.
    
  --
  The two motive powers of our actions are (1) what we see ourselves, (2) the experience of others. These two forces throw the mind, the lake, into various waves. Renunciation is the power of battling against these forces and holding the mind in check. Their renunciation is what see want. I am passing through a street, and a man comes and takes away my watch. That is my own experience. I see it myself, and it immediately throws my Chitta into a wave, taking the form of anger. Allow not that to come. If you cannot prevent that, you are nothing; if you can, you have Vairgya. Again, the experience of the worldly-minded teaches us that sense-enjoyments are the highest ideal. These are tremendous temptations. To deny them, and not allow the mind to come to a wave form with regard to them, is renunciation; to control the twofold motive powers arising from my own experience and from the experience of others, and thus prevent the Chitta from being governed by them, is Vairagya. These should be controlled by me, and not I by them. This sort of mental strength is called renunciation. Vairagya is the only way to freedom.
  16. That is extreme non-attachment which gives up even the qualities, and comes from the knowledge of (the real nature of) the Purusha.
  --
  Samadhi is divided into two varieties. One is called the Samprajnta, and the other the Asamprajnta. In the Samprajnata Samadhi come all the powers of controlling nature. It is of four varieties. The first variety is called the Savitarka, when the mind meditates upon an object again and again, by isolating it from other objects. There are two sorts of objects for meditation in the twenty-five categories of the Sankhyas, (1) the twenty-four insentient categories of Nature, and (2) the one sentient Purusha. This part of Yoga is based entirely on Sankhya philosophy, about which I have already told you. As you will remember, egoism and will and mind have a common basis, the Chitta or the mind-stuff, out of which they are all manufactured. The mind-stuff takes in the forces of nature, and projects them as thought. There must be something, again, where both force and matter are one. This is called Avyakta, the unmanifested state of nature before creation, and to which, after the end of a cycle, the whole of nature returns, to come out again after another period. Beyond that is the Purusha, the essence of intelligence. Knowledge is power, and as soon as we begin to know a thing, we get power over it; so also when the mind begins to meditate on the different elements, it gains power over them. That sort of meditation where the external gross elements are the objects is called Savitarka. Vitarka means question; Savitarka, with question, questioning the elements, as it were, that they may give their truths and their powers to the man who meditates upon them. There is no liberation in getting powers. It is a worldly search after enjoyments, and there is no enjoyment in this life; all search for enjoyment is vain; this is the old, old lesson which man finds so hard to learn. When he does learn it, he gets out of the universe and becomes free. The possession of what are called occult powers is only intensifying the world, and in the end, intensifying suffering. Though as a scientist Patanjali is bound to point out the possibilities of this science, he never misses an opportunity to warn us against these powers.
  Again, in the very same meditation, when one struggles to take the elements out of time and space, and think of them as they are, it is called Nirvitarka, without question. When the meditation goes a step higher, and takes the Tanmatras as its object, and thinks of them as in time and space, it is called Savichra, with discrimination; and when in the same meditation one eliminates time and space, and thinks of the fine elements as they are, it is called Nirvichra, without discrimination. The next step is when the elements are given up, both gross and fine, and the object of meditation is the interior organ, the thinking organ. When the thinking organ is thought of as bereft of the qualities of activity and dullness, it is then called Snanda, the blissful Samadhi. When the mind itself is the object of meditation, when meditation becomes very ripe and concentrated, when all ideas of the gross and fine materials are given up, when the Sattva state only of the Ego remains, but differentiated from all other objects, it is called Ssmita Samadhi. The man who has attained to this has attained to what is called in the Vedas "bereft of body". He can think of himself as without his gross body; but he will have to think of himself as with a fine body. Those that in this state get merged in nature without attaining the goal are called Prakritilayas, but those who do not stop even there reach the goal, which is freedom.
  18. There is another Samadhi which is attained by the constant practice of cessation of all mental activity, in which the Chitta retains only the unmanifested impressions.
  This is the perfect superconscious Asamprajnata Samadhi, the state which gives us freedom. The first state does not give us freedom, does not liberate the soul. A man may attain to all powers, and yet fall again. There is no safeguard until the soul goes beyond nature. It is very difficult to do so, although the method seems easy. The method is to meditate on the mind itself, and whenever thought comes, to strike it down, allowing no thought to come into the mind, thus making it an entire vacuum. When we can really do this, that very moment we shall attain liberation. When persons without training and preparation try to make their minds vacant, they are likely to succeed only in covering themselves with Tamas, the material of ignorance, which makes the mind dull and stupid, and leads them to think that they are making a vacuum of the mind. To be able to really do that is to manifest the greatest strength, the highest control. When this state, Asamprajnata, superconsciousness, is reached, the Samadhi becomes seedless. What is meant by that? In a concentration where there is consciousness, where the mind succeeds only in quelling the waves in the Chitta and holding them down, the waves remain in the form of tendencies. These tendencies (or seeds) become waves again, when the time comes. But when you have destroyed all these tendencies, almost destroyed the mind, then the Samadhi becomes seedless; there are no more seeds in the mind out of which to manufacture again and again this plant of life, this ceaseless round of birth and death.
  You may ask, what state would that be in which there is no mind, there is no knowledge? What we call knowledge is a lower state than the one beyond knowledge. You must always bear in mind that the extremes look very much alike. If a very low vibration of ether is taken as darkness, an intermediate state as light, very high vibration will be darkness again. Similarly, ignorance is the lowest state, knowledge is the middle state, and beyond knowledge is the highest state, the two extremes of which seem the same. Knowledge itself is a manufactured something, a combination; it is not reality.
  What is the result of constant practice of this higher concentration? All old tendencies of restlessness and dullness will be destroyed, as well as the tendencies of goodness too. The case is similar to that of the chemicals used to take the dirt and alloy off gold. When the ore is smelted down, the dross is burnt along with the chemicals. So this constant controlling power will stop the previous bad tendencies, and eventually, the good ones also. Those good and evil tendencies will suppress each other, leaving alone the Soul, in its own splendour untrammelled by either good or bad, the omnipresent, omnipotent, and omniscient. Then the man will know that he had neither birth nor death, nor need for heaven or earth. He will know that he neither came nor went, it was nature which was moving, and that movement was reflected upon the soul. The form of the light reflected by the glass upon the wall moves, and the wall foolishly thinks it is moving. So with all of us; it is the Chitta constantly moving making itself into various forms, and we think that we are these various forms. All these delusions will vanish. When that free Soul will comm and not pray or beg, but comm and then whatever It desires will be immediately fulfilled; whatever It wants It will be able to do. According to the Sankhya philosophy, there is no God. It says that there can be no God of this universe, because if there were one, He must be a soul, and a soul must be either bound or free. How can the soul that is bound by nature, or controlled by nature, create? It is itself a slave. On the other hand, why should the Soul that is free create and manipulate all these things? It has no desires, so it cannot have any need to create. Secondly, it says the theory of God is an unnecessary one; nature explains all. What is the use of any God? But Kapila teaches that there are many souls, who, though nearly attaining perfection, fall short because they cannot perfectly renounce all powers. Their minds for a time merge in nature, to re-emerge as its masters. Such gods there are. We shall all become such gods, and, according to the Sankhyas, the God spoken of in the Vedas really means one of these free souls. Beyond them there is not an eternally free and blessed Creator of the universe. On the other hand, the Yogis say, "Not so, there is a God; there is one Soul separate from all other souls, and He is the eternal Master of all creation, the ever free, the Teacher of all teachers." The Yogis admit that those whom the Sankhyas call "the merged in nature" also exist. They are Yogis who have fallen short of perfection, and though, for a time, debarred from attaining the goal, remain as rulers of parts of the universe.
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  Why should there be repetition? We have not forgotten the theory of Samskaras, that the sum-total of impressions lives in the mind. They become more and more latent but remain there, and as soon as they get the right stimulus, they come out. Molecular vibration never ceases. When this universe is destroyed, all the massive vibrations disappear; the sun, moon, stars, and earth, melt down; but the vibrations remain in the atoms. Each atom performs the same function as the big worlds do. So even when the vibrations of the Chitta subside, its molecular vibrations go on, and when they get the impulse, come out again. We can now understand what is meant by repetition. It is the greatest stimulus that can be given to the spiritual Samskaras. "One moment of company with the holy makes a ship to cross this ocean of life." Such is the power of association. So this repetition of Om, and thinking of its meaning, is keeping good company in your own mind. Study, and then meditate on what you have studied. Thus light will come to you, the Self will become manifest.
  But one must think of Om, and of its meaning too. Avoid evil company, because the scars of old wounds are in you, and evil company is just the thing that is necessary to call them out. In the same way we are told that good company will call out the good impressions that are in us, but which have become latent. There is nothing holier in the world than to keep good company, because the good impressions will then tend to come to the surface.
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  33. Friendship, mercy, gladness, and indifference, being thought of in regard to subjects, happy, unhappy, good, and evil respectively, pacify the Chitta.
  We must have these four sorts of ideas. We must have friendship for all; we must be merciful towards those that are in misery; when people are happy, we ought to be happy; and to the wicked we must be indifferent. So with all subjects that come before us. If the subject is a good one, we shall feel friendly towards it; if the subject of thought is one that is miserable, we must be merciful towards it. If it is good, we must be glad; if it is evil, we must be indifferent. These attitudes of the mind towards the different subjects that come before it will make the mind peaceful. Most of our difficulties in our daily lives come from being unable to hold our minds in this way. For instance, if a man does evil to us, instantly we want to react evil, and every reaction of evil shows that we are not able to hold the Chitta down; it comes out in waves towards the object, and we lose our power. Every reaction in the form of hatred or evil is so much loss to the mind; and every evil thought or deed of hatred, or any thought of reaction, if it is controlled, will be laid in our favour. It is not that we lose by thus restraining ourselves; we are gaining infinitely more than we suspect. Each time we suppress hatred, or a feeling of anger, it is so much good energy stored up in our favour; that piece of energy will be converted into the higher powers.
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  Some of this I have told you before, but a little repetition will serve to fix it in your minds. First, you must remember that this Prana is not the breath; but that which causes the motion of the breath, that which is the vitality of the breath, is the Prana. Again, the word Prana is used for all the senses; they are all called Pranas, the mind is called Prana; and so we see that Prana is force. And yet we cannot call it force, because force is only the manifestation of it. It is that which manifests itself as force and everything else in the way of motion. The Chitta, the mind-stuff, is the engine which draws in the Prana from the surroundings, and manufactures out of Prana the various vital forces those that keep the body in preservation and thought, will, and all other powers. By the abovementioned process of breathing we can control all the various motions in the body, and the various nerve currents that are running through the body. First we begin to recognise them, and then we slowly get control over them.
  Now, these later Yogis consider that there are three main currents of this Prana in the human body. One they call Id, another Pingal, and the third Sushumn. Pingala, according to them, is on the right side of the spinal column, and the Ida on the left, and in the middle of the spinal column is the Sushumna, an empty channel. Ida and Pingala, according to them, are the currents working in every man, and through these currents, we are performing all the functions of life. Sushumna is present in all, as a possibility; but it works only in the Yogi. You must remember that Yoga changes the body. As you go on practising, your body changes; it is not the same body that you had before the practice. That is very rational, and can be explained, because every new thought that we have must make, as it were, a new channel through the brain, and that explains the tremendous conservatism of human nature. Human nature likes to run through the ruts that are already there, because it is easy. If we think, just for example's sake, that the mind is like a needle, and the brain substance a soft lump before it, then each thought that we have makes a street, as it were, in the brain, and this street would close up, but for the grey matter which comes and makes a lining to keep it separate. If there were no grey matter, there would be no memory, because memory means going over these old streets, retracing a thought as it were. Now perhaps you have marked that when one talks on subjects in which one takes a few ideas that are familiar to everyone, and combines and recombines them, it is easy to follow because these channels are present in everyone's brain, and it is only necessary to recur to them. But whenever a new subject comes, new channels have to be made, so it is not understood readily. And that is why the brain (it is the brain, and not the people themselves) refuses unconsciously to be acted upon by new ideas. It resists. The Prana is trying to make new channels, and the brain will not allow it. This is the secret of conservatism. The fewer channels there have been in the brain, and the less the needle of the Prana has made these passages, the more conservative will be the brain, the more it will struggle against new thoughts. The more thoughtful the man, the more complicated will be the streets in his brain, and the more easily he will take to new ideas, and understand them. So with every fresh idea, we make a new impression in the brain, cut new channels through the brain-stuff, and that is why we find that in the practice of Yoga (it being an entirely new set of thoughts and motives) there is so much physical resistance at first. That is why we find that the part of religion which deals with the world-side of nature is so widely accepted, while the other part, the philosophy, or the psychology, which clears with the inner nature of man, is so frequently neglected.
  --
  What results from this constant meditation? We must remember how in a previous aphorism Patanjali went into the various states of meditation, how the first would be the gross, the second the fine, and from them the advance was to still finer objects. The result of these meditations is that we can meditate as easily on the fine as on the gross objects. Here the Yogi sees the three things, the receiver, the received, and the receiving instrument, corresponding to the Soul, external objects, and the mind. There are three objects of meditation given us. First, the gross things, as bodies, or material objects; second, fine things, as the mind, the Chitta; and third, the Purusha qualified, not the Purusha itself, but the Egoism. By practice, the Yogi gets established in all these meditations. Whenever he meditates he can keep out all other thoughts; he becomes identified with that on which he meditates. When he meditates, he is like a piece of crystal. Before flowers the crystal becomes almost identified with the flowers. If the flower is red, the crystal looks red, or if the flower is blue, the crystal looks blue.
    
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  Sound here means vibration, meaning the nerve currents which conduct it; and knowledge, reaction. All the various meditations we have had so far, Patanjali calls Savitarka (meditation with question). Later on he gives us higher and higher Dhynas. In these that are called "with question," we keep the duality of subject and object, which results from the mixture of word, meaning, and knowledge. There is first the external vibration, the word. This, carried inward by the sense currents, is the meaning. After that there comes a reactionary wave in the Chitta, which is knowledge, but the mixture of these three makes up what we call knowledge. In all the meditations up to this we get this mixture as objects of meditation. The next Samadhi is higher.
  
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  It is by the practice of meditation of these three that we come to the state where these three do not mix. We can get rid of them. We will first try to understand what these three are. Here is the Chitta; you will always remember the simile of the mind-stuff to a lake, and the vibration, the word, the sound, like a pulsation coming over it. You have that calm lake in you, and I pronounce a word, "Cow". As soon as it enters through your ears there is a wave produced in your Chitta along with it. So that wave represents the idea of the cow, the form or the meaning as we call it. The apparent cow that you know is really the wave in the mind-stuff that comes as a reaction to the internal and external sound vibrations. With the sound, the wave dies away; it can never exist without a word. You may ask how it is, when we only think of the cow, and do not hear a sound. You make that sound yourself. You are saying "cow" faintly in your mind, and with that comes a wave. There cannot be any wave without this impulse of sound; and when it is not from outside, it is from inside, and when the sound dies, the wave dies. What remains? The result of the reaction, and that is knowledge. These three are so closely combined in our mind that we cannot separate them. When the sound comes, the senses vibrate, and the wave rises in reaction; they follow so closely upon one another that there is no discerning one from the other. When this meditation has been practiced for a long time, memory, the receptacle of all impressions, becomes purified, and we are able clearly to distinguish them from one another. This is called Nirvitarka, concentration without question.
    
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  47. The concentration "without discrimination" being purified, the Chitta becomes firmly fixed.
  
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  We have seen in the foregoing aphorism that the only way of attaining to that superconsciousness is by concentration, and we have also seen that what hinder the mind from concentration are the past Samskaras, impressions. All of you have observed that, when you are trying to concentrate your mind, your thoughts wander. When you are trying to think of God, that is the very time these Samskaras appear. At other times they are not so active; but when you want them not, they are sure to be there, trying their best to crowd in your mind. Why should that be so? Why should they be much more potent at the time of concentration? It is because you are repressing them, and they react with all their force. At other times they do not react. How countless these old past impressions must be, all lodged somewhere in the Chitta, ready, waiting like tigers, to jump up! These have to be suppressed that the one idea which we want may arise, to the exclusion of the others. Instead they are all struggling to come up at the same time. These are the various powers of the Samskaras in hindering concentration of the mind. So this Samadhi which has just been given is the best to be practised, on account of its power of suppressing the Samskaras. The Samskara which will be raised by this sort of concentration will be so powerful that it will hinder the action of the others, and hold them in check.
    
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  You remember that our goal is to perceive the Soul itself. We cannot perceive the Soul, because it has got mingled up with nature, with the mind, with the body. The ignorant man thinks his body is the Soul. The learned man thinks his mind is the Soul. But both of them are mistaken. What makes the Soul get mingled up with all this? Different waves in the Chitta rise and cover the Soul; we only see a little reflection of the Soul through these waves; so, if the wave is one of anger, we see the Soul as angry; "I am angry," one says. If it is one of love, we see ourselves reflected in that wave, and say we are loving. If that wave is one of weakness, and the Soul is reflected in it, we think we are weak. These various ideas come from these impressions, these Samskaras covering the Soul. The real nature of the Soul is not perceived as long as there is one single wave in the lake of the Chitta; this real nature will never be perceived until all the waves have subsided. So, first, Patanjali teaches us the meaning of these waves; secondly, the best way to repress them; and thirdly, how to make one wave so strong as to suppress all other waves, fire eating fire as it were. When only one remains, it will be easy to suppress that also, and when that is gone, this Samadhi or concentration is called seedless. It leaves nothing, and the Soul is manifested just as It is, in Its own glory. Then alone we know that the Soul is not a compound; It is the only eternal simple in the universe, and as such, It cannot be born, It cannot die; It is immortal, indestructible, the ever-living essence of intelligence.

1.09 - Kundalini Yoga, #Amrita Gita, #Swami Sivananda Saraswati, #Hinduism
  27. He who has Chitta-suddhi or purity of heart will be benefited by the awakening of Kundalini Sakti.
  28. He who is addicted to sensual pleasures, who is arrogant, proud, dishonest, untruthful, who disrespects the Guru, Sadhus and Saints can never attain success in Kundalini Yoga.

1.09 - The Pure Existent, #The Life Divine, #Sri Aurobindo, #Integral Yoga
  15:And the first thing we have to ask ourselves is whether that Force is simply force, simply an unintelligent energy of movement or whether the consciousness which seems to emerge out of it in this material world we live in, is not merely one of its phenomenal results but rather its own true and secret nature. In Vedantic terms, is Force simply Prakriti, only a movement of action and process, or is Prakriti really power of Chit, in its nature force of creative self-conscience? On this essential problem all the rest hinges.

1.1.02 - Sachchidananda, #Letters On Yoga I, #Sri Aurobindo, #Integral Yoga
  People say like that [the Transcendent is something beyond Sachchidananda] because the transcendent Absolute is not only what to us is existence but also what to us is non-existence. But there is really no such thing as non-existence. So the Transcendent can be conceived as transcendent Sat, transcendent Chit, transcendent
  Ananda.
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  Consciousness is Chit but also Chit Shakti.
  1 Sri Aurobindo's incomplete draft reply, which "began to develop itself at great length", is reproduced immediately after the present letter. - Ed.

1.10 - Concentration - Its Practice, #Raja-Yoga, #Swami Vivkenanda, #unset
  Those Samdhis with which we ended our last chapter are very difficult to attain; so we must take them up slowly. The first step, the preliminary step, is called Kriya-yoga. Literally this means work, working towards Yoga. The organs are the horses, the mind is the rein, the intellect is the charioteer, the soul is the rider, and the body is the chariot. The master of the household, the King, the Self of man, is sitting in this chariot. If the horses are very strong and do not obey the rein, if the charioteer, the intellect, does not know how to control the horses, then the chariot will come to grief. But if the organs, the horses, are well controlled, and if the rein, the mind, is well held in the hands of the charioteer, the intellect, the chariot reaches the goal. What is meant, therefore, by this mortification? Holding the rein firmly while guiding the body and the organs; not letting them do anything they like, but keeping them both under proper control. Study. What is meant by study in this case? No study of novels or story books, but study of those works which teach the liberation of the Soul. Then again this study does not mean controversial studies at all. The Yogi is supposed to have finished his period of controversy. He has had enough of that, and has become satisfied. He only studies to intensify his convictions. Vda and Siddhnta these are the two sorts of scriptural knowledge Vada (the argumentative) and Siddhanta (the decisive). When a man is entirely ignorant he takes up the first of these, the argumentative fighting, and reasoning pro and con; and when he has finished that he takes up the Siddhanta, the decisive, arriving at a conclusion. Simply arriving at this conclusion will not do. It must be intensified. Books are infinite in number, and time is short; therefore the secret of knowledge is to take what is essential. Take that and try to live up to it. There is an old Indian legend that if you place a cup of milk and water before a Rja-Hamsa (swan), he will take all the milk and leave the water. In that way we should take what is of value in knowledge, and leave the dross. Intellectual gymnastics are necessary at first. We must not go blindly into anything. The Yogi has passed the argumentative state, and has come to a conclusion, which is, like the rocks, immovable. The only thing he now seeks to do is to intensify that conclusion. Do not argue, he says; if one forces arguments upon you, be silent. Do not answer any argument, but go away calmly, because arguments only disturb the mind. The only thing necessary is to train the intellect, what is the use of disturbing it for nothing? The intellect is but a weak instrument, and can give us only knowledge limited by the senses. The Yogi wants to go beyond the senses, therefore intellect is of no use to him. He is certain of this and, therefore, is silent, and does not argue. Every argument throws his mind out of balance, creates a disturbance in the Chitta, and a disturbance is a drawback. Argumentations and searchings of the reason are only by the way. There are much higher things beyond them. The whole of life is not for schoolboy fights and debating societies. "Surrendering the fruits of work to God" is to take to ourselves neither credit nor blame, but to give up both to the Lord and be at peace.
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  The seer is really the Self, the pure one, the ever holy, the infinite, the immortal. This is the Self of man. And what are the instruments? The Chitta or mind-stuff, the Buddhi or determinative faculty, the Manas or mind, and the Indriyas or sense-organs. These are the instruments for him to see the external world, and the identification of the Self with the instruments is what is called the ignorance of egoism. We say, "I am the mind," "I am thought," "I am angry," or "I am happy". How can we be angry and how can we hate? We should identify ourselves with the Self that cannot change. If It is unchangeable, how can It be one moment happy, and one moment unhappy? It is formless, infinite, omnipresent. What can change It ? It is beyond all law. What can affect it? Nothing in the universe can produce an effect on It. Yet through ignorance, we identify ourselves with the mind-stuff, and think we feel pleasure or pain.
  7. Attachment is that which dwells on pleasure.
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  We have seen that all our knowledge, whether we call it perception, or reason, or instinct, must come through that one channel called experience, and all that we now call instinct is the result of past experience, degenerated into instinct and that instinct regenerates into reason again. So on throughout the universe, and upon this has been built one of the chief arguments for reincarnation in India. The recurring experiences of various fears, in course of time, produce this clinging to life. That is why the child is instinctively afraid, because the past experience of pain is there in it. Even in the most learned men, who know that this body will go, and who say "never mind, we have had hundreds of bodies, the soul cannot die" even in them, with all their intellectual convictions, we still find this clinging on to life. Why is this clinging to life? We have seen that it has become instinctive. In the psychological language of the Yogis it has become a Samskara. The Samskaras, fine and hidden, are sleeping in the Chitta. All this past experience of death, all that which we call instinct, is experience become subconscious. It lives in the Chitta, and is not inactive, but is working underneath.
  The Chitta-Vrittis, the mind-waves, which are gross, we can appreciate and feel; they can be more easily controlled, but what about the finer instincts? How can they be controlled? When I am angry, my whole mind becomes a huge wave of anger. I feel it, see it, handle it, can easily manipulate it, can fight with it; but I shall not succeed perfectly in the fight until I can get down below to its causes. A man says something very harsh to me, and I begin to feel that I am getting heated, and he goes on till I am perfectly angry and forget myself, identify myself with anger. When he first began to abuse me, I thought, "I am going to be angry". Anger was one thing, and I was another; but when I became angry, I was anger. These feelings have to be controlled in the germ, the root, in their fine forms, before even we have become conscious that they are acting on us. With the vast majority of mankind the fine states of these passions are not even known the states in which they emerge from subconsciousness. When a bubble is rising from the bottom of the lake, we do not see it, nor even when it is nearly come to the surface; it is only when it bursts and makes a ripple that we know it is there. We shall only be successful in grappling with the waves when we can get hold of them in their fine causes, and until you can get hold of them, and subdue them before they become gross, there is no hope of conquering any passion perfectly. To control our passions we have to control them at their very roots; then alone shall we be able to burn out their very seeds. As fried seeds thrown into the ground will never come up, so these passions will never arise.
  
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  Samskaras are the subtle impressions that manifest themselves into gross forms later on. How are these fine Samskaras to be controlled? By resolving the effect into its cause. When the Chitta, which is an effect, is resolved into its cause, Asmit or Egoism, then only, the fine impressions die along with it. Meditation cannot destroy these.
  11. By meditation, their (gross) modifications are to be rejected.
  --
  When this knowledge comes; it will come, as it were, in seven grades, one after the other; and when one of these begins, we know that we are getting knowledge. The first to appear will be that we have known what is to be known. The mind will cease to be dissatisfied. While we are aware of thirsting after knowledge, we begin to seek here and there, wherever we think we can get some truth, and failing to find it we become dissatisfied and seek in a fresh direction. All search is vain, until we begin to perceive that knowledge is within ourselves, that no one can help us, that we must help ourselves. When we begin to practise the power of discrimination, the first sign that we are getting near truth will be that that dissatisfied state will vanish. We shall feel quite sure that we have found the truth, and that it cannot be anything else but the truth. Then we may know that the sun is rising, that the morning is breaking for us, and taking courage, we must persevere until the goal is reached. The second grade will be the absence of all pains. It will be impossible for anything in the universe, external or internal, to give us pain. The third will be the attainment of full knowledge. Omniscience will be ours. The fourth will be the attainment of the end of all duty through discrimination. Next will come what is called freedom of the Chitta. We shall realise that all difficulties and struggles, all vacillations of the mind, have fallen down, just as a stone rolls from the mountain top into the valley and never comes up again. The next will be that the Chitta itself will realise that it melts away into its causes whenever we so desire. Lastly we shall find that we are established in our Self, that we have been alone throughout the universe, neither body nor mind was ever related, much less joined, to us. They were working their own way, and we, through ignorance, joined ourselves to them. But we have been alone, omnipotent, omnipresent, ever blessed; our own Self was so pure and perfect that we required none else. We required none else to make us happy, for we are happiness itself. We shall find that this knowledge does not depend on anything else; throughout the universe there can be nothing that will not become effulgent before our knowledge. This will be the last state, and the Yogi will become peaceful and calm, never to feel any more pain, never to be again deluded, never to be touched by misery. He will know he is ever blessed, ever perfect, almighty.
  28. By the practice of the different parts of Yoga the impurities being destroyed, knowledge be comes effulgent up to discrimination.
  --
  52. From that, the covering to the light of the Chitta is attenuated.
  The Chitta has, by its own nature, all knowledge. It is made of Sattva particles, but is covered by Rajas and Tamas particles, and by Pranayama this covering is removed.
    
  --
  The organs are separate states of the mind-stuff. I see a book; the form is not in the book, it is in the mind. Something is outside which calls that form up. The real form is in the Chitta. The organs identify themselves with, and take the forms of, whatever comes to them. If you can restrain the mind-stuff from taking these forms, the mind will remain calm. This is called Pratyahara.
  

1.10 - Conscious Force, #The Life Divine, #Sri Aurobindo, #Integral Yoga
  19:Necessarily, in such a view, the word consciousness changes its meaning. It is no longer synonymous with mentality but indicates a self-aware force of existence of which mentality is a middle term; below mentality it sinks into vital and material movements which are for us subconscient; above, it rises into the supramental which is for us the superconscient. But in all it is one and the same thing organising itself differently. This is, once more, the Indian conception of Chit which, as energy, creates the worlds. Essentially, we arrive at that unity which materialistic Science perceives from the other end when it asserts that Mind cannot be another force than Matter, but must be merely development and outcome of material energy. Indian thought at its deepest affirms on the other hand that Mind and Matter are rather different grades of the same energy, different organisations of one conscious Force of Existence.
  20:But what right have we to assume consciousness as the just description for this Force? For consciousness implies some kind of intelligence, purposefulness, self-knowledge, even though they may not take the forms habitual to our mentality. Even from this point of view everything supports rather than contradicts the idea of a universal conscious Force. We see, for instance, in the animal, operations of a perfect purposefulness and an exact, indeed a scientifically minute knowledge which are quite beyond the capacities of the animal mentality and which man himself can only acquire by long culture and education and even then uses with a much less sure rapidity. We are entitled to see in this general fact the proof of a conscious Force at work in the animal and the insect which is more intelligent, more purposeful, more aware of its intention, its ends, its means, its conditions than the highest mentality yet manifested in any individual form on earth. And in the operations of inanimate Nature we find the same pervading characteristic of a supreme hidden intelligence, "hidden in the modes of its own workings".

11.13 - In these Fateful Days, #Collected Works of Nolini Kanta Gupta - Vol 04, #Nolini Kanta Gupta, #Integral Yoga
   One creates through one's consciousness, not through one's hands. A true creation must have at its origin the true consciousness, and a true consciousness has always the power to create invincibly; for consciousness is identified with essential energy. Chit and Tapas are one and the same.
   The seed of consciousness has to be sown in the field of our being, whether it is the individual or the collective being. How is it to be done? And who is to find the seed? There must be some one or even a few who are the prophets, pioneers or forerunners, who are the appointed missionaries. You or I may be elected as one if we choose to be so.

