object:5.4.01 - Notes on Root-Sounds
book class:Vedic and Philological Studies
author class:Sri Aurobindo
subject class:Integral Yoga
sadly this entire page will be stripped automatically so my processor can handle the formatting, sadly. I hope to fix this soon.
pervasive, contained or progressive existence
r possession, mastery, creation, action
r attack, invasion, insistence, attrition or detrition
r contact, motion, action upon
r violent contact, hostile action, strong motion
r swift and brilliant action, existence, contact
r the same with a greater lightness
r restless, brilliant, decisive action, existence or contact
r the same with a greater lightness
r hardness, force, crudityrajasic
r the same with a greater impetuosityd[itt]o
r dulness, persistence, obstinacyrajaso-tamasic
r obstinacy, tenacity
s touch, impact,lighter than c
s&r the same with greater force
s&r hard forcible impact or action
s softer but strong impact or action
s gentle but effective relation
s soft touch or impact, kindly relation, possessive action
s&r the same with greater force
s soft, strong embracing contact, possession, action
s the same with a sense of containing
s limitation, finality, completion
s love, sweetness etc in relation
s vibration, play
s manifest existence
r vehemence in union
r strong action in rest
r repose, union
Sound . . h. h.
Contact t. d. th. dh. l. s. h.
Light c. j. jh. ch.
Pervasion Motion l. . v (pervasion) p. ph. b. bh. (violent motion, motion upward or motion and contact) r (vibratory motion) n.
Substance a. i. u. k. g. gh. kh. m.
Roots in a
ap to move, flow, fly habitually .. move to, gain .. possess, marry, love .. beget, father.
ar to move round .. (be moving continually in a circle), to writhe, struggle .. fight .. turn; plough; till; wind; .. adore, worship.
as to be, exist .. live, live on .. eat; enjoy(a)
am to move up to, under etc .. to submit, be subject to .. consent, acquiesce .. adore, worship, love, to contain, embrace.
an to be, breathe, live ..
Name of Vishnu (Virat-purusha
Name of Shiva, Brahma, Vayu or Vaishwanara.
N[ote]. It is doubtful whether
in the sense of Vishnu had in its origin any connection of dependence with
, the first letter of the sacred syllable; both rather proceed from a single & common origin,
to be, in the widest sense of the idea, being primal, all pervading, vague and indefinable. Hence it is applicable to any of the three great deities who occupy & represent infinite & universal being, Vishnu, Shiva or Brahma; by a natural figure emphatic of the sense of it became applicable to Vaiswanara or Virat Purusha. By transference to the idea of pervasive life & movement to Vayu, the god of wind, breath & the life principle. Cf
The first letter of the Onkra, representing material world being; from a to be, & bearing the sense of initial & pervasive being.
(1) a negative prefix, expressing defect, absence or opposition.
(2) a prohibitive particle.
(3) an interjection of (a) address, O! (b) pity, Ah! (c) censure, Oh! Fie!
The idea of defect or disparagement or deprecation visible also in the root ( etc) may derive (a) from the idea of unfinished & therefore imperfect being, (b) from the use of
as a separative & therefore exclusive enclitic, lit. = let be, exclude that, not that.
10 U. to divide, distribute, share.
the soul, being Rv.
to move, go about
(to gasp, pant Vd)
breath. Bri. U.
Name of a tree.
fire .. wind .. bile ..n of several plants
fifth Vasu .. N of Vasudevasoul.. Vishnu..Supreme spirit
Vedic thus, hereby, indeed
boiled food.. rice .. kitchen
living being ..
group, mass.. army
row, line, column
front, head .. face, countenance
in rows, columns
wind .. Vishnu
son of Yayati.
men, peopleforeign people
human.. kind to men?
after, behind, along, with
according to by reason of
towards, near, at.
in abundance. Vd.
plank or board at side of bed or head
after .. afterwards
, watery place, marsh, bog,
bank (mountain also), pond
buffalo, frog, elephant ..
kind of partridge
nose .. breathing
mouth, face ..
food, corn, rice ..
, -, -
) small, mean, insignificant
low, inferior, vile
point of a needle, linchpin
corner of house
corner of a house
edge of sword
part of leg just above knee
from OS [Old Sanskrit]
to breathe. Prooffrom derivatives
= originally life (cf ), then day
= , that which breathes, lives by breathing, snake
= breath, spirit (), self, within, I .. I is the latest sense.
= that which breathes, lives, then the principle of life or existence, that which is sukshma, so, the atom
OS desiderative, to wish to breathe, to live, to be.
breath, life, strength.
to blow, (wind), rush, throw.
She who breathes, is strong. , . Pallas Athene
to breathe, OS intensitive, eg from or (strike), from [or] (measure), from or . Cf , , , etc.
vigour, life, joy OS
joyous. Cf Tamil
joyous OS Cf
(,) raise, liftexcite, impel .. hang up, heighten
.. take, bear, carry .. conceive, perceive .. take off, destroy ..
weigh anchor, strike tents, start, set off.
used of all strong action, state, motion, feeling etc.
