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287 Since all cognition is akin to recognition, it should not come
as a surprise to find that what I have described as a gradual
process of development had already been anticipated, and more
or less prefigured, at the beginning of our era. We meet these
images and ideas in Gnosticism, to which we must now give our
attention; for Gnosticism was, in the main, a product of cul-
tural assimilation and is therefore of the greatest interest in
elucidating and defining the contents constellated by prophecies
about the Redeemer, or by his appearance in history, or by the
synchronicity of the archetype. 1

288 in the Elenchos of Hippolytus the attraction between the
magnet and iron is mentioned, if I am not mistaken, three times.
It first appears in the doctrine of the Naassenes, who taught that
the four rivers of Paradise correspond to the eye, the ear, the
sense of smell, and the mouth. The mouth, through which
prayers go out and food goes in, corresponds to the fourth river,
the Euphrates. The well-known significance of the "fourth"
helps to explain its connection with the "whole" man, for the
fourth always makes a triad into a totality. The text says: "This
is the water above the firmament, 2 of which, they say, the
Saviour spoke: 4 If you knew who it is that asks, you would have
asked him, and he would have given you a spring of living water
to drink.' 3 To this water comes every nature to choose its own

1 Unfortunately it is not possible for me to elucidate or even to document this
statement here. But, as Rhine's ESP (extrasensory perception) experiments show,
any intense emotional interest or fascination is accompanied by phenomena
which can only be explained by a psychic relativity of time, space, and causality.
Since the archetypes usually have a certain numinosity, they can arouse just that
fascination which is accompanied by synchronistic phenomena. These consist in
the meaningful coincidence of two or more causally unrelated facts. For details

1 would refer the reader to my "Synchronicity: An Acausal Connecting Principle."

2 Genesis 1:7. 3 Non-verbatim quotation from John 4 : 10.



substances, and from this water goes forth to every nature
that which is proper to it, more [certainly] than iron to the
Heracleian stone," 4 etc.

289 As the reference to John 4:10 shows, the wonderful water
of the Euphrates has the property of the aqua doctrinae, which
perfects every nature in its individuality and thus makes man
whole too. It does this by giving him a kind of magnetic power
by which he can attract and integrate that which belongs to him.
The Naassene doctrine is, plainly, a perfect parallel to the
alchemical view already discussed: the doctrine is the magnet
that makes possible the integration of man as well as the lapis.

9 In the Peratic doctrine, so many ideas of this kind reappear
that Hippolytus even uses the same metaphors, though the
meaning is more subtle. No one, he says, can be saved without
the Son:

But this is the serpent. For it is he who brought the signs of the
Father down from above, and it is he who carries them back again
after they have been awakened from sleep, transferring them thither
from hence as substances proceeding from the Substanceless. This,
they say, is [what is meant by] the saying, "I am the Door." 5 But
they say he transfers them to those whose eyelids are closed, 6 as
naphtha draws everywhere the fire to itself, 7 more than the Hera-
cleian stone draws iron . . . 8 Thus, they say, the perfect race of
men, made in the image [of the Father] and of the same substance
[homoonsion], is drawn from the world by the Serpent, even as it
was sent down by him; but naught else [is so drawn]. 9

29 1 Here the magnetic attraction does not come from the doc-
trine or the water but from the "Son," who is symbolized by the
serpent, as in John 3 : 14. 10 Christ is the magnet that draws to

Elenchos, V, g, i8f. (Cf. Legge trans., I, pp. i43f.) "Heracleian stone" = magnet.
5 John 10 : 9: "I am the door. By me, if any man enter in, he shall be saved."
6 1 use the reading: Ka/xixvovaiv 68a\fiov p\
close their eyes to the world?

7 The naphtha analogy reappears in the teachings of the Basilidians (Elenchos,
VII, 24, 6f.). There it refers to the son of the highest archon, who comprehends
the vo-qfiara airb rijs fiaKaplas vISttjtos (idea of the blessed sonship). Hippolytus'
exposition seems to be a trifle confused at this point.

8 Several more metaphors now follow, and it should be noted that they are the
same as in the passage previously quoted (V, 9, 19).

9 Elenchos, V, 17, 8ff. (Cf. Legge trans., I, pp. 158L)

10 "And as Moses lifted up the serpent in the wilderness, even so must the Son
of man be lifted up."



itself those parts or substances in man that are of divine origin,
the narpiKol xapa/c-njpe? (signs of the Father), and carries them back
to their heavenly birthplace. The serpent is an equivalent of the
fish. The consensus of opinion interpreted the Redeemer equally
as a fish and a serpent; he is a fish because he rose from the un-
known depths, and a serpent because he came mysteriously out
of the darkness. Fishes and snakes are favourite symbols for
describing psychic happenings or experiences that suddenly dart
out of the unconscious and have a frightening or redeeming
effect. That is why they are so often expressed by the motif of
helpful animals. The comparison of Christ with the serpent is
more authentic than that with the fish, but, for all that, it was
not so popular in primitive Christianity. The Gnostics favoured
it because it was an old-established symbol for the "good" genius
loci, the Agathodaimon, and also for their beloved Nous. Both
symbols are of inestimable value when it comes to the natural,
instinctive interpretation of the Christ-figure. Theriomorphic
symbols are very common in dreams and other manifestations
of the unconscious. They express the psychic level of the con-
tent in question; that is to say, such contents are at a stage of
unconsciousness that is as far from human consciousness as the
psyche of an animal. Warm-blooded or cold-blooded vertebrates
of all kinds, or even invertebrates, thus indicate the degree of
unconsciousness. It is important for psychopathologists to know
this, because these contents can produce, at all levels, symptoms
that correspond to the physiological functions and are localized
accordingly. For instance, the symptoms may be distinctly corre-
lated with the cerebrospinal and the sympathetic nervous sys-
tem. The Sethians may have guessed something of this sort, for
Hippolytus mentions, in connection with the serpent, that they
compared the "Father" with the cerebrum (iyKe
"Son" with the cerebellum and spinal cord (TrapeyKe^aXU
SpaKovTouBrj's). The snake does in fact symbolize "cold-blooded,"
inhuman contents and tendencies of an abstractly intellectual as
well as a concretely animal nature: in a word, the extra-human
quality in man.
*9* The third reference to the magnet is to be found in Hippoly-
tus' account of the Sethian doctrine. This has remarkable
analogies with the alchemical doctrines of the Middle Ages,



though no direct transmission can be proved. It expounds, in
Hippolytus' words, a theory of "composition and mixture": the
ray of light from above mingles with the dark waters below in
the form of a minute spark. At the death of the individual, and
also at his figurative death as a mystical experience, the two
substances unmix themselves. This mystical experience is the
divisio and separatio of the composite (to Sixdo-ai koL x^p^at ra
avyKeKpafxiva). I purposely give the Latin terms used in medieval
alchemy, because they denote essentially the same thing as do
the Gnostic concepts. The separation or unmixing enables the
alchemist to extract the anima or spiritus from the prima ma-
teria. During this operation the helpful Mercurius appears with
the dividing sword (used also by the adept!), which the Sethians
refer to Matthew 10 : 34: "I came not to send peace, but a
sword." The result of the unmixing is that what was previously
mixed up with the "other" is now drawn to "its own place" and
to that which is "proper" or "akin" to it, "like iron to the mag-
net" (<35s (Tib'ripos [jrpds] 'Hpd/eXetov \idov). 11 In the same way, the
spark or ray of light, "having received from the teaching and
learning its proper place, hastens to the Logos, which comes
from above in the form of a slave . . . more [quickly] than iron
[flies] to the magnet." 12
293 Here the magnetic attraction comes from the Logos. This
denotes a thought or idea that has been formulated and articu-
lated, hence a content and a product of consciousness. Conse-
quently the Logos is very like the aqua doctrinae, but whereas
the Logos has the advantage of being an autonomous person-
ality, the latter is merely a passive object of human action. The
Logos is nearer to the historical Christ-figure, just as the "water"
is nearer to the magical water used in ritual (ablution, aspersion,

11 Here, as in the previous passages about the magnet, mention is made of
electron (amber) and the sea-hawk, emphasis being laid on the bird's centre.

12 Elenchos, V, 21, 8 (Legge trans., I, p. 168). The ray of light (radius) plays an
analogous role in alchemy. Dorn (Theatr. chem., I, p. 276) speaks of the "invisible
rays of heaven meeting together at the centre of the earth," and there, as
Michael Maier says, shining with a "heavenly light like a carbuncle" (Symbola
aureae mensae, 1617, p. 377). The arcane substance is extracted from the ray, and
constitutes its "shadow" (umbra), as the "Tractatus aureus" says (Ars chemica,
1566, p. 15). The aqua permanent is extracted from the rays of the sun and moon
by the magnet (Mylius, Philosophia reformata, p. 314), or the rays of the sun are
united in the "silver water" (Beatus, "Aurelia occulta," Theatr. chem., IV, p. 563).



baptism). Our three examples of magnetic action suggest three
different forms of magnetic agent:

1. The agent is an inanimate and in itself passive substance,
water. It is drawn from the depths of the well, handled by
human hands, and used according to man's needs. It signifies
the visible doctrine, the aqua doctrinae or the Logos, commu-
nicated to others by word of mouth and by ritual.

2. The agent is an animate, autonomous being, the serpent.
It appears spontaneously or comes as a surprise; it fascinates; its
glance is staring, fixed, unrelated; its blood cold, and it is a
stranger to man: it crawls over the sleeper, he finds it in a shoe
or in his pocket. It expresses his fear of everything inhuman and
his awe of the sublime, of what is beyond human ken. It is the
lowest (devil) and the highest (son of God, Logos, Nous, Aga-
thodaimon). The snake's presence is frightening, one finds it in
unexpected places at unexpected moments. Like the fish, it
represents and personifies the dark and unfathomable, the
watery deep, the forest, the night, the cave. When a primitive
says "snake," he means an experience of something extrahuman.
The snake is not an allegory or metaphor, for its own peculiar
form is symbolic in itself, and it is essential to note that the
"Son" has the form of a snake and not the other way round: the
snake does not signify the "Son."

3. The agent is the Logos, a philosophical idea and abstrac-
tion of the bodily and personal son of God on the one hand, and
on the other the dynamic power of thoughts and words.

294 It is clear that these three symbols seek to describe the un-
knowable essence of the incarnate God. But it is equally clear
that they are hypostatized to a high degree: it is real water, and
not figurative water, that is used in ritual. The Logos was in the
beginning, and God was the Logos, long before the Incarnation.
The emphasis falls so much on the "serpent" that the Ophites
celebrated their eucharistic feast with a live snake, no less
realistic than the Aesculapian snake at Epidaurus. Similarly,
the "fish" is not just the secret language of the mystery, but, as
the monuments show, it meant something in itself. Moreover,
it acquired its meaning in primitive Christianity without any
real support from the written tradition, whereas the serpent can
at least be referred back to an authentic logion.



295 All three symbols are phenomena of assimilation that are in
themselves of a numinous nature and therefore have a certain
degree of autonomy. Indeed, had they never made their appear-
ance, it would have meant that the annunciation of the Christ-
figure was ineffective. These phenomena not only prove the
effectiveness of the annunciation, but provide the necessary
conditions in which the annunciation can take effect. In other

s words, the symbols represent the prototypes of the Christ-figure
that were slumbering in man's unconscious and were then called
awake by his actual appearance in history and, so to speak,
magnetically attracted. That is why Meister Eckhart uses the
same symbolism to describe Adam's relation to the Creator on
the one hand and to the lower creatures on the other. 13

296 This magnetic process revolutionizes the ego-oriented psyche
by setting up, in contradistinction to the ego, another goal or
centre which is characterized by all manner of names and sym-
bols: fish, serpent, centre of the sea-hawk, 14 point, monad, cross,
paradise, and so on. The myth of the ignorant demiurge who
imagined he was the highest divinity illustrates the perplexity
of the ego when it can no longer hide from itself the knowledge
that it has been dethroned by a supraordinate authority. The
"thousand names" of the lapis philosophorum correspond to
the innumerable Gnostic designations for the Anthropos, which
make it quite obvious what is meant: the greater, more com-
prehensive Man, that indescribable whole consisting of the sum
of conscious and unconscious processes. This objective whole,
the antithesis of the subjective ego-psyche, is what I have called
the self, and this corresponds exactly to the idea of the An-

297 When, in treating a case of neurosis, we try to supplement
the inadequate attitude (or adaptedness) of the conscious mind

13 "And therefore the highest power, seeing her stability in God, communicates
it to the lowest, that they may discern good and evil. In this union Adam
dwelt, and while this union lasted he had all the power of creatures in his highest
power. As when a lodestone exerts its power upon a needle and draws it to itself,
the needle receives sufficient power to pass on to all the needles beneath, which
it raises and attaches to the lodestone." (Meister Eckhart, trans, by Evans, I,
p. 274, slightly modified.) 14 [Cf. n. 11, supra.]



by adding to it contents of the unconscious, our aim is to create
a wider personality whose centre of gravity does not necessarily
coincide with the ego, but which, on the contrary, as the pa-
tient's insights increase, may even thwart his ego-tendencies.
Like a magnet, the new centre attracts to itself that which is
proper to it, the "signs of the Father," i.e., everything that per-
tains to the original and unalterable character of the individual
ground-plan. All this is older than the ego and acts towards it as
the "blessed, nonexistent God" of the Basilidians acted towards
the archon of the Ogdoad, the demiurge, and- paradoxically
enough- as the son of the demiurge acted towards his father.
The son proves superior in that he has knowledge of the message
from above and can therefore tell his father that he is not the
highest God. This apparent contradiction resolves itself when
we consider the underlying psychological experience. On the
one hand, in the products of the unconscious the self appears as
it were a priori, that is, in well-known circle and quaternity sym-
bols which may already have occurred in the earliest dreams of
childhood, long before there was any possibility of conscious-
ness or understanding. On the other hand, only patient and
painstaking work on the contents of the unconscious, and the
resultant synthesis of conscious and unconscious data, can lead
to a "totality," which once more uses circle and quaternity sym-
bols for purposes of self-description. 15 In this phase, too, the
original dreams of childhood are remembered and understood.
The alchemists, who in their own way knew more about the
nature of the individuation process than we moderns do, ex-
pressed this paradox through the symbol of the uroboros, the
snake that bites its own tail.

The same knowledge, formulated differently to suit the age
they lived in, was possessed by the Gnostics. The idea of an un-
conscious was not unknown to them. For instance, Epiphanius
quotes an excerpt from one of the Valentinian letters, which says:
"In the beginning the Autopator contained in himself every-
thing that is, in a state of unconsciousness [lit., 'not-knowing':
dyvwo-ta]." 16 It was Professor G. Quispel who kindly drew my

15 Cf. Psychology and Alchemy, pars. 127ft - ., and "A Study in the Process of
Individuation," in Part I of vol. 9.

16 'E &PXVS b AvTovrarup avrbs kv eavrui irepielxe to. Trdvra ovra ev eavrio kv
ayvwala /cr\. Panarium, XXXI, cap. V (Oehler edn., I, p. 314).



attention to this passage. He also points out the passage in Hip-
poly tus: 6 Uarrjp ... 6 avewo-qros Kal avov

which he translates: "le Pere . . . qui est depourvu de con-
science et de substance, celui qui est ni masculin, ni feminin." 17
So the "Father" is not only unconscious and without the quality
of being, but also nirdvandva, without opposites, lacking all
qualities and therefore unknowable. This describes the state of
the unconscious. The Valentinian text gives the Autopator more
positive qualities: "Some called him the ageless Aeon, eternally
young, male and female, who contains everything in himself
and is [himself] contained by nothing." In him was Iwoia, con-
sciousness, which "conveys the treasures of the greatness to
those who come from the greatness." But the presence of hvoia
does not prove that the Autopator himself is conscious, for the
differentiation of consciousness results only from the syzygies
and tetrads that follow afterwards, all of them symbolizing
processes of conjunction and composition. "Ewoia must be
thought of here as the latent possibility of consciousness. Oehler
translates it as mens, Cornarius as intelligentia and notio.
299 St. Paul's concept of ayvoia (ignorantia) may not be too far
removed from dyiwia, since both mean the initial, unconscious
condition of man. When God "looked down" on the times of
ignorance, the Greek word used here, WeptSwv (Vulgate: despi-
ciens) has the connotation 'to disdain, despise.' 18 At all events,
Gnostic tradition says that when the highest God saw what
miserable, unconscious creatures these human beings were
whom the demiurge had created, who were not even able to
walk upright, he immediately got the work of redemption under
way. 19 And in the same passage in the Acts, Paul reminds the
Athenians that they were "God's offspring," 20 and that God,
looking back disapprovingly on "the times of ignorance," had
sent the message to mankind, commanding "all men every-

17 Elenchos, VI, 42, 4; Quispel, "Note sur 'Basilide,' " p. 115.

18 Acts 17 : 30.

19 Cf. Scott, Hermetica (I, pp. 150L) where there is a description of the krater
filled with Nous which God sent down to earth. Those whose hearts strive after
consciousness (yvupi^ovca i-rrl rl yeyovas) can "baptize" themselves in the krater
and thereby obtain Nous. "God says that the man filled with Nous should know
himself" (pp. i26f.).

20 Vivos ovv VTrdpxovres rov Oeov (Acts 17 : 29).



where to repent." Because that earlier condition seemed to be
altogether too wretched, the fxerdvoia (transformation of mind)
took on the moral character of repentance of sins, with the result
that the Vulgate could translate it as "poenitentiam agere." 21
The sin to be repented, of course, is ayvoia or ayvuma, uncon-
sciousness. 22 As we have seen, it is not only man who is in this
condition, but also, according to the Gnostics, the avewo-qros, the
God without consciousness. This idea is more or less in line
with the traditional Christian view that God was transformed
during the passage from the Old Testament to the New, and,
from being the God of wrath, changed into the God of Love-
a thought that is expressed very clearly by Nicolaus Caussin in
the seventeenth century. 23
3o In this connection I must mention the results of Riwkah
Scharf's examination of the figure of Satan in the Old Testa-
ment. 24 With the historical transformation of the concept of
Satan the image of Yahweh changes too, so that one can well say
that there was a differentiation of the God-image even in the
Old Testament, not to speak of the New. The idea that the
world-creating Deity is not conscious, but may be dreaming, is
found also in Hindu literature:

Who knows how it was, and who shall declare
Whence it was born and whence it came?
The gods are later than this creation;
Who knows, then, whence it has sprung?

Whence this created world came,

And whether he made it or not,

He alone who sees all in the highest heaven

Knows- or does not know. 25

21 Likewise the ^Tavoelre of the Baptist (Matt. 3 : 2).

22 Cf. the t6 rrjs kyvolas &/j.apTrm a , 'sin of unconsciousness' in pseudo-Clement
(Homilies XIX, cap. XXII), referring to the man who was born blind (John 9 : 1).

23 Polyhistor symbolicus, p. 348: "God, formerly the God of vengeance, who with
thunders and lightnings brought the world to disorder, took his rest in the lap
of a Virgin, nay, in her womb, and was made captive by love."

24 "Die Gestalt des Satans im Alten Testament."

25 Rig-Veda, X, 129. (Cf. MacNicol trans., Hindu Scriptures, p. 37.)



3 01 Meister Eckhart's theology knows a "Godhead" of which no
qualities, except unity and being, 26 can be predicated; 27 it "is
becoming," it is not yet Lord of itself, and it represents an
absolute coincidence of opposites: "But its simple nature is of
forms formless; of becoming becomingless; of beings beingless;
of things thingless," etc. 28 Union of opposites is equivalent to
unconsciousness, so far as human logic goes, for consciousness
presupposes a differentiation into subject and object and a rela-
tion between them. Where there is no "other," or it does not yet
exist, all possibility of consciousness ceases. Only the Father, the
God "welling" out of the Godhead, "notices himself," becomes
"beknown to himself," and "confronts himself as a Person." So,
from the Father, comes the Son, as the Father's thought of his
own being. In his original unity "he knows nothing" except the
"suprareal" One which he is. As the Godhead is essentially un-
conscious, 29 so too is the man who lives in God. In his sermon on
"The Poor in Spirit" (Matt. 5 : 3), the Meister says: "The man
who has this poverty has everything he was when he lived not in
any wise, neither in himself, nor in truth, nor in God. He is so
quit and empty of all knowing that no knowledge of God is alive
in him; for while he stood in the eternal nature of God, there
lived in him not another: what lived there was himself. And so
we say this man is as empty of his own knowledge as he was
when he was not anything; he lets God work what he will, and
he stands empty as when he came from God." 30 Therefore he
should love God in the following way: "Love him as he is: a not-
God, a not-spirit, a not-person, a not-image; as a sheer, pure,
clear One, which he is, sundered from all secondness; and in
this One let us sink eternally, from nothing to nothing. So help
us God. Amen." 31

26 "Being" is controversial. The Master says: "God in the Godhead is a spiritual
substance, so unfathomable that we can say nothing about it except that it is
naught [niht ensi\. To say it is aught [iht] were more lying than true." (Cf.
Evans trans., I, p. 354.)

27 "To this end there is no way, it is beyond all ways." (Cf. ibid., p. 211.)

28 ". . . von formen formelos, von werdenne werdelos, von wesenne weselos und
ist von sachen sachelos." (Cf. ibid., p. 352.)

29 "[The will] is the nobler in that it plunges into unknowing, which is God."
Cf. ibid., p. 351. Cf. also n. 16, supra: ayvuxria.

30 Evans, I, p. 219.

31 End of the sermon "Renovamini spiritu" (Eph. 4 : 23). Ibid., pp. 247L



32 The world-embracing spirit of Meister Eckhart knew, with-
out discursive knowledge, the primordial mystical experience of
India as well as of the Gnostics, and was itself the finest flower
on the tree of the "Free Spirit" that flourished at the beginning
of the eleventh century. Well might the writings of this Master
lie buried for six hundred years, for "his time was not yet come."
Only in the nineteenth century did he find a public at all
capable of appreciating the grandeur of his mind.

33 These utterances on the nature of the Deity express trans-
formations of the God-image which run parallel with changes in
human consciousness, though one would be at a loss to say which
is the cause of the other. The God-image is not something in-
vented, it is an experience that comes upon man spontaneously
-as anyone can see for himself unless he is blinded to the truth
by theories and prejudices. The unconscious God-image can
therefore alter the state of consciousness, just as the latter can
modify the God-image once it has become conscious. This, obvi-
ously, has nothing to do with the "prime truth," the unknown
God- at least, nothing that could be verified. Psychologically,
however, the idea of God's ayvwaia, or of the avevvo-qros 0eo?, is of
the utmost importance, because it identifies the Deity with the
numinosity of the unconscious. The atman / purusha philosophy
of the East and, as we have seen, Meister Eckhart in the West
both bear witness to this.

34 Now if psychology is to lay hold of this phenomenon, it can
only do so if it expressly refrains from passing metaphysical
judgments, and if it does not presume to profess convictions to
which it is ostensibly entitled on the ground of scientific experi-
ence. But of this there can be no question whatever. The one
and only thing that psychology can establish is the presence of
pictorial symbols, whose interpretation is in no sense fixed be-
forehand. It can make out, with some certainty, that these
symbols have the character of "wholeness" and therefore presum-
ably mean wholeness. As a rule they are "uniting" symbols, repre-
senting the conjunction of a single or double pair of opposites,
the result being either a dyad or a quaternion. They arise from
the collision between the conscious and the unconscious and
from the confusion which this causes (known in alchemy as
"chaos" or "nigredo"). Empirically, this confusion takes the
form of restlessness and disorientation. The circle and qua-



ternity symbolism appears at this point as a compensating prin-
ciple of order, which depicts the union of warring opposites as
already accomplished, and thus eases the way to a healthier and
quieter state ("salvation"). For the present, it is not possible for
psychology to establish more than that the symbols of wholeness
mean the wholeness of the individual. 32 On the other hand, it
has to admit, most emphatically, that this symbolism uses images
or schemata which have always, in all the religions, expressed
the universal "Ground," the Deity itself. Thus the circle is a
well-known symbol for God; and so (in a certain sense) is the
cross, the quaternity in all its forms, e.g., Ezekiel's vision, the
Rex gloriae with the four evangelists, the Gnostic Barbelo
("God in four") and Kolorbas ("all four"); the duality (tao,
hermaphrodite, father-mother); and finally, the human form
(child, son, anthropos) and the individual personality (Ghrist
and Buddha), to name only the most important of the motifs
here used.
305 All these images are found, empirically, to be expressions for
the unified wholeness of man. The fact that this goal goes by the
name of "God" proves that it has a numinous character; and in-
deed, experiences, dreams, and visions of this kind do have a
fascinating and impressive quality which can be spontaneously
felt even by people who are not prejudiced in their favour by
prior psychological knowledge. So it is no wonder that naive
minds make no distinction between God and the image they
have experienced. Wherever, therefore, we find symbols indica-
tive of psychic wholeness, we encounter the naive idea that they
stand for God. In the case of those quite common Romanesque
pictures of the Son of Man accompanied by three angels with
animal heads and one with a human head, for example, it would
be simpler to assume that the Son of Man meant the ordinary
man and that the problem of one against three referred to the
well-known psychological schema of one differentiated and
three undifferentiated functions. But this interpretation would,
according to the traditional view, devalue the symbol, for it

32 There are people who, oddly enough, think it a weakness in me that I refrain
from metaphysical judgments. A scientist's conscience does not permit him to
assert things he cannot prove or at least show to be probable. No assertion has
ever yet brought anything corresponding to it into existence. "What he says, is"
is a prerogative exclusive to God.



means the second Person of the Godhead in its universal, four-
fold aspect. Psychology cannot of course adopt this view as its
own; it can only establish the existence of such statements and
point out, by way of comparison, that essentially the same sym-
bols, in particular the dilemma of one and three, often appear
in the spontaneous products of the unconscious, where they
demonstrably refer to the psychic totality of the individual.
They indicate the presence of an archetype of like nature, one
of whose derivates would seem to be the quaternity of functions
that orient consciousness. But, since this totality exceeds the
individual's consciousness to an indefinite and indeterminable
extent, it invariably includes the unconscious in its orbit and
hence the totality of all archetypes. But the archetypes are com-
plementary equivalents of the "outside world" and therefore
possess a "cosmic" character. This explains their numinosity and

3 6 To make my exposition more complete, I would like to men-
tion some of the Gnostic symbols for the universal "Ground" or
arcanum, and especially those synonyms which signify the
"Ground." Psychology takes this idea as an image of the uncon-
scious background and begetter of consciousness. The most im-
portant of these images is the figure of the demiurge. The
Gnostics have a vast number of symbols for the source or origin,
the centre of being, the Creator, and the divine substance
hidden in the creature. Lest the reader be confused by this
wealth of images, he should always remember that each new
image is simply another aspect of the divine mystery immanent
in all creatures. My list of Gnostic symbols is no more than an
amplification of a single transcendental idea, which is so com-
prehensive and so difficult to visualize in itself that a great many
different expressions are required in order to bring out its vari-
ous aspects.

37 According to Irenaeus, the Gnostics held that Sophia repre-
sents the world of the Ogdoad, 33 which is a double quaternity.

33 A dversus haereses, I, 30, 3. In the system of Barbelo-Gnosis (ibid., 29, 4) the
equivalent of Sophia is Ilpovi>u
Prunicus (wpovveiKos) means both 'carrying a burden' and 'lewd.' The latter con-
notation is more probable, because this Gnostic sect believed that, through the



In the form of a dove, she descended into the water and begot
Saturn, who is identical with Yahweh. Saturn, as we have already
mentioned, is the "other sun," the sol niger of alchemy. Here he
is the "primus Anthropus." He created the first man, who could
only crawl like a worm. 34 Among the Naassenes, the demiurge
Esaldaios, "a fiery god, the fourth by number," is set up against
the Trinity of Father, Mother, and Son. The highest is the
Father, the Archanthropos, who is without qualities and is called
the higher Adam. In various systems Sophia takes the place of
the Protanthropos. 35 Epiphanius mentions the Ebionite teach-
ing that Adam, the original man, is identical with Christ. 36 In
Theodor Bar-Kuni the original man is the five elements (i.e.,
4 -|- i). 37 In the Acts of Thomas, the dragon says of itself: "I am
the son ... of him that hurt and smote the four brethren
which stood upright." 38
308 The primordial image of the quaternity coalesces, for the
Gnostics, with the figure of the demiurge or Anthropos. He is,
as it were, the victim of his own creative act, for, when he

sexual act, they could recharge Barbelo with the pneuma that was lost in the
world. In Simon Magus it is Helen, the ii^r-qp and Iwoia, who "descended to the
lower regions . . . and generated the inferior powers, angels, and firmaments."
She was forcibly held captive by the lower powers (Irenaeus, I, 27, 1-4). She
corresponds to the much later alchemical idea of the "soul in fetters" (cf. Dorn,
Theatr. chem., I, pp. 298, 497; Mylius, Phil, ref., p. 262; Rosarium philosophorum
in Art. aurif., II, p. 284; "Platonis liber quartorum," Theatr. chem., V, pp.
i85f.; Vigenere, Theatr. chem., VI, p. 19). The idea derives from Greek alchemy
and can be found in Zosimos (Berthelot, Alch. grecs, III, xlix, 7; trans, in Psy-
chology and Alchemy, pars. 456ft. ). In the "Liber quartorum" it is of Sabaean
origin. See Chwolsohn, Die Ssabier und der Ssabismus (II, p. 494): "The soul
once turned towards matter, fell in love with it, and, burning with desire to
experience bodily pleasures, was no longer willing to tear herself away from it.
So was the world born." Among the Valentinians, Sophia Achamoth is the
Ogdoad. In Pistis Sophia (trans, by Mead, p. 362) she is the daughter of Barbelo.
Deluded by the false light of the demon Authades, she falls into imprisonment
in chaos. Irenaeus (I, 5, 2) calls the demiurge the Heptad, but Achamoth the
Ogdoad. In I, 7, 2 he says that the Saviour is compounded of four things in
repetition of the first Tetrad. A copy of the Four is the quaternity of elements
(I, 17, 1), and so are the four lights that stand round the Autogenes of Barbelo-
Gnosis (I, 29, 2). 34 Adv. haer., I, 24, 1.

35 Bousset, Hauptprobleme der Gnosis, p. 170. 36 Panarium, XXX, 3.

37 Theodor Bar-Kuni, Inscriptiones manda'ites des coupes de Khouabir, Part 2,
p. 185.
33 The Apocryphal New Testament, ed. James, p. 379.



descended into Physis, he was caught in her embrace. 39 The
image of the anima mundi or Original Man latent in the dark of
matter expresses the presence of a transconscious centre which,
because of its quaternary character and its roundness, must be
regarded as a symbol of wholeness. We may assume, with due
caution, that some kind of psychic wholeness is meant (for in-
stance, conscious -f- unconscious), though the history of the sym-
bol shows that it was always used as a God-image. Psychology, as
I have said, is not in a position to make metaphysical statements.
It can only establish that the symbolism of psychic wholeness
coincides with the God-image, but it can never prove that the
God-image is God himself, or that the self takes the place of

39 This coincidence comes out very clearly in the ancient Egyp-
tian Heb-Sed festival, of which Colin Campbell gives the follow-
ing description: "The king comes out of an apartment called
the sanctuary, then he ascends into a pavilion open at the four
sides, with four staircases leading up to it. Carrying the emblems
of Osiris, he takes his seat on a throne, and turns to the four
cardinal points in succession. . . . It is a kind of second en-
thronement . , . and sometimes the king acts as a priest, mak-
ing offerings to himself. This last act may be regarded as the
climax of the deification of the king." 40

3 1( > All kingship is rooted in this psychology, and therefore, for
the anonymous individual of the populace, every king carries
the symbol of the self, All his insignia- crown, mantle, orb,
sceptre, starry orders, etc.- show him as the cosmic Anthropos,
who not only begets, but himself is, the world. He is the homo
maximus, whom we meet again in Swedenborg's speculations.
The Gnostics, too, constantly endeavoured to give visible form
and a suitable conceptual dress to this being, suspecting that
he was the matrix and organizing principle of consciousness. As
the "Phrygians" (Naassenes) say in Hippolytus, 41 he is the "un-
divided point," the "grain of mustard seed" that grows into the
kingdom of God. This point is "present in the body/' But this
is known only to the trvevfiariKoi, the "spiritual" men as opposed
to the \pvxiK-oi and the vXlkoi ("material" men). He is to pijfxa tov

39 Bousset, pp. 1 14ft.

40 The Miraculous Birth of King AmonHotep III, p. 81.

41 Elenchos, V, 9, 5L (Legge trans., I, pp. i4of.).



Oeov, the utterance of God (sermo Dei), and the "matrix of the
Aeons, Powers, Intelligences, Gods, Angels, and Emissary
Spirits, of Being and Non-Being, of Begotten and Unbegotten,
of the Non-Intelligible Intelligible, of the Years, Moons, Days,
Hours. . . ." This point, "being nothing and consisting of
nothing," becomes a "certain magnitude incomprehensible by
thought." Hippolytus accuses the Naassenes of bundling every-
thing into their thought like the syncretists, for he obviously
cannot quite understand how the point, the "utterance of God,"
can have a human form. The Naassenes, he complains, also
call him the "polymorphous Attis," the young dying son of the
Great Mother, or, as the hymn cited by Hippolytus says, t6
Kare5 aKova/xa 'Pea?, the 'dark rumour of Rhea.' In the hymn he
has the synonyms Adonis, Osiris, Adam, Korybas, Pan, Bacchus,
and TroLfxriv XevKw aarpuv^ 'shepherd of white stars.'

311 The Naassenes themselves considered Naas, the serpent, to
be their central deity, and they explained it as the "moist sub-
stance," in agreement with Thales of Miletus, who said water
was the prime substance on which all life depended. Similarly,
all living things depend on the Naas; "it contains within itself,
like the horn of the one-horned bull, the beauty of all things."
It "pervades everything, like the water that flows out of Eden
and divides into four sources" (apxas). "This Eden, they say, is
the brain." Three of the rivers of Paradise are sensory functions
(Pison = sight, Gihon = hearing, Tigris = smell), but the
fourth, the Euphrates, is the mouth, "the seat of prayer and the
entrance of food." As the fourth function it has a double sig-
nificance, 42 denoting on the one hand the purely material ac-
tivity of bodily nourishment, while on the other hand it "glad-
dens, 43 feeds, and forms [xapaKT-qpi&i] the spiritual, perfect [tc'Aoov]
man." 44 The "fourth" is something special, ambivalent- a
daimonion. A good example of this is in Daniel 3 : 24L, where
the three men in the burning fiery furnace are joined by a
fourth, whose form was "like a son of God."

3 1 * The water of the Euphrates is the "water above the firma-
ment," the "living water of Which the Saviour spoke," 45 and

42 Psychology and Alchemy, index, s.v. "Axiom of Maria." Cf. infra, pars. $%&.

43 eixfrpabet, a play on the word eipadr}s } 'well-speaking.'

