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Instances, Classes, See Also, Object in Names
Definitions, . Quotes . - . Chapters .

object:5.4.01 - Notes on Root-Sounds
book class:Vedic and Philological Studies
author class:Sri Aurobindo
subject class:Integral Yoga
collection class:cwsa

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absolute existence
relative existence
pervasive, contained or progressive existence
r possession, mastery, creation, action
r attack, invasion, insistence, attrition or detrition
r contact, motion, action upon
r violent contact, hostile action, strong motion
r swift and brilliant action, existence, contact
r the same with a greater lightness
r restless, brilliant, decisive action, existence or contact
r the same with a greater lightness
r hardness, force, crudityrajasic
r the same with a greater impetuosityd[itt]o
r dulness, persistence, obstinacyrajaso-tamasic
r obstinacy, tenacity
s touch, impact,lighter than c
s&r the same with greater force
s&r hard forcible impact or action
s softer but strong impact or action
s gentle but effective relation
s soft touch or impact, kindly relation, possessive action
s&r the same with greater force
s soft, strong embracing contact, possession, action
s the same with a sense of containing
s limitation, finality, completion
s relation
s love, sweetness etc in relation
s vibration, play
s manifest existence
r vehemence in union
r strong action in rest
r repose, union
r force


Sound . . h. h.

Contact t. d. th. dh. l. s. h.

Light c. j. jh. ch.

Pervasion Motion l. . v (pervasion) p. ph. b. bh. (violent motion, motion upward or motion and contact) r (vibratory motion) n.

Substance a. i. u. k. g. gh. kh. m.
Roots in a


ap to move, flow, fly habitually .. move to, gain .. possess, marry, love .. beget, father.

ar to move round .. (be moving continually in a circle), to writhe, struggle .. fight .. turn; plough; till; wind; .. adore, worship.

as to be, exist .. live, live on .. eat; enjoy(a)

am to move up to, under etc .. to submit, be subject to .. consent, acquiesce .. adore, worship, love, to contain, embrace.

an to be, breathe, live ..


Name of Vishnu (Virat-purusha
in ).
Name of Shiva, Brahma, Vayu or Vaishwanara.

N[ote]. It is doubtful whether
in the sense of Vishnu had in its origin any connection of dependence with
, the first letter of the sacred syllable; both rather proceed from a single & common origin,
to be, in the widest sense of the idea, being primal, all pervading, vague and indefinable. Hence it is applicable to any of the three great deities who occupy & represent infinite & universal being, Vishnu, Shiva or Brahma; by a natural figure emphatic of the sense of it became applicable to Vaiswanara or Virat Purusha. By transference to the idea of pervasive life & movement to Vayu, the god of wind, breath & the life principle. Cf
, .

The first letter of the Onkra, representing material world being; from a to be, & bearing the sense of initial & pervasive being.


(1) a negative prefix, expressing defect, absence or opposition.

(2) a prohibitive particle.

(3) an interjection of (a) address, O! (b) pity, Ah! (c) censure, Oh! Fie!

The idea of defect or disparagement or deprecation visible also in the root ( etc) may derive (a) from the idea of unfinished & therefore imperfect being, (b) from the use of
as a separative & therefore exclusive enclitic, lit. = let be, exclude that, not that.

10 U. to divide, distribute, share.



to breathe
the soul, being Rv.
to move, go about
to live
(to gasp, pant Vd)

breath. Bri. U.

, etc.

mean, base.

Name of a tree.

fire .. wind .. bile ..n of several plants
fifth Vasu .. N of Vasudevasoul.. Vishnu..Supreme spirit

Vedic thus, hereby, indeed

cart ..
boiled food.. rice .. kitchen
living being ..

group, mass.. army
(-) battle
row, line, column
front, head .. face, countenance
form, splendour
edge, point.


in rows, columns

army, lotus.

wind .. Vishnu

a man
son of Yayati.

men, peopleforeign people
human.. kind to men?

greedy, lustful

after, behind, along, with
according to by reason of
towards, near, at.

in abundance. Vd.

plank or board at side of bed or head

after .. afterwards
from behind
favourably, -ble.

horizontal, lengthwise

, watery place, marsh, bog,

   bank (mountain also), pond
   buffalo, frog, elephant ..
   kind of partridge

attainable, friendly..
near water.

no, not

mouth.. breath..
nose .. breathing

mouth, face ..
book, chapter


food, corn, rice ..
water, earth..

the sun


, -

, -, -


-, -
- -
-, -
-, -

to sound,
breathe, live.

) small, mean, insignificant
low, inferior, vile

point of a needle, linchpin
corner of house

corner of a house
limit, boundary
edge of sword
part of leg just above knee

minute, small, atomic


very small

atom, particle .. instant
a small grain

(eg mustard etc)

minuteness, atomic
nature.. Anima

very small, atomic..
subtle .. acute

fit to bear

(Panicum Miliaceum)

Vd finger (Say.)? (Apte query)

fine hole in Soma strainer (?) (do)



from OS [Old Sanskrit]
to breathe. Prooffrom derivatives

= originally life (cf ), then day

= , that which breathes, lives by breathing, snake

= breath, spirit (), self, within, I .. I is the latest sense.

= that which breathes, lives, then the principle of life or existence, that which is sukshma, so, the atom

OS desiderative, to wish to breathe, to live, to be.

breath, life, strength.
NB. Persian

to blow, (wind), rush, throw.

She who breathes, is strong. , . Pallas Athene

to breathe, OS intensitive, eg from or (strike), from [or] (measure), from or . Cf , , , etc.

vigour, life, joy OS

joyous. Cf Tamil

joyous OS Cf



(,) raise, liftexcite, impel .. hang up, heighten
.. take, bear, carry .. conceive, perceive .. take off, destroy ..
weigh anchor, strike tents, start, set off.

used of all strong action, state, motion, feeling etc.
So to raise, lift, increase; to throw, remove, destroy. All the other
senses follow. Cf noble, exalted, excellent, Lt [Latin] ara,
an altar (high place).

o, to undertake, commence; bear, suffer; carry away.
A frequent sense of this root from the sense of taking up, leading
or acting (starting action). Cf o, I begin, lit. I lead.
Roots in i

-Family of Sanscrit Roots


to be, appear

(obsolete, extant in Latin, Bengali and Tamil) .. This here.
hence, henceforward .. from this person.

Vedic emphatic particle = indeed, verily.. even; just, only

thus, so. ( +)
, , Perhaps ,

thus, so, in this manner

thus, indeed, truly.

even, just, only.

this .. here, now, there, herewith
, , , , , ,

so much, so large, to this extent
, , ,


like, as if .. a little, perhaps .. just, exactly, indeed.

this, him in Vedic

such a condition. , , ,

verily, now, this, here. Cf

* produced, effected

this, he
, , ,

Vishnu Shiva

thus, then. Cf etc.

here, in this place (perhaps Motion)

Birth, Production

to appear.. spring from, arise from (but cf )

to become pregnant
produced, effected

( history, narrative, tradition tradition)

to prepare, arrange* cf and to dispose

people, subjects cf ,

to produce (C[ausative]) ..
to rise, spring from
(but see Motion)

Growth. See also words meaning plants.

to thrive, prosper.
wealthy, opulent

to grow.. prosper, swell, rise, extend.
increased.. a man .. prosperity. ( fire)
, prosperity, happiness ( fuel, also :)

+ wonderful wonder in

affluence, increase
to swell, increase.

+ spring ,

to grow.

Mass, Thickness, Dullness.

, ,
a round small plate to protect hand in taking fire-irons


- (also , -, & , -) a building made of rubbish, bones or hard substance .. a tomb or wall round bones .. a sanctuary filled with relics- (also , -, & , -) a building made of rubbish, bones or hard substance .. a tomb or wall round bones .. a sanctuary filled with relics

to keep still, quiet .. sleep

brick ,

: pond, mud.

+, ,
earth (lit. matter). , (but also possibly Motion)

food , , ,

sap, refreshment, drink .. food. , , (also water), ,

Strength, Force and Power.

having a lord or master

to be powerful
Indra .. lord, prince .. the soul .. greatness
, , , -, , ,
+ (hall).
Vd. sense to be determined.
power, force .. organ of sense .. virile power, seed.

the Supreme Being.

to be lord, take possession of .. to invigorate .. (to force, compel).
able, strong, bold
lord, master, king , (try to reach or get)

seize, take possession of.

+ king Vd power or servants. Cf Gr (Greek) strength.

to be master of (prepare, arrange, dispose). Perhaps

active, powerful.. lord, master.

strength, power, sap
strong, powerful
to be active, animate, strengthen
powerful, strong, active
invitation, order

to be able, have power .. own .. rule, be master.
, , , , , , , , , , -, -
, -, , , .

Force put forth, Action, Exertion

effort, exertion .. deed, act, undertaking

Pressure, Constraint, Confinement, Attack, Injury, Penetration

to resist, oppose .. annoy (Injury)

+ plague, distress .. infectious disease, affray. See below -

to eat Cf

, to censure, blame.


a kind of poisonous insect

to force, compel

misfortune, misery

to bind

rat, mouse ( to gnaw)

sin, offence, fault, crime .. censure, blame .. Unhappiness
, ,

( plague etc)

cruel, harsh .. low, vile, despised .. poor (cf etc) eunuch.

enemy, foe.

, - bolt, bar.

, wound, sore
a plaster for wounds.

destroying the enemy. Vd.

, - destructive, carnivorous. a cave animal

weapon.. cudgel .. short sword.


to hurt, attack, kill } Motion
weapon, arrow, dart } Motion

to be probed
probing (driving, pressing)
a probe


Wish, Desire, Love

to ask, beg.
asking, requesting
longing for, seeking to obtain

wish, desire


to desire, wish .. beg

asking, requesting

+ longing for, seeking to obtain. Perhaps

to wish (only in )
wish, desire, will
question, problem (Math)
, , , ,

implore, request, ask for.
prayer , , ,
(+ object of devotion)

wish, desire
, -

to wish, desire, strive for, seek, request.. acknowledge,
regard, be favourable.
, , , , , , ,

, to implore, ask, desire oblations

to desire, wish, aim at, attempt.
, , ,

to desire, request, attempt.
, , , , , , , , , , ,


to be worshipped

teacher, Brihaspati .. Pushya .. God .. Vishnu.

worship, reverence .. image

object of devotion

Joy, Mirth.

to gladden in Veda. Tamil

to be merry, frolicsome, mischievous. Perhaps however from motion

Anger, Jealousy

to be jealous

to be angry, insolent, hostile

, to be jealous, envy.
, , , , , ,



to go, approach, go towards, reach .. run, wander .. retire, pass, return
, , , , , (mode of going, course, way), (traveller),
an abhisarika
litter, palanquin. an unchaste woman
, a course, way

to go ( I U.)


going, walking .. walk, path, road .. entrance .. method, shastra, treatise .. suns passage, solstitial points, rotation, period .. final emancipation

to come, approach etc. , , , , (horse .. custom)

to go, pervade. a kind of fish.. breath,
to throw expiration :, , , , ,


black antelope but see et: under Light

to move, shake
, , ,
palpitation, shaking
, sign, gesture, hint
a kind of counting

, to go
Ameeting, union .. bawd, procurer.

a shrimp

to tremble, shake, move, stir.
to go

to drive
, , , , ,

to go, move.

to go, go to, towards.. make haste .. to err.

a cow
a wild goat
rainy season
a bull allowed to go at liberty
a kind of sheep
a ram, wild goat. ()

() ,river, flowing stream
black antelope () but see Light ()
, , ,

to go, advance .. press upon, rush upon.
to drive
to try to reach, strive to get. Perhaps from

to go, pervade, surround.
(? ratalready under Attack etc).


to go
to lead
earth, water .. spirit, liquor

, instigating.

to go, move, shake .. rise, spring from.. retire
to elevate the voice
Cs [Causative] to throw, cast, propel .. urge, prompt .. attract, elevate, revive .. produce.
, , ,
wandering about (as a mendicant)
arm, forequarter (part used in throwing)

to go, move, throw, send, cast
a ram, wild goat.

IV to move, to cause to move.. IX fly off, escape .. IU. to go, move IV.IX let fly, cast, throw, IX strike .. IV sprinkle .. IV raise the voice, IX impel, incite.

to move, excite, drive
sending, despatching
arrow iqFkA reed, arrow
, , ,
quick, moving. quickly
impulse, hurry
course, going

to fly, escape .. creep.
: course, going
, hastening haste

to go, approach, hasten towards .. creep, glide .. fly at, attack .. endeavour to reach or gain
, , , ,

Speech (Motion) see ,

, , speech

utter, proclaim, say.
(send up or out the voice. See Motion).

Knowledge, Memory (Motion)




+ to see, observe, perceive. (But perhaps to penetrate, Penetration)
, , , , , , , ,

+ to look, see. (Penetration)


a large bee

noise, cry

loud, noisy.


name of a perfume

, names of a perfume

(n) the fragrant bark of the Kapittha

cardamom seed & plant

a kind of perfume.
a medicinal substance or plant.