So to raise, lift, increase; to throw, remove, destroy. All the other
senses follow. Cf noble, exalted, excellent, Lt [Latin] ara,
an altar (high place).
o, to undertake, commence; bear, suffer; carry away.
A frequent sense of this root from the sense of taking up, leading
or acting (starting action). Cf o, I begin, lit. I lead.
Roots in i
-Family of Sanscrit Roots
to be, appear
(obsolete, extant in Latin, Bengali and Tamil) .. This here.
hence, henceforward .. from this person.
Vedic emphatic particle = indeed, verily.. even; just, only
thus, so. ( +)
, , Perhaps ,
thus, so, in this manner
thus, indeed, truly.
even, just, only.
this .. here, now, there, herewith
, , , , , ,
so much, so large, to this extent
, , ,
like, as if .. a little, perhaps .. just, exactly, indeed.
this, him in Vedic
such a condition. , , ,
verily, now, this, here. Cf
* produced, effected
, , ,
thus, then. Cf etc.
here, in this place (perhaps Motion)
to appear.. spring from, arise from (but cf )
to become pregnant
( history, narrative, tradition tradition)
to prepare, arrange* cf and to dispose
people, subjects cf ,
to produce (C[ausative]) ..
to rise, spring from
(but see Motion)
Growth. See also words meaning plants.
to thrive, prosper.
to grow.. prosper, swell, rise, extend.
increased.. a man .. prosperity. ( fire)
, prosperity, happiness ( fuel, also :)
+ wonderful wonder in
to swell, increase.
+ spring ,
Mass, Thickness, Dullness.
a round small plate to protect hand in taking fire-irons
- (also , -, & , -) a building made of rubbish, bones or hard substance .. a tomb or wall round bones .. a sanctuary filled with relics- (also , -, & , -) a building made of rubbish, bones or hard substance .. a tomb or wall round bones .. a sanctuary filled with relics
to keep still, quiet .. sleep
: pond, mud.
earth (lit. matter). , (but also possibly Motion)
to go, pervade. a kind of fish.. breath,
to throw expiration :, , , , ,
black antelope but see et: under Light
to move, shake
, , ,
, sign, gesture, hint
a kind of counting
, to go
Ameeting, union .. bawd, procurer.
to tremble, shake, move, stir.
, , , , ,
to go, move.
to go, go to, towards.. make haste .. to err.
a wild goat
a bull allowed to go at liberty
a kind of sheep
a ram, wild goat. ()
() ,river, flowing stream
black antelope () but see Light ()
, , ,
to go, advance .. press upon, rush upon.
to try to reach, strive to get. Perhaps from
to go, pervade, surround.
(? ratalready under Attack etc).
earth, water .. spirit, liquor
to go, move, shake .. rise, spring from.. retire
to elevate the voice
Cs [Causative] to throw, cast, propel .. urge, prompt .. attract, elevate, revive .. produce.
, , ,
wandering about (as a mendicant)
arm, forequarter (part used in throwing)
to go, move, throw, send, cast
a ram, wild goat.
IV to move, to cause to move.. IX fly off, escape .. IU. to go, move IV.IX let fly, cast, throw, IX strike .. IV sprinkle .. IV raise the voice, IX impel, incite.
flash of lightning, submarine fire (therefore not speed)
Iravat (), rainbow.. a kind of lightning orange tree (therefore not motion)
(, -) Kuvera
, , Mars
Roots in k
body knot, joint
happiness, joy, pleasure
sun fire light, splendour
bird, peacock, king of birds
head head (as in , , )
suffix diminution (, )
like a horse)
no modification (
I A. to wish desire
to be proud feeling
to be unsteady ( to go) movement ?
? a kind of bird. (perhaps )Vd sound
to laugh sound
a kind of animal
, - a berry bearing plant
, the berry a perfume from the berries
(cf ) , secret. V to contain, cover (with the idea of circle, hollow)
interior of forest
arm-pit (boils in arm-pit)
harem of king
side or flank (of anything)
part of boat
(elephants rope or girth)
filling the girth (V. Say.)
surrounding wall ,
orbit of planet
end of lower garment
(tucked behind = also tying up waist)
basin of a balance ,
climbing plant, creeper (contain, embrace, surround)
grass, dry grass
(consisting of dry grass or of shrubs) V.
dry wood, forest of dead trees (injure, hardness pressure, projection)
buffalo (to dig, grub, burrow)
marshy ground (cut, plunge, sink?)
a plant (beleric myrobalan)
, waist, middle part (contain, surround)
enclosure , (contain, surround)
court-yard, area (contain, surround)
room, inner apartment, harem, secluded part of edifice (contain, surround)
(i.a. of palace)
a particular part of a carriage (contain, surround)
(also hinder part)
upper garment (contain, surround)
border, lace (of cloth) (contain, surround)
wrist (contain, surround)
similarity (to press, nearness, adjacent)
emulation, rivalry (injure, strive, fight)
objection or reply in logic (injure, press, cut)
the jewellers weight, rati (from a black or red berry)
star (light, twinkling?)
sin (to injure, hurt)
fingers cf (contain, curl, clutch, hold) cf
agreed to, promised (contained, taken in, clutched, held)
to lie in ambush (contain, enclose)
to intend anything wicked (injure, hurt etc.)
to laugh at, deride (harsh sound)
enclosure, division of large building (contain, enclose)
to act, perform (cut, make, do)
to go (movement)
Yama (injury, movement)
a Kshatriya .. a Vrishni ..