1.11 - Powers, #Raja-Yoga, #Swami Vivkenanda, #unset
  11. Taking in all sorts of objects, and concentrating upon one object, these two powers being destroyed and manifested respectively, the Chitta gets the modification called Samadhi.
  The mind takes up various objects, runs into all sorts of things. That is the lower state. There is a higher state of the mind, when it takes up one object and excludes all others, of which Samadhi is the result.
  --
  12. The one-pointedness of the Chitta is when the impression that is past and that which is present are similar.
  How are we to know that the mind has become concentrated? Because the idea of time will vanish. The more time passes unnoticed the more concentrated we are. In common life we see that when we are interested in a book we do not note the time at all, and when we leave the book, we are often surprised to find how many hours have passed. All time will have the tendency to come and stand in the one present. So the definition is given: When the past and present come and stand in one, the mind is said to be concentrated.1
  --
  Each experience that we have, comes in the form of a wave in the Chitta, and this subsides and becomes finer and finer, but is never lost. It remains there in minute form, and if we can bring this wave up again, it becomes memory. So, if the Yogi can make a Samyama on these past impressions in the mind, he will begin to remember all his past lives.
  19. By making Samyama on the signs in another's body, knowledge of his mind comes.
  --
  39. When the cause of bondage of the Chitta has become loosened, the Yogi, by his knowledge of its channels of activity (the nerves), enters another's body.
  The Yogi can enter a dead body and make it get up and move, even while he himself is working in another body. Or he can enter a living body and hold that man's mind and organs in check, and for the time being act through the body of that man. That is done by the Yogi coming to this discrimination of Purusha and nature. If he wants to enter another's body, he makes a Samyama on that body and enters it, because, not only is his soul omnipresent, but his mind also, as the Yogi teaches. It is one bit of the universal mind. Now, however, it can only work; through the nerve currents in this body, but when the Yogi has loosened himself from these nerve currents, he can work through other things.

1.1.2 - Commentary, #Kena and Other Upanishads, #Sri Aurobindo, #Integral Yoga
  1 The three are the reverse aspects of Chit, Sat and Chit-Tapas.
  2 All these significances are intended by the Vedic Rishis in their use of the word
  --
  3 Tapas or Chit-Shakti.
  The Great Transition

1.12 - Independence, #Raja-Yoga, #Swami Vivkenanda, #unset
  6. Among the various Chittas, that which is attained by Samadhi is desireless.
  Among all the various minds that we see in various men, only that mind which has attained to Samadhi, perfect concentration, is the highest. A man who has attained certain powers through medicines, or through words, or through mortifications, still has desires, but that man who has attained to Samadhi through concentration is alone free from all desires.

1.12 - The Strength of Stillness, #Essays In Philosophy And Yoga, #Sri Aurobindo, #Integral Yoga
  In this calm, right knowledge comes. The thoughts of men are a tangle of truth and falsehood, satyam and antam. True perception is marred and clouded by false perception, true judgment lamed by false judgment, true imagination distorted by false imagination, true memory deceived by false memory. The activity of the mind must cease, the Chitta be purified, a silence fall upon the restlessness of Prakriti, then in that calm, in that voiceless stillness illumination comes upon the mind, error begins to fall away and, so long as desire does not stir again, clarity establishes itself in the higher stratum of the consciousness compelling peace and joy in the lower. Right knowledge becomes the infallible source of right action. Yoga karmasu kaualam.
  The knowledge of the Yogin is not the knowledge of the average desire-driven mind. Neither is it the knowledge of the scientific or of the worldly-wise reason which anchors itself on surface facts and leans upon experience and probability. The Yogin knows Gods way of working and is aware that the improbable often happens, that facts mislead. He rises above reason to that direct and illuminated knowledge which we call vijnam. The desire-driven mind is emmeshed in the intricate tangle of good and evil, of the pleasant and the unpleasant, of happiness and misfortune. It strives to have the good always, the pleasant always, the happiness always. It is elated by fortunate happenings, disturbed and unnerved by their opposite. But the illuminated eye of the seer perceives that all leads to good; for God is all and God is sarvama

1.12 - TIME AND ETERNITY, #The Perennial Philosophy, #Aldous Huxley, #Philosophy
  The existence of the eternal now is sometimes denied on the ground that a temporal order cannot co-exist with another order which is non-temporal; and that it is impossible for a changing substance to be united with a changeless substance. This objection, it is obvious, would be valid if the non-temporal order were of a mechanical nature, or if the changeless substance were possessed of spatial and material qualities. But according to the Perennial Philosophy, the eternal now is a consciousness; the divine Ground is spirit; the being of Brahman is Chit, or knowledge. That a temporal world should be known and, in being known, sustained and perpetually created by an eternal consciousness is an idea which contains nothing self-contradictory.
  Finally we come to the arguments directed against those who have asserted that the eternal Ground can be unitively known by human minds. This claim is regarded as absurd because it involves the assertion, At one time I am eternal, at another time I am in time. But this statement is absurd only if man is a being of a twofold nature, capable of living on only one level. But if, as the exponents of the Perennial Philosophy have always maintained, man is not only a body and a psyche, but also a spirit, and if he can at will live either on the merely human plane or else in harmony and even in union with the divine Ground of his being, then the statement makes perfectly good sense. The body is always in time, the spirit is always timeless and the psyche is an amphibious creature compelled by the laws of mans being to associate itself to some extent with its body, but capable, if it so desires, of experiencing and being identified with its spirit and, through its spirit, with the divine Ground. The spirit remains always what it eternally is; but man is so constituted that his psyche cannot always remain identified with the spirit. In the statement, At one time I am eternal, at another time I am in time, the word I stands for the psyche, which passes from time to eternity when it is identified with the spirit and passes again from eternity to time, either voluntarily or by involuntary necessity, when it chooses or is compelled to identify itself with the body.
  --
  But the God who comes so terribly as Time also exists timelessly as the Godhead, as Brahman, whose essence is Sat, Chit, Ananda, Being, Awareness, Bliss; and within and beyond mans time-tortured psyche is his spirit, uncreated and uncreatable, as Eckhart says, the Atman which is akin to or even identical with Brahman. The Gita, like all other formulations of the Perennial Philosophy, justifies Gods ways to man by affirming and the affirmation is based upon observation and immediate experience that man can, if he so desires, die to his separate temporal selfness and so come to union with timeless Spirit. It affirms, too, that the Avatar becomes incarnate in order to assist human beings to achieve this union. This he does in three waysby teaching the true doctrine in a world blinded by voluntary ignorance; by inviting souls to a carnal love of his humanity, not indeed as an end in itself, but as the means to spiritual love-knowledge of Spirit; and finally by serving as a channel of grace.
  God who is Spirit can only be worshipped in spirit and for his own sake; but God in time is normally worshipped by material means with a view to achieving temporal ends. God in time is manifestly the destroyer as well as the creator; and because this is so, it has seemed proper to worship him by methods which are as terrible as the destructions he himself inflicts. Hence, in India, the blood sacrifices to Kali, in her aspect as Nature-the-Destroyer; hence those offerings of children to the Molochs, denounced by the Hebrew prophets; hence the human sacrifices practised, for example, by the Phoenicians, the Carthaginians, the Druids, the Aztecs. In all such cases the divinity addressed was a god in time, or a personification of Nature, which is nothing else but Time itself, the devourer of its own offspring; and in all cases the purpose of the rite was to obtain a future benefit or to avoid one of the enormous evils which Time and Nature for ever hold in store. For this it was thought to be worth while to pay a high price in that currency of suffering, which the Destroyer so evidently valued. The importance of the temporal end justified the use of means that were intrinsically terrible, because intrinsically time-like. Sublimated traces of these ancient patterns of thought and behaviour are still to be found in certain theories of the Atonement, and in the conception of the Mass as a perpetually repeated sacrifice of the God-Man.

1.13 - THE MASTER AND M., #The Gospel of Sri Ramakrishna, #Sri Ramakrishna, #Hinduism
  "God's play on earth as an Incarnation is the manifestation of the glory of the Chitakti, the Divine Power. That which is Brahman is also Rma, Krishna, and iva."
  ISHAN: "Yes, sir. Both Hari and Hara are derived from the same root. The difference lies only in the pratyaya."
  --
  "The Chitakti, as Mahamaya, has deluded all with ignorance. It is said in the Adhytma Rmyana that when the rishis saw Rma, they prayed to Him in these words only: 'O
  Rma, please do not delude us with Your world-bewitching maya.' "
  --
  (To Ishan) "The Chitakti, Mahamaya, has become the twenty-four cosmic principles.
  One day as I was meditating, my mind wandered away to Rashke's house. He is a scavenger. I said to my mind, 'Stay there, you rogue!' The Divine Mother revealed to me that the men and women in this house were mere masks; inside them was the same Divine Power, Kundalini, that rises up through the six spiritual centres of the body.
  --
  "Take refuge in the Chitakti, the Mahamaya."
  ISHAN: "Please bestow your grace on me."

1.17 - The Burden of Royalty, #The Golden Bough, #James George Frazer, #Occultism
  a supreme pontiff called Chitom or Chitomb, whom the negroes
  regarded as a god on earth and all-powerful in heaven. Hence before
  --
  they resembled those of the Mikado and Chitom.
  Wherever, as in Japan and West Africa, it is supposed that the order

1.18 - M. AT DAKSHINESWAR, #The Gospel of Sri Ramakrishna, #Sri Ramakrishna, #Hinduism
  As the Master came to the bakul-tree he spoke to M. again: "Chidatma and Chitakti.
  The Purusha is the Chidatma and Prakriti the Chitakti. Sri Krishna is the Chidatma and Sri Radha the Chitakti. The devotees are so many forms of the Chitakti. They should think of themselves as companions or handmaids of the Chitakti, Sri Radha. This is the whole gist of the thing.'"
  After dusk Sri Ramakrishna went to the Kli temple and was pleased to see M.

1.19 - Life, #The Life Divine, #Sri Aurobindo, #Integral Yoga
  17:It is becoming possible now to conceive that in the very atom there is something that becomes in us a will and a desire, there is an attraction and repulsion which, though phenomenally other, are essentially the same thing as liking and disliking in ourselves, but are, as we say, inconscient or subconscient. This essence of will and desire are evident everywhere in Nature and, though this is not yet sufficiently envisaged, they are associated with and indeed the expression of a subconscient or, if you will, inconscient or quite involved sense and intelligence which are equally pervasive. Present in every atom of Matter all this is necessarily present in every thing which is formed by the aggregation of those atoms; and they are present in the atom because they are present in the Force which builds up and constitutes the atom. That Force is fundamentally the Chit-Tapas or Chit-Shakti of the Vedanta, consciousness-force, inherent conscious force of conscious-being, which manifests itself as nervous energy full of submental sensation in the plant, as desire-sense and desire-will in the primary animal forms, as self-conscious sense and force in the developing animal, as mental will and knowledge topping all the rest in man. Life is a scale of the universal Energy in which the transition from inconscience to consciousness is managed; it is an intermediary power of it latent or submerged in Matter, delivered by its own force into submental being, delivered finally by the emergence of Mind into the full possibility of its dynamis.
  18:Apart from all other considerations, this conclusion imposes itself as a logical necessity if we observe even the surface process of the emergence in the light of the evolutionary theme. It is self-evident that Life in the plant, even if otherwise organised than in the animal, is yet the same power, marked by birth and growth and death, propagation by the seed, death by decay or malady or violence, maintenance by indrawing of nourishing elements from without, dependence on light and heat, productiveness and sterility, even states of sleep and waking, energy and depression of life-dynamism, passage from infancy to maturity and age; the plant contains, moreover, the essences of the force of life and is therefore the natural food of animal existences. If it is conceded that it has a nervous system and reactions to stimuli, a beginning or undercurrent of submental or purely vital sensations, the identity becomes closer; but still it remains evidently a stage of life evolution intermediate between animal existence and "inanimate" Matter. This is precisely what must be expected if Life is a force evolving out of Matter and culminating in Mind, and, if it is that, then we are bound to suppose that it is already there in Matter itself submerged or latent in the material subconsciousness or inconscience. For from where else can it emerge? Evolution of Life in matter supposes a previous involution of it there, unless we suppose it to be a new creation magically and unaccountably introduced into Nature. If it is that, it must either be a creation out of nothing or a result of material operations which is not accounted for by anything in the operations themselves or by any element in them which is of a kindred nature; or, conceivably, it may be a descent from above, from some supraphysical plane above the material universe. The two first suppositions can be dismissed as arbitrary conceptions; the last explanation is possible and it is quite conceivable and in the occult view of things true that a pressure from some plane of Life above the material universe has assisted the emergence of life here. But this does not exclude the origin of life from Matter itself as a primary and necessary movement; for the existence of a Life-world or Life-plane above the material does not of itself lead to the emergence of Life in matter unless that Life-plane exists as a formative stage in a descent of Being through several grades or powers of itself into the Inconscience with the result of an involution of itself with all these powers in Matter for a later evolution and emergence. Whether signs of this submerged life are discoverable, unorganised yet or rudimentary, in material things or there are no such signs, because this involved Life is in a full sleep, is not a question of capital importance. The material Energy that aggregates, forms and disaggregates4 is the same Power in another grade of itself as that Life-Energy which expresses itself in birth, growth and death, just as by its doing of the works of Intelligence in a somnambulist subconscience it betrays itself as the same Power that in yet another grade attains the status of Mind; its very character shows that it contains in itself, though not yet in their characteristic organisation or process, the yet undelivered powers of Mind and Life.

1.19 - THE MASTER AND HIS INJURED ARM, #The Gospel of Sri Ramakrishna, #Sri Ramakrishna, #Hinduism
  Next Mahima read the Six Stanzas of Nirvna: Om. I am neither mind, intelligence, ego, nor Chitta, Neither ears nor tongue nor the senses of smell and sight; Nor am I ether, earth, fire, water, or air:
  I am Pure Knowledge and Bliss: I am iva! I am iva!

1.2.01 - The Upanishadic and Purancic Systems, #Letters On Yoga I, #Sri Aurobindo, #Integral Yoga
  6. Tapah - World of Chit-tapas
  7. Satya - World of Sat
  --
  That is the original Tapoloka in which the principle is Chit and its power of Tapas, but there are other worlds of Tapas on the other planes below. There is one in the mental, another in the vital range. It is one of these Tapas worlds from which the being you saw must have come.

12.01 - This Great Earth Our Mother, #Collected Works of Nolini Kanta Gupta - Vol 04, #Nolini Kanta Gupta, #Integral Yoga
   The Earth gives her material body, her substance for the incarnation and establishment of the supreme state of the Transcendent the Self or Sachchidanandahere below. And for the manifestation and expression through life and the senses she offers her secret conscious-force, the light-energy to incorporate the supreme Chit-tapas; but the Ananda of the Supreme she realises in a strange and piquant way. The delight that earth offers or embodies is of a special nature. It is the delight of taste.
   Tasting, drinking, eating are properties said to be fundamental to the body, and they are no less applicable in the case of the soul. The Gods are memorable eaters and drinkers and a whole family of Rishis has been called Atris, that is to say, 'eaters'. It is said that these physical properites are only metaphorical or symbolical; when used in respect of the spiritual principles and realities they are used as mere tokens or indices because of the deficiencies of language, language being built out of material symbols. It is not quite so, for, as I have said, earth itself is not a mere symbol but a special concentration of Sat and it includes also concentrated Chit and Ananda.
   The soul that is imbedded in earth or wedded to it acquires and enjoys these gifts of the earth and carries them forward and offers to the Supreme. The soul is the efflorescence of the earth and in that way it adds a new quality of fulfilment to the fulfilment of the Supreme, the Sachchidananda.

1.2.03 - The Interpretation of Scripture, #Essays Divine And Human, #Sri Aurobindo, #Integral Yoga
  The spirit who lies concealed behind the material world, has given us, through the inspiration of great seers, the Scriptures as helpers and guides to unapparent truth, lamps of great power that send their rays into the darkness of the unknown beyond which He dwells, tamasah parastat. They are guides to knowledge, brief indications to enlighten us on our path, not substitutes for thought and experience. They are shabdam Brahma, the Word, the oral expression of God, not the thing to be known itself nor the knowledge of Him. Shabdam has three elements, the word, the meaning and the spirit. The word is a symbol, vak or nama; we have to find the artha, the meaning or form of thought which the symbol indicates. But the meaning itself is only the indication of something deeper which the thought seeks to convey to the intellectual conception. For not only words, but ideas also are eventually no more than symbols of a knowledge which is beyond ideas and words. Therefore it comes that no idea by itself is wholly true. There is indeed a rupa, some concrete or abstract form of knowledge, answering to every name, and it is that which the meaning must present to the intellect. We say a form of knowledge, because according to our philosophy, all things are forms of an essentially unknowable existence which reveals them as forms of knowledge to the essential awareness in its Self, its Atman or Spirit, the Chit in the Sat. But beyond nama and rupa is swarupa, the essential figure of Truth, which we cannot know with the intellect, but only with a higher faculty.
  And every swarupa is itself only a symbol of the one essential existence which can only be known by its symbols because in its ultimate reality it defies logic and exceeds perception, - God.

1.21 - Tabooed Things, #The Golden Bough, #James George Frazer, #Occultism
  to facilitate the delivery." In Chittagong, when a woman cannot
  bring her child to the birth, the midwife gives orders to throw all

1.22 - Dominion over different provinces of creation assigned to different beings, #Vishnu Purana, #Vyasa, #Hinduism
  [5]: Of Brahmabhūta; of him who, or that which, becomes identified with the supreme spirit, which is the same respectively with absolute wisdom, Jñāna, and discriminative wisdom, Vijñāna; leading to felicity, or the condition of Brahma, expressed by the words, p. 156 Sat Chit ānandam, 'entire tranquillity of mind,' or 'internal enjoyment:' the same also with the combination of wisdom and tranquillity, which the devotee believes to exist in Adwaita, 'non- duality,' or unity of god and himself: and finally, the same with the aggregate of these three processes, or the conviction that spirit is one, universal, and the same.
  [6]: The epithets of Jñyāna, 'wisdom,' here employed, are taken from the Yoga philosophy. 'Requires no exercise,' Nirvyāpāra, is explained, 'without the practice of abstract contemplation,' &c. . 'Not to be taught,' Anākhyeyam; 'not capable of being enjoined.' 'Internally diffused,' Vyāptimātram, means 'mental identification of individual with universal spirit' . The phrase translated 'the object of which is self-illumination,' is explained ###. 'Simply existent' is said to mean, 'being unmodified by the accidents of happiness,' &c.; consequently it is not to be defined . So the Yoga Pradīpa explains Samādhi, or contemplation, to be the entire occupation of the thoughts by the idea of Brahma, without any effort of the mind. It is the entire abandonment of the faculties to one all-engrossing notion. 'Tranquil,' Praśāntam, is, 'being void of passion,' &c. 'Fearless; not dreading agitation or perplexity by ideas of duality. 'Pure;' undisturbed by external objects. 'Not the theme of reasoning'; that is, 'not to be ascertained by logical deduction.' 'Stands in no need of support'; not resting or depending upon perceptible objects.

1.240 - 1.300 Talks, #Talks, #Sri Ramana Maharshi, #Hinduism
  Mano-nasa, jnana, and Chittaikagrata (annihilation of the mind, knowledge and one-pointedness) means the same.
  241
  --
  Both schools mean the same thing. Their ultimate aim is to realise the Absolute Consciousness. The unreality of the cosmos is implied in Recognition (Pratyabhijna), whereas it is explicit in Vedanta. If the world be taken as Chit (consciousness), it is always real. Vedanta says that there is no nana (diversity), meaning that it is all the same Reality.
  There is agreement on all points except in words and the method of expression.
  --
   jala (water) gives rise to Chitta (memory etc.) prthvi (earth) gives rise to ahankara (ego).
  They are samashti (collective) for the reason that they can operate collectively or individually with any or all of the senses or organs. By rajoguna they are changed to jnanendriyas in the vyashti (individual); by tamoguna to karmendriyas in the vyashti (the individual). The relation between the external world and the individual now becomes easy because the tanmatras are common to them.

1.240 - Talks 2, #Talks, #Sri Ramana Maharshi, #Hinduism
  Mano-nasa, jnana, and Chittaikagrata (annihilation of the mind, knowledge and one-pointedness) means the same.
  Talk 276.
  --
  Both schools mean the same thing. Their ultimate aim is to realise the Absolute Consciousness. The unreality of the cosmos is implied in Recognition (Pratyabhijna), whereas it is explicit in Vedanta. If the world be taken as Chit (consciousness), it is always real. Vedanta says that there is no nana (diversity), meaning that it is all the same Reality.
  There is agreement on all points except in words and the method of expression.
  --
   jala (water) gives rise to Chitta (memory etc.) prthvi (earth) gives rise to ahankara (ego).
  They are samashti (collective) for the reason that they can operate collectively or individually with any or all of the senses or organs. By rajoguna they are changed to jnanendriyas in the vyashti (individual); by tamoguna to karmendriyas in the vyashti (the individual). The relation between the external world and the individual now becomes easy because the tanmatras are common to them.
  --
  But the gross body is of the mind only. The mind may be said to consist of four inner organs, or the principle composed of thoughts, or the sixth sense; or combining intellect with the ego, and Chitta with the mind (i.e. memory-faculty with the thinking faculty), it may be taken to consist of two parts (the ego and the mind). In the latter case the vijnanatma (the intellectual Self) or the ego or the seer forms the subject, and the mental sheath or the seen, the object.
  The waking, dream and sleep states have their origin in the Original
  --
  Memory - Chitta; and (5) The ego - Ahankara; some say only the latter four; others say only two, namely (1) Manas, mind and (2)
  Ahankara, the ego; still others say the Antahkarana is only one whose different functions make it appear differently and hence its different names. Heart is thus the source of the Antahkaranas.
  --
  (3) madhyama and (4) vaikhari; Vak is prana sakti whereas the mind is tejorupa or Chit sakti. The sakti is the manifestation of the unmanifest origin.
  The Yogis attach the highest importance to going up to sahasrara i.e., the brain centre or the thousand-petalled-lotus. Some yogis say that there are other centres higher up with greater involutions e.g.,
  --
  M.: Yogas Chitta vritti nirodhah - (Yoga is to check the mind from changing) - which is acceptable to all. That is also the goal of all.
  The method is chosen according to ones own fitness. The goal for all is the same. Yet different names are given to the goal only to suit the process preliminary to reaching the goal. Bhakti, Yoga, Jnana are all the same. Svasvarupanusandhanam bhaktirity abhidheeyate
  --
  M.: Sat denotes being beyond sat and asat; Chit beyond Chit and a Chit; Ananda beyond bliss and non-bliss.
  What is it then? Even if not sat nor asat, It must be admitted to be sat only. Compare the term jnana. It is the state beyond knowledge and ignorance. Yet jnana is not ignorance but knowledge. So also with Sat- Chit-ananda.

1.25 - ADVICE TO PUNDIT SHASHADHAR, #The Gospel of Sri Ramakrishna, #Sri Ramakrishna, #Hinduism
  MASTER: "If there is butter, there must be buttermilk also. If you think of butter, you must also think of buttermilk along with it; for there cannot be any butter without buttermilk. Just so, if you accept the Nitya, you must also accept the Lila. It is the process of negation and affirmation. You realize the Nitya by negating the Lila. Then you affirm the Lila, seeing in it the manifestation of the Nitya. One attains this state after realizing Reality in both aspects: Personal and Impersonal. The Personal is the embodiment of Chit, Consciousness; and the Impersonal is the Indivisible Satchidananda.
  "Brahman alone has become everything. Therefore to be vijnni this world is a 'mansion of myrth'. But to the Jnni it is a 'framework of illusion'. Ramprasad described the world as a 'framework of illusion'. Another man said to him by way of retort: This very world is a mansion of myrth;
  --
  Radha saw Yaoda's suffering and revealed herself to her as the divine akti, which was her real nature. She said to Yaoda: 'Krishna is Chidatma, Absolute Consciousness, and I am Chitakti, the Primal Power. Ask a boon of Me: Yaoda said: 'I don't want Brahmajnana. Please grant me only this: that I may see the form of Gopala in my meditation; that I may always have the company of Krishna's devotees; that I may always serve the devotees of God; that I may always chant God's name and glories.'
  "Once the gopis felt a great desire to see the forms of the Lord. So Krishna asked them to dive into the water of the Jamuna. No sooner did they dive into the water than they all arrived at Vaikuntha. There they saw the form of the Lord endowed with His six celestial splendours. But they did not like it. They said to Krishna: 'We want to see Gopala and serve Him. Please grant us that boon alone. We don't want anything else.'

1.26 - FESTIVAL AT ADHARS HOUSE, #The Gospel of Sri Ramakrishna, #Sri Ramakrishna, #Hinduism
  M: "That is why you attract people so much. Sir, I have a question to ask. There are two opinions in the scriptures. According to one, Purana, Krishna is Chidatma, the Absolute, and Radha is Chitakti, Its Divine Power; but according to another, Krishna Himself is Kli; the Primordial Energy."
  MASTER: "This second view is held in the Devi Purana. According to it, Kli Herself has become Krishna; But what difference does it make? God is infinite, and infinite are the ways to reach Him."
  --
  Adhar and M. returned to the Master's room. Adhar had been to Chittagong, in East Bengal, on official duty. He was telling the Master about his visit to the Chandranath Hills and Sitakunda, sacred places of Chittagong.
  ADHAR: "Near Sitakunda I visited a well where I saw fire in the water. It is always burning on the water with leaping tongues."

1.26 - The Ascending Series of Substance, #The Life Divine, #Sri Aurobindo, #Integral Yoga
  2:And if there is, as there must be in the nature of things, an ascending series in the scale of substance from Matter to Spirit, it must be marked by a progressive diminution of these capacities most characteristic of the physical principle and a progressive increase of the opposite characteristics which will lead us to the formula of pure spiritual self-extension. This is to say that they must be marked by less and less bondage to the form, more and more subtlety and flexibility of substance and force, more and more interfusion, interpenetration, power of assimilation, power of interchange, power of variation, transmutation, unification. Drawing away from durability of form, we draw towards eternity of essence; drawing away from our poise in the persistent separation and resistance of physical Matter, we draw near to the highest divine poise in the infinity, unity and indivisibility of Spirit. Between gross substance and pure spirit substance this must be the fundamental antinomy. In Matter Chit or Conscious-Force masses itself more and more to resist and stand out against other masses of the same Conscious-Force; in substance of Spirit pure consciousness images itself freely in its sense of itself with an essential indivisibility and a constant unifying interchange as the basic formula even of the most diversifying play of its own Force. Between these two poles there is the possibility of an infinite gradation.
  3:These considerations become of great importance when we consider the possible relation between the divine life and the divine mind of the perfected human soul and the very gross and seemingly undivine body or formula of physical being in which we actually dwell. That formula is the result of a certain fixed relation between sense and substance from which the material universe has started. But as this relation is not the only possible relation, so that formula is not the only possible formula. Life and mind may manifest themselves in another relation to substance and work out different physical laws, other and larger habits, even a different substance of body with a freer action of the sense, a freer action of the life, a freer action of the mind. Death, division, mutual resistance and exclusion between embodied masses of the same conscious life-force are the formula of our physical existence; the narrow limitation of the play of the senses, the determination within a small circle of the field, duration and power of the life-workings, the obscuration, lame movement, broken and bounded functioning of the mind are the yoke which that formula expressed in the animal body has imposed upon the higher principles. But these things are not the sole possible rhythm of cosmic Nature. There are superior states, there are higher worlds, and if the law of these can by any progress of man and by any liberation of our substance from its present imperfections be imposed on this sensible form and instrument of our being, then there may be even here a physical working of divine mind and sense, a physical working of divine life in the human frame and even the evolution upon earth of something that we may call a divinely human body. The body of man also may some day come by its transfiguration; the Earth-Mother too may reveal in us her godhead.

1.28 - The Killing of the Tree-Spirit, #The Golden Bough, #James George Frazer, #Occultism
  analogy of the Chitom, upon whose life the existence of the world
  was supposed to hang, and who was therefore slain by his successor

1.300 - 1.400 Talks, #Talks, #Sri Ramana Maharshi, #Hinduism
  But the gross body is of the mind only. The mind may be said to consist of four inner organs, or the principle composed of thoughts, or the sixth sense; or combining intellect with the ego, and Chitta with the mind (i.e. memory-faculty with the thinking faculty), it may be taken to consist of two parts (the ego and the mind). In the latter case the vijnanatma (the intellectual Self) or the ego or the seer forms the subject, and the mental sheath or the seen, the object.
  The waking, dream and sleep states have their origin in the Original
  --
  Memory - Chitta; and (5) The ego - Ahankara; some say only the latter four; others say only two, namely (1) Manas, mind and (2)
  Ahankara, the ego; still others say the Antahkarana is only one whose different functions make it appear differently and hence its different names. Heart is thus the source of the Antahkaranas.
  --
  (3) madhyama and (4) vaikhari; Vak is prana sakti whereas the mind is tejorupa or Chit sakti. The sakti is the manifestation of the unmanifest origin.
  380

1.3.2.01 - I. The Entire Purpose of Yoga, #Essays Divine And Human, #Sri Aurobindo, #Integral Yoga
  Consciousness in Chit is luminous, free, illimitable & effective; that which it is aware of as Chit (Jnanashakti) it fulfils infallibly as Tapas (Kriyashakti); for Jnanashakti is only the stable & comprehensive, Kriyashakti only the motional and intensive form of one self-luminous Conscious Being. They are one power of conscious force of God ( Chit-Shakti of Sat-Purusha).
  But in the lower hemisphere, under the conditions of mind, life
  --
  & thought into the one, undivided universal Chitshakti of Kali to replace our egoistic activities by the play in our body of the universal Kali and thus exchange blindness & ignorance for knowledge and ineffective human strength for the divine effective Force.
  Delight in Ananda is pure, unmixed, one & yet multitudinous. Under the conditions of mind, life & body it becomes divided, limited, confused & misdirected and owing to shocks of unequal forces & uneven distribution of Ananda subject to the duality of positive & negative movements, grief & joy, pain & pleasure. Our business is to dissolve these dualities by breaking down their cause & plunge ourselves into the ocean of divine bliss, one, multitudinous, evenly distributed (sama), which takes delight from all things & recoils painfully from none.