Light (beauty)
(), to shine

one (originally the sun)
, -, -, , , , , , , , , , , ,

to shine

, () to kindle, light

, , , - (also clean, clear, bright),

, , fuel , ,

the supreme being

sunshine, heat.. refulgence .. *wonder

* wonderful, obeyed.


blue lotus ,


, moon
one (cf )

sun .. glorious .. the constellation Hast ()

the stars in the head of Orion

dappled, shining

deer, antelope .. deer-hide .. variegated colour
cf ,


flash of lightning, submarine fire (therefore not speed)


Iravat (), rainbow.. a kind of lightning orange tree (therefore not motion)

light, splendour.

(, -) Kuvera

, , Mars
Roots in k


class meaning

Brahman, Vishnu
the soul
body knot, joint
happiness, joy, pleasure
wealth, property
happy, prosperous
sun fire light, splendour
king, prince
bird, peacock, king of birds
word, sound
time ()
ind, air
head head (as in , , )

suffix diminution (, )
deterioration (
bad horse)
endearment ()
likeness (
like a horse)
no modification (
a horse)


I A. to wish desire
to be proud feeling
to be unsteady ( to go) movement ?
? a kind of bird. (perhaps )Vd sound

to laugh sound
a kind of animal
bakula tree
, - a berry bearing plant
, the berry a perfume from the berries

to laugh
hard, solid
hiding place
(cf ) , secret. V to contain, cover (with the idea of circle, hollow)
interior of forest
arm-pit (boils in arm-pit)
harem of king
side or flank (of anything)
part of boat
  (elephants rope or girth)
cf waist
  filling the girth (V. Say.)
surrounding wall ,
orbit of planet
end of lower garment
(tucked behind = also tying up waist)
basin of a balance ,
climbing plant, creeper (contain, embrace, surround)
grass, dry grass
  (consisting of dry grass or of shrubs) V.
dry wood, forest of dead trees (injure, hardness pressure, projection)
buffalo (to dig, grub, burrow)
marshy ground (cut, plunge, sink?)
a plant (beleric myrobalan)

, waist, middle part (contain, surround)
enclosure , (contain, surround)
court-yard, area (contain, surround)
room, inner apartment, harem, secluded part of edifice (contain, surround)
  (i.a. of palace)

a particular part of a carriage (contain, surround)
  (also hinder part)
upper garment (contain, surround)
border, lace (of cloth) (contain, surround)
wrist (contain, surround)
similarity (to press, nearness, adjacent)
emulation, rivalry (injure, strive, fight)
objection or reply in logic (injure, press, cut)
the jewellers weight, rati (from a black or red berry)

star (light, twinkling?)
sin (to injure, hurt)

fingers cf (contain, curl, clutch, hold) cf

agreed to, promised (contained, taken in, clutched, held)

to lie in ambush (contain, enclose)
to intend anything wicked (injure, hurt etc.)
the Rishi

to laugh at, deride  (harsh sound)
enclosure, division of large building (contain, enclose)

to act, perform (cut, make, do)

to go (movement)

heron (sound)
Yama (injury, movement)
a Kshatriya .. a Vrishni ..
Yudhisthira (injure, fight)
a false or pretended
Brahmana (injury, bad, wicked)
name of a people
one of the eighteen divisions

a sort of sandal (contain, bind, tie)
scent of a lotus (smell)

, mail, defensive armour, (contain, enclose)
- military accoutrement
elephants goad (
) (injure, cut, prick)

bracelet, marriage string, (surround, contain or sound)
(-) ornament
crest (jut, project)

water-spray (sound, move, project)

, small bell, tinkling ornament, (surround or sound)
- ornament furnished with bells

, -, -, - comb (to press, cut, scrape)

a kind of tree
a poisonous animal (to injure)

bad, vile, despicable (to injure)

butter-milk (taste)
a high number =100 niyutas (mass)

skeleton (to contain)

body (to contain)

the inner body (to contain)

a kind of crow (to contain)

Alangium Hexapetalum

a kind of drug

a kind of corn

, -, , - a kind of medicinal earth

, Asoca tree


not used
enjoyment; fruition (desire, enjoy)

not in use
, a kind of Panic(?) seed
the hand cf (to contain, clutch, enclose)


Root Injury Sound

I.A. to hurt or kill to grieve .. cry, weep. to call
IV.A. to be confounded, confused, suffer mentally.

, -
, -
, -
, -
, -,

slaughter, havoc .. war .. sin Injury (Pressure)
canopy, awning. Contact = Pressure
: = Covering.
: codome, turmeric, mustard seed
- plant, kind of grass, mineral substance
codome flower, kind of grass
, multitude, group. Contact.. or Mass.
a saw .. an iron goad name of a tree (used for sacrificial post in place of Khadira) Pressure = Injury.

, - a corn (on the feet) Mass, Hardness.
coagulated milk. Mass, Density.
, -, - plaintain-tree ()
a kind of deer.
a kind of antelope
, flag, banner.
a sort of cucumber, a beautiful woman.

Root I.P. to cry, lament..
confound .. be confounded, perplexed.

, -
, -, -, -
, -
, -
, -, -, -

, - bulbous root, bulb; knot, swelling
garlic taste, smell
an affection of the male or female organ.
an esculent root; bulbous rooted.

, camphor Colour, Whiteness? cf ,

a palanquin. Motion? Covering?

, white waterlily , Colour, Whiteness
blue lotus white or blue lotus

, - a cave, valley .. , - Injury.

a hook for driving elephants. Injury.

dry ginger. Taste.
reproach, censure .. portent. Injury
Kandala flower
new shoot, sprout.. cheek, cheek and temple Mass
sweet sound Sound
budded, blown.. put forth, emitted.

gold Colour
war, battle, controversy
flag see
Deer see motion?
lotus seed

name of plant
boiler, oven.
, ball mass
pillow mass


The Vowel Group.

(1) earth. Inclusion
( Mars, a tree Sita, Durga) Roundness

* (vague whence.. where..
existence why .. how ..
or direction) whence come; how happened

wise, proficient, expert. Inclusion
Vd cf Roundness
( or whole, entire .. circle .. complete science)

(2) base (of any plane figure).

N. etc which may originally have derived from the primary root by gunation, are nevertheless included for convenience under the root

Significances of the primary form . Roundness, inclusion, comprehension

The Gunated Form.

(1.a) , armour, mail.. charm, Covering, inclusion.
an armed multitude

armour. : shield Covering, inclusion.
a staffless umbrella. Covering, inclusion.
, leaf or panel of a door Covering, inclusion.
(, )

(b) water for washing the mouth (lit. a mouthful) Inclusion (in the mouth)

, a mouthful .. gargle Inclusion(in the mouth)
eaten, swallowed, chewed.. seized Inclusion(in the mouth)
to eat, devour. Inclusion(in the mouth)
oblation of food to the Pitris Inclusion(in the mouth)
a class of Manes (but cf )

(c) prisoner (cf , ) Inclusion, Confinement.
, , the bit of a bridle
, the bit of a bridle

(d) intelligent, wise; a sage, poet. Inclusion, Comprehension.
to praise, describe .. compose, paint, picture
prophetic, poetical, praise worthy
poem, poetry, wisdom, inspiration


(2) , mixed.. set, inlaid.. variegated mixture

, , (, ) braid or fillet of hair mixture, twisting, weaving.

(3) prickly shrub. Piercing, hurt, injury
bad deed
Vd. selfish, stingy.
a female fiend.

(4) lotus.
lotus Brightness.
tepid Heat.
saffron Colour

(5) , kettledrum Sound
, Vd. sounding, creaking.
cock.. Chakravak.

(6) , - salt .. sourness, acidity. Taste

(7) happiness, welfare. Emotion.

(8) a courtesan. Sexual enjoyment

(9) mushroom moss Substance (Thickness, tuftiness)

(10) water. Motion (swelling or circling)

Significances of the gunated form Inclusion, by covering, taking in, confining, comprehension. Thick, tufted or rough substance.. Circling or swelling motion.. Strong taste .. Shrill or loud sound .. Brightness, bright colour or burning heat.. Mixture, connection.. Penetration, hurt, injury.. Strong emotion .. Sexual enjoyment.

The Guttural group

(1) a cock.. , Sound.
a small house-lizard.
(adj), : poulterer.

a cock.

a dog.

cuckoo .. frog .. wild lizard .. ruddy goose .. wolf.


(2) a wisp of lighted straw.. spark Light

firebrand. () a fire made of chaff see below (a) blaze.

saffron .. saffron-plant. (b) Colour.
red lotus.
white horse
varnish (c) Brightness

(3) a vegetable perfume Scent

(4) a spirituous liquor. Intoxication. Disturbance.

(5.a) armour, mail. Covering, inclusion

(b) belly Inclusion, hollowness

belly.. womb.. interior..
cavity, cave .. scabbard.
gluttonous, voracious
.. filling the interior.
abdominal.. attached to the sides.
in the belly, in the sheath

hole, ditch (filled with stakes).

c. to take, accept, seize. I.A. Inclosing, grasp, clutch, etc.

(6) mountain Substance.
() chaff. (Projection .. Roughness, confusion, mass)


giver of a girl in marriage
? child, infant (cf B. ) from Sound.

silk-cotton tree.

The Palatal Group.

(1) to cry shrilly VI.P. Sound
to murmur I.P.
to hum, coo, warble, moan.. fill with sound I.P.
, , cooing, warbling.. rattling of wheels.

(2) to go VI.P. Motion with contraction (winding, crouching etc)
to move crookedly, move towards

(3.a) (VI.P.), (I.P.) to contract, bend, curve .. make small, lessen. Pressure (contraction etc)
to shrink ..
to stop, impede
curving, bending.
drying, withering, aridity.
drying, withering

(b) to mix, connect. (mixture, contact, connection)

(c) to polish. (friction)

(d) to write, delineate. (cutting, shaping)

(e) key, a kind of reed.. the shoot of a bamboo.. (penetration, sharpness)
, key.

tooth, tusk.. *lower jaw (? substance, projection)

elephant. (adj)

(4) breast, teat, nipple. Roundness (Shape or Pressure)

(5) a kind of lotus.

, a pencil, small brush Substance (roughness, thickness eg tufted, hairy etc)

, , mist, fog

sour gruel

(6) a measure of capacity, 8 handfuls. (originally, name of a vessel?) Inclusion

, house-breaker

, bower, arbour .. cave.


a disease of the eye.

a festival (Lakshmi Puja).


Family arranged by classification of significances and by root groups

Guttural group.

to take, accept, seize. I.A.

one who gives a girl in marriage.
( or )

a kind of spirituous liquor.

a mountain ( or )

a wild cock, cock. () Sound.
either or
also ,
a small house-lizard Sound
a spark Light
a wisp of lighted straw.. (fire)
the silk-cotton tree.

a wild cock.. a cock.. sound.
varnish. Light? (shining)

a dog also ( or )
a vegetable perfume. Scent.

the belly. Hollow. Contain

belly.. womb .. interior.. cavity, cave .. sheath of sword. Hollow. Contain

gluttonous, voracious.. filling the interior. Hollow. Contain

saffron .. saffron plant. Light (colour)

cuckoo ; frog; wild lizard Sound.
ruddy goose (chakravaka).
Wolf. ( or )

red lotus Light (colour)

white horse or Sound or Light (colour)

firebrand Light (fire)

+ of a cock. a poulterer.

+ attached to the sides.. abdominal

in the belly, in the sheath ..

Palatal group.

to cry shrilly. VI.P. sound
to go, (march) cf vernacular movement
to polish light (shine) pressure
to contract, bend.. shrink.. stop, impede. pressure
write, delineate
mix, connect. (cf proximity, copulation) mix (substance, contact)

, IP. to shrink, contract.. make small, lessen Pressure crookedness
to bend, curve.
move crookedly. crookedness
move towards. motion.

female breast, teat, nipple. Roundness?

a kind of lotus.

+ curving, bending .. a disease of the eye.

measure of capacity (eight handfuls)

a key .. , Substance (Narrowness, penetration Sharpness.)
the shoot of a bamboo.
a kind of reed
a kind of fish

, a pencil, small brush Substance (rough, thick, hairy)

+ drying, becoming dry
drying, withering, aridity.

a tree. Light (colour)
a name of Naraka

Sita, Durga. Light? (colour)

, housebreaker. (?) cf Cover, Contain.

, , mist, fog Substance (to be thick, hazy, confused)

to murmur I.P. Sound

, bower, arbour ..cave..
lower jaw Projection
tooth .. tusk. Tearing, Penetration.

elephant.. cf ,  Penetration (goring with tusks)

sour gruel. Substance (to be thick, mixed)

I.P. to hum, coo, warble, moan.. Sound.
fill with sound.

, , cooing, warbling .. Sound.
rattling (of wheels).

a festival (?)

Cerebral group.

to be crooked, curve, bend VI.P. Pressure, curve.
to cheat, deceive, act dishonestly Crookedness, or Injury, deceit
to break, split, divide Breaking, splitting (Pressure)
to speak indistinctly Sound
to be warm, burn. Light (Fire)

bent, crooked Pressure (curve)

, waterpot, jar. Contain

house, fort Contain
hammer Pressure (breaking)

female servant.

a plough without a pole. Pressure (breaking)

the post round which the string of the churning stick passes.
(peg?) Penetration

roof, thatch. cover, contain.