Yudhisthira (injure, fight)
a false or pretended
Brahmana (injury, bad, wicked)
name of a people
one of the eighteen divisions
a sort of sandal (contain, bind, tie)
scent of a lotus (smell)
bracelet, marriage string, (surround, contain or sound)
crest (jut, project)
water-spray (sound, move, project)
, small bell, tinkling ornament, (surround or sound)
- ornament furnished with bells
, -, -, - comb (to press, cut, scrape)
a kind of tree
a poisonous animal (to injure)
bad, vile, despicable (to injure)
a high number =100 niyutas (mass)
skeleton (to contain)
body (to contain)
the inner body (to contain)
a kind of crow (to contain)
a kind of drug
a kind of corn
, -, , - a kind of medicinal earth
, Asoca tree
enjoyment; fruition (desire, enjoy)
not in use
, a kind of Panic(?) seed
the hand cf (to contain, clutch, enclose)
Root Injury Sound
I.A. to hurt or kill to grieve .. cry, weep. to call
IV.A. to be confounded, confused, suffer mentally.
slaughter, havoc .. war .. sin Injury (Pressure)
canopy, awning. Contact = Pressure
: = Covering.
: codome, turmeric, mustard seed
- plant, kind of grass, mineral substance
codome flower, kind of grass
, multitude, group. Contact.. or Mass.
a saw .. an iron goad name of a tree (used for sacrificial post in place of Khadira) Pressure = Injury.
, - a corn (on the feet) Mass, Hardness.
coagulated milk. Mass, Density.
, -, - plaintain-tree ()
a kind of deer.
a kind of antelope
, flag, banner.
a sort of cucumber, a beautiful woman.
Root I.P. to cry, lament..
confound .. be confounded, perplexed.
, -, -, -
, -, -, -
, - bulbous root, bulb; knot, swelling
garlic taste, smell
an affection of the male or female organ.
an esculent root; bulbous rooted.
, camphor Colour, Whiteness? cf ,
a palanquin. Motion? Covering?
, white waterlily , Colour, Whiteness
blue lotus white or blue lotus
, - a cave, valley .. , - Injury.
a hook for driving elephants. Injury.
dry ginger. Taste.
reproach, censure .. portent. Injury
new shoot, sprout.. cheek, cheek and temple Mass
sweet sound Sound
budded, blown.. put forth, emitted.
war, battle, controversy
Deer see motion?
name of plant
, ball mass
The Vowel Group.
(1) earth. Inclusion
( Mars, a tree Sita, Durga) Roundness
* (vague whence.. where..
existence why .. how ..
or direction) whence come; how happened
wise, proficient, expert. Inclusion
Vd cf Roundness
( or whole, entire .. circle .. complete science)
(2) base (of any plane figure).
N. etc which may originally have derived from the primary root by gunation, are nevertheless included for convenience under the root
Significances of the primary form . Roundness, inclusion, comprehension
armour. : shield Covering, inclusion.
a staffless umbrella. Covering, inclusion.
, leaf or panel of a door Covering, inclusion.
(b) water for washing the mouth (lit. a mouthful) Inclusion (in the mouth)
, a mouthful .. gargle Inclusion(in the mouth)
eaten, swallowed, chewed.. seized Inclusion(in the mouth)
to eat, devour. Inclusion(in the mouth)
oblation of food to the Pitris Inclusion(in the mouth)
a class of Manes (but cf )
(c) prisoner (cf , ) Inclusion, Confinement.
, , the bit of a bridle
, the bit of a bridle
Significances of the gunated form Inclusion, by covering, taking in, confining, comprehension. Thick, tufted or rough substance.. Circling or swelling motion.. Strong taste .. Shrill or loud sound .. Brightness, bright colour or burning heat.. Mixture, connection.. Penetration, hurt, injury.. Strong emotion .. Sexual enjoyment.
The Guttural group
(1) a cock.. , Sound.
a small house-lizard.
(adj), : poulterer.
to be crooked, curve, bend VI.P. Pressure, curve.
to cheat, deceive, act dishonestly Crookedness, or Injury, deceit
to break, split, divide Breaking, splitting (Pressure)
to speak indistinctly Sound
to be warm, burn. Light (Fire)
bent, crooked Pressure (curve)
, waterpot, jar. Contain
house, fort Contain
hammer Pressure (breaking)
a plough without a pole. Pressure (breaking)
the post round which the string of the churning stick passes.
roof, thatch. cover, contain.