44 Elenchos, V, 9, i5ff. [Cf. Legge, I, p. 143.]

45 An allusion to John 4:10.



possessing, as we have seen, magnetic properties. It is that
miraculous water from which the olive draws its oil and the
grape the wine. "That man," continues Hippolytus, as though
still speaking of the water of the Euphrates, "is without honour
in the world." 46 This is an allusion to the i-eAeios avOpuiros. In-
deed, this water is the "perfect man," the pr/fia Beov, the Word
sent by God. "From the living water we spiritual men choose
that which is ours," 47 for every nature, when dipped in this
water, "chooses its own substances . . . and from this water
goes forth to every nature that which is proper to it." 48 The
water or, as we could say, this Christ is a sort of panspermia, a
matrix of all possibilities, from which the irvevixariKo? chooses
"his Osob," his idiosyncrasy, 49 that "flies to him more [quickly]
than iron to the magnet." But the "spiritual men" attain their
proper nature by entering in through the "true door," Jesus
Makarios (the blessed), and thus obtaining knowledge of their
own wholeness, i.e., of the complete man. This man, unhon-
oured in the world, is obviously the inner, spiritual man, who
becomes conscious for those who enter in through Christ, the
door to life, and are illuminated by him. Two images are
blended here: the image of the "strait gate," M and that of
John 14 : 6: "I am the way, and the truth, and the life. No one
comes to the Father but through me." 51 They represent an
integration process that is characteristic of psychological indi-
viduation. As formulated, the water symbol continually coa-
lesces with Christ and Christ with the inner man. This, it seems
to me, is not a confusion of thought but a psychologically cor-
rect formulation of the facts, since Christ as the "Word" is in-
deed the "living water" and at the same time the symbol of the
inner "complete" man, the self.
3*3 For the Naassenes, the universal "Ground" is the Original
Man, Adam, and knowledge of him is regarded as the begin-

46 Legge, I, p. 144. 47 Elenchos, V, 9, 21.

48 V, 9, 19 (Legge trans., p. 144).

49 This means the integration of the self, which is also referred to in very similar
words in the Bogomil document discussed above (pars. 225ft.), concerning the
devil as world creator. He too finds what is "proper" (tdiov) to him.

50 Matt. 7 : 14: "Strait is the gate, and narrow is the way, which leadeth unto

61 The passage discussed here is in Elenchos, V, 9, 4ft (Legge trans., I, p. 140).



ning of perfection and the bridge to knowledge of God. 52 He
is male/female; from him come "father and mother"; 53 he con-
sists of three parts: the rational (vocpov), the psychic, and the
earthly ( X olk6v). These three "came down together into one man,
Jesus," and "these three men spoke together, each of them from
his own substance to his own," i.e., from the rational to the
rational, etc. Through this doctrine Jesus is related to the
Original Man (Christ as second Adam). His soul is "of three
parts and (yet) one"- a Trinity. 54 As examples of the Original
Man the text mentions the Cabiros 55 and Oannes. The latter
had a soul capable of suffering, so that the "figure (wkdo-fjia) of
the great, most beautiful and perfect man, humbled to a slave,"
might suffer punishment. He is the "blessed nature, at once
hidden and revealed, of everything that has come to be and
will be," "the kingdom of heaven which is to be sought within
man" (lvr6^ avQp&icov), even "in children of seven years." 56 For
the Naassenes, says Hippolytus, place the "procreative nature of
the Whole in the procreative seed." 57 On the face of it, this
looks like the beginnings of a "sexual theory" concerning the
underlying psychic substance, reminiscent of certain modern
attempts in the same vein. But one should not overlook the fact
that in reality man's procreative power is only a special instance
of the "procreative nature of the Whole." "This, for them, is
the hidden and mystical Logos," which, in the text that follows,
is likened to the phallus of Osiris- "and they say Osiris is water."
Although the substance of this seed is the cause of all things, it
does not partake of their nature. They say therefore: "I become
what I will, and I am what I am." For he who moves everything
is himself unmoved. "He, they say, is alone good." 58 A further
synonym is the ithyphallic Hermes Kyllenios. "For they say
Hermes is the Logos, the interpreter and fashioner of what has

52 Elenchos, V, 6, 6: Qeov 5e ypuffts]pTi.op.v't\ reXdwais ("Knowledge of God is
perfect wholeness").

53 V, 6, 5 (Legge trans., I, p. 120). 54 v, 6, 6f. (p. 121).

55 Nicknamed KaWlwais, 'with beautiful children' or 'the beautiful child.' (Elen-
chos, V, 7, 4.)

56 According to Hippocrates, a boy at seven years old is half a father. (Elenchos,
V, 7, 21.)

57 rrjv apxeyopwv

58 With express reference to Matt. 19: 17: "One is good, God."



been, is, and will be." That is why he is worshipped as the
phallus, because he, like the male organ, "has an urge [6p^?jv]
from below upwards." 59

3 J 4 The fact that not only the Gnostic Logos but Christ himself
was drawn into the orbit of sexual symbolism is corroborated by
the fragment from the Interrogationes maiores Mariae, quoted
by Epiphanius. 60 It is related there that Christ took this Mary
with him on to a mountain, where he produced a woman from
his side and began to have intercourse with her: ". . . seminis
sui defluxum assumpsisset, indicasse illi, quod oporteat sic
facere, ut vivamus." 61 It is understandable that this crude sym-
bolism should offend our modern feelings. But it also appeared
shocking to Christians of the third and fourth centuries; and
when, in addition, the symbolism became associated with a
concretistic misunderstanding, as appeared to be the case in cer-
tain sects, it could only be rejected. That the author of the
Interrogationes was by no means ignorant of some such reaction
is evident from the text itself. It says that Mary received such a
shock that she fell to the ground. Christ then said to her:
"Wherefore do you doubt me, O you of little faith?" This was
meant as a reference to John 3:12: "If I have told you earthly
things and you do not believe, how can you believe if I tell you
heavenly things?" and also to John 6 : 54: "Unless you eat the
flesh of the Son of man and drink his blood, you have no life in

3*5 This symbolism may well have been based, originally, on
some visionary experience, such as happens not uncommonly
today during psychological treatment. For the medical psy-
chologist there is nothing very lurid about it. The context itself
points the way to the right interpretation. The image expresses
a psychologem that can hardly be formulated in rational terms
and has, therefore, to make use of a concrete symbol, just as a
dream must when a more or less "abstract" thought comes up
during the abaissement du niveau mental that occurs in sleep.
These "shocking" surprises, of which there is certainly no lack

59 Cf. Legge trans., p. 128. 60 Panarium, XXVI, cap. VIII.

61 ". . . partaking of his flowing semen, showed that this was to be done, that

we might have life."



in dreams, should always be taken "as-if," even though they
clothe themselves in sensual imagery that stops at no scurrility
and no obscenity. They are unconcerned with offensiveness,
because they do not really mean it. It is as if they were stammer-
ing in their efforts to express the elusive meaning that grips
the dreamer's attention. 62

The context of the vision (John 3:12) makes it clear that
the image should be taken not concretistically but symbolically;
for Christ speaks not of earthly things but of a heavenly or
spiritual mystery - a "mystery" not because he is hiding some-
thing or making a secret of it (indeed, nothing could be more
blatant than the naked obscenity of the vision!) but because its
meaning is still hidden from consciousness. The modern method
of dream-analysis and interpretation follows this heuristic rule. 63
If we apply it to the vision, we arrive at the following result:

1. The mountain means ascent, particularly the mystical,
spiritual ascent to the heights, to the place of revelation where
the spirit is present. This motif is so well known that there is no
need to document it. 64

2. The central significance of the Christ-figure for that
epoch has been abundantly proved. In Christian Gnosticism it
was a visualization of God as the Archanthropos (Original Man
= Adam), and therefore the epitome of man as such: "Man
and the Son of Man." Christ is the inner man who is reached by
the path of self-knowledge, "the kingdom of heaven within

62 On the other hand, I cannot rid myself of the impression that dreams do
occasionally twist things in a scurrilous way. This may have led Freud to the
singular assumption that they disguise and distort for so-called "moral" reasons.
However, this view is contradicted by the fact that dreams just as often do the
exact opposite. I therefore incline to the alchemical view that Mercurius- the
unconscious Nous- is a "trickster." [Cf. "The Spirit Mercurius" and "The Psy-
chology of the Trickster Figure."- Editors.]

63 But not the Freudian, "psychoanalytical" method, which dismisses the mani-
fest dream-content as a mere "facade," on the ground that the psychopathology
of hysteria leads one to suspect incompatible wishes as dream-motifs. The fact
that the dream as well as consciousness rest on an instinctual foundation has
nothing to do either with the meaning of the dream-figures or with that of the
conscious contents, for the essential thing in both cases is what the psyche has
made of the instinctual impulse. The remarkable thing about the Parthenon is
not that it consists of stone and was built to gratify the ambitions of the Atheni-
ans, but that it is- the Parthenon.

64 Cf. "Phenomenology of the Spirit in Fairytales," par. 403.



you." As the Anthropos he corresponds to what is empirically
the most important archetype and, as judge of the living and
the dead and king of glory, to the real organizing principle of the
unconscious, the quaternity, or squared circle of the self. 85
In saying this I have not done violence to anything; my views
are based on the experience that mandala structures have the
meaning and function of a centre of the unconscious person-
ality. 66 The quaternity of Christ, which must be borne in mind
in this vision, is exemplified by the cross symbol, the rex gloriae,
and Christ as the year.

39 3. The production of the woman from his side suggests that
he is interpreted as the second Adam. Bringing forth a woman
means that he is playing the role of the Creator-god in Genesis. 67
Just as Adam, before the creation of Eve, was supposed by vari-
ous traditions to be male /female, 68 so Christ here demonstrates
his androgyny in a drastic way. 69 The Original Man is usually
hermaphroditic; in Vedic tradition too he produces his own
feminine half and unites with her. In Christian allegory the
woman sprung from Christ's side signifies the Church as the
Bride of the Lamb.

320 The splitting of the Original Man into husband and wife
expresses an act of nascent consciousness; it gives birth to a pair
of opposites, thereby making consciousness possible. For the
beholder of the miracle, Mary, the vision was the spontaneous
visualization or projection of an unconscious process in herself.
Experience shows that unconscious processes are compensatory
to a definite conscious situation. The splitting in the vision
would therefore suggest that it is compensating a conscious con-
dition of unity. This unity probably refers in the first place to
the figure of the Anthropos, the incarnate God, who was then in
the forefront of religious interest. He was, in Origen's words,

65 Cf. "The Psychology of Eastern Meditation," pars. 9421".

66 Cf. "A Study in the Process of Individuation."

67 This is consistent with his nature as the Logos and second Person of the

68 Naturally this view is rejected by the Church.

69 Three different interpretations of Christ are combined here. Such contamina-
tions are characteristic not only of Gnostic thinking but of all unconscious image-



the "Vir Unus," 70 the One Man. It was with this figure that
Mary was confronted in her vision. If we assume that the recipi-
ent of the vision was in reality a woman- an assumption that is
not altogether without grounds- then what she had been missing
in the pure, deified masculinity of Christ was the counterbalanc-
ing femininity. Therefore it was revealed to her: "I am both,
man and woman." This psychologem is still incorporated to-
day in the Catholic conception of Christ's androgyny as the
"Virgo de Virgine," though this is more a sententia communis
than a conclusio. Medieval iconography sometimes shows Christ
with breasts, in accordance with Song of Solomon 1:1: 'For
thy breasts are better than wine" (DV). In Mechthild of Magde-
burg, the soul remarks that when the Lord kissed her, 71 he had,
contrary to expectation, no beard. The tokens of masculinity
were lacking. Mechthild had a vision similar to Mary's, dealing
with the same problem from a different angle: she saw herself
transported to a "rocky mountain" where the Blessed Virgin
sat, awaiting the birth of the divine child. When it was born,
she embraced it and kissed it three times. As the text points out,
the mountain is an allegory of the "spiritualis habitus," or
spiritual attitude. "Through divine inspiration she knew how
the Son is the innermost core [medulla] of the Father's heart."
This medulla is "strengthening, healing, and most sweet"; God's
"strength and greatest sweetness" are given to us through the
Son, the "Saviour and strongest, sweetest Comforter," but "the
innermost [core] of the soul is that sweetest thing." 72 From this
it is clear that Mechthild equates the "medulla" with the
Father's heart, the Son, and the inner man. Psychologically
speaking, "that sweetest thing" corresponds to the self, which is
indistinguishable from the God-image.

There is a significant difference between the two visions.
The antique revelation depicts the birth of Eve from Adam on

70 Gregory the Great, Expositiones in librum I Regum, Lib. I, cap. I (Migne,
P.L., vol. 79, col. 23): "For God and man is one Christ. Therefore in that he is
called one, he is shown to be incomparable." In accordance with the spirit of the
age, his incomparability or uniqueness is explained by the "excellence of his
virtue." It is, however, significant in itself.

71 "He offered her his rosy [sic!] mouth to kiss" (Liber gratiae spiritualis, fol. J

72 "Medulla vero animae est illud dulcissimum." Ibid., fol. B.



the spiritual level of the second Adam (Christ), from whose side
the feminine pneuma, or second Eve, i.e., the soul, appears as
Christ's daughter. As already mentioned, in the Christian view
the soul is interpreted as the Church: she is the woman who
"embraces the man" 73 and anoints the Lord's feet. Mechthild's
vision is a continuation of the sacred myth: the daughter-bride
has become a mother and bears the Father in the shape of the
Son. That the Son is closely akin to the self is evident from the
emphasis laid on the quaternary nature of Christ: he has a
"fourfold voice" (quadruplex vox), 7 * his heart has four kinds
of pulse, 75 and from his countenance go forth four rays of
light. 76 In this image a new millennium is speaking. Meister
Eckhart, using a different formulation, says that "God is born
from the soul," and when we come to the Cherubinic Wan-
derer 77 of Angelus Silesius, God and the self coincide absolutely.
The times have undergone a profound change: the procreative
power no longer proceeds from God, rather is God born from
the soul. The mythologem of the young dying god has taken on
psychological form- a sign of further assimilation and conscious
322 4. But to turn back to the first vision: the bringing forth of
the woman is followed by copulation. The hieros gamos on the
mountain is a well-known motif, 78 just as, in the old alchemical
pictures, the hermaphrodite has a fondness for elevated places.
The alchemists likewise speak of an Adam who always carries
his Eve around with him. Their coniunctio is an incestuous act,
performed not by father and daughter but, in accordance with
the changed times, by brother and sister or mother and son. The
latter variant corresponds to the ancient Egyptian mythologem
of Amen as Ka-mutef, which means 'husband of his mother,' or
of Mut, who is the "mother of her father and daughter of her

73 Gregory the Great; Migne, P.L., vol. 79, col. 23. Cf. Jerem. 31 : 22: "A woman
shall compass a man" (AV).

74 Liber gratiae spiritualis, fol. A viir. The quaternity refers to the four gospels.

75 ibid., fol. B iiv.

76 Ibid., fol. B viiv.

77 Cf. Flitch, Angelus Silesius, pp. i28ff.

78 For instance, the hieros gamos of Zeus and Hera on "the heights of Gargaros,"
Iliad, XIV, 246ft. (Cf. Rieu trans., p. 266.)



son." 79 The idea of self-copulation is a recurrent theme in
descriptions of the world creator: for instance, God splits into
his masculine and feminine halves, 80 or he fertilizes himself in
a manner that could easily have served as a model for the Inter-
rogationes vision, if literary antecedents must be conjectured.
Thus the relevant passage in the Heliopolitan story of the Crea-
tion runs: "I, even I, had union with my clenched hand, I
joined myself in an embrace with my shadow, I poured seed into
my mouth, my own, I sent forth issue in the form of Shu, I sent
forth moisture in the form of Tefnut." 81

Although the idea of self-fertilization is not touched on in
our vision, there can be no doubt that there is a close connec-
tion between this and the idea of the cosmogonic self-creator.
Here, however, world creation gives place to spiritual re-
newal. That is why no visible creature arises from the taking in
of seed; it means a nourishing of life, "that we may live." And
because, as the text itself shows, the vision should be understood
on the "heavenly" or spiritual plane, the pouring out (aTroppota)
refers to a Ao'yo? o-Trep/xart/co?, which in the language of the gospels
means a living water "springing up into eternal life." The
whole vision reminds one very much of the related alchemical
symbolisms. Its drastic naturalism, unpleasantly obtrusive in
comparison with the reticence of ecclesiastical language, points
back on the one hand to archaic forms of religion whose ideas
and modes of expression had long since been superseded, but
forwards, on the other, to a still crude observation of Nature
that was just beginning to assimilate the archetype of man. This
attempt continued right up to the seventeenth century, when
Johannes Kepler recognized the Trinity as underlying the struc-
ture of the universe- in other words, when he assimilated this
archetype into the astronomer's picture of the world. 82

79 Brugsch, Religion und Mythologie der alten Agypter, p. 94.

80 In the ancient Egyptian view God is "Father and Mother," and "begets and
gives birth to himself" (Brugsch, p. 97). The Indian Prajapati has intercourse
with his own split-off feminine half.

81 Budge, Gods of the Egyptians, I, pp. 3iof.

82 I owe this idea to a lecture delivered by Professor W. Pauli, in Zurich, on the
archetypal foundations of Kepler's astronomy. Cf. his "The Influence of Arche-
typal Ideas" etc.



324 After this digression on the phallic synonyms for the Origi-
nal Man, we will turn back to Hippolytus' account of the central
symbols of the Naassenes and continue with a list of statements
about Hermes.

325 Hermes is a conjurer of spirits (i/^xaywyo's), a guide of souls
(i/a^oTro/xTros), and a begetter of souls (i/or^v atrto?). But the souls
were "brought down from the blessed Man on high, the arch-
man Adamas, . . . into the form of clay, that they might serve
the demiurge of this creation, Esaldaios, a fiery god, the fourth
by number." 83 Esaldaios corresponds to Ialdabaoth, the highest
archon, and also to Saturn. 84 The "fourth" refers to the fourth
Person- the devil- who is opposed to the Trinity. Ialdabaoth
means "child of chaos"; hence when Goethe, borrowing from
alchemical terminology, calls the devil the "strange son of
chaos," the name is a very apt one.

326 Hermes is equipped with the golden wand. 85 With it he
"drops sleep on the eyes of the dead and wakes up the sleepers."
The Naassenes referred this to Ephesians 5 : 14: "Awake, O
sleeper, and arise from the dead, and Christ shall give you
light." Just as the alchemists took the well-known allegory of
Christ, the lapis angularis or cornerstone, for their lapis philoso-
phorum, so the Naassenes took it as symbolizing their Protan-
thropos Adam, or more precisely, the "inner man," who is a
rock or stone, since he came from the Trlrp-q rov 'ASd/xavro^, "fallen
from Adamas the arch-man on high." 86 The alchemists said
their stone was "cut from the mountain without hands," 87 and
the Naassenes say the same thing of the inner man, who was
brought down "into the form of oblivion." 88 In Epiphanius the

83 Elenchos, V, 7, 30L (Cf. Legge trans., I, p. 128.)

84 Bousset, Hauptprobleme der Gnosis, pp. 352f.

85 Here Hippolytus cites the text of Odyssey, XXIV, 2.

86 Elenchos, V, 7, 36 (Legge trans., I, pp. i20,f.).

87 Daniel 2 : 34: "Thus thou sawest, till a stone was cut out of a mountain with-
out hands" (DV). This was the stone that broke in pieces the clay and iron feet
of the statue.

88 Et's rb irXda/xa rijs XriOrjs, i.e., lethargia, the state of forgetf ulness and sleep
resembling that of the dead. The "inner man" is as if buried in the somatic man.
He is the "soul in fetters" or "in the prison of the body," as the alchemists say.
Lethe corresponds to the modern concept of the unconscious.



mountain is the Archanthropos Christ, from whom the stone or
inner man was cut. As Epiphanius interprets it, this means that
the inner man is begotten "without human seed," "a small stone
that becomes a great mountain." 89

The Archanthropos is the Logos, whom the souls follow
"twittering," as the bats follow Hermes in the nekyia. He leads
them to Oceanus and - in the immortal words of Homer - to
"the doors of Helios and the land of dreams." "He [Hermes] is
Oceanus, the begetter of gods and men, ever ebbing and flow-
ing, now forth, now back." Men are born from the ebb, and
gods from the flow. "It is this, they say, that stands written: 'I
have said, you are gods, and all of you the sons of the most
High.' " 90 Here the affinity or identity of God and man is ex-
plicit, in the Holy Scriptures no less than in the Naassene teach-

The Naassenes, as Hippolytus says, 91 derived all things from
a triad, which consists firstly of the "blessed nature of the
blessed Man on high, Adamas," secondly of the mortal nature of
the lower man, and thirdly of the "kingless race begotten from
above," to which belong "Mariam the sought-for one, and
Jothor 92 the great wise one, and Sephora 93 the seer, and Moses
whose generation was not in Egypt." 94 Together these four form
a marriage quaternio 95 of the classic type:




89 Ancoratus, 40. Cf. Daniel 2 : 35: "But the stone that struck the statue became
a great mountain and filled the whole earth" (DV).

90 Elenchos, V, 7, 37 (Legge trans., I, p. 130). Cf. Psalm 82 (Vulg. 81) : 6, to which
reference is made in Luke 6 : 35 and John 10 : 34.

91V, 8, 2 (ibid., p. 131).

92 'Io0o>p = Jethro, the priest-king of Midian and the father-in-law of Moses.

93 Zipporah, the wife of Moses.

94 This is probably an allusion to the pneumatic nature of the "generation" pro-
duced by Moses, for, according to Elenchos, V, 7, 41, "Egypt is the body" (Legge
trans., I, p. 130).

95 The marriage quaternio is the archetype to which the cross-cousin marriage
corresponds on a primitive level. I have given a detailed account of it in "The
Psychology of the Transference," pars. 425ff.



Their synonyms are:













329 Moses corresponds to the husband, Sephora to the wife;
Mariam (Miriam) is the sister of Moses; Jothor (Jethro) is the
archetype of the wise old man and corresponds to the father-
animus, if the quaternio is that of a woman. But the fact that
Jothor is called "the great wise one" suggests that the quaternio
is a man's. In the case of a woman the accent that falls here on
the wise man would fall on Mariam, who would then have the
significance of the Great Mother. At all events our quaternio
lacks the incestuous brother-sister relationship, otherwise very
common. Instead, Miriam has something of a mother signif-
icance for Moses (cf. Exodus 2 : 4fL). As a prophetess (Exodus
15 : 20L) she is a "magical" personality. When Moses took a
Moor to wife- the "Ethiopian woman"- this incensed Miriam
so much that she was smitten with leprosy and became "as white
as snow" (Numbers 12 : 10). Miriam is therefore not altogether
unsuited to play the role of the anima. The best-known anima-
figure in the Old Testament, the Shulamite, says: "I am black,
but comely" (Song of Songs 1 : 5). In the Chymical Wedding of
Christian Rosenkreutz, the royal bride is the concubine of the
Moorish king. Negroes, and especially Ethiopians, play a con-
siderable role in alchemy as synonyms of the caput corvi and
the nigredo. 96 They appear in the Passion of St. Perpetua 97 as
representatives of the sinful pagan world.

33 The triad is characterized by various names that may be
onomatopoetic: Kaulakau, Saulasau, Zeesar. 98 Kaulakau means
the higher Adam, Saulasau the lower, mortal man, and Zeesar
is named the "upwards-flowing Jordan." The Jordan was caused

96 Cf. Psychology and Alchemy, par. 484.

97 See the study by Marie-Louise von Franz.

98 These words occur in the Hebrew of Isaiah 28 : 10, where they describe what
"men with stammering lips and alien tongue" speak to the people. [The Hebrew
runs: "tsaw latsaw, tsaw latsaw, kaw lakaw, kaw lakaw, zeer sham, zeer sham."-
Editors.] AV: "For precept must be upon precept, precept upon precept, line
upon line, line upon line; here a little and there a little."



by Jesus to flow up-stream; it is the rising flood and this, as
already mentioned, is the begetter of gods. "This, they say, is the
human hermaphrodite in all creatures, whom the ignorant call
'Geryon of the threefold body' [that is, d>s h yijs frkovra, 'flowing
from the earth']; but the Greeks name it the celestial horn of
the moon." The text defines the above-mentioned quaternio,
which is identical with Zeesar, the upwards-flowing Jordan, the
hermaphrodite, Geryon of the threefold body, and the horn
of the moon, as the cosmogonic Logos (John 1 : iff.), and the
"life that was in him" (John 1 : 4) as a "generation of perfect
men" (reXeioi avdp&TOL). 99

This Logos or quaternity is "the cup from which the king,
drinking, draws his omens," 10 or the beaker of Anacreon. The
cup leads Hippolytus on to the wine miracle at Cana, which, he
says, "showed forth the kingdom of heaven"; for the kingdom
of heaven lies within us, like the wine in the cup. Further paral-
lels of the cup are the ithyphallic gods of Samothrace and the
Kyllenic Hermes, who signify the Original Man as well as the
spiritual man who is reborn. This last is "in every respect con-
substantial" with the Original Man symbolized by Hermes. For
this reason, says Hippolytus, Christ said that one must eat of his
flesh and drink of his blood, for he was conscious of the individ-
ual nature of each of his disciples, and also of the need of each
"to come to his own special nature." 101

Another synonym is Korybas, who was descended from the
crown of the head and from the unformed (axapaKTVp'^rov) brain,
like the Euphrates from Eden, and permeates all things. His
image exists - unrecognized - "in earthly form." He is the god
who dwells in the flood. I need not describe this symbol here, as
I have already discussed it at some length in one of my Para-
celsus studies. 102 So far as Korybas is concerned, the parallel
between him and the Protanthropos is explained by the ancient
view that the corybants were the original men. 103 The name
"Korybas" does not denote a particular personality, but rather
the anonymous member of a collectivity, such as the Curetes,

99 Cf. Psychology and Alchemy, pars. 55of. [Cf. Legge trans., I, p. 131.]

100 cf. Genesis 44 : 5.

101 Elenchos, V, 8, 12 (Legge trans., I, p. 133).

102 "Paracelsus as a Spiritual Phenomenon," pars. i8iff.

103 Roscher, Lexikon, II, part 1, col. 1608, s.v. "Kuretes."



Cabiri, Dactyls, etc. Etymologically, it has been brought into
connection with Kopvri (crown of the head), though this is not
certain. 104 Korybas seems in our text to be the name of a single
personality - the Kyllenian Hermes, who appears here as syn-
onymous with the Cabiri of Samothrace. With reference to this
Hermes the text says: "Him the Thracians . . . call Kory-
bas." 105 I have suggested in an earlier publication 106 that this
unusual single personality may perhaps be a product of con-
tamination with Korybas, known to us from the Dionysus
legend, because he too seems to have been a phallic being, as we
learn from a scholium to Lucian's De dea Syria. 101
333 From the centre of the "perfect man" flows the ocean (where,
as we have said, the god dwells). The "perfect" man is, as Jesus
says, the "true door," through which the "perfect" man must go
in order to be reborn. Here the problem of how to translate
"teleios" becomes crucial; for- we must ask- why should anyone
who is "perfect" need renewal through rebirth? 108 One can
only conclude that the perfect man was not so perfected that
no further improvement was possible. We encounter a similar
difficulty in Philippians 3:12, where Paul says: "Not that I
. . . am already perfect" (rereAd'co^ai). But three verses further on
he writes: "Let us then, as many as are perfect (re'Aeioi) be of this
mind." The Gnostic use of rcAeios obviously agrees with Paul's.
The word has only an approximate meaning and amounts to
much the same thing as Tn/o^ariKos, 'spiritual,' 109 which is not
connected with any conception of a definite degree of perfection
or spirituality. The word "perfect" gives the sense of the Greek
reAetos correctly only when it refers to God. But when it applies
to a man, who in addition is in need of rebirth, it can at most
mean "whole" or "complete," especially if, as our text says, the

104 Ibid., col. 1607. The descent from the brain may be an allusion to the ancient
idea that the sperm was conducted down from the head to the genitals, through
the spinal cord. [Cf. Onians, The Origins of European Thought, p. 234. - Editors.]

105 Elenchos, V, 8, 13 (Legge trans., I, p. 133).

106 "The Spirit Mercurius," par. 278.

107 Roscher, col. 1392, s.v. "Korybos," where the text is given in full.

108 The alchemists say very aptly: "Perfectum non perficitur" (that which is per-
fect is not perfected).

109 Elenchos, V, 8, 22, describes the irpev/xariKol as "perfect men endowed with
reason," from which it is clear that the possession of an anima rationalis is what
makes the "spiritual" man.



complete man cannot even be saved unless he passes through
this door. 110

The father of the "perfectus" is the higher man or Protan-
thropos, who is "not clearly formed" and "without qualities."
Hippolytus goes on to say that he is called Papa (Attis) by the
Phrygians. He is a bringer of peace and quells "the war of the
elements" in the human body, 111 a statement we meet again
word for word in medieval alchemy, where the filius philoso-
phorum "makes peace between enemies or the elements." 112
This "Papa" is also called vIkv? (cadaver), because he is buried in
the body like a mummy in a tomb. A similar idea is found in
Paracelsus; his treatise De vita longa opens with the words:
"Life, verily, is naught but a kind of embalmed mummy, which
preserves the mortal body from the mortal worms." 113 The
body lives only from the "Mumia," through which the "pere-
grinus microcosmus," the wandering microcosm (corresponding
to the macrocosm), rules the physical body. 114 His synonyms are
the Adech, Archeus, Protothoma, Ides, Idechtrum, etc. He is the

110 Elenchos, V, 8, 21 (Legge trans., I, p. 134). Cramer (Bibl.-theol. Worterbuch
der Neutestamentlichen Grazitdt) gives as the meaning of re'Xcios 'complete, per-
fect, lacking nothing, having reached the destined goal.' Bauer {Griech.-deutsch.
Worterbuch zu den Schriften des Neuen Testaments, col. 1344) has, with refer-
ence to age, 'mature, full-grown,' and with reference to the mysteries, 'initiated.'
Lightfoot (Notes on the Epistles of St Paul, p. 173) says: "T
of which the parts are fully developed, as distinguished from 6\6k\tipos, that in
which none of the parts are wanting, 'full-grown/ as opposed to vfivios, 'child-
ish/ or ircudla, 'childhood.' " Teleios is the man who has received Nous: he has
gnosis (knowledge). Cf. Guignebert, "Quelques remarques sur la perfection
(reXecWis) et ses voies dans le mystere paulinien," p. 419. Weiss (The History of
Primitive Christianity, II, p. 576) declares that it is just the "consciousness of
imperfection and the will to progress that is the sign of perfection." He bases
this on Epictetus (Enchiridion, 51, if.), where it says that he who has resolved
to progress (TrpoKoirTeiv) is, by anticipation, already "perfect."
ill First mentioned at V, 8, 19. [Cf. Legge, I, p. 134.]

112 Her me t is Trismegisti Tractatus vere Aureus cum scholiis (1610), p. 44.

113 Published 1562 by Adam von Bodenstein. In Paracelsus Samtliche Werke, ed.
Sudhoff, III, p. 249. [Cf. "Paracelsus the Physician," par. 21.]

114 De origine Morborum invisibilium, beginning of Book IV, says of the Mumia:
"All the power of herbs and of trees is found in the Mumia; not only the power
of the plants grown of earth, but also of water, all the properties of metals, all the
qualities of marcasites, all the essence of precious stones. How should I count all
these things, and name them? They are all within man, no fewer and no less, as
strong and as powerful, in the Mumia." (Volumen Paramirum, pp. 291ft.)



"Protoplast" (the first-created), and, as Ides, "the door whence
all created things have come." 115 (Cf. the "true door" above!)
The Mumia is born together with the body and sustains it, 116
though not to the degree that the "supercelestial Mumia"
does. 117 The latter would correspond to the higher Adam of the
Naassenes. Of the Ideus or Ides Paracelsus says that in it "there is
but One Man . . . and he is the Protoplast." 118

335 The Paracelsian Mumia therefore corresponds in every way
to the Original Man, who forms the microcosm in the mortal
man and, as such, shares all the powers of the macrocosm. Since
it is often a question of cabalistic influences in Paracelsus, it
may not be superfluous in this connection to recall the figure of
the cabalistic Metatron. In the Zohar the Messiah is described
as the "central column" (i.e., of the Sephiroth system), and of
this column it is said: "The column of the centre is Metatron,
whose name is like that of the Lord. It is created and constituted
to be his image and likeness, and it includes all gradations from
Above to Below and from Below to Above, and binds [them]
together in the centre." 119

336 The dead man, Hippolytus continues, will rise again by
passing through the "door of heaven." Jacob saw the gate of
heaven on his way to Mesopotamia, "but they say Mesopotamia
is the stream of the great ocean that flows from the midst of the
perfect man." This is the gate of heaven of which Jacob said:
"How terrible is this place! This is no other but the house of
God, and the gate of heaven." 12 The stream that flows out of
the Original Man (the gate of heaven) is interpreted here as the
flood-tide of Oceanus, which, as we have seen, generates the
gods. The passage quoted by Hippolytus probably refers to
John 7 : 38 or to an apocryphal source common to both. The
passage in John - "He who believes in me, as the scripture has
said, Out of his belly shall flow rivers of living water" - refers to
a nonbiblical source, which, however, seemed scriptural to the
author. Whoever drinks of this water, in him it shall be a foun-

115 Fragmentarische Ausarbeitungen zur Anatomie (Sudhoff, III, p. 462).

116 The Mumia is, accordingly, an alexipharmic. (De mumia libellus; ibid., p. 375.)

117 De vita longa, Lib. IV, cap. VII (ibid., p. 284).

118 "Paracelsus as a Spiritual Phenomenon," par. 168.

119 Zohar, cited in Schoettgen, Horae Hebraicae et Talmudicae, II, p. 16.

120 Gen. 28: 17 (DV).



tain of water springing up into eternal life, says Origen. 121 This
water is the "higher" water, the aqua doctrinae, the rivers from
the belly of Christ, and the divine life as contrasted with the
"lower" water, the aqua abyssi, where the darknesses are, and
where dwell the Prince of this world and the deceiving dragon
and his angels. 122 The river of water is the "Saviour" himself. 123
Christ is the river that pours into the world through the four
gospels, 124 like the rivers of Paradise. I have purposely cited the
ecclesiastical allegories in greater detail here, so that the reader
can see how saturated Gnostic symbolism is in the language of
the Church, and how, on the other hand, particularly in Origen,
the liveliness of his amplifications and interpretations has much
in common with Gnostic views. Thus, to him as to many of his
contemporaries and successors, the idea of the cosmic corre-
spondence of the "spiritual inner man" was something quite
familiar: in his first Homily on Genesis he says that God first
created heaven, the whole spiritual substance, and that the
counterpart of this is "our mind, which is itself a spirit, that is,
it is our spiritual inner man which sees and knows God." 125

These examples of Christian parallels to the partly pagan
views of the Gnostics may suffice to give the reader a picture of
the mentality of the first two centuries of our era, and to show
how closely the religious teachings of that age were connected
with psychic facts.

121 in Genesim horn. XI, 3 (Migne, P.G., vol. 12, col. 224): "And that ye may see
the well of vision, and take from it the living water, which shall be in you a
fountain of water springing up unto eternal life."

122 ibid., I, 2 (col. 148).

123 in Numeros horn. XVII, 4 (Migne, P.G., vol. 12, cols. 7oyf.): "For these para-
dises upon the waters are like and akin to that paradise in which is the tree of
life. And the waters we may take to be either the writings of the apostles and
evangelists, or the aid given by the angels and celestial powers to such souls; for
by these they are watered and inundated, and nourished unto all knowledge and
understanding of heavenly things; although our Saviour also is the river which
maketh glad the city of God; and the Holy Spirit not only is himself that river,
but out of those to whom he is given, rivers proceed from their belly."