(a lost ) arbour .. cottage. cover, contain.

a garden near a house (enclosure?) cover, contain.
measure of grain ()
sage, ascetic


Vd. cock (pecker?) Pressure
tent. cover, contain


roof, thatch cover, contain

cottage, hut , , d[itt]o

body.. cottage, hut. contain
curve, bend Pressure (curve)

crooked, curved, tortuous do
insincere, dishonest. do (or Injury)

a kind of perfume Scent

name of a plant Substance (hardness)

stealth, crouching
a blacksmiths forge. Pressure (beating)

cottage, hut .. Contain
vessel used for fumigation
nosegay Substance or Scent
a kind of perfume Scent.
spirituous liquor. cf
procuress. ,

(see )
sexual intercourse
exclusiveness. include, contain


procuress. ,

household, family contain (or else, sexual intercourse)

, kinsman..
offspring, race .. fig. group.

, householder ..caretaker.
member of a family

mistress of a household .. lady.
a large household.

to cut, divide .. grind, pound. Pressure (break, beat)
blame, censure. do
multiply Connection

dividing, cutting, grinding Pressure

cutting, pounding .. abusing


grinder Pressure
kingfisher Pressure or Motion

one who divides or cuts do

unskilful opening of a vein do

affected repulse of embraces.

a mountain

sexual intercourse
a woollen blanket Substance or Covering
exclusion or oneness. Contain, include

, inlaid floor, pavement. Substance (thick, granular, variegated)
prepared site Substance (thick, granular, variegated)
jewel-mine Substance (thick, granular, variegated)
pomegranate Substance (grain)
hut, cottage, small house Contain

paved, mosaic.

maid-servant, slavegirl

small mountain. , Substance.

small house, hut Contain.


X.U. to burn
to confuse, muddle
to be distressed, despair
to counsel, advise
to call, invite.
X.A. to censure
to abstain from giving

immovable, steady. Substance

, fraud, deception, trick..

falsehood, untruth
intricate point, puzzle
summit.. any projection.. end, corner. Substance (projection)
horn.. head, chief .. ( prominence, elevation)
heap, mass. in heaps. Substance
hammer Pressure (beat)
ploughshare Pressure (break)
water-jar Contain
deer-trap Conceal, cover
concealed weapon (eg swordstick) Conceal, cover
door (shut off, include)

house, dwelling Contain
an ox with broken horns Pressure (to break)

false, fraudulent

braid or tress of hair Substance or Pressure
perfume. Scent.

(-) hypocrisy

hypocrite, falsely humane mendicant

arbour .. creeper wound round a trunk. cover, curve.
thatch, roof .. hut .. granary. cover, contain

a tree with sharp thorns (torture in Hell)

, -, - a bilious fever of elephants

fat, corpulent Substance.

I.P. to be blunt, dulled.. be dull, idle,
lame, mutilated Pressure.
to loosen (relax) do
X.P. to hide Cover, conceal

blunt, dulled.. stupid, weak, indolent

a fool

blunt, dulled.. stupid
grasped, held.. Contain (seize)
encircled Contain (roundness)

fort .. hut, shed Contain
crookedness Pressure (curve)
beard. Substancerough, hairy

curving, bending

a thatcher .. name of a mixed caste

, hollow of a tree Contain. Hollowness.

, a naked woman .. Durga .. sexual intercourse.

, curved end of a bow .. end, point, edge .. Pressure (curve or prominence)
pitch, extremity .. horn or digit of moon
ten millions :
side of a right-angled triangle
complement of an arc t 90.

forming the highest point
edged, pointed

horn-shaped hair of ascetic ichneumon. Pressure (gnawing)

, harrow Pressure (breaking)

diadem, crest .. hair of ascetic. Projection

fort, castle Contain

see also

libertine (sexuality)
well .. Contain. Hollowness
stairs of a pond do
fortified town, stronghold. Contain.

ringworm.. a kind of leprosy (large round spots)

+ living in ones own house, independent
domestic, homely
fraudulent .. snared

+ fraud, falsehood .. perjury

+, a trapper, poacher
a meatseller.

+ belonging to a trap .. dishonest, fraudulent

+, crookedness.. dishonesty, wickedness.

+ hunter

+, Durga

+ belonging to the household

+ family relationship

+ constituting a family

to play, trifle cf , VI.P. ? motion

a bower, arbour (cf , )

, a measure of grain (8 handfuls) (? originally a vessel) substance or contain

body contain

hut contain

waterpot contain.

clasp of an ornament contain, confine

opening bud ( flower) contain

expanding, blossoming

a particular hell.

in blossom.. smiling, cheerful

.. half-closed.

wall.. plastering confine, enclose
eagerness, curiosity (cf ) emotion.

VI.P. to graze
to become firm or solid .. to substance
become fat. (thickness)

to support, aid VI.P.

to sound. VI.P. sound.
converse with, counsel, advise sound
X.P. (hum, whisper)
salute, invite X (call) sound.

to speak, converse sound
to contract, close pressure

, , a cripple with crooked arm.
whitlow pressure
distortion or paralysis of the hands. Substance (projection)

young animal just born.

, - corpse goblin, demon. Pressure (slay)

spear.. Pressure (pierce)
foul smell, stench. scent.

Vd. crying out Rv. 3.30.8.

horn of an animal Projection or Penetration
peg of a lute. Substance or Penetration

corner, angle .. Penetrate, Sharpness
bow of lute
intermediate point (compass)
sharp edge
stick, staff, drumstick Pressure
Mars.. Saturn.
a sort of musical instrument.

to burn.. maim, mutilate. I.A. Pressure (cut)
to eat do
to heap Substance
to protect X.U. Cover, enclose

basin, bowl.. hole, pool Pressure. Curve. Hollow



keeper of concubines.. atheist.. bastard Brahman

a vile fellow.

, - gruel.

(-) bracelet, earring .. rope-coil .. fetter, tie curve, enclose

earringed .. circular, winding, coiling. do
a snake, peacock, spotted deer.
Varuna, Shiva.

Shakti do

drawing a circle to show omission

pitcher.. kamandalu. Contain

horse. motion.

, strong.

The Dental Group.

fire .. sun. cf Burning
guest ..
daughters son .. sisters son
a musical instrument
the eighth muhurta of the day :
a suitable time for Sraddha :

Kusha grass.

desire, inclination .. curiosity, eagerness. emotion

, small leathern oil-bottle. Contain

desire, eagerness, curiosity .. a curiosity
delight .. pleasure emotion
desirous, eager, curious

() a solemn ceremony

wonderful .. celebrated.. praised, excellent.

to abuse, revile, censure
, abuse, reviling
expression of contempt
vile, mean.

a lance, spear spearman, lancer Pressure (pierce)
small animal, insect ? smallness
a kind of grain ? smallness
passion emotion

hair, lock Substance (tufted, hairy)
drinking cup contain
plough pressure (break)
barley Substance (rough)
a perfume scent.

butter knife Pressure pierce

, , elephants housings, carpet. Cover
to stink, be putrid substance.
Kusha grass Penetration or Light (colour)
putrefaction, corruption, sore, gangrene Substance
disease of the eyes.
churning Pressure

churned, afflicted. do

to suffer pain, hurt do
cling to. Contact.

, spade, hoe Pressure
(, to tear, pierce)
Kanchan tree.

a copper pitcher Contain


, watch house
a dwelling raised on a scaffold projection

mountain possibly for ( mountain, king)

mountain ebony

fetter hold, confine

son of Br. woman by Rishi, begotten during enstruation.

, (-) bow .. (m.) eyebrow.

a kind of grain

a kind of grain ()
sochal salt.

a fisherman .. man of mixed caste

hollow bellow hips , Curve, Hollow



, -, - an aquatic bird.

, a jasmine scent or colour

lotus .. a multitude of lotuses scent or colour
a fragrant oleander scent
Vishnu Play?
a turners lathe curve.
one of Kuberas treasures. Light (brightness)

cat. motion

rat, mouse motion.

The Labial Group.

IV.P. to be angry, excited.. emotion
Cs. to irritate, excite

X.U. to shine Light
to speak. sound

anger.. morbid irritation. emotion
passionate, angering physically irritating emotion

angry do
a kind of perfume scent.

angry.. angering .. physically irritating emotion
a water pigeon

Vd. the beam of a balance

a weaver ? Curve, rolling

net for small fish


despised, contemptible .. mean.

base metal.

well.. cave, hollow. curve, hollow
leather oil-vessel contain
mooring post.. tree or rock in middle of river projection.

small well.. navel flask, bottle

well .. hole, cavity.. cave .. leather oil-vessel. hollow, contain
hollow below the loins hollow
mooring stake .. mast.. rock or tree in midst of river (Subst) projection
funeral pile. (Subst) heap
boat. hollow, contain

stone or rock in mid stream.

in a well or hole

ocean : (cf & ) cover or curve, roll cf

bladder. substance (swelled)


of a well.

pudenda.. cover, conceal
loin cloth.. ragged garment cover, conceal
sin cover, conceal


humpbacked, crooked .. curve

hump.. curved sword curve
name of a tree

eight-year old unmarried girl.

forest.. substance (thick)
hole for sacrificial fire .. ring Curve
cart. contain.

hump-backed curve.
beautiful, agreeable. play, please.

, - carriage-pole projection

hunchback curve

carriage-pole projection
carriage covered with cloth or blanket.


: womans headdress(?) cover.
upper part of club

a thick petticoat cover or substance
enclosure round sacrificial ground. contain

see Appendix.

: boy, youth.. unmarried youth
.. prince, Skanda, Agni.
to play, sport.

child ..
pupil of the eye.


, girl.. virgin.. Durga.
large cardamoms
name of several plants.

, abounding in girls.

white waterlily colour
red lotus colour.
unfriendly.. avaricious

, - white waterlily .. silver (n)
.. camphor (m) colour
red lotus colour
Vishnu , ? play, please
the Southern elephant.
a species of monkey. ? play

white waterlily a group of lilies

abounding in lotuses.

, waterlily
collection of lilies.

month Kartik.

moonligh. Kartika or Aswin
full moon.

, Vishnus mace.

+ youthful.. maidenly..
soft, tender ..

+ childhood.. maidenhood

+ father of girls

+ son of unmarried woman.

pond, pool

soft, tender, delicate please play or substance
handsome, beautiful

water Substance.

fibres of lotus-stalk.

pitcher, jar. funeral urn. contain
frontal globe of elephant. curve
a measure of grain contain.
Kumbhaka in Yoga. do
paramour of harlot. (sexuality) please, play
a kind of heart disease.

harlot. (sexuality)

fragrant resin

base of a column.. Kumbhaka.

a disease of the eyes. (harlot, small pot)

crocodile pressure (bite)
a fish. ?
a kind of poisonous insect (do)
a fragrant resin ( see ).

housebreaker , , Pressure (break)
wifes brother.
child born untimely.

water jar .. earthen cooking vessel. contain
a measure of grain contain
name of several plants

Punnaga tree

a swelling of the eyes.

shark Pressure (bite)

crocodile do

Liquid roots.

to sound Sound

crane Sound

, osprey. Sound

f. osprey.. ewe Sound

place abounding in ospreys. Sound

deer , motion

crab (Rt to tear) pressure

shoemaker cf

, , yellow amaranth colour or substance

yellow amaranth colour or substance

, (-) a species of amaranth
,  colour or substance
n. flower of amaranth

hydrocele substance (thickness, swelling)

osprey .. curl, lock of hair

, light bay horse with black legs

a kind of grass.

a headdress for women
copulation. (sexuality)

priest ( to do) action
boiled rice. ( to do?) , - substance or cook

a weight of gold (700 Troy grains)

a kind of pot-herb


red amaranth colour or substance

wooden doll, puppet substance
wife of a teacher

yellow or white amaranth. colour or substance

bird with plaintive cry sound

kind of orange. colour

lock of hair curve or substance

n. ruby.. black salt colour

, boiled rice cook or substance

servant.. shoemaker.

bud .. budded close or substance
moveable joint close or substance

bud .. lotus stalk fibre close or substance
a kind of perfume scent.

ground, reduced to particles. pressure or substance.


dog (?) sound

cock .. sound

, brush, pencil substance
key penetration
bud, blossom substance
inspissated milk substance
needle. penetration

, bunch, bundle.. handful of Kusha substance
beard .. peacocks feather .. brush substance
finger & thumb for pinch. pressure.
upper part of nose .. hair between eyebrows substance
head substance or contain
storeroom. contain

(-) decei .. bragging .. hypocrisy decei

stuffed, puffy substance.

, to leap, jump, frolic movement, play.

, leaping, sporting movement, play.

full moon of Chaitra .. festival of Kamadeva. movement, play.