1.400 - 1.450 Talks, #Talks, #Sri Ramana Maharshi, #Hinduism
  M.: Yogas Chitta vritti nirodhah - (Yoga is to check the mind from changing) - which is acceptable to all. That is also the goal of all.
  The method is chosen according to one's own fitness. The goal for all is the same. Yet different names are given to the goal only to suit the process preliminary to reaching the goal. Bhakti, Yoga, Jnana are all the same. Svasvarupanusandhanam bhaktirity abhidheeyate
  --
  M.: Sat denotes being beyond sat and asat; Chit beyond Chit and a Chit; Ananda beyond bliss and non-bliss.
  What is it then? Even if not sat nor asat, It must be admitted to be sat only. Compare the term jnana. It is the state beyond knowledge and ignorance. Yet jnana is not ignorance but knowledge. So also with Sat- Chit-ananda.

1.439, #Talks, #Sri Ramana Maharshi, #Hinduism
  D.: By such samyamana in the Heart, Chitta samvit is said to result.
  What does it mean?
  M.: Chitta samvit is Atma jnana i.e., Knowledge of the Self.
  Talk 484.
  --
  Show me the mind and then you will know what to do. The fact is that the mind is only a bundle of thoughts. How can you extinguish it by the thought of doing so or by a desire? Your thoughts and desires are part and parcel of the mind. The mind is simply fattened by new thoughts rising up. Therefore it is foolish to attempt to kill the mind by means of the mind. The only way of doing it is to find its source and hold on to it. The mind will then fade away of its own accord. Yoga teaches Chitta vritti nirodha (control of the activities of the mind).
  But I say Atma vichara (Self-investigation). This is the practical way.
  --
  (Being) is Chit (Knowledge Absolute); also Chit is Sat; what is, is only one. Otherwise the knowledge of the world and of ones own being will be impossible. It denotes both being and knowledge. However, both of them are one and the same. On the other hand, be it Sat only and not Chit also, such Sat will only be insentient (jada). In order to know it another Chit will be needed; such Chit being other than
  Sat cannot be. But it must be. Now taking Chit to be Sat, since Sat is Jada, Chit also becomes jada which is absurd. Again to know it another Chit is required, which is also absurd.
  Therefore Sat and Chit are only one and the same.
  22nd August, 1938
  --
  Mr. T. K. S. Iyer read out a passage from a book which admitted of five different divisions of antahkaranas as follows: (1) Ullam, (2) mind, (3) intellect, (4) Chittam, (5) ego.
  Sri Bhagavan said: Four divisions are usual. The fifth item ullam has been brought in to correspond to five tattvas thus:
  --
  (4) Chitta (memory) is jala (water) tattva from the heart to the navel, and,
  (5) Ahankar (ego) is prithvi (earth) tattva from the navel to the coccyx.
  --
  D.: But Yoga Vasishtha says that the Chitta (mind) of a jivanmukta is achala (unchanging).
  M.: So it is. Achala Chitta (unchanging mind) is the same as suddha manas (pure mind). The jnanis manas is said to be suddha manas.
  The Yoga Vasishtha also says that Brahman is no other than the jnanis mind. So Brahman is suddha manas only.
  --
  M.: It amounts to this that you exist in both states. The Absolute Existence is the Self. You are also conscious of the Existence. That Existence is also consciousness (Sat and Chit). That is your real nature.
  D.: But thinking is necessary even for realisation.
  --
  The question arises how the true nature of the Self can be lost in the waking and dream states. It is, really speaking, not lost. In sleep there is no mind and the Self shines as Itself, whereas in the other two states what shines forth is the reflected light of the Self. Ananda is felt after the cessation of thoughts in sleep. It is also manifest on other occasions as love, joy, etc., priya, moda and pramoda. But they are all Chitta vrittis (modes of mind).
  When a man is walking in the street his mind is full of fleeting thoughts. Suppose he passes a bazaar where some fine mangoes are for sale. He likes the mangoes and purchases them. He is next anxious to taste them. So he hastens home and eats them and feels happy.
  --
  That is the whole content of nishkama Karma (unselfish action). It means true renunciation. If the giving nature is developed it becomes tyaga. If anything is willingly given away it is a delight to the giver and to the receiver. If the same is stolen it is misery to both. Dana, dharma, nishkama Karma are all tyaga only. When mine is given up it is Chitta suddhi (purified mind). When I is given up it is jnana.
  When the nature to give away is developed it results in jnana.
  --
  M.: Mind - mind what is it? It is a mixture of Chit (intelligence) and sankalpas (thoughts). Therefore it forms all these - the mirror, light, darkness and the reflections.
  D.: But I do not see it.
  --
  (the whole universe) is itself the content of the mind-ether, so also the latter is itself the content of Chit-ether. The last one is Chit Itself. There are no things contained in it. It remains as Pure Knowledge only.
  D.: Why call it ether? Physical ether is not sentient.
  --
  M.: Your forgetfulness implies knowledge, for you know you forgot; otherwise how can you speak of forgetting it? So forgetfulness also is Chit-akasa ( Chit-ether) only.
  D.: How then is it not clear to me?
  M.: Chit is knowledge pure and simple. The mind proceeds from it; the mind is made up of thoughts. Darkness or ignorance interposing.
  Pure Knowledge seems different from what It really is; the same is seen as I and the world which are full of desire, attachment, hatred, etc. Therefore desire, etc., are said to veil the Reality.
  --
  M.: There the mind stands for ether, Being (sat); and the eye for knowledge ( Chit); both sat and Chit together form the universe.
  D.: How to realise the same?
  M.: As pointed out in the Atma Vidya being the eye of the mental eye, the ether of the mental ether....., meaning, the Knowledge behind the relative knowledge, the Chit-Ether containing the mental ether, remains as the Only One always shining bright.
  D.: Still I do not understand. How shall I realise it?
  M.: It is also said, Remain free from thoughts, and It is realised only in the mind drawn within. Therefore, the mind made free from thoughts, and merged in the Heart. is Chit Itself.
  D.: Is the aforesaid mental ether Isvara or Hiranyagarbha?
  --
  D.: Is not the Immanent Being Chit-akasa only?
  M.: Immanence can only be with Maya. It is the Knowledge of Being along with Maya; from this subtle conceit Hiranyagarbha; from the latter the gross conceit virat. Chit-atma is Pure Being only.
  13th December, 1938
  --
  pure Chit (the Self) and the jada (the body). That is the ego. Who
  are you now? What is it that is born? The Self is eternal and cannot
  --
  took place when I was living in the West Chitrai Street in Madura. A
  neighbour in an adjoining house anticipated the visit of a thief to his
  --
  that the Self is the light of Sat, Chit, Ananda.
  Visva, Taijasa and Prajna are the denominations of the experiencer in the
  --
  is pure Sat, Chit, Ananda. The experience in deep sleep was said to be the
  bliss of Brahman. It is only the negative aspect of such bliss, as it is the
  --
  over it is itself the Chit (Self) or the Supreme. To be in ones natural
  state on the subsidence of thoughts is bliss; if that bliss be transient

1.450 - 1.500 Talks, #Talks, #Sri Ramana Maharshi, #Hinduism
  D.: By such samyamana in the Heart, Chitta samvit is said to result.
  What does it mean?
  M.: Chitta samvit is Atma jnana i.e., Knowledge of the Self.
  477
  --
  "Show me the mind and then you will know what to do." The fact is that the mind is only a bundle of thoughts. How can you extinguish it by the thought of doing so or by a desire? Your thoughts and desires are part and parcel of the mind. The mind is simply fattened by new thoughts rising up. Therefore it is foolish to attempt to kill the mind by means of the mind. The only way of doing it is to find its source and hold on to it. The mind will then fade away of its own accord. Yoga teaches Chitta vritti nirodha (control of the activities of the mind).
  But I say Atma vichara (Self-investigation). This is the practical way.

1.550 - 1.600 Talks, #Talks, #Sri Ramana Maharshi, #Hinduism
  The question arises how the true nature of the Self can be lost in the waking and dream states. It is, really speaking, not lost. In sleep there is no mind and the Self shines as Itself, whereas in the other two states what shines forth is the reflected light of the Self. Ananda is felt after the cessation of thoughts in sleep. It is also manifest on other occasions as love, joy, etc., priya, moda and pramoda. But they are all Chitta vrittis (modes of mind).
  When a man is walking in the street his mind is full of fleeting thoughts. Suppose he passes a bazaar where some fine mangoes are for sale. He likes the mangoes and purchases them. He is next anxious to taste them. So he hastens home and eats them and feels happy.
  --
  That is the whole content of nishkama Karma (unselfish action). It means true renunciation. If the giving nature is developed it becomes tyaga. If anything is willingly given away it is a delight to the giver and to the receiver. If the same is stolen it is misery to both. Dana, dharma, nishkama Karma are all tyaga only. When 'mine' is given up it is Chitta suddhi (purified mind). When 'I' is given up it is jnana.
  When the nature to give away is developed it results in jnana.
  --
  M.: Mind - mind what is it? It is a mixture of Chit (intelligence) and sankalpas (thoughts). Therefore it forms all these - the mirror, light, darkness and the reflections.
  D.: But I do not see it.
  --
  (the whole universe) is itself the content of the mind-ether, so also the latter is itself the content of Chit-ether. The last one is Chit Itself. There are no things contained in it. It remains as Pure Knowledge only.
  D.: Why call it ether? Physical ether is not sentient.
  --
  M.: Your forgetfulness implies knowledge, for you know you forgot; otherwise how can you speak of forgetting it? So forgetfulness also is Chit-akasa ( Chit-ether) only.
  D.: How then is it not clear to me?
  M.: Chit is knowledge pure and simple. The mind proceeds from it; the mind is made up of thoughts. Darkness or ignorance interposing.
  560
  --
  M.: There the mind stands for ether, Being (sat); and the eye for knowledge ( Chit); both sat and Chit together form the universe.
  D.: How to realise the same?
  M.: As pointed out in the Atma Vidya "being the eye of the mental eye, the ether of the mental ether.....", meaning, the Knowledge behind the relative knowledge, the Chit-Ether containing the mental ether, remains as the Only One always shining bright.
  D.: Still I do not understand. How shall I realise it?
  M.: It is also said, "Remain free from thoughts," and "It is realised only in the mind drawn within." Therefore, the mind made free from thoughts, and merged in the Heart. is Chit Itself.
  D.: Is the aforesaid mental ether Isvara or Hiranyagarbha?
  --
  D.: Is not the Immanent Being Chit-akasa only?
  M.: Immanence can only be with Maya. It is the Knowledge of Being along with Maya; from this subtle conceit Hiranyagarbha; from the latter the gross conceit virat. Chit-atma is Pure Being only.
  13th December, 1938

1951-03-01 - Universe and the Divine - Freedom and determinism - Grace - Time and Creation- in the Supermind - Work and its results - The psychic being - beauty and love - Flowers- beauty and significance - Choice of reincarnating psychic being, #Questions And Answers 1950-1951, #The Mother, #Integral Yoga
   Returning to the definition of the word "pre-existent", Mother added the following commentary at the time of the publication of this talk: "Sat, that is, absolute Existence, is not in the Manifestation; it exists without being manifested; it is the non-manifest state of existence. There is Tat which is the state of non-existence and Sat which is the state of existence; and Tat naturally is not manifested, but Sat also is not manifested: it is only when Chit-Tapas comes, the Consciousness-Energy, the Consciousness which realises, that Sat manifests itself."
   ***

1951-04-26 - Irrevocable transformation - The divine Shakti - glad submission - Rejection, integral - Consecration - total self-forgetfulness - work, #Questions And Answers 1950-1951, #The Mother, #Integral Yoga
   The divine Power is only a part of the divine Shakti; the divine Power is an attribute of the divine Shakti. Sri Aurobindo uses the word divine Shakti, here, in the sense of Chit-tapas, the creative power, the creative consciousness; consequently, the divine Power is only a part of the Shakti.
   An inert passivity is constantly confused with the real surrender, but out of an inert passivity nothing true and powerful can come. It is the inert passivity of physical Nature that leaves it at the mercy of every obscure or undivine influence. A glad and strong and helpful submission is demanded to the working of the Divine Force.

1954-08-25 - Ananda aspect of the Mother - Changing conditions in the Ashram - Ascetic discipline - Mothers body, #Questions And Answers 1954, #The Mother, #Integral Yoga
  Formerly, you see, we began with thirty-five, thirty-six; but even till a hundred and fifty, even till a hundred and fifty it was so like they were as though held in an egg-shell in my consciousness, so close, you know, that I could direct all their movements, both inner and outer, all the time, everything was under complete control, at every moment, night and day. And naturally, I believe, in those days they made some progress. It was altogether true that I did the sadhana for them, all the time! But then, you see, with this invasion, one cant do sadhana for little Chits of three or four or five, you understand. It is out of the questions; all I can do is to put the consciousness upon them and try to see that they grow up in the best possible conditions.
  So, this has an advantage. It is that instead of being so totally and passively dependent, each one must make his own little effort and, truly speaking, this is excellent!

1955-02-16 - Losing something given by Mother - Using things well - Sadhak collecting soap-pieces - What things are truly indispensable - Natures harmonious arrangement - Riches a curse, philanthropy - Misuse of things creates misery, #Questions And Answers 1955, #The Mother, #Integral Yoga
  Here, you know, we have a small Chit-pad1, and people write every month what they want; and then it happens that we were compelled to ration things because otherwise it was becoming something excessive. But this rationing often turned against its purpose.
  I remember visiting a sadhak in his room, it is now some twenty-five years ago or so. It is an old story. I remember it still. There was a rack hanging from the wall, a rack with five shelves; the rack was as big as this, and there were five shelves one above another and they were all all these shelves were full, over-full of tiny soap pieces. So I asked him, But for heavens sake, what are you doing with all these pieces of soap? Why do you have all these pieces of soap there? Why dont you use them? He said to me, Ah, we have the right to one cake of soap per month, so every month I ask for soap. It happens that I dont finish it in that month, I keep the pieces.

1955-07-13 - Cosmic spirit and cosmic consciousness - The wall of ignorance, unity and separation - Aspiration to understand, to know, to be - The Divine is in the essence of ones being - Realising desires through the imaginaton, #Questions And Answers 1955, #The Mother, #Integral Yoga
  Sweet Mother, it is the separation of Sat, Chit and Ananda which has brought about ignorance, suffering. Then
  Why did they separate? (Laughter)
  --
  But you cannot understand and be something unless it is in you in some way or other or you are in itits the same thing, isnt it? However, to make you understand more easily, I can say its because it is in you, because its a part of your consciousness, somewhere, otherwise you could never become aware of it. If one did not carry the Divine within oneself, in the essence of ones being, one could never become aware of the Divine; it would be an impossible venture. And then if you reverse the problem, the moment you conceive and feel in some way or other, or even, to begin with, admit that the Divine is in you, as well as you are in the Divine, then already this opens the door to realisation, just a little, not muchslightly ajar. Then if later the aspiration comes, the intense need to know and to be, then that intense need widens the opening until one can creep in. Then when one has crept in, one becomes aware of what he is. And thats exactly what Sri Aurobindo says, that one has forgotten, that due to this separation of Sat, Chit, Ananda, forgetfulness comes, forgetfulness of what one is; one thinks oneself to be somebody, you see, anyone at all, a boy, a girl, a man, a woman, a dog, a horse, anything at all, a stone, the sea, the sun; one believes oneself to be all this, instead of thinking oneself the One Divinebecause, in fact, if one had continued thinking oneself the One Divine, there would have been no universe at all.
  That was what I wanted to tell him (indicating a child), that this phenomenon of separation seems to be indispensable for a universe to be there, otherwise it would always have remained as it was. But if we re-establish the unity, after having made it pass through this curve, you see, if we re-establish the unity, having benefited from the multiplicity, the division, then we have a unity of a higher quality, a unity which knows itself instead of the unity which doesnt have to know itself, for theres nothing which may know the other. When the Oneness is absolute, who can know the Oneness? We must at least be able to have an image, an appearance of something which is not it in order to understand what it is. I believe that this is the secret of the universe. Perhaps the Divine wanted really to know Himself, so He threw Himself out and then looked at Himself, and now He wants to enjoy this possibility of being Himself with the full knowledge of Himself. This becomes much more interesting.

1956-03-28 - The starting-point of spiritual experience - The boundless finite - The Timeless and Time - Mental explanation not enough - Changing knowledge into experience - Sat-Chit-Tapas-Ananda, #Questions And Answers 1956, #The Mother, #Integral Yoga
  It is always said that at the beginning of the Manifestation there is Sachchidananda, and it is put in this order: first, Sat, that is to say, pure Existence; then Chit, the self-awareness of this Existence; and Ananda, the delight of Existence which makes it continue. But between this Chit and Ananda, there is Tapas, that is to say, the self-realising Chit. And when one becomes this Tapas, the Tapas of things, one has the knowledge which gives the power to change. The Tapas of things is what governs their existence in the Manifestation.
  When one is there, one has the feeling of so tremendous a power!It is the universal power. One has the feeling of a total mastery over the universe.

1f.lovecraft - The Dunwich Horror, #Lovecraft - Poems, #unset, #Zen
   away Chittering in daemoniac laughter; but if they fail, they subside
   gradually into a disappointed silence.

1.rt - A Hundred Years Hence, #Tagore - Poems, #Rabindranath Tagore, #Poetry
  A transcreation of the poem 1400 Sal (The year 1400) from the collection Chitra by Rabindranath Tagore.
  It was written on the 2nd of Falgun (first month of spring), 1302 (1895-96), of the Bengali calendar. Translated by Kumud Biswas.

1.rt - Old Letters, #Tagore - Poems, #Rabindranath Tagore, #Poetry
  Transcreation of the poem Dekhilam khankoy puratan Chithi - from the collection Smaran by Rabindranath Tagore. Written after the premature death of his wife. Transcreation by Kumud Biswas.
   Translated by Kumud Biswas

1.rt - Urvashi, #Tagore - Poems, #Rabindranath Tagore, #Poetry
  Transcreation of the poem 'Urvashi' from the collection Chitra by Rabindranath. Transcreation by Kumud Biswas.
   Translated by Kumud Biswas

1.srm - The Necklet of Nine Gems, #unset, #Arthur C Clarke, #Fiction
   English version by Ivan M. Granger Original Language Tamil 1. In the court, Siva, though motionless, dances before Shakti in stillness. In Arunachala, with solemnity, He stands. She withdraws there into His still Self. 2. 'A,' 'Ru,' and 'Na' Sat, Chit, and Ananda -- the Supreme Self, the individual self -- their union is Absolute; Thus, the great saying -- 'You are That.' 'Achala' bespeaks perfection. Worship Arunachala shining, golden; simply remembering unlocks the door. 3. Touching the lotus feet of the Lord of Arunachala, freed from attachment to wealth, family, place, ever purer, seeking grace -- darkness recedes. In the rising sun, golden, steady, full of grace, there abide, joyously sunk in the Sea of Bliss. 4. Annamalai! Don't let me pine forgetful. Don't crush me to dust, leaving me confused between body and Self. Turn Your restoring glance upon me, eye of my eyes! You Who are all Consciousness, You Who are neither male nor female, don't fail me! Seat Yourself in my heart. 5. You Who are all Consciousness, ruling over sublime Shonagiri, forgive the stumblings of this little one. Rain Cloud, shower me with Your gracious glance. Save me from being lost once more in the dreary waste. I cannot ford the grim stream of manifestation. Mother, what can match Your care? 6. 'Killer of Kama, Destroyer of Desire,' tied to You we know Your name. A question, though, if the title fits: How can mighty Kama continue, bold and conquering? How can he creep unseen upon one sheltered beneath Your feet? Tell me, You Who killed him? 7. Arunachala! As soon as You claimed me, I was Yours, body and soul. What is left to want? You are success and You are failure both, Oh my life! They are meaningless without You. Beloved, do as You will with me, but promise me ever greater desire for Your Feet! 8. To rescue me -- born of virtuous Sundara and Sundari in holy Tiruchuli, seat of Bhuminatheshware -- from the pain of the world, He raised me to his seat, His heart rejoices. Siva shines forth. And the Self flowers. Such is Arunachala, known across the universe! 9. Bearing me in the world as my father and mother, You hid in my mind. Before I drowned in the deep illusion, You drew me, Arunachala, You Who are All Consciousness, such is the wonder of Your Grace! <
20.01 - Charyapada - Old Bengali Mystic Poems, #Collected Works of Nolini Kanta Gupta - Vol 05, #Nolini Kanta Gupta, #Integral Yoga
   Queen = the Divine Consciousness-Power. Chit-Shakti. King = the ignorant being (Purusha) that normally rules the ignorant nature.
   squares = fullness, integrality of life. Kali, Mother Nature, is said to have 64 yoginis, powers and instruments. There are also 64 arts (kalas) embellishing a full life.

2.01 - On Books, #Evening Talks With Sri Aurobindo, #unset, #Zen
   There are, beyond mind, three Absolutes the Ananda, the Chit-Tapas, that is, the Consciousness and Power aspect, and the Sat, the Being. These three really are Absolute, Infinite and One.
   But when you begin to deal with the movements of Ananda, movements of Consciousness and Force in manifestation here then you have to distinguish and differentiate between high and low, true and false movements.
  --
   Even in knowing physical phenomena, the yogi's way of knowing is different from that of the scientist. For instance, when I light a match I do not know the chemical composition of the match, and how it burns when struck. But I feel and know beforehand whether it will light or not, or whether it will do the work intended of it, and that is enough for me. I know it because I am in contact with the force that is in it, the Sat and the Chit in movement there.
   The yogi's way of dealing with these physical forces is also different from that of the scientist. Take, for instance, the fire that broke out in Tokyo. What the scientist would do is to multiply means and organise devices to prevent and put out the fire. What the Yogi would do in the same case is that he would feel the spirit of fire approaching and, putting forth his force, he would be able to prevent the fire from breaking out in his vicinity.
  --
   Sri Aurobindo: Generally the yogis of the traditional school wanted to get away from Nature into a kind of Absolute, either of Sat or Chit or of Ananda. So long as they remained in that experience they felt they were in a high spiritual condition. But they hardly cared to organise anything on the lower planes. So whenever they had to deal with the forces of Nature they had to come down and meet them on the same level. As they came down they felt they had lost their high spiritual condition.
   Disciple: It was probably because of this that they were against the use of spiritual power.

2.02 - Brahman, Purusha, Ishwara - Maya, Prakriti, Shakti, #The Life Divine, #Sri Aurobindo, #Integral Yoga
  Brahman the Reality is the self-existent Absolute and Maya is the Consciousness and Force of this self-existence; but with regard to the universe Brahman appears as the Self of all existence, Atman, the cosmic Self, but also as the Supreme Self transcendent of its own cosmicity and at the same time individual-universal in each being; Maya can then be seen as the self-power, Atma-Shakti, of the Atman. It is true that when we first become aware of this Aspect, it is usually in a silence of the whole being or at the least in a silence within which draws back or stands away from the surface action; this Self is then felt as a status in silence, an immobile immutable being, self-existent, pervading the whole universe, omnipresent in all, but not dynamic or active, aloof from the ever mobile energy of Maya. In the same way we can become aware of it as the Purusha, separate from Prakriti, the Conscious Being standing back from the activities of Nature. But this is an exclusive concentration which limits itself to a spiritual status and puts away from it all activity in order to realise the freedom of Brahman the self-existent Reality from all limitation by its own action and manifestation: it is an essential realisation, but not the total realisation. For we can see that the Conscious-Power, the Shakti that acts and creates, is not other than the Maya or all-knowledge of Brahman; it is the Power of the Self; Prakriti is the working of the Purusha, Conscious Being active by its own Nature: the duality then of Soul and WorldEnergy, silent Self and the creative Power of the Spirit, is not really something dual and separate, it is biune. As we cannot separate Fire and the power of Fire, it has been said, so we cannot separate the Divine Reality and its Consciousness-Force, Chit-Shakti. This first realisation of Self as something intensely silent and purely static is not the whole truth of it, there can also be a realisation of Self in its power, Self as the condition of world-activity and world-existence. However, the Self is a fundamental aspect of Brahman, but with a certain stress on its impersonality; therefore the Power of the Self has the appearance of a Force that acts automatically with the Self sustaining it, witness and support and originator and enjoyer of its activities but not involved in them for a moment. As soon as we become aware of the Self, we are conscious of it as eternal, unborn, unembodied, uninvolved in its workings: it can be felt within the form of being, but also as enveloping it, as above it, surveying its embodiment from above, adhyaks.a; it is omnipresent, the same in everything, infinite and pure and intangible for ever. This Self can be experienced as the Self of the individual, the Self of the thinker, doer, enjoyer, but even so it always has this greater character; its individuality is at the same time a vast universality or very readily passes into that, and the next step to that is a sheer transcendence or a complete and ineffable passing into the Absolute. The Self is that aspect of the Brahman in which it is intimately felt as at once individual, cosmic, transcendent of the universe. The realisation of the Self is the straight and swift way towards individual liberation, a static universality, a
  Nature-transcendence. At the same time there is a realisation of Self in which it is felt not only sustaining and pervading and enveloping all things, but constituting everything and identified in a free identity with all its becomings in Nature. Even so, freedom and impersonality are always the character of the Self.
  --
  Self, or to the too anthropomorphic character our conceptions attach to the Supreme Being as Ruler. It is evident that we are looking at an Infinite of which the Self-Power is capable of many movements, all of them valid. If we look again more largely and take account of both the impersonal and the personal truth of things as one truth, if in that light, the light of personality in impersonality, we see the biune aspect of Self and Self-Power, then in the Person Aspect a dual Person emerges, Ishwara-Shakti, the Divine Self and Creator and the Divine Mother and Creatrix of the universe; there becomes apparent to us the mystery of the masculine and feminine cosmic Principles whose play and interaction are necessary for all creation. In the superconscient truth of the Self-Existence these two are fused and implied in each other, one and indistinguishable, but in the spiritual-pragmatic truth of the dynamism of the universe, they emerge and become active; the Divine Mother Energy as the universal creatrix, Maya, Para-Prakriti, Chit-Shakti, manifests the cosmic Self and Ishwara and her own self-power as a dual principle; it is through her that the Being, the Self, the Ishwara, acts and he does nothing except by her; though his Will is implicit in her, it is she who works out all as the supreme Consciousness-Force who holds all souls and beings within her and as executive Nature; all exists and acts according to Nature, all is the Consciousness-Force manifesting and playing with the Being in millions of forms and movements into which she casts his existence. If we draw back from her workings, then all can fall into quiescence and we can enter into the silence, because she consents to cease from her dynamic activity; but it is in her quiescence and silence that we are quiescent and cease. If we would affirm our independence of
  Nature, she reveals to us the supreme and omnipresent power of the Ishwara and ourselves as beings of his being, but that power is herself and we are that in her supernature. If we would realise a higher formation or status of being, then it is still through her, through the Divine Shakti, the Consciousness-Force of the Spirit that it has to be done; our surrender must be to the Divine Being through the Divine Mother for it is towards or into the supreme Nature that our ascension has to take place and it can only be done by the supramental Shakti taking up our mentality and transforming it into her supramentality. Thus we see that there is no contradiction or incompatibility between these three aspects of Existence, or between them in their eternal status and the three modes of its Dynamis working in the universe. One Being, one Reality as Self bases, supports, informs, as Purusha or Conscious Being experiences, as Ishwara wills, governs and possesses its world of manifestation created and kept in motion and action by its own Consciousness-Force or Self-Power, - Maya, Prakriti, Shakti.

2.02 - On Letters, #Evening Talks With Sri Aurobindo, #unset, #Zen
   Some questions were put to Sri Aurobindo about a sadhak in Chittagong who wanted to give Sadhana-initiation into Yoga to others.
   Sri Aurobindo: X was never a great sadhak and he is not fit to give initiation.
  --
   A letter from Y (who was also in Chittagong), was read, containing "an analysis of Yoga".
   Sri Aurobindo: It is not all nonsense, though he has put the things pell-mell. It is very difficult to practise this Yoga if the outer instruments are not prepared to express the inner being. There are people who get something in their psychic being and immediately it tries to force its way out. But the outer members are not able to bear it and the whole thing breaks up.
  --
   There was a letter from a sadhak at Chittagong describing his experience and asking for guidance.
   Sri Aurobindo: You can write to him that the idea prevalent, but mistaken, at Chittagong is that Yoga means seeing visions and that it is something mysterious and miraculous, or receiving suggestions. This is a great mistake. The aim of Yoga is not seeing visions but to change the consciousness.
   There are many kinds of visions. Some visions are only images, some are forms taken by our vital desires, or they are images of mental thoughts. Often they are our own creations; they do not correspond to any Truth. True visions are very rare and they can't be completely understood unless one has the right discernment and great purity in the being. I would like all people interested in our Yoga to understand this thing. Such visions as they have been seeing obviously show that they are creations of their vital desires that have taken form. Such visions have no value whatever from the point of view of Sadhana. In Yoga one has to be prepared for dry work which is very necessary: the purification of the entire being and then the discipline of self-mastery and self-control. He must reject those false visions. He must aspire for some more solid things.
  --
   A wire from Krishnashashi was received, informing Sri Aurobindo that he was dead. It was sent under the name 'Jyoti'. This wire was contradicted by Mohini from Chittagong.
   A disciple from Madras sent a copy of the Theosophist. It contained lectures and the latest declaration by Mrs. Besant about Krishnamurty's avatarhood and the descent of the world-teacher in him.
  --
   Sri Aurobindo: Iknow those visions. They are just what our Chittagong people are getting, they are full of imaginations. They are not visions that come to one, but those which one creates for oneself by pressure. One man told me that I have to close my eyes and begin to imagine I am in another's body and I shall be at once in that plane. I tried it once and saw it is very easy. You can construct the history of the world from the remotest past without much difficulty.
   Disciple: Do these people do any Sadhana?
  --
   Sri Aurobindo: It has no features. The only thing that can be said about it is: Sat, Chit, Ananda.
   Disciple: Does it indicate the passive or the active state of the Being?
  --
   Sri Aurobindo: The Jiva is something more than the psychic being. The psychic being is behind the heart; while the Jiva is high above, connected with the Central Being. It is that which on every level of consciousness becomes the Purusha, the Prakriti and the personalities of Nature. The psychic being, one may say, is the soul-personality. The psychic being most purely reflects the Divine in the lower triplicity of mind, life and body. There are four higher levels: Sat, Chit, Ananda and Vijnana; they are in Knowledge, while below in the three levels mind, life and body there is a mixture of ignorance and knowledge. The psychic being is behind the mind, life and body; it is most open to the higher Truth; that is why it is indispensable for the manifestation of the Divine.
   The psychic being alone can open itself completely to the Truth. This is so because the movements of the lower parts mind, life and body are full of defects, errors and mixtures and, however sincere they may be and however hard they may try to transform themselves into movements of the Truth, they cannot do it unless the psychic being comes to their help. Of course, these lower parts have their own sincerity.