(a lost ) arbour .. cottage. cover, contain.
a garden near a house (enclosure?) cover, contain.
measure of grain ()
Vd. cock (pecker?) Pressure
tent. cover, contain
roof, thatch cover, contain
cottage, hut , , d[itt]o
body.. cottage, hut. contain
curve, bend Pressure (curve)
crooked, curved, tortuous do
insincere, dishonest. do (or Injury)
a kind of perfume Scent
name of a plant Substance (hardness)
a blacksmiths forge. Pressure (beating)
cottage, hut .. Contain
vessel used for fumigation
nosegay Substance or Scent
a kind of perfume Scent.
spirituous liquor. cf
exclusiveness. include, contain
household, family contain (or else, sexual intercourse)
offspring, race .. fig. group.
, householder ..caretaker.
member of a family
mistress of a household .. lady.
a large household.
to cut, divide .. grind, pound. Pressure (break, beat)
blame, censure. do
dividing, cutting, grinding Pressure
cutting, pounding .. abusing
kingfisher Pressure or Motion
one who divides or cuts do
unskilful opening of a vein do
affected repulse of embraces.
a woollen blanket Substance or Covering
exclusion or oneness. Contain, include
, inlaid floor, pavement. Substance (thick, granular, variegated)
prepared site Substance (thick, granular, variegated)
jewel-mine Substance (thick, granular, variegated)
pomegranate Substance (grain)
hut, cottage, small house Contain
small mountain. , Substance.
small house, hut Contain.
X.U. to burn
to confuse, muddle
to be distressed, despair
to counsel, advise
to call, invite.
X.A. to censure
to abstain from giving
angry.. angering .. physically irritating emotion
a water pigeon
Vd. the beam of a balance
a weaver ? Curve, rolling
net for small fish
despised, contemptible .. mean.
well.. cave, hollow. curve, hollow
leather oil-vessel contain
mooring post.. tree or rock in middle of river projection.
small well.. navel flask, bottle
well .. hole, cavity.. cave .. leather oil-vessel. hollow, contain
hollow below the loins hollow
mooring stake .. mast.. rock or tree in midst of river (Subst) projection
funeral pile. (Subst) heap
boat. hollow, contain
, bunch, bundle.. handful of Kusha substance
beard .. peacocks feather .. brush substance
finger & thumb for pinch. pressure.
upper part of nose .. hair between eyebrows substance
head substance or contain
(-) decei .. bragging .. hypocrisy decei
stuffed, puffy substance.
, to leap, jump, frolic movement, play.
, leaping, sporting movement, play.
full moon of Chaitra .. festival of Kamadeva. movement, play.
, elbow, knee substance (projection)
, bodice (`)
one of the pranas .. a nyasa of the fingers.
adj. of kurma.
to accumulate, collect I.P.
to go on continuously
to be related .. behave as a kinsman
house .. contain
race, community, family, troop, gang, nation
front part Prominence superficies
a blue stone colour
head of a guild
, of good family , , , ,
, a thief contain
chief of guild.. craftsman of good birth
number of verses grammatically connected
a sort of prose composition with few compounds
craftsman of good birth.. chief of guild
see 2. a mountain
highbred horse ..
a disease of the nails.
relating to the house or race ..
a respectable man.
friendly enquiry after family affairs
bone .. flesh. Substance
a virtuous woman
canal, stream.. dike, trench. Pressure, Cut
a measure of grain 8 dronas. contain
cymbal sound or pressure.
beating time in music
a kind of pulse
a blue stone used as a collyrium colour
bitch dog, hound
nest.. body.. place, spot.. contain
a case, receptacle
dovecot, aviary contain
wild cock.. owl sound
blue stone , colour
horse of light brown colour
hand contain, seize.
bird.. sparrow.. mouse sound
(-), , crab .. Pressure
, thunderbolt.. Vd axe, hatchet(?) Pressure
point or end. , Pressure
, dried cowdung (to cover, smear?)
a fire of dried cowdung.
mass, number, assemblage .. continuous line, streak .. collection of light, lustre, splendour (to cut, to glitter so a group, a streak, glitter, splendour).
mushroom, , , ,
umbrella. (also barber), umbrella bearer
Temple of Shiva; conical beehive; kingfisher (darter,swooper).
house, bower, arbour (to cover).
pupil.. a kind of honey. (see )
honey in the comb or hive
to cover, veil; spread.. hide.
covering, wing, leaf, sheath, case.
roof of house or carriage.
concealing.. cover, screen, leaf, clothing, darkening.