, elbow, knee substance (projection)

, bodice (`)

one of the pranas .. a nyasa of the fingers.
adj. of kurma.

to accumulate, collect I.P.
to go on continuously
count, reckon
to be related .. behave as a kinsman

house .. contain
race, community, family, troop, gang, nation
body contain
front part Prominence superficies
a blue stone colour

head of a guild
by birth

, of good family , , , ,

, a thief contain

chief of guild.. craftsman of good birth
anthill Projection

collection, multitude
number of verses grammatically connected
a sort of prose composition with few compounds

craftsman of good birth.. chief of guild

see 2. a mountain

highbred horse ..

a disease of the nails.

relating to the house or race ..

a respectable man.

friendly enquiry after family affairs
bone .. flesh. Substance
winnowing basket.

a virtuous woman
canal, stream.. dike, trench. Pressure, Cut
a measure of grain 8 dronas. contain

cymbal sound or pressure.
beating time in music

adoptive son

unchaste woman

a kind of pulse

a blue stone used as a collyrium colour

eddy ,

bitch dog, hound


nest.. body.. place, spot.. contain
a case, receptacle

dovecot, aviary contain

wild cock.. owl sound

blue stone , colour

horse of light brown colour


hand contain, seize.

bird.. sparrow.. mouse sound

(-), , crab .. Pressure

, thunderbolt.. Vd axe, hatchet(?) Pressure
point or end. , Pressure

wifes elder sister.

water Motion

wild kidney bean

fur or foulness of tongue. substance


, a disease.

sin .. joint of arrowhead & shaft

a grain.. n. gruel

V. bald, bare.

to cover, hide, screen, protect cover
enclose contain
keep off, obstruct, prevent. shut, enclose.

shore, bank.. slope .. edge, border. , contain
rear of army
pond Pressure, dig
heap, mound. (-) substance.

hog, boar Pressure (gore)
raft, boat contain
breast.. hip, lap contain
embrace contain
outcast, barbarian

black pepper
a kind of berry



body of a lute

,  jujube plant

, - uproar

long pepper

a lefthand Tantric

lefthand Tantra

ancestral, hereditary, family
.. well-born. , ,

of good family

son of a female beggar .. bastard

earthenware .. (a.) of a potter.

weaver ..
impostor, heretic.. Tantric

son of beggar.. Tantric

evil report.. scandal.. Substance
scandalous act (mixture)
c ombat of animals.. cock fighting
.. war, battle
high birth.. family honor

dog, hound.

* a fire of chaff

(or )
flower, lotus Light, colour
waterlily .. blue lotus.
, ,

sun * beautiful, agreeable

pearl ..
water.. belly of a serpent. motion, winding motion

ocean. swelling motion

fold of door : close & shut or hard substance

, () weaver Twisting, weaving

fishbasket. Probably - Roundness or Twisting

* camel

* a tree

hunchbacked. Crookedness.

a carriage pole Projection.

belonging to Kuvera

The Sibilant Group.

to shine Light Brightness

to shine

: sun, fire. Fire
burning, scorching

flower ,  colour
menstrual discharge colour

ashes of brass (used as collyrium) : fire. burn

: fire burn
Roots in ch

( lost root, to cut .. cover etc .. move sharply.)

pure, clean.. trembling, unsteady.

a part, cutting.

covering, concealing .. quicksilver (lit. swift, rushing) .. infant, child (B. )

house (to cover)

cut, divided. P.p. of

shade (to cover or ) .. reflection, likeness, phantom .. line, row (to cut) .. protection (to cover) .. colour, light, beauty (to shine, probably ) .. bribe .. Durga .. shadow of gnomon .. Sun .. nightmare
a goat, (Atri), (also adj, Aries), (also adj).
, , , ,
goats milk .. an oblation.

, dried cowdung (to cover, smear?)
a fire of dried cowdung.
mass, number, assemblage .. continuous line, streak .. collection of light, lustre, splendour (to cut, to glitter so a group, a streak, glitter, splendour).
mushroom, , , ,

umbrella. (also barber), umbrella bearer

Temple of Shiva; conical beehive; kingfisher (darter,swooper).

house, bower, arbour (to cover).

pupil.. a kind of honey. (see )

honey in the comb or hive
to cover, veil; spread.. hide.
covering, wing, leaf, sheath, case.
roof of house or carriage.
concealing.. cover, screen, leaf, clothing, darkening.
hide, skin.
, (also desolate, solitary, private) a secret.

disguise, pretext, fraud.. thatch, roof ( rogue)

to cover .. please, gratify; be delighted in, persuade, coax. (to play)
pleasing, alluring .. praising .. private, solitary, secret (to cut, separate)
wish, fancy, liking, whim, free will.. meaning, purport .. subjection, control .. pleasure, delight .. poison (to cut, destroy) .. appearance, look, shape (cf metre .. to cut, divide, form, shape)
pleasing, charming dt gratified, pleased.
wish, fancy, will, pleasure, free will, intention
fraud, trick (to cover)
metre, prosody, Veda. (to cut, divide, shape).
metrical; made at will
metrical, Vedic .. a Vedist
belonging to (?)

to eat, consume. (to cut, destroy, devour?)
an orphan; man without relatives

to go, move.

fraud, deceit .. plea, pretext, disguise .. roguery, knavery, wickedness .. fiction .. design, device, intention. (to cover, cut, hurt. cf , ) .. family cf , , , , , , , (swindling)

, bark, rind .. spreading creeper .. offspring, progeny, posterity. cf

, bark, bark garment.

to go, move, approach

( (lost) .. to cut, make a sharp movement or sound)
abuse, reproach.
used as P.P. of to cut

to cut, lop, mow; hew, tear, pierce, split.. divide.. break, disturb .. destroy, remove, deprive

breaking, cutting.. broken, hostile, knavish

(ifc) .. divisor, denominator
axe, fire, sword, rope. cutting, dividing
axe, thunderbolt .. cutting off

fit for cutting .. hostile, fraudulent

p.p. also tired, broken with fatigue
A strumpet

a cutter
n. also: failure, solution, cessation, interruption, destruction, deprivation .. a cut, incision, bit, section, mark or notch, a divisor

, (also a bit, section), , ,


cutting, breaking .. carpenter .. thunderbolt ()
tame, town-bred, shrewd, trained in town cunning (, )

a bee .. a kind of assonance (, , ) (lost Rt cf to sting, to pierce, penetrate, so shrewd, trained, tame).
a goat

an orphan Cm X Termination
as in Probably abandoned, forlorn, a deserted child or foundling

a cane ( to cut?)
to cut, divide .. engrave, inlay, smear, cover, mix. , (lime), , , , , (abandoning, leaving) cf Bengali , to throw

to cut, clip off

to cover, hide, screen (lit. to partition off, cut, cover; cf )
to touch.

touch .. shrub, bush (, ) .. combat, war (lit. rush, shock cf ) .. air, wind (cf the next, lit. rushing) .. active, zealous, swift

Ved. chin
retaliation, counteraction .. ray of light (lit. segment)
to cut, sunder .. mow, reap

snapping thumb & forefinger together.

fisherman (one who snaps up fishes)
citron, lime
musk-rat (frisking, active?)

hue, complexion, colour .. beauty, lustre .. skin, hide. (to cover, to shine)

kindle, shine .. play.. vomit; (caus.) pour out, spit out, eject. (to throw)

to vomit.
, , , , vomiting

vomiting .. house, secure place or residence. (to cover)

to pray, beg, request

The roots of the ch family are a subsection of the palatal group and have as their base of significance the guna of narrow & intense penetration, separation and fine distinction. In action their sense is to cut, split, divide, separate, in motion to dart, leap like the lightning, race, drop suddenly or dart up, throw, project, eject etc, any narrow or intense action or motion. From the sense of to cut off it comes to mean screen, hide or cover. We have in the sense of a sharp touch & by detrition of meaning simply touch, () snapping of thumb & forefinger. Applied to light it means a sharp glitter or intense light.



I. To cut, divide and derivate meanings; separate .. shape; destroy, consume ..
to cut, divide, with its derivates, a knife, etc .. also to engrave.
derivative sense .. to cover, smear, inlay, mix.

to cut, clip off
in the sense of shrub, bush
to cut, mow, reap
abuse, reproach (figurative from the original sense)
to cut, split, destroy etc, with its derivatives.
, , shrewd (penetrating); town-bred, trained, tame.
a bee (to sting)
a part, cutting
line, row, streak (a cut, streak, sharply outlined impression)
cut, divided.
to eat, consume
private, solitary, secret.
poison.. shape, look, appearance
metre, prosody, Veda
, orphan, solitary or lone man

II. To cover (cut off, screen, separate, hide), deceive; protect
to smear, cover, inlay, mix
to cover, hide, screen
skin, hide
house, secure place, residence
covering, concealing
shade, with derivative meanings. Durga (protectress)
dried cowdung (smearing, cf )
disguise, pretext, fraud etc with its derivatives
, , , bark, spreading creeper
etc mushroom
umbrella with derived & kindred words.
a house, bower, arbour
a pupil (to protect)
to cover, veil etc. with its derivatives (esp. skin, roof)
to cover

III. darting, leaping, to move off, go; throw, eject; quick or decisive motion or contact or sound.
to touch
touch; active, swift .. air, wind .. combat, war (originally charge or shock)
retaliation, counteraction
snapping of thumb & forefinger.
to play (dart about) .. vomit, eject.
to vomit, with its derivatives
A sneezing
a goat
quicksilver a bribe (to please, gratify)
, , etc, a goat. trembling, unsteady
to go, move
to go, move, approach
kingfisher (?)
to please, gratify (lit. play, cf ) with its derivatives
to pray, request (to please, woo, flatter)

IV to glitter, shine any sharp light
ray of light
lustre, beauty; hue etc
kindle, shine
pure, clean (lit. bright)
colour, light, beauty.. Sun ..
collection of light, lustre

V to collect, heap up. (either from separating a part, or from putting in place)
m ass, assemblage.

VI offspring, family (perhaps from the idea of small, little , a child or else from the idea of group; probably the first)
infant, child (cf a shrub)
, offspring, progeny (cf Bengali , )

Doubtful words

chin. Possibly the sharp point of the face

fisherman (one who snaps up or destroys)

citron, lime. Rt Rt (to titillate, sting, irritate?)

, an orphan, solitary man. (to separate, cut off = forlorn, desolate, deprived, astray)

kingfisher (the darter, plunger)
Roots in j and jh


I. To appear, become, be born etc.

born from, produced, made of, belonging to.

a father, birth, production

(-) insect .. animal

being born again

to be born, produced, spring up, be, become, occur, be possible.
: creature, man, person .. race, nation, people ..
birth, production
, , (-, , , ) , , , , (-, ) , , , , , (-), , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , ,

a young animal

a child.

body.. animal.


to live.
(-), , , (), (-, ), (), (-), (-), (-), , , , , , ,

* water, earth, means of living, life, existence.


II. To open, appear, gape, stretch, expand.. be clear, known

, to yawn, gape.

yawning, gaping.. explanation, interpretation
, , ,

knowing, understanding

at all, ever, possibly .. perhaps, sometimes .. sometime.. apparently.

to know, learn, test, recognise.
to engage in
, , , , , , , , , , , (-, -), , , , , , ,

genuine, true.

to open the mouth, pant, gasp

to advise, instruct

to gape, yawn.. open, expand.. increase, spread, stretch .. appear, be manifest .. be at ease .. recoil.
(-, -), , (-), (-), (-)


III. To grow, be luxuriant

Ketaka plant .. moss.

citron tree (, )


(-) rose-apple.

, rose-apple tree. ,

a tree, Ketaka plant.

pasture grass.

, China rose.

jasmine plant (also nutmeg)

Kadamba tree.

, unblown bud.

() plaintain tree.

ewe. (fleecy)


IIIa. To be thick, close, plentiful, abundant

larger, greater .. surpassing, excelling .. elder, senior
, (-, -, -) ,

() collection, assemblage, mass .. pride, arrogance
(ostentation, pomp)
governor of a province.

assemblage, multitude.

cluster of young buds.

IV To cover, protect, conceal .. deceive, cheat.

to protect.

attendant, guardian


roguish, tricky, knavish

pudenda; hips, buttocks; rear, rearguard.
, (penis).
low, base, vile .. hindmost, last.

belly, stomach .. womb .. hole, cavity, bosom, disease of bowels

cavity, receptacle.

a quiver

screen, curtain, sail

nest .. net, snare .. coat of mail .. magic, illusion
(-), (-),

a cloud

to protect


V. To be thick, firm, hard, prominent; matted, tangled; numb, inert, cold.

(-) forest, desert

ridge over field, landmark.

(-) flesh, meat. (-, -)

to clot, become matted or twisted.
, , , , , , , , ,

a fibrous root.. root, branch.

Indian figtree (, ) .. bdellium.

waveleafed figtree () .. elephant 60 years old.

long pepper

mud, mire

a braid of hair.

, matted hair.

a mark on forehead of cattle

freckle, mark


hard, stiff, firm.. old.

hard, solid.. hardhearted, cruel.


Shiva .. a devotee of rigid austerities.
cold, frigid, chilly .. numbed, dull, inert .. dumb, dull witted, apathetic .. numbing, stupefying
cold, frost, winter.. dullness, stupidity
water .. lead.
, ,

water, *(embryo of cow, Purvashadha)
() water .. healing (cooling) .. happiness


slow, lazy.

VI To bind, attach etc .. pursue, study

bound, tied.

to bind.

to observe a religious obligation.

to reason, think .. investigate, examine.


VII. To be in pairs, together, repeated; to enjoy sexually, to love, pity; to enjoy, be pleased, satisfy etc .. any close relation

the burden of a song, refrain.

a pair

* (, ) Gemini.