2.02 - THE EXPANSION OF LIFE, #The Phenomenon of Man, #Pierre Teilhard de Chardin, #Christianity
  consolidated by Chitin or calcareous matter, the second by
  cellulose, they, too, succeeded in breaking out of their watery

2.02 - The Ishavasyopanishad with a commentary in English, #Isha Upanishad, #unset, #Zen
  one capacity of Paramatman as Chit-Mahadev-Prajna (Tamas,
  Sthanu). His other capacity is that of destruction, for He is the

2.03 - DEMETER, #The Phenomenon of Man, #Pierre Teilhard de Chardin, #Christianity
  ment of the organs, an external, Chitinous skeleton is a bad solu-
  tion. In spite of repeated moultings it imprisons the organs :

2.03 - Karmayogin A Commentary on the Isha Upanishad, #Isha Upanishad, #unset, #Zen
  bliss, knowledge is lost in Chit or absolute Consciousness, works
  are lost in Sat or absolute Existence. But as Isha or Shakti, He

2.03 - On Medicine, #Evening Talks With Sri Aurobindo, #unset, #Zen
   Disciple: There is A, from Chittagong, who wants a reply to his letter. He is already having a hut there for his Sadhana.
   Sri Aurobindo: Idon't understand why a hut is necessary.

2.03 - THE MASTER IN VARIOUS MOODS, #The Gospel of Sri Ramakrishna, #Sri Ramakrishna, #Hinduism
  MASTER: "This is the lingasarira, or embodied soul. It consists of manas, buddhi, Chitta, and Ahamkra."
  DEVOTEE: "Who is the embodied soul?"
  MASTER: "It is the tman bound by the eight fetters. And what is the Chitta? It is the 'I-consciousness' that says, 'Aha!'"
  What happens after death

2.04 - ADVICE TO ISHAN, #The Gospel of Sri Ramakrishna, #Sri Ramakrishna, #Hinduism
  "Sri Krishna is the Purusha and Radha the Prakriti, the Chitakti, the dyakti. Radha is the Prakriti, the embodiment of the three Guns. Sattva, rajas, and tamas are in her. As you remove the layers of an onion, you will first see tints of both black and red, then only red, and last of all only white.
  The Vaishnava scriptures speak of 'Kam-Radha', 'Prem-Radha', and 'Nitya-Radha'.
  --
  "The Brahman of Vednta and the Chitakti are identical, like water and its wetness. The moment you think of water you must also think of its wetness, and the moment you think of water's wetness you must also think of water. Or it is like the snake and its wriggling motion. The moment you think of the snake you must a1so think of its wriggling motion, and the moment you think of the snake's wriggling motion you must also think of the snake. When do I call the Ultimate Reality by the name of Brahman?
  When It is actionless or unattached to action. When a man puts on a cloth he remains the same man as when he was naked. He was naked; now he is clothed. He may be naked again. There is poison in the snake, but it doesn't harm the snake. It is poison to him who is bitten by the snake.
  --
  "Names and forms are nothing but the manifestations of the power of Prakriti. Sita said to Hanuman: 'My child, in one form I am Sita, in another form I am Rma. In one form I am Indra, in another I am IndRani. In one form I am Brahma, in another, Brahmani. In one form I am Rudra, in another, Rudrani.' Whatever names and forms you see are nothing but the manifestations of the power of Chitakti. Everything is the power of Chitakti-even meditation and he who meditates. As long as I feel that I am meditating, I am within the jurisdiction of Prakriti. (To M.) Try to assimilate what I have said. One should hear what the Vedas and the Puranas say, and carry it out in life.
  (To the pundit) "It is good to live in the company of holy men now and then. The disease of worldliness has become chronic in man. It is mitigated, to a great extent, in holy company.

2.04 - On Art, #Evening Talks With Sri Aurobindo, #unset, #Zen
   Sri Aurobindo: I wanted to know if the word has a fixed connotation. If it has not, then one can use the word Chaitya Purusha for the psychic being. It has the advantage of carrying both the functions of the psychic being: it is the direct portion of the Divine in the human and it is also the being that is behind the Chitta.
   Disciple: There is an idea of publishing some of your old writings.

2.05 - VISIT TO THE SINTHI BRAMO SAMAJ, #The Gospel of Sri Ramakrishna, #Sri Ramakrishna, #Hinduism
  The night was dark but illuminated with myriads of lights. The carriage came to the Chitpur road, which was also brightly lighted. The people moved in lines like ants. The crowd looked at the gaily decorated stores and stalls on both sides of the road. There were sweetmeat store and perfume stalls. Pictures, beautiful and gaudy, hung from the walls. Well-dressed shopkeepers sprayed the visitors with rose-water. The carriage stopped in front of a perfume stall. The Master looked at the pictures and lights and felt happy like a child. People were talking loudly. He cried out; "Go forward! Move on!" He laughed. He said to Baburam with a loud laugh: "Move on! What are you doing?" The devotees laughed too. They understood that the Master wanted them to move forward to God and not to be satisfied with their present state.
  The carriage drove on. The Master noticed that M. had brought some cloths for him. M.

2.07 - The Upanishad in Aphorism, #Isha Upanishad, #unset, #Zen
  Nature is Chit-Shakti, the Lord's expressive power of selfawareness, by which whatever He sees in Himself, becomes in form of consciousness.
  Every thing in Nature is a becoming of the one Spirit who alone is Being. We and all things in Nature are God's becomings, sarvabhutani.
  --
  Nature is composed of Being, Will or Force, Creative Bliss, Pure Idea, Mind, Life and Matter, - Sat, Chit or Tapas, Ananda, Vijnanam, Manas, Prana and Annam.
  The Soul, Purusha, can seat itself in any of these principles and, according to its situation, its outlook changes and it sees a different world; all world is merely arranged and harmonised outlook of the Spirit.
  --
  Death, suffering & ignorance are circumstances of the mind in the vitalised body and do not touch the consciousness of the soul in vijnana, ananda, Chit & sat. The combination of the three lower members, mind, life & body, is called therefore aparardha, the lower kingdom or in Christian parlance the kingdom of death & sin, the four higher members are called parardha, the higher kingdom, or in Christian parlance, the kingdom of heaven. To liberate man from death, suffering & ignorance and impose the all-blissful & luminous nature of the higher kingdom upon the lower is the object of the Seer in the Isha Upanishad.
  This liberation is to be effected by dissolving the waking ego into the Lord's divine being and experiencing entirely our unity with all other existences & with Him who is God, Atman & Brahman.

2.08 - God in Power of Becoming, #Essays On The Gita, #Sri Aurobindo, #Integral Yoga
  Rakshasas, the serpent Ananta among the Nagas, Agni among the Vasus, Chitraratha among the Gandharvas, Kandarpa the love-God among the progenitors, Varuna among the peoples of the sea, Aryaman among the Fathers, Narada among the divine sages, Yama lord of the Law among those who maintain rule and law, among the powers of storm the Wind-God. At the other end of the scale I am the radiant sun among lights and splendours, the moon among the stars of night, the ocean among the flowing waters, Meru among the peaks of the world, Himalaya among the mountain-ranges, Ganges among the rivers, the divine thunderbolt among weapons. Among all plants and trees I am the
  Aswattha, among horses Indra's horse Uchchaihsravas, Airavata

2.1.01 - The Central Process of the Sadhana, #Letters On Yoga II, #Sri Aurobindo, #Integral Yoga
  The object of the sadhana is opening of the consciousness to the Divine and the change of the nature. Meditation or contemplation is one means to this but only one means; bhakti is another; work is another. Chittashuddhi was practised by the Yogis as a first means towards realisation and they got by it the saintliness of the saint and the quietude of the sage. But the transformation of the nature of which we speak is something more than that, and this transformation does not come by contemplation alone; works are necessary, Yoga in action is indispensable.
  ***

2.1.02 - Classification of the Parts of the Being, #Letters On Yoga I, #Sri Aurobindo, #Integral Yoga
  In the ancient Indian system there is only one triune supernal, Sachchidananda. Or if you speak of the upper hemisphere as the supernal, there are three, Sat plane, Chit plane and Ananda plane. The Supermind could be added as a fourth, as it draws upon the other three and belongs to the upper hemisphere. The
  Indian systems did not distinguish between two quite different powers and levels of consciousness, one which we can call Overmind and the other the true Supermind or Divine Gnosis. That is the reason why they got confused about Maya (OvermindForce or Vidya-Avidya) and took it for the supreme creative power. In so stopping short at what was still a half-light they lost the secret of transformation - even though the Vaishnava and Tantra Yogas groped to find it again and were sometimes on the verge of success. For the rest, this, I think, has been the stumbling-block of all attempts at the discovery of the dynamic divine Truth; I know of none that has not imagined, as soon as it felt the Overmind lustres descending, that this was the true illumination, the gnosis, - with the result that they either stopped short there and could get no farther, or else concluded that this too was only Maya or Lila and that the one thing to do was to get beyond it into some immovable and inactive Silence of the Supreme.
  --
  Jiva. But in our system which seeks to go beyond the present manifestation, these could very well be taken for granted and, looked at from the point of view of the planes of consciousness, the three highest - Ananda (with Sat and Chit resting upon it),
  Supermind and Overmind - might be called the three Supernals.

2.1.02 - Nature The World-Manifestation, #Essays Divine And Human, #Sri Aurobindo, #Integral Yoga
  The Supreme is not manifest to our minds encased in matter; numberless superphysical planes separate our terrestrial consciousness from all direct touch of our Source, and there can be no question of an unveiled immediate intimate presence and guidance of that Ineffable. And yet the Divine Consciousness and Force, the everlasting Chitshakti, the original Power, the transcendent and eternal Mother, because she holds the Supreme concealed in her, can put us into some kind of touch with that inexpressible Glory and communicate to us a highest Will and its consequence. This cannot be done through the mind; for the thinking mind can only form some inadequate and quite abstract conception of an Absolute or a supreme Person or an impersonal Principle or Presence. And even the higher mind that experiences returns only a pale reflection of Sachchidananda which it takes for that Ineffable or a vague sense of the Eternal or the Infinite. It cannot lay hold upon That and it cannot enter, for if it tries, either that vanishes from it or itself it disappears in a featureless trance, extinction, annihilation, void or dissolution, nirvikalpa samadhi, nirvana, vinasha, shunya, laya. But what the mind cannot do, the soul and a great secret Overmind
  [can.]
  --
   Chitshakti not mind has created the world. Chitshakti is the thing which the Scientists call in its various aspects Force & Energy, but it is no material Force or Energy, it is the divine power of self-conscious Being forming itself not materially, not in substance of matter but in the substance of that self-consciousness into these images of form and force which make up the world.
  What we call world, is a harmony of things seen not by the individual mind or even by universal mind, but rather seen through universal mind, as through a reflecting medium, by the Eye of divine Being. The eye that sees is immaterial, the things seen are
  --
  The object and condition of Life is Ananda; the means of Ananda is Tapas; the nature of Tapas is Chit; the continent and basis of
   Chit is Sat. It is therefore by a process of Sat developing its own
  Ananda through Tapas which is Chit that the Absolute appears as the extended, the eternal as the evolutionary, Brahman as the world. He who would live perfectly must know Life, he who would know Life, must know Sacchidananda.
  Pleasure is not Ananda; it is a half-successful attempt to grasp at Ananda by means which ensure a relapse into pain.
  --
  Bliss, not to realise it with the lower nature, in the Apara Prakriti, not to be able to grasp and possess it. Two things are necessary for the fullness of man's bliss, - the fullness of his being and the fullness of his knowledge creating by their union the fullness of his strength in all its manifestations, viryam, balam, bhrajas, tejas, ojas. For Ananda, Sat & Chit make one reality, and Chit is in its outward working pure force to which our Rishis gave the name of Tapas. To attain even here upon earth this fullness of bliss dependent upon fullness of existence, illumination and force, must always be humanity's drift, man's collective endeavour. To attain it within himself here and beyond, iha ca amutra ca, must always be the drift of the human unit, the individual's endeavour. Wherever the knowledge in him thinks it can grasp this bliss, it will fix its heaven. This is Swarga,
  Vaikuntha, Goloka; this is Nirvana.

21.03 - The Double Ladder, #Collected Works of Nolini Kanta Gupta - Vol 06, #Nolini Kanta Gupta, #Integral Yoga
   Now from where did this speck of light or consciousness come? Indeed, from where did come the dead dust-particle itself? The rishis declare that the origin of things, of the whole creation is Sat, Being, pure Being, absolute Existence. It is absolute unity, indivisibility, immobility. It has two other fundamental qualities, Chit or Consciousness and Ananda or Delight, but fused into the Being and one with it. However, in this Being there occurred a movement, a stirring, which meant a division in the indivisibility. This urge to division sent the Being rushing head forward, as it were, right down into its opposite, the dead material being, inconscient matter where it pulverised itself into infinite infinitesimal particles, the two standing as though at opposite poles. But the original division - apart from its first downward rectilinear dash so to say - had another chequered career. It was also a gradual movement of fission, or a process of genealogical multiplication as it were. Division meant subdivision leading to further subdivisions, stretching ad infinitumdownwards, towards regions more and more impure, imperfect, narrow and dense, of lesser and lesser values till we reach the bedrock of them all, the earth. I may give here a picture or illustration of what the process of division and subdivision was like. In the first original gesture the One Supreme Being divided into a double Existence - Ishwara and Ishwari. They further subdivided themselves, that is to say, sent down - In the gradation of consciousness - parts and portions, personalities and emanations of themselves in diminishing values. In the present cycle of terrestrial evolution, Sri Aurobindo says, four are the powers of the supreme Ishwari that have come forward to guide and effectuate the destiny of the hour. They are the supreme effective Powers, they are from - what is called - the Supramental Consciousness. But they have sent down into the still lower regions nearer to the human consciousness, more easily available to it, other forms and figures of the divine Personality. They are chiefly the gods of the Overmind who are interested in the human destiny and some of them appear as presiding deities or Ishta-devata and establish individual relations with men.
   Now this process of devolution has gone on; from the supreme Consciousness, it has entered into the Supramental, then into the Overmental and then into the mental regions, and peopled all of them with gods and divinities. In the lower regions - lower, that is to say, denser, obscurer, and more ignorant forms of consciousness - they have become smaller gods, dwarf gods. Perhaps to these also the Vedic Rishis offered their namasand stoma,their obeisance as blakhilyagods. The gods have come down farther still and proliferated liberally in the earth's atmosphere. The gods and goddesses of the woodland, of rivers and springs, of mounts and hills, form a whole world of mythology - they are not mere creations of fancy or abstract imagination. The totems of the primitive people continue the same story of proliferation into still darker and denser regions of being and consciousness that may rather be called non-being and unconsciousness. And even, I may say if I am allowed to, the world of rocks and stones is not excluded: they too in their solid material dead body enshrine something of the god in devolution.

2.12 - The Origin of the Ignorance, #The Life Divine, #Sri Aurobindo, #Integral Yoga
   phenomenon of the dynamic action of Force of Consciousness, not an essential fact but a creation, a consequence of that action, it is this Force aspect of Consciousness that it will be fruitful to consider. Absolute consciousness is in its nature absolute power; the nature of Chit is Shakti: Force or Shakti concentrated and energised for cognition or for action in a realising power effective or creative, the power of conscious being dwelling upon itself and bringing out, as it were, by the heat of its incubation6 the seed and development of all that is within it or, to use a language convenient to our minds, of all its truths and potentialities, has created the universe. If we examine our own consciousness, we shall see that this power of its energy applying itself to its object is really the most positive dynamic force it has; by that it arrives at all its knowledge and its action and its creation. But for us there are two objects on which the dynamism within can act, ourselves, the internal world, and others, whether creatures or things, the external world around us. To Sachchidananda this distinction with its effective and operative consequences does not apply in the same way as for us, because all is himself and within himself and there is no such division as we make by the limitations of our mind. Secondly, in us only a part of the force of our being is identified with our voluntary action, with our will engaged in mental or other activity, the rest is to our surface mental awareness involuntary in its action or subconscient or superconscient, and from this division also a great number of important practical consequences emerge: but in Sachchidananda this division too and its consequences do not apply, since all is his one indivisible self and all action and result
  6 Tapas means literally heat, afterwards any kind of energism, askesis, austerity of conscious force acting upon itself or its object. The world was created by Tapas in the form, says the ancient image, of an egg, which being broken, again by Tapas, heat of incubation of conscious force, the Purusha emerged, Soul in Nature, like a bird from the egg. It may be observed that the usual translation of the word tapasya in English books, "penance", is quite misleading - the idea of penance entered rarely into the austerities practised by Indian ascetics. Nor was mortification of the body the essence even of the most severe and self-afflicting austerities; the aim was rather an overpassing of the hold of the bodily nature on the consciousness or else a supernormal energising of the consciousness and will to gain some spiritual or other object.

2.12 - The Realisation of Sachchidananda, #The Synthesis Of Yoga, #Sri Aurobindo, #Integral Yoga
  In fact all these opposite terms are merely general conditions for the manifestation of conscious being in that Transcendent who is always one not only behind, but within all conditions however apparently opposite. And the original unifying spirit-stuff of them all and the one substantial mode of them all is that which has been described for the convenience of our thought as the trinity of Sachchidananda. Existence, Consciousness, Bliss, these are everywhere the three inseparable divine terms. None of them is really separate, though our mind and our mental experience can make not only the distinction, but the separation. Mind can say and think "I was, but unconscious", -- for no being can say "I am, but unconscious", -and it can think and feel "I am, but miserable and without any pleasure in existence." In reality this is impossible. The existence we really are, the eternal "I am", of which it can never be true to say "It was", is nowhere and at no time unconscious. What we call unconsciousness is simply other-consciousness; it is the going in of this surface wave of our mental awareness of outer objects into our subliminal self-awareness and into our awareness too of other planes of existence. We are really no more unconscious when we are asleep or stunned or drugged or "dead" or in any other state, than when we are plunged in inner thought oblivious of our physical selves and our surroundings. For anyone who has advanced even a little way in Yoga, this is a most elementary proposition and one which offers no difficulty whatever to the thought because it is proved at every point by experience. It is more difficult to realise that existence and undelight of existence cannot go together. What we call misery, grief, pain, absence of delight is again merely a surface wave of the delight of existence which takes on to our mental experience these apparently opposite tints because of a certain trick of false reception in our divided being -- which is not our existence at all but only a fragmentary formulation or discoloured spray of conscious-force tossed up by the infinite sea of our self-existence. In order to realise this we have to get away from our absorption in these surface habits, these petty tricks of our mental being, -- and when we do get behind and away from them it is surprising how superficial they are, what ridiculously weak and little-penetrating pin-pricks they prove to be, -- and we have to realise true existence, and true consciousness, and true experience of existence and consciousness, Sat, Chit and Ananda.
   Chit, the divine Consciousness, is not our mental self-awareness; that we shall find to be only a form, a lower and limited mode or movement. As we progress and awaken to the soul in us and things, we shall realise that there is a consciousness also in the plant, in the metal, in the atom, in electricity, in everything that belongs to physical nature; we shall find even that it is not really in all respects a lower or more limited mode than the mental, on the contrary it is in many "inanimate" forms more intense, rapid, poignant, though less evolved towards the surface. But this also, this consciousness of vital and physical Nature is, compared with Chit, a lower and therefore a limited form, mode and movement. These lower modes of consciousness are the conscious-stuff of inferior planes in one indivisible existence. In ourselves also there is in our subconscious being an action which is precisely that of the "inanimate" physical Nature whence has been constituted the basis of our physical being, another which is that of plant-life, and another which is that of the lower animal creation around us. All these are so much dominated and conditioned by the thinking and reasoning conscious-being in us that we have no real awareness of these lower planes; we are unable to perceive in their own terms what these parts of us are doing, and receive it very imperfectly in the terms and values of the thinking and reasoning mind. Still we know well enough that there is an animal in us as well as that which is characteristically human, -something which is a creature of conscious instinct and impulse, not reflective or rational, as well as that which turns back in thought and will on its experience, meets it from above with the light and force of a higher plane and to some degree controls, uses and modifies it. But the animal in man is only the head of our subhuman being; below it there is much that is also sub-animal and merely vital, much that acts by an instinct and impulse of which the constituting consciousness is withdrawn behind the surface. Below this sub-animal being, there is at a further depth the subvital. When we advance in that ultra-normal self-knowledge and experience which Yoga brings with it, we become aware that the body too has a consciousness of its own; it has habits, impulses, instincts, an inert yet effective will which differs from that of the rest of our being and can resist it and condition its effectiveness. Much of the struggle in our being is due to this composite existence and the interaction of these varied and heterogeneous planes on each other. For man here is the result of all evolution and contains in himself the whole of that evolution up from the merely physical and subvital conscious being to the mental creature which at the top he is.
  But this evolution is really a manifestation and just as we have in us these subnormal selves and subhuman planes, so are there in us above our mental being supernormal and superhuman planes. There Chit as the universal conscious-stuff of existence takes other poises, moves out in other modes, on other principles and by other faculties of action. There is above the mind, as the old Vedic sages discovered, a Truth-plane, a plane of self-luminous, self-effective Idea, which can be turned in light and force upon our mind, reason, sentiments, impulses, sensations and use and control them in the sense of the real Truth of things just as we turn our mental reason and will upon our sense-experience and animal nature to use and control them in the sense of our rational and moral perceptions. There is no seeking, but rather natural possession; no conflict or separation between will and reason, instinct and impulse, desire and experience, idea and reality, but all are in harmony, concomitant, mutually effective, unified in their origin; in their development and in their effectuation. But beyond this plane and attainable through it are others in which the very Chit itself becomes revealed. Chit the elemental origin and primal completeness of all this varied consciousness which is here used for various formation and experience. There will and knowledge and sensation and all the rest of our faculties, powers, modes of experience are not merely harmonious, concomitant, unified, but are one being of consciousness and power of consciousness. It is this Chit which modifies itself so as to become on the Truth-plane the supermind, on the mental plane the mental reason, will, emotion, sensation, on the lower planes the vital or physical instincts, impulses, habits of an obscure force not in superficially conscious possession of itself. All is Chit because all is Sat; all is various movement of the original Consciousness because all is various movement of the original Being.
  When we find, see or know Chit, we find also that its essence is Ananda or delight of self-existence. To possess self is to possess self-bliss; not to possess self is to be in more or less obscure search of the delight of existence. Chit eternally possesses its self-bliss; and since Chit is the universal conscious-stuff of being, conscious universal being is also in possession of conscious self-bliss, master of the universal delight of existence. The Divine whether it manifests itself in All-Quality or in No-Quality, in Personality or Impersonality, in the One absorbing the Many or in the One manifesting its essential multiplicity, is always in possession of self-bliss and all-bliss because it is always Sachchidananda. For us also to know and possess our true Self in the essential and the universal is to discover the essential and the universal delight of existence, self-bliss and all-bliss. For the universal is only the pouring out of the essential existence, consciousness and delight; and wherever and in whatever form that manifests as existence, there the essential consciousness must be and therefore there must be an essential delight.
  The individual soul does not possess this true nature of itself or realise this true nature of its experience, because it separates itself both from the essential and the universal and identifies itself with the separate accidents, with the unessential form and mode and with the separate aspect and vehicle. Thus it takes its mind, body, life-stream for its essential self. It tries to assert these for their own sake against the universal, against that of which the universal is the manifestation. It is right in trying to assert and fulfil itself in the universal for the sake of something greater and beyond, but wrong in attempting to do so against the universal and in obedience to a fragmentary aspect of the universal. This fragmentary aspect or rather collection of fragmentary experiences it combines around an artificial centre of mental experience, the mental ego, and calls that itself and it serves this ego and lives for its sake instead of living for the sake of that something greater and beyond of which all aspects, even the widest and most general are partial manifestations. This is the living in the false and not the true self; this is living for the sake of and in obedience to the ego and not for the sake of and in obedience to the Divine. The question how this fall has come about and for what purpose it has been done, belongs to the domain of Sankhya rather than of Yoga. We have to seize on the practical fact that to such self-division is due the self-limitation by which we have become unable to possess the true nature of being and experience and are therefore in our mind, life and body subject to ignorance, incapacity and suffering. Non-possession of unity is the root cause; to recover unity is the sovereign means, unity with the universal and with that which the universal is here to express. We have to realise the true self of ourselves and of all; and to realise the true self is to realise Sachchidananda.

2.13 - The Difficulties of the Mental Being, #The Synthesis Of Yoga, #Sri Aurobindo, #Integral Yoga
  But in arriving to these planes or deriving from them the limitations of our mentality pursue us. In the first place the mind is an inveterate divider of the indivisible and its whole nature is to dwell on one thing at a time to the exclusion of others or to stress it to the subordination of others. Thus in approaching Sachchidananda it will dwell on its aspect of the pure existence, Sat, and consciousness and bliss are compelled then to lose themselves or remain quiescent in the experience of pure, infinite being which leads to the realisation of the quietistic Monist. Or it will dwell on the aspect of consciousness, Chit, and existence and bliss become then dependent on the experience of an infinite transcendent Power and Conscious-Force, which leads to the realisation of the Tantric worshipper of Energy. Or it will dwell on the aspect of delight, Ananda, and existence and consciousness then seem to disappear into a bliss without basis of self-possessing awareness or constituent being, which leads to. the realisation of the Buddhistic seeker of Nirvana. Or it will dwell on some aspect of Sachchidananda which comes to the mind from the supramental Knowledge, Will or Love, and then the infinite impersonal aspect of Sachchidananda is almost or quite lost in the experience of the Deity which leads to the realisations of the various religions and to the possession of some supernal world or divine status of the human soul in relation to God. And for those whose object is to depart anywhi ther from cosmic existence, this is enough, since they are able by the mind's immergence into or seizure upon any one of these principles or aspects to effect through status in the divine planes of their mentality or the possession by them of their waking state this desired transit.
  But the Sadhaka of the integral Yoga has to harmonise all so that they may become a plenary and equal unity of the full realisation of Sachchidananda. Here the last difficulty of mind meets him, its inability to hold at once the unity and the multiplicity. It is not altogether difficult to arrive at and dwell in a pure infinite or even, at the same time, a perfect global experience of the Existence which is Consciousness which is Delight. The mind may even extend its experience of this Unity to the multiplicity so as to perceive it immanent in the universe and in each object, force, movement in the universe or at the same time to be aware of this Existence-Consciousness-Bliss containing the universe and enveloping all its objects and originating all its movements. It is difficult indeed for it to unite and harmonise rightly all these experiences; but still it can possess Sachchidananda at once in himself and immanent in all and the continent of all. But with this to unite the final experience of all this as Sachchidananda and possess objects, movements, forces, forms as no other than He, is the great difficulty for mind. Separately any of these things may be done; the mind may go from one to the other, rejecting one as it arrives at another and calling this the lower or that the higher existence. But to unify without losing, to integralise without rejecting is its supreme difficulty.

2.14 - On Movements, #Evening Talks With Sri Aurobindo, #unset, #Zen
   Disciple: One can easily prove that you were present at Bhavanipore, Chittagong and Pondicherry simultaneously!
   Sri Aurobindo: You see, you have in this example the explanation of how the Swami appeared at three places! (Laughter)
  --
   Disciple: Nowadays the Chittagong people have left off writing letters.
   Disciple: Except K who sent an unpaid letter which I refused to accept without asking you.

2.15 - On the Gods and Asuras, #Evening Talks With Sri Aurobindo, #unset, #Zen
   Sri Aurobindo: There is the Supreme beyond description, who manifests himself as Sat, Chit, Ananda; in this Sat is the universal individuality of beings. Then comes the Supermind with its four Maha Shaktis, great powers. In the Supermind unity is the governing principle.
   Then comes the world of the Gods, below the Supermind and behind the manifestation. The Gods of the Hindu culture Shiva, Vishnu, etc. are names and representations in the mind, but they point to the Gods who represent the Divine Principles governing the manifestation of the universe. There is a hierarchy of these beings.