124 See the valuable compilation of patristic allegories in Rahner, "Flumina de
ventre Christi," pp. 269ft. The above reference is on p. 370 and comes from
Hippolytus' Commentary on Daniel, I, 17 (Werke, I, pp. 28f.).

125 In Genesim horn. I, 2 (Migne, P.G., vol. 12, col. 147).



33 8 Now let us come back to the symbols listed by Hippolytus.
The Original Man in his latent state- so we could interpret the
term axapaKrqpi
goats and she-goats," but because he is ocittoAo?, the Pole that
turns the cosmos round. 126 This recalls the parallel ideas of the
alchemists, previously mentioned, about Mercurius, who is
found at the North Pole. Similarly the Naassenes named Aipolos
-in the language of the Odyssey- Pro teus. Hippolytus quotes
Homer as follows: "This place is frequented by the Old Man of
the Sea, immortal Proteus the Egyptian . . . who always tells
the truth . . ." 127 Homer then continues: ". . . who owes
allegiance to Poseidon and knows the sea in all its depths." 128
Proteus is evidently a personification of the unconscious: 129 it
is difficult to "catch this mysterious old being ... he might see
me first, or know I am there and keep away." One must seize
him quickly and hold him fast, in order to force him to speak.
Though he lives in the sea, he comes to the lonely shore at the
sacred noon-tide hour, like an amphibian, and lies down to
sleep among his seals. These, it must be remembered, are warm-
blooded-that is to say, they can be thought of as contents of the
unconscious that are capable of becoming conscious, and at cer-
tain times they appear spontaneously in the light and airy world
of consciousness. From Proteus the wandering hero learns how
he may make his way homewards "over the fish-giving sea," and
thus the Old Man proves to be a psychopomp. 130 Ov TwrpacrKeTai,
Hippolytus says of him, which can best be translated by the
French colloquialism "il ne se laisse pas rouler." "But," the text
goes on, "he spins round himself and changes his shape." He
behaves, therefore, like a revolving image that cannot be
grasped. What he says is vrjfiepTrjs, 'in sooth,' infallible; he is a

126 Elenchos, V, 8, 34 (Legge, I, p. 137). This is a play on the words alirSXos (from
alyoirSXos), 'goat-herd,' and &enr6\os (from del voXeiv, 'ever turning'). Hence
voXos = the earth's axis, the Pole.

127 Odyssey, trans, by Rouse, p. 65. 128 Ibid., trans, by Rieu, p. 74.

129 He has something of the character of the "trickster" (cf. n. 62, supra).

130 Proteus has much in common with Hermes: above all, the gift of second sight
and the power of shape-shifting. In Faust (Part II, Act 5) he tells the Homuncu-
lus how and where to begin his labours.



"soothsayer." So it is not for nothing that the Naassenes say that
"knowledge of the complete man is deep indeed and hard to
339 Subsequently, Proteus is likened to the green ear of corn in
the Eleusinian mysteries. To him is addressed the cry of the
celebrants: "The Mistress has borne the divine boy, Brimo has
borne Brimos!" A "lower" correspondence to the high Eleu-
sinian initiations, says Hippolytus, is the dark path of Per-
sephone, who was abducted by the god of the underworld; it
leads "to the grove of adored Aphrodite, who rouses the sickness
of love." Men should keep to this lower path in order to be
initiated "into the great and heavenly" mysteries. 131 For this
mystery is "the gate of heaven" and the "house of God," where
alone the good God dwells, who is destined only for the spiritual
men. They should put off their garments and all become w^ioi,
'bridegrooms,' "robbed of their virility by the virgin spirit." 132
This is an allusion to Revelation 14:4:". . . for they are vir-
gins. These . . . follow the Lamb whithersoever he goeth." 133

131 When I visited the ancient pagoda at Turukalukundram, southern India, a
local pundit explained to me that the old temples were purposely covered on the
outside, from top to bottom, with obscene sculptures, in order to remind ordi-
nary people of their sexuality. The spirit, he said, was a great danger, because
Yama, the god of death, would instantly carry off these people (the "imperfecti")
if they trod the spiritual path directly, without preparation. The erotic sculp-
tures were meant to remind them of their dharma (law), which bids them fulfil
their ordinary lives. Only when they have fulfilled their dharma can they tread
the spiritual path. The obscenities were intended to arouse the erotic curiosity of
visitors to the temples, so that they should not forget their dharma; otherwise
they would not fulfil it. Only the man who was qualified by his karma (the fate
earned through works in previous existences), and who was destined for the life
of the spirit, could ignore this injunction with impunity, for to him these obsceni-
ties mean nothing. That was also why the two seductresses stood at the entrance
of the temple, luring the people to fulfil their dharma, because only in this way
could the ordinary man attain to higher spiritual development. And since the
temple represented the whole world, all human activities were portrayed in it;
and because most people are always thinking of sex anyway, the great majority
of the temple sculptures were of an erotic nature. For this reason too, he said,
the lingam (phallus) stands in the sacred cavity of the adyton (Holy of Holies), in
the garbha griha (house of the womb). This pundit was a Tantrist (scholastic;
tantra = 'book').

132 Their prototypes are the emasculated Attis and the priests of Eleusis, who,
before celebrating the hieros gamos, were made impotent with a draught of

133 Cf. Matt. 5 : 8: "Blessed are the pure in heart, for they shall see God."




340 Among the objective symbols of the self I have already men-
tioned the Naassene conception of the d^epi " 5 any^, the indi-
visible point. This conception fully accords with that of the
"Monad" and "Son of Man" in Monoimos. Hippolytus says:

Monoimos . . . thinks that there is some such Man as Oceanus, of
whom the poet speaks somewhat as follows: Oceanus, the origin
of gods and of men. 134 Putting this into other words, he says that
the Man is All, the source of the universe, unbegotten, incor-
ruptible, everlasting; and that there is a Son of the aforesaid Man,
who is begotten and capable of suffering, and whose birth is outside
time, neither willed nor predetermined . . . This Man is a single
Monad, uncompounded [and] indivisible, [yet] compounded [and]
divisible; loving and at peace with all things [yet] warring with all
things and at war with itself in all things; unlike and like [itself],
as it were a musical harmony containing all things . . . showing
forth all things and giving birth to all things. It is its own mother,
its own father, the two immortal names. The emblem of the per-
fect Man, says Monoimos, is the jot or tittle. 135 This one tittle is
the uncompounded, simple, unmixed Monad, having its composi-
tion from nothing whatsoever, yet composed of many forms, of
many parts. That single, indivisible jot is the many-faced, thousand-
eyed and thousand-named, the jot of the iota. This is the emblem
of that perfect and indivisible Man. . . . The Son of the Man is
the one iota, the one jot flowing from on high, full and filling all
things, containing in himself everything that is in the Man, the
Father of the Son of Man. 136

134 A condensation of Iliad, XIV, 200L and 246: "I am going to the ends of the
fruitful earth to visit Ocean, the forbear of the gods, and Mother Tethys . . .
even Ocean Stream himself, who is the forbear of them all." (Rieu trans., pp. 262I)

135 The iota (ttjv /xlav Kepaiav), the smallest Greek character, corresponding to our
"dot" (which did not exist in Greek). Cf. Luke 16 : 17: "And it is easier for
heaven and earth to pass than one tittle of the law to fall." Also Matt. 5:18.
This may well be the origin of the iota symbolism, as Irenaeus (Adv. haer., I,
3, 2) suggests.

136 Elenchos, VIII, 12, 5ft. (Legge, pp. io7ff.). All this is a Gnostic paraphrase of
John 1 and at the same time a meaningful exposition of the psychological self.
The relationship of the t to the self is the same as that of the Hebrew letter
Yod 0) to the lapis in the cabala. The Original Man, Adam, signifies the small
hook at the top of the letter Yod. (Shaare Kedusha, III, 1.)



34 1 This paradoxical idea of the Monad in Monoi'mos describes
the psychological nature of the self as conceived by a thinker of
the second century under the influence of the Christian message.

342 A parallel conception is to be found in Plotinus, who lived
a little later (c. 205-70). He says in the Enneads: "Self-knowledge
reveals the fact that the soul's natural movement is not in a
straight line, unless indeed it have undergone some deviation.
On the contrary, it circles around something interior, around a
centre. Now the centre is that from which proceeds the circle,
that is, the soul. The soul will therefore move around the centre,
that is, around the principle from which she proceeds; and,
trending towards it, she will attach herself to it, as indeed all
souls should do. The souls of the divinities ever direct themselves
towards it, and that is the secret of their divinity; for divinity
consists in being attached to the centre. . . . Anyone who with-
draws from it is a man who has remained un-unified, or who is
a brute." 137

343 Here the point is the centre of a circle that is created, so to
speak, by the circumambulation of the soul. But this point is the
"centre of all things," a God-image. This is an idea that still
underlies the mandala-symbols in modern dreams. 138

344 Of equal significance is the idea, also common among the
Gnostics, of the ainvB^p or spark. 139 It corresponds to the scintilla
vitae, the "little spark of the soul" in Meister Eckhart, 140 which
we meet with rather early in the teachings of Saturninus. 141
Similarly Heraclitus, "the physicist," is said to have conceived
the soul as a "spark of stellar essence." 142 Hippolytus says that
in the doctrine of the Sethians the darkness held "the bright-

137 Ennead, VI, 9, 8 (Guthrie trans., p. 163, slightly mod.).

138 See "A Study in the Process of Individuation" and "Concerning Mandala

139 Bousset, Hauptprobleme der Gnosis, p. 321, says: "[The Gnostics believed]
that human beings, or at any rate some human beings, carry within them from
the beginning a higher element [the spinther] deriving from the world of light,
which enables them to rise above the world of the Seven into the upper world of
light, where dwell the unknown Father and the heavenly Mother."

140 Meerpohl, "Meister Eckharts Lehre vom Seelenfunklein."

141 Irenaeus, Adv. haer., I., 24. The pneumatikoi contain a small part of the
Pleroma (II, 29). Cf. the doctrine of Satorneilos in Hippolytus, Elenchos, VII, a8,
3 (Legge trans., II, pp. 8of.).

142 Macrobius, Commentarium in Somnium Scipionis, XIV, 19.



ness and the spark of light in thrall," 143 and that this "very small
spark" was finely mingled in the dark waters 144 below. 145 Simon
Magus 146 likewise teaches that in semen and milk there is a very
small spark which "increases and becomes a power boundless
and immutable." 147
345 The symbol of the point is found also in alchemy, where it
stands for the arcane substance; in Michael Maier 148 it signifies
"the purity or homogeneity of the essence." It is the "punctum
solis" 149 in the egg-yolk, which grows into a chick. In Khunrath
it represents Sapientia in the form of the "salt-point"; 15 in
Maier it symbolizes gold. 151 To the scholiast of the "Tractatus
aureus" it is the midpoint, the "circulus exiguus" and "media-
tor" which reconciles the hostile elements and "by persistent
rotation changes the angular form of the square into a circular
one like itself." 152 For Dorn the "punctum vix intelligibile" is

143 Elenchos, V, 19, 7: "Iva %xy rbv amv6r\pa. SovXevovra.

144 This idea reappears in alchemy in numerous variations. Cf. Michael Maier,
Symbola aureae mensae, p. 380, and Scrutinium chymicum, Emblema XXXI:
"The King swimming in the sea, and crying with a loud voice: Whosoever shall
bring me out, shall have a great reward." Also Aurora Consurgens (ed. von Franz),
p. 57: "For this cause have I laboured night by night with crying, my jaws be-
come hoarse; who is the man that liveth, knowing and understanding, deliver-
ing my soul from the hand of hell?"

145 Elenchos, V, 21, 1: Tov amvdripa rbv i\ax<-
Karafxe/xlxdaL Xe7TT(5s-

146 Elenchos, VI, 17, 7. Cf. "Transformation Symbolism in the Mass," par. 359.

147 Cf. the vision reported by Wickes, The Inner World of Man, p. 245. It is a
typical piece of individuation symbolism: "Then I saw that on the shaft there
hung a human figure that held within itself all the loneliness of the world and
of the spaces. Alone, and hoping for nothing, the One hung and gazed down
into the void. For long the One gazed, drawing all solitude unto itself. Then
deep in the fathomless dark was born an infinitesimal spark. Slowly it rose from
the bottomless depth, and as it rose it grew until it became a star. And the star
hung in space just opposite the figure, and the white light streamed upon the
Lonely One." Conversely, it is related of Zoroaster that he drew down sparks
from a star, which scorched him. (Bousset, p. 146.)

148 Maier, De circulo physico quadrato (1616), p. 27.

149 Or punctus solis. "In the egg therefore are four things: earth, water, air, and
fire; but the 'punctum solis' is apart from these four, in the midst of the yolk
(which) is the chick." (Turba, Sermo IV.) Ruska (Turba philosophorum, p. 51)
puts "saliens" instead of "solis" ("springing point" instead of "sun-point"), in the
belief that all the copyists repeated the same error. I am not so sure of this.

150 Von hylealischen Chaos, p. 194. 151 De circulo quadrato, p. 27.
152 Theatr. chem., IV, p. 691.



the starting point of creation. 153 Similarly John Dee says that all
things originated from the point and the monad. 154 Indeed, God
himself is simultaneously both the centre and the circumference.
In Mylius the point is called the bird of Hermes. 155 In the
"Novum lumen" it is spirit and fire, the life of the arcane sub-
stance, similar to the spark. 158 This conception of the point is
more or less the same as that of the Gnostics.
346 From these citations we can see how Christ was assimilated
to symbols that also meant the kingdom of God, for instance
the grain of mustard-seed, the hidden treasure, and the pearl of
great price. He and his kingdom have the same meaning. Objec-
tions have always been made to this dissolution of Christ's per-
sonality, but what has not been realized is that it represents at
the same time an assimilation and integration of Christ into the
human psyche. 157 The result is seen in the growth of the human
personality and in the development of consciousness. These
specific attainments are now gravely threatened in our anti-
christian age, not only by the sociopolitical delusional systems,
but above all by the rationalistic hybris which is tearing our
consciousness from its transcendent roots and holding before
it immanent goals.

153 "Physica genesis," Theatr. chem., I, p. 382.

154 Monas hieroglyphica (first edn., 1564). Also in Theatr. chem. (1602), II, p. 218.

155 Phil, ref., p. 131. 156 Mus. herm., p. 559.

157 Here I would like to cite a theological opinion: "Jesus is a synthesis and a
growth, and the resultant form is one which tells of a hundred forces which went
to its making. But the interesting thing is that the process did not end with the
closing of the canon. Jesus is still in the making." Roberts, "Jesus or Christ?-
A Reply," p. 124.




347 The examples given in the previous chapter should be suf-
ficient to describe the progressive assimilation and amplifica-
tion of the archetype that underlies ego-consciousness. Rather
than add to their number unnecessarily, I will try to summarize
them so that an over-all picture results. From various hints
dropped by Hippolytus, it is clear beyond a doubt that many of
the Gnostics were nothing other than psychologists. Thus he
reports them as saying that "the soul is very hard to find and to
comprehend," x and that knowledge of the whole man is just as
difficult. "For knowledge of man is the beginning of wholeness
(TeAeiWis), but knowledge of God is perfect wholeness {atrqprurfiivq
TeAetWts)." Clement of Alexandria says in the Paedagogus (III,
1): "Therefore, as it seems, it is the greatest of all disciplines to
know oneself; for when a man knows himself, he knows God."
And Monoi'mos, in his letter to Theophrastus, writes: "Seek him
from out thyself, and learn who it is that taketh possession of
everything in thee, saying: my god, my spirit, my understanding,
my soul, my body; and learn whence is sorrow and joy, and love
and hate, and waking though one would not, and sleeping
though one would not, and getting angry though one would not,
and falling in love though one would not. And if thou shouldst
closely investigate these things, thou wilt find Him in thyself,
the One and the Many, like to that little point [fcepata], for it is
in thee that he hath his origin and his deliverance." 2

34 8 One cannot help being reminded, in reading this text, of the
Indian idea of the Self as brahman and atman, for instance in

1 Elenchos, V, 7, 8 (Legge trans., I, p. 123).

2 Elenchos, VIII, 15, iff. Cf. Legge trans., II, p. 10.



the Kena Upanishad: "By whom willed and directed does the
mind fly forth? By whom commanded does the first breath move?
Who sends forth the speech we utter here? What god is it that
stirs the eye and ear? The hearing of the ear, the thinking of the
mind, the speaking of the speech . . . That which speech can-
not express, by which speech is expressed . . . which the mind
cannot think, by which the mind thinks, know that as Brah-
man." 3

349 Yajnyavalkya defines it in indirect form in the Brihadaran-
yaka Upanishad: "He who dwells in all beings, yet is apart from
all beings, whom no beings know, whose body is all beings, who
controls all beings from within, he is your Self, the inner con-
troller, the immortal. . . . There is no other seer but he, no
other hearer but he, no other perceiver but he, no other knower
but he. He is your Self, the inner controller, the immortal. All
else is of sorrow. 4

35 In Monoi'mos, who was called "the Arab," Indian influences
are not impossible. His statement is significant because it shows
that even in the second century 5 the ego was considered the
exponent of an all-embracing totality, the self- a thought that
by no means all psychologists are familiar with even today.
These insights, in the Near East as in India, are the product of
intense introspective observation that can only be psychological.
Gnosis is undoubtedly a psychological knowledge whose con-
tents derive from the unconscious. It reached its insights by
concentrating on the "subjective factor," 6 which consists empiri-
cally in the demonstrable influence that the collective uncon-
scious exerts on the conscious mind. This would explain the
astonishing parallelism between Gnostic symbolism and the
findings of the psychology of the unconscious.

35i I would like to illustrate this parallelism by summarizing the
symbols previously discussed. For this purpose we must first of
all review the facts that led psychologists to conjecture an arche-
type of wholeness, i.e., the self. These are in the first place
dreams and visions; in the second place, products of active
imagination in which symbols of wholeness appear. The most

3 Based on Radhakrishnan, The Principal Upanishads, pp. 58if.

4 Ibid., pp. 228f.

5 Hippolytus lived c. a.d. 230. Monoimos must therefore antedate him.

6 Psychological Types (1923 edn., pp. 471ft".).



important of these are geometrical structures containing ele-
ments of the circle and quaternity; 7 namely, circular and spheri-
cal forms on the one hand, which can be represented either
purely geometrically or as objects; and, on the other hand,
quadratic figures divided into four or in the form of a cross.
They can also be four objects or persons related to one another
in meaning or by the way they are arranged. Eight, as a multiple
of four, has the same significance. A special variant of the qua-
ternity motif is the dilemma of 3 -f- i- Twelve (3 X 4) seems to
belong here as a solution of the dilemma and as a symbol of
wholeness (zodiac, year). Three can be regarded as a relative
totality, since it usually represents either a spiritual totality that
is a product of thought, like the Trinity, 8 or else an instinctual,
chthonic one, like the triadic nature of the gods of the under-
world-the "lower triad." Psychologically, however, three- if the
context indicates that it refers to the self- should be understood
as a defective quaternity or as a stepping-stone towards it. 9
Empirically, a triad has a trinity opposed to it as its comple-
ment. The complement of the quaternity is unity. 10
352 From the circle and quaternity motif is derived the symbol
of the geometrically formed crystal and the wonder-working
stone. From here analogy formation leads on to the city, 11 castle,
church, 12 house, 13 and vessel. 14 Another variant is the wheel
(rota). The former motif emphasizes the ego's containment in
the greater dimension of the self; the latter emphasizes the rota-
tion which also appears as a ritual circumambulation. Psycho-
logically, it denotes concentration on and preoccupation with
a centre, conceived as the centre of a circle and thus formulated
as a point. This leads easily enough to a relationship to the
heavenly Pole and the starry bowl of heaven rotating round it.
A parallel is the horoscope as the "wheel of birth."

7 The circle has the character of wholeness because of its "perfect" form; the
quaternity, because four is the minimum number of parts into which the circle
may naturally be divided.

8 Cf. "A Psychological Approach to the Dogma of the Trinity," pars. i82ff.

9 Cf. "Spirit in Fairytales" pars. 425^, 436ft., and "Trinity," pars. 243ff.

10 Five corresponds to the indistinguishability of quaternity and unity.

11 [Psychology and Alchemy, pars. 138L, fig. 31.]

12 Church built of living stones in the Shepherd of Hennas. [Psychological Types,
ch. V, 4a.]

13 Golden Flower (1962 edn.), pp. 22, 36. 14 Psychology and Alchemy, par. 338.



The image of the city, house, and vessel brings us to their
content - the inhabitant of the city or house, and the water con-
tained in the vessel. The inhabitant, in his turn, has a relation-
ship to the quaternity, and to the fifth as the unity of the four.
The water appears in modern dreams and visions as a blue ex-
panse reflecting the sky, as a lake, as four rivers (e.g., Switzer-
land as the heart of Europe with the Rhine, Ticino, Rhone, and
Inn, or the Garden of Eden with the Gihon, Pison, Hiddekel,
and Euphrates), as healing water and consecrated water, etc.
Sometimes the water is associated with fire, or even combined
with it as fire-water (wine, alcohol).

The inhabitant of the quadratic space leads to the human
figure. Apart from the geometrical and arithmetical symbols,
this is the commonest symbol of the self. It is either a god or a
godlike human being, a prince, a priest, a great man, an his-
torical personality, a dearly loved father, an admired example,
the successful elder brother- in short, a figure that transcends
the ego personality of the dreamer. There are corresponding
feminine figures in a woman's psychology.

Just as the circle is contrasted with the square, so the qua-
ternity is contrasted with the 3 -f- 1 motif, and the positive,
beautiful, good, admirable, and lovable human figure with a
daemonic, misbegotten creature who is negative, ugly, evil,
despicable and an object of fear. Like all archetypes, the self has
a paradoxical, antinomial character. It is male and female, old
man and child, powerful and helpless, large and small. The self
is a true "complexio oppositorum," 15 though this does not
mean that it is anything like as contradictory in itself. It is
quite possible that the seeming paradox is nothing but a reflec-
tion of the enantiodromian changes of the conscious attitude
which can have a favourable or an unfavourable effect on the
whole. The same is true of the unconscious in general, for its
frightening figures may be called forth by the fear which the
conscious mind has of the unconscious. The importance of con-
sciousness should not be underrated; hence it is advisable to re-
late the contradictory manifestations of the unconscious causally
to the conscious attitude, at least in some degree. But conscious-
ness should not be overrated either, for experience provides too

15 A definition of God in Nicholas of Cusa. Cf. "The Psychology of the Trans-
ference," par. 537.



many incontrovertible proofs of the autonomy of unconscious
compensatory processes for us to seek the origin of these an-
tinomies only in the conscious mind. Between the conscious and
the unconscious there is a kind of "uncertainty relationship,"
because the observer is inseparable from the observed and al-
ways disturbs it by the act of observation. In other words, exact
observation of the unconscious prejudices observation of the
conscious and vice versa.

356 Thus the self can appear in all shapes from the highest to the
lowest, inasmuch as these transcend the scope of the ego person-
ality in the manner of a daimonion. It goes without saying that
the self also has its theriomorphic symbolism. The commonest
of these images in modern dreams are, in my experience, the
elephant, horse, bull, bear, white and black birds, fishes, and
snakes. Occasionally one comes across tortoises, snails, spiders,
and beetles. The principal plant symbols are the flower and the
tree. Of the inorganic products, the commonest are the moun-
tain and lake.

357 Where there is an undervaluation of sexuality the self is
symbolized as a phallus. Undervaluation can consist in an
ordinary repression or in overt devaluation. In certain differ-
entiated persons a purely biological interpretation and evalua-
tion of sexuality can also have this effect. Any such conception
overlooks the spiritual and "mystical" implications of the sexual
instinct. 16 These have existed from time immemorial as psychic
facts, but are devalued and repressed on rationalistic and
philosophical grounds. In all such cases one can expect an un-
conscious phallicism by way of compensation. A good example
of this is the mainly sexualistic approach to the psyche that is
to be found in Freud.

358 Coming now to the Gnostic symbols of the self, we find that
the Naassenes of Hippolytus lay most emphasis on the human
images; of the geometrical and arithmetical symbols the most
important are the quaternity, the ogdoad, the trinity, and unity.
Here we shall give our attention mainly to the totality symbol
of the quaternity, and above all to the symbol mentioned in

16 Cf. Hurwitz, "Archetypische Motive in der chassidischen Mystik," ch. VI.



section 6 of the last chapter, which I would like to call, for short,
the Moses Quaternio. We shall then consider the second Naas-
sene Quaternio, the one with the four rivers of Paradise, which
I shall call the Paradise Quaternio. Though differently consti-
tuted, the two quaternios express roughly the same idea, and in
what follows I shall try not only to relate them to one another
psychologically, but also to bring out their connection with
later (alchemical) quaternary structures. In the course of these
investigations, we shall see how far the two quaternios are char-
acteristic of the Gnostic age, and how far they can be correlated
with the archetypal history of the mind in the Christian aeon.
359 The quaternity in the Moses Quaternio 17 is evidently con-
structed according to the following schema:

The Higher Adam

Miriam, Mother-

Jethro, physical
and spiritual father

Zipporah, wife of Moses
and daughter of Jethro


The Lower Adam

The Moses Quaternio

s 6 The "lower Adam" corresponds to the ordinary mortal man,
Moses to the culture-hero and lawgiver, and thus, on a person-
alistic level, to the "father"; Zipporah, as the daughter of a king

17 Elenchos, V, 8, 2.



and priest, to the "higher mother." For the ordinary man, these
two represent the "royal pair," 18 which for Moses corresponds
on the one hand to his "higher man," and on the other hand to
his anima, Miriam. The "higher" man is synonymous with the
"spiritual, inner" man, who is represented in the quaternio by
Jethro. Such is the meaning of the quaternio when seen from
the standpoint of Moses. But since Moses is related to Jethro as
the lower Adam, or ordinary man, is to Moses, the quaternio
cannot be understood merely as the structure of Moses' per-
sonality, but must be looked at from the standpoint of the lower
Adam as well. We then get the following quaternio:


as culture-hero as higher mother


as ordinary man as ordinary woman

361 From this we can see that the Naassene quaternio is in a
sense unsymmetrical, since it leads to a senarius (hexad) with an
exclusively upward tendency: Jethro and Miriam have to be
added to the above four as a kind of third storey, as the higher
counterparts of Moses and Zipporah. We thus get a gradual pro-
gression, or series of steps leading from the lower to the higher
Adam. This psychology evidently underlies the elaborate lists of
Valentinian syzygies. The lower Adam or somatic man conse-
quently appears as the lowest stage of all, from which there can
be only an ascent. But, as we have seen, the four persons in the
Naassene quaternio are chosen so skilfully that it leaves room
not only for the incest motif [Jethro-Miriam], which is never
lacking in the marriage quaternio, but also for the extension of
the ordinary man's psychic structure downwards, towards the
sub-human, the dark and evil side represented by the shadow.
That is to say, Moses marries the "Ethiopian woman," and
Miriam, the prophetess and mother-sister, becomes "leprous,"
which is clear proof that her relation to Moses has taken a nega-
tive turn. This is further confirmed by the fact that Miriam
"spoke against" Moses and even stirred up his brother Aaron
against him. Accordingly, we get the following senarius:

18 Cf. "The Psychology of the Transference," pars. 4ioff.





jethro, the heathen priest miriam, the "white" leper

Though nothing is said against Jethro, "the great wise one,"
in the Bible story, yet as a Midianite priest he did not serve
Yahweh and did not belong to the chosen people, but departs
from them to his own country. 19 He seems also to have borne
the name Reguel ("friend of God") and to have helped Moses
with his superior wisdom. He is, accordingly, a numinous per-
sonality, the embodiment of an archetype, obviously that of the
"wise old man" who personifies the spirit in myth and folklore.
The spirit, as I have shown elsewhere, 20 has a dichotomous
nature. Just as Moses in this case represents his own shadow by
taking to wife the black daughter of the earth, so Jethro, in his
capacity as heathen priest and stranger, has to be included in the
quaternio as the "lower" aspect of himself, with a magical and
nefarious significance (though this is not vouched for in the
text). 21

As I have already explained, the Moses Quaternio is an indi-
vidual variant of the common marriage quaternio found in folk-
lore. 22 It could therefore be designated just as well with other
mythical names. The basic schema of the cross-cousin marriage:



husband's sister wife's brother

has numerous variants; for instance the sister can be replaced
by the mother or the wife's brother by a fatherlike figure. But
the incest motif remains a characteristic feature. Since the
schema is a primary one characterizing the psychology of love
relationships and also of the transference, it will, like all char-
acterological schemata, obviously manifest itself in a "favour-
able" and an "unfavourable" form, for the relationships in ques-
tion also exhibit the same ambivalence: everything a man does
has a positive and a negative aspect.

19 Exodus 18 : 27.

20 "Phenomenology of the Spirit in Fairytales," pars. 400ft.

21 Since the whole Shadow Quaternio is a symmetrical construction, the "good
Wise Man" must here be contrasted with a correspondingly dark, chthonic figure.

22 Ci. "Psychology of the Transference," pars. 425ft.



3 6 4 The reader, therefore, should not let himself be put off by
the somewhat scurrilous Gnostic nomenclature. The names are
accidental, whereas the schema itself is universally valid. The
same is true of the "Shadow Quaternio," for which I have kept
the same names because the biography of Moses offers certain
features that are well suited to illustrate the shadow.

3 6 5 The lower senarius reaches its nadir not in the "lower
Adam" but in his dark, theriomorphic prefiguration- the ser-
pent who was created before man, or the Gnostic Naas. Accord-
ingly we have the structures shown on the facing page.

366 This schema is no idle parlour game, because the texts make
it abundantly clear that the Gnostics were quite familiar with
the dark aspect of their metaphysical figures, so much so that
they caused the greatest offence on that account. (One has only
to think of the identification of the good God with Priapus, 23 or
of the Anthropos with the ithyphallic Hermes.) It was, more-
over, the Gnostics- e.g., Basilides- who exhaustively discussed
the problem of evil {vbOev rb kokSv; - 'whence comes evil?'). The
serpentine form of the Nous and the Agathodaimon does not
mean that the serpent has only a good aspect. Just as the
Apophis-serpent was the traditional enemy of the Egyptian sun-
god, so the devil, "that ancient serpent," 24 is the enemy of
Christ, the "novus Sol." The good, perfect, spiritual God was
opposed by an imperfect, vain, ignorant, and incompetent
demiurge. There were archontic Powers that gave to mankind
a corrupt "chirographum" (handwriting) from which Christ
had to redeem them. 25

367 With the dawn of the second millennium the accent shifted

23 In the gnosis of Justin. See Hippolytus, Elenchos, V, 26, 32 (Legge trans., I,
p. 178): 6 de ayados kan Uptavos (But the Good One is Priapus).
24&ev. 12 : 9.

25 Coloss. 2 : 14: "Blotting out the handwriting of the decree that was against us,
which was contrary to us. And he hath taken the same out of the way, fastening it
to the cross" (DV). The handwriting is imprinted on the body. This view is con-
firmed by Orosius ("Ad Aurelium Augustum commonitorium de errore Priscil-
lianistarum et Origenistarum," p. 153), who says that in the opinion of Pris-
cillian the soul, on descending through the spheres into birth, was caught by the
powers of evil, and at the behest of the victor ("victoris principis") was cast into
separate bodies, upon which a "handwriting" was written. The parts of the soul
receive a divine chirographum, but the parts of the body are imprinted with
the signs of the zodiac icaeli signa).


Anthtopot (the higher Adam)

The higher Jethro

The higher Moses

The positive Miriam

The wise Zippor/sh

Man (the lower Adam)

A. The Anthropos Quaternio

The lower Jethro

The negative Miriam

The Ethiopian


B. The Shadow Quaternio


more and more towards the dark side. The demiurge became
the devil who had created the world, and, a little later, alchemy
began to develop its conception of Mercurius as the partly ma-
terial, partly immaterial spirit that penetrates and sustains all
things, from stones and metals to the highest living organisms.
In the form of a snake he dwells inside the earth, has a body,
soul, and spirit, was believed to have a human shape as the
homunculus or homo altus, and was regarded as the chthonic
God. 26 From this we can see clearly that the serpent was either
a forerunner of man or a distant copy of the Anthropos, and
how justified is the equation Naas = Nous = Logos r= Christ
= Higher Adam. The medieval extension of this equation to-
wards the dark side had, as I have said, already been prepared
by Gnostic phallicism. This appears as early as the fifteenth cen-
tury in the alchemical Codex Ashburnham 1166, 27 and in the
sixteenth century Mercurius was identified with Hermes Kyl-
lenios. 28

It is significant that Gnostic philosophy found its continua-
tion in alchemy. 29 "Mater Alchimia" is one of the mothers of
modern science, and modern science has given us an unparal-
leled knowledge of the "dark" side of matter. It has also pene-
trated into the secrets of physiology and evolution, and made
the very roots of life itself an object of investigation. In this
way the human mind has sunk deep into the sublunary world

26 "The Spirit Mercurius," esp. pars. 271, 282, 289.

27 See Psychology and Alchemy, fig. 131.

28 in "Chrysopoeia" (in Gratarolus, Verae alchemiae artisque metallicae, 1561,
pp. 269ft - .), which Augurellus dedicated to Pope Leo X. It contains an invocation
of the alma soror of Phoebus:

"Tu quoque, nee coeptis Cylleni audacibus usquam

Defueris, tibi nam puro de fonte perennis

Rivulus argentum, vulgo quod vivere dicunt,

Sufficit, et tantis praestat primordia rebus."
(You too, Cyllenian, this bold enterprise
Fail not, the stream from whose pure spring supplies
The silver men call "quick," the primal state
And first beginning of a work so great. [Trans, by A. S. B. Glover.])

29 In the Western Roman Empire there is a gap in this development, extending
from the 3rd to about the nth cent., that is, to the time of the first translations
from the Arabic.



of matter, thus repeating the Gnostic myth of the Nous, who,
beholding his reflection in the depths below, plunged down and
was swallowed in the embrace of Physis. The climax of this de-
velopment was marked in the eighteenth century by the French
Revolution, in the nineteenth century by scientific materialism,
and in the twentieth century by political and social "realism,"
which has turned the wheel of history back a full two thousand
years and seen the recrudescence of the despotism, the lack of
individual rights, the cruelty, indignity, and slavery of the pre-
Christian world, whose "labour problem" was solved by the
"ergastulum" (convict-camp). The "transvaluation of all values"
is being enacted before our eyes.

3 6 9 The development briefly outlined here seems to have been
anticipated in medieval and Gnostic symbolism, just as the
Antichrist was in the New Testament. How this occurred I will
endeavour to describe in what follows. We have seen that, as
the higher Adam corresponds to the lower, so the lower Adam
corresponds to the serpent. For the mentality of the Middle
Ages and of late antiquity, the first of the two double pyramids,
the Anthropos Quaternio, represents the world of the spirit, or
metaphysics, while the second, the Shadow Quaternio, repre-
sents sublunary nature and in particular man's instinctual dis-
position, the "flesh"- to use a Gnostic-Christian term- which has
its roots in the animal kingdom or, to be more precise, in the
realm of warm-blooded animals. The nadir of this system is
the cold-blooded vertebrate, the snake, 30 for with the snake the
psychic rapport that can be established with practically all warm-
blooded animals comes to an end. That the snake, contrary to
expectation, should be a counterpart of the Anthropos is cor-
roborated by the fact- of especial significance for the Middle
Ages- that it is on the one hand a well-known allegory of Christ,
and on the other hand appears to be equipped with the gift of
wisdom and of supreme spirituality. 31 As Hippolytus says, the
Gnostics identified the serpent with the spinal cord and the
medulla. These are synonymous with the reflex functions.