, to copulate.

husband & wife


wife, daughter-in-law (cf )

daughter; daughter-in-law

son-in-law.. lord, master (husband) *sunflower.

customary, usual (go together) .. peculiar to, belonging to (go with).

sister .. daughter .. daughter-in-law .. near female relation .. virtuous woman .. relationship.
* seventh or wifes house in the horoscope.

paramour, lover (, )

praise; greeting, invoking ( to woo)

to please, satisfy .. grant, bestow.

to be pleased, gratified, favourable .. to like, enjoy, choose .. to possess .. to practise, frequent, visit.
, , , (-), (-)


pleasure, happiness .. affection

Janaloka (Anandaloka)

mercy, compassion, tenderness.


speed, swiftness.

, a bat , ,

swift (, (-, -), , , , , , )

to go.

* chakora.

to go

to move, go

to go towards, reach.. strive after.. pant, gasp

to go; send, throw, cast, direct

to go, move

to press, hurry on, urge.. impel, drive.. excite, animate.
, , ,

to go near, approach

leg, shank.. thigh .. part of bedstead
(-), , (-)

tail, thigh.


tongue; sentence

to be active, lively .. urge, impel, excite .. animate, promote.

to sprinkle.


* water, earth

* peacock.. a cloud.

river, stream.


Indras banner.

to let go, free, release.

abandoning, leaving.

quitting, abandoning.

to abandon, quit .. exclude, set aside (-)

to liberate, release.

slough of snake.

Strong or violent Contact, Pressure.

I. To hurt, kill, injure, destroy
poison.. imp, goblin

* weapon

striking, killing

poison, venom jA~g~ l
, , ,

to hurt, injure, kill

to hurt, injure, strike.




cruel, harsh, rash ,



to kill, hurt.

decrease, loss.

deprivation, loss

to hurt

to hurt, injure, kill .. to be angry with

to hurt, injure, kill

to hurt, kill.

a female demon.

II. To fade, perish, decay, grow old .. be exhausted, weary.
to be exhausted, tired ,

dim, pale-coloured.

fading away

to wane, decline, perish

to waste, decline, perish .. become old.

to grow old.

to wear out, decay, perish, break to pieces, dissolve, be digested .. grow old
, (-), , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , ,

very old

growing old

to grow old. ,

to grow old.

III. To pierce, divide.
a ploughshare

a harrow

sword .. cumin seed .. an atom

cumin seed (-), ,

an axe.

a part, portion.

IV. To bite, snap, eat, consume
to eat, consume, destroy.

, eating, consuming

eaten ,

to snap at .. crush, destroy.

to eat.

(-) a jackal.. low man

jaws, tooth .. biting, eating .. chin.

: leech

, , , , ,

a bird

to eat.

a dog

V. To grind, pound, press out
to grind or pound

to reduce to powder, grind, pound.

(-) water of boiled pulse.

VI. To bend, twist.
sloping, oblique, crooked, wry .. dishonest
bowstring .. chord of arc.
bowstring.. chord of arc

VII. To ridicule, slight, laugh, censure, threaten
to laugh.

censure, abuse

jesting at a bridal.

to disregard, slight.

, , threaten, menace, blame, censure.

VIII. To overpower, oppress, fight, conquer, excel.
victorious, conquering

a conqueror

, to fight

, warrior, fighter.

Janamejaya (conqueror in battle)

war, battle

Son of Indra; Shiva, Vishnu.

daughter of Indra .. Durga .. flag, banner .. Dasera barley.

to conquer, win, surpass.. *expect from (exact)
, , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , (-), , , , , , , , (-, -)

to overpower, oppress. , , , (overpowering force, importunity)

to overpower, conquer

to excel, to humiliate

IX. To burn, be hot, glow.. heat.
(-) fire.



to be hot with fever .. to be diseased.
, , ,

to blaze, burn brightly, glow, shine.
, , (-), , ,

to burn

fever .. feverish heat.


Light, Colour


* a kind of yellow fragrant wood

to shine

to shine
, , (-, -), , (-), , , (-), (-, )


, , lac. ,


a kind of fragrant wood (cf above)
* nutmeg.
, a pole-cat.
, aloe wood.


to make a dashing sound

to mutter, repeat
(-), , (-, -), , ,

to speak, talk.. murmur.. babble, chatter.. praise.
, , (-), ,

tinkling of metallic ornaments

, , to say, speak.

Conjectural Derivation
to be thick
to taste strong.

Doubtful Words.

, - a liquor


imp, demon

declining, rejecting ..
dismissal, completion.

a goatherd

gold (Dhattura).

bed, cot

a leather bag

a cloud.. mountain..
nourisher, sustainer ..

, , a small house lizard

heated chamber; dry hot bath

, Malay mountain

longings of pregnant women

wild sesamum

wild sesamum


a tree


To be thick, matted, tangled ( V. III a)

to become matted, confused, entangled
arbour, thicket.
jasmine-plant ,
tree, shrub, bush.
(-) thicket .. betel nut.
betel-nut tree
forest, wood, jungle.

wind & rain, hurricane cf Beng. ,
wind & rain, gale, hurricane.
quickly, at once
cascade, waterfall cf Beng.
(-, ) cascade, spring, fountain, stream.
spring, jump, leap.
, , a monkey, ape
a fish.
ball at end of spindle.
to go, move.

Contact, Pressure
To hurt, destroy; eat; waste, grow old; heat, burn; bend; censure; fight; rub.

to injure

to hurt, kill.


lost, destroyed .. asleep, sleeping

anything lost

a thing lost or mislaid
to eat, consume
to grow old
harlot, whore.
To heat, burn

heat, warmth Rt to hurt, burn
burnt brick. Rt to burn.
a torch, firebrand Rt to shine, burn
a forest on fire Rt to burn
burnt rice. Rt to shine, burn.
To bend
, - a curl, lock of hair
a cane staff.
To censure
threaten, menace .. blame, censure.
To fight
prize fighter
To rub
a rag for rubbing on colours or perfumes dirt rubbed off by the application
, , ,

cleaning sores cf Beng. to sweep, a broom.
small whetstone for sharpening needles.

* girl, daughter O.A Rt , to shine, be beautiful

sunshine, light, splendor do

light, lustre, splendour do

sunshine Rt , to shine, burn.

sunlight, light, splendour do

purity; moisture Rt to shine

pigeon. do

jangling, clanking etc .. beating time

a low murmuring sound, buzzing, tinkling, twanging etc


jingling, clanking, rattling, ringing.

clanking etc

(-) jingling sound ,
- a sort of drum, cymbal

sound of splashing or dropping


() The fundamental sense of this root seems to be a sudden and violent breaking out into aggressive existence, movement, action, emotion, contact, sound, or a hard & aggressive condition.

to make low or humiliate .. to excel.

to grow old, wear out, decay, perish, be consumed, to be dissolved or digested, break or fall to pieces.

causing to decay, digestive

a wasting; a digestive or condiment; stimulation of digestion; calcination.

paramour, lover .. intimate friend

adulteress Durga

Derivatives of
old, aged, worn out, decaying (tr. intr), consuming

wearing out, wasting .. destruction

old, aged, decrepit.. bent, drooping, pale, yellow, hard-hearted, cruel.

hard, solid.. ripe, mature

old age.

old, aged, decrepit.. digestive

cummin seed

old age, praise

decayed, old

(Vedic) old age.

old, aged, decrepit, an old man.

, an old woman

an old man .. a buffalo.

age, decrepitude .. digestion
praise, invoking

slough.. outer skin of embryo .. afterbirth uterus, womb.

old, decayed.

old .. an old man.

Vd. old age, decrepitude


speaking harshly.

old, decayed.. the moon.. a tree.

vulva .. an elephant.

to hurt, injure, kill .. be angry .. grow old
speed praising, invoking
The Sun swift, speedy
A fiery weapon
The body.
: fever .. morbid heat

Ved. to hurt, kill .. burn

, open, expand, burst open..
increase, extend, spread.
appear, rise
be at ease
recoil, fly back

, -, yawning, gaping .. opening, blossoming ..
expansion, bursting open

yawner (a demon) ..
(-) swelling

yawning, gaping

gaping, yawning, stretching of limbs; blossoming.
(-) causing to gape or yawn.

yawning.. open, expanded.. blown.. enlarged done, exerted..
(-) gaping, opening, expansion, blooming .. developing, coming into view
Roots in a, ha, a, ha


I. With division. a. To cut, split etc .. dig
(with ) to scrape, scratch, bore or pierce through ..
(Rt. by itself, to cover, bind).

(-) hatchet, axe, stone-cutters chisel; sword; a chasm, cleft; spade, hoe

, - spade, hoe.

vile, cruel .. harsh (cf )


a catamite.

a hollowed cocoanut.

b. A member, part, limb.. small, little.
a quarter or fourth part.
(?) (-, -) leg B. () More probably to stand.
a dwarf.
small, little

II. With impression. To stamp, touch, mark.
an object of sense (lit. impression, expressing)

, a stamped coin.

(-), gloss, commentary (lit. to mark).

III. With deflection. Crooked, wry.
, squint-eyed.


IV. With restraint. To bind, fasten
to bind, fasten.
binding, tying.

V. Formative. To make, form
One who changes shape at will (probably a name of Twashtri)


I. To stand; abide; be firm Shiva

an oath (cf etc) Shiva

leg (-, -, -) B. []Bengali Text]

(-) slope of a hill, declivity, peak. Cf

? (-) wood-apple tree .. its fruit. Possibly from taste.

the earth.

Concealment.. Covering.. Containing.
to cover.

(-) the sheath of a sword

To Move.

I. With idea of Pressure.
direct, throw, cast. (sending, casting)
Bg. To press

to move, go. a horse.

to move, go, resort to. , a kind of horse


wanton play, sport.
libertine, lecher.

, to be disturbed, confused Bg. to stagger, be shaken.

, , confusion


, - anger, pride.

surprise, wonder.

the god of love.

: twang.

twang.. howl, cry, shout.. rumour, fame.


small house-lizard.

musical instrument .. kettledrum .. jest (lit. laughter); so, lie.

sound of a drum.

clang, twang.

a kind of bird.



, -, , - borax.

, borax

spirit of wood-apple

(-) wood-apple fruit.. the tree.

One who changes his shape at will (fickle, changing?)
Perhaps to make.

I With bending.. or else, formation
: circle, globe .. disc of the sun .. a cypher.

II. With restraint. To bind, fasten
a girdle.

III. Impression
an object of sense.


a place, sacred or frequented.

idol, deity (:), Shiva.. a title of honour.

: a loud noise

: a sound; a kind of drum or tabor.

the lute of the Chandalas.

to sound

tumult.. affray, riot.. intimidation by shouting.

rout, panic flight.

uproar, riot, rout.. turmoi. riotous, tumultuous.. any surprising or disturbing sight.

a small drum.

the clang of a bell

a kind of small drum.

affray, riot, sound of terror.

to throw, send

, to throw, send, direct. to fly, push through the air .. go.

flown flight throwing, casting forth

to fly, push through the air .. go.

flown flight

flight.. a palanquin (conveyance)

, sling, basket. Cf Bg. to sway, etc.

, foam; (also a cuttle fish bone).

a sling basket.

I Formation, Production, Collection, Solidity.

resembling (beautiful)

collection, mass .. show, pomp, arrogance .. resemblance.

, , , , to collect.

flown a wooden antelope.

a wooden elephant.. an admirable Crichton.

a fool, blockhead.

globe, ball, egg .. chrysalis.. spleen, uterus .. embryo.

, a young child, cub. ,

a lustful woman.

a snake (not poisonous) .. (to coil cf :)

a fat man.

II Injuring, Killing, etc
to hurt, injure

a knave, cheat.. depraved fellow.. an insult. (? throwing, casting forth).


, a she-goblin, Demoness.


III Binding.
thread, string.

IV. Fixity.
to order .. to behold (fix with the gaze)

V. Heat, Burning
submarine fire.

Disturbance, Agitation
I Physical
to mix

, , , a Dom (or else like Chandala)

: fear

, gallinule.

a small owl

a young woman


famous, renowned.

one of the ten kinds of drama

N. of a people.

a large drum, a sound.
a large double drum
a large drum, tabor.

Motion (pressure)
seeking, investigation
go, approach .. (cs. to present, offer)
B. to push in, enter.
offering, present, bribe.

I Bending
: a dogs tail

II Biting
: a dog; serpent.

III Covering
disappearance. B. to cover.
shield a shielded warrior

A coveting.

The Root dal

1 Sanscrit.

to burst open, split, cleave, crack. , . Lt deleo.
Cs. to cause to burst, tear
to expand, bloom, open asunder.
cut, divide, split.
to dispel, drive or chase
to wither.

, tearing, cutting
a piece, portion, detachment, body of troops.
fragment. clump, heap, quantity.
a degree .. a half.
the blade of a weapon shoot, blade, petal, leaf.
scabbard, sheath
alloy, adulteration

bursting, breaking, cutting, dividing, splitting.
crushing, grinding.

, a clod

by pieces, in fragments.

a piece of wood, timber.

broken, torn, burst, rent, split. Bisected
opened, expanded manifested, displayed
driven asunder, dispelled, scattered
crushed, trodden down, destroyed.

a weapon

fraud, dishonesty, sin.