, (also desolate, solitary, private) a secret.
vomiting .. house, secure place or residence. (to cover)
to pray, beg, request
The roots of the ch family are a subsection of the palatal group and have as their base of significance the guna of narrow & intense penetration, separation and fine distinction. In action their sense is to cut, split, divide, separate, in motion to dart, leap like the lightning, race, drop suddenly or dart up, throw, project, eject etc, any narrow or intense action or motion. From the sense of to cut off it comes to mean screen, hide or cover. We have in the sense of a sharp touch & by detrition of meaning simply touch, () snapping of thumb & forefinger. Applied to light it means a sharp glitter or intense light.
I. To cut, divide and derivate meanings; separate .. shape; destroy, consume ..
to cut, divide, with its derivates, a knife, etc .. also to engrave.
derivative sense .. to cover, smear, inlay, mix.
to cut, clip off
in the sense of shrub, bush
to cut, mow, reap
abuse, reproach (figurative from the original sense)
to cut, split, destroy etc, with its derivatives.
, , shrewd (penetrating); town-bred, trained, tame.
a bee (to sting)
a part, cutting
line, row, streak (a cut, streak, sharply outlined impression)
to eat, consume
private, solitary, secret.
poison.. shape, look, appearance
metre, prosody, Veda
, orphan, solitary or lone man
II. To cover (cut off, screen, separate, hide), deceive; protect
to smear, cover, inlay, mix
to cover, hide, screen
house, secure place, residence
shade, with derivative meanings. Durga (protectress)
dried cowdung (smearing, cf )
disguise, pretext, fraud etc with its derivatives
, , , bark, spreading creeper
umbrella with derived & kindred words.
a house, bower, arbour
a pupil (to protect)
to cover, veil etc. with its derivatives (esp. skin, roof)
III. darting, leaping, to move off, go; throw, eject; quick or decisive motion or contact or sound.
touch; active, swift .. air, wind .. combat, war (originally charge or shock)
snapping of thumb & forefinger.
to play (dart about) .. vomit, eject.
to vomit, with its derivatives
quicksilver a bribe (to please, gratify)
, , etc, a goat. trembling, unsteady
to go, move
to go, move, approach
to please, gratify (lit. play, cf ) with its derivatives
to pray, request (to please, woo, flatter)
IV to glitter, shine any sharp light
ray of light
lustre, beauty; hue etc
pure, clean (lit. bright)
colour, light, beauty.. Sun ..
collection of light, lustre
V to collect, heap up. (either from separating a part, or from putting in place)
m ass, assemblage.
VI offspring, family (perhaps from the idea of small, little , a child or else from the idea of group; probably the first)
infant, child (cf a shrub)
, offspring, progeny (cf Bengali , )
to be thick
to taste strong.
, - a liquor
declining, rejecting ..
a leather bag
a cloud.. mountain..
nourisher, sustainer ..
, , a small house lizard
heated chamber; dry hot bath
, Malay mountain
longings of pregnant women
To be thick, matted, tangled ( V. III a)
to become matted, confused, entangled
tree, shrub, bush.
(-) thicket .. betel nut.
forest, wood, jungle.
wind & rain, hurricane cf Beng. ,
wind & rain, gale, hurricane.
quickly, at once
cascade, waterfall cf Beng.
(-, ) cascade, spring, fountain, stream.
spring, jump, leap.
, , a monkey, ape
ball at end of spindle.
to go, move.
a thing lost or mislaid
to eat, consume
to grow old
To heat, burn
heat, warmth Rt to hurt, burn
burnt brick. Rt to burn.
a torch, firebrand Rt to shine, burn
a forest on fire Rt to burn
burnt rice. Rt to shine, burn.
, - a curl, lock of hair
a cane staff.
threaten, menace .. blame, censure.
a rag for rubbing on colours or perfumes dirt rubbed off by the application
, , ,
cleaning sores cf Beng. to sweep, a broom.
small whetstone for sharpening needles.
* girl, daughter O.A Rt , to shine, be beautiful
sunshine, light, splendor do
light, lustre, splendour do
sunshine Rt , to shine, burn.
sunlight, light, splendour do
purity; moisture Rt to shine
jangling, clanking etc .. beating time
a low murmuring sound, buzzing, tinkling, twanging etc
jingling, clanking, rattling, ringing.
(-) jingling sound ,
- a sort of drum, cymbal
sound of splashing or dropping
() The fundamental sense of this root seems to be a sudden and violent breaking out into aggressive existence, movement, action, emotion, contact, sound, or a hard & aggressive condition.
to make low or humiliate .. to excel.
to grow old, wear out, decay, perish, be consumed, to be dissolved or digested, break or fall to pieces.
causing to decay, digestive
a wasting; a digestive or condiment; stimulation of digestion; calcination.
paramour, lover .. intimate friend
old, aged, worn out, decaying (tr. intr), consuming
a knave, cheat.. depraved fellow.. an insult. (? throwing, casting forth).
, a she-goblin, Demoness.
to order .. to behold (fix with the gaze)
V. Heat, Burning
, , , a Dom (or else like Chandala)
a small owl
a young woman
one of the ten kinds of drama
N. of a people.
a large drum, a sound.
a large double drum
a large drum, tabor.
go, approach .. (cs. to present, offer)
B. to push in, enter.
offering, present, bribe.