37 The second of these quaternios is the negative of the first;
it is its shadow. By "shadow" I mean the inferior personality, the
lowest levels of which are indistinguishable from the instinctu-

3( > Synonymous with the dragon, since draco also means snake.
31 $&ov irvevmaTLKwrardv, 'the most spiritual animal.'



ality of an animal. This is a view that can be found at a very
early date, in the idea of the Trpoo-^s i/o^, the 'excrescent
soul' 32 of Isidorus. 33 We also meet it in Origen, who speaks of
the animals contained in man. 34 Since the shadow, in itself, is
unconscious for most people, the snake would correspond to
what is totally unconscious and incapable of becoming con-
scious, but which, as the collective unconscious and as instinct,
seems to possess a peculiar wisdom of its own and a knowledge
that is often felt to be supernatural. This is the treasure which
the snake (or dragon) guards, and also the reason why the snake
signifies evil and darkness on the one hand and wisdom on the
other. Its unrelatedness, coldness, and dangerousness express
the instinctuality that with ruthless cruelty rides roughshod
over all moral and any other human wishes and considerations
and is therefore just as terrifying and fascinating in its effects as

37 1 In alchemy the snake is the symbol of Mercurius non vulgi,
who was bracketed with the god of revelation, Hermes. Both
have a pneumatic nature. The serpens Mercurii is a chthonic
spirit who dwells in matter, more especially in the bit of original
chaos hidden in creation, the massa confusa or globosa. The
snake-symbol in alchemy points back to historically earlier
images. Since the opus was understood by the alchemists as a
recapitulation or imitation of the creation of the world, the
serpent of Mercurius, that crafty and deceitful god, reminded
them of the serpent in the Garden of Eden, and therefore of the
devil, the tempter, who on their own admission played all sorts
of tricks on them during their work. Mephistopheles, whose
"aunt is the snake," is Goethe's version of the alchemical famil-
iar, Mercurius. Like the dragon, Mercurius is the slippery,
evasive, poisonous, dangerous forerunner of the hermaphrodite,
and for that reason he has to be overcome.

372 For the Naassenes Paradise was a quaternity parallel with

32 In Valentinus the "appendages" are spirits indwelling in man. Clement of
Alexandria, Stromata, II, 20, 112 and 114 (trans. Wilson, II, pp. 641".).

33 Isidorus was the son of Basilides. See Clement of Alexandria, ibid., II, 20, 113
(Wilson, II, p. 65). The "outgrowths" are animal souls, as of wolves, monkeys,
lions, etc.

34 in Levit. hom. V, 2 (Migne, P.G., vol. 12, col. 450): "So when thou seest that
thou hast all the things the world has, doubt not that thou hast within thee
even the animals which are offered in sacrifice."



the Moses quaternio and of similar meaning. Its fourfold nature
consisted in the four rivers, Pison, Gihon, Hiddekel, and Phrat. 35
The serpent in Genesis is an illustration of the personified tree-
numen; hence it is traditionally represented in or coiled round
the tree. It is the tree's voice, which persuades Eve- in Luther's
version- that "it would be good to eat of the tree, and pleasant
to behold that it is a lusty tree." In the fairytale of "The Spirit
in the Bottle," Mercurius can likewise be interpreted as a tree-
numen. 36 In the Ripley "Scrowle" Mercurius appears as a snake
in the shape of a Melusina descending from the top of the Philo-
sophical Tree ("tree of knowledge"). 37 The tree stands for the
development and phases of the transformation process, 38 and its
fruits or flowers signify the consummation of the work. 39 In the
fairytale Mercurius is hidden in the roots of a great oak-tree,
i.e., in the earth. For it is in the interior of the earth that the
Mercurial serpent dwells.

For the alchemists Paradise was a favourite symbol of the
albedo* the regained state of innocence, and the source of its
rivers is a symbol of the aqua permanens* 1 For the Church
Fathers Christ is this source, 42 and Paradise means the ground
of the soul from which the fourfold river of the Logos bubbles
forth. 43 We find the same symbol in the alchemist and mystic
John Pordage: divine Wisdom is a "New Earth, the heavenly
Land. . . . For from this Earth grew all the Trees of Life. . . .
Thus did Paradise . . . rise up from the Heart and Centre of
this New Earth, and thus did the lost Garden of Eden flourish in
greenness." 44

85 Euphrates. 36 "The Spirit Mercurius," Part I.

87 See Psychology and Alchemy, fig. 257. 88 Ibid., par. 357.

89 Ibid., fig. 122, and "The Philosophical Tree," pars. 402ff.

40 Ripley, Cantilena, verse 28 [cf. Mysterium Coniunctionis, p. 317], and Chym-
ische Schrifften, p. 51; also Mylius, Phil, ref., p. 124.

41 "A land to be watered with the clear water of paradise" (Hollandus, "Frag-
mentum de lapide," Theatr. chem., II, p. 142). The "Tractatus Aristotelis ad
Alexandrum Magnum (conscriptus et collectus a quodam Christiano Philoso-
pho)," Theatr. chem., V, p. 885, compares the "practica Aristotelis" with the
water of paradise, which makes man "whole" (incolumem) and immortal: "From
this water all true Philosophers have had life and infinite riches."

42 Didymus of Alexandria, De trinitate (Migne, P.G., vol. 39, col. 456).

43 St Ambrose, Explanationes in Psalmos, Ps. 45, 12 (Corp. Script. Eccl. Lat.,
LXIV, p. 337). Cf. Rahner, "Flumina de ventre Christi," pp. 269^.

44 Sophia (1699), p. 9.



374 The snake symbol brings us to the images of Paradise, tree,
and earth. This amounts to an evolutionary regression from the
animal kingdom back to plants and inorganic nature, epitomized
in alchemy by the secret of matter, the lapis. Here the lapis is
not to be understood as the end product of the opus but rather
as its initial material. This arcane substance was also called lapis
by the alchemists. The symbolism here described can be repre-
sented diagrammatically as another quaternio or double pyra-







C. The Paradise Quaternio

375 The lapis was thought of as a unity and therefore often
stands for the prima materia in general. But just as the latter
is a bit of the original chaos which was believed to be hidden
somewhere in metals, particularly in mercury, or in other sub-
stances, and is not in itself a simple thing (as the name "massa
confusa" shows), so too the lapis consists of the four elements or



has to be put together from them. 45 In the chaos the elements
are not united, they are merely coexistent and have to be com-
bined through the alchemical procedure. They are even hostile
to one another and will not unite of their own accord. They
represent, therefore, an original state of conflict and mutual
repulsion. This image serves to illustrate the splitting up or
unfolding of the original unity into the multiplicity of the
visible world. Out of the split-up quaternity the opus puts to-
gether the unity of the lapis in the realm of the inorganic. As
the filius macrocosmi and a living being, the lapis is not just an
allegory but is a direct parallel of Christ 46 and the higher Adam,
of the heavenly Original Man, of the second Adam (Christ), and
of the serpent. The nadir of this third quaternio is therefore a
further counterpart of the Anthropos.

As already mentioned, the constitution of the lapis rests on
the union of the four elements, 47 which in their turn represent
an unfolding of the unknowable inchoate state, or chaos. This is
the prima materia, the arcanum, the primary substance, which
in Paracelsus and his followers is called the increatum and is
regarded as coeternal with God- a correct interpretation of the
Tehom in Genesis 1:2: "And the [uncreated] earth was with-
out form and void, and darkness was upon the face of the deep;
and the Spirit of God [brooded] over the face of the waters."
This primary substance is round (massa globosa, rotundum,
aroixdov oTpoyyvXov), like the world and the world-soul; it is in
fact the world-soul and the world-substance in one. It is the
"stone that has a spirit," 48 in modern parlance the most elemen-
tary building-stone in the architecture of matter, the atom,
which is an intellectual model. The alchemists describe the

45 The lapis is made of the four elements, like Adam. The centre of the squared
circle is the "mediator, making peace between the enemies or elements, so that
they may love one another in a meet embrace" ("Tractatus aureus," Theatr.
chem., IV, p. 691).

46 Cf. the evidence for this in Psychology and Alchemy, "The Lapis-Christ

47 Mylius (Phil, ref., p. 15) identifies the elements that constitute the lapis with
corpus, spiritus, and anima: corpus is matter, earth, and spiritus is the nodus
(bond) animae et corporis, and therefore corresponds to fire. Water and air, which
would properly characterize the anima, are also "spirit." Three of the elements
are "moving," one (earth) "unmoving." Cf. n. 89, infra.

48 Quotation from Ostanes in Zosimos, "Sur l'art" (Berthelot, Alch. grecs, III,
vi, 5)-




"round element" now as primal water, now as primal fire, or as
pneuma, primal earth, or "corpusculum nostrae sapientiae,"
the little body of our wisdom. 49 As water or fire it is the uni-
versal solvent; as stone and metal it is something that has to be
dissolved and changed into air (pneuma, spirit).

This lapis symbolism can once more be visualized diagram-
matically as a double pyramid:




D. The Lapis Quaternio

Zosimos calls the rotundum the omega element (fi), which
probably signifies the head. 50 The skull is mentioned as the ves-
sel of transformation in the Sabaean treatise "Platonis liber
quartorum," 51 and the "Philosophers" styled themselves "chil-
dren of the golden head," 52 which is probably synonymous with
"filii sapientiae." The vas is often synonymous with the lapis,
so that there is no difference between the vessel and its content;

49 "Aurora consurgens," Art. aurif., I, p. 208.

50 Cf. my remarks on the significance of the head in "Transformation Symbolism
in the Mass," pars. 3653. "Head" also means "beginning," e.g., "head of the Nile,"
etc. 51 Theatr. chem., V, p. 151. 52 Berthelot, III, x, 1.



in other words, it is the same arcanum. 53 According to the old
view the soul is round 54 and the vessel must be round too, like
the heavens or the world. 55 The form of the Original Man is
round. Accordingly Dorn says that the vessel "should be made
from a kind of squaring of the circle, so that the spirit and the
soul of our material, separated from its body, may raise the body
with them to the height of their own heaven." 50 The anony-
mous author of the scholia to the "Tractatus aureus" also writes
about the squaring of the circle and shows a square whose cor-
ners are formed by the four elements. In the centre there is a
small circle. The author says: "Reduce your stone to the four
elements, rectify and combine them into one, and you will have
the whole magistery. This One, to which the elements must be
reduced, is that little circle in the centre of this squared figure. It
is the mediator, making peace between the enemies or ele-
ments." 57 In a later chapter he depicts the vessel, "the true
philosophical Pelican," 58 as shown on the next page. 59

53 "There is one stone, one medicine, one vessel, one method, one disposition"
(Rosarium philosophorum, Art. aurif., II, 206). "In our water all modes of things
are brought about. ... In the said water they are made as in an artificial vessel,
which is a mighty secret" (Mylius, Phil, ref., p. 245). "The Philosophical vessel is
their water" (ibid., p. 33). This saying comes from de Hoghelande's treatise in
Theatr. chem., I, p. 199. There we find: "Sulphur also is called by Lully the vessel
of Nature," and Haly's description of the vessel as "ovum." The egg is content and
container at once. The vas naturale is the aqua permanens and the "vinegar" of
the Philosophers. ("Aurora consurgens," Part II, Art. aurif., I, p. 203.)

54 Caesarius of Heisterbach, Dialogue on Miracles, trans. Scott and Bland, Dist. I,
chs. XXXII and XXXIV.

55 in Olympiodorus the transforming vessel is the "spherical phial" or Spyavov
kvkXikop (circular apparatus). (Berthelot, II, iv, 44.) "The spagiric vessel is to be
made after the likeness of the natural vessel. For we see that all heaven and the
elements have the likeness of a spherical body" (Dorn, Theatr. chem., I, p. 430).
"The end of all this master-work is, that the Philosophic Mercury be placed in the
heavenly sphere" (ibid, p. 499). Trevisanus calls the vessel the rotundum cubile,
"round bridal bed" ("Liber de alchemia," Theatr. chem., I, p. 790).

66 "Congeries," Theatr. chem., I, pp. 574L 57 Ibid., IV, p. 691.

58 "Nor is any other to be sought after in all the world." The Pelican is a dis-
tilling vessel, but the distillate, instead of dripping into the receiver, runs back
into the belly of the retort. We could take this as illustrating the process of con-
scious realization and the reapplication of conscious insights to the unconscious.
"It restored their former security of life to those once near to death," the author
says of the Pelican, which, as we know, is an allegory of Christ.

59 Cf. Psychology and Alchemy, par. 167, n. 44. [Also "Paracelsus as a Spiritual
Phenomenon," fig. B7.]



37 8 He comments: "A is the inside, as it were the origin and
source from which the other letters flow, and likewise the final
goal to which all the others flow back, as rivers flow into the
ocean or into the great sea." This explanation is enough to show
that the vessel is nothing else but a mandala, symbolizing the
self or the higher Adam with his four emanations (like Horus
with his four sons). The author calls it the "Septenarius magicus
occultus" (the hidden magic number, seven). 60 Likewise Maria

the Prophetess says: "The Philosophers teach everything except
the Hermetic vessel, because that is divine and is hidden from the
Gentiles by the Lord's wisdom; and they who know it not,
know not the true method, because of their ignorance of the
vessel of Hermes." Theobald de Hoghelande adds: "Senior says
that the vision thereof is more to be sought after than [knowl-
edge of] the Scriptures." Maria the Prophetess says: "This is the
vessel of Hermes, which the Stoics hid, and it is no nigromantic
vessel, but is the measure of thy fire [mensura ignis tui]." 61

60 That is, counting the letters F and G (not included in the diagram), which
signify Above and Below.

61 Art. aurif., I, p. 324; Theatr. chem., I, p. 199; Art. aurif., I, p. 323.



379 It is clear from these quotations that the vessel had a great
and unusual significance. 62 Philalethes, summing up the innu-
merable synonyms for Mercurius, says that Mercurius is not
only the key to the alchemical art, and "that two-edged sword
in the hand of the cherub who guards the way to the tree of
life," but also "our true, hidden vessel, the Philosophic garden,
wherein our Sun rises and sets." 63 This helps us to understand,
more or less, the strange advice given by Johannes de Rupescissa:
"Have a vessel made after the manner of a cherub, which is the
figure of God, and have six wings, after the fashion of six arms,
turning back on themselves; and above, a round head . . . and
put within this vessel the said burning water," etc. 64 The defini-
tion of the cherub as "the figure of God" suggests that Ru-
pescissa is referring here to the vision of Ezekiel, which was
arranged in such a way that a horizontal section through it
would produce a mandala divided into four parts. This, as I
have already mentioned, is equivalent to the squaring of the
circle, from which, according to one alchemical recipe, the ves-
sel should be constructed. The mandala signifies the human or
divine self, the totality or vision of God, as in this case is quite
clear. Naturally a recipe of this sort can only be understood
"philosophically," that is psychologically. It then reads: make
the Hermetic vessel out of your psychic wholeness and pour into
it the aqua permanens, or aqua doctrinae, one of whose syno-
nyms is the vinum ardens (cf. Rupescissa's "burning water").
This would be a hint that the adept should "inwardly digest"
and transform himself through the alchemical doctrine.

3 8 In this connection we can also understand what the Aurora
consurgens (Part II) means when it speaks of the vas naturale
as the matrix: it is the "One in which there are three things,
namely water, air, and fire. They are three glass alembics, in
which the son of the Philosophers is begotten. Therefore they
have named it tincture, blood, and egg.*' 65 The three alembics
are an allusion to the Trinity. That this is in fact so can be seen
from the illustration on page 249 of the 1588 edition of Pandora,
where, beside the three alembics immersed in a great cooking-
pot, there stands the figure of Christ, with blood pouring from

62 Cf. Psychology and Alchemy, par. 338. 63 Mus. herm., p. 770.

64 La Vertu et la propriete de la quinte essence (1581), p. 26.

65 Art. aurif., I, p. 203.



the lance wound in his breast ("flumina de ventre Christi"!). 66
The round Hermetic vessel in which the mysterious transforma-
tion is accomplished is God himself, the (Platonic) world-soul
and man's own wholeness. It is, therefore, another counterpart
of the Anthropos, and at the same time the universe in its
smallest and most material form. So it is easy to see why the first
attempts to construct a model of the atom took the planetary
system as a prototype.

381 The quaternity is an organizing schema par excellence,
something like the crossed threads in a telescope. It is a system
of co-ordinates that is used almost instinctively for dividing up
and arranging a chaotic multiplicity, as when we divide up the
visible surface of the earth, the course of the year, or a collec-
tion of individuals into groups, 67 the phases of the moon, the
temperaments, elements, alchemical colours, and so on. Thus,
when we come upon a quaternio among the Gnostics, we find in
it an attempt, more or less conscious, to organize the chaotic
medley of numinous images that poured in upon them. As we
have seen, the arrangement took a form that derives from the
primitive cross-cousin marriage, namely the marriage quater-
nio. 68 This differs from the primitive form in that the sister-
exchange marriage has sloughed off its biological character, the
sister's husband no longer being the wife's brother but another
close relative (such as the wife's father in the Moses Quaternio),
or even a stranger. The loss of the cousin- and brother-attribute
is compensated as a rule by magical qualities, such as more
exalted rank, magical powers, and the like, both in the case of
the husband's sister and the wife's brother. That is to say, an
anima-animus projection takes place. This modification brings
with it a great cultural advance, for the very fact of projection
points to a constellation of the unconscious in the husband-wife
relationship, which means that the marriage has become psy-
chologically complicated. It is no longer a state of mere bio-

66 "Paracelsus as a Spiritual Phenomenon," fig. B4.

67 Marriage classes and settlements.

68 "Psychology of the Transference," pars. 433ff. [Cf. Layard, Stone Men of
Malekula, chs. 5 and 6, and "The Incest Taboo and the Virgin Archetype," pp.
266ff.- Editors.]



logical and social coexistence, but is beginning to turn into a
conscious relationship. This happens when the original cross-
cousin marriage becomes obsolete as a result of the further dif-
ferentiation of marriage classes into a six-, eight-, or twelve-class
system. The cause of the activation of the unconscious that goes
hand in hand with this development is the regression of the
endogamous tendency- the "kinship libido"- which can no
longer find adequate satisfaction owing to the increasing
strangeness of the marriage partner. 69

Besides the marriage quaternio, the Gnostics also used the
quaternity of the rivers of Paradise as a means of organizing
their numerous symbols. There are thus two (compensatory)
attempts, in the symbols we have listed, to organize the appar-
ently disconnected images. This accords with our experience of
the series of pictures produced during active imagination and in
chaotic psychic states. In both cases quaternity symbols appear
from time to time. 70 They signify stabilization through order as
opposed to the instability caused by chaos, and have a compensa-
tory meaning.

The four quaternios depicted above are first and foremost an
attempt to arrange systematically the almost limitless wealth of
symbols in Gnosticism and its continuation, alchemy. But such
an arrangement of principles also proves useful for understand-
ing the individual symbolism of modern dreams. The images we
encounter in this field are even more varied, and so confusing
in their complexity that some kind of organizing schema is abso-
lutely essential. As it is advisable to proceed historically, I have
taken the Moses Quaternio as a starting point, because it derives
directly from the primitive schema of the cross-cousin marriage.
Naturally this quaternio has only a paradigmatic significance.
One could base the system just as easily on any other marriage
quaternio, but not on any other quaternity, such as, for instance,
Horus and his four sons. This quaternity is not aboriginal
enough, for it misses out the antagonistic, feminine element. 71

69 "Psychology of the Transference," par. 438.

70 Case material in Psychology and Alchemy, part II. Triadic symbols also occur,
but they are rarer.

71 The Gnostic quaternio is naturally later than the Horus quaternity in point of
time, but psychologically it is older, because in it the feminine element reassumes
its rightful place, as is not the case with the patriarchal Horus quaternio.



It is most important that just the extreme opposites, masculine-
feminine and so on, should appear linked together. That is why
the alchemical pairs of opposites are linked together in qua-
ternities, e.g., warm-cold, dry-moist. Applied to the Moses
Quaternio, the following schema of relationships would result:









384 Whereas the first double pyramid, the Anthropos Quaternio,
corresponds to the Gnostic model, the second one is a construc-
tion derived psychologically from the first, but based on the data
contained in the Biblical text used by the Gnostics. The psycho-
logical reasons for constructing a second quaternio have already
been discussed. That the second must be the "shadow" of the
first is due to the fact that the lower Adam, the mortal man,
possesses a chthonic psyche and is therefore not adequately ex-
pressed by a quaternity supraordinate to him. If he were, he
would be an unsymmetrical figure, just as the higher Adam is
unsymmetrical and has to be complemented by a subordinate
quaternity related to him like his shadow or his darker reflection.

3 8 5 Now just as the Anthropos Quaternio finds its symmetrical
complement in the lower Adam, so the lower Adam is balanced
by the subordinate Shadow Quaternio, constructed after the
pattern of the upper one. The symmetrical complement of the
lower Adam is the serpent. The choice of this symbol is justified
firstly by the well-known association of Adam with the snake:
it is his chthonic daemon, his familiar spirit. Secondly, the snake
is the commonest symbol for the dark, chthonic world of in-
stinct. It may- as frequently happens- be replaced by an equiv-
alent cold-blooded animal, such as a dragon, crocodile, or fish.



But the snake is not just a nefarious, chthonic being; it is also,
as we have already mentioned, a symbol of wisdom, and hence
of light, goodness, and healing. 72 Even in the New Testament
it is simultaneously an allegory of Christ and of the devil, just
as we have seen that the fish was. Similarly the dragon, which
for us has only a negative meaning, has a positive significance
in China, and sometimes in Western alchemy too. The inner
polarity of the snake-symbol far exceeds that of man. It is overt,
whereas man's is partly latent or potential. The serpent sur-
passes Adam in cleverness and knowledge and can outwit him.
She is older than he, and is evidently equipped by God with a
superhuman intelligence, like that son of God who took over
the role of Satan. 73

Just as man culminates above in the idea of a "light" and
good God, so he rests below on a dark and evil principle, tradi-
tionally described as the devil or as the serpent that personifies
Adam's disobedience. And just as we symmetrized man by the
serpent, so the serpent has its complement in the second Naas-
sene quaternio, or Paradise Quaternio. Paradise takes us into
the world of plants and animals. It is, in fact, a plantation or
garden enlivened by animals, the epitome of all the growing
things that sprout out of the earth. As serpens raercurialis, the
snake is not only related to the god of revelation, Hermes, but,
as a vegetation numen, calls forth the "blessed greenness," all
the budding and blossoming of plant life. 74 Indeed, this serpent
actually dwells in the interior of the earth and is the pneuma
that lies hidden in the stone. 75

The symmetrical complement of the serpent, then, is the
stone as representative of the earth. Here we enter a later de-
velopmental stage of the symbolism, the alchemical stage, whose
central idea is the lapis. Just as the serpent forms the lower
opposite of man, so the lapis complements the serpent. It corre-
sponds, on the other hand, to man, for it is not only represented

72 Like, for instance, the Aesculapian and Agathodaimon serpent.

73 Scharf, "Die Gestalt des Satans im Alten Testament," p. 151.

74 "O blessed greenness, which givest birth to all things, whence know that no
vegetable and no fruit appears in the bud but that it hath a green colour. Like-
wise know that the generation of this thing is green, for which reason the
Philosophers have called it a bud." (Ros. phil., Art. aurif., II, p. 220.)

75 Cf. the Ostanes quotation in Zosimos, Psychology and Alchemy, par. 405.



in human form but even has "body, soul, and spirit," is an
homunculus and, as the texts show, a symbol of the self. It is,
however, not a human ego but a collective entity, a collective
soul, like the Indian hiranyagarbha, 'golden seed.' The stone is
the "father-mother" of the metals, an hermaphrodite. Though
it is an ultimate unity, it is not an elementary but a composite
unity that has evolved. For the stone we could substitute all
those "thousand names" which the alchemists devised for their
central symbol, but nothing different or more fitting would have
been said.

388 This choice of symbol, too, is not arbitrary, but is docu-
mented by alchemical literature from the first to the eighteenth
century. The lapis is produced, as we have already seen, from
the splitting and putting together of the four elements, from
the rotundum. The rotundum is a highly abstract, transcendent
idea, which by reason of its roundness 76 and wholeness refers to
the Original Man, the Anthropos.

3 8 9 Accordingly our four double pyramids would arrange them-
selves in a circle and form the well-known uroboros. As the
fifth stage, the rotundum would then be identical with the first;
that is to say, the heavy darkness of the earth, metal, has a secret
relationship to the Anthropos. That is obvious in alchemy, but
occurs also in the history of religion, where the metals grow
from Gayomart's blood. 77 This curious relationship is explained
by the identity of the lowest, most material thing with the high-
est and most spiritual, which we have already met in the inter-
pretation of the serpent as a chthonic and at the same time the
"most spiritual" animal. In Plato the rotundum is the world-
soul and a "blessed God." 78

76 A hint that rotation may be a principle of matter.

77 According to the report of the Damdad-Nashk (Reitzenstein and Schader,
Studien zum antiken Syncretismus aus Iran und Griechenland, p. 18). Gayomart
is the Original Man in the theosophical version of Zarathustra's system. Yima, on
the other hand, is the Original Man of ancient Aryan legend. His name is Yimo
kshaito, 'the shining Yima.' According to the Mainyo-i-Khard, the metals were
created from his body. (Kohut, "Die talmudisch-midraschische Adamssage," pp. 68,
70.) In the Bundahish, Gayomart's body consisted of metals. (Christensen, "Le
Premier Homme et le premier roi dans l'histoire legendaire des Iraniens," p. 21.)
W [Cf. "A Psychological Approach to the Dogma of the Trinity," par. 185. -



39 We shall now try to condense the argument of the previous
chapter and represent it graphically. Vertically arranged, our
schema looks like this:


Christus (J D D Diabolut


In the diagram I have emphasized the point of greatest ten-
sion between the opposites, namely the double significance of
the serpent, which occupies the centre of the system. Being an
allegory of Christ as well as of the devil, it contains and sym-
bolizes the strongest polarity into which the Anthropos falls
when he descends into Physis. The ordinary man has not
reached this point of tension: he has it merely in the uncon-
scious, i.e., in the serpent. 79 In the lapis, the counterpart of man,

79 Most people do not have sufficient range of consciousness to become aware of
the opposites inherent in human nature. The tensions they generate remain for
the most part unconscious, but can appear in dreams. Traditionally, the snake
stands for the vulnerable spot in man: it personifies his shadow, i.e., his weakness
and unconsciousness. The greatest danger about unconsciousness is proneness to
suggestion. The effect of suggestion is due to the release of an unconscious



the opposites are so to speak united, but with a visible seam or
suture as in the symbol of the hermaphrodite. This mars the
idea of the lapis just as much as the all-too-human element mars
Homo sapiens. In the higher Adam and in the rotundum the
opposition is invisible. But presumably the one stands in abso-
lute opposition to the other, and if both are identical as in-
distinguishable transcendental entities, this is one of those
paradoxes that are the rule: a statement about something meta-
physical can only be antinomial.
39 1 The arrangement in the uroboros gives the following





This arrangement shows the stronger tension between an-
thropos-rotundum and serpens on the one hand, and the lesser

dynamic, and the more unconscious this is, the more effective it will be. Hence
the ever-widening split between conscious and unconscious increases the danger
of psychic infection and mass psychosis. With the loss of symbolic ideas the bridge
to the unconscious has broken down. Instinct no longer affords protection against
unsound ideas and empty slogans. Rationality without tradition and without a
basis in instinct is proof against no absurdity.



tension between homo and lapis on the other, expressed by
the distance of the points in question from one another. The
arrows indicate the descent into Physis and the ascent towards
the spiritual. The lowest point is the serpent. The lapis, how-
ever, though of decidedly material nature, is also a spiritual
symbol, while the rotundum connotes a transcendent entity sym-
bolized by the secret of matter and thus comparable to the con-
cept of the atom. The antinomial development of the concepts
is in keeping with the paradoxical nature of alchemy.

The lapis quaternity, which is a product of alchemical
gnosis, brings us to the interesting physical speculations of
alchemy. In the Scrutinium chymicum (1687) of Michael Maier
(1568-1622), there is a picture 80 of the four elements as four
different stages of fire (Plate I).

As the picture shows, the four spheres are filled with fire.
The author comments with the following verses:

Naturae qui imitaris opus, tibi quattuor orbes
Quaerendi, interius quos levis ignis agat.

Imus Vulcanum referat, bene monstret at alter
Mercurium, Lunam tertius orbis habet:

Quartus, Apollo, tuus, naturae auditur et ignis,
Ducat in arte manus ilia catena tuas.

From this we learn that the lowest sphere corresponds to
Vulcan, the earthly (?) fire; the second to Mercurius, the vegeta-
tive life-spirit; the third to the moon, the female, psychic prin-
ciple; and the fourth to the sun, the male, spiritual principle. It
is evident from Maier's commentary that he is concerned on the
one hand with the four elements and on the other with the four
kinds of fire which are responsible for producing different states
of aggregation. His ignis elementalis re et nomine would,
according to its place in the sequence, correspond to Vulcan;
the fire of Mercurius to air; the third fire to water and the
moon; and the fourth, which would correspond to the sun, he
calls "terreus" (earthly). According to Ripley, whom Maier
quotes, the ignis elementalis is the fire "which lights wood"; it
must therefore be the ordinary fire. The sun-fire, on the other
hand, seems to be the fire in the earth, which today we would

80 Emblema XVII, p. 49.



call "volcanic," and corresponds to the solid state of aggrega-
tion ("terreus"). We thus get the following series:


ignis mundi intelligibilis = ignis naturalis 82 =

ignis caelestis - ignis innaturalis 83 =

ignis elementaris - ignis contra naturam M =

ignis infernalis 81 = ignis elementalis =


ignis terreus = Sulfura et Mercurii = Sun (Apollo) = earth
ignis aqueus = aquae = Moon (Luna) = water

ignis aerius = dracones = Mercurius = air

ignis elementalis = ignis elementalis = Ordinary fire - fire
re et nomine (Vulcan)


= solid
= liquid
= gas
= flame

394 The remarkable thing about this paralleling of states of
aggregation with different kinds of fire is that it amounts to a
kind of phlogiston theory - not, of course, explicit, but clearly
hinted at: fire is peculiar to all the states of aggregation and is
therefore responsible for their constitution. This idea is old 85
and can be found as early as the Turba, where Dardaris says:
"The sulphurs are four souls [animae] which were hidden in
the four elements." 86 Here the active principle (anima) is not
fire, but sulphur. The idea, however, is the same, namely that
the elements or states of aggregation can be reduced to a com-
mon denominator. Today we know that the factor common to
antagonistic elements is molecular movement, and that the states

81 Vigenere comments: "The intelligible fire of the world: is all light. The heavenly
fire: partakes of heat and light. The elemental fire: less in light, heat, and glow.
The infernal fire: opposed to the intelligible, of heat and burning without any
light." ("De igne et sale," Theatr. chem., VI, p. 39.) [Cf. supra, par. 203.]

82 "Is present in everything." 83 "The heat of ashes and baths."

84 "Tortures bodies, is the dragon." 85 The oldest source is Heraclitus.

86 Turba, ed. by Ruska, Sermo XLIII, p. 149.


I. The Four Elements
From Michael Maier, Scrutinium chymicum (1687)


of aggregation correspond to different degrees of this move-
ment. Molecular movement in its turn corresponds to a certain
quantum of energy, so that the common denominator of the
elements is energy. One of the stepping-stones to the modern
concept of energy is Stahl's phlogiston theory, 87 which is based
on the alchemical premises discussed above. We can see in them,
therefore, the earliest beginnings of a theory of energy. 88

The phlogiston theory adumbrated by the alchemists did
not get as far as that, but it points unmistakably in that direc-
tion. Moreover, all the mathematical and physical elements
from which a theory of energy could have been constructed were
known in the seventeenth century. Energy is an abstract con-
cept which is indispensable for exact description of the be-
haviour of bodies in motion. In the same way bodies in motion
can only be apprehended with the help of the system of space-
time co-ordinates. Wherever movement is established, it is done
by means of the space-time quaternio, which can be expressed
either by the axiom of Maria, 3 -f- 1, or by the sesquitertian pro-
portion, 3 : 4. This quaternio could therefore replace that of the
four elements, where the unit that corresponds to the time-co-
ordinate, or the fourth in the alchemical series of elements, is
characterized by the fact that one element has an exceptional
position, like fire or earth. 89

The exceptional position of one of the factors in a quater-
nity can also be expressed by its duplex nature. For instance,
the fourth of the rivers of Paradise, the Euphrates, signifies the
mouth through which food goes in and prayers go out, as well
as the Logos. In the Moses Quaternio, the wife of Moses plays
the double role of Zipporah and of the Ethiopian woman. If
we construct a quaternity from the divine equivalents of Maier's

87 G. E. Stahl (1660-1734) supposed that all combustible (i.e., oxidizable) sub-
stances contain an igneous principle. It was assumed to be weightless, or even to
possess a negative weight. Cf. H. E. Fierz-David, Die Entwicklungsgeschichte der
Chemie, pp. 1481".

88 Psychologically, of course, the primitive idea of mana is very much older, but
here we are talking of scientific concepts. The sulphur = anima equation still con-
tains a trace of the original mana theory. Earlier, mana was characteristically mis-
understood as animism.

89 Fire as spiritual, the other elements material; earth unmoving, the others



four elements- Apollo, Luna, Mercurius, Vulcan- we get a mar-
riage quaternio with a brother-sister relationship:




Mercurius duplex

In alchemy Mercurius is male-female and frequently appears
as a virgin too. This characteristic (3 + l > or 3 : 4) * s a ^ so appar-
ent in the space-time quaternio:





If we look at this quaternio from the standpoint of the
three-dimensionality of space, then time can be conceived as a
fourth dimension. But if we look at it in terms of the three
qualities of time- past, present, future- then static space, in
which changes of state occur, must be added as a fourth term.
In both cases, the fourth represents an incommensurable Other
that is needed for their mutual determination. Thus we measure
space by time and time by space. The Other, the fourth, corre-
sponds in the Gnostic quaternities to the fiery god, "the fourth
by number," to the dual wife of Moses (Zipporah and the Ethi-
opian woman), to the dual Euphrates (river and Logos), to the
fire 90 in the alchemical quaternio of elements, to Mercurius
duplex in Maier's quaternio of gods, and in the "Christian

90 Bohme calls the "fire of Nature" the "fourth form.
De signatura rerum (1682), p. 279.


'Tabula principiorum,"


Quaternity"- if such an expression be permitted 91 - to Mary or
the devil. These two incompatible figures are united in the
Mercurius duplex of alchemy. 92

The space-time quaternio is the archetypal sine qua non for
any apprehension of the physical world- indeed, the very pos-
sibility of apprehending it. It is the organizing schema par excel-
lence among the psychic quaternities. In its structure it cor-
responds to the psychological schema of the functions. 93 The
3 : 1 proportion frequently occurs in dreams and in spontaneous

A modern parallel to the diagram of quaternities arranged
on top of one another (cf. par. 390), coupled with the idea of
ascent and descent, can be found among the illustrations to my
paper on mandala pictures. 94 The same idea also appears in
the pictures relating to a case described there at some length,
and dealing with vibrations that formed "nodes." 95 Each of
these nodes signified an outstanding personality, as was true
also of the picture in the first case. A similar motif may well
underlie the representation of the Trinity here appended
(Plate II), from the manuscript of a treatise by Joachim of
Flora. 96

91 The doctrine of Sabellius (beginning of the 2nd cent.) concerning the preworldly
Monad, the "silent and unacting God" and its three prosopa (modes of manifesta-
tion), calls for further investigation, as it bequeathed to posterity the first begin-
nings of a quaternary view of the Deity. Thus Joachim of Flora makes the follow-
ing accusation against Peter Lombard: "Quod in suis dixit Sententiis, quoniam
quaedam suraraa res est Pater et Filius et Spiritus Sanctus et ilia non est generans,
neque genita, neque procedens: unde asserit quod ille non tarn Trinitatem, quam
quaternitatem astruebat in Deo, videlicet tres personas, et illam communem
essentiam quasi quartam." (As he [Peter] says in his Book of Sentences, For a cer-
tain supreme Something is Father, Son, and Holy Ghost, and It neither begets, nor
is begotten, nor proceeds. On this basis Joachim asserts that the Lombard ascribed
not Trinity, but Quaternity to God, that is to say, three Persons, and that common
Something as a fourth). (Fourth Lateran Council, 1215. Decrees, Cap. 2; Denzinger
and Bannwart, Enchiridion, p. 190.) Cf. "A Psychological Approach to the Dogma
of the Trinity," pars. 243ff.