Shiva ..
Indras thunderbolt.


a kind of wild honey



2 Greek.

o treachery, fraud, falsehood, deceit .. trick, artifice, deception, cheat.

o cunning, crafty .. deceitful, fraudulent, treacherous.

o deceitfully, treacherously, artfully

o to deceive, beguile, betray; practise fraud.

o treacherous, crafty, deceitful.

o craftily, deceitfully.

o crafty, deceitful

o spy, scout, sentinel .. lier in wait, assassin.

o to act deceitfully; to deceive; circumvent, over-reach, beguile, ensnare, flatter, seduce .. corrupt, adulterate, falsify. (cf adulteration).

dagger, poniard .. topsail.

deceiving, imposition, deception .. cheat, fraud, artifice, plot.

*o long; tedious, prolix. (?)

*o for a long time, far, afar.

*oo slave o, o
, o
, o
o, o
, oo, o
, o

o, o
, o
o. (?)

torch, firebrand .. flash, brightness .. light, lamp.

clearly, certainly, undoubtedly.

visible, manifest .. clear, evident, apparent .. notorious, well-known, certain, sure .. transparent, pellucid .. shining, bright.

to manifest, make appear, show .. declare, express, reveal, discover.

sign, token, mark, symptom.

visibly, clearly .. plainly, manifestly.

manifestation, revelation, declaration, discovery .. brightness, brilliancy, transparency.

destroy, waste, lay waste .. injure, hurt, offend .. corrupt, violate, debauch .. to trick, deceive, beguile.

injury, hurt, destruction; mischief, offence.

hurtful, pernicious, destructive .. destroyer, ravager

injury, infliction of hurt .. destruction, ruin.

destroyer .. destructive.

o poison, venom.

o destructive .. poisonous, deadly.

wish, will, desire, inclination

o I wish, will, desire.


deleo to destroy, annihilate, abolish .. efface, erase.

deletrix that which destroys

dolabra an axe, hatchet, military implement.

dolo hew with axe .. work with axe or sharp weapon.

dolo, dolonis wooden staff with iron point .. sting .. small foresail.

dolus fraud, deceit, guile, trick.

dolosus crafty, deceitful, cunning.

dolose deceitfully, craftily.

doleo to suffer pain, grieve, bewail .. to grieve, cause pain

dolenter painfully, sorrowfully.

dolor pain, anguish; grief, sorrow; cause of sorrow.

dulcis sweet, pleasant, agreeable cf , o.

dulce sweetly

dulcedo sweet taste .. sweetness, charm .. desire.

dulcesco to become sweet

dulciculus somewhat sweet.

dulciter sweetly

dulcitudo sweetness.

dolium a cask, jar cf scabbard, sheath.

doliolum a small cask


St , .

foss .. ssame sauvage .. ouragan
to bloom.

chose fendue, brise, dchire .. ce qui est fleuri, panoui
creux, foss .. tang, rservoir.
accouplement, union.
cicatrice, empreinte de baguette, blessure .. faute, tache, erreur de langue.
, - bredouillement, bgaiement. vb. to chitter, stammer
to be scarred, to make a mistake (se tromper).
embracing, caress, copulation .. acceptance
embrassement, brasse. vb. to embrace, surround, accept .. press on the bosom .. saccoupler, se mler.
feuillage; jeune branche; jet, rejeton, pousse, feuille ..
ombrelle de plumes, queue de paon
vb. pousser des feuilles, pousser, bourgeonner,
crotre, stendre, prosprer.

, - pousse, bourgeonnement, croissance, vgtation.

, -, -, - fertilit, abondance, augmentation ..
tat florissant, bonheur, prosprit.

taataakkiatu to shine, sparkle, glitter ..
to soften

taataattal, -appu brilliance, glitter .. softening.

taukku splendour, lustre, brilliance; nose-ornament .. density
vb. to shine, gleam, polish .. beat, to unite (rendre
une en battant)

taappai fatigue, lassitude .. tottering .. failure, unease, peine

taappam relaxation, weakness, misery, peine; mediocrity.

taampal agitation, fluctuation, trembling .. cluse, vanne.

taampu cluse, vanne.

taampu vb. to be agitated, float, vacillate, tremble .. be irresolute, uneasy, in distress.

taaru vb. intr. to relax, soften, be undone, weaken, totter, vacillate; hesitate, be cowardly, indolent, lax, soft, disconcerted, afflicted.

taarchchi cowardice, idleness, relaxation, slowness; softness, flaccidity, languor, weakness, meagreness, distress; old age.

taarttu vb. tr. to relax, loosen, undo, disband, soften, weaken.

taarvu relaxation, tottering, decay, softening, weakness, nonchalance, loss of vigour.

taamu vb. to totter, stagger, hesitate.

tau to vacillate, totter, sway, lean.

taal, taam tottering, agitation, decrepitude.
taam leaf, petal

tair bouton, bourgeon, pousse, rejeton, jet.
vb. bourgeonner, pousser
Roots in n


- is to move. We have also night, B. intoxication, surrender to some form of vicious ecstasy, , water, to lead; in, on; , now, , etc. Sg. idea of inwardness, penetration,absorption, ecstasy,state of inclusion or rest, motion of entering or with a view to enter, so to move, lead, bring, push; regular purposeful motion (, ); , movement forward in the current; , nubes, pushing movement in the sky of the clouds. , , going inwards into the self, state of absorption, ecstasy, quivering or ecstatic motion, , . Anything deep, intense, blue
Roots in p

Rt. , () and the derivative roots.

.pais, paidosboy, girl, child .. son, daughter .. slave, servant .. OS or Root to be able, strong, so master, govern. Original meaning a slave; then a boy or girl slave. The genitive is from , Rt (cf ) with the same sense as p, but also meaning, to beget, nurture, protect, cherish. means of the nature of , subject, childish, with other derivative meanings, also a nursling, pupil, child, ward, pet, favourite. , , have all a passive significance.
.a little child, little boy, servant. OS . The terminations and with the enclitic
, or give either an adjectival or a diminutive sense.
(.) infantile, childish. . The termination or gives invariably an adjectival sense.
(..) childish, boyish. OS
, , , , , are all adjectival terminations.
Roots in m


Fundamental significanceFinality.

Substantive ideasLimit; limitation; close, end; confinement; closed space; movement in closed space, on fixed lines or to a goal; close or deep sound; extreme limit, superlativeness in quality; limitation off, rejection, discharge; close contact, compactness.

Specific meanings.

1 class. Measurement by limitation. To limit, outline, define, measure, assign, assort, arrange, make, construct, display.

2. class. Confinement. To contain, embrace, comprise, enfold, confine, bind, be concave, hollow, have capacity; be confined, limited, narrow, dull.

3. class.Close contact. To be massed, massive, compact.

4 class. Limitation, finality. Close, ending. To close, end, die, diminish, kill, impair, injure, wither.

5 class. Close sound. To mutter, whisper, rustle, roar, bellow, wail.

6 class. Movement. To move, dart, leap, circle; to []

7 class. Superlative quality. To be strong, powerful, vigorous, luxuriant, swift, active; to grow, flourish, bloom, be soft, beautiful, brilliant.

8 class. Rejection. To except, remove, reject, give up, loose, release, cast off, shoot; to renounce, give.


Primary Roots with M as the base ,

Time.. moon.. magical formula.. poison.
a syllabic foot (three longs) .. Name of Br., Vishnu, Siva or Yama .. the fifth note in music ()

Water; happiness, welfare.

mine from a lost OS word , I;
so , , , etc.

self-idea, selfishness; feeling of meum;
pride, individuality.

d[itt]o; affection, regard; attachment.

consisting of.

No, not; lest, that not.

Goddess of wealth; mother; measure.

measure, mark off, limit; compare;
be in, be contained; infer, conclude;
prepare, arrange; form, construct, build;
make; mete out, assign; show, display;
roar, sound.

measure, cause to measure.

wish to measure.

measuring; measure, standard; rule, rod;
dimension, computation; proof, authority; likeness.

my, mine

mothers brother.

my, mine; selfish, covetous


maternal uncle.

my, mine.

Primary Roots with M as the base: ,

() measure; observe, perceive; build, erect; establish; fix in the earth (Ved.)?; cast, throw, scatter.

Ved. column, post (that which measures).

measured, meted; bounded, defined, limited;
moderate, little, sparing, scanty; measuring;
investigated; cast, thrown; built, established.

the sea.

measuring; measure, weight; proof; determination; accurate knowledge.



, friendship

to be friendly

To act as a friend, be friendly


friendly, winning friends.


() to kill, hurt, destroy, injure; to lessen;
change; transgress, violate; be lost, go astray.

() to go, move; to know, comprehend.

( 4A) to die, perish.


= Makara.

ocean; drink; limit, boundary; particular part of a mountain.

(, , ) exchange, barter.

a friends; friendly, kind; of Mitra.

a perfect Brahman; a tribe; a friend; anus.

friendship, goodwill; connection, intimacy; Anuradha.

friendship; evacuation of excrement; Anuradha.
, , , , ()

Primary Roots with M as base: , ,

Shiva; bondage, confinement; final emancipation;
funeral pile; tawny or reddish brown.


bind, fasten, tie.

bound, tied, confined; woven

, (Ved.) woven basket, woven band of cloth; lump, collection.


die, perish.

to slay.

to wish or be about to die.


death.. alms.

dead man

corpse, death.. ceremonial impurity by death of relation.



death, decease.. Yama .. Brahma, Vishnu, Kali, Maya.. god of love.

to hurt, kill.

mortal; earth.


: mortal, earth


(Ved.) Death.. the earth

plague, murrain, epidemic.


death.. a poison.


, mortal

death, dying.

juice of flowers.

a granary.

soft, unctuous .. bland, tender.

flamingo, swan .. duck .. horse .. cloud .. collyrium .. pomegranate grove .. rogue, cheat.

, pepper shrub.

, black pepper.

ray, particle of light.. light.. mirage .. miser.. Marichi .. Krishna


, radiant, lustrous.


repeatedly rubbing.

desert, wilderness; mountain, rock; a kind of plant; abstinence from drinking .. the country of Maru.


woman with high forehead.

wind, air, breeze .. breath .. Wind .. god .. a kind of plant ( or )

wind.. god.


Maruvak plant

cloud.. Indra .. Hanuman.

a duck.

a plant.. Rahu

terrible, formidable.

Marjoram.. a lime.. tiger.. Rahu .. crane.

peacock; a kind of stag.

, Makara.

vital part; defect, failing; core, quick; joint; inner meaning, essence; secret, mystery, truth.

knowing secrets; acute, penetrating.

rustling, murmuring.

rustle, murmur.

to rustle, murmur.

a pine; turmeric.

A pauper; a wretch.

(Ved.) mortal.

man .. young man .. male .. lover, suitor .. stallion, horse .. camel.

(Ved.) little man .. male.

limit, boundary

limit, boundary, frontier, border, verge; end, terminus; shore, bank; landmark; moral rule, propriety, decorum; contract, agreement.

keeping in bounds.. neighbour, borderer.

killing, slaughter; death; evil one; Love; love; obstacle, hindrance; thorn apple.

killing, destroying.

Kama; a destroyer; murderer; plague; hawk.

killing, slaying.. a poison.

pestilence; killing, ruin


slain, ruined, destroyed.

dying; killing.

plague, epidemic.

belonging to emerald.

desert ..



word of respectful address.

of Marichi; Maricha; royal elephant; a plant; sacrificing priest; Kashyapa.

mother of Buddha

collection of pepper-shrubs

serpents egg; cowdung; way, road; a place covered with cowdung.

of the Maruts .. aerial, windy.

wind; Vayu; breath; trunk of elephant.



Hanuman; Bhima.

Name of ancient sage

Sun; arka tree; hog; 12.


a pitcher; lid of pitcher.

clod, lump of earth.



deeply versed.



crocodile .. a vyuha, earring, nyasa; tenth arc of 30; one of the nine treasures.

the Ocean

female crocodile

honey of flowers; a kind of jasmine; cuckoo; a bee; a kind of fragrant mango tree

a filament


a Government order addressed to the Sudras

a mirror; the Bakula tree; bud; Arabian jasmine;
the rod or handle of a potters wheel.

the Bakul tree

, a kind of kidney bean or rice


bud; tree called

go, move

a dangerous kind of abscess in abdomen, in pregnancy.

benzoin, red chalk.


to accumulate, heap, collect; be angry

wrath; hypocrisy; multitude, collection

the piyala tree

, fly, bee

, go, move, creep.

Vd. adorable, fit for offerings? lively, active, cheerful

Vd. wishing for wealth or sacrifice; lively, cheerful

a sacrificial rite.

a Magian; a priest of the Sun

Magadha; bard, minstrel

town of Magadha; long pepper.

to surround; serve, be slave; attend upon.

one of the Dwipas; a country; a drug or medicine;
pleasure; Magha.

a kind of flower; gift, present; wealth, riches (Vd.)

, , Indra; Vyasa; liberal, munificent; an owl.

the tenth asterism (5).

, - Venus.

to go, move; decorate, adorn.

a forest conflagration

a mirror.


immediately, quickly; exceedingly, very much; truly; really.

a royal bard; a mendicant.

to go, move.

auspicious, lucky; fortunate, prosperous; brave.

auspiciousness; good fortune, felicity; well-being, welfare, good; good omen, blessing; auspicious object, event, rite; ancient custom; turmeric

the planet Mars.. Agni.