: a dogs tail
: a dog; serpent.
disappearance. B. to cover.
shield a shielded warrior
The Root dal
to burst open, split, cleave, crack. , . Lt deleo.
Cs. to cause to burst, tear
to expand, bloom, open asunder.
cut, divide, split.
to dispel, drive or chase
, tearing, cutting
a piece, portion, detachment, body of troops.
fragment. clump, heap, quantity.
a degree .. a half.
the blade of a weapon shoot, blade, petal, leaf.
chose fendue, brise, dchire .. ce qui est fleuri, panoui
creux, foss .. tang, rservoir.
cicatrice, empreinte de baguette, blessure .. faute, tache, erreur de langue.
, - bredouillement, bgaiement. vb. to chitter, stammer
to be scarred, to make a mistake (se tromper).
embracing, caress, copulation .. acceptance
embrassement, brasse. vb. to embrace, surround, accept .. press on the bosom .. saccoupler, se mler.
feuillage; jeune branche; jet, rejeton, pousse, feuille ..
ombrelle de plumes, queue de paon
vb. pousser des feuilles, pousser, bourgeonner,
crotre, stendre, prosprer.
tair bouton, bourgeon, pousse, rejeton, jet.
vb. bourgeonner, pousser
Roots in n
- is to move. We have also night, B. intoxication, surrender to some form of vicious ecstasy, , water, to lead; in, on; , now, , etc. Sg. idea of inwardness, penetration,absorption, ecstasy,state of inclusion or rest, motion of entering or with a view to enter, so to move, lead, bring, push; regular purposeful motion (, ); , movement forward in the current; , nubes, pushing movement in the sky of the clouds. , , going inwards into the self, state of absorption, ecstasy, quivering or ecstatic motion, , . Anything deep, intense, blue
Roots in p
Rt. , () and the derivative roots.
.pais, paidosboy, girl, child .. son, daughter .. slave, servant .. OS or Root to be able, strong, so master, govern. Original meaning a slave; then a boy or girl slave. The genitive is from , Rt (cf ) with the same sense as p, but also meaning, to beget, nurture, protect, cherish. means of the nature of , subject, childish, with other derivative meanings, also a nursling, pupil, child, ward, pet, favourite. , , have all a passive significance.
.a little child, little boy, servant. OS . The terminations and with the enclitic
, or give either an adjectival or a diminutive sense.
(.) infantile, childish. . The termination or gives invariably an adjectival sense.
(..) childish, boyish. OS
, , , , , are all adjectival terminations.
Roots in m
Substantive ideasLimit; limitation; close, end; confinement; closed space; movement in closed space, on fixed lines or to a goal; close or deep sound; extreme limit, superlativeness in quality; limitation off, rejection, discharge; close contact, compactness.
1 class. Measurement by limitation. To limit, outline, define, measure, assign, assort, arrange, make, construct, display.
2. class. Confinement. To contain, embrace, comprise, enfold, confine, bind, be concave, hollow, have capacity; be confined, limited, narrow, dull.
3. class.Close contact. To be massed, massive, compact.
very, greatly, vehemently, exceedingly; by all means, surely. OS mala. Accusative case of the root substantive , mal, meaning abundance, copiousness. Root meaning, to flourish, thrive.
(o) poultice, plaster, balm, anodyne. OS , softening, alleviation, caressing; balm, anodyne; softening application of oil, etc. Root to be soft, soften; + with the connecting enclitic
, implying effective and persistent application, +, nominal root, with the idea of fact or substantiality.
x soft; soothing; mild; effeminate; negligent. OS , root to be soft with the common adjectival suffix preceded by the connecting enclitic
. ( is in sense qualitative and possessive.)
x softness, effeminacy, sickness. OS . Feminine nominal suffix implying often the abstract quality peculiar to the adjective or noun to the stem of which it is attached. Later Sanscrit preferred , , etc. Cf , , , and the more frequent neuter form in answering to the Greek o.
x I soften, soothe, unman. Greek formation. OS verbal form in with a frequentative sense, preserved in words like , preceded by connecting enclitic .
x (-o ) softness. OS , ; the nominal suffix describing an abstract quality was replaced in later Sanscrit by .
x I soften, make effeminate. Greek formation. OS conjugational termination () preceded by the long connecting enclitic .
x softly. OS adverbial suffix , , , as in modern Sanscrit , humbly, , eternally. was in Old Sanscrit the commoner alternative form.
I soften, mitigate, relax. OS (), Nominal Verb, from the adjective , soft.
mallows. OS from Rt to thrive, flourish, be plump, with the adjectival suffix .
Bright, clear .. hot, burning, consuming. OS , (remaining in Tamil malar, a flower) blooming, bright, prosperous, strong, energetic, forcible. Rt to bloom, flourish, with the nominal suffix preceded by the connecting enclitic
. ( is in sense possessive with an action outward on the surroundings.)