2.15 - The Cosmic Consciousness, #The Synthesis Of Yoga, #Sri Aurobindo, #Integral Yoga
  This is when the mental being takes its station in its own spiritual planes, in the mental planes of Sat, Chit, Ananda, and casts down their light and delight upon the lower existence. But it is possible to attempt to arrive at a kind of cosmic consciousness by dwelling on the lower planes themselves, breaking their limitation laterally, as we have said, and calling down into them the light and largeness of the higher existence. Not only Spirit is one, but Mind, Life, Matter are one. There is one cosmic Mind, one cosmic Life, one cosmic Body. All the attempt of man to arrive at universal sympathy, universal love and the understanding and knowledge of the inner soul of other existences is an attempt to beat thin, breach and eventually break down, by the power of the enlarging mind and heart the walls of the ego and arrive nearer to a cosmic oneness. And if we can by the mind and heart get at the touch of the Spirit, receive the powerful inrush of the Divine into this lower humanity and change our nature into a reflection of the divine nature by love, by universal joy, by oneness of mind with all Nature and all beings, we can break down the walls. Even our bodies are not really separate entities and therefore our very physical consciousness is capable of oneness with the physical consciousness of others and of the cosmos. The Yogin is able to feel his body one with all bodies, to be aware of and even to participate in their affections; he can feel constantly the unity of all Matter and be aware of his physical being as only a movement in its movement398. Still more is it possible for him to feel constantly and normally the whole sea of the infinite life as his true vital existence and his own life as only a wave of that boundless surge. And more easily yet is it possible for him to unite himself in mind and heart with all existences, be aware of their desires, struggles, joys, sorrows, thoughts, impulses, in a sense as if they were his own, at least as occurring in his larger self hardly less intimately or quite as intimately as the movements of his own heart and mind. This too is a realisation of cosmic consciousness.
  It may even seem as if it were the greatest oneness, since it accepts all that we can be sensible of in the mind-created world as our own. Sometimes one sees it spoken of as the highest achievement. Certainly, it is a great realisation and the path to a greater. It is that which the Gita speaks of as the accepting of all existences as if oneself whether in grief or in joy; it is the way of sympathetic oneness and infinite compassion by which the Buddhist arrives at his Nirvana. Still there are gradations and degrees. In the first stage the soul is still subject to the reactions of the duality, still subject therefore to the lower prakriti; it is depressed or hurt by the cosmic suffering, elated by the cosmic joy. We suffer the joys of others, suffer their griefs, and this oneness can be carried even into the body, as in the story of the Indian saint who, seeing a bullock tortured in the field by its cruel owner, cried out with the creature's pain and the weal of the lash was found reproduced on his own flesh. But there must be a oneness in the freedom of Sachchidananda as well as with the subjection of the lower being to the reactions of prakriti. This is achieved when the soul is free and superior to the cosmic reactions which are then felt in the life, mind and body as an inferior movement; the soul understands, accepts, sympathises, but is not overpowered or affected, so that even the mind and body learn also to accept without being overpowered or even affected except on their surface. And the consummation of this movement is when the two spheres of existence are no longer divided and the mind, life and body grow into the spirit's freedom from the lower or ignorant response to the cosmic touches and the subjection to the duality ceases. This does not mean insensibility to the struggles and sufferings of others, but it does mean a spiritual supremacy and freedom which enables one to understand perfectly, put the right values on things and heal from above instead of struggling from below. It does not inhibit the divine compassion and helpfulness, but it does inhibit the human and animal sorrow and suffering.

2.16 - Oneness, #The Synthesis Of Yoga, #Sri Aurobindo, #Integral Yoga
  By way of this integral knowledge we arrive at the unity of the aims set before themselves by the three paths of knowledge, works and devotion. Knowledge aims at the realisation of true self-existence, works at the realisation of the divine Conscious-Will which secretly governs all works, devotion at the realisation of the Bliss which enjoys as the Lover all beings and all existences, -- Sat, Chit-Tapas and Ananda. Each therefore aims at possessing Sachchidananda through one or other aspect of his triune divine nature. By Knowledge we arrive always at our true, eternal, immutable being, the self-existent which every "I" in the universe obscurely represents, and we abrogate difference in the great realisation, so'ham, I am He, while we arrive also at our identity with all other beings.
  But at the same time the integral knowledge gives us the awareness of that infinite existence as the conscious-force which creates and governs the worlds and manifests itself in their works; it reveals the Self-existent in his universal conscious-will as the Lord, the Ishwara. It enables us to unite our will with His, to realise His will in the energies of all existences and to perceive the fulfilment of these energies of others as part of our own universal self-fulfilment. Thus it removes the reality of strife and division and opposition and leaves only their appearances. By that knowledge therefore we arrive at the possibility of a divine action, a working which is personal to our nature, but impersonal to our being, since it proceeds from That which is beyond our ego and acts only by its universal sanction. We proceed in our works with equality, without bondage to works and their results, in unison with the Highest, in unison with the universal, free from separate responsibility for our acts and therefore unaffected by their reactions. This which we have seen to be the fulfilment of the path of Works becomes thus an annexe and result of the path of Knowledge.

2.17 - The Soul and Nature, #The Synthesis Of Yoga, #Sri Aurobindo, #Integral Yoga
  Purusha and prakriti in their union and duality arise from the being of Sachchidananda. Self-conscious existence is the essential nature of the Being; that is Sat or Purusha: the Power of self-aware existence, whether drawn into itself or acting in the works of its consciousness and force, its knowledge and its will, Chit and Tapas, Chit and its shakti, -- that is prakriti. Delight of being, Ananda, is the eternal truth of the union of this conscious being and its conscious force whether absorbed in itself or else deployed in the inseparable duality of its two aspects, unrolling the worlds and viewing them, acting in them and upholding the action, executing works and giving the sanction without which the force of Nature cannot act, executing and controlling the knowledge and the will and knowing and controlling the determinations of the knowledge-force and will-force, ministering to the enjoyment and enjoying, -- the Soul possessor, observer, knower, lord of Nature, Nature expressing the being, executing the will, satisfying the self-knowledge, ministering to the delight of being of the soul. There we have, founded on the very nature of being, the supreme and the universal relation of prakriti with Purusha. The absolute joy of the soul in itself and, based upon that, the absolute joy of the soul in Nature are the divine fulfilment of the relation.
  author class:Sri Aurobindo

2.18 - January 1939, #Evening Talks With Sri Aurobindo, #unset, #Zen
   Sri Aurobindo: No, even in what you call Pure Being, Consciousness is there, only it is held back, or is inactive so to say; while in Chit that aspect is in front.
   Disciple: In these matters using mental terms always creates confusion because, as you have so often said, Sachchidananda is the prime Reality and no part of it can be thought of as separate.

2.19 - THE MASTER AND DR. SARKAR, #The Gospel of Sri Ramakrishna, #Sri Ramakrishna, #Hinduism
  MAHIMA: "The path of Sat, which is the path of knowledge. Next, the path of Chit, of yoga, of karma yoga, which includes the duties and functions of the four stages of life.
  Last, the path of nanda, the path of devotion and ecstatic love. You are an adept in all three paths; you can speak of them all with authority."

2.2.03 - The Psychic Being, #Letters On Yoga I, #Sri Aurobindo, #Integral Yoga
  2 The Chitta and the psychic part are not in the least the same. Chitta is a term in a quite different category, something from which are thrown up to be combined and set in action the main movements of our external consciousness, and to know it we need not go deep behind our surface or external nature. Category means here another class of psychological factors, tattva-vibhaga. The psychic belongs to one class or category
  - supermind, mind, life, psychic, physical - which covers both the inner and the outer nature. Chitta belongs to quite another class or category - buddhi, manas, Chitta, prana etc. - which is the classification made by ordinary Indian psychology; it covers only the psychology of the external being. In this category it is the main functions of our external consciousness only that are coordinated and put in their place by the Indian thinkers; Chitta is one of these main functions of the external consciousness and, therefore, to know it we need not go behind the external nature.
  The Psychic Being

2.20 - Nov-Dec 1939, #Evening Talks With Sri Aurobindo, #unset, #Zen
   Reason can perceive that there is something beyond itself that is the Truth. But it is not right when it asserts that what it perceives is the whole Truth. Truth is infinite and it has infinite sides. What can be known by the mind is Sat, Chit, Ananda. In other words, when the Absolute presents itself to the mind it formulates itself as Sachchidananda. One can know the Absolute through that only.
   15 DECEMBER 1939 (Evening)

2.22 - 1941-1943, #Evening Talks With Sri Aurobindo, #unset, #Zen
   The article by K. C. Varadachari was in answer to Malkani's. Does the term Chit in Ramanuja's philosophy mean the surface consciousness?
   Narayana, the Absolute, is indissolubly connected with the manifestation. You can't know him even if he has an existence independent of his manifestation.

2.24 - THE MASTERS LOVE FOR HIS DEVOTEES, #The Gospel of Sri Ramakrishna, #Sri Ramakrishna, #Hinduism
  Om. I am neither mind, intelligence, ego, nor Chitta,
  Neither ears nor tongue nor the senses of smell and sight;

2.25 - AFTER THE PASSING AWAY, #The Gospel of Sri Ramakrishna, #Sri Ramakrishna, #Hinduism
  Om. I am neither mind, intelligence, ego, nor Chitta,
  Neither ears nor tongue nor the senses of smell and sight.

2.25 - List of Topics in Each Talk, #Evening Talks With Sri Aurobindo, #unset, #Zen
   | 06-03-26 | 'divine marriage'; Chittagong centre; oratory and thought |
   | 12-03-26 | Bhawanipore centre; Siddhi and effort; Bhakti Yoga; seeing Light; Hatha Yoga |

2.3.02 - The Supermind or Supramental, #Letters On Yoga I, #Sri Aurobindo, #Integral Yoga
   to start here from the beginning as the direct creative Power, a world of the kind we see now would be impossible; it would have been full of the divine Light from the beginning, there would be no involution in the inconscience of Matter, consequently no gradual striving evolution of consciousness in Matter. A line is therefore drawn between the higher half of the universe of consciousness, parardha, and the lower half, aparardha. The higher half is constituted of Sat, Chit, Ananda, Mahas (the supramental) - the lower half of mind, life, Matter. This line is the intermediary Overmind which, though luminous itself, keeps from us the full indivisible supramental Light, depends on it indeed, but in receiving it, divides, distributes, breaks it up into separated aspects, powers, multiplicities of all kinds, each of which it is possible by a further diminution of consciousness such as we reach in Mind to regard as the sole or the chief
  Truth and all the rest as subordinate or contradictory to it.

2.3.03 - The Overmind, #Letters On Yoga I, #Sri Aurobindo, #Integral Yoga
  Divine [Personal and Impersonal] is a creation of the Overmind which takes various aspects of the Divine and separates them into separate entities. Thus it divides Sat, Chit and Ananda, so that they become three separate aspects different from each other. In fact in the Reality there is no separateness, the three aspects are so fused into each other, so inseparably one that they are a single undivided reality. It is the same with the Personal and Impersonal, the Saguna and Nirguna, the Silent and the
  Active Brahman. In the Reality they are not contrasted and incompatible aspects; what we call Personality and what we call

2.3.06 - The Mind, #Letters On Yoga I, #Sri Aurobindo, #Integral Yoga
  Manas is the sense mind, that which perceives physical objects and happenings through the senses and forms mental percepts about them and mental reactions to them; it also observes the reactions of the Chitta, feelings, emotions, sensations etc. (which belong to what in the system of this Yoga is called the vital).
  Buddhi is the thinking mind which stands above and behind all these things, reflects, judges, decides what is to be thought or done or not done, what is right or wrong, true or false etc. At least that is what it should do in all independence, but usually it is obscured by the vital movements, desires etc. and its ideas and judgments are not pure.
  --
  The Chitta is the general stuff of mental consciousness which supports Manas and everything else - it is an indeterminate consciousness which gets determined into thoughts and
  The Mind
  --
  There is no special plane of Chitta. Chitta in the language of the old Yogas meant the stuff of consciousness out of which thought, will, memory, emotion, desire, sensation all arise - all these are called Chittavritti, movements of the Chitta. It was distinguished from Chit, the higher or divine consciousness.
  Usually the word [ Chitta] is employed for the general surface consciousness in which thoughts, feelings, desires, emotions, sensations (these being called Chittavritti) arise. There is therefore no special location. Its function is to receive the impacts of the world and give back reactions which take the form of thoughts, feelings etc.
  The Chitta is not near the heart - if you mean the substance of the lower consciousness, it has no particular place. All things of this life are there in this stuff of consciousness, but the memory of past lives is wrapped up and involved elsewhere. The heart is the main centre of this consciousness for most men, so of course you may feel its activities centred on that level.
   Chitta really means the ordinary consciousness including the mind, vital and physical - but practically it can be taken to mean something central in the consciousness. If that is centred in the Divine, the rest follows more or less quietly as a natural result.
  The Chitta receives these things [thoughts, desires, etc.], gives them for formation to the vital and mind and all is transmitted to the Buddhi, but also it receives thoughts from the Buddhi and
  172
  --
  Yes, certainly [the Chitta must stop catching influences from outside at random] - but as its whole business is to receive from above or below or around, it cannot stop doing it, it cannot of itself determine what it shall or shall not receive. It has to be assisted by the Buddhi, vital will or some higher power.
  Afterwards when the higher consciousness descends it begins to be transformed and capable of an automatic rejection of what is not true or right or divine or helpful to the growth of the divine in the being.
  The Chitta does not receive desires and sensations from the
  Buddhi. It takes thoughts from the Buddhi and turns them into desires.
  There is always or generally at least a modifying reaction [to thoughts, desires etc. from outside] in the Chitta - except when it simply receives and stores without passing them on to the instruments.
  If the word vasana is used in the original [the Yogavasishtha], it does not mean "desire". It means usually the idea or mental feeling rising from the Chitta, imaginations, impressions, memories etc., impressions of liking and disliking, of pain and pleasure.
  What Vasishtha wants to say is that while the ideas, impressions, impulsions that lead to action in an ordinary man rise from the Chitta, those that rise in the Jivanmukta come straight from the sattva - from the essential consciousness of the being - in other words they are not mental but spiritual formations. As one might say, instead of cittavr.tti they are sattvapreran.a, direct indications from the inner being of what is to be thought, felt or done.
  When the Chitta is no longer active and the mind silent - which
  The Mind
  --
  There is a subconscient action of the Chitta which keeps the past impression of things and sends up forms of them to the consciousness in dream or else keeps the habit of old movements and sends up these whenever it finds an opportunity.
  The Chitta is the consciousness out of which all is formed, but the formation is made by the mind or vital or other force - which are, as it were, the instruments of the Chitta for self-expression.
  Western Ideas of Mind and Spirit

2.3.10 - The Subconscient and the Inconscient, #Letters On Yoga I, #Sri Aurobindo, #Integral Yoga
  No - that [the record of Chitragupta] is quite different [from the cosmic subconscient], since it belongs to something where the records are precise and accurate. The subconscient is a suppressed and obscure seed state where things are emerging out of the indeterminate inconscience of original Nature but are yet fluent and imprecise, having all the potentiality of determination in them, but not yet determinate. The past things fall back into it not as memories, but as impressions which is a quite different thing. When they come up from there it is in all sorts of queer forms with variations and mixtures.
  There is very often a complaint of this kind [weakening of memory] made during the course of the sadhana. I suppose that the usual action of memory is for a time suspended by the mental silence or else by the physical tamas.

3.2.03 - To the Ganges, #Collected Poems, #Sri Aurobindo, #Integral Yoga
  In Chitore the jackals crowd:
  Krishna's Dwarca sleeps for ever, o'er its ruined bastions march

3.2.04 - Sankhya and Yoga, #Letters On Yoga II, #Sri Aurobindo, #Integral Yoga
  Stopping the movements of the Chitta [is what is meant by cittavttinirodha]. In our Yoga it is more necessary to transform these movements than to stop them altogether, but the power to stop them is necessaryit is usually done by the mind falling into silence and then imposing the same silence on the vital nature.
  ***
   Chit is the pure consciousnessas in Sat Chit Ananda.
   Chitta is the stuff of mixed mental-vital-physical consciousness out of which arise the movements of thought, emotion, sensation, impulse etc. It is these that in Patanjalis system have to be stilled altogether so that the consciousness may be immobile and go into samadhi.
  It [stopping the movements of the Chitta] has a different function [in this Yoga]. The movements of the ordinary consciousness have to be quieted and into the quietude there has to be brought down a higher consciousness and its powers which will transform the nature.
  ***
  If you suppress [the cittavttis], you will have no movements of the Chitta at all; all will be immobile until you remove the suppression or will be so immobile that there cannot be anything else than immobility.
  If you still, the Chitta will be quiet; whatever movements there are will not disturb the quietude.
  If you control or master, then the Chitta will be immobile when you want, active when you want, and its action will be such that what you wish to get rid of will go, only what you accept as true and useful will come.
  ***

3.2.06 - The Adwaita of Shankaracharya, #Letters On Yoga II, #Sri Aurobindo, #Integral Yoga
  The Shankara knowledge is, as your Guru pointed out, only one side of the Truth; it is the knowledge of the Supreme as realised by the spiritual Mind through the static silence of the pure Existence. It was because he went by this side only that Shankara was unable to accept or explain the origin of the universe except as illusion, a creation of Maya. Unless one realises the Supreme on the dynamic as well as the static side, one cannot experience the true origin of things and the equal reality of the active Brahman. The Shakti or Power of the Eternal becomes then a power of illusion only and the world becomes incomprehensible, a mystery of cosmic madness, an eternal delirium of the Eternal. Whatever verbal or ideative logic one may bring to support it, this way of seeing the universe explains nothing; it only erects a mental formula of the inexplicable. It is only if you approach the Supreme through his double aspect of Sat and Chit-Shakti, double but inseparable, that the total truth of things can become manifest to the inner experience. The other side was developed by the Shakta Tantrics. The two together, the Vedantic and the Tantric truth unified, can arrive at the integral knowledge.
  But philosophically this is what your Gurus teaching comes to and it is obviously a completer truth and a wider knowledge than that given by the Shankara formula. It is already indicated in the Gitas teaching of the Purushottama and the Parashakti (Adya Shakti) who becomes the Jiva and upholds the universe. It is evident that Purushottama and Parashakti are both eternal and are inseparable and one in being; the Parashakti manifests the universe, manifests too the Divine in the universe as the Ishwara and herself appears at his side as the Ishwari Shakti. Or, one may say, it is the Supreme Consciousness-Power of the Supreme that manifests or puts forth itself as Ishwara Ishwari, Atma Atmashakti, Purusha Prakriti, Jiva Jagat. That is the truth in its completeness as far as the mind can formulate it. In the Supermind these questions do not even arise for it is the mind that creates the problem by erecting oppositions between aspects of the Divine which are not really opposed to each other but are one and inseparable.
  --
   Chittashuddhi belongs to Rajayoga. In the pure Adwaita the method is rather to detach oneself by vichara and viveka and realise I am not the mind, not the life, etc. etc. In that case, no shuddhi would be necessary the self would separate from the nature good or bad and regard it as a machinery which having no more the support of the egoless man would fall away of itself along with the body. Of course Chittashuddhi can be resorted to also, but for cessation of the Chittavrittis, not for their better dynamism as an instrument of the Divine. Shankara insists that all karma must fall off before one can be liberated the soul must realise itself as akart, there is no salvation in or by works in the pure Yoga of knowledge. So how could Shankara recognise dynamism? Even if he recognises Chittashuddhi as necessary, it must be as a preparation for getting rid of karma, not for anything else.
    Writings attributed to Shankara such as Prabodhasudhkara. The correspondent asked whether Shankara changed his view from Mayavada to Lilavada later in his life.Ed.

33.05 - Muraripukur - II, #Collected Works of Nolini Kanta Gupta - Vol 07, #Nolini Kanta Gupta, #Integral Yoga
   Manoranjan's son Chittaranjan became for a time a centre of great excitement and violent agitation in those days. There was a session of the Bengal Provincial Conference at Barisal which was attended by all the leaders like Sri Aurobindo and Bepin Pal. But there came a clash with the Government, the police raided the pavilion and attacked 'the procession with lathis. The boy Chittaranjan went on shouting "Bande Mataram" as the police beat him mercilessly. He fell down wounded and covered with blood but he did not cease his "Bande Mataram". This raised a furious storm of protest throughout the country, which gave an opening to the terrorists too.
   This shining example of non-violent resistance occurred long before the Gandhian era. To us who were in favour of armed resistance this kind of forbearance seemed intolerable. When, after this incident, the journalists and the poets began to sing in chorus, of "Barisal of glorious virtue", we could not help adding with a little sting, "thanks to those beatings."

33.06 - Alipore Court, #Collected Works of Nolini Kanta Gupta - Vol 07, #Nolini Kanta Gupta, #Integral Yoga
   Sri Aurobindo had to devote a great deal of his time in jail to his counsel, Chittaranjan Das, for whatever he had to say had to be given in writing. I found they kept him supplied with foolscap sheets and a pencil in the court room itself, and he went on wrting out his statements there. He wrote quite a few pages every day. In these statements he had to explain in lengthy detail his ideas and ideals, the aims and policy of the Bandemataram and Yugantarpapers. Chittaranjan included all that in his speeches in court. Could the original manuscripts be recovered, they would be precious documents today.
   One day I mentioned to him that I had not had a chance to read English poetry for a long time and would like to have some. Could he help me? The very next day, he wrote out a new poem and handed it to me. As he had no paper to write it on, he had scribbled out the lines along the margins of an old letter! I was particularly impressed by the last two lines; of the rest I do not recall anything now. I need hardly add that the poem is now among the lost treasures.
  --
   Now let me conclude this story with a description of the last scene. We had all just sat down to our usual discussions as on any other day, when all on a sudden the court-room seemed to grow silent and still. Chittaranjan's voice rose slowly in a crescendo of measured tones. We all stood up and listened intently attentive in pin-drop silence as Chittaranjan went on speaking, as if divinely inspired and like one god-possessed:
   "He stands not only before the bar in this Court but stands before the bar of the High Court of History. Long after this turmoil, this agitation ceases, long after he is dead and gone, he will be looked upon as the poet of patriotism, as the prophet of nationalism and the lover of humanity. Long after he is dead and gone, his words will be echoed and re-echoed not only in India but across distant seas and lands."

37.03 - Satyakama And Upakoshala, #Collected Works of Nolini Kanta Gupta - Vol 08, #unset, #Zen
   However, in this Vedantic formula we miss one element of the supreme reality; Sat or Brahman is not only light and delight, it is also power, force, energy - tapas.Agni dwells not only on the three cosmic planes, the god has his own home in the supreme status. Sat, Being or Reality is Consciousness or Light; Consciousness is Delight; it is also Power, not only potential but dynamic Power, Energy. Sri Aurobindo therefore speaks of Chit-tapas.
   The omission, at least in the present context, could it be the shadow of the coming Mayavada? For, Mayavada declares that Power, Shakti is Maya, Illusion.

3 - Commentaries and Annotated Translations, #Hymns to the Mystic Fire, #Sri Aurobindo, #Integral Yoga
  bliss; Chit, pure or essential awareness; sat, pure or essential
  being. In the present stage of our evolution ordinary humanity
  --
  go beyond the ananda in the waking state, for the Chit and sat are
  only attainable in sushupti, because only the first five sheaths or
  --
  agent of desire; Chitta or receptive consciousness, which receives
  all impressions from without and within by tamasic reaction,
  --
  so that we remember with the Chitta everything noticed or unnoticed, but that knowledge is useless for our life owing to its lying
  enveloped in tamas; hrit or the rajasic reaction to impressions
  --
  and like manas, Chitta, hrit and prana is adhina, anisha, subject
  to sensation; reason or buddhi proper, (smriti or dhi, also called
  --
  mind, using Sat, Chit and ananda only, and reposing in the Sad
  Atma or in Vasudeva, then he is called the Paramhansa, one who
  --
  sahaituka Chit or tapas of knowledge; Brahma of the sahaituka
  sat; Agni of the sahaituka tapas etc. This is only an indication.
  --
  which is the basis of the Chitkosha; vidyut or electrical illumination, which is the basis of the anandakosha; and prakasha
  which is the basis of the satkosha. Each of the seven has its own
  --
  is Yajna - the Sat containing in it the Chit or Tapas and the
  Ananda. It must be remembered that while in the Aparardha
  --
  essential delight; in the Chit, essential energy, intelligence and
  will; in the Sat, essential truth or be-ness. The Sat is therefore
  --
  Indra. He proceeds straight from the Chit, which, when active, is
  known as mahatapas or chichchhakti, the energy of the essential
  --
  of all concentration of Chit, awareness (the sanyama of Patanjali) and it is by sanyama or concentration of awareness either
  on the object of awareness (rajayoga) or on itself (jnanayoga
  --
  The three terms of the parardha are sat, Chit and ananda. In
  sat, Chit abides and emerges from sat. As soon as it emerges, it
  generates the energy of chichchhakti which plays throughout the
  universe; this play, r&, is ananda in Chit and it emerges from Chit.
  All tapas therefore generates ananda, and the pure sahaituka
  --
  even Chit and Ananda are involved in mere featureless existence.
  Asad va idam agra asit, tatah sad ajayata. Atman is featureless,
  --
  actuality and truth, as an infinite active blissfulness of the Chit in
  the Sacchidananda in place of an infinite passive blissfulness. The
  --
  first as Chitta or mere receptive consciousness, then as manas or
  sensational consciousness without any self-conscious centre of
  --
  he has to develop Ananda, Chit and Sat, the higher hemisphere
  of cosmic consciousness. In the present stage of his evolution he
  can only develop consciously as far as Ananda with Sat & Chit
  implicit in Ananda; to Chit & Sat proper he cannot arrive in his
  waking state, but only in the deep trance of Sushupta Samadhi,
  --
  old recognised that divine consciousness on whatever level always creates for itself through Prakriti or Chit, its active creative
  knowledge, a world to live in & a body for its habitation in
  --
  Annam, Prana, Manas, Vijnanam, Ananda, Chit and Sat; these
  seven worlds are Bhuloka, Bhuvarloka, Swarloka, Maharloka,
  --
  seven bodies are the Annakosha, Pranakosha, Manahkosha, Vijnanakosha, Anandakosha, Chitkosha and Satkosha. In each
  520
  --
  Yajna is Being, Awareness and Bliss; He is Sat, with Chit and
  Ananda, because Chit & Ananda are inevitable in Sat. When in
  His Being, Awareness and Bliss He conceals guna or quality, He
  --
  power of Chit, - by His Awareness. It is because He becomes
  aware of things in Himself by some process of Chit that things
  are created, brought out, that is to say, srishta from His allcontaining non-manifest Being into His manifest Self. Power
  & awareness, Chit and Shakti are one, and though we speak
  for convenience' sake of the Power of Chit, & call it Chichchhakti, yet the expression should really be understood not as
  the Power of Chit, but as Chit that is Power. All awareness is
  power and all power conceals awareness. When Chit that is
  Power begins to work, then She manifests Herself as kinetic
  --
  all power is Chit subjectively, therefore all power is objectively
  attended with light; but there are different kinds of light, because
  there are different manifestations of Chit. Seven rays have cast
  out this apparent world from the Eternal Luminousness which
  --
  the cosmic falsehood. What then of Chitracravastamah? Has it
  no connection at all with the two preceding words or does it
  --
  vijnana, ideal knowledge, that he is Chitra, so rich & various in
  his perception in the prajnana, mental knowledge.
  --
  Similarly a@vy; from a@vr was originally the priest especially in charge of the materials of the oblation. fA-tA and potA also refer to sacrificial functions, the direction by controlling word of the ritual and the purification of the offerings. We can see how these functions are all combined in Agni. He is the hota, for Tapas is the chief agent both of action and of surrender to the divine power. He is adhwaryu, because he is dravinoda, it is Tapas which supplies all forms in the Universe & all forces and maintains them. He is prashasta; tapas controls & directs the actions of all creatures. He is pota, is pavaka; tapas of Chit supplies the knowledge & moral force which purify. He is purohita; Tapas is the agent of all our activity, which stands in front for the Purusha & does his works. He is ritwik; as jatavedas, tapas of Chit knows & arranges all action in its proper place and season.
  jn;qA. From jn^, as mn;q^ from mn^. All things born, all creatures: the accusative after fA-tA and potA. The word shows that
  --
  the emotional mind, then the movements of the prana & Chitta,
  passion, anger, feeling. For the same reason smoke is the sign in
  --
  is knowledge & knowledge whose force is strength, the ChitTapas from which he sprang; in that blaze of strength & light
  he holds up all the bright & rapturous formations of thought
  --
  the higher principles of Sat, Chit, Ananda & Tapas, the four
  great rivers, are active on the plane of mind and in free touch
  --
  Text. Asya shresht.ha subhagasya sandr.ig, devasya Chitratama
  martyeshu;
  --
  Sy. Chitratama. p$jnFyA. m\hnA. dAn\. m\hEtdAnkmA. With sandr.ig
   Chitra must surely mean bright, rich or curious. m\h^ means to be
  --
  11. Chittim a Chittim chinavad vi vidvan, pr.isht.heva vta
  vr.ijina cha martan;
  --
  knowledge in this Cosmic Force - for Force is only Chitshakti,
  working power of the Divine Consciousness & therefore Cosmic
  --
  bliss, felicity, Ananda. Divine Ananda is the inseparable companion of the divine strength and divine knowledge; Chit, Tapas &
  Ananda constitute the nature of Sat, the divine Being. The state
  --
  more precisely, Chit-shakti, & its nature in action is Tapas or
  the concentration of consciousness on action & its object or
  --
  precisely this Tapas or Chit-shakti, Conscious Being in concentration of action. It is then by Tapas or Will that Agni creates in
  us Knowledge. But how can Action be said to transform itself
  --
  Power, Chit-Shakti or Tapas in which divine Being or Sat formulates itself for cosmic activity; Mitra is the Lord of Love who
  with Bhaga, the Lord of Enjoyment, most intimately represents
  --
  Sat, Chit, Ananda (for Chit & Tapas are one) are the Vedic
  formula of divine Existence. By the action of Agni, kratwa, the
  --
  philosophy a formation by force of consciousness, Chit-shakti,
  not, as modern thought supposes it to be, a formation by Force
  --
  Knowledge & Ignorance, Chittam & A Chittam, Vidya & Avidya,
  consciousness illumined in the form it has taken as in the seer,
  --
  principles of Sat, Chit, Ananda, there is universal knowledge,
  unlimited, inherent in the self-luminous unity of the Cosmic