, - a faithful wife; Durga; durva grass

auspicious etc; pleasing, beautiful; holy, pure, pious

: sacred fig; cocoanut tree; a sort of pulse; the Bel tree.

a fragrant sandal; Durga; an aloe-wood; a perfume;
a yellow pigment

auspicious water; gold, red lead; sandal-wood; sour curds

a kind of pulse ()

a boat, ship.

to adorn, decorate; (A[tmanepada]) to cheat; begin;
blame, censure; go, move, move quickly; start, set out.

Mango tree.

myrobalan; yellow sandal; city on Ganges



long pepper; white cumin; refined sugar; a variety of cardamom, anise.

a female crab

flower of kunda creeper

to wish, desire, long for.

a goat

goat; a mountain

belt, zone; slope of a mountain; hips; sword-belt, sword-knot; horse-girth; Narmada

Shiva; Brahmacharin.


cloud; mass, multitude; a fragrant grass; one of the six Ragas.


liberation; moksha.

crown, tiara; crest, peak, point.

cracking the fingers.

Vishnu; quicksilver; a precious stone; a kind of drum; one of the nine treasures.

a kind of grain; onion.

mirror, looking-glass; bud; handle of a potters wheel; Bakula tree; mallika creeper.

, bud; body; soul or spirit.

, a kind of bean.

loosened; relaxed; liberated; abandoned, taken off; thrown, hurled, ejected, fallen; given; emitted; deprived

missile; simple prose; a detached stanza.

pearl; courtesan; name of plant.

release; freedom; moksha; abandonment; discharge, throwing; payment; opening, unloosing.

mouth; face, countenance; muzzle, snout; front, van, top, tip, head, pointed edge; teat, nipple; beak, bill; direction, quarter; opening, mouth; entrance, door; means; beginning; introduction; principal; source; cause; surface; utterance; Vedas; starting point of dramatic action; first term in progression; side opposite base.

a beggar.

garrulous; noisy, sounding; expressive of; abusive, mocking.
crow; leader; conchshell.

to cause to sound, talk; notify

bit of bridle

cause to resound or talk.

bit; conversation.

being at the top

of the mouth; chief; leader.

principal rite; reading or teaching Vedas; month between new moons.

, preeminence.

chiefly, principally, above all.

a kind of gallinule

cast off skin

release, set free; untie, undo; wrest away; cast, fling; shed; detach, extract.

: liberation, rescue, emancipation; death; falling off; loosening, unbinding; shedding, discharging; scattering; payment; end of eclipse; a tree.

delivering; deliverer.

liberating, deliverance, loosening; resigning; shedding, squandering, discharging.

desirous of emancipation, emancipated.

vain, useless; aimless; left, abandoned; idle.

fence, enclosure, hedge.


in vain, to no purpose, uselessly.

to render useless, frustrate.

, crow.



precedence, superiority

garrulity, abuse


seek, search for; hunt, pursue; aim at, strive for; examine, investigate; ask for, beg; visit, frequent.

animal; wild beast; deer; game; musk; seeking, search; pursuit, inquiry, soliciting; particular class of men; Mrigasirsha; a month; Makara; a district in Shakadwipa.

searching; investigation.

(Vedic) a wild animal.

hunting, chase.

hunter, fowler; jackal; Brahman.

hunting; target, butt.

hunted, sought, solicited.

a female deer .. epilepsy; a class of women.

to be sought, hunted.

Vd. cleaning; perishing.

vital breath; ape, monkey


ape, monkey; spider; crane; a coitus; a poison.

ape; spider; a fish; a grain.

a pot, vessel; cavity, cavern, hollow; barren woman.

Son of Mrikanda.

to seek after; strive after; hunt, chase; trace; solicit; ask in marriage; go, move; decorate, adorn.

way, path; course, passage; reach, range; scar, mark; channel; canal; search; mode, style, custom; ground for litigation; high style in art; hinting future dramatic development; section; anus; Mrigasirsha, Margasirsha.


, - begging, seeking, investigation

seeking, inquiring, begging; beggar; arrow; 5

beggar, suppliant.

, -, - a month

, - full moon day of M.

traveller; hunter.

pioneer, guide, leader



maka1. enfant, poupon, age tendre. 2. offrande.
Rt to embrace, to give.


mahakanhomme excellent, distingu, Vichnou. (Rt +

mahankaramorgueil. (Rt +

mahasamconnaissance, sorte, espce (Rt +
From : = vijnana.

mahadujeune fille, femme. Rt .

, hermaphrodite.

, tat de fille.
(magadhai), poivre long, piment.
The Root mal

1 Rt mal. a = a, o, e, u.

Lat. mollis; malus; mel, mellis; mulceo; mulgio; malleus; malum; multus; mulciber.

Gr. o o x x o o o   o x o ( ) o  o x x     x



2-The Root in Greek

I. Forms in which the vowel remains unmodified.

very, greatly, vehemently, exceedingly; by all means, surely. OS mala. Accusative case of the root substantive , mal, meaning abundance, copiousness. Root meaning, to flourish, thrive.

(o) poultice, plaster, balm, anodyne. OS , softening, alleviation, caressing; balm, anodyne; softening application of oil, etc. Root to be soft, soften; + with the connecting enclitic
, implying effective and persistent application, +, nominal root, with the idea of fact or substantiality.

x soft; soothing; mild; effeminate; negligent. OS , root to be soft with the common adjectival suffix preceded by the connecting enclitic
. ( is in sense qualitative and possessive.)

x softness, effeminacy, sickness. OS . Feminine nominal suffix implying often the abstract quality peculiar to the adjective or noun to the stem of which it is attached. Later Sanscrit preferred , , etc. Cf , , , and the more frequent neuter form in answering to the Greek o.

x I soften, soothe, unman. Greek formation. OS verbal form in with a frequentative sense, preserved in words like , preceded by connecting enclitic .

x (-o ) softness. OS , ; the nominal suffix describing an abstract quality was replaced in later Sanscrit by .

x I soften, make effeminate. Greek formation. OS conjugational termination () preceded by the long connecting enclitic .

x softly. OS adverbial suffix , , , as in modern Sanscrit , humbly, , eternally. was in Old Sanscrit the commoner alternative form.

I soften, mitigate, relax. OS (), Nominal Verb, from the adjective , soft.

mallows. OS from Rt to thrive, flourish, be plump, with the adjectival suffix .

Bright, clear .. hot, burning, consuming. OS , (remaining in Tamil malar, a flower) blooming, bright, prosperous, strong, energetic, forcible. Rt to bloom, flourish, with the nominal suffix preceded by the connecting enclitic
. ( is in sense possessive with an action outward on the surroundings.)

Armpit. OS , down, hair on the body; a place where such hair is specially plentiful. Rt to bloom, flourish.

Soft wax; a wax tablet. OS (feminine). Rt to be soft, with nominal suffix ; softness, down, velvet, wax .. strength.

soft. OS , alternative form to , from derivative root to soften.

soft. OS (), alternative form to and formed in the same way, but from root . The became in Greek, modified to . Rt , to be soft.

long hair. OS a wreath, a garland, braid. Rt to bloom. , a plant, flower, garden; , a collection of flowers, wreath, garland, , anything made of flowers. Rt to bloom.

most. OS , superlative of , strong, abundant, copious.

x to be benumbed, shrivelled, torpid.OS . Latin mulceo. In transitive sense, to soften, knead, relax, unnerve; in intransitive, to be softened, compressed, contracted. Rt to be soft.

x numbness, torpidity. OS , the state of softness, relaxation or unreserved contraction .. the discomfort, shrinking that results from cold.

o more. OS comparative of , strong, abounding.

; fleece, wool, lock of hair. OS , luxuriant growth, down, fleece etc. from Rt , to thrive, flourish, with the adjectival suffix , giving a sense of abundance.

woolly, downy, soft. Provincial form instead of from nominal verb -, to strengthen, thicken, soften. Cf Latin vallatus from vallum and vallo. OS and .

soft, tender, downy. OS , soft, tender, sweet; strong, abundant, copious.

3 Derivatives of the Root in Sanscrit.

(, ) to hold, possess. From O.S. Rt to contain, embrace, hold.

Dirty, foul (physically or morally). From Rt to fade, be tarnished, soiled, dirty +nominal termination

, Dirt, filth, impurity (physical or moral). Peculiar uses camphor (from Rt to be sweet, referring to the scent; cf mel = honey) .. leather .. cuttlefish bone.

Crushing, grinding. From Rt to be strong, used with transitive sense, to use strength upon, labour, work, knead, crush, grind. Cf , a wrestler, Greek ; Latin moles, mass and moliri, to work with labour or difficulty from the kindred root .

Tent. From Rt to contain. Literally, a tenement, abode.

The Southern mountain .. garden .. side of a mountain (Rt to bloom, be verdant, luxuriant +vague adjectival termination
answering to English ish, ly).

Rt to be sweet, soft, forming honey, sweetness, enjoyment, love, a sweet or an impure secretion +adjectival suffix ka, (lengthened form of aka, Lat. acus, Gr. xo eg (x)), 1. an amorous woman. 2. a female friend, confidante. 3. a female elephant.

Possession, enjoyment. Rt to possess, embrace, enjoy +nominal termination .

King. From Rt to possess.

Foul, soiled, dark, vile. From Rt to be soiled, faded +adjectival termination .

Sin, fault, guilt. (The same). Butter-milk .. Borax. (From secretion, juice + meaning of the nature of a secretion or extract)

, , , , , , .
Derivatives of .

From , bloom; honey; sweetness, fragrance; an impure secretion; foulness, fault, defect + thief, robber, remover. Originally, a bee, thief of honey; then generally 1. a robber, thief; 2. a demon (fiend, enemy); 3. gnat, mosquito; 4. air or wind (stealer of fragrance); 5. a Brahmana neglecting the Yajnas, but still enjoying Brahmin privileges. 6. Fire, the remover of impurities. 7. An intercalary month, (removing the defect of the calendar). 8. Frost or snow, remover of sweetness or pleasure.

A woman in her course. Superlative from in the same sense as .

Sanscrit. (Apte)

to hold, possess (1A. 10U.)

dirty; mean; wicked; godless.

, dirt, impurity; dregs, sediment, excrement; dross, rust, alloy; sin; bodily excretions; camphor; cuttlefish bone; tanned leather, leather garment; the bodily humours.

a kind of base metal.

dirty, foul.

crushing, grinding.


garden; Indras garden; mountain-side; Malay (the mountain).

an amorous woman; female friend, messenger, confidante; female elephant.

possession; enjoyment.

a king.

dirty, impure, soiled; sinful; low, vile; clouded, obscured.

sin, fault; buttermilk; borax.

, menstruous woman.

dirtiness, filth, sinfulness.

to dirty, stain, defile, spoil.

dirty, spoiled.

dirtiness, foulness; sin, impurity; darkness.

to soil, stain; darken, obscure.

to become dirty, impure etc.

gnat; thief; air, breeze; fire; intercalary month; a demon; a Brahmin who neglects his daily yajna; frost, snow; a chitraka tree.

a woman in her courses.

dirty, impure etc (); iron; green vitriol.

to hold, possess.

strong, robust; excellent.

strong man, wrestler, athlete; drinking vessel; remnants of oblation; cheek and temple; mixed caste (outcast Ksh. [Kshatriya] by Ksh. woman); the Malla race and country.

a woman; Arabian jasmine; ornamenting with cosmetics or coloured unguents.

lamp stand; oil vessel; lamp; cup of cocoanut shell; a tooth; a kind of jasmine.

one of the six Ragas.

, a kind of jasmine.


a kind of goose; Magh month; shuttle; a kind of jasmine; lampstand; an earthern vessel of a particular form.



rust of iron.

district in west Bengal; a mountain tribe; name of Vishnu.

field; high ground; wood near village; fraud, deceit.

nym tree; wood near village (park); pot of cocoa nut shell.

, garland.

name of a Raga.

a kind of jasmine; bud, blossom; virgin, young woman; night; moonlight.

Sandalwood (text missing)

Malwa or its people; name of a Raga.

Malwa; inhabitant of Malwa.

a plant.

garland, wreath; series, line; group, collection; string, necklace, chain; streak; technical term in drama.

florist, gardener; dyer, painter; wreathmaker; a kind of bird.

garland, etc; a jasmine; linseed; daughter; palace; a bird; intoxicating drink.

wreathed; engirt.


gardener; florist.

female florist; city of Champa; seven year old girl, Durga at Durga festival; Durga; celestial Ganges; name of a metre, of a river, of Bibhishanas mother; of Draupadi at Virats court.


relating to garland.

garland; flower.

wreathed; name of a mountain; maternal uncle of Ravana.

foulness; affliction.

a creeper; woman.

a kind of snake.

bel-tree; kapittha tree.

large cardamom.

a mixed caste.



to join, meet, accompany, gather; unite; encounter; close with; embrace; find, fall in with; concur; come to pass, happen.

joining; meeting, union, assembling; encounter; contact, mixture.

joined; come together, met, assembled; encountered; combined; mixed; put together, taken together.


a kind of snake.

an epithet of Shiva.

meeting, union; intercourse; assembly, company; fair.

union, junction, association; mixture; an encounter; fight.

union, intercourse; company, assembly, society; antimony; indigo-plant; ink; a musical scale.

uniting, collecting; a crowd; assembly; conjunction of planets.

combination, conjunction.


close, close the eyes, wink, twinkle; close, be closed; fade, disappear, vanish; meet.

closing of eyes, winking, twinkling; closing of flower; a concealed simile.

shut, closed; twinkled; half-shut, unblown; vanished, disappeared; assembled; a figure in rhetoric.