Armpit. OS , down, hair on the body; a place where such hair is specially plentiful. Rt to bloom, flourish.
Soft wax; a wax tablet. OS (feminine). Rt to be soft, with nominal suffix ; softness, down, velvet, wax .. strength.
soft. OS , alternative form to , from derivative root to soften.
soft. OS (), alternative form to and formed in the same way, but from root . The became in Greek, modified to . Rt , to be soft.
long hair. OS a wreath, a garland, braid. Rt to bloom. , a plant, flower, garden; , a collection of flowers, wreath, garland, , anything made of flowers. Rt to bloom.
most. OS , superlative of , strong, abundant, copious.
x to be benumbed, shrivelled, torpid.OS . Latin mulceo. In transitive sense, to soften, knead, relax, unnerve; in intransitive, to be softened, compressed, contracted. Rt to be soft.
x numbness, torpidity. OS , the state of softness, relaxation or unreserved contraction .. the discomfort, shrinking that results from cold.
o more. OS comparative of , strong, abounding.
; fleece, wool, lock of hair. OS , luxuriant growth, down, fleece etc. from Rt , to thrive, flourish, with the adjectival suffix , giving a sense of abundance.
woolly, downy, soft. Provincial form instead of from nominal verb -, to strengthen, thicken, soften. Cf Latin vallatus from vallum and vallo. OS and .
(, ) to hold, possess. From O.S. Rt to contain, embrace, hold.
Dirty, foul (physically or morally). From Rt to fade, be tarnished, soiled, dirty +nominal termination
, Dirt, filth, impurity (physical or moral). Peculiar uses camphor (from Rt to be sweet, referring to the scent; cf mel = honey) .. leather .. cuttlefish bone.
Crushing, grinding. From Rt to be strong, used with transitive sense, to use strength upon, labour, work, knead, crush, grind. Cf , a wrestler, Greek ; Latin moles, mass and moliri, to work with labour or difficulty from the kindred root .
Tent. From Rt to contain. Literally, a tenement, abode.
The Southern mountain .. garden .. side of a mountain (Rt to bloom, be verdant, luxuriant +vague adjectival termination
answering to English ish, ly).
Rt to be sweet, soft, forming honey, sweetness, enjoyment, love, a sweet or an impure secretion +adjectival suffix ka, (lengthened form of aka, Lat. acus, Gr. xo eg (x)), 1. an amorous woman. 2. a female friend, confidante. 3. a female elephant.
Possession, enjoyment. Rt to possess, embrace, enjoy +nominal termination .
King. From Rt to possess.
Foul, soiled, dark, vile. From Rt to be soiled, faded +adjectival termination .
Sin, fault, guilt. (The same). Butter-milk .. Borax. (From secretion, juice + meaning of the nature of a secretion or extract)
, , , , , , .
Derivatives of .
From , bloom; honey; sweetness, fragrance; an impure secretion; foulness, fault, defect + thief, robber, remover. Originally, a bee, thief of honey; then generally 1. a robber, thief; 2. a demon (fiend, enemy); 3. gnat, mosquito; 4. air or wind (stealer of fragrance); 5. a Brahmana neglecting the Yajnas, but still enjoying Brahmin privileges. 6. Fire, the remover of impurities. 7. An intercalary month, (removing the defect of the calendar). 8. Frost or snow, remover of sweetness or pleasure.
A woman in her course. Superlative from in the same sense as .
velespecially, also, even, or. velutas, as though, as for instance. veloxswift.
Derivatives of the Aryan root val in Latin.
I Word retaining the root unchanged.
Valde: very, exceedingly. Contracted from valide. O.S. valit, with strength, strongly, forcibly; eminently, to excess. Instrumental case of valit, strength. Rt val with nominal suffix t preceded by the enclitic i.
Valedico: I say farewell. Latin compound from vale and dico.
Valens: strong, powerful well, healthy. O.S. valan, dialectical form valans, strong, flourishing. Rt val with nominal suffix n preceded by the enclitic a.
Valenter: strongly, powerfully. For valent-ter; the stem of valens with the suffix ter answering to the O.S. termination tas in itas, tatas, sarvatas, etc, originally tar, meaning way or side. Cf Mahratti tar, tarhi (Sanscrit), Bengali ta or to.
Valentulus: strong. Latin analogical formation. Valent, stem of valens, and O.S. diminutive suffix ulas.
Valeo: I am strong, avail, am well am worth, signify. O.S. valay(mi), I luxuriate, am strong, flourish, am well. Habituative, (also causal) of Rt val.
Valerius. Name of a Roman gens or kula. O.S. Valaryas, patronymic from valaras, strong, powerful, used as a proper name. Rt val with nominal suffix ra preceded by the enclitic a.
Valesco: I grow strong. O.S. valaksh(mi). Progressive of val.
Valetudinarius: sickly. Analogical Latin formation from valetudo (stem in) by adding O.S. ryas or aryas, double adjectival suffix from ra or ara, used also in patronymics as in valarya above. Cf vara and varya.