92 cf <

93 The three relatively differentiated functions and one undifferentiated, "inferior"
function. Cf. Psychological Types, and the diagrams in Jacobi, The Psychology of
C. G. Jung.

94 "A Study in the Process of Individuation," fig. 2, p. 309.

95 Ibid., Picture 3 and accompanying text.

96 Zurich Central Library, Graphics Collection, B x 606.



400 1 would like, in conclusion, to mention the peculiar theory
of world creation in the Clementine Homilies. In God, pneuma
and soma are one. When they separate, pneuma appears as the
Son and "archon of the future Aeon," but soma, actual sub-
stance (ovma) or matter (vkrj), divides into four, corresponding to
the four elements (wh;ch were always solemnly invoked at
initiations). From the mixing of the four parts there arose the
devil, the "archon of this Aeon," and the psyche of this world.
Soma had become psychized {liixpvxov): "God rules this world
as much through the devil as through the Son, for both are in his
hands." 97 God unfolds himself in the world in the form of
syzygies (paired opposites), such as heaven/earth, day/night,
male /female, etc. The last term of the first series is the Adam/
Eve syzygy. At the end of this fragmentation process there fol-
lows the return to the beginning, the consummation of the
universe (rtkev-rq tw iravruv) through purification and annihila-
tion. 98

i 01 Anyone who knows alchemy can hardly avoid being struck

by the likeness which pseudo-Clement's theory bears to the basic
conceptions of the alchemists, if we disregard its moral aspects.
Thus we have the "hostile brothers," Christ and the devil, who
were regarded as brothers in the Jewish-Christian tradition; the
tetrameria into four parts or elements; the paired opposites and
their ultimate unity; the parallel of the lapis and Mercurius
with Christ and, because of the snake or dragon symbolism, also
with the devil; and finally, the figure of Mercurius duplex and
of the lapis, which unites the opposites indivisibly in itself.

42 If we look back over the course our argument has taken, we
see at the beginning of it two Gnostic quaternities, one of which
is supraordinate, and the other subordinate, to man, namely the
"Positive Moses" or Anthropos Quaternio, and the Paradise
Quaternio. 99 It is probably no accident that Hippolytus men-

97 Harnack, Dogmengeschichte , I, p. 334.

98 Condensed from the reconstruction by Uhlhorn, in Realencyklopddie fur
Protestantische Theologie und Kirche, ed. by Hauck, IV, pp. 173ft.

99 To avoid misunderstandings I would like to emphasize that "Paradise" is used
here not in the metaphorical sense, as "future heaven" or the Abode of the
Blessed, but in the sense of the earthly Garden of Eden.


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II. The Trinity
From a manuscript by Joachim of Flora


tions precisely these two quaternities, or that the Naassenes
knew only these, for the position of man is, in their system,
closely connected with the higher Adam but is separated from
the chthonic world of plants and animals, namely Paradise. Only
through his shadow has he a relationship to the serpent with its
dual meaning. This situation is altogether characteristic of the
age of Gnosticism and early Christianity. Man in those days was
close to the "kingless [i.e., independent] race," that is, to the
upper quaternity, the kingdom of heaven, and looked upward.
But what begins above does not rise higher, but ends below.
Thus we felt impelled to symmetrize the lower Adam of the
Naassenes by a Shadow Quaternio, for just as he cannot ascend
direct to the higher Adam- since the Moses Quaternio lies in
between- so we have to assume a lower, shadowy quaternity
corresponding to the upper one, lying between him and the
lower principle, the serpent. This operation was obviously un-
known in the Gnostic age, because the unsymmetrical upward
trend seemed to disturb nobody, but rather to be the very thing
desired and "on the programme." If, therefore, we insert be-
tween Man and Serpent a quaternity not mentioned in the
texts, we do so because we can no longer conceive of a psyche
that is oriented exclusively upwards and that is not balanced by
an equally strong consciousness of the lower man. This is a
specifically modern state of affairs and, in the context of Gnostic
thinking, an obnoxious anachronism that puts man in the centre
of the field of consciousness where he had never consciously
stood before. Only through Christ could he actually see this
consciousness mediating between God and the world, and by
making the person of Christ the object of his devotions he gradu-
ally came to acquire Christ's position as mediator. Through the
Christ crucified between the two thieves man gradually attained
knowledge of his shadow and its duality. This duality had al-
ready been anticipated by the double meaning of the serpent.
Just as the serpent stands for the power that heals as well as
corrupts, so one of the thieves is destined upwards, the other
downwards, and so likewise the shadow is on one side regrettable
and reprehensible weakness, on the other side healthy instinc-
tivity and the prerequisite for higher consciousness.

Thus the Shadow Quaternio that counterbalances man's



position as mediator only falls into place when that position has
become sufficiently real for him to feel his consciousness of him-
self or his own existence more strongly than his dependence on
and governance by God. Therefore, if we complement the up-
ward-tending pneumatic attitude that characterizes the early
Christian and Gnostic mentality by adding its opposite counter-
part, this is in line with the historical development. Man's
original dependence on a pneumatic sphere, to which he clung
like a child to its mother, was threatened by the kingdom of
Satan. From him the pneumatic man was delivered by the Re-
deemer, who broke the gates of hell and deceived the archons;
but he was bound to the kingdom of heaven in exactly the
same degree. He was separated from evil by an abyss. This
attitude was powerfully reinforced by the immediate expecta-
tion of the Second Coming. But when Christ did not reappear,
a regression was only to be expected. When such a great hope is
dashed and such great expectations are not fulfilled, then the
libido perforce flows back into man and heightens his conscious-
ness of himself by accentuating his personal psychic processes;
in other words, he gradually moves into the centre of his field
of consciousness. This leads to separation from the pneumatic
sphere and an approach to the realm of the shadow. Accordingly,
man's moral consciousness is sharpened, and, as a parallel to this,
his feeling of redemption becomes relativized. The Church has
to exalt the significance and power of her ritual in order to put
limits to the inrush of reality. In this way she inevitably becomes
a "kingdom of this world." The transition from the Anthropos
to the Shadow Quaternio illustrates an historical development
which led, in the eleventh century, to a widespread recognition
of the evil principle as the world creator.

404 The serpent and its chthonic wisdom form the turning-point
of the great drama. The Paradise Quaternio with the lapis, that
comes next, brings us to the beginnings of natural science
(Roger Bacon, 1214-94; Albertus Magnus, 1193-1280; and the
alchemists), whose main trend differs from the pneumatic not by
180 but only by 90 - that is to say, it cuts across the spiritual
attitude of the Church and is more an embarrassment for faith
than a contradiction of it.

45 From the lapis, i.e., from alchemy, the line leads direct to



the quaternio of alchemical states of aggregation, which, as we
have seen, is ultimately based on the space-time quaternio. The
latter comes into the category of archetypal quaternities and
proves, like these, to be an indispensable principle for organiz-
ing the sense-impressions which the psyche receives from bodies
in motion. Space and time form a psychological a priori, an
aspect of the archetypal quaternity which is altogether indis-
pensable for acquiring knowledge of physical processes.

The development from the Shadow to the Lapis Quaternio
illustrates the change in man's picture of the world during the
course of the second millennium. The series ends with the con-
cept of the rotundum, or of rotation as contrasted with the static
quality of the quaternity, which, as we have said, proves to be
of prime importance for apprehending reality. The rise of scien-
tific materialism connected with this development appears on
the one hand as a logical consequence, on the other hand as a
deification of matter. This latter aspect is based, psychologically,
on the fact that the rotundum coincides with the archetype of
the Anthropos.

With this insight the ring of the uroboros closes, that symbol
of the opus circulare of Nature as well as of the "Art."

Our quaternio series could also be expressed in the form of
an equation, where A stands for the initial state (in this case the
Anthropos) and for the end state, and BCD for intermediate
states. The formations that split off from them are denoted in
each case by the small letters abed. With regard to the con-
struction of the formula, we must bear in mind that we are con-
cerned with the continual process of transformation of one and
the same substance. This substance, and its respective state of
transformation, will always bring forth its like; thus A will pro-
duce a and B b; equally, b produces B and c C. It is also assumed
that a is followed by b and that the formula runs from left to
right. These assumptions are legitimate in a psychological

Naturally the formula cannot be arranged in linear fashion



but only in a circle, which for that reason moves to the right.
A produces its like, a. From a the process advances by contin-
gence to b, which in turn produces B. The transformation turns
rightwards with the sun; that is, it is a process of becoming con-
scious, as is already indicated by the splitting (discrimination)
of A B C D each time into four qualitatively discrete units. 100
Our scientific understanding today is not based on a quaternity
but on a trinity of principles (space, time, causality). 101 Here,
however, we are moving not in the sphere of modern scientific
thinking, but in that of the classical and medieval view of the
world, which up to the time of Leibniz recognized the principle
of correspondence and applied it naively and unreflectingly.
In order to give our judgment on ^-expressed by abc- the char-
acter of wholeness, we must supplement our time-conditioned
thinking by the principle of correspondence or, as I have called
it, synchronicity. 102 The reason for this is that our description
of Nature is in certain respects incomplete and accordingly ex-
cludes observable facts from our understanding or else formu-
lates them in an unjustifiably negative way, as for instance in
the paradox of "an effect without a cause." 103 Our Gnostic
quaternity is a naive product of the unconscious and therefore
represents a psychic fact which can be brought into relationship
with the four orienting functions of consciousness; for the
rightward movement of the process is, as I have said, the expres-
sion of conscious discrimination 104 and hence an application of
the four functions that constitute the essence of a conscious
410 The whole cycle necessarily returns to its beginning, and
does so at the moment when D, in point of contingence the
state furthest removed from A, changes into a 3 by a kind of
enantiodromia. We thus have:

100 Corresponding to the phylokrinesis. [Cf. supra, pars. 118, 133.]
101 1 am not counting the space-time continuum of modern physics.

102 Cf. "Synchronicity: An Acausal Connecting Principle."

103 [Jeans, Physics and Philosophy, pp. 127, 151.- Editors.]

104 The immediate cause is the rightward movement of our writing. The right, so
to speak, is ruled by conscious reason: the right is "right" in all senses (upright,
downright, forthright, etc.). The left is the side of the heart, the emotions, where
one is affected by the unconscious.



63 d

c 8 a 3 = A = a c

\ / \ /

d 3 b




d>2 b\

/ \ / \

2 C2 = C = Ci i

\ / \ /

The formula reproduces exactly the essential features of the
symbolic process of transformation. It shows the rotation of the
mandala, 105 the antithetical play of complementary (or com-
pensatory) processes, then the apocatastasis, i.e., the restoration
of an original state of wholeness, which the alchemists expressed
through the symbol of the uroboros, and finally the formula
repeats the ancient alchemical tetrameria, 106 which is implicit


/ \

in the fourfold structure of unity: A = a c. What the for-

\ /


mula can only hint at, however, is the higher plane that is
reached through the process of transformation and integration.
The "sublimation" or progress or qualitative change consists in
an unfolding of totality into four parts four times, which means
nothing less than its becoming conscious. When psychic con-
tents are split up into four aspects, it means that they have been
subjected to discrimination by the four orienting functions of
consciousness. Only the production of these four aspects makes
a total description possible. The process depicted by our for-
mula changes the originally unconscious totality into a conscious
one. The Anthropos A descends from above through his Shadow
B into Physis C ( = serpent), and, through a kind of crystalliza-
tion process D ( = lapis) that reduces chaos to order, rises again

105 Cf. "On Mandala Symbolism," figs. 19, 21, 37, 60.

106 Cf. Psychology and Alchemy, pars. 189 and sogf., in relation to the four

regimina and dispositiones.



to the original state, which in the meantime has been trans-
formed from an unconscious into a conscious one. Consciousness
and understanding arise from discrimination, that is, through
analysis (dissolution) followed by synthesis, as stated in sym-
bolical terms by the alchemical dictum: "Solve et coagula" (dis-
solve and coagulate). The correspondence is represented by the
identity of the letters a, a 1} a 2 , a z , and so on. That is to say, we
are dealing all the time with the same factor, which in the for-
mula merely changes its place, whereas psychologically its name
and quality change too. At the same time it becomes clear that
the change of place is always an enantiodromian change of situa-
tion, corresponding to the complementary or compensatory
changes in the psyche as a whole. It was in this way that the
changing of the hexagrams in the / Ching was understood by
the classical Chinese commentators. Every archetypal arrange-
ment has its own numinosity, as is apparent from the very
names given to it. Thus a to d is the "kingless race," i to d x
is the Shadow Quaternio, which is annoying, because it stands
for the all-too-human human being (Nietzsche's "Ugliest
Man"), 107 a 2 to d 2 is "Paradise," which speaks for itself, and
finally a 3 to d 3 is the world of matter, whose numinosity in the
shape of materialism threatens to suffocate our world. What
changes these correspond to in the history of the human mind
over the last two thousand years I need hardly specify in detail.
411 The formula presents a symbol of the self, for the self is not
just a static quantity or constant form, but is also a dynamic
process. In the same way, the ancients saw the imago Dei in man
not as a mere imprint, as a sort of lifeless, stereotyped impres-
sion, but as an active force. The four transformations represent
a process of restoration or rejuvenation taking place, as it were,
inside the self, and comparable to the carbon-nitrogen cycle in
the sun, when a carbon nucleus captures four protons (two of
which immediately become neutrons) and releases them at the
end of the cycle in the form of an alpha particle. The carbon
nucleus itself comes out of the reaction unchanged, "like the
Phoenix from the ashes." 108 The secret of existence, i.e., the
existence of the atom and its components, may well consist in a
continually repeated process of rejuvenation, and one comes to

107 [Cf. Thus Spake Zarathustra, trans, by Common, pp. 303^.- Editors.]

108 Gamow, Atomic Energy, p. 72.



similar conclusions in trying to account for the numinosity of
the archetypes.

4>2 I am fully aware of the extremely hypothetical nature of this
comparison, but I deem it appropriate to entertain such reflec-
tions even at the risk of being deceived by appearances. Sooner
or later nuclear physics and the psychology of the unconscious
will draw closer together as both of them, independently of one
another and from opposite directions, push forward into tran-
scendental territory, the one with the concept of the atom, the
other with that of the archetype.

4!3 The analogy with physics is not a digression since the sym-
bolical schema itself represents the descent into matter and
requires the identity of the outside with the inside. Psyche can-
not be totally different from matter, for how otherwise could it
move matter? And matter cannot be alien to psyche, for how else
could matter produce psyche? Psyche and matter exist in one
and the same world, and each partakes of the other, otherwise
any reciprocal action would be impossible. If research could
only advance far enough, therefore, we should arrive at an ulti-
mate agreement between physical and psychological concepts.
Our present attempts may be bold, but I believe they are on the
right lines. Mathematics, for instance, has more than once
proved that its purely logical constructions which transcend all
experience subsequently coincided with the behaviour of things.
This, like the events I call synchronistic, points to a profound
harmony between all forms of existence.

44 Since analogy formation is a law which to a large extent gov-
erns the life of the psyche, we may fairly conjecture that our-
to all appearances- purely speculative construction is not a new
invention, but is prefigured on earlier levels of thought. Gen-
erally speaking, these prefigurations can be found in the multi-
farious stages of the mystic transformation process, as well as in
the different degrees of initiation into the mysteries. We also
find them in the classical as well as Christian trichotomy con-
sisting of the pneumatic, the psychic, and the hylic. One of the
most comprehensive attempts of this kind is the sixteenfold
schema in the Book of Platonic Tetralogies. 109 I have dealt with

109 An anonymous Harranite treatise entitled "Platonis liber quartorum," printed
in Theatr. chem., V (1622), pp. 1 i4ff.; conjectured to have been translated from the
Arabic in the 12 th cent.



this in detail in Psychology and Alchemy and can therefore limit
myself here to the basic points. The schematization and analogy-
formation start from four first principles: 1. the work of nature,
2. water, 3. composite natures, 4. the senses. Each of these four
starting-points has three stages of transformation, which to-
gether with the first stage make sixteen parts in all. But besides
this fourfold horizontal division of each of the principles, each
stage has its correspondence in the vertical series:






Opus naturalium


Naturae compositae



Divisio naturae


Naturae discretae

Discretio intellectualis









Aetheris simplicioris


45 This table of correspondences shows the various aspects of
the opus alchemicum, which was also bound up with astrology
and the so-called necromantic arts. This is evident from the use
of significant numbers and the invocation or conjuring up of the
familiar spirit. Similarly, the age-old art of geomancy no is based
on a sixteen-part schema: four central figures (consisting of Sub-
or Superiudex, Iudex, and two Testes), four nepotes (grand-
sons), four sons, four mothers. (The series is written from right
to left.) These figures are arranged in a schema of astrological
houses, but the centre that is empty in the horoscope is replaced
by a square containing the four central figures.

416 Athanasius Kircher 111 produced a quaternity system that is
worth mentioning in this connection:

I. Unum = Monas monadike = Deus = Radix omnium = Mens sim-
plicissima = Divina essentia = Exemplar divinum.

(The One = First Monad r= God = Root of all things = Simplest
understanding = Divine Essence = Divine Exemplar.)

II. 10 (1 + 2 + 3+4 = I0 ) - Secunda Monas = dekadike = Dyas =:
Mundus intellectualis = Angelica intelligentia = Compositio ab uno et
altero = i.e., ex oppositis.

no Fludd, "De animae intellectualis scientia seu Geomantia," Fasciculus geoman-
ticus (1687), pp. 35f.

in Arithmologia, sive De abditis numerorum mysteriis (1665), PP- 26off. I have
to thank Dr. M.-L. von Franz for calling my attention to this.



(. . . Second Monad = tenth = duality = spiritual world = intel-
ligence of the angels = composition of the One and the Other = i.e., from

III. io 2 = ioo = Tertia Monas = hekatontadike = Anima = Intelli-

(. . . Third Monad =z hundredth = soul = intelligence.)

IV. 10 s = 1000 = Quarta Monas = chiliadike = Omnia sensibilia =
Corpus = ultima et sensibilis Unionum explicatio.

(. . . Fourth Monad = thousandth = all concrete things = body =
final and concrete unfolding of unities.)

Kircher comments that whereas the senses affect only the
body, the first three unities are objects of understanding. So if
one wants to understand what is perceived by the senses (sensi-
bilia), this can only be done through the mind. "Everything
perceived by the senses must therefore be elevated to reason or to
the intelligence or to absolute unity. When in this way we shall
have brought the absolute unity back to the infinitely simple
from all perceptible, rational or intellectual multiplicity, then
nothing more remains to be said, and then the Stone too is not
so much a Stone as no Stone, but everything is the simplest unity.
And even as the absolute unity of that concrete and rational
Stone has God for an exemplar, so likewise its intellectual unity
is the intelligence. You can see from these unities how the per-
ceiving senses go back to reason, and reason to intelligence, and
intelligence to God, where in a perfect cycle is found the begin-
ning and the consummation." 112 That Kircher should choose
the lapis as an example of concrete things and of God's unity is
obvious enough in terms of alchemy, because the lapis is the ar-
canum that contains God or that part of God which is hidden in

Kircher's system shows certain affinities with our series of
quaternios. Thus the Second Monad is a duality consisting of
opposites, corresponding to the angelic world that was split by
Lucifer's fall. Another significant analogy is that Kircher con-
ceives his schema as a cycle set in motion by God as the prime
cause, and unfolding out of itself, but brought back to God
again through the activity of human understanding, so that the
end returns once more to the beginning. This, too, is an analogy

112 ibid., p. 266. [The next sentence is revised and transposed from par. 418. (2nd



of our formula. The alchemists were fond of picturing their
opus as a circulatory process, as a circular distillation or as the
uroboros, the snake biting its own tail, and they made innumer-
able pictures of this process. Just as the central idea of the lapis
Philosophorum plainly signifies the self, so the opus with its
countless symbols illustrates the process of individuation, the
step-by-step development of the self from an unconscious state
to a conscious one. That is why the lapis, as prima materia,
stands at the beginning of the process as well as at the end. 113
According to Michael Maier, the gold, another synonym for the
self, comes from the opius circulatorium of the sun. This circle is
"the line that runs back upon itself (like the serpent that with
its head bites its own tail), wherein that eternal painter and
potter, God, may be discerned." 114 In this circle, Nature "has
related the four qualities to one another and drawn, as it were,
an equilateral square, since contraries are bound together by
contraries, and enemies by enemies, with the same everlasting
bonds." Maier compares this squaring of the circle to the "homo
quadratus," the four-square man, who "remains himself" come
weal come woe. 115 He calls it the "golden house, the twice-
bisected circle, the four-cornered phalanx, the rampart, the city
wall, the four-sided line of battle." 116 This circle is a magic
circle consisting of the union of opposites, "immune to all

4*9 Independently of Western tradition, the same idea of the
circular opus can be found in Chinese alchemy: "When the
light is made to move in a circle, all the energies of heaven and
earth, of the light and the dark, are crystallized," says the text
of the Golden Flower. 117

420 The opyavov kvk\lk6v, the circular apparatus that assists the cir-
cular process, is mentioned as early as Olympiodorus. 118 Dorn is
of the opinion that the "circular movement of the Physio-
chemists" comes from the earth, the lowest element. For the fire
originates in the earth and transforms the finer minerals and
water into air, which, rising up to the heavens, condenses there

113 Documentation in Psychology and Alchemy, esp. pars. 427, n. 4, and 431.

114 De circulo physico quadrato, p. 16. H5 Ibid., p. 17.
lie Ibid., p. 19.

117 Wilhelm, The Secret of the Golden Flower (1962 edn.), p. 30.

118 Berthelot, Alch. grecs, II, iv, 44.



and falls down again. But during their ascent the volatilized ele-
ments take "from the higher stars male seeds, which they bring
down into the four matrices, the elements, in order to fertilize
them spagyrically." This is the "circular distillation" 119 which
Rupescissa says must be repeated a thousand times. 120
4* 1 The basic idea of ascent and descent can be found in the
Tabula smaragdina, and the stages of transformation have been
depicted over and over again, above all in the Ripley "Scrowle"
and its variants. These should be understood as indirect at-
tempts to apprehend the unconscious processes of individuation
in the form of pictures.

119 "Physica genesis," Theatr. chem., I, p. 391.

120 La Vertu et la propriiti de la quinte essence, p. s6.




422 I have tried, in this book, to elucidate and amplify the vari-
ous aspects of the archetype which it is most important for mod-
ern man to understand- namely, the archetype of the self. By way
of introduction, I described those concepts and archetypes which
manifest themselves in the course of any psychological treat-
ment that penetrates at all deeply. The first of these is the
shadow, that hidden, repressed, for the most part inferior and
guilt-laden personality whose ultimate ramifications reach back
into the realm of our animal ancestors and so comprise the whole
historical aspect of the unconscious. Through analysis of the
shadow and of the processes contained in it we uncover the
anima/animus syzygy. Looked at superficially, the shadow is cast
by the conscious mind and is as much a privation of light as the
physical shadow that follows the body. For this superficial view,
therefore, the psychological shadow with its moral inferiority
might also be regarded as a privation of good. On closer inspec-
tion, however, it proves to be a darkness that hides influential
and autonomous factors which can be distinguished in their own
right, namely anima and animus. When we observe them in full
operation- as the devastating, blindly obstinate demon of opin-
ionatedness in a woman, and the glamorous, possessive, moody,
and sentimental seductress in a man- we begin to doubt whether
the unconscious can be merely the insubstantial comet's tail of
consciousness and nothing but a privation of light and good.

423 If it has been believed hitherto that the human shadow was
the source of all evil, it can now be ascertained on closer investi-
gation that the unconscious man, that is, his shadow, does not
consist only of morally reprehensible tendencies, but also dis-
plays a number of good qualities, such as normal instincts,
appropriate reactions, realistic insights, creative impulses, etc.
On this level of understanding, evil appears more as a distortion,
a deformation, a misinterpretation and misapplication of facts



that in themselves are natural. These falsifications and carica-
tures now appear as the specific effects of anima and animus, and
the latter as the real authors of evil. But we cannot stop even at
this realization, for it turns out that all archetypes spontaneously
develop favourable and unfavourable, light and dark, good and
bad effects. In the end we have to acknowledge that the self is
a complexio oppositorum precisely because there can be no
reality without polarity. We must not overlook the fact that
opposites acquire their moral accentuation only within the
sphere of human endeavour and action, and that we are unable
to give a definition of good and evil that could be considered
universally valid. In other words, we do not know what good
and evil are in themselves. It must therefore be supposed that
they spring from a need of human consciousness and that for
this reason they lose their validity outside the human sphere.
That is to say a hypostasis of good and evil as metaphysical en-
tities is inadmissible because it would deprive these terms of
meaning. If we call everything that God does or allows "good,"
then evil is good too, and "good" becomes meaningless. But
suffering, whether it be Christ's passion or the suffering of the
world, remains the same as before. Stupidity, sin, sickness, old
age, and death continue to form the dark foil that sets off the
joyful splendour of life.

The recognition of anima and animus is a specific experience
that seems to be reserved mostly, or at any rate primarily, for
psychotherapists. Nevertheless, anyone who has a little knowl-
edge of belles-lettres will have no difficulty in forming a picture
of the anima; she is a favourite subject for novelists, particularly
west of the Rhine. 1 Nor is a careful study of dreams always neces-
sary. It is not quite so easy to recognize the woman's animus, for
his name is legion. But anyone who can stand the animosity of
his fellows without being infected by it, and is capable at the
same time of examining it critically, cannot help discovering
that they are possessed. It is, however, more advantageous and
more to the point to subject to the most rigorous scrutiny one's
own moods and their changing influence on one's personality.
To know where the other person makes a mistake is of little
value. It only becomes interesting when you know where you

1 The outstanding example in Swiss literature is Spitteler's Imago. [In English
literature, perhaps Rider Haggard's She.- Editors.]



make the mistake, for then you can do something about it. What
we can improve in others is of doubtful utility as a rule, if,
indeed, it has any effect at all.

425 Although, to begin with, we meet the anima and animus
mostly in their negative and unwelcome form, they are very far
from being only a species of bad spirit. They have, as we have
said, an equally positive aspect. Because of their numinous, sug-
gestive power they have formed since olden times the archetypal
basis of all masculine and feminine divinities and therefore
merit special attention, above all from the psychologist, but also
from thoughtful laymen. As numina, anima and animus work
now for good, now for evil. Their opposition is that of the sexes.
They therefore represent a supreme pair of opposites, not hope-
lessly divided by logical contradiction but, because of the mu-
tual attraction between them, giving promise of union and
actually making it possible. The coniunctio oppositorum en-
gaged the speculations of the alchemists in the form of the
"Chymical Wedding," and those of the cabalists in the form of
Tifereth and Malchuth or God and the Shekhinah, 2 not to speak
of the marriage of the Lamb.

426 The dual being born of the alchemical union of opposites,
the Rebis or Lapis Philosophorum, is so distinctively marked in
the literature that we have no difficulty in recognizing it as a
symbol of the self. Psychologically the self is a union of con-
scious (masculine) and unconscious (feminine). It stands for the
psychic totality. So formulated, it is a psychological concept.
Empirically, however, the self appears spontaneously in the
shape of specific symbols, and its totality is discernible above all
in the mandala and its countless variants. Historically, these
symbols are authenticated as God-images.

427 The anima/animus stage is correlated with polytheism, the
self with monotheism. 3 The natural archetypal symbolism, de-
scribing a totality that includes light and dark, contradicts in
some sort the Christian but not the Jewish or Yahwistic view-
point, or only to a relative degree. The latter seems to be closer
to Nature and therefore to be a better reflection of immediate
experience. Nevertheless, the Christian heresiarchs tried to sail

2 Hurwitz, "Archetypische Motive in der chassidischen Mystik," ch. VI.

3 This thema is the subject of an Oxford dissertation by Amy I. Allenby: A Psy-
chological Study of the Origins of Monotheism.



round the rocks of Manichaean dualism, which was such a dan-
ger to the early Church, in a way that took cognizance of the
natural symbol, and among the symbols for Christ there are
some very important ones which he has in common with the
devil, though this had no influence on dogma.

By far the most fruitful attempts, however, to find suitable
symbolic expressions for the self were made by the Gnostics.
Most of them- Valentinus and Basilides, for instance- were in
reality theologians who, unlike the more orthodox ones, allowed
themselves to be influenced in large measure by natural inner
experience. They are therefore, like the alchemists, a veritable
mine of information concerning all those natural symbols aris-
ing out of the repercussions of the Christian message. At the
same time, their ideas compensate the asymmetry of God pos-
tulated by the doctrine of the privatio boni, exactly like those
well-known modern tendencies of the unconscious to produce
symbols of totality for bridging the gap between the conscious
and the unconscious, which has widened dangerously to the
point of universal disorientation.

I am well aware that this work, far from being complete, is
a mere sketch showing how certain Christian ideas look when
observed from the standpoint of psychological experience. Since
my main concern was to point out the parallelism or the differ-
ence between the empirical findings and our traditional views,
a consideration of the disparities due to time and language
proved unavoidable. This was particularly so in the case of the
fish symbol. Inevitably, we move here on uncertain ground and
must now and then have recourse to a speculative hypothesis
or tentatively- reconstruct a context. Naturally every investi-
gator must document his findings as fully as possible, but he
should also venture an occasional hypothesis even at the risk
of making a mistake. Mistakes are, after all, the foundations
of truth, and if a man does not know what a thing is, it is at
least an increase in knowledge if he knows what it is not.




The items of the bibliography are arranged alphabetically under
two headings: A. Ancient volumes containing collections of alchemi-
cal tracts by various authors; B. General bibliography, including
cross-references to the material in section A. Short titles of the
ancient volumes are printed in capital letters.




ARS CHEMICA, quod sit licita recte exercentibus, probationes doc-
tissimorum iurisconsultorum. . . . Argentorati [Strasbourg], 1566.

Contents quoted in this volume:

i Septem tractatus seu capitula Hermetis Trismegisti aurei

[pp. 7-31; usually referred to as "Tractatus aureus"]
ii Tabula smaragdina [pp. 32-33]

ARTIS AURIFERAE quam chemiam vocant. . . . Basileae [Basel],
[*593]- 2 vols.

Contents quoted in this volume:


i Turba philosophorum [two versions: pp. 1-65, 66-139]

i-a Allegoriae super librum Turbae [pp. 139-45]

ii Aenigmata ex Visione Arislei philosophi et allegoriis sapi-
entum [pp. 146-54; usually referred to as "Visio Arislei"]

iii In Turbam philosophorum exercitationes [pp. 154-82]

iv Aurora consurgens, quae dicitur Aurea hora [pp. 185-246]

v [Zosimus]: Rosinus ad Sarratantam episcopum [pp. 277-319]

vi Maria Prophetissa: Practica ... in artem alchemicam [pp.

3 1 9-24]



vii Tractatulus Aristotelis de practica lapidis philosophici [pp.

3 6l "73]
viii Interpretatio cuiusdam epistolae Alexandri Macedonum

regis [pp. 382-88]

ix Tractatulus Avicennae [pp. 405-37]


x Morienus Romanus: Sermo de transmutatione metallica [pp.

xi Rosarium philosophorum [pp. 204-384]

Mangetus, Joannes Jacobus (ed.). BIBLIOTHECA CHEMICA
CURIOSA, seu Rerum ad alchemiam pertinentium thesaurus in-
structissimus . . . Coloniae Allobrogum [Geneva], 1702. 2 vols.

Contents quoted in this volume:

volume 1

i Allegoriae sapientum supra librum Turbae philosophorum

XXIX distinctiones [pp. 467-79]
ii Turba philosophorum [pp. 445-65; another version, pp.

iii Allegoriae supra librum Turbae [pp. 494-95]

MUSAEUM HERMETICUM reformatum et amplificatum . . .
continens tractatus chimicos XXI praestantissimos . . . Franco-
furti [Frankfurt a. M.], 1678. For translation, see (B) Waite, The
Hermetic Museum.

Contents quoted in this volume:

i [Barcius (F. von Sternberg)]: Gloria mundi, alias Paradysi

tabula [pp. 203-304]
ii Lambspringk: De lapide philosophico figurae et emblemata

^ [PP- 337-72]
iii Sendivogius: Novum lumen chemicum e naturae fonte et

manuali experientia depromptum [pp. 545-600]
iv [Sendivogius:] Novi luminis chemici Tractatus alter de sul-

phure [pp. 601-46]
v Philalethes: Introitus apertus ad occlusum regis palatium

[pp. 647-700]
vi Philalethes: Metallorum metamorphosis [pp. 741-74]



THEATRUM CHEMICUM, praecipuos selectorum auctorum
tractatus . . . continens. Ursellis [Ursel] and Argentorati [Stras-
bourg], 1602-61. 6 vols. (Vols. I- III, Ursel, 1602; Vols. IV-VI,
Strasbourg, 1613, 1622, 1661 respectively.)