4.05 - The Instruments of the Spirit, #The Synthesis Of Yoga, #Sri Aurobindo, #Integral Yoga
   Chitta, the basic consciousness, is largely subconscient; it has, open and hidden, two kinds of action, one passive or receptive, the other active or reactive and formative. As a passive power it receives all impacts, even those of which the mind is unaware or to which it is inattentive, and it stores them in an immense reserve of passive subconscient memory on which the mind as an active memory can draw. But ordinarily the mind draws only what it had observed and understood at the time, -- more easily what it had observed well and understood carefully, less easily what it had observed carelessly or ill understood; at the same time there is a power in consciousness to send up to the active mind for use what that mind had not at all observed or attended to or even consciously experienced. This power only acts observably in abnormal conditions, when some part of the subconscious Chitta comes as it were to the surface or when the subliminal being in us appears on the threshold and for a time plays some part in the outer chamber of mentality where the direct intercourse and commerce with the external world takes place and our inner dealings with ourselves develop on the surface. This action of memory is so fundamental to the entire mental action that it is sometimes said, memory is the man. Even in the submental action of the body and life, which is full of this subconscient Chitta, though not under the control of the conscious mind, there is a vital and physical memory. The vital and physical habits are largely formed by this submental memory. For this reason they can be changed to an indefinite extent by a more powerful action of conscious mind and will, when that can be developed and can find means to communicate to the subconscient Chitta the will of the spirit for a new law of vital and physical action. Even, the whole constitution of our life and body may be described as a bundle of habits formed by the past evolution in Nature and held together by the persistent memory of this secret consciousness. For Chitta, the primary stuff of consciousness, is like Prana and body universal in Nature, but is subconscient and mechanical in nature of Matter.
  But in fact all action of the mind or inner instrument arises out of this Chitta or basic consciousness, partly conscient, partly subconscient or subliminal to our active mentality. When it is struck by the world's impacts from outside or urged by the reflective powers of the subjective inner being, it throws up certain habitual activities, the mould of which has been determined by our evolution. One of these forms of activity is the emotional mind, -- the heart, as we may call it for the sake of a convenient brevity. Our emotions are the waves of reaction and response which rise up from the basic consciousness, cittavrtti. Their action too is largely regulated by habit and an emotive memory. They are not imperative, not laws of Necessity; there is no really binding law of our emotional being to which we must submit without remedy; we are not obliged to give responses of grief to certain impacts upon the mind, responses of anger to others, to yet others responses of hatred or dislike, to others responses of liking or love. All these things are only habits of our affective mentality; they can be changed by the conscious will of the spirit; they can be inhibited; we may even rise entirely above all subjection to grief, anger, hatred, the duality of liking and disliking. We are subject to these things only so long as we persist in subjection to the mechanical action of the Chitta in the emotive mentality, a thing difficult to get rid of because of the power of past habit and especially the importunate insistence of the vital part of mentality, the nervous life-mind or psychic Prana. This nature of the emotive mind as a reaction of Chitta with a certain close dependence upon the nervous life-sensations and responses of the psychic Prana is so characteristic that in some languages it is called Chitta and Prana, the heart, the life soul; it is indeed the most directly agitating and powerfully insistent action of the desire-soul which the immixture of vital desire and responsive consciousness has created in us. And yet the true emotive soul, the real psyche in us, is not a desire-soul, but a soul of pure love and delight; but that, like the rest of our true being, can only emerge when the deformation created by the life of desire is removed from the surface and is no longer the characteristic action of our being. To get that done is a necessary part of our purification, liberation, perfection.
  The nervous action of the psychic Prana is most obvious in our purely sensational mentality. This nervous mentality pursues indeed all the action of the inner instrument and seems often to form the greater part of things other than sensation. The emotions are especially assailed and have the pranic stamp; fear is even more of a nervous sensation than an emotion, anger is largely or often a sensational response translated into terms of emotion. Other feelings are more of the heart, more inward, but they ally themselves to the nervous and physical longings or outward-going impulses of the psychic Prana. Love is an emotion of the heart and may be a pure feeling, -- all mentality, since we are embodied minds, must produce, even thought produces, some kind of life effect and some response in the stuff of body, but they need not for that reason be of a physical nature, -- but the heart's love allies itself readily with a vital desire in the body. This physical element may be purified of that subjection to physical desire which is called lust, it may become love using the body for a physical as well as a mental and spiritual nearness; but love may, too, separate itself from all, even the most innocent physical element, or from all but a shadow of it, and be a pure movement to union of soul with soul, psyche with psyche. Still the proper action of the sensational mind is not emotion, but conscious nervous response and nervous feeling and affection, impulse of the use of physical sense and body for some action, conscious vital craving and desire. There is a side of receptive response, a side of dynamic reaction. These things get their proper normal use when the higher mind is not mechanically subject to them, but controls and regulates their action. But a still higher state is when they undergo a certain transformation by the conscious will of the spirit which gives its right and no longer its wrong or desire form of characteristic action to the psychic Prana.
  Manas, the sense mind, depends in our ordinary consciousness on the physical organs of receptive sense for knowledge and on the organs of the body for action directed towards the objects of sense. The superficial and outward action of the senses is physical and nervous in its character, and they may easily be thought to be merely results of nerve-action; they are sometimes called in the old books pranas, nervous or life activities. But still the essential thing in them is not the nervous excitation, but the consciousness, the action of the Chitta, which makes use of the organ and of the nervous impact of which it is the channel. Manas, sense-mind, is the activity, emerging from the basic consciousness, which makes up the whole essentiality of what we call sense. Sight, hearing, taste, smell, touch are really properties of &e; mind, not of the body; but the physical mind which we ordinarily use, limits itself to a translation into sense of so much of the outer impacts as it receives through the nervous system and the physical organs. But the inner Manas has also a subtle sight, hearing, power of contact of its own which is not dependent on the physical organs. And it has, moreover, a power not only of direct communication of mind with object, -- leading even at a without remedy; we are not obliged to give responses of grief to certain impacts upon the mind, responses of anger to others, to yet others responses of hatred or dislike, to others responses of liking or love. All these things are only habits of our affective mentality; they can be changed by the conscious will of the spirit; they can be inhibited; we may even rise entirely above all subjection to grief, anger, hatred, the duality of liking and disliking. We are subject to these things only so long as we persist in subjection to the mechanical action of the Chitta in the emotive mentality, a thing difficult to get rid of because of the power of past habit and especially the importunate insistence of the vital part of mentality, the nervous life-mind or psychic Prana. This nature of the emotive mind as a reaction of Chitta with a certain close dependence upon the nervous life-sensations and responses of the psychic Prana is so characteristic that in some languages it is called Chitta and Prana, the heart, the life soul; it is indeed the most directly agitating and powerfully insistent action of the desire-soul which the immixture of vital desire and responsive consciousness has created in us. And yet the true emotive soul, the real psyche in us, is not a desire-soul, but a soul of pure love and delight; but that, like the rest of our true being, can only emerge when the deformation created by the life of desire is removed from the surface and is no longer the characteristic action of our being. To get that done is a necessary part of our purification, liberation, perfection.
  The nervous action of the psychic Prana is most obvious in our purely sensational mentality. This nervous mentality pursues indeed all the action of the inner instrument and seems often to form the greater part of things other than sensation. The emotions are especially assailed and have the pranic stamp; fear is even more of a nervous sensation than an emotion, anger is largely or often a sensational response translated into terms of emotion. Other feelings are more of the heart, more inward, but they ally themselves to the nervous and physical longings or outward-going impulses of the psychic Prana. Love is an emotion of the heart and may be a pure feeling, -- all mentality, since we are embodied minds, must produce, even thought produces, some kind of life effect and some response in the stuff of body, but they need not for that reason be of a physical nature, -- but the heart's love allies itself readily with a vital desire in the body. This physical element may be purified of that subjection to physical desire which is called lust, it may become love using the body for a physical as well as a mental and spiritual nearness; but love may, too, separate itself from all, even the most innocent physical element, or from all but a shadow of it, and be a pure movement to union of soul with soul, psyche with psyche. Still the proper action of the sensational mind is not emotion, but conscious nervous response and nervous feeling and affection, impulse of the use of physical sense and body for some action, conscious vital craving and desire. There is a side of receptive response, a side of dynamic reaction. These things get their proper normal use when the higher mind is not mechanically subject to them, but controls and regulates their action. But a still higher state is when they undergo a certain transformation by the conscious will of the spirit which gives its right and no longer its wrong or desire form of characteristic action to the psychic Prana.
  Manas, the sense mind, depends in our ordinary consciousness on the physical organs of receptive sense for knowledge and on the organs of the body for action directed towards the objects of sense. The superficial and outward action of the senses is physical and nervous in its character, and they may easily be thought to be merely results of nerve-action; they are sometimes called in the old books pranas, nervous or life activities. But still the essential thing in them is not the nervous excitation, but the consciousness, the action of the Chitta, which makes use of the organ and of the nervous impact of which it is the channel. Manas, sense-mind, is the activity, emerging from the basic consciousness, which makes up the whole essentiality of what we call sense. Sight, hearing, taste, smell, touch are really properties of the mind, not of the body; but the physical mind which we ordinarily use, limits itself to a translation into sense of so much of the outer impacts as it receives through the nervous system and the physical organs. But the inner Manas has also a subtle sight, hearing, power of contact of its own which is not dependent on the physical organs. And it has, moreover, a power not only of direct communication of mind with object, -- leading even at a high pitch of action to a sense of the contents of an object within or beyond the physical range, -- but direct communication also of mind with mind. Mind is able too to alter, modify, inhibit the incidence, values, intensities of sense impacts. These powers of the mind we do not ordinarily use or develop; they remain subliminal and emerge sometimes in an irregular and fitful action, more readily in some minds than in others, or come to the surface in abnormal states of the being. They are the basis of clairvoyance, clairaudience, transference of thought and impulse, telepathy, most of the more ordinary kinds of occult powers, -- so called, though these are better described less mystically as powers of the now subliminal action of the Manas. The phenomena of hypnotism and many others depend upon the action of this subliminal sense-mind; not that it alone constitutes all the elements of the phenomena, but it is the first supporting means of intercourse, communication and response, though much of the actual operation belongs to an inner Buddhi. Mind physical, mind supraphysical, -- we have and can use this double sense mentality.
  Buddhi is a construction of conscious being which quite exceeds its beginnings in the basic Chitta; it is the intelligence with its power of knowledge and will. Buddhi takes up and deals with all the rest of the action of the mind and life and body. It is in its nature thought-power and will-power of the Spirit turned into the lower form of a mental activity. We may distinguish three successive gradations of the action of this intelligence. There is first an inferior perceptive understanding which simply takes up, records, understands and responds to the communications of the sense-mind, memory, heart and sensational mentality. It creates by their means an elementary thinking mind which does not go beyond their data, but subjects itself to their mould and rings out their repetitions, runs round and round in the habitual circle of thought and will suggested by them or follows, with an obedient subservience of the reason to the suggestions of life, any fresh determinations which may be offered to its perception and conception. Beyond this elementary understanding, which we all use to an enormous extent, there is a power of arranging or selecting reason and will-force of the Intelligence which has for its action and aim an attempt to arrive at a plausible, sufficient, settled ordering of knowledge and will for the use of an intellectual conception of life.
  In spite of its more purely intellectual character this secondary or intermediate reason is really pragmatic in its intention. It creates a certain kind of intellectual structure, frame, rule into which it tries to cast the inner and outer life so as to use it with a certain mastery and government for the purposes of some kind of rational will. It is this reason which gives to our normal intellectual being our set aesthetic and ethical standards, our structures of opinion and our established norms of idea and purpose. It is highly developed and takes the primacy in all men of an at all developed understanding. But beyond it there is a reason, a highest action of the Buddhi which concerns itself disinterestedly with a pursuit of pure truth and right knowledge; it seeks to discover the real Truth behind life and things and our apparent selves and to subject its will to the law of Truth. Few, if any of us, can use this highest reason with any purity, but the attempt to do it is the topmost capacity of the inner instrument, the ahtahkarana.

4.05 - The Passion Of Love, #Of The Nature Of Things, #Lucretius, #Poetry
  Nor arrows of Venus- that a sorry Chit
  Of scanty grace will be beloved by man;

4.07 - Purification-Intelligence and Will, #The Synthesis Of Yoga, #Sri Aurobindo, #Integral Yoga
  In fact the Manas is a development from the external Chitta; it is a first organising of the crude stuff of the consciousness excited and aroused by external contacts, bahya-sparsa. What we are physically is a soul asleep in matter which has evolved to the partial wakefulness of a living body pervaded by a crude stuff of external conciousness more or less alive and attentive to the outward impacts of the external world in which we are developing our conscious being. In the animal this stuff of externalised consciousness organises itself into a well-regulated mental sense or organ of perceiving and acting mind. Sense is in fact the mental contact of the embodied consciousness with its surroundings. This contact is always essentially a mental phenomenon; but in fact it depends chiefiy upon the development of certain physical organs of contact with objects and with their properties to whose images it is able by habit to give their mental values. What we call the physical senses have a double element, the physical-nervous impression of the object and the mental-nervous value we give to it, and the two together make up our seeing, hearing, smell, taste, touch with all those varieties of sensation of which they, and the touch chiefiy, are the starting-point or first transmitting agency. But the Manas is able to receive sense impressions and draw results from them by a direct transmission not dependent on the physical organ. This is more distinct in the lower creation. Man, though he has really a greater capacity for this direct sense, the sixth sense in the mind, has let it fall into abeyance by an exclusive reliance on the physical senses supplemented by the activity of the Buddhi.
  The Manas is therefore in the first place an organiser of sense experience; in addition it organises the natural reactions of the will in the embodied consciousness and uses the body as an instrument, uses, as it is ordinarily put, the organs of action. This natural action too has a double element, a physico-nervous impulse and behind it a mental-nervous power-value of instinctive will-impulse. That makes up the nexus of first perceptions and actions which is common to all developing animal life. But in addition there is in the Manas or sense-mind a first resulting thought-element which accompanies the operations of animal life. Just as the living body has a certain pervading and possessing action of consciousness, citta, which forms into this sense-mind, so the sense-mind has in it a certain pervading and possessing power which mentally uses the sense data, turns them into perceptions and first ideas, associates experience with other experiences, and in some way or other thinks and feels and wills on the sense basis.
  --
  But what is this Buddhi? From the point of view of Yogic knowledge we may say that it is that instrument of the soul, of the inner conscious being in nature, of the Purusha, by which it comes into some kind of conscious and ordered possession both of itself and its surroundings. Behind all the action of the Chitta and Manas there is this soul, this Purusha; but in the lower forms of life it is mostly subconscient, asleep or half-awake, absorbed .in the mechanical action of Nature; but it becomes more and more awake and comes more and more forward as it rises in the scale of life. By the activity of the Buddhi it begins the process of an entire awakening. In the lower actions of the mind the soul suffers Nature rather than possesses her; for it is there entirely a slave to the mechanism which has brought it into conscious embodied experience. But in the Buddhi we get to something, still a natural instrumentation, by which yet Nature seems to be helping and arming the Purusha to understand, possess and master her.
  Neither understanding, possession nor mastery is complete, either because the Buddhi in us is itself still incomplete, only yet half developed and half formed, or because it is in its nature only an intermediary instrument and before we can get complete knowledge and mastery, we must rise to something greater than the Buddhi. Still it is a movement by which we come to the knowledge that there is a power within us greater than the animal life, a truth greater than the first truths or appearances perceived by the sense-mind, and can try to get at that truth and to labour towards a greater and more successful power of action and control, a more effective government both of our own nature and the nature of things around us, a higher knowledge, a higher power, a higher and larger enjoyment, a more exalted range of being. What then is the final object of this trend? Evidently, it must be for the Purusha to get to the highest and fullest truth of itself and of things, greatest truth of soul or self and greatest truth of Nature, and to an action and a status of being which shall be the result of or identical with that Truth, the power of this greatest knowledge and the enjoyment of that greatest being and consciousness to which it opens. This must be the final result of the evolution of the conscious being in Nature.

4.21 - The Gradations of the supermind, #The Synthesis Of Yoga, #Sri Aurobindo, #Integral Yoga
  Here the one thing that is always and constantly present, that which one has grown to and in which one lives always, is infinite being and all that is seen, felt, known, existed in as only substance of the one being; it is infinite consciousness and all that is conscious and acts and moves is seen, felt, received, known, lived in as self-experience and energy of the one being; it is infinite Ananda and all that feels and is felt is seen and felt and known, received and lived in as forms of the one Ananda. Everything else is only manifestation and circumstance of this one truth of our existence. This is no longer merely the seeing or knowing, but the very condition of the self in all and all in the self. God in all and all in God and all seen as God, and that condition is now not a thing offered to the reflecting spiritualised mind but held and lived by an integral, always present, always active realisation in the supramental nature. There is thought here and will and sensation and everything that belongs to our nature, but it is transfigured and elevated into a higher consciousness. All thought is here seen and experienced as a luminous body of substance, a luminous movement of force, a luminous wave of Ananda of the being; it is not an idea in the void air of mind, but experienced in the reality and as the light of a reality of the infinite being. The will and impulsions are similarly experienced as a real power and substance of the Sat, the Chit, the Ananda of the Ishwara. All the spiritualised sensation and emotion are experienced as pure moulds of the consciousness and Ananda. The physical being itself is experienced as a conscious form and the vital being as an outpouring of the power and possession of the life of the spirit.
  The action of the supermind in the development is to manifest and organise this highest consciousness so as to exist and act no longer only in the infinite above with some limited or veiled or lower and deformed manifestations in the individual being and nature, but largely and totally in the individual as a conscious and self-knowing spiritual being and a living and acting power of the infinite and universal spirit. The character of this action, so far as it can be expressed, may be spoken of more fitly afterwards when we come to speak of the Brahmic consciousness and vision. In the succeeding chapters we shall only deal with so much of it as concerns the thought, will and psychic and other experience in the individual nature. At present all that is necessary to note is that here too there is in the field of the thought and the will a triple action. The spiritual reason is lifted and broadened into a greater representative action that formulates to us mainly the actualities of the existence of the self in and around us. There is then a higher interpretative action of the supramental knowledge, a greater scale less insistent on actualities, that opens out yet greater potentialities in time and space and beyond. And lastly there is a highest knowledge by identity that is a gate of entrance to the essential self-awareness and the omniscience and omnipotence of the Ishwara.

4.24 - The supramental Sense, #The Synthesis Of Yoga, #Sri Aurobindo, #Integral Yoga
  The supermind in its descent into the physical being awakens, if not already wakened by previous yogic sadhana, the consciousness -- veiled or obscure in most of us -which supports and forms there the vital sheath, the pranakosa. When this is awakened, we no longer live in the physical body alone, but also in a vital body which penetrates and envelops the physical and is sensitive to impacts of another kind, to the play of the vital forces around us and coming in on us from the universe or from particular persons or group lives or from things or else from the vital planes and worlds which are behind the material universe. These impacts we feel even now in their result and in certain touches and affectations, but not at all or very little in their source and their coming. An awakened consciousness in the pranic body immediately feels them, is aware of a pervading vital force other than the physical energy, and can draw upon it to increase the 'vital strength and support the physical energies, can deal directly with the phenomena and causes of health and disease by means of this vital influx or by directing pranic currents, can be aware of the vital and the vital-emotional atmosphere of others and deal with its interchanges, along with a host of other phenomena which are unfelt by or obscure to our outward consciousness but here become conscient and sensible. It is acutely aware of the life soul and life body in ourself and others. The supermind takes up this vital consciousness and vital sense, puts it on its right foundation and transforms it by revealing the life force here as the very power of the spirit dynamised for a near and direct operation on and through subtle and gross matter and for formation and action in the material universe. The first result is that the limitations of our individual life being break down and we live no longer with a personal life force, or not with that ordinarily, but in and by the universal life energy. It is all the universal Prana that comes consciently streaming into and through us, keeps up there a dynamic constant eddy, an unseparated centre of its power, a vibrant station of storage and communication, constantly fills it with its forces and pours them out in activity upon the world around us. This life energy, again, is felt by us not merely as a vital ocean and its streams, but as the vital way and form and body and outpouring of a conscious universal shakti, and that conscient shakti reveals itself as the Chit shakti of the Divine, the Energy of the transcendent and universal Self and Purusha of which -- or rather of whom -our universalised individuality becomes an instrument and channel. As a result we feel ourselves one in life with all others and one with the life of all Nature and of all things in the universe. There is a free and conscious communication of the vital energy working in us with the same energy working in others. We are aware of their life as of our own or, at the least, of the touch and pressure and communicated movements of our life being on them and theirs upon us. The vital sense in us becomes powerful, intense, capable of bearing all the small or large, minute or immense vibrations of this life world on all its planes physical and supraphysical, vital and supravital, thrills with all its movement and Ananda and is aware of and open to all forces. The supermind takes possession of all this great range of experience, and makes it all luminous, harmonious, experienced not obscurely and fragmentarily and subject to the limitations and errors of its handling by the mental ignorance, but revealed, it and each movement of it, in its truth and totality of power and delight, and directs the great and now hardly limitable powers and capacities of the life dynamis on all its ranges according to the simple and yet complex, the sheer and spontaneous and yet unfalteringly intricate will of the Divine in our life. It makes the vital sense a perfect means of the knowledge of the life forces around us, as the physical of the forms and sensations of the physical universe, and a perfect channel too of the reactions of the active life force through us working as an instrument of self-manifestation.
  -- 3 --

4.26 - The Supramental Time Consciousness, #The Synthesis Of Yoga, #Sri Aurobindo, #Integral Yoga
   and imperatively compels into manifestation the truth it sees and dwells on and evolves its play, combinations, sequences, not a limited mental will and power like ours, but a conscious force supramental and illimitable, Tapas, Chit-shakti, not bound to this or that movement and result of energy, but ordering out of the infinite truth of self-existence the movement and result of all possible energies. And it is finally an Ananda of the being that deploys itself, that ranges at will among the infinities of consciousness and of its power of manifestation, not a limited mental joy or pleasure like our chequered delight of being and action and feeling, but supramental and illimitable, not subject to a given set of reactions, but embracing and taking a free and sovereign and compelling delight of all that is possible in the truth of the infinite consciousness and existence.
  [Version B]

4.4.5.03 - Descent and Other Experiences, #Letters On Yoga III, #Sri Aurobindo, #Integral Yoga
  (3) What does he mean by Chitta when he speaks of the
  force? Chitta as opposed to Chit or Vijnana etc. is only the basic
  mind-life consciousness out of which rises the stuff of (ordinary)

5.4.01 - Notes on Root-Sounds, #Vedic and Philological Studies, #Sri Aurobindo, #Integral Yoga
   , - bredouillement, bgaiement. vb. to Chitter, stammer
   to be scarred, to make a mistake (se tromper).
  --
   gnat; thief; air, breeze; fire; intercalary month; a demon; a Brahmin who neglects his daily yajna; frost, snow; a Chitraka tree.
   a woman in her courses.

7.15 - The Family, #Words Of Long Ago, #The Mother, #Integral Yoga
  In the year 1831 a twelve-year old Hindu boy knocked at the door of the district judge of Chittur. He was the son of a farmer who had been put in prison for not paying his rent. The farmer had taken some Government land, but the harvest failed and under the law which was then in force, he had to go to prison.
  While the father was in jail, his birthday came and the mother wept because he could not be at home. That is why his son Rangananda ran to Chittur and knocked at the judge's door.
  The judge listened to the boy's story and said:

9.99 - Glossary, #The Gospel of Sri Ramakrishna, #Sri Ramakrishna, #Hinduism
    Chidakasa: The Akasa, or Space, of Chit, Absolute Consciousness; the All-pervading Spirit.
    Chidananda: The bliss of God-Consciousness.
  --
     Chit: Consciousness.
     Chitsakti: The Supreme Spirit as Power.
     Chitta: The mind-stuff. See four inner organs.
    Chosen Ideal: See Ishta.
  --
    four inner organs: The four inner organs of perception, namely, manas (mind), buddhi (the discriminating faculty), Chitta (mind-stuff), and ahamkara ("I-consciousness").
    four stages of life: Namely, brahmacharya (life of unmarried student), garhasthya (life of married householder), vanaprastha (life of retired householder), and sannyas (life of monk).

BOOK II. -- PART II. THE ARCHAIC SYMBOLISM OF THE WORLD-RELIGIONS, #The Secret Doctrine, #H P Blavatsky, #Theosophy
  the abode of the Saptarishi, Riksha and Chitra-Sikhandinas. But whether it is only an astronomical
  myth or a primordial mystery, having a deeper meaning than it bears on its surface, is what their

BOOK I. -- PART I. COSMIC EVOLUTION, #The Secret Doctrine, #H P Blavatsky, #Theosophy
  ONE true Existence, Paramarthika," and the absolute Chit and Chaitanya (intelligence, consciousness)
  cannot be a cogniser, "for THAT can have no subject of cognition." Can the flame be called the
  --
  Parabrahmam is inseparable from his trinity. That He is three, "Parabrahmam, Chit, and A Chit," the
  last two being dependent realities unable to exist separately; or, to make it clearer, Parabrahmam is the
  SUBSTANCE -- changeless, eternal, and incognizable -- and Chit (Atma), and A Chit (Anatma) are its
  qualities, as form and colour are the qualities of any object. The two are the garment, or body, or
  --
  little understood in their esoteric meaning. The Hindu Chitra-Gupta who reads out the account of
  every Soul's life from his register, called Agra-Sandhani; the "Assessors" who read theirs from the
  --
  called Riksha, and Chitra-Sikhandinas.
  [[Vol. 1, Page]] 228 THE SECRET DOCTRINE.
  --
  Entities whom we call Devas (gods), Dhyan Chohans, Chitkala (Kwan-yin, the Buddhists call them),
  and by other names. The Daimones are -- in the Socratic sense, and even in the Oriental and Latin
  --
  called Chitkala, some of which are those who have furnished man with his fourth and fifth Principles
  from their own essence; and others the Pitris so-called. This will be explained when we come to the
  production of the complete man. The root of the name is Chiti, "that by which the effects and
  consequences of actions and kinds of knowledge are selected for the use of the soul," or conscience
  the inner Voice in man. With the Yogis, the Chiti is a synonym of Mahat, the first and divine intellect;
  but in Esoteric philosophy Mahat is the root of Chiti, its germ; and Chiti is a quality of Manas in
  conjunction with Buddhi, a quality that attracts to itself by spiritual affinity a Chitkala when it
  http://www.theosociety.org/pasadena/sd/sd1-1-13.htm (16 von 26) [06.05.2003 03:31:33]
  --
  develops sufficiently in man. This is why it is said that Chiti is a voice acquiring mystic life and
  becoming Kwan-Yin.