(10) to plant.

to take root, stand fast; (caus.) to plant, rear;
grow, sprout, germinate.

root; extremity, lowest part; end, base, edge; foot, bottom; beginning, origin, cause, basis; original text; capital, principal, stock; vicinity; hereditary servant; square root; ones own territory, base; vendor, not true owner; capital city; aboriginal; thicket, copse, arbour; nineteenth asterism, Mula.

rooted in, springing from, based on; born under Mula.

, radish.

a poison.

a plant; Mula.

radical, original; primary, principal; living on roots.


root; collection of roots.


plant, tree; (adj.) growing from a root.

small house lizard.

king; Indian spikenard.

at the root; to be eradicated; purchasable.

price, cost; wages, salary, hire; gain; capital, principal; original value; purchasable article.

radical; original; ancient; nobly born; hereditary.

hereditary minister.

head, foremost, best.

head, crown of the head; top; crown, tiara; hair on crown, tuft, lock, braid; earth; Asoca.


radical; chief, prime; inferior.

dealer in roots, root-digger.



Contracted roots of the Class

(10) cut, divide.

indistinct, spoken indistinctly; barbarous; withered, faded.

indistinct or barbarous speech.

, to go, move ()

barbarian; outcast; sinner; foreign speech.


speaking indistinctly, confusedly, in a barbarous tongue.

spoken indistinctly.

a foreign tongue; ungrammatical speech.

foreign or barbarous speech.

to be mad.

to worship, serve.

to fade, wither; grow weary, exhausted; languish;
be downcast; become thin; decline; disappear, vanish.

faded, withered; tanned white.

faded, withered; weary, languid; feeble, weak, faint; dejected; black, dirty.

fading, withering.

fading, decay; languor, lassitude; dejection; foulness.

withering; declining.


becoming faded, growing thin, languid or weary.


; very much, very, greatly; surely.

o; more.

; most.

; bright, clear; hot, burning, consuming.

; poultice, plaster, balm, anodyne.

x; soft, soothing, mild; effeminate; negligent.

x; softness, effeminacy; sickness.

x; soften, soothe, unman.

x; softness.

x; soften, make effeminate.

x; softly.

; soften; make effeminate.

; mallows.

; armpit.

; soft wax, wax tablet.

x; soft, etc. see x

; soften.

o; long hair.

x; be benumbed, shrivelled, torpid.

x; numbness, torpidity.

; fleece, wool, lock of hair.

; soft, woolly, downy.

; soft, tender, downy.

o; apple, quince; apple tree; sheep; small cattle; property, substance; pet, darling.

; cheeks, breasts, lips; glands in throat; inflammation or disease of the eye.

; to gather apples.

; a beetle living on apple blossoms.

; apple tree.

; probe.

; nymphs of apple trees.

o; of sheep, ovine.

; made of apples, the juice of apples.

oo; feed sheep, herd, graze.

o; shepherdess.

oo; shepherd.

o; shepherd.

oo; fed on by sheep, pastured, good for pasture; wild, desert.

oxo; receiving sheep (temple)

o; a priest.

oo; shepherd.

oo; shepherd.

oo; rosy-cheeked, blooming.

Mo; Melos.

oo; planted with apple trees.

o; to sacrifice sheep.

oo; feeding sheep.

oo; to bear or produce apples.

; to probe, syringe, dress; plunge, dip, immerge.

; sheepskin.

; ear-picker, probe.

; rosy; ruddy.

4 Gr.

very, much.

plaster, anodyne, balm.

x softness.

x soft, effeminate. impotent, barren

x softness.

x to soften

to soften


hot, burning, consuming, bright, clear


soft wax, wax tablet

x soft; sweet, melting.

o long hair.

, an apple-tree.

x to be shrivelled with cold, benumbed, torpid

x numbness.

fleece, wool, down, lock of hair.

fleecy, hairy, soft.

soft, downy.

a kind of beetle

to gather apples

an apple-tree

a probe

o apple, quince, round fruit.

o sheep, small cattle, property.

(plu.) cheeks, breasts, lips, pet, darling.

to probe, syringe, plunge, dip, immerge.

ear-picker, probe

a sheepskin.

o a leathern bag or bottle,

(Ae.o) a simpleton, an extortioner, peculator.

o to have come.

o, o lead

o lead
or o

o leaden

scarcely, with difficulty.

oo beggar, parasite

ooo a kind of herb

labour, battle, confusion, tumult

o mallows.

o a song, air.

o to discolour, stain, dye; to corrupt, defile, taint.

pollution, defilement.

o ridgebeam, roof, house.

roof, vault; form into cells or chambers.

to blacken.

a disease of the eyes.

o a black poppy

a blackness, darkness

a blacking, dirt

black, gloomy

darkness, blackness; mole

soften, liquefy, melt; boil up so cook

regard, take care of. to be troubled, anxious, agitated.

care, anxiety.

guardian, steward; king, ruler , trouble, perplexity, agitation, shock.

care, anxiety. trouble, confusion,

it is a care, concern disorder, embarrassment.

asunder, piecemeal

o fruitless, vain; wretched, unhappy.

take care of, mind; meditate, study; practise.

care, meditation, practice

care, study, institution

o schoolroom, study ..instrument.

anxious, careful

x contemplative;

x murmuring

practised; attainable by care.

one who has a care for

solicitude, concern.

object of care, concern.

oo renowned, interesting


ashtree; spear, shaft.

o etc


x harmonious, sweet.

x a singer, musician

honied, sweet (Venus).

a coarse grain

o made of ash.

song, tune.

, bee, priestess

a keeper of bees.

o belonging to bees.

a singer.

borage, honeysuckle

sweet, calm.

to sweeten.

sweet as honey.


x milk.



to be about to, intend .. delay, hesitate

o member, limb, song, verse, tune

o song, dance, sport

to sing.

to sing mournfully

to sing, play.

music, harmony.

balm, soothing .. offering to dead

o present, dowry.

to sweeten, please, appease.

gentleness, blandishment

o gentle, courteous, conciliatory
The Root val

1 Strength.

valde. () valeo. () valens. Valerius, from , valesco. valetudo valide. validus. valloto fortify, enwall. vallus. palisadepost, stake valvae. folding doors.

velespecially, also, even, or. velutas, as though, as for instance. veloxswift.

vulgo vulgus.


Derivatives of the Aryan root val in Latin.

I Word retaining the root unchanged.

Valde: very, exceedingly. Contracted from valide. O.S. valit, with strength, strongly, forcibly; eminently, to excess. Instrumental case of valit, strength. Rt val with nominal suffix t preceded by the enclitic i.

Valedico: I say farewell. Latin compound from vale and dico.

Valens: strong, powerful well, healthy. O.S. valan, dialectical form valans, strong, flourishing. Rt val with nominal suffix n preceded by the enclitic a.

Valenter: strongly, powerfully. For valent-ter; the stem of valens with the suffix ter answering to the O.S. termination tas in itas, tatas, sarvatas, etc, originally tar, meaning way or side. Cf Mahratti tar, tarhi (Sanscrit), Bengali ta or to.

Valentulus: strong. Latin analogical formation. Valent, stem of valens, and O.S. diminutive suffix ulas.

Valeo: I am strong, avail, am well am worth, signify. O.S. valay(mi), I luxuriate, am strong, flourish, am well. Habituative, (also causal) of Rt val.

Valerius. Name of a Roman gens or kula. O.S. Valaryas, patronymic from valaras, strong, powerful, used as a proper name. Rt val with nominal suffix ra preceded by the enclitic a.

Valesco: I grow strong. O.S. valaksh(mi). Progressive of val.

Valetudinarius: sickly. Analogical Latin formation from valetudo (stem in) by adding O.S. ryas or aryas, double adjectival suffix from ra or ara, used also in patronymics as in valarya above. Cf vara and varya.

Valetudo (stem in): health, good or bad. O.S. valatud, state of health formed from valat, health by adding da (danam, like ma, manam in mahima) preceded by the enclitic u.

Valgus: bandylegged crooked, wry (e.g. valga suavia). O.S. valgas, crooked, curving. Rt val to turn, bend, with the nominal suffix ga.

Valgius: name of a Roman gens. O.S. valgyas, patronymic from valga.

Valide: strongly, powerfully. O.S. valit with strength, strongly. See valde.

Validus: strong, powerful, healthy; superior. O.S. valitas, strong from val, past participle with active and adjectival sense. Rt val with nominal suffix ta preceded by the enclitic i.

Vallaris: of the wall. Analogical Latin formation from vallum by adding to the stem valla the termination aris, O.S. aris which is the common nominal suffix ri (also ra, ru) preceded by the enclitic a. Cf vallari, Murari, wrongly translated slayer or enemy of Mura, really meaning Protector of Defender, from mur, to protect, (cf murus, wall).

Vallis: valley, hollow. O.S. vallis, a hollow, cup, depression. Rt val, to bend, curve with nominal suffix li. The modern Sanscrit vallis, a creeper, is derived from the sense of to luxuriate, flourish, but it has a rare meaning, earth, the curving earth, globe.

Vallo: I stockade, enwall, fortify. O.S. valla(mi) I strengthen. Nominal verb from vallam, strong.

Vallum: a stockade, wall, defence. O.S. vallam, strong; a strong place, stronghold, fortification. Rt val, to be strong with nominal suffix la.

Vallus: a palisade; post or stake of the palisade. O.S. vallas, a prop, post, stake, place of defence. See vallum.

Valvae: folding doors. O.S. valva, curving, folding, rolling, wheeling (feminine valv). Rt val, to turn, fold, roll, wheel, with the nominal suffix va.

Valvatus: provided with folding doors. Analogical Latin formation from valvae by adding the participial termination atus to the stem. O.S. tas, nominal suffix ta with the long enclitic .

[A draft of the preceding continues:]

velor; and also; or even; actually; especially. OS acc. , originally a substantive, meaning strength, force, increase. (Rt valto flourish, be strong; adverbiallyespecially, even, in addition; or even. Cf velut.)

Velleiusname of a Roman gens. Patronymic from strong, flourishing (= Floreus). Rt and modificant with the terminal enclitic .

vellicatioplucking .. carping. Analogical Latin formation from vellicatus, PP of vellico, by adding substantival termination io (ionem) OS , to the stem vellicat.

vellicoI pluck, twitch .. carp at. OS Nom. from Noun Rt and nominal preceded by enclitic .

vellopluck, twitch, pull. OS , Intensive of to bend, twine, twitch.

vellus, G. velleriswool, hide. OS , G. . Thick curling hair, fleece. Rt to bend, curl, flourish and nominal termination , preceded by enclitic

velut(i)even as, just as. OS Nominative, Locative identical inmeaning with originally a substantive (Rt and nominal with enclitic
) meaning strength, force, increase, addition.

volahollow of hand or foot. OS hollow. Rt to curve, bend, with feminine nominal termination . Cf vallis.

volaticusflying .. fleeting, inconstant. Analogical Latin formation from participial stem volat (volo, I fly) by adding adjectival termination icus (, with enclitics and

volatiliswinged, rapid, fleeting. Analogical Latin formation from the same stem by adding adjectival termination ilis ( = with enclitic connective, before and after.)

volatusflying; flight. OS . Rt to wheel, gyre, fly in curves, with lengthened enclitic and compound nominal termination (composed of nominal and nominal preceded by enclitic )

volemuma kind of pear. OS Rt to curve, be round, plump and nominal suffix preceded by enclitic
and followed by neuter termination . Originally an adjective, meaning round and plump.
Roots in s


Sanscrit Gr. .

Att. for , for () (M. , B. )

o towel, napkin, cloth

o priests of Bacchus obscene rites

o shout of Bacchanals

to riot, indulge indecently

o Bacchus

,-o battle axe, hatchet sword, scimitar, Persian sword

covering, cloak armour, harness, trappings

covering for horse, saddle, pad load or burden for beast

o soldiers cloak, cassock

net, fishing net

net, catch .. carry away

() old, rotten, decayed obscene

corrupt, destroy, putrefy


to move, shake, waver shake off, thrust away wag the tail, fawn, flatter, coax

o adj. fawning, wagging tail

clean, sweep, brush gape, open mouth, laugh, grin, snarl gnash the teeth

xo,-o shield, buckler, target

xo shield-bearer


xxo sack, sackcloth, haircloth strainer

xxo little bagpad, cushion a kind of snowshoes for horses

xx,-, -, xx to pass through bag, filter, purify

lament, bewail

x boasting, bragging, one who apes the rich


window, chink, hole guardian idol at door

shake, to gather down

fill up, fill to the brim

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5.4.01 - Notes on Root-Sounds
select ::: Being, God, injunctions, media, place, powers, subjects,
favorite ::: cwsa, everyday, grade, mcw, memcards (table), project, project 0001, Savitri, the Temple of Sages, three js, whiteboard,
temp ::: consecration, experiments, knowledge, meditation, psychometrics, remember, responsibility, temp, the Bad, the God object, the Good, the most important, the Ring, the source of inspirations, the Stack, the Tarot, the Word, top priority, whiteboard,

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