Contents quoted in this volume:

volume 1

i Fanianus: De arte metallicae metamorphoseos ad Philo-

ponum [pp. 28-48]
ii Hoghelande: Liber de alchemiae difficultatibus [pp. 121-


iii Dorn: Ars chemistica [pp. 217-54]

iv Dorn: Speculativae philosophiae, gradus septem vel decern

continens [pp. 255-310]
v Dorn: Physica genesis [pp. 367-404]
v-a Dorn: Physica Trismegisti [pp. 405-37]
vi Dorn: Philosophia meditativa [pp. 450-72]
vii Dorn: Philosophia chemica ad meditativam comparata

[pp. 472-5 1 7]
viii Dorn: Congeries Paracelsicae chemicae de transmuta-
tionibus metallorum [pp. 557-646]
ix Bernardus Trevisanus: Liber de alchemia [pp. 773-803]

x Ripley: Duodecim portarum axiomata philosophica [pp.

xi Hollandus: Fragmentum de lapide [pp. 142-46]

xii Dee: Monas hieroglyphica [pp. 218-43]


xiii Aristoteles de perfecto Magisterio [pp. 56-118]


xiv Artefius: Clavis maioris sapientiae [pp. 221-40]
xv Duodecim tractatus de lapide philosophorum [pp. 478-

xvi Beatus: Aurelia occulta philosophorum [pp. 525-81]
xvii Hermetis Trismegisti Tractatus vere aureus de lapide
philosophici secreto [pp. 672-797; usually referred to as
"Tractatus aureus"]




xvii-a Turba philosophorum [pp. 1-57]
xviii Allegoriae sapientum et distinctiones XXIX supra librum
Turbae [pp. 64-100]
xix Platonis liber quartorum [pp. 114-208]
xx Tractatus Aristotelis alchymistae ad Alexandrum Mag-
num de lapide philosophico [pp. 880-92]


xxi Blaise de Vigenere: Tractatus de igne et sale [pp. 1-139]
xxii Collesson: Idea perfecta philosophiae hermeticae [pp.

xxiii Fidelissima et jucunda instructio de arbore solari [pp.

xxiv Grasseus: Area arcani artificiosissimi de summis naturae

mysteriis [pp. 294-381]
xxv [Barchius:] Summa libri quae vocatur Gloria mundi, seu

Tabula comprehensa [pp. 513-17]
xxvi Chartier: Scientia plumbi sacri sapientum [pp. 569-99]


Abarbanel, Isaac (Ishaq Abravanel ben Jehiida). Mashmi'a Ye-
shu'ah ["Proclamation of Salvation"]. (In Hebrew.) Salonica, 1526.

. Ma'yene ha-Yeshu'ah ["Sources of Salvation"]. (In Hebrew.)

Ferrara, 1551.

Abot de Rabbi Nathan. See Nathan.

Adam Scotus. De tripartito tabernaculo. See Migne, P.L., vol. 148,
cols. 609-796.

[Adamantius]. Der Dialog des Adamantius irepi r^ ek Oeov opOys
ttiWcos. Edited by Willem Hendrik van de Sande Bakhuyzen.
(Griechischen Christlichen Schriftsteller.) Leipzig, 1908.

"Aenigmata ex Visione Arislei." See (A) Artis auri ferae, ii.

Ailly, Pierre d' (Petrus de Aliaco). Concordantia astronomie cum
theologia. Concordantia astronomie cum hystorica narratione. Et
elucidarium duarum praecedentium. Venice, 1490.



Albumasar. See Ja'far ibn Muhammad (Abu Ma'shar) al-Balkhi.

Alciati, Andrea. Emblemata. Padua, 1621 (another edn., 1661).

Aliaco, Petrus de. See Ailly, Pierre d\

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In entries relating to the books of the Bible, the numbers in parentheses
indicate the chapter and verse(s) referred to.

Aaron, 107, 228

abaissement du niveau mental, 28,

Abarbanel, Isaac, 74, 107
Abba, Rabbi, 80
Abercius inscription, 73, 89ft, 103,

ablution, 187

Abot de Rabbi Nathan, 113ft

Abraham, 59

Abraham ben Hiyya, Rabbi, 74

Abu Ma'shar/Abu Mansor, see

accentuation, moral, of opposites,

acetum, 160; see also vinegar
Achamoth, see Sophia
act of God, 25
Acts of the Apostles, (2 : 3), 135ft;

(7 : 43). 75"; (17 : 2 9> 30), 19m
Acts of Thomas, see Thomas, Acts

Adam, 199; Adam/Eve syzygy, 254;
carries Eve with him, 206; Christ
and, 39, 197, 232; Eve's birth
from, 205/; first and second, 37;
higher, 197, 214, 232, 237, 240,
248, 255; - , and lower, 227,
233; lower, 244, 255; male/female,
204; mystic, 36; original man/
Anthropos/Archanthropos, 200,
203, 208, 218ft; relation to creator
and creatures, 189; as "rock," 88,
208; second, 201, 204; and ser-
pent, 233, 244/

Adamantius, dialogue of, 54*1

Adamas (arch-man), 208

adamas (steel), 161

Adam Scotus, 100/

adaptation, weak, and emotion, 9

Adar, month of, 119

Adech, 213

Adler, Alfred, 165

Adonis, 121, 199

"Aenigmata ex Visione Arislei,"

126, 12772, 137-38, 142
Aeon: Autopator as, 191; birth from

Kore, 104
aeon, Christian, ix
"aes Hermetis," 156
Aesculapius, serpent of, 245ft
affects, 9; and anima/animus, 16;

feeling-tone, 33
Africa, 96, 175
agape, 90
Agathodaimon, 186; serpent as, 188,

230, 245ft
ages, two, in pseudo-Clement, 55
aggregation, states of, 250/, 257
dyvoia, 191

ayvuxTia, 190-92, 193ft; God's, 194
Ailly, Pierre d', 75ft, 76ft, 77ft, 82,

3> 9 6 > 97 9% n > 99

Aipolos, 216

air, 249

Akathriel, 60

albedo, 148, 235

Albertus Magnus, 7772, 80ft, 87, 256

Albigenses, 150

Albumasar (Ja'far ibn Muhammad
[Abu Ma'shar] al-Balkhi), 75, 76-
78ftft, 80ft, 95ft, 96, 97, 99



alchemy/alchemists, 89 et passim;
beginnings of, 173; Catharism
and, 150; Chinese, 264; and
Christ, 182; Christ-image in, 67;
compensation in, 124; conjunction
of opposites in, 40; dragon in,
120; eagle in, 64/2; fish in, 126/f;
Latin, beginnings of, 87; motive
of, 171; and natural science, 176;
Negroes in, 210; pagan currents
in, 176; phenomenology of sym-
bols in, 179; physical speculations
of, 249/?; quaternio in, 232/f; rise
of, 150; significance of matter in,
66; and "theoria," 179; uncon-
scious in, 142

Alciati, Andrea, 158

alcohol, 225

alembics, three, 241

Alexandria, 89, 104, 15671

Alexius Comnenus, 148

"Allegoriae sapientum supra librum
Turbae," 126

"Allegoriae super librum Turbae,"
12571, 126, 12771

allegories, see symbols

Allenby, Amy Ingeborg, 26871

Almaricus, see Amalric of Bene

Amalric of Bene, 83

ambivalence, 13; of fish symbol,

Ambrose, St., 88, 23572

Amen, 206

Amitabha land, vision of, 15 m

Amon, 78

Amoraim, 8on

Amos, Book of, (5 : 26), 74/

Anacreon, beaker of, 211

analogy formation, 261

analysis, 260

anamnesis, 40, 180

Andrew, St., 89

androgyny, of Christ, 204, 205

angels, 146, 195

Angelus Silesius, 206

Anger, Rudolph, 7471

Ani, Papyrus of, 7672

anima, 8, 10, i%ff, 30/, 187, 266; and
Eros, 14; feeling-value of, 28;
liberty as, 30; Miriam as, 210,
228; novelists and, 267; personi-
fication of unconscious, nn; pos-
session by, 23; see also anima/

anima/animus: appearance of con-
tents, 19; cannot be integrated,
20; effects on ego, 16/; fear of,
33; feeling-value of, 28; as func-
tions, 20; positive aspect, 268;
recognition of, 22, 267; relation
to each other, 15

anima Christiana, 36

anima mundi, 136, 142, 160, 198,

anima rationalis, 38/, 21272

anima rerum, 157-5871

animals, helpful, 145, 186

animosity, 16, 267

animus, 8, 10, 14/f, 30/, 33, 266,
267; and logos, 14, 16, 21; posi-
tive aspect of, 16; see also anima/

annunciation, of Christ-figure, 189

Anthropos, 246, 247, 259; Christ as,
204; figures, ix, 65, 204; Gnostic,
197/; - , names of, 189; and
Hermes, 230; king as, 198; ser-
pent/snake and, 232/; symbol for
God, 195; vessel as counterpart
of, 242; see also Adam; Archan-
thropos; Man, original; Protan-

Anthropos quaternio, 231, 233, 244,

Anthropus primus, Saturn as, 197
Antichrist, ix, 36, 61, 62, 63, 94,
106; astrological origin, 76; astro-
logical prediction of, 99; as half
archetype of self, 44; as King of
the Jews, 7972, 107; Nostradamus
on, 101; problem of, 42/; prophe-
cies of, 109; second, 96, 102; as
shadow of self, 42, 44
antimimon pneuma, 35, 42



Antony, Mark, 144

Anu, 124

Apelles, 75

Apep, 76

Aphrodite, 21, 104, 112, 217

Apocalypse, ix, 36, 90, 105-6, 110;
see also Revelation of St. John

apocatastasis, 40, 169, 259

Apollo, 81, 252

Apollonius of Tyana, 12672

Apophis-serpent, 230

apperception, 169

aqua, 160; abyssi, 215; doctrinae,
159, 180, 185, 187, 188, 215, 241;
permanens, 88, 150, 158, 18772,
235, 23971, 241; roris nostri, 158

Aquarius (?), 82, 87, 91, 92, 93

Aquilo, 100, 125

Arab tradition, fish in, 123

Aratus, 9272

arcane substance/araz/iwm, 152, 157,
159, 160, 163, 18771; artifex as,
155; fishes as, 150; healing power
of, 180; called lapis, 236; mag-
nesia as, 156; in man and with-
out, 162; refers to self, 145

Archanthropos, 197, 203, 209; see
also Adam\ Anthropos; Man, or-
iginal; Protanthropos

Archegonos, 20172

archetic appetite, 133, 134

archetype(s), 8, 16/, et passim; in
art history, 68; assimilation of,
222; autonomous factors, 21; de-
notes completeness, 68; good and
bad effects of, 267; image of in-
stinct, 179; numinosity of, 18472,
196; self as, 167, 169; of the Spirit,
85; totality of, 196; unconscious
organizers of our ideas, 179; see
also anima; animus; brothers,
hostile; Christ; God-man; mar-
riage quaternio; mother, chthon-
ic; mother-son marriage; Re-
deemer; self; shadow; spirit of
gravity; wholeness; wise old man

Archeus, 13372, 213

archon(s): Christ and, 65; demiurge,
190; of future/this Aeon, 254;
Gnostic, 57, 230; Ialdabaoth, 75,
208; Sabaoth, 76

argument, animus and, 15

Aries (f), 7472, 82, 9072, 98, 103;
see also Ram

Arisleus, 143; vision of, 13072; - ,
see also "Aenigmata ex Visione

"Aristoteles de perfecto Magisterio,"

Aristotle, 51

Armilus, 107

Ars chemica, 18772

art, history of, archetype in, 68

Artefius, 13272

Artis aurijerae, 12672, 130/2, 19772,
23872, 24072, 24172

"as if," 203

ascendent, 8272, 148

ascension, 65

Ascension of Isaiah, 57

aspersion, 187

ass, 75/

assimilation, 189; ego/self, 24/; by
projection-making factor, 24

Assumptio Mariae, see Mary

assumptions, 15

Astarte, 112

astrology, 262; Fishes in, 111; Ori-
ental, 93; Saturn in, 75/f

Atargatis, 73, 104, 111, 112, 121

atheism, 109

Athens: Little Metropolis, 91; St.
Paul and, 176, 191

atman, 32, 69, 144, 167, 194, 222

atom, 237, 242, 249, 260

attention, 24

Attis, 213, 21777; as Ichthys, 15272;
"holy shepherd," 8972; polymor-
phous, 199; Shepherd and, 103

Augurellus, Joannes Aurelius, 23271

Augustine, St., 38-40^7172, 46, 49-51,
52, 7272, 7971, 80, 9072, 100, 113,
120, 147, 158, 182

Augustus, 144



Aurelia occulta, 18771

Aurora consurgens, 88tj, 156/1, 22071,
23872, 2 39 n > H 1

aurum nostrum, 127

Authades, 19771

authority, inner, 25-26

autism, 9

autoerotism, projections and, 9

Autogenes, 19771

autonomy: of anima/animus, 20, 28;
of archetypes, 21; of character-
istics of shadow, 8

Autopator, 190/

Autun, 89

avatar, 176

Aztecs, 144


Baal, 119

Baba Bathra, see Talmud

Baba Kamma, see Talmud

Babylon, 121

Babylonian tradition, 124

Bacchus, 199

Bacon, Roger, 87, 97, 256

Bactria, 74

Bahman Yast, 108

Balaam, 59, 117

Balak, 59

baptism, 89, 90, 1 88; see also font

Barabbas, 91

barbel, 122

Barbelo, 195, 19771; Barbelo-Gnosis,

19671, 19771
Bardesanes, 54

Bar-Kuni, see Theodor Bar-Kuni
Baruch, Apocalypse of, 115, 116,

Basil the Great, St., 46-48, 82, 129
Basilides/Basilidians, 64, 66, 18571,

190, 230, 23472, 269
Basilius (Bogomil bishop), 148
bath kol, 106
Baubo, chthonic, 13
Bauer, Walter, 21371

bear, as symbol, 226

Bear, Great, see Great Bear

Beasts, Lady of the, 116

Beatus, Giorgius, 18771

beetle, 226

Beghards, 84, 150

Beguins, 150

Behemoth, 11571, 118, 120, 121, 123,

14771; battle with Leviathan, 80,

118; eucharistic food, 116
being, in God, 193
Belinus, 12671
beloved, 12, 13
Benat na'sh, 124
Benedict, St., 82-83, 85
Benoist, Jean, 145
Berakoth, see Talmud
Bereshith Rabba(ti), 5972, 106
Bernard of Clairvaux, St., 125
Bernardus Trevisanus, 143, 23971
Berthelot, Marcellin, 6571, 12771,

14371, 15671, 15971, 23871, 26472
Bethlehem, 106
Bible, Protestants and, 178
bin, 121
bird(s): allegory of Christ, 72; two

fighting, 150; white and black,

body, 64-65; in Basilides, 66
body/spirit triads, 55
Bogomils, 58, 147, 150
Bohme, Jakob, 61, 125, 171, 25271
Boll, Franz Johannes, 8172, 9072,

9172, 10472, 105
Bouch-Leclercq, Auguste, 7572, 7672,

8 172, 10472, 11272

Bousset, Wilhelm, 7572, 10872, 109,

19772, 19872, 2o8n, 21972, 22072

Brahe, Tycho, 8172

brahman, 222

"Bread through God," 84

breasts, Christ's, 205

Brethren of the Free Spirit, 84, 150

brh, 119

Brihaddranyaka Upanishad, 223

Brimos, 217

brother-sister pair, 31, 210



brothers, hostile, Son, 81, 87, 254;

monsters as, 119
Brugsch, Heinrich, 207/2
Buddha, symbol for God, 195
Buddhism, 136; and yoga, 176; see

also Zen
Budge, Ernest Alfred Wallis, 88/1,

122/2., 123, 207n

bull: Behemoth as, 120; Mithras
and, 124; one-horned, 199; as
symbol, 226

Bundahish, 246/1

Cabala/cabalism/cabalists, 58, 61,

125, 173, 218/2, 268
Cabiros/Cabiri, 201, 212
Cabrol, Fernand, and Leclercq,

Henri, 89/1
Caesarius of Heisterbach, 239/1
calendar, revolutionary, 98
Caligula, 144
Campbell, Colin, 198
Cana, miracle of, 211
Canopic jars, 122
Canticles, see Song of Solomon
Capricorn (y$) ,92, 111
caput corvi, 210
carbon-nitrogen cycle, 260
Carcassonne, 145

Cardan, Jerome, 76/2, 77/1, 82, 95/2
Carthage, 121
Cams, Paul, 6
Cassino, Monte, 83
castle, as symbol, 224
Castor, 81
cat, black, 30
Cathari/Cathars, 58, 83, 146^; and

alchemy, 150
causation, psychological, 62
causes, 165

Caussin, Nicholas, 128, 192
Celsus, 75
centre, 224; in alchemy, 169; in

man, and God-image, 171; in one-

self and environment, 170; in
Plotinus, 219; psychic and al-
chemical, 171

cerebellum, "Son" and, 186

cerebrum, "Father" and, 186

Chaldaeans, 111

chalybs, 132

chaos, 79, 148, 155, 194, 234, 236-
37; and cosmos, 32; magnesia as,
156; see also massa confusa

Charles, R. H., 115/2, 118/2, 147/2

Chartier, Jean, 139/2

chemical processes, alchemy and,

cherub/cherubim, 123, 241
child: divine, 31; symbol for God,


China: circular opus in, 264;
dragon symbolism in, 245; re-
ligions of, 70

"chirographum," 230 & n

Chiun, 74, 75/2

choice: four elements and, 56; free,

Christ, 32, 255; and age of fishes,
92, 114; as Anthropos, 204; and
Antichrist, 61, 115; archetype of
self, 37; - of wholeness, x, 40;
assimilation into psyche, 221;
attributes of, and self, 44; as
avatar of Vishnu, 176; childhood
of, 103; common symbols with
devil, 72; and contents of uncon-
scious, 181; death of, 35; descent
into hell, 39; dualistic aspects,
111; both ego and self, 110; as
fish, see fish(es); and horoscope,
136-37; horoscopes of, 77/2; hu-
man soul of, 39; as inner man,
203; as king and priest, 39, 147;
lamb and, 105-6; male /female,
205; and Mary, in Gnostic legend,
202; as new aeon, 90; the perfect
man, 69; pre-existent, 148; as
quaternion of opposites, 63; as
rock, 88; scriptural symbols of,
221; second, 65; and self, parallel,



Christ (cont.): pseudo-Clement, see Clementine

42, 44; and serpent, 186, 232; Homilies

and shadow, 4m, 110; spouse of Clementine Homilies, 54/f, 10m,

the Church, 21; subjective par- 19271, 254

allel of, 182; symbol for God, 195; cloud, 155

- of self, 36/f, 62n; synoptic and Cnidaria, 128

Johannine, 72; transfiguration of, Codex Ashburnham 1166, 232

i22n; "uncomeliness" of, 140; cognition, 61, 69

"within," 183; as younger son of collective unconscious, 7, 164, 223,

God, 57, 147; see also Adam; 234; archetypes and, 8; autonomy

androgyny; Ichthys

Christ-figure: annunciation of, 189;
significance of, 203-4

Christ-image: anthropomorphic, 67;
perfection of, 68-69

Christensen, Arthur, 7772, 24671

Christian doctrine: and nature, 173;
and the psyche, 174

Christianity: astrological origin, 76;
divine syzygy in, 21; Germanic
acceptance of, 175; myths under-
lying, 179; place in Western life,

Christmas Eve, 111
Chronos, 139

chthonic world, shadow and, 34
Church: as Bride of Christ/Lamb,
21, 204; as female, 2 in; in mod-
ern world, 176; soul as, 206; as
symbol, 224
Chwolsohn, Daniel, 75^ ig7n
cinedian fish/stone, 138-39
circle(s): character of wholeness,
224n; God as, 153; magic, 32; in
Maier, 264; soul as, 219; and

of, 20; dogma and, 174-75; and
mythology, 179

Collesson, Johannes, 160, 162

collision, of conscious and uncon-
scious, 194

colly Hum, 127

Colossians, Epistle to the, (2 : 14),

commissure, 93, 148

compass, 134

Compendium theologicae veritatis,

compensation: function of uncon-
scious, 20; in man and woman, 14

completeness: and perfection, 68,
69, 111; voluntary, 70; see also

complexio oppositorum, 6m, 225,
267; see also coniunctio opposi-

compulsion, 140; c. neurosis, 10

concept, 33; merely a name, 32;
metaphysical, 34

Concorricci, 83, 14671

concupiscentia, 112, 129

square /squaring of, 224-25, 239, confusion, 194

241, 264; squared, of self, 204; coniunctio, of Adam and Eve, 206

symbols, 194; - of God, 195; - ,

self in, 190
circumambulation, 224
citrinitas, 127
city: heavenly, 37; in Oxyrhynchus

sayings, 145; as symbol, 224
Clement of Alexandria, 22, H3n,

121, 222, 234n
Clement of Rome, 125; Second

Epistle to Corinthians, 2 in; for

coniunctio(nes) maxima(e), 82, 96,

97, 98, 111
coniunctio oppositorum, 31, 152,

159, 167, 268; see also opposites,

conjunction of
conscientiousness, 24
consciousness: in Autopator, 191;

broadening of, and opus, 148;

cannot comprehend whole, 110-

11; and causes and ends, 165;



differentiation of, 191; and dis-
crimination, 260; ego and, 3, 24;
ego as subjective, 164; founded
on unconsciousness, 30; God-
image and, 194; limits of its field,
3; monsters and development of,
18 1; myths and coming of, 148;
relation of unconscious manifes-
tations to, 225; and splitting of
Original Man, 204; threshold of,
4; see also ego

consensus omnium j consensus gen-
eralis, 29, 30, 47, 178

constellations, 29

consummation of universe, 254

conversion, 40

copulation, 206; self-, 207

coral, 12571

Corinthians, First Epistle to, (5 : 2),
23^; (10 : 4), 88; (10 : 16), 11571;
(15 : 47), 3972; Second Epistle to
(Clement of Rome), 2in

Cornarius, 191

corpus mysticum, 32

correspondence: in opus alchemi-
cum, 262; principle of, 258; see
also synchronicity

cortex, 127, 137-38

corybants, 2 1 1

Corybas, see Korybas

cosmos, and chaos, 32; see also

Cramer, H., 21371

crazes, 169

creation: Heliopolitan story of, 207;
and opus, 148; of world by devil,

creator: as dreaming, 192; Gnostic
symbols for, 196

creed, 174, 179

crocodile, 244

cross, 6572, 182, 189; as quaternity
symbol, 204, 224; and snake, 7872;
as symbol of God, 195

crucifixion, 69, 70; punishment for
slaves, 7871

crystal, 224

culture hero, Christ as, 36
Cumont, Franz, gin, 11571, 121
Curetes, 211
Cybele, 121
Cyprian, St., 11 272
Cyranides, 138

Dactyls, 212

Dagon, 11572, 121

daimon(ion), 27, 199, 226

Damdad-Nashk, 24672

damnation, eternal, 6in

Daniel, Book of, 74; (2 : 34),
20872; (2 : 35), 20972; (2 : 45), 8872;
(3 ; 24/)> 199; (3 : 25), 12372;
(11 : 36/f), 3672

Dardaris, 50

daughter, 12; and father, 14, 16

David, 79

dawn-state, 148

dealbatio, 148

Dee, John, 221

Degenhardus, 139

De Gubernatis, Angelo, 114

"De igne et sale," 13272

deliberation, 16

Demeter, 12

demiurge, 110, 230; Basilidian, 190;
devil as, 150, 232; Esaldaios, 208;
Gnostic, 150, 196, 197-98; igno-
rant, myth of, 189; Satanael as,
147-48; son of, 190

Democritus (alchemist), 14372, 159

Denderah, 7672, 91

Denzinger, Heinrich, and Bann-
wart, Klemens, 5272, 8372, 25372

Derceto, 73, 104, 111

descensus ad inferos, 39

Deus absconditus, 135

Deussen, Paul, 15272

Deuteronomy, (32 : 17), 107;

(32 : 39). 55
devaluation, of sexuality, 226



devil: as Adversary, 42; his body
of fire, 132^; in Christian dogma,
124; counterpart of God, 61; as
demiurge, 150, 232; and evil, 48;
fourth person, 208; God ruling
world through, 254; in Joachim
of Flora, 86; Origen and fate of,
110; in Protestantism, 41; serpent
as, 188, 230; symbols, in common
with Christ, 72; world created by,
146; see also Satan

dharma, 21771

Didymus of Alexandria, 235/1

Dieterich, Albrecht, 89, 124ft

dilemma, of one and three, 195,
224, 225

din, 58

Diodoros (Megarian philosopher),

Diodorus, 76

Dionysius the Areopagite, 46, 49, 51

Dionysus, 81, 158

Diorphos, 121

Dioscorides, 156ft

Dioscorus, 159ft

Dioscuri, 81

Diotima, 27

discrimination, 121, 258, 260; of the
natures, 79

distillation, circular, 265

disturbance, symptoms of, 29

divisio, 168, 187; see also separatio

doctrinairism, 86

doctrine, Christian, see Christian

Doelger, Franz Josef, 73, 89, 113ft,
114ft, J1 5> J 2i

dog, 150

dogma(s), 169, 174-75; barbarian
peoples and, 175; "belief" in, 178;
believers and, 178ft; drift from,
179; prejudice against, 175; rea-
son for insistence on, 179; and
"sacred history," 179; see also

Dominican order, 83

Domitian, 110

Dorn, Gerhard, 157, 159, 160-64,
166, 169-71, 174, 181, 187ft, 197^,
220, 221ft, 239, 264

dove, 115ft, *39 *97

Dozy, Reinhart, and de Goeje,
M. J., 75ft

drachates j draconites / dracontias,
138, 139, 140

draconite, see drachates

Dragomanov, M., 147ft

dragon, 155, 197; in China, 245;
head of, 100; and snake, 233ft,
244; stone of, 138/; winged and
wingless, 120; and woman, 12,
103-4; see also snake

dream-analysis, 203

dreams, 25, 30, 35, 142, 223, 243;
anima/animus in, 19; childhood,
190; of disoriented student, 134;
fire in, 137ft; f fishes, 151-52;
image of self in, 67; instinctual
foundation of, 203ft; mandalas in,
31; of Passion play and snake,
78ft; quaternary symbols in, 132ft;
shadow in, 120; symbolism in,

Drews, Arthur, 90ft

dualism: in archetypal self, 42; in
Christ-figure, 111; God's human-
ity and, 110; Manichaean, 49, 55,
57ft, 58, 61, 269

duality: man's, 255; symbol for
God, 195

du Cange, Charles, 128ft, 138ft, 154ft

"Duodecim portarum axiomata phi-
losophica," 131ft

"Duodecim tractatus," 156ft, 158

duty, conflicts of, 25, 45

dyad, 194

Dyophysites, 110

Ea, 121

eagle, 64, 72, 120



earth, 264

East, Philosophical, 132

Ebionites, 44, 81, 147, 197

Ecclesiasticus (9 : i8[25]), 1 $5>
(48: 1), 129

echeneis, 140-42, 144, 145, 154-55

echinus, see echeneis

Eckhart, Meister, 87, 135, 189, 193-

ecliptic, 93, 124

Eden, 225, 234; see also Paradise

education, modern, and dissocia-
tion, 181

egg, 220/2, 2397*

ego, 190; acquired during lifetime,
5; approximation to self, 23;
archetypes and, 8; as centre of
personality, 6; Christ's corre-
spondence to, 110; complex na-
ture of, 3; conscious and uncon-
scious in, 4; dependence on
unconscious, 7; effects of anima/
animus on, 16; exponent of self,
223; individuality of, 6; inflation
of, 23-24; its knowledge of itself,
163-64; and metaphysical ideas,
34; not coincident with conscious
personality, 4; overpowering of,
23; perplexity of, 189; relative
abolition of, 45; somatic and psy-
chic bases of, 3, 4; subjective con-
sciousness, 164; subordinate to
self, 5; as total consciousness, 5;
what it is, 3; see also assimilation;

ego-consciousness: differentiation
from unconscious, 24; and psyche,
164; shadow and, 28

Egypt, 209/2; fish-cult in, 121; flight
of Christ to, 103; and Israel, com-
mon symbols, 123; Jews in, 78;
slaying of firstborn in, 58/1

eidos, 34

eight, 224

Eisler, Robert, 90/2, gin, 10311, 104/2,
116/2, 12m

Eleazar, Abraham, 131

electron, 187/1

elements, four, 251, 254, 264/, Plate
I; contained in lapis, 166, 237 8c
n; hate and love of, 17; quaternity
of, 86, 197/2; as stages of fire, 249

elephant, 226

Elephantine, 121

Eleusis: mysteries of, 217; priests of,

Elias, 106, 122/2

elixir vitae, 127, 180

Elogabal, 89/2

Elysian Fields, 30

Emmaus, 113

emotion: not an activity, 9; and the
shadow, 8-9

emotionality, female, 55

Empedocles, 17

enantiodromia, ix, 43, 93, 95, 102,
108, 149, 225, 258

ends, 165

energy, 251

enkekalymmenos, 18

Enlightenment, the, 43, 150

hvoia, 191, 197/2; see also conscious-

"Entkrist," 101

Enurna Elish, 124

environment: influence of, 21; pro-
jections and, 9-10

Ephesians, Epistle to the: (3 : 18),
88/2; (4 : 23), 193/2; (5 : 14), 208

Ephrem the Syrian, St., 140

Epictetus, 213/2

Epidaurus, 188

Epiphanius, 44/2, 57, 66, 72/2, 76/2,
81/2,88, 104, 114, 147, 159/2, 190/2,
197, 202, 208/

Epiphany, 104

epiphenomenon, psyche as, 174

equation, quaternio as, 257/^

equinoctial point, 77^/2

Erman, Adolf, 78



Eros, 11, 12, 19; anima and, 14, 16,

21; a mighty daimon, 27
Esaldaios, 197; "the fourth," 208
eschatological state, 169
eschatology, in New Testament, 36
Esdras II, 12m; (6:49/7), 14772;

(13 : 2ff), 120; (13 : 25), 11572
"Ethiopian woman," 228, 251, 252
Ethiopians, 210
Eubulides, i8n
eucharist, fish and, 113, 11572, 121,


eucharistic: act of integration, 144;
feast, of Ophites, 188; food, Levi-
athan as, 119/

Eucherius, 7272, 100

Euchites, 44, 148

Euphrates, 104, 184-85, 199/, 211,
225, 235, 251, 252

Euthymios Zigabenos, 148

evangelists, four, 36, 195; symbols
of, 123

Eve, 204, 205/, 206, 235; see also

Everlasting Gospel, see Gospel

evil, 41, 46/f; absolute, 10; anima/
animus and, 267; Christianity
and, 109; and disposition of soul,
61; Gnostics and, 230; and good,
44-4572, 46/7, 267; and the north,
124; principle of, as creator, 256;
shadow and, 266-67; see also
privatio boni

evolution, 180

exallatio, of Aphrodite, 112

exaltation, 15672

Exodus, Book of: (2 : 4ff), 210;
(12:22), 58; (15:6), 59;
(15 : 20/), 210; (18 : 27), 22972;

(33 = 5) 58

experience: intersexual, 21/?; sen-
sory and immediate, 3

extrasensory perception, 18472

eyes, seven, 10572

Ezekiel, 101, 10572, 124, 132, 195,
241; (1 : 22), 123; (1 : 26), 123


factors: causal and final, of psychic
existence, 165; see also subjective

fairytales, 149, 169, 180

faith: is absolute, 174; crumbling
away of content, 178; and dogma,
178; rift from knowledge, 173/

Fall, the, 37, 39

Fallopius, Gabriel, 158

Fanianus, Joannes Chrysippus, 157

Farnese Atlas (Naples), 91

father: and daughter, 14; demiurge
as, 190; in female argumentation,
15; God as, 193; idea of, 18/; in
Moses quaternio, 227; "signs of
the," 190; as unconscious, 191

father-animus, 210

father-mother, symbol for God, 195

fear, of unconscious, 33

feeling, 31, 178; function of value,

feeling-tones, 28, 33; subjective and

objective, 29
feeling-value, 28, 31
female, see male and female
femininity, man's, 2in
Ferguson, John, 13372
"Fidelissima et jucunda instructio

de arbore solari," 14072, 154
Fierz-David, Hans Eduard, 25171
Fierz-David, Linda, 1372
fifth, the, 225

filius macrocosmi, 66, 127, 155, 237
fdius philosophorum, 66, 127, 155,

fire, 101, 264; in alchemy, 130^, 252;

as dream-symbol, 13272, 13772;

four aspects of, 132, 249/f; and

water, 225
firmament, 164

Firmicus Maternus, Julius, 88
firstborn, slaying of the, 5872
fish(es): 189, 244; aeon of the, 62;

allegory of the damned, 122; in

Arab tradition, 123; assimilation



of Christ-figure, 182; Atargatis
cult and, 121; bad qualities of,
112; beneath the earth, 145;
Christ and, 92, 113, 120; Christ
and age of, 92, 111; and Christ as
Ichthys, 115; Christian significance
of, 114; direction of, 91; "drawn
from the deep," 7gn, 120; eaten
by Christ, 12m; and fire, 135-36;
golden, dream of, 151-52; great,
as shadow of God, 119; - , split-
ting of, 119; historical significance
of, 103/f; in Jewish symbolism,
115, 121; Lambspringk's symbol
of reversed, 150; and Leviathan,
120; miraculous draught of, 89;
as mother and son, 111, 114;
originally one, 111; pagan sym-
bolism, 115/; Platonic month of,
ix, 149; in primitive Christianity,
188; "round," 127/f, 137-38, 140,
144; as ruling powers, 147, 149; as
sepulchral symbol, 115; and ser-
pent, 186; sign (K) of the, 72/f,
91; - , a double sign, 111; - ,
twelfth, of zodiac, 118; Southern,
n in, 112; symbol, ambivalence
of, n8#; -, of Christ, 67, 72/?,
89; - , in Eastern religions, 73;
- , of love and religion, 129; - ,
of self, 226; - , of soul, 122; sym-
bolism of, and self, 183; yoked,
145, 147, 148-49; zodiacal, in
Lambspringk, 145

fish-deities, Semitic, 121

fisherman, 112

fish-glue, 127/1

five, 224

fixation, 168

Flaccianus, 72*2

flatus vocis, 32

"flesh," the, 233

flood, god who dwells in, 211

flower, as symbol of self, 226

Fludd, Robert, 26271

Fomalhaut, 11 in, 112

font, baptismal, 73

formlessness, 66

four, see elements s.v. four

"fourth," the, 184, 252

Franciscan order, 83

Franz, Marie-Louise von, ix, 88n,
2 ion, 22on, 262n

Free Spirit: Brethren of the, 84,
150; and Eckhart, 194

freedom: of ego, limited, 7; moral,
26; subjective feeling of, 5

French Revolution, 43, 98, 233

Freud, Sigmund, 165, 20371; sexual-
istic approach to psyche, 226

frivolity, and evil, 61-62

Frobenius, Leo, 11 in

fructificatio, 83

functions: anima/animus as, 20;
differentiated and undifferenti-
ated, 195; four, of consciousness,
258, 259; quaternity of, 196; ra-
tional, 28; reflex, 233; sensory,
rivers as, 199; and space-time
quaternio, 253

Gaedechens, Rudolf, 9m

Galileo, 34

gall, fish's, 137

Gamaliel the Elder, ii3n

Gamow, George, 26on

garbha griha, 2i^n

Gargaros, 2o6n

Garnerius, 100, 125ft

gate, narrow, 200

Gayomart, 246

Gehenna, fire of, 131

Gemini (X), 77, 8on, 81, 83n

Genesis, Book of, 204, 235; (1 : 2),
148, 237; (1 : 7), i8 4 n; (18 : 23),
59; (28 : 17), 21472; (44 : 5), 21m

Genesis, Johannine, 80

"genius," man's, 45

geomancy, 261

Gerard of Borgo San Donnino, 82

Gerhardt, Oswald, 74n, 75n, 77

Germanic peoples, 175



Geryon, 211

Gihon, 199, 225, 235

"Gloria mundi," 8872, 130

Gnosticism/Gnostics, 58, 93, 181,
192, 196/f, 269; and alchemy, 173,
232; Christ-figure in, 203; and
demiurge, 15072; Eckhart and,
194; and evil, 41, 46, 109/; and
Holy Ghost, 86; and magnetism,
154; and psyche, 174; as psycholo-
gists, 222; quaternio among,
242/f, 254/f; and symbols of self,
184/f; and unconscious, 190-91;
and water, 159/2

god: dying, 206; "earthly," Mercu-
rius as, 232

God: absolute, 143; of Basilidians,
190; fish as shadow of, 119; and
man, affinity, 209; in Old and
New Testaments, 192; pneuma
and soma in, 254; quaternary
view of, 25372; symbols for, 195;
threefold sonship, 64; two sons of,
147; union of natures in, 110;
will of, 26/; without conscious-
ness, 192; of wrath and of love,