Valetudo (stem in): health, good or bad. O.S. valatud, state of health formed from valat, health by adding da (danam, like ma, manam in mahima) preceded by the enclitic u.
Valgus: bandylegged crooked, wry (e.g. valga suavia). O.S. valgas, crooked, curving. Rt val to turn, bend, with the nominal suffix ga.
Valgius: name of a Roman gens. O.S. valgyas, patronymic from valga.
Valide: strongly, powerfully. O.S. valit with strength, strongly. See valde.
Validus: strong, powerful, healthy; superior. O.S. valitas, strong from val, past participle with active and adjectival sense. Rt val with nominal suffix ta preceded by the enclitic i.
Vallaris: of the wall. Analogical Latin formation from vallum by adding to the stem valla the termination aris, O.S. aris which is the common nominal suffix ri (also ra, ru) preceded by the enclitic a. Cf vallari, Murari, wrongly translated slayer or enemy of Mura, really meaning Protector of Defender, from mur, to protect, (cf murus, wall).
Vallis: valley, hollow. O.S. vallis, a hollow, cup, depression. Rt val, to bend, curve with nominal suffix li. The modern Sanscrit vallis, a creeper, is derived from the sense of to luxuriate, flourish, but it has a rare meaning, earth, the curving earth, globe.
Vallo: I stockade, enwall, fortify. O.S. valla(mi) I strengthen. Nominal verb from vallam, strong.
Vallum: a stockade, wall, defence. O.S. vallam, strong; a strong place, stronghold, fortification. Rt val, to be strong with nominal suffix la.
Vallus: a palisade; post or stake of the palisade. O.S. vallas, a prop, post, stake, place of defence. See vallum.
Valvae: folding doors. O.S. valva, curving, folding, rolling, wheeling (feminine valv). Rt val, to turn, fold, roll, wheel, with the nominal suffix va.
Valvatus: provided with folding doors. Analogical Latin formation from valvae by adding the participial termination atus to the stem. O.S. tas, nominal suffix ta with the long enclitic .
[A draft of the preceding continues:]
velor; and also; or even; actually; especially. OS acc. , originally a substantive, meaning strength, force, increase. (Rt valto flourish, be strong; adverbiallyespecially, even, in addition; or even. Cf velut.)
Velleiusname of a Roman gens. Patronymic from strong, flourishing (= Floreus). Rt and modificant with the terminal enclitic .
vellicatioplucking .. carping. Analogical Latin formation from vellicatus, PP of vellico, by adding substantival termination io (ionem) OS , to the stem vellicat.
vellicoI pluck, twitch .. carp at. OS Nom. from Noun Rt and nominal preceded by enclitic .
vellopluck, twitch, pull. OS , Intensive of to bend, twine, twitch.
vellus, G. velleriswool, hide. OS , G. . Thick curling hair, fleece. Rt to bend, curl, flourish and nominal termination , preceded by enclitic
velut(i)even as, just as. OS Nominative, Locative identical inmeaning with originally a substantive (Rt and nominal with enclitic
) meaning strength, force, increase, addition.
volahollow of hand or foot. OS hollow. Rt to curve, bend, with feminine nominal termination . Cf vallis.
volaticusflying .. fleeting, inconstant. Analogical Latin formation from participial stem volat (volo, I fly) by adding adjectival termination icus (, with enclitics and
volatiliswinged, rapid, fleeting. Analogical Latin formation from the same stem by adding adjectival termination ilis ( = with enclitic connective, before and after.)
volatusflying; flight. OS . Rt to wheel, gyre, fly in curves, with lengthened enclitic and compound nominal termination (composed of nominal and nominal preceded by enclitic )
volemuma kind of pear. OS Rt to curve, be round, plump and nominal suffix preceded by enclitic
and followed by neuter termination . Originally an adjective, meaning round and plump.
Roots in s
Sanscrit Gr. .
Att. for , for () (M. , B. )
o towel, napkin, cloth
o priests of Bacchus obscene rites
o shout of Bacchanals
to riot, indulge indecently
,-o battle axe, hatchet sword, scimitar, Persian sword
covering, cloak armour, harness, trappings
covering for horse, saddle, pad load or burden for beast
o soldiers cloak, cassock
net, fishing net
net, catch .. carry away
() old, rotten, decayed obscene
corrupt, destroy, putrefy
to move, shake, waver shake off, thrust away wag the tail, fawn, flatter, coax
o adj. fawning, wagging tail
clean, sweep, brush gape, open mouth, laugh, grin, snarl gnash the teeth
xo,-o shield, buckler, target
xxo sack, sackcloth, haircloth strainer
xxo little bagpad, cushion a kind of snowshoes for horses
xx,-, -, xx to pass through bag, filter, purify
x boasting, bragging, one who apes the rich
window, chink, hole guardian idol at door
shake, to gather down
fill up, fill to the brim
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