BOOK I. -- PART II. THE EVOLUTION OF SYMBOLISM IN ITS APPROXIMATE ORDER, #The Secret Doctrine, #H P Blavatsky, #Theosophy
  Devas, who are the origin of Form (rupa): the Chitrasikhandina (bright-crested) or the Riksha -- those
  Rishis who have become the informing souls of the seven stars (of the Great Bear).* In astronomical

Jaap Sahib Text (Guru Gobind Singh), #Jaap Sahib, #unset, #Zen
  Kotti Siaanmriti Puraan Saastar Na Aavaeee Vahu Chiti ||8||86||
  Thou knowest all, Destroyest all and art beyond all the guises.
  --
  na Chitrun, na mitrun, parai hain, pevtrun. (101)
  Thou art the Portrait-less Lord
  --
  keh Chitrun beheenai. Keh aikai adheenai. (107)
  That Thou art the Primal Entity without a Master!
  --
  ghar ghar prnam, Chiti charn namu.
  aachij gat, aajij na bat. (168)

r1909 06 18, #Record of Yoga, #Sri Aurobindo, #Integral Yoga
   Tratak of Sun. Blue sukshma image of sun elliptical in shape. Pattern of bloodred curves on yellowish background. Violet sword. Bloodred sword. Voice rises from Chitta into brain. Kamananda developed
   Image 1

r1909 06 19, #Record of Yoga, #Sri Aurobindo, #Integral Yoga
   Feet of a woman, long & slender. Deep green antah. Tank with man on haunches in front of big shrub. UR. in afternoon. Speech from Chitta. Voice insisting on images of kamadepicting future action. All relics of fear, disgust, dislike, hesitation rapidly disappearing. Doubt checked, suspension of judgment. Movement of limbs felt always to be alien except in ordinary motions of walking when there is knowledge without upalabdhi.
   ***

r1909 06 24, #Record of Yoga, #Sri Aurobindo, #Integral Yoga
   . Face of Upen Sen of Barisal. Figure of boy rushing on another, catching round shoulders & ankles & lifting up in his arms. Food. Figure of boy putting down vegetable with some wooden instrument. A crowd of Indians sitting; face of Sudhir. A crowd, one figure conspicuous with khaki cap Indian sannyasi with strong face in geruya. Another crowd, my own face, Aswini Babus. Mah[o]medan boy pulling a Hindu back; then they stand released. European with a face like Roubeys. UR. en [evening] Heavy sleep full of dreams. Tratak of Sun. After first gaze saw in Chittakash most exquisite deep green colour, sun with zigzag of this colour coming out of it. Tratak for minute. Sun sometimes pale yellow, sometimes bluish green. A commotion & waves of some subtle substances in it, coming out of it & whirling round it, apparentlyprana. Closed eyes in Chitta. Yellowish green with roundish patch of blue in it. Gazing into physical sky large patch of deep yellow floated before the eyes.
   At night; woman in coloured dress; colours very vivid.

r1912 01 13, #Record of Yoga, #Sri Aurobindo, #Integral Yoga
   The last record covered the period from Dec 12th. 1911 to January 11th 1912.1 Liberated from anticipation, it was a pure record of fact and experience, but its correctness was sometimes vitiated by a misvaluation of the significance of the fact through over-appreciation or depreciation. It is intended that the present record should be free from this defect.Ananda has very fully established itself in the field of the indriyas. All sights, sounds, smells, tastes, touches, movements, actions, are now pleasurable or give pleasure; all carry with them the rasagrahana or appreciation of the beauty of the gunas which they are in expression, the joy of the vijnana in them (the basis of chidghana ananda), the joy of the heart in them (the basis of premananda), the joy of the body in them (the basis of the kamananda), the joy of the mind as indriya in them (the basis of the ahaituka ananda). All this joy is of the nature of bhoga from which the ananda is beginning to emerge. Joy of the spirit in the Ekam which expresses itself (the basis of shuddhananda, chidananda & sadananda together making kaivalyananda) is as yet obscure & involved in the lower anandas. Since yesterday, the ahaituka kamananda & today the sahaituka tivrananda are manifesting. Yesterday also the discomfort of heat & cold and pain were again exiled, though not entirely. Experiments made with the body show that below a certain intensity all pain now gives ananda of bhoga at the time of the feeling of pain, & pain beyond that degree brings it after the immediate acuteness has passed. Sometimes sahaituka raudrananda results. As I write ahaituka tivrananda, raudrananda & vaidyutananda (negative) are recommencing; also vishayananda sahaituka and ahaituka, begun yesterday, are becoming more definite. The bhoga of all these forms is already established. The greatest difficulty is found in the prolonged contact of intense heat with a sensitive part of the body, eg. the heated stone of the floor under the midday sun. The intensity of the heat to the sensation can be increased, lessened or inhibited by Will; the prolonged contact tends to remove the element of suffering unless the Will is made to increase or maintain it, or unless the stream of Will ( Chit-shakti) is kept tamasic suffering weakly the contact instead of meeting it. This daurbalyam has been created in order to bring about certain forms of intense ananda, chiefly viparita. It is possible, as is now clearly seen, to render it a great element of strong positive (not viparita) ananda, but in that case the daurbalyam must be merely a form of balam, in other words, it must be supported by dhairyam and anandadharanashakti.Ananda is now being extended to events. Even depression and sinking are met and claimed by a stream of ananda, and the place, necessity & delight of amangalam, its true mangalamaya nature is being impressed by the jnanam not only on the buddhi but on the sanskaras of the manas, Chitta, prana and material body.Pure varna manifested this morning in a form, (dense crude), so that all the material and possible variation of material for the crude forms is, in a way, ready and regularised; only the perfect crude forms have to be subjected to the same process. Other siddhis are in comparative abeyance awaiting the movement of the ananda.
   ***

r1912 01 14, #Record of Yoga, #Sri Aurobindo, #Integral Yoga
   Although the siege is broken, it is renewed from time to time and broken until the whole force is broken up. There is still imperfect statement in this script and the imperfection will remain only so long as the trikaldrishti remains imperfect. The whole action of the consciousness on whatever level has to be made vijnanamaya and this is already being done with no farther regard for the hesitations in the Chitta.
   ***

r1912 01 15, #Record of Yoga, #Sri Aurobindo, #Integral Yoga
   Lipi-drishti. clear, 3 dim, 3 clearer but thick, vivid, but thick. That is, first, the lipi in the Chitra, perfectly vivid & stable, then, the lipi in the akasha dim & vague but just legible, then clearer but still not vivid, then stable, but not perfectly well defined. Immediately after the succession of predictive lipis, each of these stages was manifested in type.
   Lipi. Stability, sufficiently clear, steadiness dim. That is, the akashalipi is ready for a sufficiently clear stability, persistent in manifestation, not yet for a perfect steadiness in place. Immediately afterwards fulfilled.
  --
   According to prediction by the Vani there is a simultaneous movement of the jnanam, lipi, trikaldrishti covering the whole range attended by a general manifestation of rupadrishti (akasha & Chitra) rough, vague or blurred predicted by the lipis 3, (vague & indistinct), 2 & 1. The movement has begun by the activity of the inspiration and of the viveka rejecting false inspirations. By this means several successive movements of men & animals have been accurately though not completely predicted, a few suggestions of error being rejected in time. Some of the inspirations present themselves at a distance & not as trikaldrishti, but a vague suggestion. Few [of] these prove correct.
   Collapse of the elementary utthapana with momentary disappearance of the tejas bringing about a cessation of the siddhi about 12.

r1912 01 24, #Record of Yoga, #Sri Aurobindo, #Integral Yoga
   Lipi of death of Gupta fulfilled, but he died apparently on the day of the lipi, or possibly the next day, not on the 25, of heart failure. There had been no previous news of illness etc. It is notable that the death of Sir J. Jenkins had been also foreseen, but in that case there was first the news of his illness.Exercise of utthapana 6.55 to 11.40; strong attack of non-anima and temporary failure of utthapana.The tendency to ratna in the bhoga continues and there is occasional ratha. The nirananda is mostly in the physical element of the higher anandas where the indriyas are touched. Motions of contact are now commencing in which, starting with the vishaya and the tivra, all the five physical anandas manifest together raudra, vaidyuta and kama following each other or rather developing out of each other. The same ratna of bhoga is being applied to events and happenings and even to the circumstances of roga. Satiety and dharananyunata interfere with the full consummation, but are being subjected to the general law. This movement is connected with a rapid deepening of the dasyam through which the realisation of all motions mental and bodily being inspired, conducted and imposed by Prakriti is being confirmed not only to Chit in buddhi, but also to Chit in sensation, mental nervous and physical. The movements of the body are being liberated from the shadow of emotional or affective intention and choice. Adverse movements are chiefly of the order of roga, a sore throat having taken hold after an interval of several years, and of bodily slackness and failure of utthapana.
   ***

r1912 02 08, #Record of Yoga, #Sri Aurobindo, #Integral Yoga
   The flight of some score of butterflies & many birds foretold in their turns, only two or three errors due to speculation or tejasic action. Usually siddhi of power & siddhi of knowledge seem to be one. Future movement of animals in rest can now be told with some exactitude, but error is easier because of stronger habit of tejasic speculation. Aishwarya & trikaldrishti have not yet been harmonised. Drishti of an eye, prakasha-chhaya-tejas, in the akasha, perfect but momentary,an indication of the richer drishti (dense & developed) perfect but not yet capable of stability. This is already developing. The vani strongly anandamaya, first of the vijnanamaya ananda, then of the others, reappears full of the Vishnu or Pradyumna personality, taking into it Rudra (Balarama), Shiva (Mahavira) and Aniruddha (Kama). The definite personality of the Master in his personal relations to this Yoga and the Jiva in the Yoga has to develop out of the laya; for Vishnu is the Ishwara who incarnates. The present method of the Yoga is a progressive replacement of buddha bhavas by vijnana & ananda bhavas, and of the lower of these by the higher. The firmness and clearness of the stable rupas is much interfered with [ ]1 by unsteady floating waves of the subtle-gross etheric material of which it is formed; these waves mix with the clear form and blur it by excess of material in the attempt to reinforce its distinctness. Perfect satisfaction has now been given to the Aniruddha element in the Jiva, so far as the Yoga is concerned, by the revelation of the scientific means & steady progress used in the siddhi, but the Balarama element awaits satisfaction. The Mahavira element has also been satisfied by the floods of knowledge that are being poured down, but the Pradyumna element awaits satisfaction. In the Adeshasiddhi there has as yet been no perfect satisfaction even to the Aniruddha element. Lipi (on Sultans back, Chitra formed by the hairs). Satisfaction to Brihaspati, not yet to the other deities. Satisfaction to Bala (due). N.B. Bala is the Titanic force from the Mahat which must eventually conquer & replace Rudra, though conquered by him in the Buddha, because descending into the Buddha he becomes a Daitya disturbing evolution by a premature effort towards perfection. The same is true of all the greater Daityas who are not Rakshasic in temper (Asurim Rakshasincaiva prakritim apaunah). Sahitya siddhi in ordinary poetical forms. Satiety of interest in what is old and familiar, staleness, is being overcome. Lipi zoology indicating a superior light on the science of life forms bringing zoology into harmony with the general satyam and getting rid of materialistic difficulties; immediately after while casually seeking a book to read, I picked up Haeckel, opened at the chapter on Worm forms ancestral to man and had the predicted illumination. Such detailed trikaldrishti is now becoming very frequent.
   MS it

r1912 07 01, #Record of Yoga, #Sri Aurobindo, #Integral Yoga
   This prakasha has been for the most part vijnanamaya, of the nature of discriminative & selective knowledge, acting directly by discrimination & selection as the first process of thought. For instance, I see a bird flying & I discriminate & select the farther course of its flight by an act of determining illumination I do not see the future flight with the self-vision as I see the present flight with the physical vision & so know about it. I see only the truth (ritam, satyam) about this flight, satyam of it, not sat, its truth of existence, not its existence. But this day I realised more certainly what I had previously perceived by fragmentary experience, that the basis of all knowledge is atmaprakasha of sat; by Chit, that is to say, or sat luminous to itself. I began to see first the thing-in-itself in the Brahman (whether thing objective or thing subjective) and as part of that vision idea or truth of the thing self-manifest.
   The obstacles of vijnana-siddhi and of all subjective siddhi are no longer in myself but in the circumambient annamaya prakriti, not that attached to myself as an atmosphere by my past karma (for that is purified), but the general prakriti. It is from this besieging environment that imperfections expelled from myself reenter temporarily my system or the old regularised sanskaras of Nature which we miscall laws stand in the way of progress,eg illness, unease, thirst, limitation of power or knowledge, inactivity of power or knowledge. I feel, for instance, no thirst in the body but a sense of dryness around me & besieging me, but not clinging as it does when in the karmadeha or personal environment; I have sometimes to drink in order to satisfy these devatas. When I feel no bodily chill or discomfort in exposure, sleeping out uncovered in the cold wind at night, yet around me there is an unease & a shrinking which I cannot yet ignore. The obstruction & limitation, however, are no longer jealous & malignant, but the voluntary or involuntary expression of the natural incompetence or unwillingness of the annamaya devatas to new movements to which they are unaccustomed & which hurt their ease & their egoism.

r1912 07 15, #Record of Yoga, #Sri Aurobindo, #Integral Yoga
   This morning Samata is perfectly restored and there is a strong increase of the suddhananda with a manifestation of the faery element in the beauty of things, the sense of their beauty of ananda, the pleasure taken in them as visions of his weaving of God. This transcends or contains the beauty of guna proper to the vijnanam; it depends not on knowledge-perception of the separate guna & yatharthya of things, but on being-perception in Chit of the universal ananda of things.
   The written prediction today:

r1912 07 16, #Record of Yoga, #Sri Aurobindo, #Integral Yoga
   The day was given up to an attack in great force by the Asiddhi disturbing or veiling all the chatusthayas. The strength of the kamachakra began to weaken in the morning & collapsed in the evening. The utthapana persisted almost untouched and the health though attacked held its own; the general ananda only wavered a little in the evening except the inner ahaituka etc in events which was entirely disturbed, but the sharira only came by intervals or persisted as a faint tendency. In the evening, however, there was a brief intense movement. After a violent struggle the powers prevailed over resistance in the evening. Trikaldrishti, likewise. Both attempted to move forward beyond normal action to invariability, but after a time the attempt was suspended. Trailokyadrishti was active, especially in the samadhi, rupadrishti also, but in the Chitra, sthapatya & cruder forms and no advance was made. Samadhi advanced considerably. Yesterdays lipi, story explained at the time as the connected tracing out of a story in the night in dreamsamadhi was fulfilled. One or more scenes are presented & the thought traces the development of the connected incidents, often beginning before the appearance of the scene, to the conclusion. In the afternoon there was a struggle between sleep & swapna samadhi, the latter prevailing for the greater part. At night a rapid succession of brilliant visions presented to the eye scenes from the swargabhumis generally, those of the ananda bhumi especially. There is a strong tendency for the disconnected dream with its incoherence & perverted memories to disappear. Sleep was reduced to four hours in the night. The promise was given during the day to confine it henceforth to a six hours maximum to be reduced successively to 4, 2 and nil. The Kalibhava was developed in the terms of the second chatusthaya, Mahakali, Mahasaraswati with a previous return to Maheshwari & Mahakali.
   ***

r1912 07 22, #Record of Yoga, #Sri Aurobindo, #Integral Yoga
   Saundaryabodha & Ananda in the outside world are now perfectly established, but relics of asamata remain and momentary tendencies of mental revolt touch the prana & Chitta & sometimes the buddhi, . Kalibhava is strong, but has not taken possession of the speech where the old sanskar is powerful. Krishna seems sometimes to remove himself and look out from behind a veil. This presence & absence in myself with its results reveals Christs state of mind when he complained of being forsaken by God. This is salokya,sayujya is when there is the same feeling of presence, but of God in contact with us or embracing the soul from outside, not of being in us & part of us, thought different& yet the same. Sadharmya is well established, but not perfect because of insufficient Ishwarabhava. The relation of Purushottama, Akshara Purusha and Kshara Purusha (Jivatma) is now constantly & vividly seen by me in others more than in myself, although just now it is manifesting in myself. In myself the Purushottama & Kshara Purusha are most vivid to me, in others the Jivatman & Akshara Purusha, while in the world at large (jagati), it is the Purushottama containing the other two in Himself & almost engulfing themthey seem to be merely movements of the Purushottama, parts, layers, aspects of His personality, as indeed they really are. This is because in the jagati & indeed in inanimate beings there is not the ahankara in the buddhi to create a sense of difference. Being more strongly aware of my own remnants of ahankara than that of others,or, rather being more troubled by my awareness the Akshara Purusha is less manifest to me than in others, in whom I see the ahankara only as a play of Srikrishna and am not disturbed by it.
   The health of assimilation was strongly combated but in the end prevaileddistention, air-filled ether, is still the weapon of offence; also a relic of skin-irritation, exceedingly superficial, but persistent has reappeared since day before yesterday. Sleep was reduced to four hours and a half at night, none in the day. Nirvisesha kamananda became insistent & long continuous in the evening & up till 11 pm, but its first intensity was not maintained. It has, however, always a tendency to thrill & chandata or tivrata which was absent to the inceptual manifestation. The general tendency is strong & persistent. The signs of development of saundaryam are becoming clearer and more decisive, but none is as yet victoriously emergent; though one or two are on the point of it.

r1912 11 26, #Record of Yoga, #Sri Aurobindo, #Integral Yoga
   Today a number of prayogas seem to be in course of being fulfilledeg. Chatalja; Turkish resistance in Macedonia; action of the Triple Alliance. Today also the trikaldrishti has been almost infallibly accurate. The cloud has disappeared, and the siddhi except in the body is once more active. In the karma evidence has been given of effectuality of prayoga where it seemed to have failed;of ishita rather than of aishwarya, and not sufficient, but nevertheless effective. (R.50 from D).. Kama is beginning to revive. Ananda has been restored though not perfectly. Rupa is once more, but imperfectly effective; the Akasha still resists clearness & spontaneity & stability, but stability without spontaneity and spontaneity without stability have returned. The profuse stable lipi is being manifested, but the Akasha resists either legibility or stability. The karma deha is clear of the resistance in the sukshmapranavad annam, but not of that in the sthulapranavad annam where the remnants of the impure sukshmaprana have taken refuge. A good many of the predictions in the lipi past, recent & immediate are being justified by the event. Tejas & lipsa are being reestabl[ish]ed in the buddhi, Chitta and prana; but the force of the sraddha is still insufficient. The Vani is once again active. The bodily condition is very low and the remnants of roga active.
   ***

r1912 11 29, #Record of Yoga, #Sri Aurobindo, #Integral Yoga
   There is frequent unease & the equivalent of ashanti in the body & the anna-kosha & the Chitta is clouded, but the mind is calm. (N.B The body is only the centralised part of the annakosha.)
   Power is still successfully resisted, but not so successfully as before. eg the motion of a kite through the sky followed by the trikaldrishti and each fresh movement seen; while steadily describing straight flight & minimum gyre (from right to left) in succession, thus

r1912 12 03b, #Record of Yoga, #Sri Aurobindo, #Integral Yoga
   The spontaneity of the vivid & simultaneous lipi has begun today, as predicted, both in Chitra and Akash. The step forward in [Rupa]2 was only the appearance of chaya & tejas akashic crude forms on a background, strong in material and distinct but not sharp in outline. Kama Ananda increased in intensity & frequency.
   MS were

r1912 12 16, #Record of Yoga, #Sri Aurobindo, #Integral Yoga
   The lipi has definitely conquered in the Akash, but its invariable success of vividness & legibility is not yet allowed. The jnanam has now an invariable correctness, but the trikaldrishti is still clouded by the relics of the twilit intellectual activity. Shakti of Chitta & prana is now being finally perfected on the basis of the perfect samata, shanti, sukha & atmaprasada. Dasyam is taking entire possession of all the functions, attended by dasyabuddhi in the devatas, and the Master of the Yoga is now habitually manifest in his personal relation. The two sortileges are being progressively fulfilled. Physical activity10.45 to 11.45. Adhogati is strong and seeks to base itself on defect of anima. Pranic utthapana, complete in the pranakosha, is unable as yet to possess wholly the annakosha except in its pranic parts; hence, failure of mahima & a strong sense of weakness & incapacity in the karmadeha affecting the body. Again from 12.10 .. 1.5 & from 3.5 to 4.10 in the afternoon.
   The afternoon has passed under Vritra, the power slow to act, the trikaldrishti & jnana uncertain, the physical brain dull and overcast. The Maheshwari-Mahasaraswati shanti is giving place under such circumstances to the Mahasaraswati-Mahakali quietude based on a concealed Maheshwari pratistha. Nirukta is now acting under the rule of the vijnana normally & bhasha begins to follow suit; the intellect in the environment has recognised the necessity of passivity & the superior results of the vijnanamaya method. The frequency of Ananda (Kama) continues but is interrupted by Vritric periods.

r1912 12 17, #Record of Yoga, #Sri Aurobindo, #Integral Yoga
   Today except Ananda & primary utthapana all other siddhis seem to be suspended in order that occasion may be given to the samata and ananda in amangalam & asiddhi to emphasise itself. Relics of the impatience remain or rather recur, but cannot find a lodging. On the other hand asraddha in the Adeshasiddhi is strong. It is evident also that the remnants of intellectual activity in the environment are being given free but ineffectual play, in order that of themselves they may cease. The attempts at intellectual trikaldrishti & aishwarya fail invariably & it is only when the vijnana acts occasionally that some results are obtained. Physical activity from 6.15 to 4.25 with a break of 25 minutes for meal (12 to 12.25). It was only at the end that fatigue came, dull and not very pronounced, but insistent. The vague stiffness does not entirely disappear, but is ineffective. The dasya and personal relation of the Master increase. The substitute for religious piety has been established in the consciousness, viz the knowledge of the Para Purusha, the sense of the power of the Ishwara & submission to it attended with the appropriate bhava in the Chitta & the personal relation to the Lover.
   ([Written] Dec 18)

r1912 12 31, #Record of Yoga, #Sri Aurobindo, #Integral Yoga
   Yesterday, it seemed as if the rudimentary equipment of the immediate life in its bare necessities were acquired, with a lacuna, with inconvenient effects of the past confusion, with a precarious source, but still if it is maintained, it stands as the first real triumph of the Power in overcoming this obstinate difficulty. Yesterdays lipis indicated that tyaga (outward) must be entirely abandoned and bhoga fully accepted; submission to desirability or some equivalent phrase was used. Another lipi ran violent purposes have to be justified & is interpreted in the sense that, although hitherto all the more vehement uses of the aishwarya have been abortive and only moderate demands have been satisfied, the vehement Mahakali use of the aishwarya and ishita have not therefore to be abandoned, but must be insisted on till they succeed. Aniruddha and his Shakti Mahasaraswati have been satisfied; the Yogasiddhi has been justified & the Adeshasiddhi is beginning to be justified by slow, small and steadily progressive processes. This is Aniruddhas method, the method of the patient intellectual seeker & the patient and laborious contriver who occupies knowledge & action inch by inch & step by step, covering minutely & progressively all the grounds, justifying himself by details and through the details arriving at the sum. But, if continued, this method would render success in this life impossible. The method chosen for preparation has been Mahasaraswatis, but the method chosen for fulfilment is Mahakalis in the Mahasaraswati mould. Mahakalis method is vehemence, force & swiftness, attaining knowledge by swift intuitions, moving to success in action by forceful strides. It is vehement in lipsa, violent in method, headlong in accomplishment. It seeks to attain the whole & then only returns upon the details. This vehemence, violence & precipitate rapidity has to be established in the prana, Chitta and buddhi, so as to govern feeling, thought & action (there have been plenty of isolated instances & brief periods of it in the past of the sadhana) and justified by success; but the basis of hidden calm & self-possession in the Maheshwari-bhava of Mahasaraswati has to be maintained and all has to be in the [Mahasaraswati]1 mould which demands thoroughness, perfect [contrivance],2 faultless elaboration of detail in the consummate whole. The literary work, the subjective action on others, the outward physical speech and action have all to be done with this swift elaboration & violent minuteness. At first, the Maheshwari bhava will retain some prominence, but will afterwards become implicit only in its Mahasaraswati continent. The first necessity is, however, that the Mahakali method should be justified in the results so that the intellectual sceptic & critic in Mahasaraswati may be assured of the correctness of the instructions given.
   Bhasha. Bhs [Bharatis] Panchali Sapatham taken up; in the first verse yesterday only a few words could be understood without reference to the dictionary & no connected sense has been made out from the sum of the vocable. Today, in the second verse, the difficulties of the Tamil way of writing (sandhi etc) were overcome by the intuition as well as some of the difficulties of the grammar, but the Bhashashakti which used formerly to give correctly the meaning of unknown words has not recovered its habit of action.

r1913 01 13, #Record of Yoga, #Sri Aurobindo, #Integral Yoga
   Sortilege   . Various ananda & madiramaya physical ananda, attended by the anandadarshana. Fulfilled during the day in part, to be perfectly fulfilled by progressive increase of the force of the Chitra ratih and the madira.
   A sparrow on the ridge of the opposite roof, about to fly off; perception that it would remain for some time; confirmed: the same movement repeated and confirmed: the bird seemingly settled down; knowledge that it would fly off almost immediately; confirmed.

r1913 01 14, #Record of Yoga, #Sri Aurobindo, #Integral Yoga
   In yesterdays programme, only the first item was thoroughly fulfilled. In the second, there was a progress; the samadhi overcame the obstacle to continuity, but the continuity attained was slight; the rupadrishti succeeded only in the barest possible manner, the momentary stability of a perfect form, the longer stability of a form developed but not sufficient in material substance. Aishwarya began the movement towards generalising success, by trying to get rid of such willings as are not consonant with the central movement of the Supreme Will, but the process is not yet complete; the struggle continued in health, utthapana & kamananda, but they did not prevail, except in effecting an obscure, moderate & preparatory success & in streng thening the force of their sukshma vaja or subtle material substance, of which, however, shansa, the actual bringing out into material being has not yet been realised. Chitraratha and Madira still increase.
   ProgrammeTrikaldrishti to widen still farther and begin to get rid of variability and uncertainty; rupadrishti & samadhi to overcome the remnants of the obstacle opposed to them, more potently; aishwarya to generalise success; kamananda to come forward in the sthula; health & secondary utthapana to continue their struggle & grow in strength.
  --
   The main exception to the Chitraratha is the discomfort of heat & cold, but for the last three days this defect has been in process of extrusion. The discomfort touches but is easily extruded by substituting the ananda of the discomfort. Discomfort of roga still exists when it is yielded to, but is attended always with ananda of the sensation or else with ananda of the discomfort, unless the opposite, nirananda, is encouraged. Discomfort of acute pain is still the one thing not yet really mastered by the Ananda, but that defect has been purposely left for gradual & later extrusion; even this discomfort is up to a certain point attended by ananda or replaced by ananda & overcomes, usually, only on the first sudden & unexpected attack when the Chit in the system is off its guard. There is also discomfort of adverse result & opposition but this too is being rapidly replaced by the ananda. There is a vague remnant of sanskara of discomfort in the vishayananda, but it is purely a mental sanskara & does not usually negative, though it often impairs the ananda of the physical indriya, eg there is a sensation of shrinking in the karmadehas mental sanskara from the first touch of very cold water, but the moment the water reaches the skin, ananda and not nirananda is the result. Kamananda this morning is extending itself as madiramay ananda and entering into the raudra and other anandas; as yet it does not hold the body, but affects it with a prolonged sparsha. The weakness of the kamachakra is the chief obstacle.
   Dasya has already passed into the fourth degree, but there is a lingering sanskara of the tertiary dasya in some of the physical, mental & emotional activities the stamp of the Master is not yet everywhere. But the lipi which has recently been promising the death of the difficulties, is being amply fulfilled in the three first chatusthayas and in the sixth and seventh. The increase of dasya is attended by an increase of prakasha and sraddha; but the doubt holds as to the time and the extent of the siddhi. If this difficulty is overcome, the first & second chatusthayas will attain their ultimate completeness, & only perfection of intensity will remain to be accomplished.

r1913 01 16, #Record of Yoga, #Sri Aurobindo, #Integral Yoga
   The mornings siddhi has been noted for the final separation of the volition of possibility from the perception of actuality, of kratu from ketu. All such volitions are at once set aside by vivek acting on the mind as unreliable, not trikaldrishti; the only difficulty left is that the perception itself, of an actual intention or tendency, is sometimes overstressed into an apparent perception of eventuality, but this is in course of being corrected. As a result, error is now very slight and rapidly corrected, usually before it is falsified by the event. Many true perceptions are still doubted or not sufficiently stressed for fear of error; but this defect can be remedied effectually as soon as the habit of overstress itself is expelled. Aishwarya also is getting rid of false tapas and, when exercised, produces its effect. Lipi is strong in the sthula akash as Chitralipi, but still uncertain as akashalipi.
   Dasya of the fourth degree is now dominant; whenever the attention of the Chit follows the action, it is aware of the turiya dasyabuddhi, whether in motion, speech, emotion or thought, except for a slight intermixture of merely Prakritic impulse in the thinking powers. This is true even of such involuntary motions as the closing or blinking of the eyelids, nimishannapi or the direction of the gaze. The sixth or Brahma chatusthaya is similarly established; the general (samena samavasthita) sarvam anantam jnanam anandam Brahma is seen everywhere, when the attention is awake. The nitya anusmaran is not established as yet, nor can it be established unless there is the capacity of multiple sanyama, ie naturally and normally dividing the tapas of the Chit between several things at a time. Kamananda tends to return dully or intensely with the smarana, but has not yesterdays continuity, force and spontaneity. This afternoon it will recover its hold.
   Afternoon

r1913 01 17, #Record of Yoga, #Sri Aurobindo, #Integral Yoga
   A larger movement of the vijnanasiddhi is commencing today, in which it will be unnecessary to note every minute advance. Perfect passivity is its basis; brihat, vast abundance will be its field; satyam its atmosphere; ritam its line of definiteness. Mechanical perfection will spontaneously emerge in its apas. Already the lipi has commenced; to compass abundance is its first action and to that end it is compelling the sthula akasha to admit lipi wherever the eyes are cast,legible lipi, pale at first, then pale chequered by intense, finally, the intense. Rupa this morning has followed up the movement of the night in crude forms. In the afternoon it has remanifested frequent Chitra rupa and sthapatya rupa; both of these forms have at once taken possession of their old perfection in single figures, groups and landscapes. Lipi in the afternoon has attained to easy vividness, although there is still a certain difficulty and malaise in its movement, coming and staying, though much less in the Chitra & sthapatya than in akasha lipi. In trikaldrishti the movement is towards the perfect correctness even of all the random external suggestions unverified by the viveka, but this is still subject to a certain inaccuracy of exact detail.
   Rupa & swapna samadhi are now moving in the direction, first, of abundance, secondly, of the recovery of the old activities that have been lost by the action of the Vritras, thirdly, of the perfection of their materials. Dream at night was frequently confused. The physical siddhi suffered a slight reaction.