God-eating, 144

Godhead: in Eckhart, 193; Second
Person of, 196; unconscious, 193

God-image: alchemy and, 125;
anthropomorphic, 55, 67; centre
as, 219; in Christ and man, 38;
Christian doctrine as expressing,
174; an experience, 194; human
element in, 121; incomplete, 120;
reformation of, 40; results of de-
struction of, 109; self as, 63, 109;
and transcendent centre in man,
171; transformations of, and
changes in consciousness, 194;
and wholeness, 198; Yahwistic,
58; see also Imago Dei

God-man, archetype, 181-82

"gods": anima/animus as, 21; ithy-
phallic, 211; theriomorphic at-
tributes of, 29

goddess, heavenly, 13
Goethe, J. W. von, 208, 234
Gog and Magog, 79, 8072, 107
gold, in alchemy, 264
good and evil, see evil
Goodenough, Erwin R., 7372, 9072,

11372, 11572, 117, 12072, 12272, 14572

Gospel, Everlasting, 82, 85, 88
gospels: miraculous element in, 177;

synoptic, 93
grace: divine, 129; restoration

through, 39; state of, 34
grape, 200

Grasseus, Johannes, 139
Gratarolus, Gulielmus, 14672, 23272
gravity, spirit of, 11672
Great Bear, 123, 124
Great Mother(s), 8972, 112, 199, 210
green /greenness, 30, 245
Gregory the Great, St., 101, 20572,

Grenfell, B. P., and Hunt, A. S., 3771
ground, universal, 195, 200; Gnostic

symbols for, 196/?
Guignebert, Charles, 21372
gyne (woman), 10472


Habakkuk, Book of, (2 : 3), 60

Haggard, H. Rider, 26772

Hahn, Christoph Ulrich, 84, 14572,

Haly, 23972

Hanan ben Tahlifa, Rabbi, 8072
handwriting, 230
Hapi, 123

Harnack, Adolf, 5472, 25472
Harran, 126
Hartmann, E. von, 6
Hathor, Temple of, 91
heaven(s), 155; in Ascension of

Isaiah, 57; four pillars of, 123;

iron plate in, 122-23; kingdom

of, 145; lapis in, 170; northern,




Heb-Sed festival, 198

Hecate, 21

Heidegger, Johann Heinrich, 7671

Heimarmene, 9371, 137/1

Helen (Selene), 21

Helen (in Simon Magus), 19771

Heliogabalus, 8971

hell, 135; St. Basil on, 129; eternity
of, 110; fire of, 131, 132; God's
love in, 125

hemispheres, 134

hemlock, 21771

Hennecke, Edgar, 5771

Henry II, of France, 95

heptad, 19771

Hera, 20671; Babylonian, 116

Heracles, 81

Heraclitus, 219, 250

heresies, 150

hermaphrodite, 159, 211, 234, 248;
and elevated places, 206; Original
Man as, 204; stone as, 246; sym-
bol for God, 195

Hermaphroditus, 127

Hennas, "Shepherd" of, 88ti, 103,

Hermes, 21, 155, 209, 234, 245; bird
of, 221; ithyphallic, 230; Krioph-
oros, 103; Kyllenian/Kyllenios,
201, 211, 212, 232; Naassene view
of, 208; "Ter Unus," 177; see also
Mercurius/ Mercury

Hertz, Martin, 13671

Heru-ur, 78, 122-23, 13271

hesed, 58

hexad, 228

hexagrams, 260

Hiddekel, 225, 235

hieros gamos, 12, 39-40, 8971, 206

Hierosolymus, 7671

Hinduism, and Buddhism, 176

Hipparchus, 81, 91

Hippocrates, 20m

Hippolytus, 1, 64, 6571, 66, 7571,
88/i, 114, 139, 173, 184, 186, 187,
191, 198, 199, 200, 201, 202, 208/f,
222, 22371, 226, 23071, 233, 254

hiranyagarbha, 246

Hitler, Adolf, 102

Hoghelande, Theobald de, 137,
23971, 240

Holderlin, Friedrich, 29

Hollandus, Johannes Isaacus, 23571

Holy Ghost, 135, 162; age of, 82-
83, 85-86; espousal of, 86; fire of,
129, 131; indwelling of, 88;
movement, 85-86, 87, 89, 150

Homer: Iliad, 20671, 21871; Odyssey,
20871, 209, 216

homo: altus, 232; coelestis, 39;
maximus, 198; quadratus, 264

homosexual, 12

homunculus, 232, 246

Honorius of Autun, 101 n

hook, fish-, 11271

horos, 6571

horoscope, 136-37, 224; zodia in,

horse, 226

Horus, 104, 122; four sons of, 122,
123, 124, 132, 240, 243; "older,"
78; quaternio, 243; see also Heru-

house, as symbol, 224/

Hugh of Strasbourg, 8071, 10271

human figure, as symbol of self, 225,

Hurwitz, Sigmund, 22671, 26871

hyacinth, 139

hydromedusa, 134

hyle, 79

hypochondriac ideas, 169

hysteria, 20371; collective, 181

Ialdabaoth, 75, 208

Ibn Ezra, 108

/ Ching, 11871, 260

Ichthys: Adonis as, 121; Christ as,

183; Christ or Attis as, 15271;

Christian, 112, 119-20, 121; son

of Derceto, 104, 111; see also




ideals, collective, 29

Idechtrum, 213

Ideler, Christian Ludwig, 124ft

identification, with intellectual

standpoint, 31
identity, 18; of hunter and prey,

112; of lowest and highest, 246
Ides/Ideus, 213
idiosyncrasy (-ies), 169, 200
Ignatius Loyola, St., 165
ignis, see fire
ignorance, 191

illusion, 11, 16; see also may a
image of God: Christ and the soul

as, 37; see also imago Dei
imagination, active, 19, 223, 243
imago, of mother, 11, 12, 14
imago Dei, 31, 37, 3871, 41, 260; see

also God-image; image of God
Imhullu, 120
"immutability in the new rock," 84,


impulses, 27

"In Turbam philosophorum exer-
citationes," 126

incarnation, 179; fish and, 121

incest, 206, 210, 228, 229

incompletude, sentiment d', 9

increatum, 237

India: development of symbol in,
176, 217ft; Eckhart and, 194; fish
in, 114; religions of, 70; thought
of, 175

Indian influences, 223

Indies, 133-34

individuality, and ego, 6

individuation, 39, 40, 45, 200; apoc-
atastasis in, 169; Christianity and,
70; as mysterium coniunctionis,
64; opus and, 264; repressed, 70;
self and, 167; stone compared
with, 170; symbolized in dreams,

infans, 127

infection, psychic, 24871
inferiority, 9, 17
inflation, 25; of ego, 23-24; nega-

tive, 62; peril of, 24; religious, 84
inhabitant, of house, 225
initiation, in mysteries, 261
Innocent III, Pope, 83, 99
innocents, massacre of, 103
Inquisition, 145
insight, intellectual, insufficiency of,

instinct(s), 21, 26, 31, 40-41, 145,

179, 234; archetype image of, 179;

individual and common, 7; snake

symbol of, 244
"Instructio de arbore solari," 14071,

integration, 30, 40, 200; of collective

unconscious, 39; of contents of

anima/animus, 20; mandala and,

32; of shadow, 22; of unconscious

contents, 23
intellect, and values, 32
intellectualism, 86, 150
intensity, of idea, 28
"Interpretatio . . . epistolae Alex-
andria 16771
Interrogationes maiores Mariae,

202, 207
Irenaeus, 4m, 45-46, 54, 6571, 6671,

lion, 15071, 196, 19771, 2i8n, 21971
Iron Age, fourth, 108
iron-stone, magnetic, 15671
irrationality, 17
Isaac, 9071
Isaiah, Ascension of, see Ascension

of Isaiah
Isaiah, Book of: (14 : 12/f), 100;

(14 : 31), ioiti; (26 : 20), 59;

(27 : 1), 118, 119; (28 : 10), 21071;

(30 : 18), 60; (33 : 14), 14471;

(66 : 7), 105 ^
Ishmael, Rabbi, 60
Ishtar, 112

Isidore of Seville, St., 15471
Isidorus (Gnostic), 234
Isis, 104

Islam, 5471, 76, 9571, 99, 176
Israel and Egypt, common symbols,




Jacob, 214

Jacobi, Jolande, 253*2

Ja'far ibn Muhammad (Abu Ma'-

shar) al-Balkhl, see Albumasar
James, Epistle of, 135; (3 : 5), 13572;

(3 = 6), 135

James of Sarug, 75

James, Montague Rhodes, 3772,

Jeans, Sir James, 25872

jelly-fish, 128, 134, 137-38, 15472

Jeremiah, Book of: (1 : 13), 101;
(1 : 14), 100

Jeremias, Alfred, 7372, 74, 112, 12472

Jesuits, 58

Jesus, 1, 65, 144, 201; faith and per-
sonality of, 178-79; as God-man,
35; Makarios, 200; Passion of, 64,
65, 67; in Pistis Sophia, 78-79;
relation to Christ, 67; and separa-
tion of categories, 64; as third
sonship, 67; a trichotomy, 65; as
"truth sprouting from earth," 79;
see also Christ

Jethro, 20972, 210, 228/, 244

Joachim of Flora, 82-83, 84, 86, 87,
149, 150, 253, Plate II

Job, 60, 108, 120

Job, Book of, 42, 58, 118; (26:7),
100; (26 : 12), 120; (26 : 13), 12072;
(27 : 21), 101; (41), 11972

Jochanan, Rabbi, 60

Johannes de Lugio, 14672

John, St., 145; Epistles of, 43, 68;
First Epistle of (4 : 3), 3672; Reve-
lation of, see Revelation

John, Gospel of, 148; (1), 21872;
{11 iff), 211; (1:2), 148; (i: 4 )
211; (3 : 12), 202, 203; (4 : 10),
18472, 185, 19972; (5 : 2), 13 m;
(6:54), 202; (7:38), 214; (10:9).
18572; (10 : 34), 89, 20972; (14 : 6),
200; (18 : 36), 3772

John the Baptist, 19272

John Chrysostom, St., 48/

John of Paris, 8072

Jonah, 117; sign of, 111

Jonathan, Rabbi, 60

Jordan, 210-11

Joseph (father of Jesus), 78-79

Josephus, 76

Joshua, 111

jot, 218

Jothor, 209, 210

Judaeus (son of Set), 7672

Judaism, 58/f; Messianism in, 107

judgments: good/evil as, 53; moral,

Jung, Carl Gustav:

cases: student who dreamed of
jelly-fish, 134; young woman
with intense inner life who
dreamed of fishes, 151-52
works: "Answer to Job," 8772;
Commentary on The Secret of
the Golden Flower, 18272;
"Concerning Mandala Symbol-
ism," 4072, 21972; "Concerning
Rebirth," 11172; "Instinct and
Unconscious," 872; Memories,
Dreams, Reflections, 13472; Mys-
terium Coniunctionis, 1372,
23572; "On the Nature of the
Psyche," 4, 872, 2472, 16472, 17472,
17972; "On Psychic Energy,"
2972; "Paracelsus the Physi-
cian," 13372, 21372; "Paracelsus
as a Spiritual Phenomenon,"
21172, 21472, 23972, 24272; "The
Phenomenology of the Spirit in
Fairytales," 5572, 8572, 9972,
15972, 20372, 22472, 22972; "The
Philosophical Tree," 23572; "A
Psychological Approach to the
Dogma of the Trinity," 3772,
8672, 15272, 15372, 22472, 24672,
253^; Psychological Types, 2872,
11672, 15972, 22372, 22472, 25372;
Psychology and Alchemy, 3172,
3772, 4072, 6372, 6472, 6772, 7872,
87, 11672, 12572, 13472, 13672,
14072, 15272, 15572, 182, 19071,



Jung, Carl Gustav (cont.):

19771, 19971, 23771, 23971, 24m,
24371, 24571, 25971, 262, 26471;
"The Psychology of the Child
Archetype," 3 m; "The Psy-
chology of Eastern Medita-
tion," 13571, 15 in, 20471;
"Psychology and Religion,"
8771, 18271; "Psychology of the
Transference," 1371, 2271, 6471,
15971, 16771, 20971, 22571, 22871,
22971, 24271, 24371; "The Psy-
chology of the Trickster Fig-
ure," 20371; "The Relations
between the Ego and the Un-
conscious," 2171, 2371, 6371,
18271; "The Spirit Mercurius,"
4371, 8671, 13671, 15271, 16871,
20371, 21271, 23271, 23571, 25371;
"A Study in the Process of In-
dividuation," 6571, 6771, 19071,
20471, 21971, 25371, 25971; Sym-
bols of Transformation, 10171,
inn, 13271; "Synchronicity,"
18471, 25871; "Transformation
Symbolism in the Mass," 14471,
22071, 23871; "t)ber das Selbst,"

Jupiter (u), 74, 76, 77, 78, 81, 82,
8371, 95, 97; moons of, 34

jurisprudence, and consciousness, 5

justice, of Yahweh, see Yahweh

Justin Martyr, 173, 177, 230


Ka-mutef, 206
Kant, Immanuel, 6
karma, 14071, 27m
Kaulakau, 210
Kelchner, Ernst, 10271
Kena Upanishad, 223
Kepler, Johann, 7771, 173, 207
kerygmatics, 177
Keshava, 114
Kewan, 7571
Khidr legend, 1 1 1

Khunrath, Heinrich Conrad, 88,
156, 220

kibla, 124

king(s), deification of, 198; divine

right of, 177
kingdom(s), heavenly/of God, 37;

two, in pseudo-Clement, 55
"kingless race," 260
Kings, First Book of, 59; (22 : 19),

kingship, and self, 198
Kircher, Athanasius, 262/
Kirchmaier, Georg Caspar, 11671
Klaus, Brother, 25
Knapp, Martin Johann, 8171
Kohut, Alexander, 24671
Kolorbas, 195
Korah, children of, 106
Koran, 11171
Kore, 104
Korion, 104
Korybas, 199, 211-12
krater, 6571, 19171
Kurma, 176
Kyrios, 182

lac virginis, 160

"Ladder of the Twin Gods," 122

Lagarde, Paul A. de, 5671

Laiblin, Wilhelm, 14971

lake, as symbol of self, 226

Lamb, 103; in Apocalypse, 9071,

105/; Church as Bride of, 204;

marriage of the, 12, 36, 268
Lambspringk, 9271, 145, 150
lamp, 112
lapis (philosophorum), 68, 87, 127,

i39 J43' *55 *59> l8 2> 2o8 > 2 3 6 #>
247#, 263; fish as symbol of, 126/f;
found only in heaven, 170; par-
allel of Christ, 237; quaternio,
238^; as rock, 88; and serpent,
245; symbol of self, 268; thousand
names of, 182, 189; "uncomeli-
ness" of, 140; union of opposites
in, 247/; see also stone

lapis angularis (Christ), 208

lapis animalis, 157




lapis exilis, 30

lapis vegetabilis, 159

Lateran Council, Fourth, 52/1, 82,
83^ 253/1

lawlessness, man of, 3672

Layard, John Willoughby, 24271

lead, 139

Leda, 81

left, see right and left

legends, 169

Leibniz, Gottfried Wilhelm, 6, 16411,

lethargia, 20872

Lethe, and unconscious, 20872

Leto, 104

Leviathan, 123, 147ft, J ^ 2 ' battle
with Behemoth, 80, 108; eucha-
ristic food, 112, 120; fish and, 120;
male and female, 118

Levy-Bruhl, Lucien, 29

Lexicon medico-chymicum, 15472

Libavius, Andreas, 158

liberty, idea of, 29

libido, 13271, 256; kinship, 243

Libra (=o=), 7772, 83

Libya, 138

life-process, psychic interpretation
of, 4

light, transcendent nature of, 6371

Lightfoot, Joseph Barber, 21371

lime, unslaked, 130; see also quick-

lingam, 21772

lion(s), 120; Michael and, 75; sym-
bol of Christ, 72; of the tribe of
Judah, 105; two, 150

lodestone, 18972; see also magnet

Logos, 148, 187/, 201, 252; animus
and, 14, 16, 21; cosmogonic, 211;
Gnostic, 202; Hermes as, 201; as
magnetic agent, 188; Protan-
thropos as, 209; serpent as, 188,

X670S airepfiariKos, 207

love: fish as symbol of, 129; at first
sight, 15; God's, in hell, 125; lan-
guage of, 15

love-magic, 140

love-potion, 138

Loyola, see Ignatius

Lucian, 212

lucidus, 13872, 13972

Lucifer, 72, 125

Lugio, Johannes de, 146

Luke, Gospel of: (5 : 10), 89;
(6 : 35) 8 9> 20972; (11 : 29/), inn;
(16 : 8), 14672; (16 : 17), 21872;
(17 : 2o#), 37; (19: i2#), 166;
(19 : 27), 10672; (24 : 42), 12172;
(24:43), 113

Lully (Lull), Raymond, 23972

Luna, 235; see also moon

Luther, Martin, 89, 235; as Anti-
christ, 102

Lycia, 121


Maag, Victor, 18272

Macrobius, Ambrosius Theodosius,

macrocosm, 214
Magi, 89, 132
magic, 140, 242
magnesia, 155-57, 159, 160
magnet, 133, 154/?, 184, 18772; of the

wise, 142, 155
magnetic agent, three forms of, 188
magnetism, 13372; of fish, 154;

Gnostics and, 184/?
Magog, see Gog and Magog
Magus, 16772

Mahomet, 97; see also Mohammed
Maier, Michael, 18772, 220, 249, 252,

264, pi. I
Maimonides, Moses, 11671, 11971
Mainyo-i-Khard, 24672
Majui, 8ot2
maladaptation, 27
Malchuth, 268
male and female, 55
man: complete, water as, 200;

higher, in Moses quaternio, 228;



man (cont.):

inner, 208/, 228; One, 205; Orig-
inal, 198, 200, 201, 203, 204, 211,
214, 216, 237, 239, see also Adam,
Anthropos, Archanthropos, Pro-
tanthropos; perfect, 212/; pneu-
matic, 256; primordial, 36

"man," in II Esdras, 120

mana, 25171

Mandaeans, 124

mandala(s), 64, 152, 219, 241, 253;
Christ in Christian, 36; rotation
of, 259; in student's dream, 134;
symbols of order, 31/, 135; totality
images, 40, 268; and unconscious
personality, 204; vessel as, 240

Manget, Jean Jacques (Joannes
Jacobus Mangetus), i26n

Manichaeans/Manichaeism, 48, 49,
55 57"-> 5 8 > 6in ; 99, see also

Manu, 73; fish of, 113/

Marcionites, 49

Marduk, 120, 124

Maria, axiom of, 153, 251

Maria the prophetess, 240

Mariam, see Miriam

Mariette, Francois A. F., 7671

Marinus, 54

Mark, Gospel of, (10 : 18), 58/1

marriage: of Christ and the Church,
39; classes, 22; as conscious rela-
tionship, 243; constellation of un-
conscious in, 242; cross-cousin, 22,
2ogn, 229, 242/; mingling of
subtle with dense, 16771; of
mother and son, 12; quaternio,
22, 64, 209, 210, 229, 242, 252

Mars ( $ ), 7972, 95

Marxism, 181

Mary: as fountain, 116; in Gnostic
symbolism, 202, 204, 205; in Pistis
Sophia, 78

Mary, the Virgin, 205; Assumption,
87; Immaculate Conception, 8771;
as substitute for Church, 2 in

masculinity, woman's, 2 m

Masenius, Jacobus, 15471

mass man and evil, 166

massa confusa, 148, 155, 234, 236

Mater Alchimia, 173, 232

materialism, 109, 150, 176, 181, 233,

257, 260
mathematics, 261
Matsya, 176

matter, numinosity of, 66, 260
Matthew, Gospel of, loin, 20 in;

(2 : iff), 89; (3 : 2), i 9 2n; (4 : 19),

89; (5 : 3) 193; (5 = 8). 2i7n;
(5:18), 2i8tz; (5:48), 6 9 n;
(7 : 14), 20on; (10 : 34), 187;
(12:39), inn; (13:24). 37";
03:45)' 37"; (16:4), in";
(17:4), i22n; (18:23), 37";
(19 : 17), 58n, 20m; (21 : 19),
io6n; (22 : 2), 37n; (22 : 7), 26n;

(27 = i5ff)> 90
may a, 11, 13
meaning, 27

Mechthild of Magdeburg, St., 205/
mediator, 237n, 239; animus as, 16;

man as, 255/
medicament, incorrupt, 170
medulla, 205, 233
medusa, 126$
Meerpohl, Franz, 219
megalomania, 17
Meir ben Isaac, 118
Melusina, 235
memory, 4

mendicant orders, 82, 83
Mephistopheles, 234
Mercurius/ Mercury ( ), 76, 77n,

7 8 > 95> 97 i3 131* i6i> 171* i 8 7'
232, 249/, 252; as anima mundi,
136; and double aspect of water,
180; double/duplex nature of,
150, 252/, 254; "non vulgi," 155,
234; philosophical, see Mercurius
"non vulgi"; and the Pole, 133,
135; synonyms for, 241; as tree-
numen, 235; as trickster, 203n;
as Virgo, 127
mercy, of Yahweh, 59, 60



Mesopotamia, 74, 214

Messahala, 82/2

Messiah(s), 106/f, 121; ben Joseph
and ben David, 107; birth of,
105, 149; coming of, 74, 118;
two, 107, 108; in Zohar, 214

Mestha, 123

metals, 246

fierdvoia, 192

metaphysical ideas, 34, 35

metaphysics: Jung and, 195/1; psy-
chology and, 54, 61, 67, 194, 198

Metatron, 214

Meyer, Karl H., 146

Michael (angel), 75

Michaias, 57

microcosm/microcosmos, 155, 164,
214; wandering, 213

microphysics, 174

Midrashim, 59; Midrash Tanchuma
(Shemoth), 5971, 118/2, 119/2

mind, transformation of, 192

Miriam, 209, 210, 228, 244

Mithraic: liturgy, 124; monuments,

9 1

Mithras, 121, 124

modesty, 25

Mohammed, 102; see also Mahomet

molecular movement, 250/

mollusc, 128

monad(s), 189, 218/; Kircher's, 262-
63; in Sabellius, 253/1

monasticism, 82/, 85, 89

monks, as fishes, 113

Monoimos, 218/, 222/

Monophysites, 110

monotheism, 268

monsters: attributes of death, 120;
horned, 105; sea, see Behemoth,
Leviathan; splitting of, 119/

moods, 17

Moon ( ]) ), 76, 77, 155, 249; celes-
tial horn of, 211

morality, 25

Morienus Romanus, 166, 168

morphomata, 81

Moses, 74, 107, 122/2, 209/1, 210,

227#, 244
Moses quaternio, 227/?, 243/, 251,

Moses ha-Darshan, 106
mother, 155; chthonic, 22; higher,

in Moses quaternio, 228; search

for, 11; as symbol, 1 1 ; and son,

12; see also Great Mother(s);

mountain, 203, 209; as symbol of

self, 226
Muenter, Friedrich, 74
mumia, 213/

mummy, 122; see also mumia
Mundus, 137
Musaeum hermeticum, 88/2, 130/2,

13m, 133/1, 145/1, 150/1, 22m,

mussel-shell, 127/
Mut, 206

"mutilation of the soul," evil as, 48
Mylius, Johann Daniel, 88/2, 139,

156/1, 187/1, 197/2, 221, 235/2, 237/2,

mysteries, Eleusinian, 217
mysterium coniunctionis, 64
mysterium iniquitatis, 44, 86
mysticism, Jewish, 108
mythologem: of Amen, 206; dying

god, 206; fish as, 138
"mythological" aspects, 30
mythology, 35; comparative, 34;

and dogma, 179
myths, 35, 149; cosmogonic, 148;

gods in, 177; and unconscious

processes, 180


Naas, 199, 230, 232

Naassenes, 64, 75, 88, 89, 184/, 197,

198, 199, 200, 201, 208/, 241,

226/; see also quaternio
name, and thing, 32
Nanni, Giovanni, 102/2



naphtha, 185

Naples: Farnese Atlas, 91

Nathan, Rabbi, 11371

nature: Christianity and, 174; im-
provement of, 143; individual, of
Christ's disciples, 211; rejoices in
nature, 159; two powers of, 123

natures, changing of the, 166

Nazis, 102

necromancy, 262

negligence, evil and, 62

Negroes, 210

nekyia, 209

Nelken, Jan, 3371

Nematophora, 128

Neoplatonists, 126

Nero, 102

Neumann, Erich, 11671, 14871, 18371

neurosis(es), 20, 180, 181, 189

neurotic disturbances, 169

New Testament: devil in, 86; escha-
tology, 36; Jesus in, 179; snake in,
245; see also names of individual

Nicholas of Cusa, 22571

Nietzsche, Friedrich Wilhelm, 260

night-heron, 72

night sea journey, 111

Nigidius Figulus, Publius, 136

nigredo, 148, 149, 194, 210; see also

Nina, 121

Nippur, 124

nirdvandva, 191

nodes, 253

North, the, 99/f; in ancient history,
125; Ezekiel and, 124; King of
the, 125; Mithras and, 124

North Star, 133

Nostradamus, Michel, 95/f, 125, 126

"nothing but," 179

nous, 21; descent to Physis, 233;
krater filled with, 19 m; Mercu-
rius symbol of, 168; serpent as,
186, 188, 230, 232; unconscious,

"Novi luminis chemici Tractatus

alter de sulphure," 13171
Numbers, Book of: (12 : 10), 210;

(16), 10671; (24 : 16), 5971; (24 : 17),

Numbers, see dyad; triad; quater-

nity; heptad; ogdoad; three; four;

five; eight; twelve
Nun, 111, 121

Oannes, 73, 112, 121, 201

observation, uncertainty of, 226

obsessions, 169

obsidian, 138, 13971

ocean /Oceanus, 209, 212, 214, 218

Oehler, Franciscus, 191

ogdoad, 110, 196, 19771, 226; archon
of the, 190

Old Testament, 70; see also names
of individual books

olive, 200

Olympiodorus, 23971, 264

Olympus, 164

omega element, 238

Onians, Richard Broxton, 21271

Ophites, 188

Ophiuchus, 111

opinionatedness, 16

opinions, 21: archetypes and, 17;
Logos and, 15

opposites: alchemical, linked to-
gether, 244; anima/animus, 268;
annihilation of, 70; Christ/Satan,
44-4571; cinedian stone and, 139;
coincidence of, 124; - , in God-
head, 193; conjunction of, 40, 70,
194, see also coniunctio opposi-
torum; day/night, 123; equiva-
lence of, 61; Father as without,
191; good/evil, 47, 123; Heru-ur/
Set, 123; husband/ wife, 204;
identity of, symbols and, 129/;
kosmos/chaos, 123; life/death,
123; light /darkness, 223; moral



accentuation of, 70; never unite
at own level, 180; pairs of, see
also syzygy(ies); problem of, and
neurosis, 180; serpents, 11872;
tension of, 31, 91, 247/; union of,
264; - , in astrology, 77, 87; - ,
and salvation, 195; - , in stone,
170; - , and unconsciousness, 193

opsianus, 138

opus, 237; as apocatastasis, 169; and
creation of world, 148, 234; and
individuation, 264

Oracula sibyllina, 7372

order: mandalas symbols of, 31;
principle of, 195

Origen, 37, 38/2, 41, 44-4572, 75, 81,
9071, 11472, 204/, 215, 234; and
the devil, 110

Orion, 136

Orosius, 23071

Orpheus, 103

Orphos, 121

Osiris, 122, 123, 198, 199, 201

Osob, 146, 147/1,, 200

Ostanes, 15971, 23771, 24572

oxen, fishes and, 145, 147, 148/

Oxford English Dictionary, 25

oxyrhynchus (fish), 122

Oxyrhynchus, fish- worship at, 121

Oxyrhynchus fragments, 3772, 144,

paganism, 96; return of, in Europe,

pair, royal, in Moses quaternio, 228
Palestine, 74, 138
Pan, 199
Pandolfus, 156
Pandora, 241
panic, 33
panspermia, 200

Pantheus, Joannes Augustinus, 13972
Papa, 213
Papyri Graecae Magicae, 126

Paracelsus, 164, 181, 213, 214, 237

para-da, 152

Paradise: four rivers of, 184, 199,
215, 227, 235, 243; Garden of
Eden, 25472; Leviathan eaten in,
113; quaternio, 234/, 236/, 243,
245, 254; as symbol, 189

paradox, 70

Parmenides, 13772, 143

parthenogenesis, 35

Parthenon, 20372

Passion, of Jesus, see Jesus

Passover, 119

Patarenes, 83

patience, 24

Paul, St., 39, 174, 176, 177, 178, 191;
Epistles of, 68; see also names of
separate Epistles

Pauli, W., 20772

Paulicians, 148

Paulinus of Nola, 6572

pearl, round, 12772

Pectorios inscription, 8972, 113, 11672

pelican, 239

penetration, 12072

Pentecost, 129

Pepi I, 88n, 122

Peratic doctrine, 185/

perception(s): conversion of stimuli
into, 4; endosomatic, 3; psyche
and, 32

Perdition, Son of, 36

peregrinatio, 133

perfection: Christ as, 39; and com-
pleteness, 68/; evil as lack of, 41

perforation, 1 2072

Pernety, Antoine Joseph, 155, 160/

Perpetua, St., Passion of, 210

Persephone, 12, 21, 217

personality: changes of, 6; dissocia-
tion of, 180; double, 120; ego as
centre of, 6; inferior, see shadow;
of Jesus, 178/; not coincident
with ego, 5; self as total, 5; total
description of, impossible, 5

perversions, intellectual, 169

Pesahim, see Talmud



Peter, St., 89; in Clementine

Homilies, 56
Peter, First Epistle of; (2 : 4), 88;

(2:4/), 17m; (2:5), 88
Peter Damian, St., 113
Peter Lombard, 25371
Peters, C. H. F., and Knobel, E. B.,

11", 9371
phallicism: Gnostic, 232; uncon-
scious, 226
phallus, 201/, 226
pharmakon athanasias, 116
phenomenology, individual, and

collective unconscious, 179
Philalethes, Eirenaeus, 132, 13371,

Philippians, Epistle to the (3 : 12),

phlogiston theory, 250/
phobias, 169
Phrat, see Euphrates
Phrygians, 198, 213; see also Naas-

phylokrinesis, 64, 79, 25871
physics: collision of psyche with,

174; nuclear, 261; and psychology,

Physis, 198, 233, 247, 249, 259
Phyton, 131
Picinellus, Philippus, 11 2ft, 11371,

12272, 129, 135
Pisces: aeon, middle of, 150; zodi-
acal sign for, 91, 114; see also

pisciculi Christianorum, 103
piscina, 89

Piscis Austrinus, mn
Pison, 199, 225, 235
Pistis Sophia, 7572, 78/, 9371, 12271,

13772, 19772
Pius IX, Pope, 8772
planets, influence of, 148
Plato, 246; Phaedrus, 64; Timaeus,


Platonic Tetralogies, Book of, see
"Platonis liber quartorum"

"Platonis liber quartorum," 19772,
238, 26172

Pleiades, 136

pleroma, 4172, 46, 6672, 21972

Pliny, 128, 138, 144, 15672, 177

Plotinus, 219

plough, 148/

Plutarch, 76, 121, 12272

pneuma, 21, 83; and Barbelo, 19772;
feminine, 206; in God, 254; hid-
den in stone, 245; of Jesus, 79;
winged beings as, 120

Trvev/JLariKos (-ot), 21 2^72, 21 972

Pohl, Otto, 11372

Poimandres, 103

Poimen, see Hermas

point, 189, 198/, 218, 222; in al-
chemy, 220/

pole, 133-34; centre in North, 171;
heavenly, 123/, 224; North, hid-
den God at, 135; - , magnetism
of, 154

Polemon, 7672

Pollux, 81

polydemonism, 175

polytheism, 175, 268

Poor Men of Lyons, 83, 146, 150

Pordage, John, 16372, 235

Poseidon, 216

Prajapati, 20772

precession of equinoxes, 81, 92, 95

prefigurations, 261

Preisendanz, Karl, 12672

Priapus, 230

prima materia, 132, 142, 161, 162,
237; alchemical laborant as, 168;
anima and, 187; lapis as, 127, 236,
264; production of, 155; as psy-
chic situation, 155; synonyms of,

primum mobile, 131

principium individuationis, 64

Priscillian, 88, 136, 23072

privatio from'/privation of good, 41,
4572, 46, 48, 50, 52, 54, 58, 61, 6272,
110, 269; see also evil

problems, moral, 25/



projection (s): anima and, 13; ani-
ma/animus, 17, 242; dissolution
of, 18/; effect of, 9/; impersonal
withdrawal of, 23; mandala and,
32; in Mary, 204; and mother-
imago, 12; reality of factor mak-
ing, 24; and reality of psyche,
66n; shadow and, 9

Protanthropos, 213; and Korybas,
211; as Logos, 209; Sophia and,
197; see also Adam; Anthropos;
Man, original; Archanthropos

Protestantism/Protestants, 150, 178

Proteus, 216/

Protoplast, 214

Protothoma, 213

Prunicus/npouyiKos, 19671; see also

Psalms: (2 : 9), 105; (82 [81] : 6),
209; (89), 108/

Psellus, Michael, 4472, 14871

psyche, 142, 255; aspects of, 32;
begetter of all knowledge, 173;
ego-consciousness of, 164; and
evil, 62; field of consciousness, 6;
horoscope and, 136; and life-proc-
esses, 4; man's knowledge of, 165;
and matter, 261; objective reality
of, scientists and, 174; outside
consciousness, 6; reality of, 66n;
reasons for undervaluation of, 62

"psychic," use of term, 4

psychoanalysis, 20371

psychology, and good/evil, 53

psychopathology, 30

psychopomp(os): anima as, 30; ani-
mus as, 16; fishes as symbols for,
145; Proteus as, 216

psychosis, 33; mass, 24871

psychotherapy: and anima/animus,
267; and problem of opposites,

Ptolemy, 7472,, 9471

puer, 127

"puffed-up-ness," 24; see also infla-

pulmo marinus, 128

punctum J punctus solis, 22on; see

also point
purusha, 167, 194
Pyramid Texts, 122
Python, 104

Qazvini, 123

Qebhsennuf, 123

'qltn, 119

quaternio/quaternity, 159, 194, 210,
211, 226^; its character of whole-
ness, 224; of Christ, 204; Chris-
tian, 253; and circle, motif, 224;
defective, three as, 224; in fire,
132; in Irenaeus, 19771; Kircher's,
262/; in man, 22; Naassene, 2271,
7971; of opposites, in self and
Christ, 63/; as organizing schema,
242; Osiris and, 123; self as, 42;
static quality of, 257; as symbols,
31, 195; - , for God, 195; - , self
in, 190; unity complement of,
224; see also Anthropos quater-
nio; Horus quaternio; lapis qua-
ternio; marriage quaternio;
Moses quaternio; Paradise qua-
ternio; shadow quaternio; space-
time quaternio

quick-lime, 158

quicksilver, 139, 155

"quicksilver system," Indian, 152

quid/quis distinction, 164, 169

Quinta Essentia, 15971

Quispel, Gilles, 66 & n, 190, 191

Ra, 122

Radhakrishnan, Sarvapalli, 22371
radius, see ray
Rahab, 120



Rahner, Hugo, 21572, 23571
Raison, Deesse, 98
Ram ( c f), 7772; see also Aries
ram: Christ as, 90, 92; daemonic,