r1913 01 20, #Record of Yoga, #Sri Aurobindo, #Integral Yoga
   It would seem today as if the exaggerated tejas of mentality were finally dismissed from action as a result of last nights repetition of the old form of purificatory disturbance and crisis. Sthapatya & Chitra rupa now manifest with considerable perfection and frequency. There is a movement towards the expulsion of the fragmentary recurrence of discomfort in particular sights, sounds, touches, smells which mars the perfection of the vishayananda (bhoga) in the indriyas. Manas in physical prana & manas in psychical prana may still keep recurrences of discomfort for a time, so that discomfort of physical pain and discomfort of apriya event may for a while survive; but there is no farther justification for the persistence of discomfort of apriya vishaya to the senses. The day was mainly occupied with a struggle to enforce the freedom of the vijnana in all its parts. Rupa in Chitra and sthapatya became very abundant; aiswarya increased remarkably in force, & trikaldrishti showed a tendency towards minute exactness. Kamananda was continuous in tendency, comparatively frequent in intensity, persistently recurrent in slighter manifestation. Arogya is increasing in force, but not yet victorious over its obstacle; utthapana variable.
   ***

r1913 01 21, #Record of Yoga, #Sri Aurobindo, #Integral Yoga
   Aishwarya-vyapti once more effective in subjective objectivity with a striking exactness; for the Turkish draft reply to the Note is couched in exactly the terms and contained exactly the reasons about Adrianople that had been suggested; even the modification about the Aegean islands, viz. the insistence on the coast islands alone, is the one that from the beginning was suggested & continually maintained by the thought and the ishita. Aishwarya also in Poincares election which seems at one point to have been in jeopardy. The progress in the vijnana chatusthaya & the kamananda now continues like that of a creeping tide, throwing up waves always higher and seeming to retreat or rest for a moment, but in the result always advancing. Only in the physical siddhi other than ananda this movement as yet fails to establish itself. In the evening it took a much larger sweep and even the rupadrishti, which is the most sluggish of all the vijnana siddhis, began to manifest abundance. The lipi given a few days ago rupas by the milliards, is now being accomplished, as already in Chitra & sthapatya images are coming multitudinously and the salamba Chitras & salamba rupas are beginning to follow suit. Crudeness, inconstancy & want of firm outline are the rule; on the other hand they have often great richness of colouring and not infrequent perfection of form, sometimes even of outline. The perfect developed or lifelike forms still occur, but rarely. In samadhi continuity of scene & action seem at last to be established, but only for the single act; still this minor continuity has occurred even in the jagrat antardrishta. The physical siddhi is obstinately disputed, especially health; even the kamananda is forcibly interrupted. Nevertheless this great change has been established in the sanskaras of the body that, while formerly it felt release from the continued ananda as a relief and as its normal condition of purity & freedom, now it feels continuity of it to be its normal condition and absence of it to be not purity but want, not freedom but a bondage.
   ***

r1913 01 24, #Record of Yoga, #Sri Aurobindo, #Integral Yoga
   Abundance of rupa has begun definitely in addition to abundance of lipi. The Chitra & sthapatya were already abundant and are now redeveloping an extraordinary minuteness of perfection; a bas-relief figure not so long as the thumbnail, is sometimes perfect in its details, eye, ear, beard, hat up to the buttons of the coat & frequently in the facial expression and bhava of the body. Perfect landscapes, vivid groups are also frequent. Sketches are multitudinous. But now freedom & abundance are coming in the akasharupa along with vividness, variety & sufficient stability. The defects of blur, vagueness, inconstancy of outline, paucity & infirmness of material are being surmounted. Kamananda in continuity still persists (nearly 6 pm) & is attempting to establish a high degree of continuous intensity as its usual pitch. With one short interval of half an hour, it has now been continuous for nearly ten hours.
   [Written] 25 Jan.

r1913 01 26, #Record of Yoga, #Sri Aurobindo, #Integral Yoga
   Kamananda, absent on rising, continuous but slight during the morning, recovered intensity in the afternoon. This intensity is persistently recurrent, rather than continuous, but its recurrence is spontaneous and forcible, no longer dependent on the attention, but commanding the attention. It persists even in swapna-samadhi and is found continuously persistent on waking from sleep. Only bodily activity curbs its intensity. Otherwise it yields to nothing except the bodily habit of intermittence. Rupa & lipi are struggling with the physical obstruction in the akasha for a larger fulfilment. In answer to the aishwarya forms of animals & objects are manifesting in the perfection of the Chitra & sthapatya, formerly the human figure & landscape were almost the only subjects. In akasharupa, on the contrary, animals & objects predominate.
   MS unconjured

r1913 01 31, #Record of Yoga, #Sri Aurobindo, #Integral Yoga
   Samadhi took a great stride forward. It has begun to organise itself and images (visual, auditory, sensational, actional, tactual) came in a crowd, not yet well organised, but evolving their own organisation. Continuity of incident accompanied with perfect vividness was greater in one typical case than has yet happened and the tendency of image to survive into the antardarshi jagrat was strong and successful. Rupadrishti in the jagrat is at last emerging definitively out of the prison of the sukshma, but the movement is not yet complete. Trikaldrishti and aishwarya are becoming more effective in details of the siddhi. The subjective tamas which returned partially for a short time, has been rejected and the physical is being expelled. In the Chitra two fresh circumstances have reemerged, 1, Chitra of objects, eg a sword, moneybag, spear etc, 2, Chitra of familiar faces & scenes, eg the face of Gladstone & neck with collar.
   The following lipis etc have been fulfilled or are in the course of fulfilment.
  --
   Later in the day the Ananda still farther increased and at night, for the first time, the development of waves of Ananda out of simple touches, eg. the contact of the feet with the soil, was imposed on the system. This happened while walking and continued for several minutes. It is the sign of a new stage of progress in the physical siddhi. Rupadrishti was finally released from concealment in the subtle akasha; numerous images presented themselves, Chitra of various kinds presented new developments of richness and a certain freedom was obtained in the akasharupa; but the perfect & developed forms are still momentary. Forms have once more begun to appear in the darkness. The improvement in samadhi was maintained, Chitra especially of great richness and perfection appearing frequently, and in addition the commencement of the free and niradhara shabdadrishti was indicated. Arogya, free in other respects, is yet attacked by the tejas in assimilation & by weakness of the chakra. In trikaldrishti there is a movement towards the enforcement of correctness in all mental motions; not only their proper arrangement and the perception of the truth to which each relates, but this movement has, as yet, only begun to emerge, although long promised. Considerable force had to be used to maintain the utthapana. Dream was active, sometimes entirely free & accurate, almost equal to actual experience, sometimes coloured with present associations. The attack on the karmasiddhi may now be considered as having failed, since the effects produced have been unimportant.
   The siddhi at the end of January, stands in a condition of considerable advance accomplished, rapidity increasing, finality in sight.
  --
   (7) Vijnana is complete in jnana, established & effective in trikalsiddhi but still imperfectly organised, established in power but still imperfect in effectiveness and organisation, established in lipi but still weak in the richer varieties and not completely organised, established in rupa, but still poor and manifested with difficulty, except in Chitra & sthapatya, established in samadhi but still hampered in continuity, poor in antardrishta jagrat, ill-organised and in jagrat shabdadrishti etc elementary & infrequent, established & effective in prakamya vyapti, but imperfectly organised, established in pranic mahima & laghima, but still resisted, deficient in anima.
   (8) Ananda of the body is established, but not yet sovran. Arogya imperfect in assimilation and kamachakra, doubtful in phlegm centres & skin, otherwise established. Utthapana is established in the pranic basis, active in primary & secondary, but everywhere hampered by defect of anima; of tertiary there is as yet no sign. Saundarya is manifest only in the slow alteration of certain lines in the feet & the trunk and in its subjective basis of youthful feeling.

r1913 09 13, #Record of Yoga, #Sri Aurobindo, #Integral Yoga
   The chief movement has been the development of the ideality, its increasing hold on the rebellious & self-acting intellectuality in the outer swabhava and the transfer of the mental activity to the ideal plane. Telepathy has increased to a considerable extent and embraces now the thoughts also, but is not always evenly active; in the use of the trikaldrishti it has become something of a stumbling block, as the rapid perception of the movements of impelling force, intention & impulse impresses the still active intellectual devatas with a false idea of actual result and tend[s] to shut out the event from the perception. Nevertheless the vijnanamay determination of the actual event even in detail begins to be more frequently reflected in the intellectual parts and has some force but, usually, little or no jyotirmaya prakasha. Power varies, but has grown in insistence, success & grip on the akasha. Vani & script are still excessive in statement, but the inert element tends to pass out of them. Lipi is now well-established in activity; but is more usually perfect in Chitra & sthapatya than in akasha where the old faults of paleness, insufficient legibility & fragmentary manifestation are still powerful. Incoherence has not yet been removed, but the power to interpret lipi, coherent or incoherent, has grown immensely & is only faulty, as a rule, when the vijnana is clouded by the aprakasha & the intellect once more active. Rupa grows more fertile & is once more rich & perfect or almost perfect in Chitra & sthapatya, (one defect is excess of human figures & defect of animal forms & objects), but in akasha it cannot yet compass the union of vivid clearness & stability. The obstruction here is still strong. Samadhi has increased in habitual coherence & continuity; even the lipi in sushupta swapna now tends to be coherent.
   The physical siddhi is always resisted & put back in utthapana & saundarya; in ananda & arogya it is progressive with occasional retrocessions. Habituality of kamananda and frequency of the other physical anandas has considerably increased; also to a certain extent their intensity. A serious effort is being made to get rid of the obstinate fragments of eruption, headache, cold & stomach complaint which still recur needlessly in the system. Headache usually occurs only by vyapti from other adharas.

r1913 09 16, #Record of Yoga, #Sri Aurobindo, #Integral Yoga
   The other principal movements were in lipi and samadhi. In lipi the various stages through which the etheric script has wavered backwards & forwards, indistinctness or paleness of script, illegibility, partial legibility, vividness of single words, vividness of short phrases, unspontaneity, partial spontaneity, incoherent richness, illegible vividness, legible vividness, etc have been passed through rapidly in a final movement and lipi is now fixed in the akasha as an abundant phenomenon both in the single word & the short phrase, spontaneous, vivid, legible, simultaneous, authoritative, and is now extending to long phrases. The interpretation of lipi is still occasionally hesitating owing to the uncertainties of the trikaldrishti, but this hesitation has disappeared from the thought scripts. The full authority of the thought is necessary to the full authority of the lipi. Rupa has developed a final richness, variety, frequency & perfect grouping in all the Chitra & sthapatya forms including the vision in transparent substances; it has developed occasional perfection in single crude forms of all kinds & even in ghana, but is vague & indistinct in grouped images, & vivid but momentary in the lifelike developed or dense images. These are old difficulties. Samadhi last night attained again & more powerfully on the whole to richness, variety, grouping, vividness, continued action, shabda; but the continuity has to be swift and is limited to a very few successive movements owing to want of firm hold on the jagrat-swapna & jagrat-sushupta conditions. Only in dream is there long continuity; & dream is now, so far as remembered, usually connected & coherent, with only slight survivals of the old defects. Its images are more vivid & nearer to the forms of samadhi, but are still dream images. As yet they are not dreams of actuality, but scenes from past lives, sukshma experiences etc. The dreaminess has not departed out of them.
   All the subjective anandas, especially prema & next to it shuddha have been finally fixed in the system; none of them are yet new in form, experience or intensity, but a tendency to greater generality of intense experience is visible. The perception of ugliness & ungainliness contradictory of beauty which had reemerged & long persisted is now sinking back into the shuddha & chidghana anandas. Kamananda was occasional & ceased to preserve continuity; it now stands that the ananda can no longer be successfully excluded for a single day, but it is not yet continuously permanent because it still visits the body and does not yet hold it as its natural dharma. Arogya improved, but is still struggling against difficulties. Utthapana increases in force slowly & with difficulty. The weakness of the body & its capacity for exhaustion struggle powerfully to keep their hold.

r1913 11 24, #Record of Yoga, #Sri Aurobindo, #Integral Yoga
   The tapas, active in the lower estate of being in front of a veiled Chit and blind to it or to all but a few illuminations from it mostly ill-directed by the gropings of the manas in the twilight of the manasa buddhi, is in the higher estate of being and must therefore be in this siddhi, first a selected activity of the Chit on the background of the luminous Chit and ultimately a reproduction or cumulative result of the Chit. Henceforward therefore the tapas and the faculties of power, aishwarya, ishita, vashita must be habituated to act on the background of the knowledge, first as the selected activity, then as the cumulative result. Knowledge of the general state of being & of the forces at work in any given Apas is now fairly perfect in wideness (brihat) & in satyam; but the defect of the ritam arises in the attempt of manasabuddhi either as stress of speculation, mental knowledge tapas, (manasasmriti, judgment, imagination, memory working on observation & by inference) or as stress of mental will-tapas to select the event or the decisive force out of the Sat & the Tapas. Henceforth the tapas must act on the basis of the vijnanabuddhi eliminating the remnants of mental tapas of will & knowledge.
   The full asamata is once more manifest in the system, with duhkham, and the authority of the sources of knowledge is denied; conflicting assertions are once more proceeding from the vani.

r1913 11 25, #Record of Yoga, #Sri Aurobindo, #Integral Yoga
   Rupa (Akasharupa & Chitra) is now growing stronger. Clear human figures in the akasha are becoming frequent. Communication of Yoga by vyapti to those practising in the immediate vicinity is also becoming stronger.
   Aishwarya is no longer an occasional output of will working upon an obstinate plastic material, but a powerful Shakti struggling with another powerful Shakti. The opposing force is still habitually the occupant of the Akasha and successful when not overborne by a strong & persistent pressure. The weakness of this movement, although it is capable of bringing about sudden powerful results, is that it establishes only a momentary force in the Akasha, instead of a permanently growing Power of Nature in the material ether which will form a dominant centre of Kali always responsive to the Purusha in this Adhara. It is noticeable that when this Shakti fails in its effort, the object after executing a contrary or different movement, returns to fulfil the original will when the struggle is over. This seems to show that the adverse Power in the akasha is also not a native of the Akasha & therefore has little more staying power than the Shakti of this Adhara. It is stronger only by use of the previously existing natural obstruction in the ether considered as a plastic material. It is also noticeable that when the object sits tight in its resistance, circumstances often arrive which compel it to execute the willed movement. None of these features are new; they date from the commencement of this sadhana (of the vijnana) three years ago (in 1910 on first coming to Pondicherry). At times they have seemed to be on the point of being corrected in the sense of a perfect siddhi (within a very limited range) & so it was more than once confidently recorded; but now the same features occur in a much wider range of activity. This is apparently what is immediately intended by a recent lipi, It is useless to distinguish life from Yogasiddhi. It remains to be seen whether, as is suggested, these limitations are so powerfully brought forward, because they are on the point of being removed. The last defect is the tendency to create only a temporary result, then relapse, then succeed, & so slowly move to some kind of final success. Unless this defect is removed the rapidity so often promised cannot come.

r1913 11 29, #Record of Yoga, #Sri Aurobindo, #Integral Yoga
   Discomfort of cold and heat is being extruded from the body, but recurs, especially when it is of the nature of a surprise, eg the sudden touch of cold water in a chilly atmosphere, and the Shakti in the physical nerve system has not time to send a sufficient force of Chittapas to meet & assimilate the sparsha.
   Kamananda now comes without the smarana; it is more frequent and has a more constant tendency towards intensity.

r1913 11 30, #Record of Yoga, #Sri Aurobindo, #Integral Yoga
   Chitra of animal & inanimate forms suddenly streng thened; there is, however, still some resistance.
   In the evening jnana of perception & jnana of vangmaya were reorganised with finality as well as lipi in all but material legibility. A movement was made to the same end in the rest of the vijnana, especially in swapnasamadhi where all the obstinate defects of the past broke down initially in type. Poetry resumed

r1913 12 12b, #Record of Yoga, #Sri Aurobindo, #Integral Yoga
   The transfer of the perceptive & determinative intellectuality to the ideal plane has been violently & artificially retarded for the last two or three days by rushes of cloud & confusion, by a constant hammering of apparent refutation & ill-result at the sraddha. Nevertheless it is still being steadily pursued under all difficulties and is now about to be extended to the movements of tapas & tejas, which like the prakasha, must be made entirely satyam & ritam in the brihat. In the prakasha it is the perceptions of actuality & especially of determinative event in the actuality which are the remaining centre of deficiency and their imperfection is intimately connected with the common action of asatya tejas & asatya tapas in the Will powers & Will-states. Chitra & samadhi, obstinately obstructed, progress with a hampered slowness which cannot yet convert itself into rapidity.
   Arogya struggles towards finality; kamananda grows & persists, stimulating from time to time other anandas; utthapana has definitely entered on its final uninterrupted progression; saundaryam alone remains ineffective & uneffected.

r1913 12 13, #Record of Yoga, #Sri Aurobindo, #Integral Yoga
   The siege has, today, been lifted, but the full vijnana is not yet manifest. At present the siddhis of power are being allowed to manifest through the Bhuvar tapas or the Swar-tapas on the objectivity. Manifesting through the Bhuvar tapas the Will tends to produce powerfully immediate results & more intermittently, often by indirect means & after much tergiversation, final results; manifesting through the Swar tapas it fastens more often on general than on particular effectualities or seizes only on the general effect & some of the effectuating movements. When the pure Chittapas manifests in vijnanabuddhi & manasbuddhi, there is a more consistent simultaneous & sometimes identical knowledge & effectuality, but the manasabuddhi is constitutionally averse or unable to hold for a long time the continuous activity of the Chittapas. When this Power is thus active through vijnanabuddhi & manasabuddhi, the knowledge also tends to lapse back from the ideality to these organs. It is now especially at home in vijnanabuddhi, where it perceives all or most of the forces at work, the possibilities, many of the immediate actualities & sometimes the eventual actuality. The movement is now towards a levelling up of the siddhis of Power & siddhis of knowledge. Script & vani have been made manifest to the mind in such a way that the real script & real vani can be distinguished from their secondary reproductions & from false simulations. Egoistic activity has been once more expelled and driven back into the world-environment. The Jiva is now only a secondary ishwara, bhokta, bharta & jnata receiving all things as a centre of enjoyment & lordship for the Purushottama.
   Kamananda is once more active in the erect position and during movement of the body, but intermittently, not with continuity. There is an initial movement towards its recovered action at night and in samadhi.
  --
   The animal form which for a long time was excluded from the Chitra, is now of frequent occurrence and a rich perfection & variety, though not as yet on a level with the human form & the landscape. The separate inanimate object and groups of objects have also begun to manifest. The tapas is working on the Akasharupa, but it still fails to hold the physical ether; nevertheless it tends towards a more lingering transience than its former entirely fugitive display. Shabda & other drishtis are still very rare & poor in range &, usually, in force. Tivrananda is acquiring intensity in its sukshma touches.
   Utthapana of the left arm, horizontal position, commenced while recumbent on the right side, was visited at once with a violent pain of ananima; after some minutes changed to the sitting position & walking, the ananima diminished, & the utthapana was maintained with increasing force for an hour & a half, but the ananima finally returned & terminated it. The right arm continued for an hour; then ananima grew suddenly upon it. It is noticeable that when held out rigidly, the ananima takes the form of strong muscular pain in the shoulder muscle; when held easily & slightly crooked, the ananima comes after a long time & takes the form rather of uneasiness. In both cases there is no pull of gravitation from below, the laghima of the arms being perfect, but a pressure of gravity from above, oppressing the mahima through ananima. Utthapana of the back persisted for nearly 5 minutes with intervals of varying pressure & growing urdhwagati. Other utthapanas were unsuccessful.

r1913 12 14, #Record of Yoga, #Sri Aurobindo, #Integral Yoga
   Arrangement of lipi has been well-established both in Chitra and akasha. The struggle now is between the slowly growing intensity & vividness of the letters & the old tendency to vagueness, dimness & illegibility. This intensity & vividness was formerly perfect, but exceptional, it is now imperfect, but tends to be normal. The lipi is usually intelligible even when imperfectly legible, but its interpretation by the ideality is often obstructed; eg the lipi Pyrotechnics on the Kart[t]ik Purnima. Owing to the minds ignorance of the fact that it was Karttik Purnima or that here it is usual to have fireworks on that tithi, the lipi remained unintelligible in its main purpose until the evening when the fireworks began.
   Utthapana of the right leg, medial position, for half an hour with but slight ananima,discontinued owing to deficiency of established laghima and mahima. Subsequently utthapana of the back attempted without success, owing partly to commencement with the medial position, attempted again and successful[ly] maintained for 15 minutes; increasing laghima & mahima made the utthapana easier & easier, instead of its becoming more difficult by long continuance, and at the end only a slight dull pain of ananima in the hips and vepathu survived out of the first strong asiddhi. The back was then lowered to the medial position & could have been maintained owing to strong laghima, but there was violent vepathu; the utthapana was discontinued owing to an external occurrence, otherwise it might have been maintained for an indefinitely longer period. This is the first time utthapana of the back has been established.

r1913 12 22, #Record of Yoga, #Sri Aurobindo, #Integral Yoga
   The third chatusthaya is chiefly advanced in vangmaya thought, in general jnana where jnana does not pass into telepathy (prakamya-vyapti). The main difficulty lies in the defects of the interpretative power, daksha & ketu, which, although transferred in type to the ideality whether of vijnanabuddhi or vijnana, alternates practically between vijnana, vijnanabuddhi and those parts of manasabuddhi which are either pseudo-intuitional in the nature of their activity or else attempt to preserve the fragments of the old intellectual reasoning or of the undercurrent of habitual mentality. This defect is now being steadily mended; ideal interpretation is being applied to the material of telepathy, lipi, rupa, samadhi etc; but until this process is complete, the positive defects of knowledge, as opposed to mere occasional inactivity, incompleteness or limitation of range, must continue. Meanwhile the range has begun to be extended. Occasional inactivity of knowledge will remain & be used for ananda & uddeshya, the purposes of life & the joy of life. Power acts with frequency, but not with full mastery; nevertheless it is now often rapid, instantaneous[,] effortless & persistent in its efficacy. Lipi is organising itself materially, but lacks habituality of vividness & spontaneous fullness in the akasha. Chitra & sthapatya of rupa is now almost perfect, the human figure, animal, landscape & group being rich, various & perfect in all; the isolated object or object group is still obstructed, but is moving towards the same variety & richness. Perfection is already not uncommon. Akasharupa is now persistent in manifestation, but cannot yet acquire a free stability. The vishayadrishtis have all an occasional perfect action, but are limited to a few habitual forms. Samadhi is still deficient in free combination and prolonged continuity of vision and experience.
   Kamananda is now fixed in the body as of frequent daily occurrence, but only sometimes (on some days, that is to say) continuous or intense in its frequency. Ahaituka tivrananda has acquired a great intensity & some persistence; raudra has intensity. Vishaya & still more vaidyuta are only occasional & still imperfectly developed. Health is strongly combated, utthapana likewise; but both have now begun a settled movement of struggle towards progress and in no feature yield for long to positive reaction. Saundarya is successfully obstructed; it is only rudimentary in a few features & still subject in a few to successful positive reactions.

r1913 12 25, #Record of Yoga, #Sri Aurobindo, #Integral Yoga
   The tapas-siddhi, clouded and interrupted yesterday, again manifests in a series of aishwaryaprayogas (with vashita) in which there was no instance of failure, but always some element of resistance. There are three forms of resistance; 1, the will is exactly fulfilled in all its successive dictates, but there is an involved & concealed resistance not betrayed by any action or movement but obvious to the prakamya-vyapti which would or might have manifested itself if the action of the will had been farther pursued; 2, the will is fulfilled with a slight delay or a slight deflection of detail or both; 3, the will is fulfilled with a longer delay or a greater deflection of details or both, or with constant alternations of failure & success leading to an ultimate victory. If the will were jatavedas, attended with a constant & perfect knowledge or identical with knowledge in the divine identity of Chit-Tapas, these difficulties would not occur; but, before that consummation can be allowed, will force in mind has to be educated to the necessary force & firmness. First, eventual failure in the particular event has to be eliminated then failure in process, then limitation of success to the particular event & its extension to series of events constituting finally one grand result.
   The tapas siddhi shows signs of entering on a new stage. From the movements of this stage it is evident that there are four forms of arrangement of Chit-Tapas which enter into the eventuality of things; first; arrangement of potential possibilities and their event, proper to the imagination, which may be eventually fulfilled but usually are not, except in quite another space or time or under quite other circumstances; 2, arrangement of actual possibilities and their reasonable event, proper to the judgment & reasoning intelligence, which often are fulfilled, but quite as often frustrated by forces behind the scene or impossible to be properly estimated by logic & mental reason; 3, arrangement of actualities on the basis of actual forces in operation seen or unseen, perceptible by mind or inferable, proper to the telepathic & intuitional mind, vijnanabuddhi, which are usually fulfilled & always more or less, but need not be, or, if fulfilled, need not continue to be fulfilled; 4, arrangement of absolute actuality, proper to the pure vijnana, which is invariably fulfilled, being equivalent to the intentions of Fate and Providence. A great obstacle to the development of Power has been the desistence from its use when an event seemed fixed either in a favourable or hostile sense on the strength of the telepathic dristi or even of the reasoning perceptions. The latter difficulty is beginning to disappear with the transference of knowledge to the vijnanabuddhi, & the disappearance of the reasoning intellect, but the former persists & is likely to persist until the knowledge has been transferred from the intuitional mind to the pure vijnana. This is being done with jnana; it has yet to be done with trikaldrishti.
   Lipi satyatejas is being fulfilled. All the powers are gaining in strength; aishwarya with vashita, not invariably successful in event, yet succeeds now far oftener than it fails, at any rate in the sadhan-kshetra; ishita is less powerful, but exercises a visible pressure & often fulfils itself; aishwarya with ishita stands between the two in effectiveness; both aishwarya & [vashita]1 have also a field of exercise involved in ishita. But ill-ordered as is still the action of the Power, it is now recognised as satyatejas, always either producing some kind of effect or motion, if not the exact effect intended, and, if not at the time, in the object, under the circumstances intended, then at another time or place, or in another object or under other circumstances. There is delay, there is deflection, there is even final frustration, but never entire inutility. The ritam yet remains to be brought into this disordered mass of satyam.

r1914 03 14, #Record of Yoga, #Sri Aurobindo, #Integral Yoga
   Two typical antardrishta visions. 1. A heavily polished door half open showing part of a room carpeted with a clean white cloth, but apparently empty of furniture. Very vivid in the pradiv behind the outer Chittakasha (ether of the pranic manas as pradiv is of the prano-manasic buddhi), but dim in the Chittakasha & remote from it. 2 An atmosphere, not of earthly air, but of apas full of rolling & shifting clouds of colour strong but not very bright. In the apas jala & floating tejas (also leaping but not actively); a star seen at first but afterwards lost in the clouds of colour.
   Lipi
   1) Chitra lipi
   fuel .. is upward .. July 13th

r1914 03 17, #Record of Yoga, #Sri Aurobindo, #Integral Yoga
   Kamnanda, often obstructed and suspended, always return[s]; ahaituka tivra has established itself as a recurrent intensity, like ahaituka kamananda; ahaituka rudra now promises to do the same. Rupa is infrequent & crude in the jagrat. Samadhi is still attempting to organise itself, but the definite movement has not taken place. Lipi, though easily active if supported by the will, is otherwise subject to fluctuations from a state of intense, free & rapid to a state of dull & infrequent activity, although Chitra is always freer than akasha & hardly at all suspended, though its ease & frequency vary. Aishwarya grows in strength and insistence, but is not yet in real possession of its field.
   Lipi

r1914 03 18, #Record of Yoga, #Sri Aurobindo, #Integral Yoga
   Chitra of the brilliant rays of Surya. Indicative of the reemergence of the higher vijnana in a greater brilliance (?)
   Jonakis, stars and dark living spots very frequent. (N.B the firefly, the star, the wind are given in Swet. Up [Swetaswatara Upanishad]along with others, moon, sun, fire etc, as signs of Yogasiddhi.)

r1914 03 19, #Record of Yoga, #Sri Aurobindo, #Integral Yoga
   1) Following on explanation of oneness & vyapti & aishwarya for Brahmadrishti, B. [Bijoy] got vision of Sat & Chit samudras with all beings as kendras & the body no longer a barrier to the vision.2) Aishwarya on Bharati to get lipi. Result, saw for first time lipi with open eyes, Being. We. & a green sun. (Brahman, the Purushas & nishkama karma).
   Strong & violent tivra from hetu of pain; strong kama & tivra from touch of vishaya on parts of the body not directly connected with kamachakra, (left arm near shoulder).

r1914 03 21, #Record of Yoga, #Sri Aurobindo, #Integral Yoga
   6) Thirteenthdestroy the obstacles. Chitra in chimney of lamp.
   7) Scholastic study of Scriptures. (Repeated often recently)

r1914 03 23, #Record of Yoga, #Sri Aurobindo, #Integral Yoga
   Images connected with yesterdays 3.1 (1) An open country with a hill in the distance, representing the unoccupied land taken by the civilised invaders from the barbarian; (2) a fortified city on a plateau with great terraces cut in the slope in the background, in front level spaces leading to a great river with a vast ghaut at one place in the bank; (3) the same river; a hut large & spacious with a great door open,afterwards, appear in the hut opposite the doorway a priest & a child; after a while the priest turns away lifting his hands as if shocked & despairing. All these in the chimney of the lamp. (4) not connected, a Chitra on a rough envelope (inside torn open), very distinct in every detail (even more than the others,) two flights of step[s], with a rough, sculptured wall at the angle; a woman, young, beautiful, with a bonnet and a walking stick in her right hand held away from her body & supported on the stairs, very elegantly dressed; below her on the steps a crown, bracelet & cloth. These images are Chitra; the akasha images are still vague & present seldom any clear details.
   Trikaldrishti still continues to generalise itself without being able to expel error. Samadhi is now being utilised, but does not yet improve in its material. All the materials of trikaldrishti are in fact being utilised for all three times without any of them yet being entirely perfect. Tapas varies in effectiveness.

r1914 03 24, #Record of Yoga, #Sri Aurobindo, #Integral Yoga
   The difficulty formerly experienced in thought-telepathy was that there was a full or almost full perception, whenever there was even slight sanyama, of the Chitta-mould of the living object and of his sensation mind in its status & acquired form accompanied with a clear perception of the contents of the temperament & character, also of the waves of feeling & sensation that arose in the manas & Chitta & to a less degree of the thought sensations that arose in the manas, but not of the buddhi, except in its vague mould & acquired status, its outer shell only,not of either its general contents or of the particular ideas arising in it. These powers were gained long ago,early in the Pondicherry stay,& to some extent always existed in an inchoate form as they exist probably in all men; but they had to be discontinued