105/; symbol of Christ and Attis,

103; see also lamb
Rameses II, 78

Ramsay, William Mitchell, 7371
Raphael, 113

Rashi, see Solomon ben Isaac
Ras Shamra, 119
rationalism, 86, 150, 221
rationality, 24872; male, 55
raven, 72
ray, 18772

realism, 150, 176, 233
reality: psychic, 48; requires po-
larity, 267
realization, conscious, 23972
rebirth, 212
Rebis, 159, 268
Red Sea, 74
Redeemer: archetype of, 183; as

fish and serpent, 186; Gnostic/

Gnosticism and, 79, 184; and un-

scious, affinity of, 181
redemption, 35, 70, 175, 191, 256;

of the dead, 39
reflection, 16
Reformation, the, 93, 102, 178;

Holy Ghost movement and, 87
reformation, of God-image, 40
Reguel, 229; see also J e thro
Reitzenstein, Richard, 7572, 103;

and Schader, H. H., 24672
relationship, 17; function of, 14,

16; inadequate, 19; to partner, 22
remora, 140/, 144, 15472
Rempham, 7572
Renaissance, the, 43, 94, 98
renovatio, 9872
renovation of the age, 98
repentance, 192
representations collectives, 29
repression, 226
resentment, 16

resistances, shadow and, 9
responsibility, in jurisprudence, 5
Revelation of St. John: (5 : 5), 105;

(5 : 6), 10571; (5 : 6ff), 105;

(6:i5#), 105; (12:1), 103;

(12:9), 23072; (14:4)' 217'

(17: 14), 105; (20:7/), 7972; see

also Apocalypse
revolution, 9872
Rex gloriae, 195, 204
Rhabanus Maurus, 100
Rhea, 199
Rhine, J. B., 18472
right and left, 54, 59, 25871
righteousness, 70
Rig-Veda, 19272
Ripley, Sir George, 13m, 139, 144,

14872, 149, 23572, 249
Ripley "Scrowle," 235, 265
ritual, 256; Protestantism and, 178
rivers, four, of Paradise, 184, 199,

215, 225, 227, 235, 243
Roberts, R., 22m
rock: Christ as, 87/; inner man as,

roes, two, 107
Romans, Epistle to: (7:21), 6971;

(12 : 2), 40
Romulus, 10772
room, as symbol, 224/
Rosarium philosophorum, 15672,

i97 n ^ 23972, 24572
Roscher, Wilhelm Heinrich, 21172,


Rosenkreutz, Christian, 210

Rosinus, 156, 157, 167/

rota nativitatis, 136

rotation, 24672, 257

rotundum, 238, 23972, 246, 248/, 257

Rousselle, Erwin, 11 72

Ruland, Martin, 13372, 13872, 139,

Rupescissa, Johannes de, 146, 241,

Ruska, Julius, 12672, 13072, 13772,




Sabaeans, 75, 124, 19771

Sabaoth, 76

Sabbath, 75

Sabellius, 25371

Sagittarius, 7471

sailor, 112

sal ammoniac, 15471

sal sapientiae, 133, 161

Salmanas, procedure of, 12771

salt, 133, 157; in alchemy, 161; "of

the metals," 139
salvation, 195
Salvator mundi, 127
Sammael, 57
Samothrace, 211, 212
Sanhedrin, see Talmud
sapientia, 160, 220
Sapientia Dei, 127
Sassanids, 116
Satan, 43/, 10571; as elder son of

God, 57, 61; in Old Testament,

192; state before fall, 145; and

two fishes, 148
Satanael, 43, 147
satori, 169

Satorneilos, see Saturninus
Saturn ( 1? ), 74^, 7771, 81, 82, 83,

96, 97, 98, 99; and Esaldaios, 208;

as Gnostic symbol, 197; Jewish

thought and, 74/; and quicksilver,

139; stone and, 138/
Saturnia (plant), 139
Saturninus, 219
Saulasau, 210
Saviour, compounded of four

things, 19771
Scharf, Riwkah, 4272, 12 in, 192,

Scheftelowitz, I., 11372, 116, 117,

n8n, 119
Schelling, F. W. J., 6
schizophrenia, 33
Schoettgen, Christian, 10772, 21472
scholasticism, 172
Schopenhauer, Arthur, 6

Schreber, Daniel Paul, 3372

Schwestrones, 8472

science: alchemy and, 176; and
faith, 173/; natural, 27; - , rise
of, 150; modern, 89; trinity in,

scintilla vitae, 219

Scott, Walter, 19172

sculptures, obscene, 21772

scurrility: in dreams, 203; of Gnos-
tic nomenclature, 230

scyphomedusa, 128

sea, 155; "our," 142

sea-hawk, 18772; centre of the, 189

seal, seventh, opening of, 82

seals, 216

sea-nettle, 128/2

sea-urchin, 15472

Second Coming, ix; expectation of,

Secret of the Golden Flower, 18272,
224, 264

secret of the wise, 143

sects, 96/

Secundus, non

Selene, 21

self, 23/f, 33, 34; Anthropos and,
189; antinomial character, 225;
apotheosis of individuality, 62;
appearance of in unconscious
products, 190; appears in all
shapes, 226; as archetype, 167; as
brahman and atman, 222; Christ
as archetype /symbol of, 36/f, 6272,
182; Christ's correspondence to,
110; dream-symbols and, 132;
"fixation" of, in mind, 168/;
Gnostic symbols of, 184/f, 226/f; a
God-image, 22, 205; impersonal
unconscious and, 169; lapis as,
127, 167; a product of cognition,
69; as quaternion of opposites,
63/; relation to ego, 6; religious
mythologem, 30; round fish as,
142, 144; supraordinate to ego, 3;
as total personality, 5; transcen-
dental), 62/, 170; union of con-



self (cont.):

scious and unconscious, 268; see
also assimilation; atman; God-

self-aggrandizement, 24; see also in-

self-criticism, 25

self-fertilization, 207

self-knowledge, 16, 162/f, 222; and
alchemy, 166/?; and ends, 165/;
increased, 19, 23/f; and knowl-
edge of ego, 164; shadow and, 8

Senard, Marcelle, 92/1

senarius, 228, 230

Sendivogius, Michael, 13m

Senior, 240

sense-perception, see perception

sentimentality, 16

separa^'o/separation, 168, 170; see
also divisio

Sephiroth, Tree of the, 58

Sephora, 209, 210

septenarius, 240

serpens mercurialisjMercurii, 160,
234> 245

serpent(s), 111, 189, 232, 255; fight-
ing, 118; as magnetic agent, 188;
Naas, 199; in Peratic doctrine,
185/; in shadow quaternio, 230,
244; and stone, 245; and tension
of opposites, 247; see also dragon;
snake; uroboros

Set, 76, 78, 99, 122/, 124, 132

Sethians, 186/, 219

sexual theory, of psychic substance,

sexuality, 90-9171; undervaluation
of, 226

Shaare Kedusha, 21872

shadow, 8-10, 17, 30, 33, 155, 233/,
255, 259, 260; Antichrist as, 41;
of arcane substance, 18772; as-
similation into conscious person-
ality, 9; in Christ's birth, 4.111,
110; consciousness of, 8; doubling
of, 120; fear of, 33; fish as shadow

of God, 119; good qualities of,
266; integration of, 22; and Moses
quaternio, 228, 244; has negative
feeling-value, 28; personal un-
conscious and, 169; quaternio,
22972, 230/, 233/, 244, 255/, 260;
represents chthonic world, 34

Shatapatha Brahmana, 11372, 11472

sheep, land of, 16

Shekinah, 268

shepherd, 103; good, 103

Shu, 207

Shulamite, 210

Sibyls, Erythraean, 7272

Silberer, Herbert, 16472

Simon Magus, 197, 220

sister, 12

skull, 238

slave's post, 7672, 78

Smith, E. M., 9272, 9472

smoke, 101

snail, 226

snake, 72, 233^; Aesculapian, 188;
allegory of Christ, 233, 245, 247;
on cross, 7872; Mercurius as, 232;
in New Testament, 245; signifies
evil/wisdom, 234; and Son, 188;
symbolism of, 186; as symbol, of
instinct, 244; - , of self, 226; - ,
of wisdom, 245

Soderberg, Hans, 14772

Sodom, 59

sol niger, Saturn as, 197

Solomon ben Gabirol, 74

Solomon ben Isaac, 80, 81

solvents, 160

soma, in God, 254

son, 185, 186; as Father's thought of
own being, 193; and mother, 11/;
symbol for God, 195

son of God, serpent as, 188

son of Man, 203, 218; pictures of,


sons of God, two, 42/, 57, 58
Song of Solomon: (1 : 1), 205; (1 : 5),
210; (4: 5), 107; (8 : 7), 129



sonship, threefold, of God, 64/
Sophia, 6571; Achamoth, 19771;

Prounikos, 54, 196/
"Soul, My Lady," 13
soul: 64, 142; and anima, 13; ani-
mal, 11 72; as bride of Christ, 39;
"excrescent," 234; fish as symbol
of, 122; human, of Christ, 39; as
second Eve, 206; as sphere, 136;
"twittering," 209; world-, see
anima mundi
"soul in fetters," 19772, 20871
space-time continuum, 24, 25871
space-time quaternio, 251, 252, 253,

spark, 219/

Sphere, the, 9371; soul as, 136
spider, 226

Spiegelberg, W., 12271
spinal cord, 233
Spinning Woman, 11
spirit, 64, 142; animus and, 16;

archetype of, 85/; of the world,

"Spirit in the Bottle, the," 235
spirits, seven, 10571
spiritus, 160, 187
Spitteler, Carl, 13, 26771
splitting, 119/, 12071; of conscious/

unconscious, 247-4871; of Original

Man, 204
spondilo, 138
spring-point, 93
square, and circle, 224/, 264
stabilization, 243
stag, 150
Stahl, G. E., 251
star, rising of, and birth of hero,

"star of the sea," 128
starfish, 128/, 15471
steel, 133; alchemical, 161; see also

stella marina, 128/
Stella maris, 135, 137
Stephen, St., 7571

Stephen of Canterbury, 112

sterility, feeling of, 9

stimuli: endosomatic, 3; uncon-
scious, 4

stone: animate, 159; as Christ-
image, 67; cinedian, 138/; com-
plement of serpent, 245; derived
from circle and quaternity motif,
224; dragon's, 138; Heracleian,
185; inner man as, 208; making
the, a "human attitude," 166;
projection of unified self, 170;
psychic relationship to man, 167;
symbol of self, 246; unity of, 170;
see also lapis

Strauss, Heinz Arthur, 8271

subject, necessary to consciousness,
3; and object, differentiation in
consciousness, 193

"subjective factor," 223

sublimation, 259

subliminal, see unconscious

substance, metaphysical, 161

sucking-fish, 140

sulphur(s), 171, 23971, 250

Summa Fratris Reneri, 14671

Summum Bonum, God as, 45/, 52

sun, 249, 260

Sutech, 78

swan, 81

Swedenborg, Emanuel, 198

Switzerland, 225

sword, 187

Syene, 121

symbol(s): in alchemy, 179; autono-
mous, 31; of Christ and the devil,
72; dogma as, 175; Gnostic, 196^;
for God, 195; Indian, 175; mean-
ing of, 73; of opposite sex, 10;
pictorial, psychology and, 194;
polarity of, 129/; quaternary, in
dreams, 132; theriomorphic, 186;
triadic, 24371; uniting, 194; of
unity and totality, 31; see also
anima; animus; mandala

symbolism: sexual, Christ and, 202;
theriomorphic, of self, 226



"symbolum": as aqua doctrinae,
180; creed as, 174

symptoms, localization of, 186

synchronicity, 85, 150, 168, 258; of
archetype, 184

Synesius of Cyrene, 116, 1597*

synthesis, 260

Syria: cult of fish in, 121; dove and
fish in, 115; round fish in, 138

s y z ygy(- ies )> 33> l 9 1 > 254; Adam/
Eve, 254; anima/animus, n/f,
266; in Clementine Homilies, 54;
divine, in Christianity, 21; proto-
type of divine couples, 34; Valen-
tinian, 228; wholeness superior to,
31; see also opposites

Tabari, Chronique of, 79ft, 107

Tabula smaragdina, 126, 265

Tacitus, 76

talents, parable of the, 166

Talmud, Babylonian, 5872, 5971, 6072,
79, 8on, 83, 107, 116, 117, 118,
149; and astrology, 81

Tanit, 121

tanninim, 79, 80, 81

Tantrism, 21771

Tao, 58, 69; symbol for God, 195;
as "valley spirit," 180

Targums, 10771

Tatian, 46

tebund, 120

Tefnut, 207

Tehom, 237

WXetos, 212, 21371

reXe/oxm, see completeness

temperature, Arctic, 52

tension: conscious/ unconscious, 20;
signified by Christ's advent, 44;
in uroboros, 248/; see also oppo-

tentacles, 128

teoqualo, 144

Tertullian, 37, 76, gon

tetrads, 191

tetrameria, 254; alchemical, 259

Tetramorph, 36

Thabit ibn Qurrah, 126

Thales, 157, 199

Theatrum chemicum, 13071, 13m,
1327*, 13771, 13971, 14071, 14371,
15671, 15771, 15872, 16072, 16371,

18772, 19772, 22072, 22172, 23572,
23772, 23872, 23972, 24072, 26l72,

thema, 136

Theodor Bar-Kuni, 197

Theologia Germanica, 89

Theophilus of Antioch, 46

Theophrastus, 141, 222

theoria, 142, 171, 179, 181

Thessalonians, Second Epistle to

the: (2 : 3/f), 3672
Thiele, Georg, gin
thieves, two, at crucifixion, 44, 69,


thinking, 32

third, superordinate, 180

Thomas, Acts of, 116, 197

Thomas Aquinas, St., 51/, 87,

Thorndike, Lynn, 9672, 98/2, 10272

Thracian riders, 73

three: as defective quaternity, 224;
and one, motif, 225, 253; see also

Tiamat, 120

Tifereth, 268

Tigris, 199

Timaeus, 136

Timochares, planisphere of, 91

tincture, synonyms for, 137

Titus of Bostra, 48

Tobit, 113

tongue(s), 135, 137; fiery, 129, i35n

tortoise, 226

totality, 34, 143/; becoming con-
scious, 259; Christ as divine, 37,
39, 41; chthonic, 224; idea of,



62n; images of, 40; spiritual, 224;

symbols of, 31, 190; see also

"Tractatulus Avicennae," 16771
"Tractatus Aristotelis . . .," 235*1
Tractatus aureus, 18771, 220, 237/1,

tradition, 181
transference, 229
transformation: Christian, 169;

formula of, 259; prefigurations

in, 261; skull as vessel of, 238;

tree as symbol of, 235
transition, from waking to sleeping,

treasure, guarded by dragon /snake,


tree: philosophical, 235; and ser-
pent, 235; as symbol of self, 226

Trevisanus, see Bernardus Trevi-

triad: lower, 99, 224; male and
female, in pseudo-Clement, 55;
in man, 22; Naassene, 209; op-
posed to trinity, 224

trichotomies, 65/

trickster, Mercurius as, 20371

Trinity, the, 35, 131, 253, Plate II;
devil lacking in, 86; divine sphere
of, 57; dogma of, 177; Jesus' soul
as, 201; Kepler and, 207; Naas-
sene, 197, 226; space/ time/causal-
ity, 258; spiritual totality, 224;
triad opposed to, 224

Troad, the, 15671

truth(s), 171; first, 178; psychologi-
cal, 27

Tuamutef, 123

Tuat, 122

Turba philosophorum, 126, 137,

143, 22071, 250

Turukalukundram, 21771

twelve, 224

Twins, the, see Gemini; Saviour of

the, 7971, 12271
Typhon, 99, 121, 122


Ugarit, 119

Uhlhorn, 25471

umbra Jesu, 106

Unas, 122

uncertainty relationship, between
conscious and unconscious, 226

uncomeliness, outward, 140

unconscious: alchemy and symbol-
ism of unconscious processes, 179;
cannot be "done with," 20; col-
lective, see collective unconscious;
compensation in, 124; contents
of, and man's totality, 140; con-
tents of ego, three groups, 4, 7;
dawn-state and, 148; fear of, 33;
fishes as product of, 149; frighten-
ing figures in, 225; Gnostics and,
190; in Hippolytus and Epiphan-
ius, 66; importance of, 5; integra-
tion of contents, 23; organizing
principle of, 204; "our sea"
symbol of, 142; personal and im-
personal, 7, 169; problems of inte-
gration of, 181; processes, com-
pensatory to conscious, 204;
Proteus personifying, 216; self
and the, 3; soul as projection of,
142; theriomorphism and, 145; as
the unknown in the inner world,
3; without qualities, 191

unconsciousness: and proneness to
suggestion, 247-4871; sin of, 19271

uncontrollable natural forces, ac-
tion of, 25/

underworld, gods of, 224

unicorn, 150

unity, 31, 34; complement of qua-
ternity, 224; in Kircher, 263; as
symbol of self, 226; transcendent,
stone as, 170

Unknown, the: ego and, 3; two
groups of objects in, 3

Upanishads, see Brihaddranyaka
and Kena

Urania, 8971



uroboros, 190, 246, 248, 257, 259,

Valentinians, 6571, 190, 191, 19771,

Valentinus, 4m, 110, 23471, 269
value, 27/f; feeling as function of,

value quanta, 29
values, reversal of, 233
Vamana, 176
vas, 238; naturale, 241; see also

Vaughan, Thomas, 13372
Vedas, 204
"veiled one," 18
Venus ( $ ), 76, 7771, 112, 155
Veritas, 160, 161, 171, 181; prima,

vessel: in alchemy, 238/f; Hermetic/

nigromantic, 240; as symbol, 224/
Vigenere, Blaise de, 132, 139, 197*1,

vinegar, 23972; see also ace turn
viper, 72
Vir Unus, 205

virgin, mother-goddess as, 104
Virgo (TTJ2), 77^, 8072, 10472, 105;

Mercurius as, 127
Virolleaud, Charles, 119
virtues, 24, 25
Vishnu, 113, 11472, 176
"Visio Arislei," see "Aenigmata ex

Visione Arislei"
visions, 223
Vitus, Richardus, 1372
voice, fourfold, of Christ, 206
"volatile," winged beings as, 120
Voltaire, 9872
Vollers, Karl, 11 in
Vulcan, 249/, 252


Wackerbarth, Graf August J. L.
von, 80

Waite, Arthur Edward, 13372

Waldenses, 83, 150

wand, golden, of Hermes, 208

water: in alchemy, 159/, 180, 249;
baptismal, 180; bright, 139; in
dreams, 225; of life, 155; living,
184, 199/, 207; magical, 187; as
magnetic agent, 188; prime sub-
stance, 199; real, used in ritual,
188; of rivers of Paradise, 199/;
symbol and, 180

"wedding, chymical," 40, 268

Weiss, Johannes, 21372

Werblowsky, Zwi, 58

West, and Eastern thought, 176

whale-dragon, 111, 118

wheat-sheaf, 105

wheel: as symbol, 224; of birth, 136,
137, 224; of heaven, 136

White, Victor, O.P., 6m, 17872

whitening, 148; see also albedo;

whole: present in ego, 111; pro-
creative nature of, 201

wholeness, 169, 183; archetype of,
40; in Christ, 41, 6272; empirical,
31; image of, x, 24; of individual,
195; knowledge as, 222; para-
doxical, 145; psychic, and God-
image, 198; restoration of, 259;
symbols of, 40, 171, 194, 195, 198;
- , and God, 195; see also com-
pleteness; totality

Wickes, Frances G., 22072

Wilhelm, Richard, 26472

will: free, 5/; of God, 26/; and im-
pulses, 27; omnipotence of, 26;
and psyche, 4

wind, north, 100, 120, 12572

wine, 225

Wirth, Albrecht, 11672, 11772

Wischnitzer-Bernstein, Rahel, 11572

wise old man, 22, 152, 210, 229

witches, 175

wolf, 150

woman: in Apocalypse, 105; clothed
with the sun, 103; image of, 13;



from side of Christ, 204; star-
crowned, 12, 103/
Word, the, 200; see also Logos
world situation, present, 70
world-soul/world spirit, see anima

world-views, parallel, 173
World War, second, 36
wrath, of Yahweh, see Yahweh
"wrath-fire," God's, 61
Wunsche, August, 106/1, 107/1

Yahweh, 46, 229; changing concept
of, 192; demiurge, 65, 75; in-
justice of, 55; justice of, 59;
monsters of, 116, 118, 123, see
also Behemoth, Leviathan; Saturn
and, 197; unreliability of, 108;
wrath of, 58/, 105

Yajiiavalkya, 223

Yajui, Son

Yama, 217/1

yang/yin relationship, 58, 180

year: Christ as, 204; Platonic, 8 in

Yehoshua/Yeshua, see Joshua

Yima, 24671

yod, 2i8n

yoga, Buddhism and, 176

Zarathustra, 246/1
Zechariah, Book of: (4 : 10), 105/1
Zeesar, 210-11
Zen Buddhism, 169
Zeus, 206/1

Zipporah, 209/1, 227/, 244, 251, 252
zodia, 118, 148

zodiac, 94/1; signs of, 81, 230/1
Zohar, 107/1, 117, 214
Zoroaster, 220/1

Zosimos, 65/1, 157/1, 182, 197/*, 237/1,
238, 245/1




A he publication of the first complete edition, in English, of the works
of C. G. Jung was undertaken by Routledge and Kegan Paul, Ltd., in
England and by Bollingen Foundation in the United States. The Ameri-
can edition is number XX in Bollingen Series, which since 1967 has been
published by Princeton University Press. The edition contains revised
versions of works previously published, such as Psychology of the Uncon-
scious, which is now entitled Symbols of Transformation; works originally
written in English, such as Psychology and Religion; works not previously
translated, such as Aion; and, in general, new translations of virtually all
of Professor Jung's writings. Prior to his death, in 1961, the author super-
vised the textual revision, which in some cases is extensive. Sir Herbert
Read (d. 1968), Dr. Michael Fordham, and Dr. Gerhard Adler compose
the Editorial Committee; the translator is R. F. C. Hull (except for Volume
2) and William McGuire is executive editor.

The price of the volumes varies according to size; they are sold sepa-
rately, and may also be obtained on standing order. Several of the volumes
are extensively illustrated. Each volume contains an index and, in most
cases, a bibliography; the final volume will contain a complete bibliography
of Professor Jung's writings and a general index to the entire edition.

In the following list, dates of original publication are given in paren-
theses (of original composition, in brackets). Multiple dates indicate


On the Psychology and Pathology of So-Called Occult Phenomena

On Hysterical Misreading (1904)
Cryptomnesia (1905)
On Manic Mood Disorder (1903)

A Case of Hysterical Stupor in a Prisoner in Detention (1902)
On Simulated Insanity (1903)

A Medical Opinion on a Case of Simulated Insanity (1904)
A Third and Final Opinion on Two Contradictory Psychiatric Diag-
noses (1906)
On the Psychological Diagnosis of Facts (1905)


Translated by Leopold Stein in collaboration with Diana Riviere


The Associations of Normal Subjects (by Jung and F. Riklin)

Experimental Observations on Memory

The Psychological Diagnosis of Evidence

An Analysis of the Associations of an Epileptic

The Association Method (1910)

The Family Constellation (1910)

Reaction-Time in the Association Experiment

Disturbances in Reproduction in the Association Experiment

The Psychopathological Significance of the Association Experiment

Psychoanalysis and Association Experiments

Association, Dream, and Hysterical Symptom


On Psychophysical Relations of the Association Experiment
Psychophysical Investigations with the Galvanometer and Pneumo-
graph in Normal and Insane Individuals (by F. Peterson and
Further Investigations on the Galvanic Phenomenon and Respiration
in Normal and Insane Individuals (by C. Ricksher and Jung)

The Psychology of Dementia Praecox (1907)
The Content of the Psychoses (1908/1914)
On Psychological Understanding (1914)
A Criticism of Bleuler's Theory of Schizophrenic Negativism (1911)

* Published 1957; 2nd edn., 1970. f Published i960.

On the Importance of the Unconscious in Psychopathology (1914)

On the Problem of Psychogenesis in Mental Disease (1919)

Mental Disease and the Psyche (1928)

On the Psychogenesis of Schizophrenia (1939)

Recent Thoughts on Schizophrenia (1957)

Schizophrenia (1958)


Freud's Theory of Hysteria: A Reply to Aschaffenburg (1906)

The Freudian Theory of Hysteria (1908)

The Analysis of Dreams (1909)

A Contribution to the Psychology of Rumour (1910-11)

On the Significance of Number Dreams (1910-11)

Morton Prince, "The Mechanism and Interpretation of Dreams": A

Critical Review (1911)
On the Criticism of Psychoanalysis (1910)
Concerning Psychoanalysis (1912)
The Theory of Psychoanalysis (1913)
General Aspects of Psychoanalysis (1913)
Psychoanalysis and Neurosis (1916)
Some Crucial Points in Psychoanalysis: A Correspondence between

Dr. Jung and Dr. Loy (1914)
Prefaces to "Collected Papers on Analytical Psychology" (1916, 1917)
The Significance of the Father in the Destiny of the Individual

( 1 99/ 1 949)
Introduction to Kranefeldt's "Secret Ways of the Mind" (1930)
Freud and Jung: Contrasts (1929)




Two Kinds of Thinking

The Miller Fantasies: Anamnesis

The Hymn of Creation

The Song of the Moth

The Concept of Libido
The Transformation of Libido
The Origin of the Hero (continued)

* Published 1961.

f Published 1956; 2nd edn., 1967. (65 plates, 43 text figures.)

5. (continued)

Symbols of the Mother and of Rebirth

The Battle for Deliverance from the Mother

The Dual Mother

The Sacrifice


Appendix: The Miller Fantasies


The Problem of Types in the History of Classical and Medieval

Schiller's Ideas on the Type Problem
The Apollinian and the Dionysian
The Type Problem in Human Character
The Type Problem in Poetry
The Type Problem in Psychopathology
The Type Problem in Aesthetics
The Type Problem in Modern Philosophy
The Type Problem in Biography
General Description of the Types
Four Papers on Psychological Typology (1913, 1925, 1931, 1936)


On the Psychology of the Unconscious (1917/1926/1943)
The Relations between the Ego and the Unconscious (1928)
Appendices: New Paths in Psychology (1912); The Structure of the
Unconscious (1916) (new versions, with variants, 1966)

On Psychic Energy (1928)
The Transcendent Function ([1916]/ 1957)
A Review of the Complex Theory (1934)

The Significance of Constitution and Heredity in Psychology (1929)
Psychological Factors Determining Human Behavior (1937)
Instinct and the Unconscious (1919)
The Structure of the Psyche (1927/1931)
On the Nature of the Psyche (1947/1954)

* Published 1953; 2nd edn., 1966.
f Published i960; 2nd edn., 1969.

General Aspects of Dream Psychology (1916/1948)

On the Nature of Dreams (1945/1948)

The Psychological Foundations of Belief in Spirits (1920/1948)

Spirit and Life (1926)

Basic Postulates of Analytical Psychology (1931)

Analytical Psychology and Weltanschauung (1928/1931)

The Real and the Surreal (1933)

The Stages of Life (1930-1931)

The Soul and Death (1934)

Synchronicity: An Acausal Connecting Principle (1952)

Appendix: On Synchronicity (1951)


Archetypes of the Collective Unconscious (1934/1954)

The Concept of the Collective Unconscious (1936)

Concerning the Archetypes, with Special Reference to the Anima

Concept (1936/1954)
Psychological Aspects of the Mother Archetype (1938/1954)
Concerning Rebirth (1940/1950)
The Psychology of the Child Archetype (1940)
The Psychological Aspects of the Kore (1941)
The Phenomenology of the Spirit in Fairytales (1945/1948)
On the Psychology of the Trickster-Figure (1954)
Conscious, Unconscious, and Individuation (1939)
A Study in the Process of Individuation (1934/1950)
Concerning Mandala Symbolism (1950)
Appendix: Mandalas (1955)

*g. part 11. AION (1951)


The Ego

The Shadow

The Syzygy: Anima and Animus

The Self

Christ, a Symbol of the Self

The Sign of the Fishes

The Prophecies of Nostradamus

The Historical Significance of the, Fish

The Ambivalence of the Fish Symbol (continued)

* Published 1959; 2nd edn., 1968. (Part I: 79 plates, with 29 in colour.)

9. (continued)

The Fish in Alchemy

The Alchemical Interpretation of the Fish

Background to the Psychology of Christian Alchemical Symbolism

Gnostic Symbols of the Self

The Structure and Dynamics of the Self


The Role of the Unconscious (1918)
Mind and Earth (1927/1931)
Archaic Man (1931)

The Spiritual Problem of Modern Man (1928/1931)
The Love Problem of a Student (1928)
Woman in Europe (1927)

The Meaning of Psychology for Modern Man (1933/1934)
The State of Psychotherapy Today (1934)

Preface and Epilogue to "Essays on Contemporary Events" (1946)
Wotan (1936)

After the Catastrophe (1945)
The Fight with the Shadow (1946)
The Undiscovered Self (Present and Future) (1957)
Flying Saucers: A Modern Myth (1958)
A Psychological View of Conscience (1958)
Good and Evil in Analytical Psychology (1959)
Introduction to Wolff's "Studies in Jungian Psychology" (1959)
The Swiss Line in the European Spectrum (1928)
Reviews of Keyserling's "America Set Free" (1930) and "La Revo-
lution Mondiale" (1934)
The Complications of American Psychology (1930)
The Dreamlike World of India (1939)
What India Can Teach Us (1939)
Appendix: Documents (1933-1938)



Psychology and Religion (The Terry Lectures) (1938/1940)

A Psychological Approach to the Dogma of the Trinity (1942/1948)

Transformation Symbolism in the Mass (1942/1954)

* Published 1964; 2nd edn., 1970. (8 plates.)
f Published 1958; 2nd edn., 1969.

Forewords to White's "God and the Unconscious" and Werblowsky's

"Lucifer and Prometheus" (1952)
Brother Klaus (1933)
Psychotherapists or the Clergy (1932)
Psychoanalysis and the Cure of Souls (1928)
Answer to Job (1952)


Psychological Commentaries on "The Tibetan Book of the Great
Liberation" (1939/1954) and "The Tibetan Book of the Dead"

(i935/ 1 953)

Yoga and the West (1936)

Foreword to Suzuki's "Introduction to Zen Buddhism" (1939)

The Psychology of Eastern Meditation (1943)

The Holy Men of India: Introduction to Zimmer's "Der Weg zum

Selbst" (1944)
Foreword to the "I Ching" (1950)


Prefatory Note to the English Edition ([1951?] added 1967)
Introduction to the Religious and Psychological Problems of Alchemy
Individual Dream Symbolism in Relation to Alchemy (1936)
Religious Ideas in Alchemy (1937)


Commentary on "The Secret of the Golden Flower" (1929)
The Visions of Zosimos (1938/1954)
Paracelsus as a Spiritual Phenomenon (1942)
The Spirit Mercurius (1943/1948)
The Philosophical Tree (1945/1954)



The Components of the Coniunctio

The Paradoxa

The Personification of the Opposites

Rex and Regina (continued)

* Published 1953; 2nd edn., completely revised, 1968. (270 illustrations.)
f Published 1968. (50 plates, 4 text figures.)
j Published 1963; 2nd edn., 1970. (10 plates.)

14. (continued)
Adam and Eve
The Conjunction

Paracelsus (1929)
Paracelsus the Physician (1941)
Sigmund Freud in His Historical Setting (1932)
In Memory of Sigmund Freud (1939)
Richard Wilhelm: In Memoriam (1930)
On the Relation of Analytical Psychology to Poetry (1922)
Psychology and Literature (1930/1950)
"Ulysses": A Monologue (1932)
Picasso (1932)



Principles of Practical Psychotherapy (1935)

What Is Psychotherapy? (1935)

Some Aspects of Modern Psychotherapy (1930)

The Aims of Psychotherapy (1931)

Problems of Modern Psychotherapy (1929)

Psychotherapy and a Philosophy of Life (1943)

Medicine and Psychotherapy (1945)

Psychotherapy Today (1945)

Fundamental Questions of Psychotherapy (1951)


The Therapeutic Value of Abreaction (1921/1928)
The Practical Use of Dream-Analysis (1934)
The Psychology of the Transference (1946)

Appendix: The Realities of Practical Psychotherapy ([1937] added,

Psychic Conflicts in a Child (1910/1946)

Introduction to Wickes's "Analyse der Kinderseele" (1927/1931)
Child Development and Education (1928)

Analytical Psychology and Education: Three Lectures (1926/1946)
The Gifted Child (1943)

* Published 1966.

f Published 1954; 2nd edn., revised and augmented, 1966. (13 illustrations.)

X Published 1954.

The Significance of the Unconscious in Individual Education (1928)
The Development of Personality (1934)
Marriage as a Psychological Relationship (1925)


Posthumous and Other Miscellaneous Works


Complete Bibliography of C. G. Jung's Writings
General Index to the Collected Works


This edition, in eighteen or more volumes, will contain
revised versions of earlier works by Jung, works not
previously translated, and works originally written in
English. In general, it will present new translations of
the major body of Jung's writings. The entire edition
constitutes No. XX in Bollingen Series.

1. Psychiatric Studies ( 1 957)

2. Experimental Researches (in preparation)

3. The Psychogenesis of Mental Disease

4. Freud and Psychoanalysis (1961)

5. Symbols of Transformation
(1956; 2nd edn., 1967)

6. Psychological Types (in preparation)

7. Two Essays on Analytical Psychology
(1953; 2nd edn., 1966)

8. The Structure and Dynamics of the
Psyche (7960/ 2nd edn., 1969)

9. part I. The Archetypes and the Collective
Unconscious (7 959; 2nd edn., 1968)

9. part ii. Aion: Researches into the
Phenomenology of the Self (7959;
2nd edn., 1968)

10. Civilization in Transition (1964)

1 1 . Psychology and Religion: West and East
(1958; 2nd edn., 1969)

12. Psychology and Alchemy
(7953; 2nd edn., 1968)

13. Alchemical Studies (7 968)

14. Mysterium Coniunctionis
(7 963; 2nd edn., 1970)

15. The Spirit in Man, Art, and Literature

16. The Practice of Psychotherapy
(1954; 2nd edn., 1966)

17. The Development of Personality
(1954; 2nd pr., 1964)

Final Volumes: Miscellaneous Works,
Bibliography, and General Index


questions, comments, take-down requests, reporting broken-links etc.
contact me @ integralyogin at gmail dot com






Aion - Part 13+

--- DICTIONARIES (in Dictionaries, in Quotes, in Chapters)

--- QUOTES [0 / 1000 - 0 / 500] (in Dictionaries, in Quotes, in Chapters)

KEYS (10k)


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Aion_-_Part_13+, #Aion, #Carl Jung, #Psychology
  object:Aion - Part 13+